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Issue 74 (June 2012)

Gloucester Market Street on 23 June 1909 en fete for visit of King Edward VII to City. inside front cover
Shows (1) premises of J.M. Butt & Co. Ltd, which operated the Kingsholm Foundry and maintained premises im Market Street to display agricultural implements and next to offices of Messrs Jaynes & Scholey (partnership of C.A. Jaynes and Charles O. Scholey who were coal merchants and agents for several shipping companies including the Union Castle and White Star Lines. A viewing box had been erected by this firm to enable guests to see his Majesty visit the Royal Agricultural Show.

Robert Evans. Pentewan Sand & Block Works. 2-11; front cover.
The Pentewan Railway was described in Rly Arch., 2010 (29), 2.

Pentewan Harbour with block works and SS Glen Mary (coloured postcard) fc
Pentewan Harbour entrance channel: sand works and smallvessel loading sand 2
Pentewan looking east from St Austell to Mevagissey road c1920 3
Trucks from Pentewan Railway loading sand into SS Jolly Esmond? 4
Concrete block works and hatbour entrance channel c1915 5u
Pentewan Railway truck being loaded with sand off beach 5l
Pentewan Development Brick Co. Ltd. Foden steam wagon c1915 6u
Foden steam wagon delivering concrete blocks to house under construction M 694 see also letter from Bill Briggs (75) p. 39. 6l
G.L. Mumro being loaded with sand off railway trauck on concrete trestle 7u
Entrance channel with steam sand grab to keep channel open 7l
Pentewan Harbour with SS Jolly Esmond and harbour master's house and office 8u
Harbour, two vessels and sand block works: early 1920s 8l
Conveyor loading sand into steel hopper wagon and sand blocks drying also diesel locomotive: see latter in Issue 75 p. 38 9u
Employees (bock makers} sand block former 9l
Conveyor system, steel hopper and diesel locomotive: see also letter in Issue 75 pp. 38-9 10u
Concrete products and light railway system 10m
Ruston & Hornsby diesel locomotive hauling Hudson tipper wagon 10l
Pentewan harbour with large motor vessel 11u
Dock gates, sand grading machine and sand bin c1950 11l

Follow-up: Ackworth Quarries. 12-16.
See also Issue 72 page 9. Photographs supplied by Peter Miles whose father, Harry Miles, had worked as a quarryman at Ackworth from when he left school in August 1945. He started at the Ackworth Stone Company where he shovelled out the slurry from two stone sawmills. The quarry owner was Gilbert Camplin who was very strict. Lorries from Halsteads of Burnley came regularly to collect scouring stones vended as Donkey Brand and Lily Brand. Another job was rubbing window sills: he was not allowed to wear gloves to protect his hands. He moved to Bowman's Quarries which paid better, working under Arthur Jenks and Roland Parker. He made grind stones which were exported to Australia and to Norway where they were used for grinding wood pulp. Following National Service in the Royal Artillery he had to move to Camplin's quarries as Bowman's had closed by 1951. At Camplin's he turned grind stones, many of which were exported. The trade in scythe stones was important: Jonas Johnson of Acworth had been significant in this business in the 1900s. Camplin's made Holy Stones for scrubbing drecks and Hand Stones for sharpening jute knives. Finally Harry Miles moved to Tadcaster quarries in 1954.

Ordnance Survey map of 1906 showing Brackenhill Quarries 12
Sentinel steam lorry with solid rubber tyres: laded with large block of stone 13u
Motor lorry from Halsteads of Burnley 13l
Harry Miles atBowman's Quarries with axle from a drug 14u
Crane at Bowman's Quarries 14l
Drug in use in stone saw 15ul
Harry Miles atwork in Camplin Brothers quarry 15ur
Grind stone for Central Lunatic Asylum in Antigua 15l
Ruston Bucyrus 24RB dragline at Camplin Brothers quarry 16u
Vertical boiler steam crane at Camplin Brothers quarry 16m
Two grindstones being loaded onto lorry 16l

The Institute: Archive's Book Reviews. 17

Industrial railways and locomotives of South Western England. Roger Hateley (compiler). Industrial Railway Society. 384pp.
This volume, long awaited by your reviewer, covers the counties of Cornwall, Devon and Somerset and is an updated version of part of Handbook H (first published in 1977). The book has been produced in the 'new' IRS format as used for the County Durham volumes previously reviewed in these pages.
This book must be the most comprehensive produced on the industrial railways in the South West and is the product of years of diligent work by the author. The real plus is the potted history for each of the industrial concerns covered which is supported by a wealth of maps and illustrations, many in colour. As well as the historic industrial sites, current day preservation sites also feature with the industrial locomotives to be found on them, plus narrow gauge tourist lines, war department lines and contractors lines for such as public works contracts and the construction and removal of standard gauge lines. The history of each locomotive is given as to when it arrived at a site and where from and when it departed. Thus by combining a number of these invaluable Handbooks the progress of some locomotives, especially those owned by contractors can be followed around the country. This volume is well worth its shelf space and will certainly be well thumbed as a resource for adding to captions etc. within Archive.

Waterways Journal: Volume 14 Editor Cath Turpin . The Boat Museum Society, National Waterways Museum, Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, 72pp,
We seemingly only recently reviewed the 13th Edition of Waterways Journal so the arrival of this one suddenly brought home the fact that another year has gone by! Once again the journal is made up of an interesting collection of articles, especially one on the Wolverhampton Corrugated Iron Co. Ltd which adds considerably to our coverage of that company in Private Owner Wagons: A Fifth Collection. Other articles cover the Chester & Liverpool Lighterage & Warehousing Co. Ltd; Rover Scout's Cruises; and The Draper family of Burscough and Foulridge, a boating family. All of the articles are well illustrated, the only real criticism are that many of the images are reproduced at a size where it is difficult to discern the vast amount of detail contained within them. We look forward to seeing No. 15 in this series which adds much to waterways history, especially the social side.

Merry-go-round on the rails. David Monk-Steel. Historical Model Railway Society, 194pp,
Introduced in 1965 the Merry-go-Round train supplying coal to a number of UK power stations has been a vital element in keeping our house lights burning. The author, himself a professional railwayman, has put together the story of the operation of these trains and how the system actually worked. The story begins with a look at the development of the national electricity grid and at early block train operation before delving into a comprehensive coverage of the MGR operations. The whole is profusely illustrated with both photographs (many in colour) and drawings of wagons, power station layouts and operational equipment.
Your reviewer however notes that the drawings of the various hopper wagons involved have been reproduced at a variety of scales, even where two are on the same page and sometimes in the elevations and plan views of the same wagon. This make comparisons and also scaling up or down for modelling purposes more difficult. The book concludes by looking at other merry-go-round operations carrying limestone, gypsum, china clay etc. The volume certainly brings the story of the movement of coal up to date and is worthy of a read although let down a bit by the variable drawing size and some smallish images in places.

Falmouth Docks & Engineering Co's 0.3 seen in September 1977 when being used as a tug to berth a vessel. 17
The photographer, John Ward,recorded the locomotive as being Hawthorn, Leslie WN 3597/1926. This was originally No. 1 until March 1955. It came new to Falmouth and is now preserved at Shackerstone, Leicestershire.

Skimpings 1 : A visit to Boston. 18-19.
Four views of quays on River Witham

Doughty Quay with five-storey Burton Allton Ltd warehouse, probably early 1920s 18u
Doughty Quay with five-storey warehouse and St. Botolph's church (Boston Stump) prominent, probably 1930s 18l
South Quay with Thames barge Satis of Rochester 19u
South Quay with ferry at St. John's Gowt 19l

K. Dark. Llewelyn's Miniature Railway. 20
See also feature on Rhyl Miniature Railway in Issue 72 page 2
: contemporary with this Griffith Vaughan Llewelyn opened a similar 15 inch gauge railway in Southport alongside the Marine Lake on 25 May 1911. The Marine Lake was much older and work had started on it in 1835 and it was improved in 1887. Amusements known as Pleasureland were developed near the Lake in the early 20th century and the miniature railway may be regarded as an extension of these. The original equipment was supplied by Miniature Railways of Great Britain, with locomotives being designed by Henry Greenly. The carriages were supplied by Bassett-Lowke. In 1945 the system was sold to Harry Barlow who substituted petrol-electric traction for the former stream locomotives. In 2001 it was sold again to Don Clark who still operates it. See also Number 75 pp. 40 et seq and letter from Bill Briggs on p. 39 of same Issue and yet further illustration (including woodgrain finish)  from Bill Briggs in Number 76 page 11.

Aerial view of Southport showing Marine Lake in distance and Chapel Street station, engine shed, triangular junction and trains hauled by 4-6-0 and 2-4-2T types, early 1930s 20
Greenly Atlantic George the Fifth at Princes Park station (Lake Side Station see No. 75 p. 40 upper) 21
George the Fifth at Lakeside Station pre-WW1 22u
Train passing under rustic bridge with "tunnel" behind 22l
George the Fifth 1911 on builder's plate 23u
George the Fifth 1912 on builder's plate and other differences see letter from Bill Briggs on p. 39 of Issue 75 23l
Rebuilt Lakeside Station and locomotive No. 2: probably late 1930s 24u
Class 20 Atlantic Prince of Wales with Royal Saloon 24l
Class 20 Atlantic Princess Elizabeth at Pleasureland. 25u
Princess Elizabeth formerly Prince Edawrd of Wales on Fairbourne Railway: now in Califpornia 25l

Skimpings 2: Tyne Bridge and SS Multistone. 26-7.
Main picture (p. 26) shows Tyne Bridge under construction in late 1920s. The steelwork was supplied by Dorman Long and the towers were faced by Cornish granite supplied by steamships Multistone and Coaster owned by Robinson, Brown & Co. Coaster was built in 1903 by Wood, Skinner & Co. Ltd at Bill Quay on the south bank of the Tyne. The Multistone is also shown on page 27 upper when owned by United Stone Firms Ltd, Bristol. It was supplied by Smith's Dock Co. Ltd of Noth Shields to a length dictated by entry to Porthgain harbour. 27 lower shows Porthgain harbour with the Volana (built in 1882) and Clwyd built in 1909 and owned by the Point of Ayr Colliery. See also letter from Roy Fenton in Issue 75 p. 38.

Skimpings: Bell End Colliery, Rowley Regis. 28
Two photographs: the lower is a silhouette of the engine house and tandem headgear; the upper shows the same buildings in the background, with an endless haulage system in the foreground with the tubs being hauled from above to take coal to the Titford Canal: part of the Birmingham Canal Navigation

Skimpings: Siver Birch Colliery: Grendon, near Atherstone. 29.
Two photographs: the upper shows the headframe and windlass; the lower shows a steep entrance into the mine with a hub being raised by cable haulage and a horse being prepared to take over or assist with haulage. In both views female visitors and gentlemen unlikely to venture underground (the owners?) are visible. See letters from Richard Potter and Neil Catlow in Issue 75..

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the showroom: Daimler Fifteen. 30-1.
Registration number EJ 4231 photographed in Cinderford in the Forest of Dean probably in 1935 and the car probably was owned by a local doctor. The car had a six-cylinder 1805cc overhead valve engine, fluid flywheel transmission and a fixed head coupé body supplied by Mulliners Ltd. Cat's eyes, invented by Percy Shaw, are visible in the road.

John E. Harbidge-Rose. Southampton Corporation Tramways: Part Three. The open-top Dobson cars, the standard TCB (top covered Bargate) cars and the depot at Shirley. 32-64.
The text describes how James Dobson became Tramways Manager and Engineer from W. Tuke Robson in 1919. He produced an improved open top tram with garden seats on the upper deck in place of the knifeboard seating and drivers windscreens: see 33 and 34 below. Dobson died suddenly in 1922 and the construction of these cars waas left to the Works Superintendent, Percival J. Baker, who had arrived from Plymouth who conceived how to design a top cover which could pass through Bargate. This required reducing the height of the bottom deck windows, fitting 27 inch, rather than 31 inch wheels, shorter coil springs in the suspension, lowering the roadway and dwarf section rail under the Bargate. The car was demonstrated on 11 September 1923 and Baker became Tramways Manager and more tram cars of the type were consructed. Baker did not retire until 1954. When the trams were withdrawn Leeds City Transport acquired 37 TCBs, that included (the still to be described Pullman variety of 1930/1), but only 11 entered service, but much electrical equipment was salvaged for further use. In 1977 the remains of Tram No. 11 were found near Cheriton and restoration was started, but is still incomplete. Further information on page 54 of Issue 76.

Tram car No. 8 on curve from High Street into Bernard Street post WW2 grey livery 32
Open top tram carNo. 2 when new in 1920 33
Drawing: Cars Nos. 2, 40, 4, 8 & 3 with Brill 21E trucks, built SCT in 1920-4 as built and as rebuilt as TCB becoming Nos. 10, 7, 9, 8 & 4 34
Coat-of-arms 35u
No. 8 in post-war cherry red 'bus livery in Above Bar at junction with New Road and Civic Centre Road 35l
No. 9 c1937 in full pre-WW2 livery 36
No. 9 decorated (red white & blue) for last tram day (31 December 1949) outside Shirley Depot (two views showing each side) 37
No. 9 decorated for last tram day curving into Commercial Road off Above Bar Street 38u
No. 9 decorated for last tram day in Commercial Road 38l
No. 9 illuminated on 31 December 1949 at Shirley 39u
No. 9 illuminated on 31 December 1949 at Floating Bridge 39l
Tram stop 40u
No. 11 being restored at Millbrook on 11 July 1993 40m
Detail from above 40l
No. 12 passing through Bargate with top cover on 11 September 1923 41
Drawing: Nos. 12-20 built SCT 1923-6: TCB on Brill 21E trucks 42
No. 12 in Above Bar Street on 31 December 1949 43
No. 13 with roof blown off following air raid 44u
No. 13 as reroofed in 1944 and renumbered 31 in Shirley Road on 31 December 1949 44l
No. 18 built with Peckham P35 truck 45u
No. 19 at Swaythling terminus on 30 December 1948 45l
No. 19 at junction of High Street with Bernard Street on 31 December 1949 46u
No. 19 near reconstruction of Civic Centre Art School in Commercial Road 46l
No. 20 in Carlisle Road, Shirley 47u
Tickets (Bell Punch traditional and cinema type, button and cap badge (SCT) 47l
Drawing: Nos. 35; 92-103 (built SCT 1926-9) on Peckham P35 trucks 48
No. 94 on Bargate circus on 31 December 1949 49u
No. 95 at Royal Pier terminus with pill box behind 49l
No. 100 at The Junction on 31 December 1949 50u
No. 100 heading north up the High Street 50l
No. 101 at Royal Pier terminus with Royal Southern Yacht Clud and the Wool House being used by Itchen Transport 51u
No. 102 at junction at Stag Gates with Lodge Road on 31 December 1949 51l
No. 103 outside Savoy Cinema in Swaythling in July 1948: long bracket arm traction poles 52u
Tram car on night of 31 December 1949 at Floating Bridge 52l
Highfield Permanent Waty Department crane wagon outside Shirley Depot on 20 April 1949 56
Shirley Depot plan: 1879 57u
1908 knifeboard car at Shirley Depot in 1938 or 1939: Kinnear shutters visible behind 57l
Shirley Depot plan: 1899 58
Maintenance car (crane wagon) in Park Street on 20 April 1949 59u
Maintenance car (crane wagon) in Shirley High Street on 20 April 1949 59l
Shirley Depot plan and elevations: 1949 60
Shirley bus Depot in 1966 with Guy Arab Mk III (1954); AEC Regent Mk V (1962); Leyland Titan PD2A/27 and Leyland Titan PD2/27 61
Traction pole outside Shirley Depot on 27 March 1981 62u
Inside Shirley Bus Depot on 27 March 1981 with AEC Regent No. 393 (KOW 901F) on pit 62l
Inside Shirley Bus Depot Leyland Atlantean PDR1A/1 (WOW 529J): signs of use by trams still visible 63u
Inside Shirley Bus Depot on 5 October 1986 showing former tram pits 63l
Exterior former bus and tram depot at Shirley on 11 November 1984 64u
Southampton Corporation Tramways electric section box preserved at National Tramway Museum at Crich on 21 September 1986 64l

Number 75 (September 2012)

Paul Jackson. Newton, Chambers: Thomas Smith and the steam powered coke drawer: the story chronicled. 2-37.
George Newton was born in 1761 in Staindrop, County Durham. By 1790 he had developed a mixed fundry business in the Sheffield area. Thomas Chambers was born in 1745 in Rawmarsh, north of Rotherham, learned the metal working trade from working for Samuel & Joshua Walker of Masborough and then Smith, Stacey & Co. of Sheffield. In 1789 Newton and Chambers formed a partnership to smelt and cast iron, purchasing buildings on Snow Hill and land extending to Furnace Hill in the Thorncliffe valley where they erected the Phoenix Foundry and cast iron from March 1793. The company name was Longden, Newton, Chambers: Henry Longden supplied some of the capital, but was eventually bought out. A lease was obtained from Earl Fitzwilliam to mine coal and ironstone in the Thorncliffe valley near Chapeltown and blast furnaces were constructed in 1796. In 1799 Robert and John Scott joined the company to provide extra capital. In the early phase James Malam, pupil of William Murdock, and Malam's family became involved in the gas engineering at the company.
For a time a light railway linked Thorncliffe with Elsecar, but traffic on this declined when the South Yorkshire Railway reached the area in 1855, This line became part of the Great Central Railway and LNER, but in 1892 the Midland Railway opened a branch from Wincobank and Brightside up to Chapeltown which was extended to Barnsley in 1897. In 1894 a high level railway was constructed around the works to serve the furnaces.
In 1883 employed a Manchester chemical engineer, George Edward Davis to investigate the extraction of benzole from coke oven gas at Thorncliffe. By products included ammonium sulphte, but of poor quality and carbolic acid. In 1885 Jason Hall Worrall, a chemist who was an Assistant to the Sheffield Public Analyst, developed what came to be marketed as Izal disinfectant: the origin of the name is discussed,
Thomas Smith was born in Dawley, Shropshire into a very poor family in 1847. By 1861 he was living with the Bowles family in Oldbury and was working as a miner's boy. By 1871 he was at White Field, Ecclesfield, had become a Methodist, and surface manager at Tankersley Colliery. By 1881 he was in charge of the Thorncliffe and Rockingham collieries. He was the inventor of the patented steam-powered coke-drawer. He was eventually dismissed along with several other managers for financial irregularities; attempted to re-establish himself, but became bankrupt.
Other installations of coke-drawers, mainly in County Durham, at New Brancepeth Colliery owned by Cochrane & Co. and at Browney Colliery owned by the Bell Brothers and under the cotrol of the influential Isaac Lowthian Bell..

