The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 45 (1939)
key file

Number 557 (14 January)

Towards greater speed of service. 1-2
S.H. Fisher, Assistant Chief Operationg Manager of the LMSR address to the Institute of Transport. Notes submissions to the Transport Advisory Council from thge main line railway comapnies in the hope that some of the regulations placed upon railways would be reduced. Noted the quest for reduced transit times for both passengers and freight and for lighter vehicles, but observes that passenger trains were getting heavier due to quest for greater luxury. Pious hope that cross country transits would be eased (still further away than ever). Proposes use of bogie freaight vehicles carrying containers on routes such as London to Birmingham and Manchester to Glasgow. Notes limitation of short wheelbase four wheel freight wagons and suggests six-wheel

"The Green Howard" London & North Eastern Railway. 2. illustration
No. 4806 The Green Howard is illustrated to show the external linkage for the multiple valve regulator header. Leading dimensions are repeated.

The Rock Island "Rockets". 3-4. illustration
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway: Electro-Motive Corporation locomotive with 1200hp Winton diesel two-stroke engine capable of 117 mile/h running with Budd welded steel articulated cars with sponge rubber seating.The cars were fitted with electric-pneumatic brakes, with a four-speed retardation control in the leading car, and automatic slack adjusters are provided to allow for wearing of the wheels and brake shoes. Flexible diaphragms fill the spaces between the car bodies, giving an unbroken surface from the nose of the locomotive to the tail of the observation car. The cars are finished in bright stainless steel outside, while the locomotive is treated in maroon and vermilion, with bands and lettering of stainless steel. The steel used in the construction of the cars varies in tensile strength from 100,000 to 150,000 lb. A four-car train contains 209 seats, including 32 dining seats, and weighs 150 tons without the locomotive unit. At present the·' 'Rockets" are in operation on five different routes, giving day services in an cases. Runs between Chicago and Peoria and Chicago and Des Moines are made by two four- car sets. On the three remaining services, Kansas City-Des Moines-Minneapolis, Kansas City-Dallas, and Fort Worth-Houston, four three-car units are employed. The Fort Worth-Houston service is worked jointly with the Chicago-Burlington and Quincy Railroad, the Rock Island "Rocket" working alternate runs with one of the Burlington "Zephyr" trains.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Wear resistance of ferrous metals. 4-6
On 14 December Messrs. W. West and C. C. Hodgson presented a paper on the above subject before the Institution in London. The brief extract is on the ILocoE page for Paper 398.

E.A.  Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 6-9. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Wheel drops and locomotive hoists; manufactured by Ransomes & Rapier Ltd. See also letter from C.W. Clarke on page 126

The Railway Club. 9.
P.B. Ellison talk on the Hay Railway, 1810-1863 presented in London at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall.

Bengal N.W. Rly. 9
Order for 6 YB metre gauge 4-6-2 locomotives placed with Vulcan Foundry

Irish notes. 10-11. 3 illustrations
Commission to investigate Transport in Northern Ireland proposed that the Northern Ireland Road Transport Board, the Northern Counties Committee and Belfast & County Down Railway should merge and enter into a pooling agreement with the Great Nortthern Railway (Ireland). The BCDR should lose its separate identity. Transport provision in Ulster was greatly in excess of its needs.
On the NCC No. 23 (2-4-0) and No. 31 (0-6-0) had been retained inservice, but Nos. 51 and 57 had been scrapped making the C1 class 2-4-0 compound class extinct. 0-6-0 Nos. 30, 43 and 44 had been scrapped. 2-4-0 Nos. 45, 46, 51 and 57 had been scrapped and class F1 became extinct
V class 0-6-0 No. 13 had received the reconditioned boiler from No. 72 and had been painted black with the LMS crest on the cabside: the first NCC black locomotive.
On the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee 4-6-0T Nos. 4-9; 4-4-4T Nos. 10-11 and 2-4-0T Nos. 1-3 had been scrapped and the remaining stock had been renumbered.
Phoenix was described as a diesel tractor. It had been built as a steamer by Atkinson-Walker for the Clogher Valley Railway in 1928 and had been purchased by the County Donegal and fitted with a Gardner 2 L6 diesel engine in 1932. It worked between Stranolar and Strabane with one man in charge.
The last relics of the Dublin & Lucan Electric Railway was being lost through road widening.

Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France (British Section). 11
Brief description of paper presented by O.V.S. Bulleid entitled Modern long distance high speed trains in Great Briatin on 27 May 1938 in Paris wherein he described the Cheltenham Flyer, Bristolian, Silver Jubilee, Coronation and Coronation Scot and noted the problems of braking them, but punctuality had been extremely good.

Eastern Section electrification, L.N.E.R. 11-12.

Leadhills and Wanlockhead Light Railway. 12. illustration
Closure 2 January 1939. Photograph by A.C.W. Lowe of former CR 0-4-4T No. 15238 (with spark arrester) at Wanlockhead

Ray McBrain. The Magnaflux method of testing and inspection. 13-14. 4 illustrations

A.C.W. Lowe. The West Cornwal Railway. 15-18. 4 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Until 1852 W. Bruton was the resident engineer and his responsibilities included locomotives. J.D. Sheriff officiated at the Carn Brea repair shops and Slater was succeeded by H. Appleby. When the South Devon Railway took over the locomotive stock became the responsibility of J. Wright. Three locomotives were taken over from the Hayle Railway: Cornubia, Carn Brea and Penzance. Coryndon was purchased from Chanter who had worked the line under contract. A 2-2-2 with smoke eliminator was constructed at Carn Brea from parts supplied by Stothert & Slaughter, brought by sea from Bristol to Hayle and thence conveyed by road. It was assembled by Joseph Ramsden under the supervision of Slater. In 1851 it was named Penzance, was changed to Hayle in 1858 and survived until 1860 and was not cut up until 1866

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway.18-20. 2 illustrations, 2 tables
Continued page 70.

Locomotives in Hyde Park, London. 20. illustration
In 1869-70 used in association with cleaning the Serpentine used by the contrctor Jay & Co.

J.L. Koffmann. Railcar operation at high altitudes. 21-3. illustration, 2 diagrams, table.

L.M.S.R. 23.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 23

Some "improved" locomotive valve gears. 24-6. 4 diagrams.
Berthe gear exhibited in Paris in 1900; the Durant and Lencauchez gears described in Locomotive Mag. in 1914 (December) and 1915 (February); the Bonneford gear and J.T. Marshall gear as fitted to Maunsell 2-6-0

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. II Carriage and wagon underframes. 26-8. illustration, 2 diagrams.

London & North Eastern Rly. 28.
Four 2-6-0 class K engines had been completed at Darllngton, No. 3443 Cameron of Lochiel, No. 3444 Lord of the Isles, No. 3445 Mac Cailin Mor, and No. 3446 Lord of Dunvegan.

