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Issue 97 (March 2018)

Mike G. Fell. A North Staffordshire cotton factory. 2-7.
Established by Richard Thompson in 1797 at Cross Heath, near Newcastle-under-Lyme

Aerial photograph of Cross Heath  cotton factory 1929 2
Ordnance Survey map Cross Heat 1924 3
Map: Plan of Gresley Canal in vicinity of Apedale Iron Works, November 1846 4
Plan of Gresley Canal  (same as above) but at Newcastle-under-Lyme end 5
Frontage of cotton factory 6
Cotton factory and manager's house 7u
Burley Pit with Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST WN 222/1866 Burley 7l

Malcolm Bobbit. In the Showroom: The Rover Jet Set. 8-13; front cover
Gas turbine driven car prototypes based on the Rover P4 75 family saloonl during the immediate post-World War II period. Raymond Loewt of the Design Studio, New York who had designed the Studebaker infuenced Maurice Wilks luxury car design, although the central fog lamp which earned the nickname Cyclops was not perpetuated. JET 1 was paited in Connaught Green had the turbine at the rear. The engine could run on petrol or paraffin. The offices behind are intersting for their Art Deco brickwork and Crittall windows. The colour image on the front cover, repeated in black & white on page 10, is based on Rover publicity material and Admiralty Arch is hinted at in the background. In 1952 JET 1 was taken to Belgium for tests on the Jabbeke Highway between Ostend and Ghent. The car was enhanced with Dunlop racing tyres and Girling disc brakes. 152 mile/h was attained. The T3 coupé attained a lap speed of 102 mile/h on the MIRA test track on 16 Swptember 1956.

Rover P4 75 saloon 8
JET 1, with an open tourer body, outside the company's Art Deco offices in Solihull 9
Rover P4 luxury saloon (publicity art work) 10 + fc
JET 1 with Steve King pasted in 12
T3 coupé 13
T3 coupé publicity material showing jet propelled generic aircraft 14
T4 gas turbine powered (looks like a Rover 2000) 15
Rover BRM racing car with gas turbine engine at Le Mans 16

Euan Corrie. Waterways of the Shropshire Union Railways & Canal Company. Part 6. 16-33
The Montgomery Canal — Frankton Junction to Newtown,

Boy, pair of donkeys and boat at Corbett's Bridge 16
Map Queen's Hotel & Corbett's Bridge 1926 17
Canal at Malthouse Bridge 18
Map: Malthouse Bridge 1926 18
Canal in disused state at Malthouse Bridge in 1980s 18
Aerial view of Pant taken during 1930s with steam train & canal & bridge visible in top right 19
Map: Pant 1926: note tramway running NW (served canal via tippler) 19
Pant: canal foreground with Shropshire Union maintenance boat & Cambrian Railways station behind 20
Pant station platforms 20
Pant with Cambrian railway line bow-girder bridge across canal in background & former stone loading activity in foreground 21
Old Rail Road Bridge across canal (no evidence that tramway crossed canal) 21
View from Llanymynech Hill with Ellesmere Canal & Cambrian Railways & Shropshire & Montgomeryshire just visible 22
Map: Llanymynech, 1926  to help sort out above 23
Llanymynech canal bridge: Welsh fishermen 24
Map: Llanymynech, 1926 24
Carreghofa Top Lock 25
Map: Careghofa locks, 1926 25
Newbridge: aqueduct across River Vyrnwy 26
Map: : aqueduct across River Vyrnwy 26
Vyrnwy aqueduct viewed from canal 27
Vyrnwy aqueduct  in March 2004 27
Canal at Clafton bridge, cottage & warehouse 28
Burgedden Top Lock (OS: Burgedin) 28
Moors Farm lift bridge 29
View from Gungrog Hall Bridge 29
Welshpool: company boat George with family crew & Welshpool & Llanfair Light Railway girder bridge over canal 30
Welshpool Lock with waterwheel in overflow channel 30
Welshpool: Ordnance Survey 25-inch map 1926 31
Hollybush Wharf from top gate of Welshpool Lock 32
View from tail of lock at Bryderwyn 33
Rock Bridge 33

Paul Jackson. Horse haulage in the South Wales Coalfield: The final decade. Part 5. 34-46
Nant Fach Colliiery owned Tresgyrch Mining Co. opened in 1991 and closed in March 1998. Work for two horses Dobbin and Patch

Patch in retirement. 47-8

The Institute: [Archive's reviews]. 49-51

Industrial railways and locomotives of Kent. Robin Waywell. 458 pp.
Industrial railways and locomotives of Cumberland. Peter Holmes. 464 pp.
Industrial Railway Society, Melton Mobray. Reviewed by Ian Parkhouse

