Railway company workshops

This page is at present mostly based upon Lowe, but this will gradually change. For the time where no further information is given it is virtually certain that the source was Lowe. Like Lowe the basis for inclusion on this page is that locomotives were constructed at the Works. Many more works repaired locomotives, especially on the MIdland Railway where major repairs were undertaken at both Carlisle and at Bristol and at several locations in between. E.J. Larkin's books are an important source, both his illustrated history and his memoirs...

An illustrated history of British Railways workshops: locomotive, carriage and wagon building and maintenance, from 1825 to the present day. Sparkford: OPC, 1992. 184pp.
Essentially a picture book (reproduction to a high standard), but there is some lack of overall direction. Thus it combines relatively "recent" views (the Queen in her "new" Royal train (in 1988) with a Midland clerestory (official photograph and superb) of 1890. Each works has a chronology: facts worth verifying: Stratford Works completed in 1847 for the Eastern Counties Railway; last locomotive constructed in 1924: N7 999E (1702nd locomotive built there). Bibliography of the works found useful, but goodish, nevertheless.Edgar Larkin was very old when the book was prepared.
Memoirs of a railway engineer. London: Mechanical Engineering Publications, 1979. 212pp.

Aberdeen: Kittybrewster
Up to 1887 all locomotives required by Great North of Scotland Railway were supplied by locomotive building contractors. James Manson succeeded Cowan, coming from the Kilmarnock works of the Glasgow and South Western Railway in 1583. Manson favoured inside cylinders and set about modernising the locomotive stock and replacing the older locomotives especially those inherited from the various smaller lines. Kittybrewster works were situated on the north side of Aberdeen and could only take under cover four locomotives at a time and con sequently much of the repairs and rebuilding were done in the adjacent sidings, Despite this two new locomotives were erected in the works in 1887. There is no doubt that the major parts were supplied by a locomotive building contractor probably Neilson & Co. or Kitson & Co. Whether the saving in money approached £300 to £400, claimed to be possible by Manson, is doubtful and no others were built at Kitybrewater, after the two in 1887.

Scottish North Eastern Railway formed by amalgamation of Aberdeen Railway with Scottish Midland Junction Railway in 1856. In 1859 two locomotives of unknown type were erected at Arbroath (Lowe). In 1866 two locomotives were under construction, but these were completed at Perth and became CR Nos. 123/4. Fig. 480: SNER No. 472 as competed at Perth. See also Thomas Yarrow.

Lowe notes that a semi-complete locomotive from Bricklayers Arms, an 0-4-0 tank locomotive was completed at Ashford in 1849, but locomotive construction as such did not begin until 1853: the first of the Cudworth Hastings class of 2-4-0s. 124 double-frame 2-4-0s were also constructed under Cudworth. 122 of the James Stirling O class of 0-6-0 were built between 1882 and 1899. Thus, Ashford appeared to be geared to quantity production and it may appear strange that new production cease in March 1944 (with an 8F 2-8-0 No. 8674) and that if the erection of fifty Woolwich Arsenal parts are deducted that only 740 new locomotives were completed.

Belfast: Great Victoria Street
The Ulster Railway was partially opened in 1839 from Belfast to Lisburn and used a gauge of 6ft 2in, converted to 5ft 3in in 1849. The workshops in Belfast were capable of repairing and rebuilding locomotives. In 1867 two Sharp 2-2-2s were converted to 2-4-0s with new frames and new boilers and this was repeated in 1869. Four completely new 0-4-2s were constructed between 1871 and 1874. Two 0-6-0s were built in 1872/3. Two Beyer Peacock 2-2-2s were rebuilt as 2-4-0s in 1874/6. In 1876 the railway became part of the GNR(I) but John Eaton, the Locomotive Superintendent, carried on at Belfast as before building six 0-6-0s between 1876 and 1878 and in 1880-2 three 0-4-2s were built as replacements for Sharp 0-4-2s. Nineteen locomotives were built or replaced, including eight completely new locomotives. The works closed in 1881 and the work was transferred to Dundalk.

Belfast Queens Quay
Belfast & County Down Rly: Minutes of February 1882 state that a new engine had been built in the Company Workshops. Lowe states that this was No. 8, an 0-4-2 rebuilt from Bury 2-2-2 of 1848 No. 2 (running number).

