Journal of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers
Volume 55 (1965)
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Journal No. 303
Manser, A.W. (Paper No. 664)
Rheostatic braking without motoring all axles. 18-58
Ordinary General Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers held in the Lecture Hall of thc Institution of Mechanical Engineers on Monday 14 March 1966. The President was in the Chair.
The degree of success which is achieved with this scheme will be revealed by the extent to which wheel wear is reduced. As so often seems to be the case in such comparisons, an exact like with like will not be available, because there will be no wholly friction-braked train operating on the Victoria Line. Thus the best comparison which will be possible will be with conventional rolling stock operating that service which most nearly approaches the Victoria Line conditions. As the Victoria Line conditions include provision for higher speeds than commonly attained on other Lines, the comparison, on this basis, will at least not favour the rheostatically braked stock.
Barrow, T.A.W. and A.D. Smith (Paper No.
Tank wagons for oversea railways - a critical examinations of technical and economic considerations. 60-128.
Ordinary General Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, on 15 March 1965. G. Collingwood, (President), was in the Chair.
Journal No 304
Sykes, W.J.A. (Paper No. 666)
High-speed propelling of trains on the Southern Region, British Railways. 154-75. Discussion: 175-95.
Ordinary General Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, on 15 March 1965. G. Collingwood (President) was in the Chair.
Design work had been completed on a prototype six car trailer set and a Type 3 diesel electric locomotive fully converted for push-pull operation embodying the experience gained in the tests. It was anticipated that trials with the prototype train to be undertaken later in the year will confirm that the basic control problem at least has been satisfactorily answered.
Discussion H. M. Dannatt (178) said that he wished to emphasise from the operating viewpoint the extraordinary will that the Southern had exercised in refusing to accept anything that would cut across their clear pattern of train operation with multiple-unit running; that was the quick and simple way of making sure that platform occupation was cut to a minimum and making the engineering requirements meet thc traffic conditions.
The second thing which he was sure would be looked further into was that it was an approach to working loco-hauled stock through an electrified area and then handing it over to diesels at the other end. This had endless opportunities for those who had an electrified zone beyond which they wanted to work, particularly when some of the lines branched off into a diesel area and others continued in an electrified area. The Southern scheme was an approach which went far beyond the observation which some people had rathcr readily used when the Southern proposals were made known first that People have been pushing trains for a long time.
Davidson. D. (Paper No. 667)
The significance of locomotive diesel exhaust temperatures.195-211.
General Meeting of the Rhodesian Centre was held in Bulawayo on 8 February 1965.
White, H.G. and Lehel, V. (Paper No. 668)
Final drive gears and gear boxes for self-propelled rail vehicles. 212-46.
Ordinary General Meeting of the Midlands Centre was held at the Midland Hotel, Derby on 11 February 1965 at 7.0 p.m., the Chair being taken by Mr. J. C. Loach, M.Sc.(Eng.), M.I.Mech.E., A.M. I .C.E. (Member).
Journal No. 305
An appreciation dedicated to Sir William and the Great Western Railway. 247-9.
Notes that his father, W.H. Stanier, was a very astute and energetic business man: he was Stores Superintendent of the GWR. He also notes that the Swindon CME's department was both autocratic and democratic and reminds the reader that Stanier travelled to the USA with King George V.
An appreciation dedicated to Sir William Stanier 1932 onwards. 249-53. illus. (port.)
This affectionate tribute.
On 1st January 1932, at the age of 55 Stanier reached the watershed of his career, leaving the Great Western and joining the London Midland and Scottish Railway. He had not sought this move, but was spotted from afar by LMS management as almost the only contemporary engineer who might have the personality and experience to put their ailing locomotive department into first class shape.
The change was dramatic. From the comfort of familiar faces, locomotives and workshops, he entered alone amongst new men, an alien design philosophy and widely scattered maintenance facilities. It required extraordinary courage to approach this new world single handed, for unlike predecessors in like circumstances, his advent was not flanked by importation of senior assistants from his old company. Morcover, he was expected by his new masters to inaugurate big changes without delay, but courage was of the very essence ol Staniers character, not only courage to innovate, but courage to change direction quickly if and when any of his innovations failed to fulfil their first promise.
His effective career on the LMS was destined to last only for ten years, but in that relatively short time he restocked the locomotive stud, revolutionised design, imposed new standards of workmanship and maintenance and, perhaps hardest task of all, won the wholehearted co-operation of colleagues and staff at first sometimes more than a little wary of the newcomer.