Steam powered coke drawer

fc

Izal disinfectant advertisement: What to do if its catching

ifc

Thorncliffe Works c1877 (engraving from letterhead)

2

Newton Chambers letterhead 1885

3

Thorncliffe Works looking east photographed in late 1880s from Commerce (journal published August 1899)

4

Chambers and Newton family tree from Chapeltown Researches by Matthew Henry Habershon

5u

Thorncliffe Works looking north east photographed in late 1880s from Commerce (journal published August 1899)

5l

Map: railways in Thorncliffe area post grouping; post 1923 with Thorncliffe and Elsecar Railway superimposed

6

Thorncliffe Works showing blast furnaces, coke ovens and Izal plant photographed in 1899 from Commerce (journal published August 1899)

7

Thorncliffe Works plan of 1890

8

Patent diagram and abstract: GB 5122/1879 Coke ovens. A.M. Chambers. 15 December 1879

10

Patent diagram and abstract: GB 4708/1884 Coking. A.M. Chambers and T. Smith 11 March 1884

10

Patent diagram and abstract: GB 7358/1885 Coking. A.M. Chambers and T. Smith 16 June 1885

10

Thorncliffe Works looking north east photographed in c1910 with bridge over Midland Railway High Level Ironstone branch

11

Newton Chambers advertisement in Newbiggings Handbook for Gas Engineers

12

Train of girders passing New Staindrop beehive coke ovens

12

Thorncliffe Works Izal products warehouse and elevator being used to load Midland Railway wagons 13u
Thorncliffe Drift and sidings with timber in 1920s 13l
Ordnance Survey 25 inch to mile scale plan 1903 14
Thorncliffe Drift enlargement of part of 13 lower 15u
Blast furnaces c1886 15l
Bank of horizontal boilers fired with coke oven gas and Thorncliffe Drift winding engine 16u
Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST WN 1121/1889 Tankersley and Newton Chambers dumb buffer wagon No. 1011 with Izal advertisements 16l
Parkgate oil works with stills 17u
Close up view of Parkgate oil works with stills 17l
Patent diagram and abstract: GB 12112/1888 Coking T. Smith 22 August 1888 18/19
Coke drawer and ovens from Commerce (journal published August 1899) 19
Coke drawer in greater detail 20
Bench at Parkgate coke ovens at Thorncliffe showing recovery ovens with pipes taking off gases 21
Thorncliffe Furnace Hill coke ovens map enlargement of plan page 8 22
Coke drawer at Westwood Colliery inn 1914 22
Westwood coke ovens and Tankersley Colliery: Ordnance Survey map 1905 23u
Rockingham by-product coking plant c1910 23l
Rockingham Colliery coke drawer 24
Report by W.C. Blackett of Charlaw & Sacriston dated 14 September 1891 on coke drawers at Rockingham and Thorncliffe Collieries 25
Newton Chambers advertisement 25
Coke drawer at Rockingham out of service 26
Rockingham Colliery and coke ovens Ordnance Survey map 1903 27
Rockingham Colliery coke ovens eastern battery and coke drawer from Commerce (journal published August 1899) 28
Enlargement of coke drawer from above 28
Rockingham Colliery coke ovens western battery and coke drawer in action 29
Enlargement of coke drawer from above 29
Smithy Wood Colliery and cole ovens: Ordnance Survey map 1905 30u
New Brancepeth Colliery coke ovens: coke drawer in operation from The Mechanical Enginnering of Collieries. T. Campbell Futers 1910 V. 2 30l
New Brancepeth Colliery: Ordnance Survey map 1896 31u
Enlargement of coke drawer from 30 lower 31l
Elevator for loading coal at New Brancepeth Colliery: from The Mechanical Enginnering of Collieries. T. Campbell Futers 1910 V. 2 31l
New Brancepeth Colliery Coking Plant from Steam (Babcock & Wilcox catalogue 1922) 32
Browney Colliery map 1897 33u
Browney Colliery coke drawer 33m
Enlargement of coke drawer above 33l
Patent diagram and abstract: GB 7424/1889 Coking A.M. Chambers and T. Smith 3 May 1889 34
Patent abstract: GB 14034/1890 Coking A.M. Chambers and T. Smith 6 September 1890 34
Newton Chambers letterhead with artist's impression of Rockingham Colliery and coke drawer 34l
Enlargement of coke drawer on previous page 35u
Advertisements from The Times 1903 for sale of West Silkstone Colliery and Coke Ovens 35l
West Silkstone Colliery in 1905 owned Great Central Colliery Company with wagons 36u
West Silkstone Colliery in 1905 owned Great Central Colliery Company with wagons (looking west) 36l
West Silkstone Colliery: Ordnance Survey 25 inch to mile map 1906 37

Inbye : Archive's letters. 38-9; 64.
Porthgain revisited. Roy Fenton
The coaster to the left is Porthgain probably herself: writer once saw a print of photograph reproduced on which the name was reasonably clear, whilst an identifying feature is the stump mainmast just ahead of her poop, which she shared only with Mountcharles. The tiny vessel to the left of Porthgain is probably the 103grt Hopetoun, originally a trawler built at Greenock in 1886 as Isabella, and transferred to United Stone Firms in 1909. Sold in 1912, Hopetoun went to the Mersey where she worked in the local grain trade until broken up in 1933. If these identifications are correct, the photograph was taken between 1910 and Porthgain's loss in 1913. This would mean that the Clwyd, seen in the background, was owned at the time by R. and D. Jones Ltd. Liverpool. Certainly her funnel colours look like Jones' plain white with black top rather than those of Point of Ayr Collieries Ltd, who bought her only in 1916 when she would probably have been painted grey. Although the financially over-stretched United Stone Firms Ltd went bankrupt in 1913, one of its principals began ship owning in his own right after the First World War, and his ships returned to Porthgain. In 1920 Arthur Page bought the recently-built coaster Stertpoint and appointed as her manager David Macintosh. formerly roadstone controller for United Stone Firms. Page also floated the Porthgain Steamship Co. Ltd and in 1921 used this as a vehicle to buy the Sunderland-owned River Humber, also built in 1920. Both ships were sold in 1926, in which year United Stone was born again as United Stone Firms (1926) Ltd. However, it was no more fortunate than its predecessor, and it was liquidated in 1934, after which the production of granite at Porthgain appears to have ceased. Illustration: United Stone Firm's Porthgain approaching Cumberland Basin in Bristol with Clifton Suspension Bridge behind.

Pentewan Sand & Block Works. Andrew Wilson  
Photographs on pages 9 upper and 10 upper of Issue 74, show an unusual locomotive in use, completely different from the well known Rustons: see 10 lower. It looks like a Jung, model MS 131, 10 hp diesel, of which some were certainly imported into Britain by the Standard Steel Co. (1929) Ltd, of Croyden, who were suppliers of contractors' plant. They held the sole agency for Jung locomotives sold in the British Isles during the early 1930s. The story is somewhat complicated by the fact that some Jung locomotives were imported by another firm, Baxter Fell & Co. of London, during 1928 and 1929 and an identification plate from one of them has survived, bearing Standard Steel Company's name. It may be speculated that Baxter Fell supplied at least one locomotive to Standard Steel Co, for resale to one of Standard Steel's customers, and that subsequently Standard Steel acquired the agency for British Isles sales. Baxter Fell did subsequently handle a few Jung locomotives but most likely for markets outside the British Isles, A further complication is that Standard Steel Co. attempted to break into the contractors' locomotive manufacturing business, offering a 10 hp petrol loco and a 20 hp diesel version, built around Jung mechanical components, and prototypes were built but the project apparently was not taken further. Both types were being advertised in March 1933.
The main source for Standard Steel Co. information is Rick Stewart, in magazine The Narrow Gauge No. 155, a special issue devoted entirely to this subject which refers back to Brian Webb's The British internal combustion locomotive 1894-1940 where Webb discusses locomotive production by Standard Steel Co. and lists the destinations for some of them, including one 'to Cornwall'. Stewart speculates that the alleged delivery to Cornwall is a mistake and that it refers to a Jung 600 mm gauge locomotive for a Devon quarry.
The early machine illustrated at Pentewan must be 2ft 6in. gauge, 762 mm exactly or 760 mm as a manufacturer might have listed it, and appears to be a Jung model. Jens Merte's Jung list (at least partially available on Internet) includes Jung 5260: 760 mm gauge, model MS 131, supplied to Standard Steel Co. in 1931. Practically all the Jung internal combustion powered locomotives were diesels, from the beginning of production in 1927. British manufacturers did not mtroduce their own designs of small diesel engines suitable for small narrow gauge locomotives until 1929.

Pentewan Sand & Block Works. Bill Briggs 
Foden steam wagon registration No. M694 was works number 860: new 18 January 1905 to Jonathan Bowen & Sons Ltd of Birmingham (after exhibition at the Bingley Hall Show), which had been awarded the contract for building a hospital in the south of England and, as part of the contract plant, had purchased a small fleet of Foden wagons. As the need for these wagons on the contract ceased, they were sold off and number 860 was registered by Pentewan Development and Brickworks Co. in 1908. By February 1921 860 was owned by George Dixon & Sons Ltd of Truro and it was scrapped by Mumford of Plymouth in 1926. However, in the Foden Order Books additional owners are recorded, these being, W. Hicks of St. Austell, and J. Donald of Camborne. Information is from records of late Alan Duke held by The Road Locomotive Society. 860 was one of the first batch of Foden wagons built with a channel frame as up to late 1904 the wagons had plate frames (rather like a railway engine) with the rear wheels inside the frame. An interesting feature that can be seen in the photographs is the square boxes with hinged lids on the outer side of the footplate. These were for carrying sand, to be sprinkled on the road under the back wheels when these lost grip on the stone set paved roads then common in industrial areas.

Llewelyn's Miniature Railway, Southport. Bill Briggs,
On page 23 the author asked whether there were there George the Fifths at Southport and suggests that the two photographs on page 23 illustrate different locomotives. The answer to both these points can be found in The Little Giant story by Robin Butterell and John Milner which is a very detailed history of the Bassett-Lowke 15-inch gauge locomotives. On page 56 of this book there is a photograph, taken at Rhyl in 1913 of Prince Edward of Wales (BL works No. 15) double headed by George the Fifth (BL works No. 18). In the photograph the displacement lubricators on the front platform of No. 18 can be clearly seen as in the lower picture on page 23 (Issue 74) and would suggest that photograph is No. 18 and that it was taken in late 1912 just prior to the sale of this engine to Rhyl. As to 1912 on the builder's plate, that was probably altered to assist the sale! Recorded history shows that Llewelyn was a master of the art of changing locomotive identities. No. 18 was replaced at Southport by No. 21 Prince of Wales in 1913. In 1914 this locomotive was renamed G.V Llewelyn see p. 43 upper and again in 1920 when it became Lloyd George reverting to Prince of Wales circa 1930. After the locomotive shed fire on 15 September 1938 (not 1931 as stated by Dark) the locomotive was finally renamed Princess Elizabeth. No. 18 worked at Southport until sold in 1969.
In 1923 Llewelyn was able to purchase from Bassett-Lowke Little Giant No. 22 Prince Edward of Wales which had been in use at Fairbourne. In 1924 the cab was modified and the locomotive was renamed Sir Albert Stephenson. In the 1930s the locomotive was then renamed King George V. In The Little Giant Story there is a photograph of the locomotive carrying this name. Following the 1938 fire it ran as King George until sold in 1969. Finally the 'Royal Saloon' was built by Milnes, Voss & Co. of Birkenhead in 1913. At this time King George V and Queen Mary visited Southport for the opening of the 'King's Gardens' but Butterell and Milner suggest that it is unlikely that royalty ever rode in the coach.

Skimpings Issue 74. Richard Potter 
Concerning the Silver Birch Colliery photographs, a tree trunk has been set up on moveable packing so that it can be swung left and right pivoting on the left-hand end, which is out of the photograph, where it would be anchored. The right-hand end has been fitted with a cross-bar which is being held by the two outside men of the group of three. It may be surmised that their job would be to bounce the end up and down as the 'set up' is that of a cantilever spring.
Referring to the two chains fixed towards the centre of the tree trunk, the nearer one is fixed by a hoop to a substantial vertical timber which is being used to fix the shaft timbering. Alternatively it could be a restraint to restrict the movement of the trunk. The second chain may be fixed to what could be an auger or drill having a T handle to rotate it. Looking at the windlass it would appear that the chain is endless with the left fall under tension and the right fall being slack. Finally amongst the items leaning against the tree with the bowler hat on it, there is a tap wrench.

Silver Birch Colliery, Skimpings. Neil Catlow.  64.
The top photograph shows a borehole being drilled, also shown on the bottom photograph in the background. The top photograph shows three men in shirt sleeves who force the springy tree trunk downwards with the handle gripped by the chap on the right. The action drives the drill rods downwards into the rock whilst the older man sitting down rotates the drill rods with the handles. The springy tree trunk lifts the rods upwards again ready for another shove downwards. Rotary percussion drilling at a slow pace. There is a spare rotation handle leaning against the nearest support and drill rods in possibly one-yard lengths leaning against the far support where one of the driller's jackets is hanging. The older man will be the driller. Once a yard or so has been drilled, another length of drill rod will be added. Drilling with this method can extend to 200 yards or more, and was an obvious benefit prior to more laborious shaft sinking.
The chain nearest the camera limits the upward extent of the log: they have used a short length of railway line as a log pivot, but the longest timber looks like the end of a shaft pumping rod.
The bottom photograph clearly shows the height of the derrick – the taller the derrick, the more rods can be pulled out to clear the bit in one pass and return the rods back down the hole to continue drilling. The same principle as modern oil well drilling. Also obvious is how close they are drilling to the newly constructed adit.

Birmingham Bicycles, Archive 60.  Colin Goodwyn. 64
Writer is the archivist of the Velocette Owners Club which is involved in gathering information about the cycle products of Veloce Ltd and their associated firms in Birmingham. Veloce Ltd was formed in mid-1905 to take over the assets of Taylor Gue Ltd (and their predecessors, Taylor, Gue & Co. Ltd) who had a cycle works on Peel Street where they had made the Hampton cycle, and components for the trade, since late 1895. Writer not aware if they had any connections with the Hampton Cycle & Foundry Co. Ltd.; Taylor, Gue also made tradesman's carriers, cycles, motorcycle trailers and fore carriages under the name Veloce besides producing unmarked products for the retailers' own transfers, as was common at the time and, in 1905 when they moved to Canal Side, Spring Hill, they made a brief and unsuccessful attempt to enter the motorcycle market.
From its commencement Veloce Ltd concerned itself with cycle making both at Canal Side and, from 1907, at 39 Fleet Street, and prior to the First World War built machines under the names Veloce, Herald, The Herald and Warrier. A large proportion of their products appears to have gone for export, particularly to India and China. After 1919 when the company's motorcycle business expanded and Veloce Ltd took more premises for their manufacture at Six Ways, Aston, the owners of Veloce appear to have established another company at 37 and 39 Fleet Street named Veeco Cycle Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Henceforth no cycle adverts for other than Veeco's products have been found although the Herald and Warrier trademarks were renewed in 1925 and Warrier as late as 1953.
From at least 1923 John Goodman, the head of the Veloce businesses, owned another in his own name at 194 Berners Street, registered as a limited company in 1925, to manufacture motor and cycle fittings but, after John's death in 1929, the family appear to have given up their cycle interests, J. Goodman Ltd being taken over by The Standard Cycle Co. Ltd at 40 Barn Street.
The Veloce patent velocipede of 1869 which Shill mentions is unfortunately nothing to do with Veloce Ltd and indeed predates the arrival from Germany of its founder John Taylor, formerly Gutgemann.

Follow-up 1: Southport revisited [Llewelyn's Miniature Railway]. 40-4.
Further images provided by John Horne and Graham Ellis. Images have clearly been product of Kremlin photographic studio. See also Issue 80 p. 36

Lake Side Station locomotive "numbered 1913" with electric lights: see Number 74 p. 21 40u
White City Station loacomotive numbered "1915", Royal Saloon, electric lights and G.V. Llewelyn superimposed?  40m
Same station; two locomotives; Royal Saloon with stone block wall behind with gas lights? 40l
Same station, but viewed from entrance (pier behind): advert "real steam locomotives" 41u
Marine Drive station with electric light and G.V. Llewelyn superimposed floating above platform 41l
Train approaching with pier behind 42u
Train approaching probably in 1950s 42m
4-4-2 King George at Pleasureland in 1950s?: Lakeside Miniature Railway 42l
4-4-2 G.V. Llewelyn (as named between 1914 and 1920) Llewelyn's Miniature Ry. Ltd. 43u
4-4-2 Princess Elizabeth 43l
4-4-2 King George V (Little Giant No. 22: ex-Fairbourne Miniature Railway) in 1930s See also Issue 80 p. 36 upper 44u
4-4-2 with splashers removed: possibly same locomotive as above 44l

Skimpings: Lincolnshire roadworks. 45
Two photographs of somewhere in Lincolnshire with sign to Gainsborough and work in progress on a new? road. Steam roller in background with work van and cement mixer slightly nearer. "Stop & Shop" sign beneath Gainsborough on sign. See further information (I80 p. 17) provided by Doug Hewson which fixes location as Scotter, date as 1935, road as A159 and carrot washery using water from the tautological River Eau

Follow-up 2: The Padarn Railway. 46-7.
See also Issue Numbers 62 page 54 and 64 page 15: photographs via Phil Coutanche

Llanberis – terminus of 4ft gauge line; transporter wagons, and workshops of Dinorwic Quarry 46u
Amalthæa: Hunslet 4ft gauge 0-6-0T (originally Pandora: built 1886) 46l
Hunslet 4ft gauge 0-6-0T Dinorwic with Directors' Saloon at  Llanberis 47u
Hunslet 1ft 11in gauge 0-4-0ST (Tram Class) Port Dinorwic. Now in Thursford Collection 47l

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the Showroom... The Marauder. 48-9.
Two illustrations: photograph of George Mackie and Peter Wilks with first Marauder registration number KAC 313 in 1950 and front cover of Marauder sales catalogue. The sports car was based on the Rover 75: both Mackie and Wilks were initially employed by Rover, but formed Wilks, Mackie & Co. to develop the car: only fifteen Marauders were built.