We have reviewed various IRS handbooks in the past and both of these volumes are well up to the high standards set by the society. Both are produced to the new format which, its is believed, was set by the volumes on Co. Durham. In reality these are reference volumes, rather than a good read, and for anybody with an interest in industrial history, not just industrial railways or locomotives, they are invaluable.
Kent is an interesting volume as we have covered several of the sites featured therein within the pages of Archive over the years, indeed, this very issue has a piece on Holborough cement works and quarry. In Achive we have covered both cement and papermaking, two industries that Kent is noted for, but this volume make the reader realise the full scope of industries that once existed within the county, not to mention military railway systems.
As usual the volume includes full indexes sorted by locomotive builder; by locomotive name; and by industrial location.
The Cumberland volume follows the same format and reveals many interesting industrial concerns both large and small. Notable are the various steelworks and collieries that required larger locomotives than those seen in Kent.
Both volumes are well illustrated and are highly recommended. Membership of the IRS is also worth considering.

The London, Tilbury & Southend Railway. Volume 6: The Gravesend Ferry. Peter Kay, 80 pp. Card covers, Wivenhoe: Author. Reviewed by Ian Parkhouse  
This is the sixth volume of Peter's history of the London, Tilbury & Southend Railway and covers the Gravesend Ferry which plied between Tilbury on the north bank of the Thames and Gravesend, a distance of some 750 yards.
The first chapter looks at the pre-railway history of the various ferries that served the routes across the river and their owners! operators, some apparently more corrupt than others. The military also had an interest in the ferries in connection with a fort at Tilbury which had a slipway.
In 1852 the LT&SR got an Act to construct a line to Tilbury and also planned to open their own ferry which commenced running in April 1854 with three boats. The chapter goes on to describe how other ferries were taken over and all of the various piers used over the years in Gravesend. The Tilbury landing stages are also described in detail in the next section, followed by the same treatment of the Gravesend landings.
Then follows a chapter on the ferry boats themselves, with each one being dealt with in turn and given a full history. Details of crews and captains are also given.
All in all a fascinating story of what was once a major transport link, now sadly much reduced.

Ironstone mining in the Lincolnshire Wolds. Stewart Squires. 135 pp., softback,  Lincoln: Society For Lincolnshire History & Archaeology. Reviewed by AN (Andrew Neale?)
Although most of the iron ore produced in Britain was obtained by quarrying from open pits in some areas, notably West Cumberland and North East Lincolnshire, it was extracted by underground mining. This thoroughly researched work is a detailed study of iron ore mining at Claxby and Nettleton Top between Caistor and Market Rasen which began in 1867 and ended in 1969. Stewart Squires has researched the history of these mines for thirty years and the results are published in this book. Both the quality of the research and the quality of the publication are of a very high standard. The book includes many excellent illustrations and specially drawn maps, each chapter has a complete list of reference sources and the author has gone to great pains to seek help from a wide range of people and institutions, including surving ex miners and many others with specialist knowledge such as on the rail systems and machinery used within the mines.
This is first class publication which can be thoroughly recommended and it is hoped that it will inspire others undertaking similar research into the ind ustrial history of a particular area to aspire to publish their finished results to the same standards as seen here.

Ford design in the UK: 70 years of success. Dick Hull., 224 pp, Dorchesier: Veloce Publishing. Reviewed by Malcolm Bobbitt.
Several books have been written about Ford of Britain but this is the first time its dedicated styling department has received the benefit of detailed historical research. The author's 25 years' experience in the automotive design industry make him the ideal candidate in understanding and assessing Ford's endeavours in the United Kingdom which stretch some 70 years. This history is particularly opportune as it coincides with the 50th anniversary of the opening of the Dunton Design Studio which remains a key part of Ford' s resource in Europe. The work begins with an overview of the formative years of Ford's British operation, the author providing the reminder that this was the first overseas venture that Henry Ford instigated. History shows that its origins date from 1904 when Aubrey Blakiston and Percival Perry established the Central Motor Car Company in London selling Fords that were sent from America in crates and then assembled and sold at a rate of a few a month. The Ford Model B arrived a year later and the Model N in 1906, followed by the famous Model T in 1908. The account of Ford building its factory at Trafford Park in Manchester, and the first car to be built there on 23rd October 1911, is well known but nevertheless is an essential backdrop to the book.
Misfortunes at Ford in America were key to Ford of Britain's autonomy in the immediate post-war years which, as explained by Nick Hull, led to the new range of Consul and Zephyr models being locally styled and designed. There are interesting explanations as to the styling techniques employed on producing the post-war Anglia 100E together with the second-generation Consul and Zephyr, both being larger and more powerful than the initial models.
Much interest is to be discovered in the design processes that resulted in the Consul Classic 109E and the Anglia 105E, both cars having reverse-rake rear screens which originated from a 1953 Packard concept design and seen two years later on a Farina derived Fiat 600 coupé  that was displayed at the Turin Motor Show. Cortina, Corsair and Zodiac development is discussed in detail as the author goes on to reveal the efforts employed in devising the Mark 11 Cortina. With the opening of the huge Dunton facility in Essex, the book takes on a new impetus in tracing the designs of the Escort, Capri and Granada before more recent offerings in the shape of the Sierra, Mondeo and most recent models.
It is not only cars that are examined in this detailed and lavishly produced book which include a wealth of illustrations, many of which will be new to motor enthusiasts and historians. Commercial vehicles, from the Transit to the D-Series and Cargo trucks come under the spotlight, as do experimental vehicles which never made it to production. This extensive and thorough history of Ford's British styling facility benefits from the author's depth of research and his many interviews with those personnel involved in designing Fords built in Britain.