Belfast York Road
Belfast & Northern Counties Rly started to construct locomotives in 1870. Lowe's text leaves something to be desired in this section as he implies only two "building periods" (which is correct for the BNCR), but building also took place under the aegis of the Midland Railway and LMS. Three locomotives were built betwen 1870 and 1873: two 2-4-0 and one 0-4-2. Three Worsdell-von-Borries two-cyliner compound 4-4-0s were constructed between 1901 and 1903. Further of this type were produced under the Northern Counties Committee (MR). Four two-cylinder compound 2-4-2Ts were produced for the 3ft gauge lines (the last pair from 1919/1920 were equipped with boilers supplied by Derby). Eleven simple 4-4-0s (classes U1 and U2) were manufactured  between 1924 and 1934, and between 1934 and 1942 eleven of the W class of 2-6-0s were produced (the design derived from the successful Fowler 2-6-4T.

Brighton Works was created by the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway under Craven in 1852. 150 locomotives had been constructed before Stroudley's appointment. The total output between 1852 and 1957 was 1211. Over 10% of the output was of unmodified LMS designs: ninety three 8F 2-8-0s and 41 LMS 2-6-4Ts. A further 130 BR 2-6-4Ts were also constructed. The works had left a quiet existence under the Southern Railway: erecting the 2-6-4T/2-6-0s from parts acquired from Woolwich Arsenal, the Z class of 0-8-0Ts, the Q1 0-6-0s in 1942 and thirty four light Pacifics: the last being 34110 in 1951. The very last new locomotive was 80154 in 1958..

Lowe states that 23 broad gauge, 10 standard gauge and two 3ft gauge locomotives (for Burlescombe quarry) were constructed at Bristol by Bristol & Exeter Railway..

Birmingham & Gloucester Rly. 2-2-2 built in 1844 under J.E. McConnell who was Engineer at that time. A 2-2-2 was constructed in 1844 and an 0-6-0T Great Britain in 1845: the latter was intended as a banker for the Lickey Incline.

Workshops established 1847 by Edinburgh and Northern Railway (became Edinburgh, Perth & Dundee Railway) with Robert Nicholson as locomotive superintendent. Locomotives constructed were a single 2-2-2 and four 0-6-0s. Construction probably involved parts supplied by Scottish Central Railway (Lowe). In 1862 railway absorbed into NBR.

Bury (Lancs.)
Workshops constructed by East Lancashire Railway, but no new construction until after LYR takeover in 1859. Two 2-4-0s were constructed in 1862; three 2-4-0Ts in 1887 and eleven 2-4-0 type in 1871-7.

Taff Vale Rly. West Yard, Cardiff Docks. This was the only Welsh railway to build locomotives of any quantity, and was the oldest company in Wales. West Yard works date back to the mid-1840s and at first it was of modest size, coping with the maintenance of little more than a dozen locomotives. This state of affairs rapidly altered and at the end of 1863 the stock had risen to fifty-one many of the older locomotives having been scrapped by this time, and an endeavour was made to bring some order into locomotive affairs. Up to this time no less than nine locomotive builders had contributed five different types, with very few alike. It is no wonder there had been a succession of locomotive superintendents up to 1846 when Henry Clements took over.

The first locomotive built at West Yard was really a rebuild of a 0-4-2 named CARDIFF built bySharp, Roberts in 1841. lt was converted to a double frame 0-6-0 with cylinders and wheels the same size as the original, namely 14" x 18" and 4' 6" diameter, respectively. A few years after its rebuilding it was recorded as a new locomotive and as such has always been acknowledged as No. 1 of 1856.

Works plates were fixed to each locomotive but there is no evidence forthcoming that any works numbers were shown on any locomotive

Three series of works numbers are known but, to add to the confusion, rebuilds were also included. At first only names were carried and no running numbers, but this was altered in 1863 when each locomotive was given a number and the names were gradually removed.

The first genuine new locomotive was built in 1857 and was a double frame 2-4-0 named VENUS with 14j" x 20" cylinders and 4' 6" diameter driving wheels. In 1859 West Yard commenced building a standard double frame 0-6-0 goods, designed by Tomlinson. More of this type were built than any other. They had 16" x 24" cylinders and 4' 6" wheels and forty- four were built up to 1872, numerous additions coming from Kitson, Hawthorn and Slaughter Gruning.

Carn Brea
In 1846 the standard gauge Hayle Railway was absorbed the West Cornwall Railway and the workshops at Carn Brea were used for locomotive repairs. In 1851 Penzance was built from parts supplied by Stothert & Slaughter. The second locomotive Cambourne was a 2-4-0T. Hayle followed in 1853 and a six coupled locomotive became broad gauge 0-6-0ST GWR 2156.