Ian Rae. Smith's Dock Co. Ltd. 50-63.
Begins with a general historical description of the River Tyne and the shipment of coal from Northumberland to London from as early as 1239 when King Henry III granted a charter to dig coals near Newcastle which grew rapidly due to this trade. Coal was taken along wooden wagonways to be loaded into keels on the Tyne. In 1846 over 3m tons of coal were being shipped and in 1850 the Tyne Improvement Act was approved by Parliament which led to the Tyne Commissioners and the appointment of J.F. Ure as engineer. Dredging greatly improved the channel and the construction of piers at Tynemouth assisted navigation. Smith's Dock Co. grew from the family businesses of Edwards and Smith. Thomas Smith was born in November 1783 and his brother William in July 1787. William was apprenticed to William Rowe who had a shipyard at St. Peter's with a large graving dock. Thomas Smith, with his father and brother, acquired an interest in a shipyard and formed William Smith & Co. in 1810. Thomas Smith followed his father into a successful rope making business.
In 1812 George Straker bought the High Docks Shipbuilding & Ship Repairing Company of South Shields. On his death in 1830 the yard passed to his son-in-law James Edwards, but when the business started to fail his brother Harry S. Edwards took control. In 1869 he lengthened and deepened the dock. In 1875 he was joined by his two eldest sons and the business became H.S. Edwards & Sons. In 1885 they acquired the Bull Ring Dock at North Shields and in 1893 James and George Edwards bought the Hepples shipyard which lay between the Smith's Docks and Edwards Bull Ring business. When the two firms amalgamated in 1899 it became the world's largest ship repair business.
In 1905 shortage of land on the Tyne and an expanding business prompted the company to buy land at South Bank near to the mouth of the Tees with the first dry dock being opened in February 1909..

Smith's Dock North Shields: aerial photograph 1930s. See also long letter from Roy Fenton in Number 76 pp. 11-12.

50

Plan: entrance to the Tyne: North and South Shields.

51

Detailed plan of Shields harbour High Docks and North Shields thereon

53

No. 8 Pontoon opening at North Shields in September 1892

54

Advertisements for Smith's Dock Co. Ltd. from 1908 South Wales coalfield annual note Mona

55u

Sailing vessels in Nos. 1 to 3 High Docks: NB Edwards Dock still on building

55l

High Docks South Shields: aerial photograph 1921 plus six small images including eleectric welder at work and see letter from Dennis Maccoy (on how scene had changed by 1964).

56u

Original layout of docks at North Shields

56l

Advertisements for Smith's Dock Co. Ltd.

57u

Sailing vessels in docks at North Shields

57l

Smith's Dock at South Bank on the Tees: aerial photograph early 1930s: see letter from Roger Keeble noting presence of whale catchers, and long letter from Roy Fenton in Number 76 pp. 11-12 identifying whale factory ships, and from Dennis Maccoy (further confirmation).

58

Advertisement for Smith's Dock Co. Ltd. at both North and South Shields

59u

New yard layout at North Shields in 1929 plan

59l

Advertisement for Smith's Dock Co. Ltd. at both North Shields and at South Bank on the Tees

60u

MAC tanker conversion

60l

North Shields: aerial photograph 1938 annotated to show Air Raid Precautions see also Dennis Maccoy letter for location of hospital ship (caption incorrect)

61

North Shields: aerial photograph 1958 showing new large No. 8 dock

62

View from Brigham & Cowans, South Shields with BP tanker British Trust across river to Smith's Docks

63

Number 76 (December 2012)

Foden S80 rigid four axle truck loading packs of bricks with hydraulic arm (colour). front cover

Pat O'Driscoll. Seamen's food.  2-10.
The reluctance of the Marine Department Board of Trade to improve conditions for seafarers (a state which still persists in spite of trade union involement). In 1906 a Compulsory Food Scale was introduced partlty as a consequence of a 1904 Report by the Medical Office of Port of London who criticised the lack of ventilation and lighting for seamen: the foc,sle was off-limits to tthe officers who enjoyed far better conditions. During the 1930s several ships were lost as they were overloaded and under-manned. These included the Millpool, Blairgowrie and Unsworth in the Atlantic and La Crescenta, a tanker, lost in the Pacific. Captain Edward Tupper in his autobiography Seamen's Torch mentions the inquiries which followed. The Seamen by Arthur Marsh and Victoria Ryan, a history of the Ntional Union of Seamen, refers to perfunctory surveys. Seamen involved in shipwrecks used to be entitled to nothing, but from 1943 provision was made for restitution

Trawler's cook: note fiddle rails on cooker 2
foc,sle plan 3
Greta sailing ship crew probably in Melbourne with Captain Cassady   4
water breaker (barrico) 5
Statutory Food Scale: Ship's Crews. 6
Mate Dick Blamey eating breakfast on sailing barge Venture 16 August 1958 7
small cooking stove on barge 1957 8
Skipper Fred Wilson and his mate on board barge Centaur in 1954 10

Inbye: Archive's Letters Page. 11

Southport Miniature Railway. Bill Briggs.
Photographs of Princess Elizabeth with woodgrain livery on cab side and splasher and King George in later livery.

Smith's Dock. Roger Keeble
See Number 75 page 58: South Bank premises: not trawlers, but whale catchers: part of Southern Whaling Fleet. Flower Class corvettes were based on whale catcher design and used in Battle of the Atlantic where very uncomfortable for crews.

Smith's Dock. Roy Fenton
See Number 75 page 50: photograph taken on 6 August 1930. Dock No. 4 contained tanker British Sovereign built Armstrong Whitworth in 1917, owned by British Tanker Co. Ltd. It survived WW2, but was scrapped at Blyth in 1951. No. 5 Dock held tanker Dosina owned by Dutch subsidiary of Shell. Built Caledon Shipbuilding & Engineering of Dundee in 1922. No. 6 Dock held tanker San Fernando buikt by Armstrong Whitworth in 1919. No. 7 held Belgian-owned Raymond.  Page 58 of South Bank Yard whale factory ships: Sourabaya (from cargo-liner Carmarthenshire of 1915; Salvestria from Cardiganshire of 1913. Also probable presence of Persian Prince (Prince Line).

More Smith's Dock. Dennis Maccoy.
See Number 75 page 58: whale catchers; also notes that yards shown on page 56 had vanished by time writer as an apprentice at Readhead's in 1964, and location of hospital ship (caption to 61).

Mark Chalmers. Centurion Works and Scottish Brick Corporation. 13
The Scottish Brick Corporation developed a new highly mechanised brick making plant on the Antonine Wall near Balmuidy Fort and was initially known as the Balmuidy Brick Factory, but later changed its name to the Centurion Brickworks. Construction started in 1973 and the kilns were fired in 1975. The plant closed in 1994.

Looking north across Mavis Valley from main offices of Centurion Works 13
Ruston Bucyrus 22-RB mechanical shovel in opencast fireclay mine 14
Hoppers in 2012 15u
Conveyor belt conveying raw clay from crusher screens to grinding mills 15m
Bradley & Craven Incla Mk3 dry grinding mill 15l
Mimic panel in Centurion's setting hall 16u
Side cutting table or pusher for handling extruded clay 16l
Hulo brick setters (Dutch manufactured) 17u
Centurion Brick advertisement 17ml
Hand-setting of green bricks on a Hulo: Centex 430 brick extruder in background 17mr
Shelvoke & Drewry heavy-duty forklift truck moving pack of handset bricks 17l
Inside chamber kiln being prepared with base of Lanarkshire blast furnace slag 18u
Bricks in kiln after firing 18l
Inspection ports above kiln with manometer connected to measure draught 19u
Gas lines to burners above kilns 19m
Chart showing progress of firing 19l
Fired chamber with door open to cool kiln and extract bricks. 20
Brick packers placing stell bands around packs 21u
Packs with Signode bands ready for loading 21l
Shelvoke & Drewry Defiant heavy-duty forklift truck moving packs of bricks 22u
Foden S80 rigid four axle trauck loading packs of bricks with hydraulic arm 22l
Vehicle and forklift truck maintenance shed 23u
Vehicle and forklift truck maintenance shed 23l
Showroom display of bricks 24u
Discarded Scottish Common Brick 24m
Mayfield's Hoffman kilns during demolition in February 2012 24l
Panorama of southern side of Centurion Works in 2012 25u
Close up of part of above 25m
Pages from brochure produced by Centurion Scottish Brick 25l

John E. Harbidge-Rose. Southampton Corporation Tramways: Part Four. The Pullman cars, the depot at Portswood, and the Corporation's other transport activities. 27-55.
Constructed in 1930/1 the Pullman cars had upholstered seating on both decks and flush side panels and looked "modern". Dismisses reports that they were non-standard width. Returns on page 54 with extra/corrected information contained in Parts 1 (Issue 71); Part 2 (Issue 73) page 2 et seq and Part 3 (Issue 74) page 32 et seq mainly on preservation of Southampton trams.

Pullman car No. 21 on 29 July 1945 on Light Railway Transport League special: upper deck grey from WW2; lower deck pre-war livery. 26
Pullman car No. 21 on 29 July 1945 on Light Railway Transport League special: upper deck grey from WW2; lower deck pre-war livery. 27
Drawing of Pullman car showing pre-War and post-war liveries 28
Detailed diagram  and plan  of Pullman car: Southampton Corporation Transport official 29
Top deck seating on Car No. 21 on 1 January 1950. 30u
Three exterior views of Car No. 21 on 1 January 1950 outside Shirley depot 30
Car No. 21 on final night of tram operation 31u
Car No. 23 in Onslow Road and Car No. 81 (non-standard TCB) in Bellevue Terrace on Southern Counties Tramway Society tour on 1 June 1947 31l
Car No. 50 on enthusiast's tour 32
Car No. 50 on LRTL tour at Millbrook terminus on 15 May 1946. 33u
Car No. 50 on above tour at Floating Bridge alongside standard TCB No. 8 33m
Car No. 50 on above tour at Floating Bridge alongside standard TCB No. 8 33l
Car No. 50 on University Road en route from Swaythling to the Junction on 31 December 1948 34u
Car No. 106 on The Avenue passing Lodge Road en route to Bassett on 31 December 1948 34l
Car No. 107 at Royal Pier terminus on 31 December 1948 35
Car No. 109 travelling down The Avenue destination Royal Pier on 31 December 1948 36u
Track in very poor condition on on 31 December 1949 36l
Jacking up car bodies for loading onto trailers 37ul
AEC Mammoth tractor hauling Pullman  car body on trailer off to Leeds 37ur
Leeds City Transport ownership device incorrectly applied in Southampton 37m
Ex SCT No. 108 as Leeds 290 (pale blue livery) on special service in Leeds 37l
Leeds 290 on special passing Horsfield car No. 230 on Elland Road route 38u
Leeds 290 on service 2 to Briggate 38l
Leeds 291 (SCT 109) inside Kirkstall Road Works with LCT bus 175 (AUM 418) AEC Regent behind 39
Leeds 292 (SCT 107) presumably at Lawnswood with service 1 to Headingley 40u
Leeds Nos 300, 297 and 295 (SCT 300, 297 and 295) in centre of Leeds with services 2 to Moortown; 1 Lawnswood and 26 Belle Isle 40l
Several ex-Southampton Pullman cars in Kirkstall Road Works being renovated 41
Portswood depot in horse tramway days 43
Portswood depot plan in 1879 44u
Southampton Corporation Tramways: device 44m
Portswood depot plan in 1879 44l
Portswood depot post electrification c1915 with tram car No. 47 (Hurst Nelson) 45u
Thornycroft advertisement showing two rear axle six-cylinder double deck buses for SCT in 1929 45l
Aerial view of Portswood depot c1920 46u
Leyland Lioness bus No. 13 (TR 2352) in Portswood depot (Kinnear Patent Steel Rolling Shutters – Arthur L. Gibson advertisement) 46l
Portswood depot elevations 47
Portswood depot plan in 1949 48u
Pullman Car No. 50 climbing Portswood Road passing depot in July 1949 48l
Portswood depot: 1960 office block 49u
Southampton transport centenary advertisement 1979 49l
Former tramway workshop buildings in late 1979 prior to demolition (2 views) 50u
Former tramway workshop buildings during demolition with AEC No. 376 passing 50m
Leyland Atlanteans at rear of former tram shed in late 1979 50l
Ex-tramcar shed serving as bus running sheds with AEC Swift  saloons and AEC Regent double-decker viewed from St. Denys Road 51u
St. Denys Road bus garage built in 1931 photographed 1979 51m
Atlanteans on hard standing with remnants of former transport buildings 51l
Electric locomotive hauling coal trucks from siding: Southampton railway tunnel behind 52u
Corporation electricity generating station and Thornycroft J type open-top double-deck bus: Southampton railway tunnel behind 52l
Jersey Airways Leyland Cub (Southampton Corporation No. 50 (OW 7312) 54
Cable ferry: floating bridge looking towards Woolston 55u
Morrison battery electric mobile canteen at Hoglands Park 55l

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the showroom: Vauxhall Cresta. 56-7.
Showroom scene showing launch of Cresta probably in a London during 1954.  Featured two-tone paintwork, American styling, bench front seat, column gear shift. Audience in picture probably from dealerships. 

Mechanical Handling. 58-64.
Crone & Taylor (Engineering) Ltd of St. Helens was formed in 1886 and was acquired by Wikkian Brandt & Sons in 1971 who closed the plant in 1983.

Short wheelbase truck, owned National Coal Board, coupled to cconveyor, possibly with screening mecanism 58
Crone & Taylor (Engineering) works with equipment: screening unit, mobile coal bagging plant, WALRUS feeder 59u
Exhibition stand for Crone & Taylor (Engineering) 59l
Small electrically operated conveyor lifting coal to a hugher level 60u
Small electrically operated conveyor lloading coal into hopper of elevator 60l
Small electrically operated conveyor loading sacks and boxes onto bed of lorry 61u
Mobile screening plant 61l
60ft MOBIVEYOR (inclined mobile belt conveyor) 62u
WALRUS loader receiving chrome ore from tipping truck and delivering to C&T Stacker. See letter from G.E. Ellis in Issue 80 p. 19 62l
CONKIT: power end with electric motor driving rollers 63u
Roller rack 63l
Vibratory bag flattening machine 64u
ALTIVEYOR for Bulk Handling (Liverpool) Ltd for handling sugar 64l

Number 77 (March 2013)

Mark Chalmers. The Goodyear Tyre & Rubber Co. of Great Britain: Wolverhampton. 2-12.
Broad general history of tyre manufacture, but several British manufacturers and many British plants not included: rather spartan description of development of rubber technology and no mention of sources, neither natural nor synthetic, nor such delights as bare back bales or octabins full of carbon black.

Ward large centre lathe in operation 2
Large Webster & Bennett vertical boring mill machining an aluminium tyre mould 3
Woven rayon fabric heading into calender 5
Slit calendered rubber being fed into spooling line manufactured by Calemard installed Dunlop Washington factory 6u
Steel creels containing calendered tyre ply mounted on tyre building machine 6l
Radial ply tyre building machine at Washington Dunlop plant (passenger tyres of SP6 type) 7u
9.00-20 Goodyear 'Road Lug' commercial vehicle tyres being stripped from moulds after steam curing 7l
as above: showing physical labour input and watch case mould 8u
as above being lifted  towards conveyor 8l
as above hooked onto conveyor 9
Bag-o-Matic mould at Gooyear 10
Further stages in Bag-o-Matic operation 11u
as above 11l
Stacked high profile tyres at Goodyear: similar scenes in most tyre replacement outlets (but high profile tyres) on industrial estate 12u
Large centre lathe mchining parts for a moulding machine 12l

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the showroom: minimal motoring with the Gordon. 13-15.
Three-wheel car (tricycle) with motor-cycle engine capable of seating two plus two children in hammock-type seats. Designed by Erling Poppe and constructed by Vernon Industries of Liverpool who also built invalid carriages. Two illustrations: publicity photograph with lady in summer dress, wildly unsafe footwear, and two small children; other in used condition with London registration number.

Steve Grudgings. The NCB's last steam locomotive overhauls. 16-31; front cover (fc)
The "livery" at this time was yellow cabs/bunkers with blue saddle tanks if fitted

Andrew Barclay WN 1296 at Polkemmet Colliery in 1978 (colour) fc
NCB Workshops and running shed at Walkden on 2 September 1962 fn1 16
Interior of Walkden Workshops 17
Cannibalised remains of Hunslet WN 3830 Hurricane 18u
Frames and overhauled motion of HE 3163 in Walkden Workshops (colour) 18l
Boilerof HE 3163 in Walkden Workshops (colour) 19u
Warrior out of use in Bickershaw Colliery engine shed in April 1983: side view (colour) 19ll
Warrior out of use in Bickershaw Colliery engine shed in April 1983: front view (colour) 19lr
Hunslet WN 3823 Warrior at work at Bickershaw Colliery 20u
Cleaning smokebox of Warrior at Bickershaw Colliery in June 1978 20l
Andrew Barclay WN 1338 in Cowdenbeath Workshops: side view 21u
Andrew Barclay WN 1338 in Cowdenbeath Workshops: front view through doors 21l
Hunslet WN 3818 in shed at Comrie after overhaul in June 1968 (colour) 22u
Hunslet WN 3818 in shed at Comrie after overhaul in June 1968 (colour) 22l
Andrew Barclay WN 1296 at Polkemmet Moor in snow in November 1978 (colour) 23u
Andrew Barclay WN 2358 and  Andrew Barclay WN 1296 at Polkemmet Moor on 1 June 1978 (colour) 23l
Polkemmet Colliery: headgear, screens, weigh bridge and distant Barclays 24u
Polkemmet Colliery: Barclays waiting next load on 1 June 1978 24l
Polkemmet Colliery: shed, yard and Barclays and remains of a Hunslet 25u
Andrew Barclay WN 2358 and  Andrew Barclay WN 1296 at Polkemmet Moor in snow in November 1978 25l
Andrew Barclay WN 1296 at night in November 1978 (colour) 26
Andrew Barclay WN 2358 and  Andrew Barclay WN 1296 at Polkemmet outside shed in November 1978 (colour) 27
Hunslet Haulwen having boiler washout in Mountain Ash shed in February 1980 28
Hudswell Clarke WN 1885 (outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST) and Bagnall diesel inside Mountain Ash Workshops 29u
Sir Gomer and Llantarnum Abbey inside Mountain Ash Workshops in February 1980 29l
RSH WN 7139 (RN 8) and Peckett WN 1859 Sir Gomer inside Mountain Ash Workshops on 23 April 1977 30
Hudswell Clarke WN 1885 RN 1 and Llantarnum Abbey (Andrew Barclay WN 2047) on heavy load from Penrikyber in December 1977 (colour) 31u
RH WN 7139 Mountain Ash RN 8  starting from Penrikyber (colour) 31l

footnote 1: Charles, No. 2, Warrior, Revenge, King George VI, Westwood, Kenneth and Jessie (John Ward)


Skimpings 1: Southampton from the air. 32-3
Two aerial photogarphs taken on 26 July1933 show new King George V graving dock prepared for arrival of Royal Yacht Victoria and Albert with tugs at entrance dressed overall and marquees erected. Images from Seve Grudgings collection. The graving dock was illustrated and described in Issue 12.