It is for his locomotives that Stanier was known best to the engineering world, to this Institution, and to the general public. In the seven years before World War I1 he had caused to be built 1225 engines of nine highly standardised new designs. A further 832 were added to the stock of the L.M.S. up to its demise at the end of 1947 and, a fact not widely known, there were 640 more to the same designs produced even after nationalisation, some as late as 1953. These designs have been described and illustrated and their performance analysed in countless books and papers. He himself commented upon them in two Presidential Addresses to this Institution and a further one to the 'Mechanicals. Here it is fitting to recall his noble Pacifics, one of which reached 114 m.p.h. and another of which visited the New York World Fair in 1939 and toured the northern states of the U.S.A. under its own steam. His 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotivcs, the Black Stanicrs, of which a total of 842 were constructed, were probably the most successful all rounders ever produced on British rails, being equally at home on fast express or heavy freight workings, as able to cope with all traffic requirements at Wick as at Bournemouth. Its counterpart, the 2-8-0 Freight locomotive was during the last war selected as the sole type to be built in quantity for all the four main line companies as a wartime measure of conservation of resources, and it was constructed not only in the home workshops, but at Doncaster and Brighton, and, supreme irony, at Swindon itself.
A feature of all his locomotives was that their basic conception was so right that, whilst retaining the same characteristic appearance from first to last, they proved capable of continuous development first by their own progenitor in, for example, the change from low to high degree superheat and increase in firebox volume, and subsequently by Staniers successor, George Ivatt, in application of manganese liners to the axleboxes, roller bearings, self-cleaning smokeboxes, drop grates and self-emptying ashpans.
Although deeply loyal to the Churchward tradition, Staniers judgment and u,isdom came out strongly in the manner in which he by no means applied Western practice indiscriminately. In spite of many excellencics, some features of Swindon practice were less perfect than others, as he often acknowledged to his new colleagues, whilst on the other hand the L.M.S. had, in spite of its administrative confusion, developed a number of worthwhile technical features and had brought them to a high state of practicability. Thus his new products were no carbon copies but a sensible amalgam of best features from both schools of design. Indeed, he was personally very sensitive on this point, and resented strongly any suggestion that he had merely lifted Swindon practice in its entirety. As time went on he sponsored further developments which advanced the art well beyond the best point previously reached by either G.W.R. or L.M.S.
Locomotive design and production are far from being the only activities of a C.M.E. and in the manifold othcr tasks which fall to the lot of that office, he brought to bear the same sound engineering and basic common sense. Thus he left a similar personal mark upon the carriage and wagon stock and especially upon workshops and maintenance depots, where his meticulous belief in first class equipment and good workmanship gradually permeated the whole system. The transformation of the maintenance scene for which he had been primarily brought to the L.M.S. was abundantly accomplished in the increased mileage between repair to which his principal features and practices gave rise, not the least of which were his improvements to boilers and to axleboxes.
Stanier did not have a particularly academic turn of mind but had a strong natural engineering instinct which allied to his wide experience led him towards viable decisions. He was a natural born mechanic who could talk to forcmen in their own language, and was perfectly capable of taking the tools out of a fitters hands and of showing him how to do a job. No C.M.E. on the L.M.S. had been capable of this kind of demonstration since the days of George Hughes. Almost singlehanded he set about raising the level of workmanship and finish, which although far from indifferent as he found it, nevertheless fell short of the highest standard.
Although not active in international matters on the European scene, Stanier visited India three times and would have paid his second visit to the U.S.A. in 1939 if the onset of war had not cancelled the meeting of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers proposed to be held there. Of his Indian visits the first in 1936 was as member of the Committee of Enquiry chaired by Sir Ralph Wedgwood whose object was to recommend measures to increase net earnings on the state-owned Railways. The second in 1938 was the outcome of a series of derailments of standardiscd Pacific locomotives used by most of the Indian Railways, culminating in the appalling accident at Bihta on the East Indian Railway where over 100 people lost their lives. Under the chairmanship of Sir Alan Mount, Chief Inspecting Office of Railways, Stanier joined an international committee charged with enquiring into the cause and with recommending remedial action. The engines were found to be at fault and in analysing the reasons and recommending improved measures of side control for the future, Stanier and his colleagues served a wider field than India alone, for even in this country certain unexplained accidents had already occurred for lack of the knowledge brought out by the Indian Pacific Locomotive Committee.