A 300 ton wagon. 28.
The English Steel Corporation placed an order with  Head, Wrightson and Co. Ltd. for an all-steel welded wagon with a capacity of 300 tons with a length of 60 ft. over buffers and carried on four six-wheeled articulated bogies.

L.M.S.R. 28
New power driven turntables to be installed at the following depots:-Plodder Lane (Bolton), Widnes, Keswick, Wellingborough, Sheffield (Grimesthorpe), Peterborough, Toton (Derbyshire), Evesham, Leicester, and Liverpool (Exchange). Eight of the new turntables to be of larger diameter than those which they replace, in order to accommodate bigger locomotives.

Great Western Railway. 28
The following engines had been completed at Swindon and were in service: Nos. 3220 and 3221 (4-4-0 passenger engines); Nos. 2894 to 2898 (2-8-0 mineral engines); No. 7249 (2-8-2T), No. 8103 (2-6-2T) and Nos. 3795 and 3796 (0-6-0T). The following had been withdrawn: No. 880 (0-6-0 goods, ex Cambrian No. 77); Nos. 1220, 1641, 1765, 1806 and 1947 (0-6-0T); No. 3181 (2-6-2T), No. 4371 (2-6-0), and No. 4068 Llanthony Albbey (4-6-0).

Reviews. 28

The history of the Highland Railway. H.A. Vallance. London: Arthur H. Stockwell, Limited.
Various factors have gone to make the old Highland Railway a favourite with those who love railways for their own sake. The beauty of the country it served had something to do with this, but perhaps even more compelling was the way this small company carried on traffic over long distances, in the face of Nature at her unkindest, and with a banking account that was never very fat. As might be expected, Vallance's book is a quite unofficial labour of love, and for it. he deserves congratulations, more, indeed, than those who have been responsible for the book's production. He has certainly made a very good job of it. There are seventeen chapters, covering the whole of the Highlandts history, beginning with Joseph Mitchell's earliest proposals for an Inverness to Perth direct railway, which was born in the Railway Mania of 1845. One may quarrel with a few of the author's non-railway references. It is hardly fair on General Wade, for instance, to wr i te that in building his famous roads he "only considered the military aspect of the undertaking" for Wade was a far-seeing and humane man who certainly did not have "pacification" as his sole object. On the opposite side, the memory of nineteenth century landowners in the Highlands, who were the Highland's principal sponsors, is somewhat buttered up, though it should scarcely be implied that the "improvements" (forced evictions) ceased with the coming of railway transport. Vallance's capacity as a railway historian is undoubted, and his account of the gradual formation of the ultimate H.R system, the quarrels with the Great North of Scotland, and especially of its unfulfilled aspirations, is most valuable. The Great Norrh adopted the role of an interfering rich uncle, though by that time was anything but rich. An excellent chapter, too, is devoted to the difficulties of single line working, and in this occurs the authentic story of the Englishman who took two days to travel from Inverness to Perth. Special chapters are also devoted to the train services, the H.R.'s unenviable role in the Great War, accidents and fighting the "Snow Fiend," as well as a complete chapter on the company's little-known steamships.
Though detailed accounts of performance, rebuilding, and working are necessarily precluded, the section devoted to Highland locomotives is comprehensive and reliable, the fortunes of even the obscurest Highland engines being faithfully followed. Very welcome, too, is the material, much of it hitherto unknown to the general reader, relating to the Carriage Department, and particularly to the early sleeping cars. But the reviewer is a little surprised at an historian of . Vallarices calibre referring to Alexander Allen, and to Sir John Rarnsbottom.
The illustrations are numerous and well chosen, but they suffer from poor printing. There are several most interesting maps, showing the system as it was, the system al Mitchell conceived it in 1845, and various suggested scheme in the remoter Highlands and in the Inner and Oute Hebrides. On the whole, Vallnce has given us a valuable book, which those who know the old Highland will undoubtedly welcome.

British light railways. R.W. Kidner. London: Oakwood Press. 28-9
In his preface to this work the author refers to travel on light railways as a mode "which was sometimes useful, too often merely comic, but nevertheless an important part of thl history of transport." Most of our readers will agree with this, and in view of the number of these concerns which have ceased to function during recent years, will be glad of a record of their scope and activities. The railways, over sixty in number, are dealt with in six groups, and for each there is a diagram of lines and stations, showing locomotive sheds and sidings with the distances of the principal stations, Dates of opening and closing, together with a list of locomotives and some details of coaches, track, signalling, livery and tickets, are also appended. The whole of the British Isles is covered by the work, which is illustrated by 91 excellent half tone blocks, these forming a useful record of the locomotives and scenery of the various lines. It is, however, much to be regretted that the small locomotive sketches, which number 204, have been so crudely drawn.

Old Euston. G. Royde Smith. London: Country Life Limited, for the London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 70 pp. plus 6 plates. 29
The book produced by that well-known authority on early railway history, the assistant secretary of the L.M.S.R., in accordance with the desires of the L.M.S.R. directors to have a brief retrospect coincident with the centenary celebrations of the London and Birmingham Railway, the first of England's main line routes, is not only accurate and balanced without being tedious or compendious, but is also delightful to read. The title is symbolic of the importance of Euston to the L. & B.R., and to the L.N.W.R. and L.M.S.R. in after years, and the contents are a resume of the human essentials of the first thirteen years of more than a century of activity rather than an account of the London terminus itself, the history of which can be summed up in one sentence of Mr. Royde Smith's: Nobody remembers the time when Euston Station was not being altered or added to in one way or another." First there are chapters on the origin of the London and Birmingham Railway itself, on the Euston extension line, the Hardwick arch and the Central Hall, and on the increase of traffic. Then comes an almost impartial but friendly chapter on Edward Bury and his locomotives, which everybody should welcome, for there has been a fashion to decry him. It was no joke being a responsible engineer on the L & B.R. in the early days, for the Quaker directors, Cropper and Rathbone, not only made Bury's life unpleasant, but, as Robert Stephenson recorded in a lenter to Michael Longridge dated 26 January 1835, they were in hue and cry after their civil engineer, too. Then again, it appears that some of the directors did not consider themselves there simply to direct, but to interfere in the management.
There must be some regret that Mr. Royde Smith has not spent just another dozen lines on the Harvey Combe, Stephenson's pa:tent engine of 1835. According to Warren, in A Century of Locomotive Building, it is this engine which is described in Marshall's Description of the Patent Locornotire Steam Engine of Robert Stephenson and Co., 1838, but Ahrons states that it is a somewhat later engine of the same type which is described in Tredgold's Steam Engine. The present records state that it was built for Belgium and sold to Cubitt, who was contractor for the London and Birmingham line, but Warren states simply (p. 320) that it was built [or Cubitt. The drawing in Mr. Royde Smith's book agrees with that given by Warren (which was taken from Marshalls work) except the positions of the dome and manhole.