Skimpings 2 : Folkestone's Leas Cliff Lifts. 34-5
Three views: one includes Victoria Pier, built by Heenan & Froude and demolished in 1954. Original lift built by Waygood-Otis.

Ian Pope and Rosemary Warner. Witney Aerodrome between the Wars. 36-55
See also Issue 39 page 49 et seq. Airfield was instigated by Royal Flying Corps, but was opened by Royal Air Force in March 1918, but closed in 1919. Joseph Bartlett, a Witney builder acquired some of the surplus material: this was the beginning of an association of the Bartlett Brothers with the site. In the early 1930s Berkshire Aviation commenced flying from the aerodrome and this was taken over by Universal Aircraft Services in 1932/3. Cars and early motoring by Bartlett family see Archive 82 page 26.

Aerial view looking east towards Witney 36
Aerial view looking north east 37
Bristol fighter with broken undercarriage 38u
Avro 504 G-ACZV inside hangar 38l
Canvas hangars acquired Joseph Bartlett 39u
Plan from deeds of Witney Aerodrome as purchased by the Bartlett Brothers (facsim) 39l
Courses in flying, etc offered (facsim) 40u
Club house (timber hut) 40l
Interior of club house with light furnshings 41u
Cover of brochure of Witney and Oxford Aero Club (facsim) 41l
Hangar refurbished Universal Aircraft Services (doors) 42u
Hangar refurbished Universal Aircraft Services (side view) 42m
Re-fuelling point with Miles Aircrafat Hawk Major registered to Beatrice MacDonald 42l
Aircraft parked outside Belfast Truss roofed hangar 43u
G-EBZP (DH60 Moth) inside hangar 43l
Architect's drawing of Witney Aeronautical College 44u
Witney Aeronautical College as built in 1937 (front view) 44l
Witney Aeronautical College rear view 45u
Witney Aeronautical College brochure cover (facsim) 45ml
Witney Aeronautical College lounge 45mr
Witney Aeronautical College student bedroom 45l
Witney Aeronautical College: Radio classrooms for Wireless Telegraphy License (2 views) 46
Witney Aeronautical College: parachute packing (Irvin parachutes) 46l
Engine shop 47u
Engine workshops 47m
BA Swallow undergoing top overhaul 47l
Engine test bed 48ul
Engine maintenance 48ur
Duty pupil 48l
De Havilland DH160 Moth outside hangar 49
Carpenters' workshop with tailplane 50u
Carpenters' workshop with parts of G-EBTZ (DH60 Moth) 50l
Fuselages receiving attention 51u
Dope being applied with air-spray to fabric wing (dangerous working conditions) 51l
Re-fuelling BA Swallow II, G-AEHL 52u
BA Swallow II, G-AEHL 52m
Propeller being swung to start BA Swallow II 52l
Three BA Swallow II aircraft 53u
G-AAYX Southern Aircraft Martlet 53l
DH60 Moth G-AAKO and Swsallows inside hangar 54u
Aircraft inside hangar 54l
Witney and Oxford Aero Club instructor Hugh Olley near re-fuelling point 55u
DH87B Hornet Moth G-ADMJ 55l

Mechanical handling. 2: Sands & Gravels 57-63.

Concrete plant of Hilton Gravel Ltd located in Rice Street Manchester 56
Crone & Taylor (Engineering) Ltd builder's plate 57u
C&T conveyor in use at Tarmac Civil Engineering site on St. Albans by-pass contract in July 1959 57l
Hilton Gravel Ltd:  conveyors feeding from hoppers below railway wagon discharge facility 58u
Hilton Gravel Ltd: railway wagon discharge facility above hoppers, long coveyor in backgroud 58l
C&T hopper feeding into bucket elevator 59
35ft C&T mobile stacker receiving dump loads of sand from 19RB excavator in quarry of Lewis Bros at Cuddington in Cheshire 60u
As above but clearer view of Cheshire Sand Bedford S type lorry 60l
St. Ives Sand & Gravel Co. with dragline feeding C&T hopper 61u
St. Ives Sand & Gravel Co. C&T conveyor 61l
Crone & Taylor (Engineering) Ltd plant at Pilkington Bros. of St. Helens sorting sand 62u
Crone & Taylor (Engineering) Ltd hopper at Pilkington Bros. 62l
Crone & Taylor (Engineering) Ltd throw-off from conveyor at Pilkington Bros. 63u
Storage bins at Garston Bottle Company 63l

Aire & Calder Canal & lock, Knottingley: notes by Euan Corrie. 64
West Country keels (barges capable of working through 57ft locks of Upper Calder): John and John Tom (both of Knottingley); Yorkshire Tar Distillers and John Harker's Knottingley Shipyard visible (fortunately without smell)

Issue Number 78 (June 2013)

Shilbottle Colliery branch line. John Atkinson. inside front cover
Photograph of Robert Strephenson & Hawthorn 0-6-0ST WN 7113/1945, RN 45; originally built for PLA, but acquired by NCB in 1960 and worked at Shilbottle from 1963 to 1968. Colliery on 2 mile branch line from East Coast main line, near Alnmouth.

Ian Pope  Lydney Power Station: the history of a generating station built in six months. 2-28.
Opened by the West Gloucestershire Power Company on 18 June 1923. Opening section describes the various electricity supply Acts of Parliament which controlled the generation and supply of electricity and how collieries turned to electricity as a source of power. Notable in this respect was the Trafalgar Colliery owned by thee Brain family: Francis Brain (1855-1921) was especially innovative.

Exterior as newly completed with corrugated iron end wall (envisaaged that an extension might be built) 2
Power house at Trafalgar Colliery showing Gramme generator (now in National Museum of Wales) 3
Site for power staation covered by stacked timber for Norchard Colliery 4
Preliminary work on site in December 1922: contractor's narrow gauge railways and standard gauge sidings 5
Steelwork erection 6
Coal bunkers being installed 7u
Coal bunkers being installed 7m
Coal bunkers fully installed 7l
Coal bunkers fully installed but structure not roofed 8u
Structure roofed, work in progress on boiler 8l
Stirling type boiler installation 9
Cross section diagram from A look back to Norchard 1978 10u
Exterior nearing completion; brickwork nearly complete 10l
Exterior as newly completed (view as 2) but scaffolding still in place 11u
Trafalgar Colliery: electrical equipmnt for supply from Lydney 11m
Trafalgar Colliery: underground water pumps 11l
Exterior almost complete 12u
Postcard view with smoke from chimneys 12l
Map of 33kW ring main 13u
33kW ring main on 40ft high poles on approach to Cinderford 13l
Plan of power station including works on River Lyd 14
Turbine hall interior 15u
7500 kW generating  set 15l
Stirling boiler/chain grate 16u
Fraser & Chalmers conveyor belt inside protective structure 16m
Exterior of belt enclosing structure 16l
Plan of enclosed conveyor belt system to link colliery and railway sidings 17u
After closure of Norchard Colliery conveyor from railway sidings 17l
Concrete cooling tower under construction in late 1920s (aerial view) 18
Brochure cover completed power station 19u
Concrete cooling tower completed 19l
Switch room 20u
Transforming station 20m
Transforming station after extension 20l
Laying cable under Severn with tugs in attendance 21u
West Gloucestershire Power Company electricity distribution map 21l
Graphic of West Gloucestershire Power Company electricity distribution 22
Laying cable under Severn with tugs in attendance 23u
Transmission line carried on lattice posts East of Severn 23m
Transmission line carried on lattice posts crossing railway near Stroud 23l
Map showing expansion of area covered by West Gloucestershire Power Company 24u
Terminus of transmission line at Gloucester and connection to Gloucester Corporation system 24m
6000 V local distribution pole 24ll
400 V distribution pole 24lr
Demonstration house 25u
Gloucester Carriage & Wagon Co. Electrocar battery powered van: exterior & interior views 25l
High Street Cinderford; West Gloucestershire Power Company "shop" 26u
West Gloucestershire Power Company meter reading card & bill 26m
High Street Cinderford; electricity showroom and "shop" post-nationalisation* 26l
Cinderford; High Street and Market Street lattice post for electricity supply 27
Lydney Powwer Station nearing end of its life (shows both concrete and timbr cooling towers) 28

*in ancient times utilities, notably gas, electricity and telephone, used to present a human face to their "customers", before such moved to call centres on another continent

Inbye: Archive's letters page. 29

The Institute: Archive's book reviews. 29
Rope & chain haulage: the forgotten element in railway history. Colin E. Mountford. Industrial Railway Society. 384pp.
Very well received
Waterways Journal. Volume 15. Editor Cath Turpin. Boat Museum Society.

Andrew Neale. Cheaper than a horse — the standard gauge Simplex petrol shunter. 30-9.
Firm founded by John Dixon Abbott who had been impressed by German efforts to stockpile 600mm light railway equipment in preparation for WW1 when he visited Germany in 1914. On return, following rebuttal from British generals who favoured horses the concept won favour for supplying munitions to the front. 849 20 horsepower and 407 40 hp were supplied initially from a works in Lewes, but mainly from a works in Bedford. Following WW1 the firm developed a standard gauge version. The prototype was demonstrated on the track of Britannia Ironworks owned by J. & T. Howard who built a similar machine between 1927 and 1932 when the firm failed. Works numbers 1921 to 1931 were sold between July and Christmas 1919. The first was acquired by the Forth Paper Mills owned by J.A. Wier Ltd at Kilbagie near Kincardine.

600mm gauge Motor Rail WN 1369/1918 at Knostrop Sewage Works Leeds on 9 May 1962 (Brian Webb) 30
LR 3009 (built 1918) in France 31
Advetisement: Motor, Rail & Tram Car Company: Simplex shunting locomoties 32
Motor Rail WN 1922 standard gauge at J.C. Edward's Ruabon brickworks on 3 December 1960 (C.A. Appleton 33
Motor Rail WN 2033 standard gauge as L&YR No. 3 at Horwich Works c1920 34
Motor Rail WN 2098 standard gauge on roadside tramway from Burneside station to James Cropper's paper mills 35
Great Western Railway Simplex shunter No. 15 36u
Great Western Railway Simplex shunter No. 24 t Swindon prior to being scrapped 36l
Motor Rail WN 4623 supplied to Point of Ayr Colliery in 1932 at Llay Central Workshops on 16 March 1965 37
Motor Rail WN 2033 (see above) at Synthite Ltd, Mold on 16 March 1965 38
Motor Rail WN 1736 still with LR 2457 plate in ownership of Harold Arnold & Son of Doncaster 39

Mark Chalmers. The Malleable: the story of Lincoln Castings. 40-51.
Harrison, Teague & Birch opened a foundry near Holmes Bridge in St. Marks Lane. Frederick Harrison was the most able of the business partners and the firm produced whiteheart malleable casings. The foundary was situated near a location of suitable casting sand and on the Midland Railway's route into Lincoln from thr Midalnds. Bob Read's Black Heart:: a history of Ley's Malleable Castings (2005) describes that part of the works history when owned by Leys of Derby. the name became The Hykeham Foundry Company, but waa known as The Malleable producing whiteheart and blackheart castings. Rearmament for WW2  increased demand and hostel blocks were constructed for migrant workers. Ley's Malleable Casting took over in 1938. Customers included William Foster & Co. of Lincoln, David Brown & Co. of Huddersfield, Barford Agricultural Ltd of Grantham, Blackstone & Co. of Stamford and International Combustion Ltd. of Derby. A Lee Wilson annealing plant and automatic moulding machine was installed in the 1950s together with a Duplex Hot Blast melting plant. The foundary adapted to suit changing customer needs. It supplied pearlitic malleable iron axleboxes for Massey Ferguson tractors in the 1960s. High Temperature Pandrol Furnace clips were supplied for holding flat bottom rail through a baseplate to railway concrete sleepers. Lepaz and Lemax were trade names associated with the Ley period of ownership. Williams Holdings took over the Derby part of the Ley organization and closed it down. In 1979 George Fischer, a Swiss industrialist took over and reorganized the Lincoln foundry. Küttner of Essen designed the cotrol suite which monitored the plant via CCTV: it was known as the Spaceship. Customers included the automotive industry and included General Electric, Ford, DAF, the SNFC and the Volvo plant at Irvine. Scrap rubber tyres formed 25% of the fuel consumed in the furnaces (the remainder was coke). Moves to close the plant began in 2003: it was acquired by the Meade Corporation in 2004 and closed in 2006.

Aerial photograph 1960s 40
Harrison & Co. (Lincoln) Ltd. letter head produced by thermogrphy in 1930s 41
Works in 1910 viewed from across railway tracks at North Hykeham station 42u
Same view as above next to North Hykeham station after closure of the works 42l
View from foundry north east across Station Road in 1950s 43
Finishing: fettling a transmission casing by hand 44
Floor casting pits in 1940s 45u
Casting line in 1950s with conveyor 45l
George Fischer Disamatic moulding mchine 46
Completed resin-bonded greensand moulds and cores on convyor with cotrol centre above 47
Heavy duty fork lift truck feeding molten metal into Disamatic moulding mchine 48
1941 foiundry prior to demolition 49u
Patterns for greensand moulds 49l
View towards distsant Lincoln Cathedral over blast furnace cupola 50u
Oxygen ninjction pipes and six tuyeres at base of blast furnace 50l
New furnace building and Küttner blast furnace cupola 51u
Aerial view of site in 2008 51l

Mechanical Handling 3: coke & coal. 52-64 + front cover.

Crone & Taylor (Engineering) Ltd screening unit en route from St. Helens to Grimethorpe Colliery hauled by Pickford's Scammell tractor (colour) fc
35 foot BEAVER stacker supplied to Middlesbrough Gas Works for handling coke (three views) 52-3
35 foot BEAVER stacker combined with WALRUS feeder to charge purifier tower with oxide at gas works of South Eastern Gas Board 54u
Feeder stacker at Midlands gas works 54l
60 foot MOBIVEYOR and WALRUS feeding Rawlins Bros Bedford truck at Washwood Heath West Midlands Gas Board's works 55u
Screening attachment with timber and concrete cooling towers behind 55l
West Midlands Gas Board site with debreezing screen discharging coke into railway wagons and breeze into lorry 56
Newcastle-on-Tyne Gas Works (2 views) 57
Carlisle Gas Works: discharging coal into steel hopper; onto a belt conveyot and into steel storage hopper (2 views) 58u
AEC Mammoth eight-wheel truck unloading coal onto mobile screening unit and discharging via belt conveyors into railway wagons at St, Helens 58l
Mobile screen with built-in breeze conveyor and twin discharge chutes at Scottish Gas Board Perth 59u
Debreezing and bagging unit at North Thames Gas Board Nine Elms Gas Works 59l
Mobile screening unit designed to fit above railway wagon 60u
Large Thames-side dockside plant for screening coal into four sizes supplied to Wm Cory & Son 60l
GRIZZLEY ship-to-shore discharge plaant supplied to John nKelly Ltd of Belfast 61u
WALRUS supplied to T. & C. Scowcroft & Sons Ltd at Highfield Sidings, Plodder Lane, Farnworth feeding Crone & Taylor bagging units 61l
50 foot WALRUS with 30 inch wide belt probably on Staffordshire coalfield 62
30 foot WALRUS with 24 inch wide belt used for stacking large coal by Howdens Ltd at Larne 63u
National Coal Board Haydock Colliery four point bagging unit with 75 ton bunker 63l
Crone & Taylor (Engineering) Ltd screening unit shown on front cover at works prior to despatch (2 views) 64

Issue Number 79 (September 2013)

Mike Christensen. The Westminster Munitions Unit. 2-25.
During WW2 the staff at the Palace of Westminster considered that they should contribute to the War Effort by manufacturing munitions. The promoters of this activity were two Senior Clerks: Strathearn Gordon and Thomas George Barnett Cocks, who both worked in the House of Commons. They contacted J.W. Crowson, Assistant Director at the Directorate of Instrument Production at the Ministry of Supply and it was decided to manufacture Fire Control Instruments, or a component thereof, namely a Torque Amplifier. This would require the installation of some machinery, a source of three-phase electricity, and volunteer staff which included Members of Parliament, secretaries, police, telephonists and porters. With great difficulty the services of Colin Donaldson were obtained: he taught at Battersea Grammar School.