Lawrie Bond, Microcar man: an Illustrated history of Bond Cars. Nick Wotherspoon. 307 pp. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Transport. Reviewed by Malcolm Bobbitt.
Lawrence Bond, he preferred to be known as Lawrie amongst his friends and family, was a prolific designer and engineer of great skill whose products deserved much more acclaim than achieved. Motorists of mature years will recall seeing, and possibly driving, the tiny three-wheelers attributed tothe Lancastrian who was also responsible for the Equipe four-wheel sports coupe which saw a degree of popularity. Bond was also behind Berkeley three- and four-wheel sports cars in addition to caravans and motorcycles.
The author is acclaimed for an earlier (and less substantial) work on Lawrie Bond and his inventions, but it would be disingenuous to suggest that this book merely enlarges upon it. This edition offers a completely different and new aspect of Lawrie Bond, his efforts, successes and failures. The history commences with an overview of Bond's formative years and his interest in motor racing in the sport's 500cc category. Not only did Bond design and build his own racing cars, the skills in producing lightweight designs were the impetus for him constructing in 1948 an extremely basic three-wheeler shopping car powered by an air-cooled 1/ 8th litre (125cc Villiers) engine with its three-speed gearbox mounted directly above the single front wheel. Wotherspoon tells how Bond, strapped financially and without suitable premises to put the vehicle into production, arranged for Sharp's Commercials of Preston to undertake this.
The concept and development of the Minicar is told in two separate parts, the intervening chapters detailing Bond's ventures with the Minibyke motorcycle, its successors the BAC Lilliput and Gazelle after which came the Oscar and Sherpa scooters. Then there's the explanation about Berkeley sports cars which are still campaigned to this day by motors port enthusiasts. The Minicar theme is told in depth, as is the account of the final true Bond three-wheeler, the 875 which shared its power unit with the Hillman Imp. Nick Wotherspoon is to be con- gratulated in carefully tracing Bond history to when the firm was acquired by rival Reliant, which was the death knell to the 875 which directly competed with Reliant's own three- wheeler. This is an absorbing read which anyone with an interestin British automotive history will discover to be essential material. The book is fully illustrated and includes many importan t images from Bond and Bond family archives. If there is one slight gripeitis that some of the photographs taken of cars at motor events are of snapshot quality: the book would have benefi ted from some professional photography of surviving vehicles. Highly recommended.

Notes on an old colliery pumping engine William Thompson Anderson , 84 pp. card covers, Whitchurch (Hants): Steve Grudgings, Reviewed by Ian Parkhouse
Facsimile of a book produced in 1917 as a report on a paper given to the Manchester Geological and Mining Society on the pumping engine at the Pentrich Colliery in Derbyshire. The original paper has been reset in facsimile and, as an extra bonus, the original images used to illustrate the paper were also found by Steve Grudgings. This allowed their use in the facsimile and therefore far higher quality illustrations are to be found than we be the case with a straight reproduction (together with some extra views not originally included). As well as the original paper the follow-up discussions were also recorded and are also reproduced here to give a complete picture.
Some large scale plans of the engine are held in the Science Museum archives and these have also be included in this publication.
This is an extremely interesting work, well reproduced.

Southern style: Part Two. London, Brighton & South Coast Railway. P.J. Wisdom.120pp, card covers. Historical Model Railway Society. Reviewed by Ian Parkhouse
We have previously reviewed the first part of this series which covered the London & South Western Railway. This volume is equally as good and forms a very useful overview of the various liveries carried by locomotives, carriages and wagons as well as the painting sty les of buildings, signals and miscellaneous pieces of equipment. Not only is this an invaluable work for railway modellers but it forms a very useful research tool for historians as it gives the time bands in which the various liveries were applied and in use. The volume comes complete with a pull-out colour swatch giving accurate renditions of the colours used by the LB&SCR.