Engineering workshop principles and practice. A.G, Robson. Manchester: Emmott & Co. Ltd., 29
The importance of this book to a student should be in almost direct relation to the time in his apprenticeship when he begins to study. If it should not come into his hands for six months Or a year after he has begun to serve his time, the undoubted value of the first half-dozen or so chapters will be lost upon him, for he will have already formed several bad habits which no amount of correct instruction will wholly break off. As the L.C.C. has adopted this work as a textbook, there is a chanoe here, at least, that the full value of the book will be extracted, In 32 chapters an amazing amount of general engineering and machine tool practice is covered, and covered well, for the text and illustrations give an apprentice just that what he needs to know about the tools and machines which he is to use and about others around him, although possibly it is asking a little too much of student-apprentices to expect them to appreciate the chapters on gauge-making, heat treat- ment of steel, and the manufacture and properties of metals. In its technical aspects the book is quite up-to-date, and is singularly free from those examples of Victorian engineering practice which are a characteristic of many works which originated in pre-war years.

Correspondence. 29-30

Edward Fletcher. J.W,A..
Re correspondence on Fletcher .boilers, and a cutting I have from The Engineer 30 June 1882, sheds some light on the weakness of Fletcher's boilers. Colonel Yolland, reporting on an accident to engine No. 204, class 398 (standard 0-6-0), which blew up at Thornaby on 26 December 1881, says "that the accident was probably caused by the crown of the firebox becoming overheated from want of water, and thus weakened, having been unable to resist the pressure caused by the sudden creation of steam upon water being admitted to the boiler. "
The boiler was only in use 21 months, and the copper firebox and stays were in good condition, and it was unknown whether the one water gauge was faulty or the driver had been careless, but he states that it is most desirable that duplicate gauges be fitted to all boilers. The main point of his findings, however, is that the difference of level between the top of the boiler and the crown of the firebox was only 13 in., which was small in the case of this engine, and would, of course, allow the firebox crown to become uncovered very quickly, without constant attention. He was not aware of the greatest difference in levels then existing, but some engineers kept down the firebox crown 20 in. below the top of the boiler, and 15 in.-18 in. was a common difference of level. The lead plug (which failed to give way) was found to have been covered over with a hard incrustation at the bottom of the lead. This had not been removed for four or five months, there being no regular time for renewal at that period. The above may throw some light on the Fletcher boiler weakness.
Incidentally, the five men killed in the explosion were buried in the North Cemetery, Darlington, and photographs of four of them are mounted in lead frames round the memorial erected to their memory.

Edward Fletcher.  C. Hamilton Ellis.
Further to W.B. Thompson's comments on the liability of Fletcher's North Eastern locomotives to boiler explosion, the following extract from the official report on the Silksworth accident of January 1880 may be of interest: "From a careful examination of the surfaces of fracture there is but little doubt that the explosion commenced on the left hand side along .the junction of plates 1 and 4, where there is deep grooving in the lower plate, in some instances extending through almost its entire thickness in a line along the bottom of the overlapping portion of the upper plate. This grooving would have been hardly discoverable (even had it then existed) when the inside of the Iboiler was examined at the end of 1878, as it was to a certain extent covered by the overlapping edge of the upper plate. This grooving was no doubt more or less due to the proximity of the joint to the plate attached to the side of the firebox, which rests on another plate attached to the framing to permit of the expansion and contraction of the boiler. The bearing surface being considerable, a great deal of resistance is offered to free expansion and contraction, and much work, giving rise to grooving, consequently takes place in the joint in question."

Robert Sinclair. G.G. Woodcock.
Re article upon R. Sinclair in the Locomotive of November issue. Your contributor might have mentioned that Sinclair with Allan was one of the first to introduce long laps and valve travel as we know it to-day. Probably owing to the haphazard lubrication systems in use at the time, he as quickly dropped it. By the way, it is interesting to note that although Gooch had commenced construction of locomotives at Stratford, the first being his 2-2-2 tanks 1851-54, Sinclair never constructed any there except five small 2-4-0 side tanks for the Woolwich branch.

The Webb compounds. C. Williams. 30
Re the letters by W.B. Thompson and W.T.H. on page 402 of the December issue The first three Teutonic class compounds were built with experimental low pressure cylinders of different sizes, and just prior to the buiiding of the seven remaining engines of the class in 1890, Webb decided to adopt the 30 in. as standard. Consequently Teutonic retained the original l.p. diameter. whilst those of the Oceanic and Pacific were both modified to the new standard in ]890. Although not previously recorded, it may be of interest to note that a number of the Dreadnoughts were subsequently fitted with h.p. cylinders 15 in. in diameter, including No. 545 Tamerlane which also had the l.p. cylinder reduced to 28 in. in diameter. As regards the 0-8-0 three-cylinder compound No. 1880, I well remember seeing this engine in 1900 both before and after it was converted (the date 1903 for the latter is incorrect). Originally it had a large cylindrical (not Belpaire) firebox with a corresponding large boiler, and was so built, I believe, as an experiment. I regret that I am not able to furnish any details of the firebox in question.

Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co., Ltd. 30
Railway Traction Work during 1938. Work on the electrification of the Central Railway of Brazil has continued satisfactorily throughout the year, the sections being open for traffic progressively as completed. The first order for 52 Metadyne Control Train Units from the London Passenger Transport Board had been followed by two further orders totalling a further 73 equipments. The order from the South African Railways for a further 42 electric locomotives received in 1937 has been completed. Twenty-seven of these locomotives were despatched before 31 October, and a further ten during November and December. The total number of locomotives ordered by the South African Railways was 162.
An important order had been received from the London and North Eastern Railway for the complete electrical equipments for 70 main line mixed traffic locomotives in connection with the electrification of the Manchesterv Sheffield-Wath lines. Work on these equipments was well advanced and deliveries would commence during 1939. The mechanical parts will be manufactured by the London and North Eastern Rly. at their Doncaster Works, where the Metropolitan- Vickers Company will erect the electrical equipment and complete the locomotives.
The locomotives will weigh about 84 tons each and run on 1,500 volts D C. They are equipped with 4-axle mounted motors having a total one-hour rating of 1,850 h.p. and designed to draw 250 ton passenger trains up a gradient of 1 in 125 at 53 m.p.h., 500 ton express goods trains up a similar gradient at 40 m.p.h., or 700 ton goods trains up a similar grade at 26 m.p.h. The maximum speed is to be 65 m.p.h. The locomotives are to be equipped for regenerative working, which will be a very valuable feature in handling the heavy freight rrains down the long grades in the Pennines. An additional 24 motor coach equipments for the suburban electrification near Sydney, Australia. had been ordered by the New South Wales Government Railways, The motors were being made by the Australian General Electric Company to Metropolitan-Vickers design, and parts of the control apparatus were being manufactured at Trafford Park.