Central Hall basement with fluorescent lighting and Colin Donaldson 2
Colin Donaldson explaining micrometer 3
Colin Donaldson explaining details to his assistant Scott 5
Main machine room with capstan lathe 7
Mrs Hodges with capstan lathe 8
Manufacturing submarine oxygen apparatus: NB space shortage 9
Messrs Middleton and Scott in machine room 10
Plan of Munitions Unit 11
Drilling away: three spindle 12drill 12
Work on Torque Amplifiers in side corridors 13
Work on Torque Amplifiers in side corridors 14u
Cramped working conditions 14l
Scott examining castings in a cross passage 15u
Sergeant Forbes of House of Commons Police machining component of submarine oxygen apparatus 15ll
Badge of Westminster Munitions Unit 15lr
Priming fuzes Mentmore Contract output 1944 (diagram) 16u
Machining on a single spindle drill 16l
Quality assurance work 17u
Stores control 17l
Minor injuries being treat in infirmary 18u
Canteen: Mrs Coulbert serving Mrs Hodges and Mr. Donaldson 18l
Display of components in Torque Converters 19
Completed Torque Converters 20
Components for Auto Switch Gear and Flow Indicators for Low-Pressure Oxygen Generators 21u
Complete Auto Switch Gear and Flow Indicator 21l
Staff gathered end of 1945 for farewell celebration 22
Auto Switch Gear and Flow Indicator with cvover removed (2 pictures) 23
Farewell speech by Speaker Colonel Douglas Clfton Brown in Central Hall Basement 24

The Institute [book reviews]. 25
Note: the Institute is spread over several pages in this Issue
Carscape – the motorcar, architecture and landscape in England. Kathryn A. Morrison and John Minnis. Yale University Prerss. 438pp. Reviewed by Malcolm Bobbitt.
With authors Kathryn Morrison, who is a Senior Investigator with English Heritage and chairman of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain, and John Minnis, a fellow Senior Investigator at English Heritage as well as being a member of the Society of Automotive Historians in Britain, the scope and thoroughness of this vast work is without question.
Carscapes is no lightweight volume in the physical or research senses and yet it is wholly accessible from a reader's point of view. All too often a work of this magnitude with its remarkable depth of research lends itself to being heavy going, if not rather dry. Not so this title, though it has to be said that it will largely appeal to those who have an interest in England's (and Britain's) automotive history. It will also be a valuable source of knowledge to researchers and academics in the United Kingdom's social and cultural past and, additionally, will serve as a significant survey of the country's architecture in relation to the motoring age.
A glance at the contents page of this book gives the clue as to the intensity and varied nature of the authors' deliberations, and the ethos of the book is interestingly depicted in the introduction, which is succinctly titled Living with Cars. All aspects of the affects, and effects, of the motor car and motor transport are reviewed in this work, whether it is sales and maintenance issues, fuel, garaging and parking, or even scrapping a car when it has reached the end of its life. There's more on the wider topics as to how motors have influenced changes to the landscape and countryside, the consequence of traffic in towns and the whole industry that caters for motorists on the move.
The meat of the work begins with the making of cars and this is intrinsically woven within the history of Coventry. The foundations of the motor industry are examined and the authors provide graphic detail of how motor manufacturing spread to other towns in the Midlands, e.g. Sunbeam's establishment in Wolverhampton. Motor building soon progressed to other parts of the country and this is illustrated by revealing the numbers of firms that appeared in London (to include Napier and Vauxhall), and the provinces (such as Thornycroft in Basingstoke, Rolls-Royce in Manchester and Morris in Oxford).
Selling the cars produced by the growing numbers of car makers was of great importance and initially manufacturers' showrooms - often 'flagship' premises - were located in urban centres before moving to arterial routes and, later, to edge of town sites. The reader is told how Robert Frank Atkinson (the architect of Selfridges) designed a purpose-built showroom in London at 150 New Bond Street for the French firm Darracq in 1914. A number of the more influential car makers and traders occupied some of the most striking architectures in England's Capital (such as that at 132-142 Long Acre built in 1905 for The British Motor Trading Corporation) and provincial cities, and this part of the book makes for informative reading; moreover there are some rarely seen photographs to illustrate the financial importance of the car industry in society. The evolution of car selling is covered in detail to the present day with the now often seen faceless glass and metal edifices displaying their habitually silver coloured wares reflecting under almost clinical spotlighting.
Car parking has become a way of life for all drivers and citizens, whether it is within multi-storey concrete buildings, in underground compounds or simply by the roadside. Much more interesting was the desire by early motorists to keep their cars in purpose-built motor houses, some of which have now become residential residences in their own right. The authors have even discovered that beneath a tennis court in Richmond in Surrey there lay a communal car park, and there's a wonderfully evocative photograph to illustrate cars entering its portals in May 1934. In addition to examining specific buildings, it is the historic background to the subject that the authors have injected so much fascinating detail, including the advent of mechanical parking, the concept of which dates from 1945.
The wayside garage is a feature that is fast disappearing from our countryside. So, too, are filling stations in the old sense, now mostly replaced by purpose-built convenience store affairs which are sponsored by the oil giants. The motorway age has made its impact on the environment, and with it landscapes have changed to make way for by-passes and ring roads. Gone, too, are the old coaching inns, and even the one-time favourites the classless Happy Eater and Little Chef are vanishing, all of which is comprehensively recorded. We even learn that in 1928 there were twenty-five teahouses along an 80-mile stretch of the London to Margate arterial road, and we are given the annals of many of them.
This book contains countless gems of history which bring back so many memories in way of traffic signs, signposting and traffic controls. It's also a work that can be picked up and enjoyed at any time, and it's not often a volume on social comment and history can be said to be addictive. There's no denying that this is as much an academic study as it is a nostalgic tome, and for its size, content and importance, this is not an expensive book. Highly recommended.

Senghenydd — October 1913. 26-7.
Postcards based on photographs taken by Benton of George Street, Glasgow of colliery disaster on 14 October 1913 in which 439 lives were lost. An earlier disaster had claimed 81 on 24 May 1901. The Universal Steam Coal Co. which owned the colliery was a subsidiary of Lewis Merthyr Consolidated Collieries Ltd: the company was fined a trivial sum for the dangerous way it had operated.

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the showroom... Lea-Francis: a rare super sports car with Corsica coachwork. 28-31; 64.
Richard Lea and Graham Francis began by building motorcycles in Coventry and continued to make them until 1924, The firm ventured into car manufacture in 1903 with the assistance of consulting engineer Alexander Craig. Cars featured three-cylinder underfloor engines, but were unsuccessful. In 1922 the company appointed Charles Marie Van Eugen, a Dutch designer. These cars were fast and successful: Kaye Don won the Ulster TT in one in 1928. Van Eugen left to work for Victor Riley in 1934. In 1937 the firm was reconstituted as Lea-Francis Engineering and brought in staff from Riley, notably George Leek and Raymond Hugh Rose who was an eminent automotive engineer. Charles Follett and John Scott also joined: the latter becoming chairman.

The Institute [book reviews]. 31

The lesser known coalmines of the Cannock Chase Coalfield. Mick Drury. Cannock Chase Mining Historical Society, 188pp.
"highly recommended"

Northern Northumberland's minor railways. Roger Jermy.  Oakwood Press.
Volume one: Brickworks, forestry, contractors, military target railways and various other lines. 128 pp.
Volume Two: Colliery & associated lines. 128 pp.
Volume Three: Sandstone, whinstone & gravel lines. 160 pp.
Volume Four : Limestone industry lines. 136 pp.
This set of four volumes can be described in one word — superb! They cover all of the minor railways in Northumberland and it was a surprise as to just how many there were. Even more so is that much of the infrastructure and the railways were photographed allowing these books to be extremely well illustrated. Each concern dealt with has a full and interesting text and the author is to be congratulated on the amount of material that he has dug out and assembled in a very readable manner. Three of the volumes reveal many interesting, and some very unexpected, lines — a possible line used for seaweed comes into this latter category — whilst Volume 2 which covers colliery railways contains perhaps the better-known lines. Reproduction of the images is up to the usual standards expected from Oakwood and your reviewer has no hesitation in recommending all of these volumes.

The industrial tramways of the Vale of Llangollen. J.R. Thomas and D.W. Southern. Oakwood Press,  72 pp.
A timely arrival in the review pile with an imminent trip to the area this volume, like those reviewed above, reveals a surprising number of minor railways and tramroads in the area covered. One of the authors, the late J.R. Thomas, will be known to Archive readers for his contribution to a series of articles on the railways of Flintshire. Again, the authors are to be con gratulated on turning up so many images of these rather obscure lines and combining them with a scholarly and interesting text. Of particular interest was the chapter on the Ruabon Brook Tramways which served the Plas Kynaston Estate owned by Exuperius Pickering. The system originally built as tramroad feeders to the canal was later, in part, converted to railway. This volume is warmly recommended to those with an industrial interest for the coverage of a comparatively little known industrial area but one visited by many today, either by canal or for the Llangollen Railway.

The Peak Forest Canal and Railway. Grahame Boyes and Brian Lamb Railway & Canal Historical Society. 218 pp. (concluded p. 64)
The Peak Forest Canal and its associated tramroads was the place where the noted civil engineer Benjamin Outram perfected his skills and here can be found some impressive examples of his work The volume's sub-title: An Engineering and Business History shows that it not only looks at the engineering of the canal and the tramroads but also at the industries associated with it and the impact of the whole on the district and the economy. This is an exceptionally well researched piece of work and presented in a very readable manner. Potted biographies of the main players are also given to give useful background detail and to show the individuals' links to the wider commercial world. The volume is completed by copious end notes and an index to make it an extremely useful reference volume as well as being a good and informative read in its own right. This is another highly recommended book albeit maybe a little on the expensive side.

Mechanical handling. 4: Conveyors, salt, sugar & ships, 32-45.
Further Crone & Taylor machines. First Part began in Issue 76.

Slat conveyor in use at Hayes Chair Storage Depot of British Railways Western Region (Saint class 4-6-0 with milk tank wagons above) 32
Roller and belt conveyors handling bagged Portland cement at Imperial Chemical Industries in Billingham (Pioneer brand): 2 views 33
Chain & Slat Conveyor in use at wholesale grocer: Vye & Son of Ramsgate (2 photographs) 34
Roughened rubber belt conveyor conveying Osram electric light bulbs in cartons 35u
Static conveyor in textile factory 35l
C&T horizontal rubber belt conveyor being loaded with sacks of fertiliser off ship (3 views) 36
1 cwt paper bags being transported on rubber belt convey installed in 1938 (2 views) 37
ICI Salt Works, Roncorn in 1950: belt conveyor discharging into C&T Thrower and loading ships via fibreglass chutes (4 views) 38-9
Meteor Thrower being used by Liverpool-based stevedoring company Smith Coggins & Co. for loading sugar at Durban (2 views} 40
Meteor Thrower being used to load sugar in West Indies by Harrison Line (SS Specialist) (2 views} 41
18 inch belt Meteor Thrower being used to load sugar by West Indies Sygar Co.  (2 views} 42
30-ft WALRUS handling gravel for Ham River Grit Co. at a coastal location (2 views} 43
Bulk Handling (Liverpool) Ltd using 60-ft horizontal conveyor and floating crane to off-load salt from ship into wooden railway wagons (2 views} 44-5

Mike Chalmers. The Guard Bridge Paper Company, St. Andrews. 46-55.
Includes history of paper-making in Scotland, notably in Edinburgh and Aberdeen where it was associated with the universities. To an extent the same market was developed at St. Andrews. Note Guard Bridge is often spelt Guardbridge. The paper-mill was built on the site of Seggies Distillery owned by the Haig family who were initially involved. A Fourdrinier machine lay at the centre of the operation: these paper-making machines had been invented and patented (1799) in France and were manufactured by Bertrams in Edinburgh. A wide range of fibres can be used for paper, but Guard Bridge manufacture was for a long time based on esparto grass imported through Tayport, later Dundee, and until the railway strike of 1955 brought in by rail and the works had both standard gauge sidings and a narrow gauge system. Latterly the factory was owned by Curtis Fine Papers following a management buyout in 2002, but the firm failed in 2008 and St Andrews University acquired the buildings. See also letter from Clifford Martin in Issue 80.

Boiler house built in 1949: as burning coal in 1950s 46
Boiler house in 1970s 47
View across Eden estuary with esparto sheds, boiler house and engineering stores visible 48u
Guardbridge clock made by Gent & Co. of Leicester 48l
Landward view of buildings (some dating back to distillery days) taken after closure 49
Bearing cup on Paper Machine No. 86 (Mather Engineers — Edinburgh) 50
Wet end of PM6 after reconstruction 51
Artist's impression of PM6 prepared by James Bertram & Co. in 1951 52-3 top
Guardbridge PM3b ex-Dalmore PM2 for high value security papers 52l
Inside Boiler House with John Thompson Water Tube Boilers Ltd (Wolverhampton) boiler 53m
Bertrams Beaters manufactured G&p;W Bertrams of Sciennes 53l
Super-calender 54u
Lenox/Hayssen Flowline machine (paper cutter) 54l
Esparto grass boilers 55u
Esparto grass sheds 55l

Andrew Neale. Need the Southwold have closed? 56-63.
The Southwold Railway ceased to operate passenger trains on 4 April 1929 and freight trains within a further week. The line was subject to severe bus conpetition. Mainly based on article by Charles F. Klapper in the Locomotive Magazine for May 1929 and subsequent correspondence from E.A. Phillipson who suggested the use of Sentinel products, and from J.R. Belcher, locomotive superintendent who suggested conversion to standard gauge, (June and August Issues) therein. Illustrations:
Southwold Station in mid-1920s 56
2-4-0T No. 2 Halesworth with train 57
Drewry Car Co. advertisement in Locomotive Magazine October 1929 58ll
Drewry Car Co. rail bus as supplied to Great Southern Railways of Ireland 58lr
Transporter wagon in use on Leek & Manifold Valley Light Railway 59u
3-ft gauge Sentinel locomotive used in Little Orme limestone quarry 59l
Sentinel-Cammell steam railcar as suppied to 3ft 6in gauge Jersey Railway in 1923 (advertisement) 60
Sentinel locomotive for Wisbech & Upwell Tramway 61
Sentinel locomotive brochure illustrating 750mm locomotive for Egyptian Delta Light Railway 62
County Donegal Railways 3ft gauge diesel railcar 63u
Eastern Counties bus on Southwold service 63l

The Institute [book reviews]. 64.

Inshore craft: traditional working vessels of the British Isles; edited Basil Greenhill and Julian Mannering. Seaforth Publishing, Pen & Sword Ltd, 240 pp.
This is a reprint of a volume first published in 1997 as The Chatham Directory of Inshore Craft. It travels around the coast of the United Kingdom and Ireland looking at the smaller working craft, mainly involved in the fishing industry. Of use throughout are the hull plans, some with complete sail set-ups as well. A use here would be for railway modellers with a dock or quayside - no excuse for not having the correct local vessel modelled! As well as an informative text the book is well illustrated with some quite evocative images.

Brunel's atmospheric railway; edited Paul Garnsworthy. Broad Gauge Society in association with The Friends of Devon's Archives. 96pp.
First published as a booklet in 1998 to mark the centenary of Brunel's Atmospheric Railway the work has now been reprinted in a much enlarged version and bound in a landscape format opening to the top. The reason for the volume's size is that the opportunity has been taken to include in full colour the complete set of watercolour illustrations of the line by William Dawson which are stunning.  The volume includes a full history of the atmospheric system on the South Devon Railway and accounts of the second phase 'horizontal' engine houses beyond Newton Abbot; details of the piston carriages; and brief information on the other three atmospheric railways which were built. Despite concerns over the size of the work - which makes it a little unwieldy and difficult to find a home for on the bookcase – this is a delightful volume, especially for the Dawson paintings, and is recommended.

Industrial railway locomotive sheds: a pictorial selection. Adrian Booth. Industrial Railway Society, 80pp.
Taken between 1968 and the mid-1990s this selection of images look at the engine sheds at a range of industrial sites around the country. Locations range from collieries and steel works to sewage works and gypsum mines with both standard and narrow gauge systems covered. The period covered was at the time when either industrial systems were closing down or going over to diesel traction and thus many of the sheds seen were soon to be demolished or converted to other uses. The variety of structures are interesting and are arranged alphabetically by location which leads to the contrast on page 61 of the stone-built narrow gauge shed at Port Pemhyn (albeit disused when photographed) and the brick and modern corrugated panels of the shed at Preston Docks. This is an evocative selection of images, well reproduced, and again will be useful research material for railway modellers and the devotees of industrial steam and diesel.

Issue Number 80 (December 2013)

Andrew Neale The last years of industrial steam locomotive building. 2-14.

RSH WN 7295/1945 0-6-0T Austerity WD No. 71486 LNER J94 No. 8070 Sir Lindsay Parkinson Glyn Neath opencast mine 2
Hunslet WN 3805/1953 0-6-0T Darfield No. 2 on 23 September 1967 3
Andrew Barclay 1950 0-4-0ST Waterside (Ayrshire) No. 10 4
RSH WN 7608/1950 0-6-0T at Ashington Colliery when new 5
Hudswell Clarke PLA class outside-cylinder 0-6-0T WN 1864/1962 at Walter Haigh Colliery on 10 Augusst 1956 6
Yorkshire Engine Co. outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST WN 2483/1950 at Eaton Park ironstone mine in Rutland on 11 March 1961 7
Peckett outside-cylinder 0-4-0ST WN 2146/1952 at Panteg Steelworks Cwmbran on 10 March 1957 8
Bagnall outside-cylinder with Walschaerts valve gear 0-6-0ST WN 2994/1955 for Margam Steelworks on 2 April 1956 9
Peckett narrow gauge (2ft 6in) 0-4-0ST WN 2102/1946 of Stephens Silica Kidwelly 10u
Peckett outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST OQ class WN 2150/1954 at Mardy Colliery 10l
Andrew Barclay narrow gauge (2ft 6in) 0-4-0WT WN 2264/1949 Bord na Mona at Portarlington in 1958 11
Bagnall narrow gauge (2ft 6in) 0-4-4-0T WN 3024/1953 Sittingbourne Paper Mills 12
Andrew Barclay fireless 0-4-0 WN 2270/1950 Hammersea at Skinningrove Ironworks on 10 May 1960 13
Sentinel WN 9395/1958 at Kiveton Park Colliery on 4 April 1954 14

RSH=Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the showroom... Gibbons Cycle car. 15-16
Two illustrations: a photograph (probably taken in 1950s) shows a Gibbons cyclecar of 1922 outsided Aldwick Post Office in Sussex and advertisement for Mark II self-build Gibbons Cyclecar. In Motor Sport in 1958 R. Hopwood described a journey made by him from London to Bognor in a Gibbons in 1923 which included pushing the vehicle up Bury Hill on the South Downs due to belt slippage. Production ceased in 1929.