Statement that locomotive was built in Cork, Bandon & South Coast Rly. workshops at Rocksavage in 1901 is not true as 4-4-0T Number 7 was a much rebuilt locomotive which began as a Fairbairn 0-4-0ST in 1862. Questioners should consider Lowe's very different stance on locomotive acitivity on the Wrexham Mold & Connah's Quay.

Crewe works were opened by the Grand Junction Railway in 1843 and the first locomotive was completed on 20 February 1845. Twelve 2-2-2 and four 2-4-0 were completed before the GJR was amalgamated into the LNWR. A Bessemer steel plant was opened in 1864. The 1000th locomotive (a DX class 0-6-0 No. 613) was completed in December 1866. The 2000th was Webb 2-4-0 No. 2233 in August 1876; the 3000th was 2-2-2-2 compound No. 600; the 4000th was Jubilee class 4-4-0 No. 1926 La France in March 1900; the 5000th was George V class No. 5000 Coronation in June 1911; the 6000th was 2-6-0 No. 13178 in 1930, and the 7000th 2-6-2T No. 41272 (Larkin). The total output was 7331 locomotives, the last being 92250 on 15 December 1958 (Lowe).
Reed, Brian. Crewe locomotive works and its men. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1982.
Includes excellent short biographies of the major engineers associated with Crewe Works.

In Lowe's somewhat off-hand way the Darlington works of the NER are not treated as part of the Stockton & Darlington Railway.
Hoole, K. North Road Locomotive Works, Darlington, 1863-1966. [Hatch End]: Roundhouse, 1967. xiv, 102pp.
Established by William Bouch for the S&DR; gives little information on Fletcher (as Gateshead) or even Alexander McDonnell. Raven was really first Darlington CME. Book extends into LNER/BR period. There was much work on standardization during the 1930s, notably the replacement of the Westinghouse brake by the vacuum type and the switch to left hand-drive.

The works originated for locomotive repairs with the North Midland Railway in May 1840. They became part of the Midland Railway on 10 May 1844. The works were enlarged under Matthew Kirtley's directiion.The first locomotives to be constructed were of the Jenny Lind 2-2-2 type: output began in 1851. 2000 were employed in the works in 1873 in which year separate carriage and wagon works were established. A new erecting shop was completed in 1892. Lowe stated that the number of steam locomotives constructed at Derby between 1851 and 1957 was 2995. The last was 73154 on 13 June 1957. Larkin noted that the first mainline diesel electric locomotives Nos. 10000 and 10001 were completed at Derby. Larkin's memoirs and other literature is also important
Radford, J.B.
Derby Works and Midland locomotives: the story of the works, its men, and the locomotives they built. London: Ian Allan, 1971. 239pp. + plates.
Very important source of biographical material and of information about most Derby-built locomotives.

Redruth & Chasewater Rly: The 0-6-0ST Miner carried a plate 'manufactured at Devoran Works 1869', but was a heavy rebuild of 0-4-0ST supplied by Neilson (No. 81) in 1854. It had already been converted to a 0-4-2ST at Devoran about 1856. The locomotive in its final form indicates that a considerable amount of work was carried out during the conversion, entailing a lengthening of the frames. The tank was probably new and what appears to be a haystack firebox of large proportions was fitted which indicates the probability of a new boiler as well. The boiler would have been bought out, so that, by and large, a drastic rebuild instead of a new engine must be the verdict.

Rutherford (Backtrack, 2004, 18, 668) observed that Sturrock envisaged the expansion of the workshops at New England, Peterborough, but that Doncaster prevailed "for reasons not altogether clear". KPJ: surely the influence of Denison. The "Plant", as Doncaster works were known. opened under Sturrock in 1853 and replaced temporary works at Boston which had opened in 1847. 2223 steam locomotives built between 1867 and 1957. Last locomotive constructed was 76114 completed on 16 October 1957. The repair shop was known as Crimpsall. There was a separate new erecting shop.

Dublin: Broadstone
Locomotive construction started at Broadstone, Dublin, in 1879 and accounted for 75% of requirements. Prior to 1879 the works had been involved in improving the existing stock and this policy until amalgaamation.: for instance, some of the older 0-6-0s were rebuilt with Belpaire boilers. The locomotive fleet on amalgamation was 139. Last of 126 engines produced there in 1927. Thereafter, railway repair work gradually transferred to Inchicore.