Trade Notes and Publications. 30

The Butterley Company, Limited,  30
Butterley Iron Works, near Derby, have orders for the steelwork for a bridge carrying Wilford Road, Nottingharn, over the L.M.S.R., main line. The bridge has five spans and an angle of skew of approximately 45 deg. The old ironwork to be demolished weighs 350 tons, and the weight of the new steel structure will be 230 tons. The Butterley Company have also secured the contract for approximately 1,200 tons of steelwork in five bridges in connection with the widening and electrification of approximately two miles of track for the G.W.R. at Ruislip.

General Electric Co., Ltd. 30
The opening of an extensive addition tothe Southampton Works of Pirelli-General Cable Works, Ltd., an associate of the G.E.C., marks an important stage in the development of this Company's manufacturing resources. Originally, all types of Pirelli-General cables were made at Southampton, but in 1928 the increasing demand for power cable and super-tension ca-ble led to the erection of a new factory at Eastleigh, where paper insulated cables (including the super-tension oil-filled type) and telephone cables are produced. Additional space was thus made available at Southampton for the manufacture of rubber-insulated cable, flexible cords and covered wires for winding and instrument work, and in the last few years the factory has been successively enlarged, attaining a covered 'area of 350,000 sq. ft. at the end of last year. Recently, however, the still increasing demand made a new extension of 80,000 sq. ft. necessary, bringing the total area of factory under cover to about 425,000 sq. ft.

[ R. C. Giggins]. 30
An appointment in the G.E.C. is that of R.C. Giggins to the administrative staff of its Government and Railways Department. The activities of this department have increased ver y considerably during the past few years, and present conditions have made it busier than ever before. Giggins has been with the G.E.C. for 24 years. Since 1929 he has been General Manager of the Company's organisation in Malaya, where he was one of the pioneers of-and later Chairman of-the British Malaya Broadcasting Corporation.

Report on Economic and Commercial Conditions in Portugal, by A. H. W. King, O.B.E. 30
Issued by His Majesty's Stationery Office references are made to the deterioration of the financial position of the Portuguese Railways due to road competition and increase in cost of coal and other materials. The average price paid for coal in 1936 was 18s. 11d. per ton, which rose to 27s. 3d. per ton in 1938. At the end of 1936, 2,768 km. of broad gauge and 723 km. of narrow gauge railway were being operated. The rolling stock consisted of 526 steam locomotives, 22 electric motors, 1,298 passenger carriages, and 9,601 wagons, of which 1,138 were privately owned.

RapieR-Fairmont Rail Motor Cars
Title of a leaflet received from Ransomes & Rapier. Types of inspection and gang trolleys are illustrated.

Bassett Lowke Ltd. of Northampton. 30
New catalogue of Gauge 0 scale Model Railways. It is very complete and most attractively produced. There are eleven sections covering locomotives — clockwork, electric and steam; rolling S10ck, passenger and goods stations, tunnel mouths, signal cabins and accessories of all kinds.

Number 558 (15 February1939)

Cast steel frames. 31.
The cast steel frame began to displace the forged bar frame in American locomotive practice about 1908. The reasons for this and previous changes may be briefly reviewed as illustrating the progress made in frame construction in that country.
The bar frame was originally introduced in the United States because no facilities existed for producing plates suitable for frames, whereas a smith of average skill was capable of forging a frame from bars. This frame never could lay claim to simplicity but was found in practice to possess certain advantages although expensive to make and repair.
The forged frame was displaced by the cast steel frame which in its original form consisted of cast steel side members, generally resembling the forged members they succeeded, independent cylinders, cross-ties, etc., being retained. At this juncture, 'it is of interest to note that where separate sides are still utilised the bar frame is sometimes produced by flame cutting from a solid steel slab; in this process the slab after straightening' is heated to between 400°F. and 600°F. and held at this temperature during the cutting process, being afterwards normalised. The present development of the cast steel frame has resulted from much research and may fairly be claimed to ha ve radically affected locomotive design, and as a corollary construction and maintenance. This type of frame is usually referred to as a "bed" and may vary between the compara- tively simple one-piece steel casting, comprising the sides and cross braces, as introduced in 1924, to the modern bed consisting of sides, cross braces, cylinders, back cylinder covers, inside steam pipes, smokebox saddle, sundry brackets, brake hangers, etc., constituting one of the most elabo- rate steel castings ever manufactured. At first sight it may appear that excessive weight must be associated with this form of construction, but this is not the case as the metal may be propor- tioned subject to the stresses involved-a procedure largely impracticable with the bar or plate frame. The obvious advantages are reduced maintenance and greater freedom in design.
There are many comparatively modern locomo- tives at work to-day which are in frequent need of frame repairs and alignment, cylinders tightening, etc.-troubles which cannot arise with the cast bed.
That the claim for reduced maintenance is amply substantiated would appear from the fact that railways in some countries are prepared to import these beds, although the cost is considerably increased by duties.
In addition to this type of construction being used on some of the largest steam locomotives, e.g., the Baltimore and Ohio 4-4-4-4 engines, (the bed of which has four integral cylinders), and the Southern Pacific 4-8-8-2 articulated locomotives (having a bed for each unit), the one-piece cast bed is also utilised for Electric and Diesel locomotives. Representative of the former are those incorporated in the Pennsylvania Class GG-1 electric passenger locomotives, while some of the latter have the fuel-oil and water tanks cast integral. The type of construction under review is definitely established and one firm alone has sup- plied upwards of 1,650 cast beds to some 40 rail- ways operating on the American and Australian Continents; further, the use of these is by no means confined to new construction as they have been applied to literally hundreds of rebuilt engmes. .
So far locomotive builders in this Country, while no doubt generally interested in these frames, have refrained from incorporating them or producing them, but the time has come when the production facilities must be reviewed.
Fashions in locomotive practice may not change frequently, but when change is decided upon it is usually and necessarily sudden. As an example we may cite the etherlands Railways; for many years Holland was looked upon as a stronghold of British practice and plate frames were as a consequence used, but when new locomotives were supplied in 1929 bar frames made their appearance. It is probable that an enquiry from an overseas market may before long contain a stipulation that a cast bed must be incorporated.
While locomotive builders need not necessarily produce such units themselves—and in America many are produced and machined by steel founders and supplied to builders-it would, we think, be opportune to ascertain, and if necessary assure, that facilities are available here for the production of such castings. It would also be advantageous to look over machine-shop equipment, as although the machining required is far less than on a frame assembled from components, the setting-up and machining of such a large casting obviously presents problems to shops hitherto dealing only with the smaller components. of plate or bar frames.