Follow-up: Lincolnshire road works. Doug Hewson. 17-18.
Fixes location as Scotter, date as 1935, road as A159 and carrot washery using water from River Eau in background; further photographs show current road from same alignment, the bridge dating from 1935 (looking very ancient, like KPJ). See also letter from C. John White in Issue 82 p. 35 who suggests "LCC" stands for Lindsay County Council

Inbye: Archive's letters. 19

Paper making. Clifford Martin
Inventor of the paper machine was Nicholas Louis Robert of Essonnes in France who patented his invention in 1799 who sold his Patent to Leger Didot, owner of the mill who protected the invention in London via John Gamble, his brother-in-law: Woodcroft lists 2487/1801 and 2709/1803. Didot enetered into partnership with Henry and Sealy Foudrinier aand this led to the Frogmore Mill at Apsley in 1803 and Bryan Donkin's involvement. Further mills followed in this area and the first machine in Scotland was installed at Peterculter in 1807.

A mis-placed lorry. Graham E. Ellis.

Steve Grudgings. Air Pictures – discovering and cataloguing a unique archive. 20-35
Probably originated as Air Pictures of Porthleven, near Helston in Cornwall, but appear to be part of a larger collection which extended from Newquay (Cornwall) to the Firth of Forth. There were clusters of photographs in the Stoke-on-Trent and Barrow-in-Furness areas and the assistance of Allen Baker and Peter Holmes was received to assist in identifying locations. Continued in Issue 81 page 18 et seq

Hodbarrow Mine 1855-1968 22

Roanhead Mines 33

Follow-up: Southport Miniature Railway. 36
Postcards of outline 4-4-2 King George identical? with King George V (Issue 75 p. 44) and Princess Elizabeth (Issue 74 p. 25 upper) and outline 4-6-2 streamlined Duke of Edinburgh petrol electric locomotive designed by Harry Barlow. Postcards supplied by Tony Crosby of Bishops's Stortford

The Institute: Archive's book reviews. 37.

The Crofton Story Ian. Broom. Wiltshire Archaeological & Natural History Society, 147 pp.
The pumping engines on the Kennet & Avon Canal at Crofton near Marlborough, Wiltshire, are well known to many, the building housing fue oldest working steam engine still in its original location. This well produced volume is split mto three main sections. Part I deals with the history of the site giving a background history of the Kennet & Avon Canal and the reasons as to why rumping plant was needed at this location. Part II looks at the technical background of the engines, pumps and boilers. Part III covers the restoration rrocess. Throughout the book is well illustrated with some good drawings, from original sources and specially drawn to explain certain details. The author, who has been active at Crafton since restoration started, has put together a fine volume recording the full history of this important site.

Birmingham City Transport. David Harvey. Amberley Publishing. 96 pp.
Sub-titled From Trams to Buses in the Coronation Year. 1953 was something of a watershed year br Birmingham as it was to be the final year of tram operation. Given the post-war austerity and rationing that was still in operation it is remarkable how many photographs were taken d the city's transport system. More remarkable is that David Harvey has managed to pull them all together over a considerable period and now publish them in one volume. Unlike many 'bus books' that we have reviewed over the years this one stands out with extensive captions that also give an insight to the city of the period. This background material, and greater detail of the routes themselves makes this an enjoyable and informative read. Many of the images also show in the background a Birmingham that has long since disappeared, much of it to the town planners of the 1960s.

The Bristol-Radstock-Frome Line. Colin G. Maggs. Oakwood Press. 240 pp.
The line covered in this volume with its roots in coal has an interesting history. The collieries in the Radstock area had their main markets in Bristol & Bath but could only supply them via a roundabout route over the Somerset Coal Canal opened in 1801. The Wilts, Somerset & Weymouth Railway's branch from Frome to Radstock did little to ease the situation. Then along came the Bristol & North Somerset Railway which was to effectively open up the Radstock area collieries to the Bristol market. This volume is up to the usual high standards set by Oakwood. A very readable and understandable text together with extensive photographic coverage plus maps and plans. The author will be well known from his long publications list, many books being published by Oakwood.

The Kendal & Windermere Railway. Robert Western. Oakwood Press, 240 pp.
The building of a line into the Lake District was a somewhat contentious matter. Yes, goods and commodities could be moved more conveniently but would the ease by which the masses would be able to arrive be detrimental to Windermere? Also, how many railways would have a poem written against its construction by the great William Wordsworth? Such was the lot of the Kendal & Windermere Railway but such objections were overcome and the line was built. Whilst the station at Windermere was a terminus, although there were proposals for a line onwards to Ambleside, the line was not an average branch line as it handled a considerable amount of excursion traffic plus through trains to and from Euston. In later years traffic included haulage by such as 'Britannia' Pacifies and Class 40 diesels. The majority of this volume is narrative with the history of construction etc. and the operation of the line up to grouping in 1923. It is a shame that more could not have been devoted to a trip along the line although all stations are illustrated together with OS map extracts.

The Aldeburgh Branch. Peter Paye. Oakwood Press, 320 pp.
Here we have another volume from a well-known author, especially on East Anglian lines. The Aldeburgh Branch has its origins in the East Suffolk Railway which included a line to Leiston in its 1854 Act. Here was the engineering works of Richard Garrett which was to supply a fair amount of traffic to the line. An extension to Aldeburgh was sanction five years later just prior to the branch to Leiston opening. The extension opened in April 1860. This is a comprehensive history of the line through to its current use for nuclear waste traffic from Sizewell. Well illustrated, especially in the , Along the Line' section the reader gets a good impression of the line. There is also good coverage of the railway system in Garrett's works at Leiston. The contrast also at Sizewell Siding between its use for coal and nuclear waste is also notable. A section also covers the locomotives and rolling stock used on the line throughout its life. All in all it seems a thorough piece of research which is well presented.

Leigh Jones. The North Barrule at Connah's Quay from 1925. 38-41.
The North Barrule, a schooner weighing 69 tons, was built at Ramsey on the Isle of Man in 1880. From 1909 to 1924 it was owned by J. Casswell & Sons of Dalbeattie and in 1925 it was purchased by Captain William Bennett and sailed ftrom Connah's Quay until broken up in 1937. The Wrexham Mold & Connah's Quay Railway was difficult to work as it had a ruling gradient of 1 in 28. The General Manager, John Broughton, considered the line as difficult to work as the Ghats inclines on the GIPR. See also Follow up on page 32 of Issue 81.

Wharf at Connah's Quay with wagons operated by William Hancock who owned a brickworks at Buckley 38
Captain William Bennett with wife Annie on 2 August 1927  39u
Captain William Bennett with wife Annie with daughter and granddaughter Nancy 39l
North Barrule at Palnackie in Kirkcudbrightshire 40u
North Barrule off Kippford 40l
North Barrule aground in Menai Straits in November 1936

Andrew Neale Purbeck narrow gauge. 42-5.
There were several early tramways built in the Isle of Purbeck associated with mining ball clay and conveying to wharves on Poole Harbour. The Goathorn line originated as a 3ft 9in gauge tramway with a locomotive supplied by Stephen Lewin, later supplemented by a secondhand Manning Wardle 0-4-0ST. Following WW2 the line was rebuilt as 2ft gauge and motive power was provided by former Welsh Highland Railway 2-6-2T Russell. The side tipping wagons were supplied by Robert Hudson Ltd. The Orenstein & Koppel diesel locomotives wer built in 1938 and used on V2 rocket launch sites. The line closed in 1970.

Train from Goathorn approaching level crossing with A351 Wareham to Swanage Road 42
Narrow gauge main line showing width of former 3ft 9in gauge formation 43u
Locomotive Russell and oil tank wagon 43l
Orenstein & Koppel RL3 class 0-4-0DM on level crossing 44
Train showing side tipping wagons on level crossing 45u
Train showing side tipping wagons leaving level crossing 45l

Ian Pope. Plenmeller Colliery notes. 46-9.
Plenmeller Collieries Ltd was founded in 1909 to sink a mine alongside the Alston branch near Haltwhistle on the Unthank Estate, owned by Ernest A. Webster. J. Johnson & Sons of East Boldon was contracted to sink two shafts and coal was reached in December 1912. Managers were: Thomas Blandford until 1914 when he was replaced by George Raw until 1918 when Thomas William Robson took over until 1926, who in turn was replaced by William Henry Stothard. The pit closed in 1932: a serious loss to employment in Haltwhistle.

Shaft sinking in progress: Contractor's hut, narrow gauge line with tubs and side tipping wagons, standard gauge siding 46
Ordnance Survey 25 inch map 1921 47
Colliery in late stage of development including power house: Raw was an advocate of electricity in mines 48
Colliery in full production, full sidings, halt on Alston branch 49

Euan Corrie. Bude Canal revisited. 50-8.
See also earlier article in Issue 34 page 17 et seq See also Follow-up photograph of Falcon Swing Bridge in Issue 81 p. 32 and long list of addenda from Chris Jewell, a Trustee of the Bude Canal & Harbour Society in Issue 81 p. 33

Aerial view  Bude tidal sea lock, River Strat and beach 50
Ketches on beach 51u
Collapsed lock gate, tidal sea lock, February 1904 51l
Bude sea lock and Castle 52u
Bude sea lock viewed from Castle with 4ft gauge railway 52l
Summerleaze Beach and 2ft gauge railway 53u
Lower basin includes section of original plateway: see Chris Jewell 53l
Aerial view railway siding alongside canal 54
From Falcon Bridge towards sea: earlier view: boat hire business with signs of patriotism 55u
From Falcon Bridge towards sea: later view: boat hire business with bicycles: possibly post WW2 55l
Aerial view Falcon Swing Bridge with wagons in railway siding 56u
Lifeboat House and Petherick & Sons warehouse 56l
Upper Basin looking towards Falcon Hotel 57u
Canal in countryside 57l
Rodd's Bridge: three views of canal with pleasure boats 58
Rodd's Bridge: three views of canal with pleasure boats (very artificial looking image) 58m
Rodd's Bridge: three views of canal with pleasure boats: Rodd's Bridge lock visible: see Chris Jewell 58l

K. Dark. 'Super' Sentinel. 59-64.
The firm was originally located in Glasgow, but moved to Shrewesbury in 1915. The Super Sentinel steam lorry wasv introduced in 1923.

Aerial view of Sentinel Waggon Works & garden village 59u
Sentinel Waggon Works including siding and weighbridge 59l
LNWR (LMS) 0-8-2T No. 2291? with train of steam lorries for Czechoslovakia 60u
Garden village 60m
Garden village 60l
"Mass production" of steam lorries 61u
"Mass production" of steam lorries 61l
Frame shop 62u
Factory buildings exterior 62m
Finished products: AW 7075 Avon Manure Co. Ltd. Brisol; AW 7007 Scottish Tube Co. Ltd, Clydesdale Works, Rutherglen 62l
Exterior of Works 63u
Canteen 63m
Power House 63l
Sentinel Waggon Works Service Station Birmingham exterior 64u
Sentinel Waggon Works Service Station Liverpool interior 64l

Issue Number 81 (March 2014)

Andrew Neale. The last years of industrial steam locomotive building: Part 2. 2-13
Diesel locomotives became available from Ruston & Hornsby in Lincoln from 1931 with a 10hp unit for 2ft gauge and this was developed into a 48hp locomotive and formed the basis for a 88hp standard gauge design in 1938. John Fowler of Leeds produiced a standard gauge 150hp diesel shunter in April 1930. Hunslet manufactured a standard gauge diesel shunter by 1931 and this was followed by Andrew Barclay in 1936. In 1946 Margam Steelworks bought 165DS Ruston & Hornsby diesel shunters and this was followed by the British Sugar Corporation in 1947 with a trial at the Ely factory, followed in 1949 by purchases for Brigg and Felstead, The nature of sugar beet cultivation with an intense period of activity in late autumn and winter during the "campaign" and the processing plant lying idle for the remainder of the year gave diesel traction the edge over steam.

165DS Ruston Hornsby diesel shunter at British Sugar Corporation, Colwick on 26 February 1955 2
Port of London Authority outside-cylinder 0-6-0T No. 91: Hudswell Clarke WN 1874 at Tilbury Docks 4
Manchester Ship Canal outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST No. 90: Hudswell Clarke WN 1867/1954 5
Bagnall outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST WN 3059/1954 at Measham Colliery on 22 July 1966 6
Peckett fireless locomotive at Co-Operative Wholesale Society Irlam Soap Works on 20 May 1962 7
Andrew Barclay fireless locomotive at Imperial Paper Mills Gravesend in 1956 8
Dorman Long Sentinel WN 9592 on 23 June 1961 9
Ex-GKN Sentinel WN 9605 at Dorman Long in 1960 10u
Dorman Long Sentinel WN 9592 on 23 June 1961 10l
Sentinel WN 9603 articulated double-ended locomotive 11
Dorman Long No. 9 at Lackenby Steelworks: Barclay fireless 0-6-0 on 21 May 1960 12
Sentinel WN 9650 receiver locomotive on 11 July 1959 13u
Hunslet WN 1698 inside-cylinder 0-6-0ST with underfeed stoker at Wheldale Colliery on 23 June 1967 13l

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the showroom: Austin Sheerline & Princess. 14-17.

Sheerline  TRE 888 14
Princess advertisement 15
Prototype Princess at Geneva Motor Show 16
HAS 141 Sheerline  at Automobile Beaulieu International Autojumble c2005 17

Steve Grudgings. Air pictures: more views around Barrow. 18-31.
Plumpton Quarries near Ulverston: aerial photograph and map pp.18-19: Includes Plumpton Hall, River Leven and junctions onto Windermere Lake Side branch off Carnforth to Barrow railway
North Londsdale Iron Works, Ulverston: aerial photographs and maps pp. 20-1/22-3: page 20 ground level view with coke wagons which arrived (from County Durham) over Bardsea branch
Barrow-in-Furness: aerial photographs and maps pp.24-5 showing Lower Ormsgill Reservoir, Barrow AFC ground, part of the Hindpool Brick & Tile Works, a steel hoop and wire works built alongside Walney Road (started in 1871 by Messrs. Cook & Swinnerton to produce steel wire and taken over by Barrow Haematite Steel Co in 1891); ex-Fumess Railway's carriage sheds and stored carriages; British Griffin Chilled Iron Works (established in 1899 and producing wheels for many of the country's tramways)
Ramsden Dock station: aerial photograph and map pp. 26-7 with cargo ship at quay in Walney Channel
Barrow town centre: aerial photograph and map pp. 28-9 with tram car near top of page 29 (most of Barrow photographs show tramlines, but only tram car found so far), Town Hall, covered market, railway sidings and Furness Foundry & Engineering Works (specialised in high quality castings specially ingot moulds)
Cavendish Street Power Station: aerial photograph and map pp. 30-1: also abattoir and R.F. Case brewery: note timber cooling towers and local shops

Follow-up: Bude Canal and North Barrule at Bridgwater. 32
Bude Canal Falcon Swing Bridge: see Issue 80 page 50 especially 55 and 56. For North Barrule see Issue 80 p. 38 photograph of vessel whilst registered at Chester in Bridgwater Docks.

The Institute: Archive's book reviews. 33
England's motoring history from the air. John Minnis. English Heritage. 306 pp. more than 150 b&w illustrations. Reviewerd by Malcolm Bobbitt
Minnis, as well as being a member of the Society of Automotive Historians in Britain, is a senior investigator wIth English Heritage. His previous book Carscapes, was reviewed in Issue 79. This latest work is an investigation as to how automotive transport has shaped England's landscape as seen through the Aerofilm collection which English Heritage acquired in 2007.
This book addresses the motor vehicle's influence on the landscape, culture and population, all within the relatively narrow timescale of a little over half a century. Contrastingly it also serves as a reminder as how England's population expansion and the country's changing prosperity mfluenced both private and public transport. The author's narrative on each image, means that England's. developing industrial and transport scene is discussed. We have, therefore, dialogue on trams and buses and their related depots, motor factories and garages in addition to road construction, new towns, housing estates and retail parks. The periphery subjects of docks, rivers, canals and railways are also included. With greater use of motor transport, particularly the motorcar but also the carriage of freight, there emerged the establishment of arterial routes, and with them ribbon development, all of which helped give rise to by-passes and eventually the motorway and its ever-expanding network.
The quality of the photographs  is nothing Iess than perfection, and is enhanced by the volume's generous landscape format and thoughtful layout. Each topic is afforded a double-page spread, on the left is the image occupying the whole-page while opposite is the text. In some instances a detail from the photograph is included where specific explanation is appropriate.
Examining the photographs gIves nse to something of a culture shock as to how England's towns and cities burgeoned over the period covered in this book, and how to date open countryside has been senously eroded in favour of concrete and tarmac. The illustrations also serve as a reminder as to how relatively traffic-free our towns and conurbations were, even in the 1970s, compared to today, and how, in the inter-war years and early post-war, the motorcar remained very much a luxury.
For motor historians, the chapter on motor vehicle factories, which includes coachbuilders, will be of huge interest. The earliest photograph in this series is dated 1920 and shows Daimler's Coventry Motor Mills which, in 1896, was the first factory to construct motor vehicles on a commercial basis. Other early scenes are of Tilling- Stevens at Maidstone as photographed in March 1921, with the Napier works at Acton in West London pictured a month later. There is an evocative image of Birmingham's Fort Dunlop surrounded by fields and hedgerows in 1929, which is in stark contrast to the 1934 photograph of Singer's premises at the same city's Small Heath locality which is bounded by high density housing in a grid-type layout. Since Coventry is the birthplace of the automotive industry, the city, quite naturally, has been given liberal coverage. More obscure subjects are those depicting Martin Waiter of Folkestone, producer of Utilecon utility bodies and Dormobile motor caravans, Trojan of Kingston upon Thames, and the Aster factory and Fiat works at Wembley.
Each photograph is a delight, whether it is of a motor works, filling station or public transport depot. The growth of motorised suburbia occupies a chapter in which locations such as Manchester's Kingsway and London's Morden, East Acton, Harrow, Feltham, Brentford, Lea Valley and Silvertown are seen mostly in the 1920s and '30s. Throughout, the message is similar with scenes. showing roads having only light traffic, which contrasts dramatically with today's congested routes.
Each aerial photograph has its particular importance with a story to tell, and not one has any lesser significance to another. That said, there are some photographs that stand out if only because of the photographer's artistry and location. Of these, the Images of Fairfield Road Tram Depot at Bow, seen in January 1921, Appleyard's filling station in Leeds, viewed in 1948, the Silvertown Flyover pictured in 1935, and the 1974 scene looking down on the Gravelly HIll Interchange, are epic.
John Minnis's text accompanymg each photograph is succinct and varies in length and detail from photograph to photograph. It is informative, and whilst to the point in relation to the image depicted, one feels that some of the white space on the right- hand side of the double page spread could have been filled with additional material appertaining to the subject in general. For example, the photograph showing  Fort Dunlop is accompanied by a caption of fewer than 90 words, and one wonders whether more could have been said about Dunlop history or the tyre industry itself. This is but a very minor deliberation on a book that, as well as being thoughtfully and sensitively compiled is beautifully written and produced. It is also historically important as it serves as a serious study of England's rapidly evolving industrial and social scenes. Highly recommended and excellent value for such a thorough work.