Dublin: Inchicore
Opened in 1846. First locomotive completed in 1852. The total output was in excess of 400, but only fifty emerged post-1915.

The Dundalk works of the Great Northern Railway of Ireland opened in 1882. The first locomotive constructed was a 4-4-0T No. 100 (later No. 1). Forty seven locomotives were built between 1887 and 1939.

The workshops of the London & South Western Railway had been situated at Nine Elms until 1909 when they were moved to Eastleigh. Ninety four locomotives were constructed under LSWR ownership, and this figure increased to 304 by the end of the Southern Railway in 1947, and to 310 in 1950 when new construction ceased. Further activity was involved in the major reconstruction of the Bulleid Pacifics: thirty Merchant Navy class and sixty light Pacifics.

Edinburgh: St. Margarets,
Excellent table in Lowe. Story covered more leisurely by Thomas.

The works originated with the Newcastle & Darlington Junction Railway in 1844 which became the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway following the amlgamation with the York & Newcastle Railway. First locomotive was constructed in 1849, but Lowe not clear as to whether this was entirely new. New workshops were opened in 1853/4. No iron foundry was provided and components were bought in. When the NER was founded in 1854 Gateshead became the Headquarters for locomotive activity, but work continued at Darlington, Shildon, York and Leeds. 1023 locomotives wer constructed at Gateshead according to Lowe. Fig. 579 plan of works..

Glasgow: Cook Street
Lowe states that eight locomotives were constructed in these inadequate premises: all were 2-2-2 (Lightning is illustrated) except for No. 7 which was an 0-4-0.

Glasgow: Cowlairs
Somewhat perversly Lowe places this entry under "Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway" which had ceased to exist in 1865, long before the activities of Holmes or Reid. This extensive entry (pp. 153-61) is a case of the tail wagging the dog. In spite of this minor criticism Lowe did a good job of encapsulating a great deal of information in a relatively small space.

Glasgow: St. Rollox
Opened 1854 by Caledonian Rly. Enlarged 1870/1 and again in 1921 when 3000 were employed there.

Works of the Glasgow Paisley & Greenock Railway under Robert Sinclair. Became works of Caledonian Railway in 1847. 97 locomotives built at Greenock before transfer of construction to St Rollox in 1855.

Greenside, near Coatbridge
Ballochney Railway incorporated in 1826 and constructed to 4ft 6in gauge. According to James F. McEwan at least one locomotive constructed: Ballochney was completed in 1836. In 1848 the railway was absorbed by the Monkland & Kirkintilloch Railway.

Highbridge, Somerset
Lowe states that three locomotives were built at Highbridge by Somerset & Dorset Railway: an 0-4-2ST and two 0-4-0STs, although all may have been rebuilds. Lowe lists the locomotive superintendents.

Lowe states that by the end of the LMS 1349 locomotives of LYR design, five of LNWR and 315 of LMS design had been constructed, 1835 locos constructed (through to British Railways) plus five eighteen inch gauge shunters..  No locomotives wer built between 1932 and 1942. Lowe excellent. The last lcomotive constructed was 76099 on 28 November 1957. Both Cox and Eric Mason chronicled some of the activity at these Works..
Aspinall, John Audley Frederick (Paper 3009)
The Horwich Locomotive Works of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 309-16.

Hull & Selby Rly. Two six coupled tender engines were constructed in 1844 whilst John Gray was Locomotive Superintendent: these were fitted with his expansive motion.

Highland Rly. Lochgorm: 41 locos constructed there (first 3 were replacements). First output in 1869, last in 1905/6 (four 0-4-4Ts)

The works were built on a twenty-five acre site beside the village of Inverurie sixteen miles north west of Aberdeen. A new railway town came into being, increasing the population in itially by 1200 people. At the time of the transfer from Kittybrewster, William Pickersgill was in charge, and by the addition of new machinery to supplement that moved from Kittybrewster repairs and rebuilding were carried out in better circumstances. No new locomotives were built at Inverurie until 1909, the majority of new stock having come from Neilson & Co. (later Neilson Reid & Co.) The first to be built were inside cylinder 4-4-0s, the first being completed in April 1909 (V class No. 27). Eight were built, the last one appearing in March 1915. Known as class V they were built after five of the class were delivered by Neilson & Co. in 1899. Traffic was rapidly increasing and more modern classes were required to replace some of the older stock.