South African Railways, new Beyer-Garratt locomotives. 32-3. illustration.
Part of an extensive replacement programme, sixteen Beyer-Garratt locomotives with the 4-8-2 + 2-8-4 wheel arrangement had been supplied by Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd. of Manchester. Among many features was the provision of an auxiliary water tank (not shown in illustration). This was necessary in order to keep the max. axle weight down to 15 tons; even this is a higher loading than normally permissible and was conceded conditionally on the weight usually placed on the bogies being reduced, together with a restriction in reciprocating balance. These engines were believed to be the most powerful ever placed on 60 lb. rails and were intended to work on the Johannesburg-Zeerust-Mafeking line; with long grades as steep as 1 in 40 in addition to curves as sharp as 477 ft. radius. The comparatively large wheel diameter of 4 ft. 6 in. was decided upon with a view to reducing maintenance costs and to permit of the use of these locomotives on passenger trains. For an engine of 3 ft. 6 in. gauge the boiler was of exceptional size, but despite this the centre is only 8 ft. 6 in. above rail level. Although a new type, these engines contain many details and parts interchangeable with those of other recent classes. A smart appearance has resulted from leaving the planished steel covering of the boiler unpainted and the use of stainless steel crinoline bands, hand rails and cylinder covers. On test these engines have handled trains of 750 tons, and it is anticipated that their use will increase the capacity of the line by approximately 50 per cent.

Departure of the "Coronation Scot" to America. 33
The M.S. Belpamela left Southampton Docks on Thursday, 26 Jan.. Two special trains, one composed of the engine and the 'Other of the coaches, made a midnighrt: journey from Willesden Junction direct to Southampton Docks, arriving there in the early hours of January 19. The engine did not travel under her own steam, but was hauled dead with connecting-rods and other gear packed up securely for the 2,000 miles sea journey. The coaches, covered with a coating of wax to protect them from exposure, and a1l movable fitments securely lashed, formed a separate train. The engine and tender were lifted by the ship's derricks into .the hold, and the coaches, lashed and screw-coupled, were carried on deck. The Belpamela was expected to reach Baltimore, her port of entry into the United States, on or about 14 Feb. Immediately on arrival the train will be assembled at the Baltimore shops of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and, after a trial run, will start on her 3,121 miles American tour prior to exhibition at the World's Fair, New York.

Correction.- 33
It was stated in our Irish Notes last month that the proposed capital of the new Northern Ireland Transport Merger was the sum of four million pounds. This figure, however, only refers to the existing capital liabilities of the Northern Ireland Road Transport Board, and the capital of the new body will be considerably greater.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Diesel train with multiple axle drives. 33-4.
Resume of paper by Haworth and Horbuckle Paper No. 400: reproduced thereat

L.M.S.R. 34
Additional 2-8-0 standard freight engines (Class 8) recently turned out at Crewe were Nos. 8098-8103. Of this series the first five engines, Nos. 8096-8100, had been allocated to the Midland division. The series of twenty 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines recently completed at Crewe were now all in service in the Northern division, Nos. 5452-5471 inclusive. The first ten went to the Highland section, whilst two of the others, Nos. 5469 and, 5470, were at Edinburgh. No. 5515 of the three-cylinder 4-6-0 Patriot class had been named Caernarvon. The following ex L.N.W. G1 class 0-8-0s had been converted to class G2 and had the power classification raised from 6 to 7: -Nos. 8905, 9114, 9281, and 9392. These engines were fitted with standard Belpaire boilers. Recent withdrawals on the Western Division include the following ex-L. N. W. engines :-4-4-0 Nos. 25322 F. S. P. Wolferstan, 25357 Bassethound (George V class) ; 4-6-0 Nos. 25756, 25802 (Prince of Wales class); 4-4-2 Tank Nos. 6806, 6826. One of the ex-C.R. Pugs was at Crewe to await scrapping, No. 16004. The latest 2-6-4 passenger tank ex Derby was No. 2652. Recent withdrawals included ex-M.R. 2-4-0s Nos. 20092, 20238, 20267; and 0-4-4 tanks Nos. 1228 and 1392.

"The Coronation Scot" [for the] New York World's Fair, 1939. 35-9. 7 illustrations, plan.

Irish notes. 41-2. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)

A century of Austrian loco. practice. 43-4.. 3 illustrations

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous lcomotive engineers. IX. William Adams. 51-5. 4 illustrations (including portrait)
See also letter from J. Kite on page 126

E.R.S. Watkin. Locomotives of the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd. 57-8. 2 illustrations

Correspondence. 62

A centenary of Austrian locomotive practice. F. Gaiser. 62
In the articles, "A Century of Austrian Locomotive Practice" (May, July, Sept. and October of Locomotive Mag.), the Hall system is frequently alluded to. As this system is somewhat intricate, it is excusable if inaccuracies 'have crept in. As to the first of Hall's innovations, Derens correctly states on page 368 of the November issue that they were started in Munich and not in Austria. He also describes the "Lagerhalskurbel" (journal or bearing crank) in such a lucid manner that nothing can be added. There are, however, some other points which need to be corrected. Joseph Hall left England, where he is said to have collaborated with Robert Stephenson, for Bavaria in 1840, and became locomotive engineer of the Muenchen and Augsburg Rail-way. He soon won the full confidence of Joseph Anton von Maffei who was general manager of the M. & A. Rly., and when this gentleman decided to build locomotives in his own works at Hirschau near Munich, he appointed Hall as works manager, Maffei himself being merely a financier not an engineer. During his stay with Maffei, Hall brought out his two patents which so greatly influenced the locomotive building in Southern Germany, especially in Bavaria, and later on in Austria, viz. :— (a) The patent of 1853, concerning his eccentric crank, and (b) That of 1856, concerning his journal crank, both referring to outside framed outside cylindered locomotives only, the object being to put the eccentric outside the frames without resorting to Crampton's return crank which would have, made the engine too broad. For this purpose the two eccentrics, wrought in one piece, were forged on to the inside of the crank web, the connecting rod in this case being always nearer to the engine centre than the coupling rods, thus holding the cylinder distances at a tolerable distance. With this device, the eccentrics could not be altered in their relative position to each other, nor in that to the axle, and this might theoretically seem a defect; nevertheless, the engines worked excellently in practice and were great favourites with the men. The eccentric cranks were only practicable on single and hind coupled engines, therefore when the Bavarian State Railways ordered two experimental engines in 1856, one a 0-4-0 and the other a 0-6-0 engine, Hall had to take out a fresh patent for his journal crank. The invention was not entirely new because one had been shown at the Paris Exhibition of 1855 on an engine for the Paris-Sceaux Railway. In most of the 0-6-0 coupled engines of the second Hall system the motion was entirely inside the frames ; there were, however, a certain number of locomotives, especially in Austria and Russia, where loading gauges are more liberal, which had return cranks for the eccentrics as well as Hall's journal cranks. Such an engine is shown on p. 285 (Brenner Rly., drawing and photo.), but the return crank as such has nothiing to do with Hall's patents. It is and remains Crampton's invention and has never been claimed by Hall. When in 1858 Hall went to Austria as works manager of W. Guenher's locomotive works at Wiener-Neustadt, there immediatly followed an increased demand for locomotives construted on his patents for Austria, Hungary, Russia and even ermany. Hall left Wiener-Neustadt in 1860 to superintend the rail-rolling mills of the Southern Ry. at Graz, yet the demand for his locomotive system remained unabated for several decades. The number of 257 engines with Hall's journal cranks as given on page 368 of the November issue refers only to 2-4-0 locomotives built for Austrian railways. The number of 0-6-0 engines with such cranks must have reached two thousand at least, considering that the Hungarian State Railways alone had about seven hundred besides, there were many in Austria, Bavaria, and on certain Prussian and Russian railways.
An interesting variety had grown up in Prussia, a 2-4-0 passenger engine with Hall journal cranks for the driving axle only, 199 in all (see Helmholtz and Staby p. 182/3). From 1867 onwards some of the Austrian railways with-drew from the Hall system without abandoning the outside frame, and built their engines with ordinary cranks. The two upper pictures on p. 360 of the November issue show engines of this latter description. If they had had Hall cranks described in the patent of 1856, there would be no place for fastening an eccentric (for working a feed pump) between the frame and the crank. In these cases the cylinder dis-tance was excessive ; but this seemed preferable to the fre-quent breakages of the Hall cranks. Engines with Hall's eccentric cranks were scarcely less numerous than those with journal cranks, but at the time of the Vienna Exposition (1873) the name of the inventor com-pletely vanished so that Hall addressed a' letter to the editor of "Engineering" to assert his authorship ("Engineering," 1873, p. 349). In former volumes of the "Locomotive" two engines with eccentric cranks, both built by Maffei, were illustrated, the one in Vol. VIII (1903, I p. 375) and the other in Vol. IX (1903, II) p. 102.