Inbye : Archive's letters page. 52

Quaker House. Rick Howell,
Working underground he remembered the buffeting percussion wave of blasting underground - for me, in metal mines abroad, the initial sharp tap, tap, tap of sound through the rock preceded the boom of the percussion. It's a sound he had npt heard or felt for years or on surface both in mining and later, in construction. It's only when you look at the gradual change in equipment and methods do you realise how much he didn't record at the time.
Steve Grudgings article on Quaker House (in the footsteps of George Orwell - he was tall too) was superb and he really did capture the dust underground! Writer only crawled along a long working coalface once in  his life-at Linby, North Notts- and vowed never to go there again .... though the steam coal winder there (1979) was simply poetry in motion; literally. A simple pleasure, but one he had been privileged to witness in "harness" winding coal.
On page 16 the haulage / winder set-up reminds me very much of the 'slusher' units he used in Australia with large electric motor driving a worm and gear box, spur gear / chain drive to the drum with air operated clutches on (in our case) both drums - the motor ran all the time, clutching in the drive to whichever rope required pull, the other declutching to allow rope to run off.
On page 28 his caption suggests a pump on the right - he is pretty certain that's a mobile transformer in what looks to be the power room - all properly supported and boarded out with corrugated sheeting.
Paul Jackson's article on Pare Level Ruston locos and in particular the RB 22s (and 19s for that matter) are another piece of history mostly consigned to memory. The tangle of chains and ropes reminds me of the mineworkings discovered under the line of the A30 bypass behind Hayle in [in Cornwall] in 1981/2.
After the discovery of distinct, mostly rectangular, blue / grey patches in yellow / orange elvan ground after topsoil strip right on the centreline of the new road (clearly filled shafts) the contractors, A. McAlpine, instigated a drilling programme to assess the extent of underground voids. This indicated voids near the shafts and nearby so a RB22 was rigged with a clamshell bucket to grab out the fill and allow' inspection'. The resulting tangle of ropes and slow activity - not to mention sterilisation of a very awkward spot on the cut/fill line - very nearly did for me as a rookie engineer a tthe time! It became clear that the workings were shallow, and locally extensive, and ultimately the whole area was dug out to 15m or so, made safe, and backfilled before the road could be completed. There are some pics of the dig I uploaded to the AditNow website under 'Mellanear Mine'.
On another occasion the groundworks contractor on the new (in 2001) Tremough site brought in a RB19 to load shuttering pans, pour concrete etc but with increased H&E liabilities in terms of testing, and without the necessary paperwork, the '19' was condemned and removed and I've not seen one since. All lifting seems to be done by specialist firms with hydraulic mobile units in general, though the new A30 dualling over Bodmin Moor had a large crawler crane handling shuttering, steel decks and concrete etc in the past year or two.

Skimpings. 52-5

Tilbury Riverside Station. 52
Aerial photograph whowing pontoon: early 1950s

Quarry — unknown location.. 53
Crushing plant with manually powered tramway off to quarry. One Great Central wagon in picture

Cheltenham & Gloucester Breweries fleet of Sentinel flat-bed lorries. 54

Sentinel advertisement. 55

Andrew Neale. Three gauges at Holborough. 56-64
Holborough Cement Works Ltd on the Medway in Kent

Aveling & Poter WN 9449/1926 2-2-0 on 8 August 1935 (George Alliez) 56
Peckett WN 1756/1928 0-4-0ST Hornpipe on 8 August 1935 (George Alliez) 57
Manning, Wardle WN 1846/1914 0-4-0ST Felspar c1953 (George Alliez) 58
Map: Holborough Cement Works 58-9
Kerr Stuart WN 1213/1914 0-4-2T Hawk on 2 April 1934 (George Alliez) 59
Montreal Locomotive Works WN 54933/1917 60
2ft gauge Bagnall WN 2073/1918 near bridge under SE&CR Medway Valley Line 8 August 1935 (George Alliez) 60
44/48 H.P. Ruston hauling loaded skip wagons to wash mill with steam navvy & quarry in background (John H. Meredith) 61
Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn WN 7813/1954 0-4-0ST Tumulus with tip wagons being loaded by diesel excavator c1958 (John H. Meredith) 61
0-4-0ST Tumulus  possibly stored out of use on 28 August 1964 62
44/48 H.P. Ruston diesel locomotive WN 200524/1950 at wash mill on 8 August 1953 (John H. Meredith) 62
3-foot gauge tramway and aerial ropeway on 17 April 1966 (Andrew Neale) 63
3-foot gauge flat wagons for carrying ropeway buckets (Andrew Neale) 63
Peckett WN 1747/1928 0-4-0ST Longfield on 6 May 1971 64