Locomotive Works of Glasgow & South Western Railway: locomotives built between 1858 and 1921.

Leeds: Holbeck
Leeds Northern Rly: Mr Johnson and Mr Taylor were the Locomotive Superintendents. A 2-2-2 was constructed in 1854, the same year that company absorbed by NER. The NER sold the locomotive to the West Hartlepool Harbour & Railway Company. In 1865 this joined the NER and the locomotive became NER No. 610.

Liverpool: Edge Hill
Liverpool & Manchester Railway.
C.F. Dendy Marshall's Centenary history of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway is probably the premier source and is acknowledged by Lowe.

Llanelly: Tyissa
A few locomotives were constructed by Llanelly Railway & Dock Co., and these and the company's locomotive superintendents were listed by Lowe. The GWR took over in 1873.

London: Bow
North London Railway. Bow: Lowe shines in this entry and gives a great deal of information which includes a very early view of the Works (Fig. 445) and a virtually complete list of its output.

London: Bricklayers Arms
South Eastern Rly: in 1848 W. Fernihough instructed to build Directors' Sallon with combined locomotive, but not completed until transfer to Ashford  No. 126 Coffee Pot

London: Longhedge
Until 1862 the works of the London, Chatham & Dover Railway were located at Dover, but then this activity was transferred to Longhedge. Lowe described locomotive construction there as "spasmodic". Fifty locomotives were constructed there, including fourteen under the SECR regime. The works closed in 1911.

London: Neasden
Metropolitan Railway: Three E class 0-4-4Ts (1, 77 and 78) were built at Neasden in 1896 (Lowe).

London: Nine Elms
The workshops of the London & South Western Railway were situated at Nine Elms until 1909 when they were moved to Eastleigh. The works were completed in 1839 and replacement activity began in 1843 followed by new construction in 1844. Lowe stated that 815 locomotives were built at Nine Elms. Replaced by Eastleigh Works under Drummond..

London: Stratford
Orginally the Eastern Counties Railway workshops had been at Romford, but these were moved to Stratford in 1848. Lowe states that 1702 locomotives were built at Stratford between 1851 and 1924. (1672 to the end of 1922)

Manchester: Gorton
The Gorton site was selected by the Sheffield & Manchester Railway prior to the name change to the Manchester, Sheffield, & Lincolnshire Rly and the buildings were completed in 1848. Richard Peacock was the first locomotive superintendent. 1006 steam locomotives were constructed between 1858 and 1948: the last was a B1 4-6-0. This section of Lowe often lacks clarity. The LNER built some of the N7 class at Gorto according to Lowe.

Manchester: Longsight
Manchester & Birmingham Rly. Works established in 1842 probably in a roundhouse. Following amalgamation into LNWR in July 1848 became LNWR North Eastern Division under John Ramsbottom; Fifteen 2-2-2 of Sharp type constructed and one 0-8-0 in 1858, shortly after which works closed.

Manchester: Miles Platting
Griffiths claims (citing Rly Mag., 1911, 28, 89-93; 112-16) that Manchester & Leeds Railway was the first to construct its own locomotives. Griffiths cited Ahrons (Rly Mag, 1917, 41, 308) to note large scale theft from works which even extended to boilers. Lowe: workshops completed in 1846 under Sir John Hawkshaw LS. Thirty two 2-2-2 were constructed in 1848/9

Workshops established by Maryport & Carlisle Railway. Lowe tabulates the 33 locomotives built there between 1857 and 1900.  

Melton Constable
The Crewe of the Midland & Great Northern Railway: but a Crewe swallowed up and disappeared, in a rural midden.

South Yorkshire Rly Shops opened in 1855 for locomotive repairs. 1861/2 two 0-6-0 erected: 20/MSLR 171; 22/MSLR 173

Monmouthshire Rly. & Canal Co. commenced operations in 1849. The Dock Street works were built about 1855 under Richard Laybourne's supervision and when completed heavy repairs and rebuilding was performed there. The first new locomotive, an 0-6-0T,  appeared in 1867 followed by by another in 1868. They had outside cylinders 16in x 24in and 4ft diameter wheels, the rear pair being driven. Henry Appleby took over in 1868 and the Board decided to carry on building their own locomotives at the rate of two per annumsupplementing their requirements with ordert to outside builders. This policy was followed in 1870 and 1871 but only one was built in 1872. 1873 and 1875 and none in 1874. The 0-6-0 side tanks were built from 1870 and two additional ones were obtained from the Yorkshire. Engine Co. in 1871.