Reviews. 62

D. A. Low's Pocket book for mechanical engineers. 1938. Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.
Well known pocket book is so wide in its scope that any attempt to describe its contents is unnecessary. Many of the tables have been revised and corrected and further data included concerning weights, rolled sections, ball and roller bearings, gearing, fuels etc. In all about 240 pages have been added to and altered. The section dealing with proportions of machines and machine details is still a special feature.

The Railway Handbook. The Railway Publishing Co. Ltd.
This useful handbook of 96 pp. 'summarizes data concern-ing the world's railways and contains essential facts relating to their history and present day organisation.

Torsional Vibration J. Law. London: The Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd.
The cause and effect of vibration in machinery is a subject of great importance to many engineers, and it is likely the in-formation in this 58-page booklet will assist many in preparing their calculations.

Mechanical World Year Book, 1939.—London : Emmott and Co., Ltd.,
52nd edition of this useful publication contains, as usual, sections on a wide range of subjects met with in work-shop and general engineering practice, all of which have been subjected to detailed revision where necessary. A new feature is the inclusion of concise tabular information on the properties and preparatory treatment of alloyed metals. In view of the now widespread use of these the details given will be much appreciated.

Number 559 (15 March 1939)

Design and maintenance. 63
Despite the constant small advances which are being made in the thermal efficiency of the steam locomotive, such as lower coal consumption and lower water and steam rates, there is comparatively little further to go before the limit is reached if present principles are retained. It is true that considerable improvement could be made in the performance of the generality of loco- motives in the matter of live and exhaust steam flow and in valve motion design, but the latest type~ of well-designed main line engines take full advantage of modern knowledge and research. On the other hand, of the millions of pounds which are spent each year in repairing. steam locomotives and keeping them m runmng trim, an appreciable proportion could be saved by closer attention to the detail design, and, generally speaking, progress in this phase of locomotive life has not kept pace with developments in cylinder, valve motion and boiler design as affected by considerations of thermodynamics. But time is money, and quite apart from any improvements in the actual design of details which will result in longer life, the facility with which adjustments and repairs can be carried out may have a much bigger effect on the total operating cost than, say, even a ten per cent. sav- ing in the fuel consumption.
It is for this reason, above all others, that roller bearings have become popular for axleboxes. The. fact that they produce less frictional losses is of no real consequence except, perhaps, for certain electrified urban and suburban railways, but it is a very real gain to have a box running for a couple of months without inspection, and runnmg possibly four or five times that period without reguiring anything more than topping up with oil or grease, and for this saving the extra first cost and dead weight of the box is a small price to pay. The ordinary outside axlebox is by no means always easy to deal with, particularly m the quick withdrawal of the brasses and keys. These details, and the axle collars and shoulders, should be so proportioned that the lift before the whole box can be pulled off is a minimum. The usual leather or wooden guard at the back is generally anything but dust-proof, and many troubles can be traced to this cause.
As a rule, large-wheeled engines are more economical to maintain than are smaller-wheeled varieties of the same general type, partly owing to the fewer power impulses and revolutions for a given mileage, but also because of the generally greater accessibility of the motion and running gear. The usual freight engine with small and closely-pitched wheels, often almost solid with balance weights and crank arms, is deficient im respect to the ready accessibility of details such, as spring and brake nggmg and axlebox tops. For such engines a reduction in the balanced proportion of reciprocating weights brings a double advantage, for not only is the riding easier, and the hammer-blow lightened (almost invariably there is a greater percentage balanced than is necessary), but the sizes of the weights in the wheels are reduced, and it is then easier to get between the spokes when making repairs to the brake, spring and other rigging. Double-bolt strap-type big-ends are nothing short of an unmitigated nuisance, and there is no reason for their perpetuation. Great improvement can be recorded over the last few years by the adoption of a simple end in which the keep is in one forging with the bolts, and the rod foot fits over these bolts. This pattern can be used with or without adjustment. The non-adjustable big-end is of itself a great contribution to simplicity, but the amount of big-end knock which is heard these days is an indication of how carefully the maintenance work should be performed.
Many improvements on the lines mentioned above are to be found in the leading express types, but less attention has been paid to freight, shunting, and industrial designs, in which, for example, strap ends are still common for new engines, even in conjunction with extremely short rods. The majority of these locomotives have boilers pitched at a lower height than is necessitated by the loading gauge; not only is the firebox volume thereby diminished, but with inside-cylinder engines the boiler is right down on the motion, and it becomes a tedious matter to replace such details as the valve spindle and crosshead cotters. It is usually easy enough to knock these out from below, but it is almost impossible to get a swing of the hammer when replacing them, and if they are inserted at a fiat angle the shape of the frames and the location of the motion plate, guides, and rods prevents any advantage being gained. The cylinders of such engines usually being jammed close up behind the drawbar spring, it is an awkward job renewing piston rings, particularly when the engine is hot. The quality of the maintenance available for shunting and industrial engines is not always of the best, and for such instances outside-cylinder engines have a distinct advantage. Lettere from J.G.B. Sams on p. 126 on roller bearings.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Problems connected with locomotive design. 64.
W.A. Stanier's Presidential Address given on 22 February 1939 dealt with some of the problems in locomotive design still to be solved and methods adopted on the L.M.S. Rly. to meet them. A few extracts from the address follow.
The increased size and weight and higher speeds are bringing into prominence all over the world the necessity of studying the locomotive more closely as a vehicle on the track. The inter-dependence of the engine and the track it runs on has long been recognised, but we in this country have been in a fortunate position for many years i.n that our track has generally been able to withstand, by a generous margin, the loads and forces which our locomotives have brought to bear upon it.