His third visit was not made under railway auspices, and he visited the country in 1944 as Chairman of a United Kingdom Machine Tool Mission designed to further the Indian wartime production effort. Indeed it was outside Railway work itself that he gained his highest distinctions-for the same true instinct and broad common sense which so illuminated the railway scene were found to be of equal value in many othcr directions. For example, his work for the two Institutions, the Mechanicals and the Locomotive Engineers, was prc-eminent. He was President of the former in 1941, was made an Honorary Member in 1945, and in 1963 was awarded the James Watt International Medal, the highest honour that the Institution can bestow. He was President of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in 1936 and again in 1938, and was awarded the Gold Medal in 1957, again the Institutions highest award bestowed for outstanding service to the science and practice of Locomotive Engineering.
In 1943 he received a Knighthood for distinguished services to engineering and in the same year he was elected a member of the Athenaeum. In 1944 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society, the latter commemoratcd by the nameplates on one of his own Pacilics, No. 46256, Sir William Stanier, F.R.S. which, alas, has been engulfed in the breaking up of even quite modern steam engines to give place to the all-conquering diesel so that it no longer remains as a monumcnt to this notablc engineer. Of other activities may be mentioned Chairmanship of the Mechanical & Electrical Sub-committee of the Wartime Railway Executive Committee from 1941 to 1944. Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Production from 1942, Member of the Aeronautical Research Council in 1943, President of the Production Engineering Research Association in 1951 and post-war membership of the Boards of several engineering companies.
When all has been said concerning his achievemenis, his interests, and the honours which were bestowed upon him, it is as a man that he is finally judged by all those who worked with him or knew him. Whether as a superior, a colleague, a fellow member, or just as a friend, Staniers warm humanity, his enthusiasm, his broad knowledge and sound c.ommonsense left an indelible mark. When well advanced into his eighties, the well-loved elder statesman of the locomotive world, he still exhibited the same sense of humour, the same tolerance, the same love of imparting his knowledge to the younger generation which had marked his earlier days.
Sir William Stanier has gone from amongst us and the steam locomotives which he loved and served will only remain with us for a few short years to come. With their passing a stage in the long history of engineering comes to an end, but his name and the record of his work will remain amongst the noblest and best of a vanished age.
A most impressive Memorial Service was held on 28th October 1965 at St. Margarets, Westminster, under the auspices of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. It was attendcd by a large and representative congregation which included many Past-Presidents and Members of Council of this Institution.
A moving Address was given by Vice-Admiral Sir Frank Mason, K.C.B., Past-President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and an old friend of Sir William.
Unique feature of London. 256-75. 9 illus.
Presented on 27 September 1965 at the Instiution of Mechanical Engineers in London, and therafter in Leeds, Glasgow, Derby and Manchester. In the original vote of thanks presented by R.A. Powell (p. 271) it was recorded that Manser had the nickname of Joe by Graff-Baker, because of having an appearance like Joe Stalin
Historical development of the London Underground tube system limited by a diameter of 12 feet, but less on the original City & South London Railway, and more on the Great Northern & City Line which was intended to connect with the Great Northern Main Line. A variety of electrical systems were originally employed, including a central positive rail on the Central London Railway and twin electrical rails (of different polarity) outside the tracks on the Great Northern & City. Manser questionned the need for a separate insulated negative return. The development of rolling stock to meet the severe limitations is considered, together with the relaxation experienced in designing cars for the Victoria Line with its better tunnel profile. The use of rubber in suspenion is considered at length. Earlier in the paper he had considered the locomotives used on the City & South London, and Central London lines and recorded the development of Graff-Baker's 1938 underground stock, especially the way in which the space occupied by the control gear was greatly reduced (cites H.C. Hastings of BTH, and his own 1959 rolling stock..
Narasimhan, R.V. (Paper No. 669)
Rail-wheel adhesion on diesel and a.c. electric locomotives. 276-312. Disc.: 312-23. 8 diagrs. 10 tables.
Paper presented in Luknow
Ghani, F. (Paper No. 670)
Some aspects in the design of traction motors for diesel electric locomotive application. 323-30. Disc.: 330-4. 3 illus., 3 diagrs.