Newton (Abbot)
South Devon Rly. When amalgamation took place in 1875 three locomotives were under construction, mostly from parts supplied by Ince Forge. Completed Swindon as standard gauge 2-4-0Ts Nos. 1298 to 1300.

Cambrian Rlys. built only two locomotives: both were 61 class 4-4-0s when Herbert Edward Jones was Locomotive Superintendent. No. 19 (1901) and 11 (1904) (Fig. 76).

Workshops of Scottish Central Railway where Robert Sinclair was locomotive superintendent from 1848 to 1853 and Alexander Allan from 1853 to 1865. The railway had been incorporated in 1845. It pooled locomotives with the Aberdeen Railway. It operated the Scottish Midland Junction Railway. Two 0-4-2s were built under Allan in 1856/7 and twelve 2-2-2s were constructed between 1864 and 1867. Lowe stated that these were good steamers..

Festiniog Railway, Boston Lodge Works: Lowe lists Fairlie 0-4-4-0Ts Nos. 10 Merredin Emrys  (1879) and 11 Livingstone Thompson (1885)

St. Helens
St. Helens & Runcorn Gap Railway was opened in 1833: absorbed into LNWR in 1864. James Cross, Locomotive Engineer. Six four-coupled locomotives were built by this railway: 7 Eden (LNWR 1373); 23 Hero (LNWR 1389); 25 Goliath (1391); 24 Alma (1390); 4 Hercules (1370 and 27 Dee (1393).

The Londonderry Railway was owned by the Marquis of Londonderry until taken over by the NER on 6 October 1900. Railway began operations on 3 August 1854; passenger services started 2 July 1855. Three locomotives were certainly constructed: in 1899 2-4-0T No. 2 (NER No. 1113); in 1891 0-6-0 No. 20 (1335), and 1895 0-4-4T No. 21 (1712). Other locomotives rebuilt (see Lowe). The locomotives had good cabs, were painted green, lettered "LR" with either a coronet or coat of arms between letters.

Sheffield Neepsend
1874-80: Twelve locos build under Sacre; seven class 11 0-4-2; cl 24 with double frames 2-4-0 two at Sheffield; d/f 0-6-0 cl 54 three. The locomotive running sheds at Sheffield were equipped to carry out major repairs but from 1874 to 1880 twelve locomotives were actually built in these sheds. Obviously all the necessary equipment for building new locomotives would not have been installed here and therefore boilers, frames, wheels and cylinders were either off earlier built types or they were supplied new by Gorton or locomotive building contractors.

West Hartlepool Harbour & Rly Co., formed in 1847 and amalgamated with Stockton & Darlinton Railway in 1853. In 1865 merged into NER. Nineteen locomotives were built under J.I. Carson, Locomotive Superintendent. Production was mainly 0-6-0s, but four 0-4-0T and two 2-2-2s also built

North Staffordshire Railway: The entry in Lowe is meagre in comparison with that for the North London Railway and one needs to look elsewhere for greater detail, notably to Basil Jeuda.
Jeuda, Basil. The North Staffordshire Railway's Stoke Works. 3 Parts: 1849 to 1927. Rly Arch., (1) 71-87; (2), 47-72; (3) 23-40.
Includes portraits of early Locomotive Superintendents.

Lowe estimated that 242 broad gauge locomotives were constructed between 1846 and 1860 (but this included renewals). A total of 5720 standard gauge and two narrow gauge (for Vale of Rheidol) were built. Prior to the end of the Great Western Railway 5124 standard gauge locomotives had been built, but this figure excludes 92 railcar (railmotor) power units and 80 LMS class 8F 2-8-0s. The final British Railways locomotive 92220 Evening Star was steamed on 25 March 1960. Figures 232 and 233 show plans of works in 1846 and 1920.
Peck, Alan Stanley: The Great Western at Swindon Works. Poole: Oxford Publishing Co, 1983. 281pp.
Holcroft's Locomotive adventure and his work on the Armstrongs both cover Swindon Works.