It is becoming realised that the lateral forces exerted by the engine on the track are of hardly less importance than the vertical loads, and the question of the guiding of an engine and the flange forces exerted is coming into prominence. Experiments have drawn attention to the fact that it is the leading coupled wheels at which the highest flange forces are attained. It is easy to visualise this in an engine without guiding wheels, and, where guiding wheels are fitted in the form of a bogie or pony truck, some degree of control has to be exerted. The object is not only to relieve some of the coupled wheel flange forces when the engine is rounding a curve, out also, by restraining the extremities of the engine, to avoid oscillation and resulting flange forces on the straight. The problem consists of so choos- ing the arrangement and value of the guiding elements that the flange forces of even a heavy loco- motive at high speed remain well within what the track will stand, either on curves or on the stra-ight. Bogies and trucks exert their centring effect by various arrangements depending on gravity in the case of swing links and inclined planes, or on centring force directly applied by springs. While at first sight it would appear an easy matter to ensure that the bearings on which an engine runs should remain trouble free, hot boxes have at all times presented a problem, and they still exist. The goal to be sought is their total elimination, and that good progress is being made can be instanced by the fact that 1,096 engines of six different types, all having the same general design of axle box, although varying in actual dimensions, ran through 1938 with a total of 89 casualties due to coupled wheel hot boxes. This represents the probability of a hot coupled box failure on any given one of these engines was once in twelve years.
With higher valve velocities which have become common due to longer valve travels and higher running speeds, it is realised that even a small degree of wear in motion pins and bushes may seriously affect the efficiency of the steam distribution. To keep this wear at negligible proportions, and, at the same time, to increase avail- ability by reducing lubrication needs to a minimum, needle roller bearings have been introduced on many recent engines. Of particular interest is the application to the rocking shaft of a four-cylinder engine. With the consequent elimination of wear at the fulcrum point the main objection to driving an inside valve gear from an outside valve gear on such an engine falls to the ground, and a considerable simplification has thus been possible.
In concluding his address, Mr. Stanier said: "I have only dealt with some of the many problems which confront us. Seeking locomotive improvement is like seeking after gold. Old-timers in the gold country used to obtain the precious metal by the most simple and primitive methods. They used even to find gold nuggets lying ready to hand in the river-beds. Now, in those same goldfields, it is necessary to instal the most expensive machinery and draw upon all the resources of modern science to win the gold from the mother rock. In locomotive design also it has been possible to win large savings in the past by relatively simple means, but each succeeding economy is subject to a law of diminishing returns, and there is visible all over the world a tendency to realise that in order to establish further gains more elaborate testing apparatus must be set up and the resources of science drawn upon.
In the matters which we have been discussing, therefore, it is necessary to obtain means of measurement which must not only be exact but must also be capable of isolating and evaluating each individual factor in a complex problem whilst the others remain constant. In the difficult problem of the locomotive as a vehicle on the rail it has been indicated how the different forces must be measured and recorded, and for this purpose electrical apparatus is required which is neither simple nor cheap."

All-steel buffet car. Victorian Railways. 64-6. 2 illustrations
Air-conditioned car named Wimmera on 17.00 down and 08.15 Albury Express

Diesel railcar, L.M.S. Northern Counties Committee. 66. diagram (side & front elevations), plan
Driven by two Leyland Motors 10 litre diesel engines; drive through a torque converter. Seating for eighty passengers, Driver located in turret. Capable of hauling a trailer.

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 67-9. 4 illustrations
Craven Brothers wheel lathe and Butler Machine Tool Co. general shaper.

L.N.E.R. Royal Train, Bishop Auckland—Kings Cross near North Road station, Darlington, 23 February 1939. Engine No. 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley. (J.W. Armstrong). 69. illustration
Royal Train still painted in LNWR livery with garter blue A4

P.C. D[ewhurst], L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 70-2. 5 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Continued from page 20. The accident at Radstock on 7 August 1876 involved two 0-6-0STs meeting head on: 15 passengers were killed and Nos. 6 and 7 were involved. Numbers 6-9 were supplied by Fox, Walker & Co. in 1876 and were WN 320-3. These were almost identical to the original six coupled saddle tanks. Fig. 21 is a drawing of the new series. No. 2 received a new boiler in 1885; No. 3 in 1893; Nos. 4, 5 and 7 in 1890, No. 6 in 1894 and No. 9 in 1899. The cylinder size was reduced from 17½ to 17 inch diameter at the same time and the cabs were modified. No. 8 was converted to a side tank and No, 1 was converted to an 0-6-0 tender locomotive in 1888, but reconverted to a saddle tank in 1908. Seven received Deeley boilers jn 1906-11. They all survived for about fifty years, carrying out banking duties from Batth and Radstock. Some lasted long enough to receive LMS numbers. Fig. 26 shows No. 1500.

Martin Igel. Haulage performances of locomotives. 73-5. 3 diagrams, 5 tables
Tractive force available affected by gradient and rolling resistance. Based on German practice and based on acceleration of 4-6-2 (Pacific) type.

Notes from Western Australia. 75 . 2 illustrations
Steady progrcss had been made with the construction of the new P class locomotives, four of which were in service. They are named after rivers and the four running were the Ashburton, Avon, Blaclnvood, and Fitzroy (last illustrated).
A larger and more powerful type was under consideration and drnwings had been prcparcd of a 4-8-2l engine Many of the older types needed replacement and a building programme for new cngines would be commenced in the near future. The total number of engines in service at the end of 1935 was 422, including two petrol works shunting locomorivcs. The six Diesel eleotric railcars had been in service for nearly a year and the results have proved very satisfactory. Sunday services from thc hills to the coast and trips in the reverse diretion during the winter were regular features of the working for these cars, whilst private parties use them for special journevs.
Thc regular services were between Perth and Merredin (main line), Perth-Katanning, Bunberry-Northcliffe, Burtberry-Busselton , Bunberry-Bonnybrook, Gernldton-Muslewa, Gernldton-Yuna. The cars bear names of Governors of the State, viz., Stirling (illustrated), Hutt, Weld, Hampton, Lawley, and Bedford. The time table for the new services showed an average saving over previous running schedules of nearly 40 per cent.