Postulated that three basic requirements for locomotive performance: maximum tractive effort, continuous tractive effort and maximum speed. R.W. Urie (330-1) opened the discussion with comment on the difficulty of keeping bogies clean.
Journal No. 306
Bennett, E. (Paper No. 671)
Quality engineering applied to traction. 342-62. Disc.: 362-78. 9 figs.
Quality control boards with coloured pegs: seems more archaic than Stephenson's Rocket. Problems explored with this technique included problems associated with radiator fitted to the AL3 AC high voltage electric locomotives (they had mercury arc rectifiers which had to kept cool with water as the coolant); Type 3 locomotive exhauster failures, and non-return valve failures on the same type of locomotive.
Varma, M.G. (Paper No. 672)
Some aspects of diesel maintenance on Indian Railways. 379-95.
Engine wear: piston rings and liners; deposits in cylinders and on valves and after coolers. Analysis of used lubricating oils . Air compressors and vacuum exhausters. Cooling water maintenance.
Tandon, N.N. (Paper No. 673)
Neglected conventional bearings. 396-411.
Problem of hot boxes on freight rolling stock on Indian railways, especially with diesel and electric motive power. No discussion.
Journal No. 307
Parkes, G. Richard (Paper No. 674)
Railway snowfighting. 415-48. Disc.: 449-78.
A review prepared by a Candian consultant who considered many types of equipment to clear snow and ice, some of which were never likely to be used on railways in Britain. Push ploughs of both the double track type, as used on the London Midland Region, and single track type as used with diesel locomotives in Scotland are considered. The heavy-duty Russell plough, the Jordan spreader and the flanger as used in North America are also described and illustrated. Rotary snowploughs are widley used in Sweden, Switzerland and North America and the Leslie type is illustrated. Snow melters and jet engines are examined, but the latter have rarely been successful. The heating of points by burning gas or oil or by electricity, both directly or via hot oil is examined. Conductor rails require to be kept free from frost and this can be achieved via de-icing baths which distribute anti-freeze of via special sleet locomotives..
Bingham, G.S. and J.G. Bruce (Paper No. 675)
Experience with the new rolling stock on London Transport Railways. 480-527. Disc.: 527-51.
The 1959 and 1962 stock used on the Piccadilly and Central Lines, and the A60 stock used on the Metropolitan line incorporated rubber suspension for the bogie bolsters and axleboxes; fluorescent lighting; unpainted aluminium car bodies and melamine-faced hardboard for the interior trim. Discussion: G. Hally (527-8) recorded the Metropolitan Railway's experiments with roller bearing axleboxes which went into service in 1924. A justification is given for the continued use of compartment stock on the Metropolitan Railway: passengers demanded it, and would have switched their custom to the LNER if it was not provided.
Journal No. 308
Lyon, E.C. (Paper No. 676)
A.C. suburban electrificationBritish Railways, Eastern Region. 585-627. Disc.: 628-71.
Ordinary General Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1 Birdcage IValk, London, S.W.1, on 17th January 1966. The President, Mr. A. M'. Manser, B . 5 . (Eng.), M.I.Mech.E., M.I.E.E., M.I.Loco.E., was in the Chair.
Discussion; A.W. Manser (628) noted that the changeover from 1500V DC to high voltage AC on the Eastern Region had been achieved with such fantastic smoothness that people did not realise what an enormous job it had been. T.C.B. Miller (628-9) also commented on the changeover.
Birch, P.C.H. (Paper No. 677)
The effect of weight transfer on locomotive design. 672-685. Disc.: 685-8.
Ordinary General Meeting of the North-Eastern Centre was held at Leeds University on 18th January 1966, at 6.45 p.m., the Chair being taken by Mr. J. G. Dickson (Member).
The state of the rail is always the limiting factor in the ability of any locomotive to start a train and at low tractive efforts weight transfer effects are small: it has been observed that the first train leaving Leeds Central in the morning has suffered from rail conditions which would not support more than 6% adhesion! Under such circumstances compensation is useless, but to take the fullest advantage of good rail conditions it is necessary to consider all factors which affect starting. Compensation systems which enable the locomotive to be more reliable are well worthwhile. An external system such as the mechanical compensation described is especially good in that when the train has reached a reasonable speed the system can be disconnected, allowing the locomotive to ride without restraint. It can therefore be seen that the results of weight transfer calculations must be considered in locomotive design if the best possible use is to be made of a locomotives adhesive weight to enable it to operate at high tractive efforts.