Working conditions
The difficult working condtions which persisted at Swindon are covered by Alfred Williams and by Freebury: both note the heat and filthy conditions: the former especially hated the oil-fired furnaces and the latter noted the human cost of welded fireboxes,

The policy at Swindon was to build its own locomotives, and the same policy was extended to the Stafford Road works. This entailed considerable reorganisation. and re-equipping, and during this interval Swindon supplied new locomotives to the 'standard' gauge. By 1859 the old running shed had been converted to an erecting shop and the old repair shop became a machine and fitting shop, with two pits for the erection of new locomotives remaining. The boiler shop and foundry were built on the site of the old goods yard. The first to be built were two of the 2-2-2 type to replace the old S&CR locomotives. With the acquisition of twenty-one locomotives of the Birkenhead Railway in 1860 and the West Midland Railway stock in 1863 amounting to 131, the capacity of the works, even with the assistance of Worcester, was such that extensions to the works were essen tial and a further erecting shop was built adjacent to the broad gauge running sheds on the opposite side of the road together with fitting and machine shops and a smithy.

In 1868 George Armstrong brought out the first 0-4-2T which was the forerunner of the well-known '517' class. The first fifty-four had saddle tanks and later ones side tanks, but all had side tanks eventually. There were many varieties and their construction continued until 1885 with a total of 156. They were not confined to the northern division but were dispersed all over the system. The other type built in quantity over the years was the 0-6-0ST; the first were double frame saddle tanks introduced by Joseph Armstrong. After the finish of the saddle tank orders, came an order to build some standard 2-6-2Ts as part of Churchward's standardisation plan. There were two classes: 44XX and 45XX. These were the last locomotives built here although rebuilding and heavy repairs continued.

In all 794 new locomotives and six rail motor units were constructed. The works were completely closed on 1 June, 1964.

Holcroft's Locomotive adventure and his work on the Armstrongs cover Wolverhampton Works.

Established in 1838 by London & Birmingham Railway by Edward Bury who was the railway's locomotive superintendent. New construction did not begin until 1845. New construction ceased in 1867, but locomotive repairs continued until 1877 whereafter the works concentrated on carriage and wagon work. On 18 July 1846 the LNWR Southern Division was created.

Harry Jack's Loocomotives of the LNWR Southern Division: London & Birmingham Railway, London and North Western Railway and Wolverton Works is the key source and has displaced Lowe. Copies should be purchased from the RCTS.

Oxford, Worcester & Wolverhampton Rly. Worcester workshops opened in 1854. First locomotives were completed in 1860-1: these were replacements for three Hawthorn 0-6-0 locomotives and probably reused some parts. These were 7 (240); 13 (244) and 19 (246) (GWR numbers in parentheses). Following the formation of the West Midlands Railway in1860, four similar locomotives were constructed at Worcester: 38 (260); 112 (261); 113 (262) and 114 (263). The bulk of the work was eventually transferred to Wolverhampton.

Wrexham, Rhosddu
Wrexham, Mold & Connahs Quay Railway. Repair shop opened in 1876. Previously heavy repairs had been performed at Miles Platting or at Oswestry. Some remarkable conversions or rebuilds were performed. A Manchester & Birmingham Railway 0-6-0, built by Sharp in 1846, which became LNWR No. 431 was rebuilt by the LNWR as an 0-6-0ST No. 1829. This was purchased by the WMCQR in 1876 and became its No. 6 Queen and thence became an 0-8-0ST in 1880, an 0-6-2ST in 1888, and following an accident in 1890 an 0-8-0ST. South Staffordshire Railway long boiler 0-6-0 built by Rober Stephenson in 1851, No. 12 Pelsall became an 0-6-0ST in 1865 with LNWR No. 1188 in 1867 and No. 1806 in 1871. This was acquired by the WMCQR via a contractor to become its No. 7, then No. 3, became an 0-6-2ST in 1882 was renovated as a 2-6-0T No. 3 and became GCR 400B. Fig. 574.

Whitehaven & Furness Junc. Rly: Furness Railway records state that No. 43 an 0-6-0 of 1866 was built in company workshop at?? (Lowe)

It is difficult to comprehend why Lowe did not place these works under the York and North Midland Railway which had originally constructed the works. Railway passed 114 locos to NER in 1854. No new construction until 1854, then until 1861 and again in 1884: earlier period 0-4-0 No. 278; 2-4-0 No. 271; and 293; 0-6-0 No. 305; 2-4-0 2554 and 260 and 0-4-0 263 and 272. The five constructed in 1884 were three 398 class 0-6-0s and two BTP class 0-4-4WT. York had its own distinctive livery.