Inbye: Archive's letters. 33

Bude Canal. Chris Jewell
Mainly how the canal has been regerated as a tourist attraction; also observations on some of the images, but letter writer gives impression that tub boats may be visible which they are not therein

Pat O'Driscoll. Thirty-two points. 34-

Barge with wooden wheel 34
Dry card compass from 1834 35
Boxed instrument: Hastings beach boat, 1971 36
Chaffcutter steering wheel on barge Pretoria 37u
Ethel Maud with folding shelf in wheelhouse for compass 37l
Folding shelf in wheelhouse 38u
Chaffcutter steering wheel on Centaur 38l
Inside motor coaster's wheelhouse 39
Golden Sceptre off English coast in January 1912 40
Heath & Co. overhead compass 41u
Overhead compass on yacht 41l
Advertisement for overhead compass 42u
Aircraft compass 42l
Helmsman looking at overhead compass 43

Mark Chalmers. Westbury cement works. 45-64+front cover & inside back cover
The Blue Circle works opened in Westbury in 1962. Vickers-Armstrong supplied the machinery, although the firm ceased manufacture in 1970 and the European machinery market is now led by F.L. Smidth of Denmark and Polysius, part of the German Thyssen-Krupp group. Britain was slow to adopt alternative fuels (general domestic rubbish, used tyres, etc), but the Westbury plant did use scrap tyres. It is now mothballed. The photographs taken during construction are courtesy Lafarge Tarmac Ltd and the post-closure ones, including the colour cover and inside the back cover were taken by the author.

Kiln A2 and reinforced concrete kiln house (colour) fc
Two chimneys with slurry tanks in front ifc
Blue Circle Commer Maxiload lorry on weighbridge 44
View of plant with 120m high chimney from White Horse 45
Kangourou at Barrow Docks with Vickers clinker grinding mill in January 1971 46u
Loading part of rotary cement kiln into coaster at Barrow Docks in late 1960s 46l
Base for Doctor Tank during construction in May 1961 48u
Support rollers waiting installation February 1962 48m
Clinker and gypsum silos during construction in February 1962 48l
Clinker grinding mill waiting installation in March 1962 49
Rough mill and screening mill being installed on Westbury Hill in May 1962 50u
Erection of packing plant in May 1962 50l
Erection of mill buildings on Westbury Hill in May 1962 51u
Asbestos-cement clad mill buildings on Westbury Hill in May 1962 with Ruston-Bucyrus electric face shovel 51l
Kiln No. 1 partly erected in June 1962: showing bearings 52
Construction site looking eastwards 53
Kiln building in September 1962 54
Presflo bulk cement wagons and vans for cement in sacks 55
Cement kiln No. 1 in operation 56u
Fitting shops with machine tools 56l
Early work on installing Kiln No. 2 57u
Work on shuttering for supports for Kiln No. 2 57l
New chimney under construction in January 1965 58u
Construction of Kiln No. 2 looking eastwards in April 1965 58l
Construction of Kiln No. 2 looking eastwards in May 1965 59u
Further slurry tanks under construction in April 1965 59l
Four new silos under construction in May 1965 60u
Extensions almost complete in August 1965 60l
Contractors vehicles and almost complete extension in September1965 61u
Closed vans and guards' vans in September1965 61l
Presflo bulk cement wagons in December 1965 62
Covered clinker store under construction in November 1965 63u
Mill head from Weardale Cement Works in storage at Westbury 63m
Dry end of Kiln No. 2 after closure 63l
Draught inducing fans for Kiln No. 2 after closure 64ur
Kiln roller bearing 64ul
Hagglunds radial piston hydraulic motors 64ml
Chairs for steel tyres on kiln 64mr
Clinker mill motor and gearbox 64l
Clinker and gypsum silos (colour) irc
Building for clinker grinding mills (colour) irc
Road tanker loading head (colour) irc

Issue Number 82 (June 2014)

Neil Hawke. The steam coaster Florence Cooke. 2-8.
Known as Florrie and was constructed by Hepples (1919) Ltd at South Shields in 1923. It had a compound engine supplied by the Shields Engineering & Dry Dock Co. of North Shields. Its initial owner was Cooke's Explosives Ltd. Management of the ship was by the Sunderland partnership of William Quenet and Frederick Graham. The maiden voyage was from South Shields to Porthmadog and commenced on 11 August 1923. With a load of bagged cement from Hull it set off via Duncansby Head through the Pentland Firth and Cape Wrath to Ayr and Irvine where the cement was unloaded and coal loaded for the small port of Letterfrack in County Galway. Thence the ship sailed via the Fastnet Rock for Porthmadog. One early voyage included entry into the Caledonian Canal at Inverness to collect cargo of logs from Invermoriston. During WW2 served as an ammunition ship conveying munitions from Inverness to Scapa Flow. Later she was at Portsmouth as part of D Day preparations. Illustrations

General arrangement drawing reproduced from Steam coasters and short sea traders by Charles Waine 2
Florence Cooke as sailing with enclosed bridge 3
Florence Cooke depicted without bridge in painting by David Cadwalader 4
Florence Cooke at mountain-backed location 5u
Florence Cooke at Porthmadog 5l
Florence Cooke aground at Porthmadog in June 1957 7
Dynamite Quay at Lelant in 19th century 8

The Institute: Archive's book reviews. 9

Glasgow Underground. Keith Anderson. Amberley Publishing. 96pp.
Text informative and well structured; some criticism of picture reproduction. Recommended

Electrifying the Underground. Graeme Gleaves. Amberley Publishing. 128pp.
"For those already interested in the Underground then the book probably adds little to previously published works."

London Underground at war. Nick Cooper. Amberley Publishing. 160pp.
Covers both WW1 and WW2; also notes the effect of WW2 on 1030s New Works Programme. Recommended.

A guide to the industrial archaeology of Tayside: Dundee, Angus, the Mearns and North Fife. Association for Industrial Archaeology. 80pp.
Recommended [but seems to be better than that]

John Hancox's map of the Birmingham Canal Navigations 1864. Mapseeker Archive Publishing.

Caersws: the Cambrian Railway village. Brian Poole. Oakwood Press. 224pp.
Bridge Department established there in 1895. Recommended.

The Hayling Railway. Peter Paye. Oakwood Press. 160pp.
First published 1979: "an excellent volume on this delightful line"

Steve Grudgings. Haile Moor and Beckermet Iron Mines. 10-19
Mines were near Egremont in Cumberland: Beckermet had two shafts sunk from 1906 and 1916, and at Haile sunk from 1939. The Beckermet No. 1 shaft experienced a major accident in 1945 when the pump rods on the Cornish pumping engine broke and the shaft had to be rebuilt. Most of the photographs show work on the restoration of the shaft at Beckermet, but the initial photographs are of Haile Moor where improvemeents seem to have been made at the same time.

Headframe at Haile Moor on 26 February 1946 10
Headframe at Haile Moor looking north 11
Top of shaft in July 1946 12ul
Electric winder on 21 June 1946 12ur
Sullivan Scraper Loader 12l
Aerial unloading station at Beckermet on 17 July 1946 13
Headgear at Beckermet on 20 June 1946 14
Remedial work on headgear at Beckermet following accident in 1945 15u
Goodwin concrete mixer used in association with above on 1 July 1946 15ll
Beckermet No. 1 winding engine house with construction works 15lr
Rebuilding No. 1 shaft 16
Close up of builders/miners 17u
Base of headframe 17l
Top of headframe 18
Top of headframe 19

Steve Grudgings. Air pictures: around Mow Cop. 20-5.
Mow Cop is an outlier of the Pennines in North Staffordshire/South Cheshire formed of millstone grit which has been quarried. Allan Baker considers that the aerial photographs were taken prior to 1930. Some have very extensive captions. The canals visible are the Trent & Mersey (T&M) and Macclesfield. The railway was the former North Staffordshire Railway or LMS.

Mow Cop village, millstone grit quarry

20

Henry Pooley & Son Ltd foundry at Kidsgrove and Birmingham RC&W works; T&M lock and railway

21

Map: Kidsgrove

22

Kidsgrove: Kidswood shaft of Birchenwood Colliery; much minor detail

22-3

Congleton: Silk and fustian mills; River Dane; Gas Works

24-5

Malcolm Bobbitt. A family motoring history: 1; images courtesy Rosemary Warner. 26-30.
Wolseley cars owned by the Bartlett family of Witney. Further information about Bartlett family in Archive 77 page 36. Includes brief notes on Frederick York Wolseley: an Irishman who made his capital by sheep shearing in Australia and then invested in manufacturing equipment in Birmingham which in turn led to car manufacture and associations with Herbert Austin, John Siddeley and Arthur Remington.

BW 191: chain drive; single cylinder; steering wheel: owned Bartletts in 1905 26
BW 191: with hood up 27
Siddeley single-cylinder, pneumatic tyres: owned Joseph Bartlett, at Witney c1908 28
Siddeley car as above with hood up and showing spare wheel 29u
O 162 Wolseley  with pneumatic tyres in use possibly at New Brighton 29l
Large Wolseley  owned by William Morley at Wigston c1912 30

Dave Costello. The decline of UK steam cultivation 1920-1960. 31-4.
Steam cultivation enjoyed a brief boost during WW1 when Government intervention led to increased cultivation, but the economic slump which followed led almost to its demise, although a limited revival took place during WW2

Plough moving towards engine 31
Plough nearing end of pull 32
Fowler BB1 NR 77 with cultivator 33u
Fowler AA7 NO 1256 with cultivator 33l
NR 77 hauling mole drainage machine 34u
Mole drainage machine 34l

Inbye: Archive's letters page. 35

Lincolnshire road works. C. John White
"LCC" probably stands for Lindsay County Council

Skimpings 1 [heading Skimpings 2!]. 35
Bogie Siemens electric locomotive on 2ft 2in gauge Whittonstall to Chopwell Colliery railway in County Durham, probably pre-1914

John Atkinson. The Shilbottle Colliery Branch. 37-49.
Near Alnmouth in Nortumberland. Colliery owned by Co-operative Wholesale Society between 1917 and Nationalization.

Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn WN 7113/1943 RN No. 45 with coal hoppers fc
No. 45 with loaded hoppers on descent to Buston crossing c1967 36
Same train as above nearer to Buston crossing 37u
Map/plan of railway from colliery towards exchange sidings 37l
Continution of map/plan of railway to exchange sidings 38ur
No. 45 with empty hoppers on ascent of Buston Bank 38ul
No. 45 with empty hoppers on ascent of Buston Bank 38l
Shilbottle Exchange Sidings looking towards Alnmouth 39u
No. 46 (Hunslet WN 2878/1943) leaving Exchange Sidings for colliery fn1 39l
No. 46 heading towards colliery 40u
No. 45 at Exchange Sidings 40l
K1 2-6-0 No. 62025 arrives Exchange Sidings from Amble in April 1966 41u
Deltic heading north viewed from Shilbottle signal box 41l
Exchange Sidings looking south with signal box closed in 1964 42u
Exchange Sidings looking south 42l
Type 3 No. D6985 with brake tender with loaded hoppers for Blyth 43u
No. 45 with loaded hoppers at Exchange Sidings for North Blyth Power Station in June 1966 43l
No. 45 with empty hoppers departing Exchange Sidings for colliery in June 1966 44u
No. 45 at level crossing with waste stone tipper wagons 45u
Level crossing road sign with train in distance 45l
No. 45 crossing Shilbottle to Warkworth road in June 1967 46
No. 45 pushing two empty hoppers towards colliery in June 1967 47u
No. 45 pushing two empty hoppers into colliery yard in June 1967 47l
No. 46 about to leave colliery yard with tippers of waste stone in February 1966 48u
No. 48 (Hunslet WN 3172/1944) draws wagons from the screens across crossing in May 1966 48l
Landsale coal drops with No. 48 shunting wagons off screens in August 1967 49u
No. 48 shunting wagons toeards small yard in August 1967 49l

Footnote 1: Supplied to Port of Lomdon Authority as No. 87; acquired NCB in 1960 and worked at Walbottle and Ashington prior to Shilbottle

Pat O'Driscoll. An accident waiting to happen... 50-5.
The Barking explosion of 5 January 1899 at the engineering works of Hewett & Co. which operated steam driven fishing vessels from Barking and 147 sailing smacks from Gorleston-on-Sea and the catch was taken to Barking by steamer. The boiler which exploded had been removed from the steam trawler Precursor which had been built in 1878. The boiler was being reinstated whilst the main boiler was being serviced and it was found that steam was "leaking through the safety valves". The foreman fitter, Archibald Burness and the fitter Frank Farrier were under the control of Works Manager Donald Gordon. Burness died in the accident which led to a death toll of ten and Farrier was amongst eleven injured.

Searching wreckage for bodies (drawing) 50
Map: Ordnance Survey 25 inch 1897 51
Fishermen rowing their catch to steam carrier (drawing: Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen) 52
Plan of Hewett's Barking works 53

Skimpings 2: a miscellany. 55-60

Great Yarmouth fish quays, steam trawlers and Gas Works 55
Tindale Granite Quarry? served by Brampton Railway in Cumberland 56
Cement Works, Bishops Itchington, Warwickshire 57
James & George Matthews mill on River Crouch with sailing barge at Battlesbridge 58u
Quay at Bosham with sailing vessel Nore 58l
Bearsted Forge exterior 59u
Bearsted Forge interior 59l
Harwich with loaded train ferry looking towars link span and town and Shipwash lightship 60

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the Showroom: Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud. 61-4.
Introduced in 1955; designed by John Blatchley (brief working biography). Includes developments in egines and suspensions used.

Silver Cloud alongside De Havilland DH.106 Comet 4 61
Silver Cloud alongside Buckingham Palace 62
White Silver Cloud III alongside Rolls-Royce factory entrance in Crewe 64

Issue Number 83 (June 2014)

Ted Grey. Trafford Park: Britain's first industrial estate and its road & rail transport. 2-42.
The Manchester Ship Canal aimed to bring ocean-going ships to Manchester and create an inland port. Trafford Hall and its parkland were too close to the huge development and the de Trafford family sought to see the estate. Sir Humphrey Francis de Trafford (1862-1929) sold the estate to Ernest Terah Hooley (1859-1947) of Risley Hall in Derbyshire. The lfe of Hooley, a colourful fraud, is briefly outlined: he envisaged a pleasure ground with golf course, racecourse and high class residential property. Marshall Stevens (1852-1936), manager of the Manchester Ship Canal considered other uses and became the first General Manager of the Trafford Park Estate. In part the recreational uses were retained, but industrial customers wer sought. W.T. Glover, manufacturer of electric cable was one of the first. Interest was greatly increase by British Westinghouse Electrical & Manufacturing Co. agreeing to take 130 acres on which a works were built with its main administrative bulding replicating its Headquarters in Pittsburgh. Other firms followed and encouragement was given to new small businesses by leasing industrial units originally known as hives. The Trafford Park Dwellings Company built worker housing in a "village" laid out on a grid iron pattern. Public transport to, and within, the estate remained a problem and after inspecting the Blackpool, Lytham & St. Annes tramway Stevens invited the British Gas Traction Company to employ town gas powered tramcars on a tramway which the estate would construct. J. Nuttall built the track and the Lancaster Railway Carriage & Wagon Works built the cars. William Henry Gaunt became manager of the system. Barnum & Bailey's Circus visited the showground site and created problems for the railway by its long vehicles and American couplings. It also created a market for the gas-powered trams.   
The gas-powered trams were only partially successful and experiments were made with steam tramcars including one with a French Serpollet tram. Enquiries were also made to the London & South Western Railway about its steam railcar used on the Fratton and Southsea route.
Manchester and Salford Corporations brought their electric tramway services to the edge of the Estate, but would not consider running within it and the Estate Company decided to construct a Westinghouse Loop and acquire electric tramcars. The gas-powered trams continued to provide services over the country end of the Estate. The livery of the electric trams was blue which contrasted with the dirty green of the gas trams. For a time a strange double deck trailer was used, but no photograph appears to have survived of this vehicle.
In 1904 Salford Corporation began to run its trams into the Estate and these were followed by Manchester Corporation trams in 1905.
In 1907 the gas-trams were replaced by a service provided by a steam locomotive and ex-CLC coaches. In 1921 the train was replaced by motor buses which lasted until 1925 when Lanacashire United took over both the buses and the service.
There is a section on the locomotives owned by the Trafford Park Estates Company. Two Manning Wardle products were acquired second-hand during the early period: 0-6-0ST (819/1882) Sir Walter Royce and 0-4-0ST WN 618/1876.  Hudswell Clarke not Hunslet (as per caption) 0-4-0ST (WN 841/1908) Sir William Bailey acquired to work passenger trains. In 1916 Andrew Barclay WN 903/1901 0-6-0ST Sheriff was acquired from a colliery. In about 1921 it was renamed Colonel Mosley and was sold to Corn Products in 1926. Two Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0Ts, similar to those operated by the Manchester Ship Canal were acquuired in 1916: WN 1249 Sir Joseph Lyons and WN 1250 Lord Ashburton. Both were sold back to Hudswell Clarke in 1935: WN 12149 was renamed Trafford and worked for Sir Robert McAlpine until moving to Lea Green Colliery until scrapped in 1960. WN 1250 also joined Sir Robert McAlpine but moved on to Frodingham One Mines where it lasted until 1961.
During WW2 disaruption was caused by bombing, but many firms were engaged in producing war-related items. Post-war recovery was slow and the Canal declined with Manchester ceasing to be a port, with the docks being turned into commercial, recreational and domestic buildings.

Preserved buses (Salford and Manchester Corporations) at Westinghouse on 5 July 1986 (colour)

front cover

Trafford Hall prior to industrialisation

2

Rural surroundings of Trafford Hall

3

Mode Wheel Locks on Mersey & Irwell Navigation in 1892

4

Manchester Ship Canal and Trafford Park Estate map 1896

5 upper

Trafford Park showground plan 1897

5 lower

Gas-engined tramcar

6 upper

Barnum & Bailey's Circus letter head concerning 1898 visit to showground

6 lower

Gas-engined tramcar swith inspection panels open at Barton

7

Gas-engined tramcar passing freight train in Trafford Road in 1900

8

Trafford Park Post Office with tram track

9

Trafford Park Tramways timetable

10

British Gas Traction Company informing Trafford Park Estate about cessation of services

11

Trafford Park Dwellings Company terraced housing under construction in 1901

12 upper

Eleventh Street with its children at play in 1902

12 middle

St. Antony's School in Third Avenue with pupils

12 lower

St. Cuthbert's Church

13 upper

Trafford Park Hotel

13 middle

Trafford Park lake with pleasure boats

13 lower

Trafford Park lake Good Friday

14 upper

Trafford Park hotel

14 lower

Aerial view of Westinghouse works

15

Westinghouse offices

16 upper

Westinghouse machine shop

16  lower

Westinghouse main aisle with overhead crane

17 upper

Westinghouse machine shop with Mersey Railway electric cars under construction

17 middle

British Westinghouse Electrical & Manufacturing Co. Manning Wardle 0-4-0ST WN 1633

17 lower

British Electric Car Co. tramcar works under construction in 1900

18 upper

British Electric Car Co. advertisement showing configuration of works

18 middle

British Electric Car Co. letter head

18 lower

Trafford Park electric tramcar No. 7 on tramway at Post Office

19

Salford Corporation bogie tramcar No. 145 destination Peel Green

20

Triumphal arch tramcar No. 7 with top cover  during visit by King and Queen on 13 July 1905*

21

Manchester tramcar No. 267 at triumphal arch

22

Salford tramcar No. 13 crossing swing bridge

23 upper

Swing bridge open for Canal traffic

23 lower

Manchester Corporation tramcar on Third Avenue at noon on Saturday

24

Ordnance Survey map: Trafford Park Estate and Manchester Ship Canal

25

United Electric Car Co. Ltd. later head

26 upper

Salford tramcar No. 195 in Third Avenue: destination Rhodes

26 lower

Third Avenue north end: tram tracks and overhead wiring turning left but unused

27 upper

Salford tramcar No. 14 passes train of Bakerloo Line coaches†

27 lower

Aerial photograph: eastern part of Trafford Park Estate

28

Inspector Garner in uniform of Trafford Park Estate (tramcar tickets)

29

Manchester Ship Canal locomotive coaling stage with swing bridge with freight train crossing

30

Sale notice: gas cars 3 June 1908

31 upper

Hudswell Clarke not Hunslet 0-4-0ST (WN 841/1908) Sir William Bailey acquired to work passenger trains

31 lower

Ex-CLC 4-wheel coaches

32 upper

British Westinghouse Electrical & Manufacturing Co. letter head: complaint re delays

32 lower

American Carborundum Company works under construction in 1913

33 upper

Trafford Park Estate Company advertisement attracting small businesses to rent or lease

33 lower

Ford Company using former British Electric Car Co. works

34 upper

Hudswell Clarke 0-6-0T Lord Ashburton owned Trafford Park Estate Company

34 lower

Trafford Park Estate Company Associated Engineering Co. motor bus introduced 1921

35 upper

Trafford Park Estate Company motor buses for private hire advertisement

35 lower

Aerial photograph: Corn Products/Thomas Hedley & Co. with decaying Trafford Hall

36 upper

Aerial photograph: lake surrounded by industrial plant

36 lower

Manchester Producer viewed from No. 2 Grain Elevator

37upper

Coaches for Palestine Railways being hauled by Manchester Ship Canal locomotive No. 39 in 1935

37 lower

Manchester Corporation tramcar No. 929 on Third Avenue on 10 August 1939

38 upper

Salford Corporation buses in Third Avenue in 1962

38 lower

Manchester and Salford buses in Westinghouse Road in 1962

39

Double track swing railway bridge with Manchester Ship Canal locomotive No. 90 and train

40

Trafford Park Road with Manchester Ship Canal locomotive collecting empty wagons in 1964

41 upper

Trafford Park beware trains illuminated warning sign

41 lower

Gas tramway track on road bridge over Bridgewater Canal

42 upper

Semaphore signal warning tramcar drivers of swing bridge closure

42 lower

*Triumphal arch (Wake up England) with tramway, tramcar No. 7 with top cover being used as grandstand for visit by King and Queen on 13 July 1905
† Cars built by American Car & Foundry Co.: hauled by two Manchester Ship Canal Co. locomotives: Savannah leading (Hunslet WN 712/1899)

The Institute: Archive's book reviews. 43.

Waterways Journal: Volume 16. edited Kath Turpin. Boat Museum Society.
Includes articles on Robert Aickman, concrete boats and barges, Box Boat No. 337, and Richard Abel & Sons and their fleet.

The Newton Abbot to Kingswear Railway. C.R. Potts. Oakwood Press. 352pp
Recommended

The Ely and St. Ives Railway. Peter Page. Oakwood Press. 176pp.
First publlished inb 1982.

The Birmingham to Gloucester Line. Colin Maggs. Amberley Publishing. 176pp.

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the showroom... Riley RM. 44-7.
Pre-War styling influences were the firm's Kestrel and the Citroen Traction Avant. Victor Riley enthused abut the BMW 320. Riley's Chief Engineer was Harry Rush. The Riley family were Coventry weavers, but in in 1890 William Riley acquired the Bonnick bicycle business with its St. Nicholas Works and it was here that light car manufacture was developed. In 1899 the business moved to Aldbourne Road. Hand-built construction even when steel bodies were introduced. In 1937 the firm ran into financial difficulties and in 1938 was absorbed by the Nuffeld Group. The RM was the post-war model and was shown at the 1948 Motor Show at Earl's Court. Manaufacture was shifted to Abingdon to share the MG plant. The Rm featured torsion bar suspension developed by Bob Aves and rack and pinion steering 

Cover of The Motor 21 June 1944: Riley 44
Advertisement Riley side view 45
Photograph Riley in 1953 Monte Carlo Rally 47

Clive Thomas. All change for Plymouth: a year in the life of a mining engineer. 48-61.
The Hill family obtained a lease from the Earl of Plymouth and mined iron ore and coal to service the Plymouth Ironworks (near Merthyr Tydfil), the Pentrebach Forges and the Duffryn Ironworks. These works closed when the iron ore was worked out and coal mining became the key activity and Thomas Henry Bailey was employed to manage this. Bailey was a fifth generation mining engineer. His great great granfather had been engaged at Earl Fitzwilliam's Elsecar Collieries in Yorkshire and a practice of mining engineers and surveyors was established by his grandfather and father at Wilenhall and Walsall in 1858; ten years later the firm was known as S. & J. Bailey with an office in Corporation Street, Birmingham. Thomas Henry was educated at Clifton College, Bristol and King's College, London. He was apprenticed to Thomas McGhie, managing director, of the West Cannock Colliery. During 1883 he maintained a detailed journal which was typed and is reproduced on pages 56-61. Railway historians will be interested in Bailey's notes on wagon repairs and on his many journeys by train, both locally and to places as far away as Wokingham.

South Duffryn colliery remains in September 1965 (colour)

inside front cover

Upper Abercanaid Colliery viewed from canal towpath c1895

48

North Duffryn Pits, c1890

50

Map of pits mentioned in journal of T.H. Bailey in 1883

51

Plan of Duffryn colliery made by Richard Heppell in 1861

52

Ordnance Survey map of Duffryn ironworks and collieries 1871

53

Part of plan of Saron Workings or Kilfach yr Encil Vein

54 upper

No. 4 Saxon Level entrance in 1960s

54 lower

South Duffryn colliery and disued ironworks

55 upper

Two 0-6-0STs with train waiting to move out of sidings at South South Duffryn

55 lower

Thomas Henry Bailey portrait of General Manager Plymouth Colliery

56

Inbye: Archive's letters page. 62

[Essex: Harwich train ferry terminal and Battlebridge mills]. Tony Crosby
Recent pictures [2012] of the Grade II Listed train ferry terminal which is now within the Trinity House Depot: the link span was constructed at Southampton in 1917 and came to Harwich from there, whilst the gantry came from Richborough. The Battlesbridge Mills is a more complex story and reference is made to several online sources of further information. Once again there is a contemporary photograph

Malcolm Bobbitt. A family motoring history: 2. 63-4
Photographs supplied by Rosemary Warner of further cars owned by the Bartlett family of Witney covering the post-WW1 period. The HE was manufactured by Herbert Engineering of Caversham near Reading. 

DP 3523: H.E. 63
Standard 1928 64 upper
Standard 1928 64 lower

The Standard Motor Co. was established in Coventry by Reginald William Maudslay who had been apprenticed to Sir John Wolfe Barry who provided considerable financial backing for the car manufacturing firm.

Issue Number 84 (December 2014)

Ian Pope. Mr. Brain's Tramway. 2-31
Cornelius Brain of Mitcheldean owned the Trafalgar Colliery and the associated tramroad. The Trafalgar gale (right to mine) was acquired in August 1842, but coal was not won until 1860. The Bishop's Tramroad had been authorised on 12 July 1834. Brain's Tramway was authorised in May 1862 and was constructed to a gauge of 2ft 7½in. It was unusual in that steam locomotives were used, probably in addition to horses. The Strip-and-at-it Colliery was also operated by the Brain family. Includes details of Coroner's report on death of Frederick White who had been riding on the buffer plank of a locomotive to apply sand to improve adhesion and who had been thrown under it. The Trafalgar Colliery closed in 1925 and Brain's Tramway ceased to be used. Many of the illustrations depict scenes near the Tramway, but this may be invisible or barely discernible. There are many maps and plans, but an overall map would have been useful.

Trafalgar Colliery panorama 2
Trafalgar Colliery from ridge above colliery through which tunnel was cut 3u
Tunnel entrance 3l
Trafalgar Colliery with Brain family and workers late 1870s 4
Headframes at Trafalgar Colliery 5u
Map/plan with Trafalgar Colliery from Severn & Wye Railway survey of 1869 5l
Trafalgar House with tramway in front 6
Free Miner 0-4-0T built Lilleshall Iron Co. in 1865 7u
Trafalgar 0-4-2T built Lilleshall Iron Co. in 1869 7l
Severn & Wye Railway survey of 1877: Trafalgar Colliery and Brain's Tramway 8-9
Course of Brain's Tramway parallel to Severn & Wye line between Drybrook Road and Bilson 10u
Course of Brain's Tramway trackbed looking towards Cinderford 10l
Severn & Wye Railway survey of 1877: crossing with Brain's Tramway at Leonards Hill 11
Ordnance Survey 1877: Severn & Wye Railway interchange sidings at Bilson with Brain's Tramway 12-13
Severn & Wye Railway site of crossing with Brain's Tramway near Bilson Road station 12l
Site of interchange sidings at Bilson Yard in late 1940s 14
Three views of site of crossing with Brain's Tramway near Bilson Road in late 1940s (L.E. Copeland) 15
Three views of formation looking towards railway crossing or Steam Mills (Richard Dagley-Morris) 16
Ordnance Survey 1881 Steam Mills and Brain's Tramway 17
Steam Mills from bridge over Brain's Tramway 18u
Steam Mills from stance near bridge over Brain's Tramway 18m
Plan of bridge over Brain's Tramway at Steam Mills 18ll
Enlargement from postcard showing? bridge over Brain's Tramway at Steam Mills 18lr
Panorama of Steam Mills but 19
Brain's Tramway formation alongside Mitcheldean Road and Forest of Dean Junction line (L.E. Copeland) 20u
Ordnance Survey 1881 junction Bishop's Tramroad with Westbury Brook Tramroad and crossing of former with Brain's Tramway 20m
Brain's Tramway formation alongside MR&FoDJR retaining walls in July 1947  (L.E. Copeland) 20l
Embankment carrying Mitcheldean-Monmouth turnpike road with archways under for railway & tramroads 21u
As above but view from north 21m
As above but railway still in situ  (L.E. Copeland) 21l
Skew bridge of MR&FoDJR over Brain's Tramway also former junction with Bishop's Tramroad (L.E. Copeland) 22u
Nailbridge Halt; Newbridge Engine and Mitcheldean Colliery and bridge over former tramway c1907 22l
Ordnance Survey: Nailbridge area: Brain's Tramway tunnels and Bishop's Tramroad to Mitcheldean Colliery 23
Nailbridge and Ruardean Hill with tramway and tramway to Speedwell Siding c1900 24
Nailbridge main tramway removed, but tramway to Speedwell Siding still in situ post-1908 25
Nailbridge Halt in late 1920s with Brain's Tramway converted to vegetable patch 26u
Nailbridge Halt in c1897 with line to Speedwell Siding in foreground 26m
Nailbridge with bridge under road bricked-up 26l
Nailbridge plan c1872: Drybrook Mine Railway 27u
Nailbridge late 1930s: railway to Drybrook Quarry and tramway remains (B. Baxter) 27l
Nailbridge: bridge under Nailbridge-Drybrook road  28ul
Brain's Tramway: bridge under Nailbridge-Drybrook road  (L.E. Copeland) 28ur
Speedwell Siding with line of Trafalgar Colliery wagons and Brain's Tramway beyond 28l
Drybrook Iron Mine 1872 plan 29
Brain's Tramway: bridge under railway from above on 1 August 1949 (L.E. Copeland) 30u
Brain's Tramway: bridge under railway from underneath  (L.E. Copeland) 30l
Brain's Tramway: plan for extension from Drybrook to Mitchedean Road station on Hereford, Ross & Glioucester line 31

Neil Parkhouse. Cam Mills. 32-8.
In part a history of the mills in the Cotswold valley and in part the specific Cam Mills which are still in existence manufacturing special cloth for covering tennis balls and billiard tables, and the former branch railway line to Dursley. Cloth production developed in the Cam valley due to the local sheep farming and the water power. The same power was used to drive flour mills. At the specfic mill flour was being millled by Thomas and William Greening up nuntil 1818. Around then the mill was rebuilt by Thomas Williams and by 1830 cloth was being manufactured there by Joseph Tippetts. The mills were purchased by the Hunt family in 1851 and A.B. Winterbotham joined in 1859. The Dursley & Midland Junction Railway received its Act on 25 May 1855, opened for passenger traffic in September 1856 and was taken over by the Midland Railway from 1 January 1861. See also Issue 92 pp. 28-9 for further notes, photographs and Ordnance Survey plan 

Cam Mills, c1930 32
Cam Mills, c1905 33
Cam Mills, c1905 34u
Cam station 34l
Cam Mills, c1910 35
Station Road, Cam: showing house believed to have been owned by Mill's owners 36
Hunt & Winterbotham coal wagon No. 1 37u
Hunt & Winterbotham coal wagon No. 3 37l
Aerial photograph c1930

The coal wagons were supplied by Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. in October 1897 and November 1904 and are shown in the works official photographs.

Where are we? [mystery photograph]. 39
Bow hauling heavy barge on waterway

Malcolm Bobbitt. In the showroom...  Alvis. 40-3
Thomas George John was born on 18 November 1880 at Pembroke Dock and entered the Naval Dockyard and following his apprenticeship won a scholarship to the Royal College of Science and qualified as a naval architect. Following work at Vickers in Barrow he became Works Manager at Siddeley-Deasy in Coventry in 1915 and in 1917 formed T.G. John Ltd. In association with Geoffrey de Freville they developed the Alvis name for a motor car using aluminium pistons.

Repair shop at Holyhead Road factory in Coventry with Silver Eagle 40
Alvis insignia 41
Original 10/30hp model with one of last to be manufactured 42

Mark Chalmers. William Cook & Sons, Glasgow Saw & File Works. 44-60.
William Cook set off from Harworth in Nottinghamshire in 1840 and walked to Scotland, funding himself by working at his trade en route and set up his home in Calton, later Gorbals, in Glasgow. By 1857 he was employing several people. He established a works Howard Street and eventually built the Glasgow Saw & File Works at 24 Elliot Street in Cranstonhill which at that time was the centre for several forges, foundries and tool-making works. The Eliott Street works, featured in the illustrations, were based on those based in the Kelham Island area of Sheffield and included a courtyard and the maximum use of natural light  

Works buildings after cessation of manufacture 44
Works buildings after cessation of manufacture 45
Courtyard within works after cessation of manufacture 46l
Stairs within works after cessation of manufacture 46r
Tempering tank (sperm whale oil used) c1910 47
Toothing machine c1910 48u
Catalogue c1914 showing files 48l
Sharpening saw teeth on 60in diamter circular saw with Cranswick, Works Manager, c1910 49
Saw grinding shop c1910 50u
Saw grinding shop after cessation of manufacture c2010 50l
Saw sharpening shop in attic after cessation of manufacture 51
Row of Cook's Patent Saw Sharpening Machines in attic after cessation of manufacture 52u
Catalogue entry for Cook's Patent Saw Sharpening Machines Footnote 52l
Cook's Patent Saw Sharpening Machine set up for circular saw in attic after cessation of manufacture 53u
Cook's Patent Saw Sharpening Machine set up for band saw in attic after cessation of manufacture 53l
Head of band saw blade tooth sharpening machine 54u
Jockey wheel around which band saw blade ran 54l
Forging machine to forge tangs of files in attic after cessation of manufacture 55
Firth Hardometer 56u
Saw toothing shop after cessation of manufacture 56l
Groundfloor workshop facing Houlsworth Street 58u
Groundfloor workshop facing Houlsworth Street looking towards electrical distribution boards 58l
Remnant of machinery made by A. Ransome & Co., Stanley Works, Newark-on-Trent 59u
Job ticket and small circular saw blade 59ll
Metal tags bearing customer details 59lr
Advertisement from Flashlight on Glasgow — Fifty years of progress (1951) 60

Footnote: GB 24779/1905 Improvements in and connected with Saw Sharpening Machines granted to Andrew Cook and James Harvery published 30 June 1906

Follow-up: Trafford Park from Euan Corrie. 61-4.

SS Zoroaster approaching tail of Mode Wheel Locks 61u
Trafford swing bridge and hydraulic power plant 61l
Mode Wheel Locks, Manchester Ship Canal 62
Carbon disulphide (CS2) being loaded onto W.H. Cowburn narrow boats on Bridgewater Canal 63
Water's Meeting at Stretford with Westinghouse hydraulic tower 64