London, Midland & Scottish Rly. 75
New 2-S-0 standard freight engines (Class 8) completed and turned out from Crewe were Nos. 8I04-10. In our February issue it was stated that Nos. 8096-8100 of this series had been allocated to the Midland Division. These five engines, together with the remainder of the series, Nos. 8101-8110, were all in service on the Western Division and stationed principally at Willesden. A further series of the same type (1939 programme)  were already completed, .but not yet in traffic. Work was also well advanced on a new series of 4-6-2 Princess Coronation class locomotives, all of which would be streamlined, similar to Nos. 6220-9. Recent withdrawals included 4-4-0 George the Fifth class, No. 25357 Bassethound, and another of the few remaining 0-6-0 special tank shunters, No. 27358. At Derby a series of 0-6-0 freight engines (Class 4) was under construction, numbered from 4577 upwards. Thirty in all of this type were to be built which would be followed by a series of twenty 2-6-4 two-cylinder passenger tanks. Class 1 0-6-0 shunting tank No. 1851 had been withdrnwn.

E.R.S. Watkin. Locomotives of the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd. 76-7. illustration
No. 6 was bought secondhand from Stafford Colliery. It had been built by the Hunslet Engine Co. in 1889. It was an inside-cylinder (13½ x 18 in.) saddle tank and was scrapped in 1924. The seventh locomotive was also secondhand and was a Manning Wardle contractor's locomotive built in 1897/8. It received a new boiler in 1903 pressed to 140 psi and a futher one (180 psi) in 1923. It was withdrawn in 1931 and scrapped in jn1935. The eighth locomotive was built by Hudswell Clark in 1900 and is shown in Fig. 3. It received a new 180 psi boiler in 1936 when the total heating surface was increased from 569ft2 to 587ft2. The grate area was 10.6ft2. The locomotive was intended as additional provision for the "mines" but was later diverted to a variety of duties within the Frodingham Works. Subsequently, it was used at Appleby for the haulage of heavy hot-iron ladles ("jumbos") over a lengthy route between the ironworks and steelworks furnaces. For this purpose it was found insufficiently powerful and in need of fairly frequent assistance. The increase in working pressure raised the nominal tractive effort very considerably. The accompanying increase in heating surface proved insufficient to maintain the effort continuously, but the locomotive was well suited to mill or other shunting on level track.

Great Western Railway. 77
Seven more 4-6-0 express engines had been completed at Swindon, No. 7812 Erlestoke Manor, No. 7813 Freshford Manor, No. 7814 Fringford Manor, No. 7815 Fritwell Manor, No. 7816 Frilsham Manor, No. 7817 Garsington Manor. and No. 7818 Granville Manor. Another 2-8-0, No. 3803, a 2-6-2T No. 8104 and five 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 3602 to 3606, had been put into service. The following have been withdrawn: No. 2990 Waverley and No. 4070 Neath Abbey (4-6-0), No. 3253 Boscawen, No. 3290 Severn, No. 3306 Armorel, No. 3409 Queensland, and No. 3423 (4-4-0). Nos. 4339, 4367, 4388 and 8308 (2-6-0), also No. 254 (0-6-2T).

Carriage interior painting: cellulose lacquers. 77
It is only of recent years that cellulose lacquers have been considered for finishing work on carriage interiors, and their application has largely taken the place of French polishing. The special properties of clear cellulose lacquers have a definite appeal particularly in accelerating the finishing schedules for the interior decoration of certain compartments. These properties are mainly the speed of application, the rapid drying with a non-tacky film, and freedom from marks. Durability of the clear cellulose film was established under direct exposure tests and the resistance to moisture, checking, etc., were far in advance of the old polish finish. One of the larger railways carried out extensive experiments a few years ago and found that the finishing of interior panelling with clear cellulose lacquer was more economical than polishing owing to the speed of application and hardening, and the largely decreased labour costs.

G.E.C. appointments. 77
R.C. Giggins, who returned to London from Malaya a few months ago to take up a position as assistant manager in the Governrnent and Railways Dept. of the General Electric Company, Ltd., has now been appointed rnanaqer of that department in succession to the late W.E. Maddams.

Locomotive testing with a counter pressure brake. 78-80. 3 diagrams
The NER 2-cylinder 4-6-0 was modified with a special compound spring on the drawbar with damping provided by long spiral springs plus rubber elements. A diagram shows a test run from King's Cross to Barkston when a "moderate size" express locomotive was tested. A fuller description eventually emerged as ILocoE Paper 441 which notes that the locomotive was a B17 class 4-6-0

Engine working. 80
Colour card indexing employed at Crewe Divisional Office which attempted to ensure that  locomotives returned to their home depots on the Western Division

Old S.E.R. coaches. 81-2. 3 illustrations
Built by Gloucester Carriage & Wagon Co. in 1879: third class, second class and guards van (last with birdcage type lookout).

2-6-2 tank engines, G.W.R. 82. 2 diagrams (side & front elevations)
31XX Nos. 3100-3140 and 81XX 8100-8149

Irish notes. 83-4. 4 illustrations
Northern Counties Committee: Nos. 50 Jubilee and Parkmount were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1895 as two-cylinder compound 2-4-0 with 7ft coupled wheels, the largest diameter on any Irish railway. In 1897 both were modified as 4-4-0s. They were classified as Class D. In 1926 No. 50 was rebuilt with two 19 x 24in cylinders, larger  boiler and classified D1.
Belfast & County Down Railway. No. 6, then only used a a spare was a Beyer, Peacock & Co. 2-4-0 built in 1894: threee almost similar, but two-cyliner compounds ahd been scapped in 1920. Three 2-4-2Ts built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1896/7 were still running with the numbers 5, 7 and 27; No. 7 was illustrated in Vol. 9, page 188. No. 9 was 0-4-2 side tank rebuilt from a tender engine built in 1887 by Sharp, Stewart and Co. The cylinders were 16 in. by 22 in., and the coupled wheels 5 ft. 0 in. ; the total heating surface is 784 sq. ft. This engine is now the oldest on the line, and is only used as a spare for shunting work. There were four 0-6-0 tender engines which are used for both goods and passenger work; the oldest is No. 26, built by Beyer, Peacock and Co. in 1892; the cylinders were 17 in. by 24 in., and the coupled wheels 5 ft. 0 in. ; the total heating surface is 979 sq. ft. No. 14 came from the same makers in 1904; the cylinders were 18 in. by 26 in., coupled wheels 5 ft. 0 in., wheelbase 15 ft. 2 in.; total heating surface 1,248 sq. ft., and the weight in working order, 40 tons 18 cwt. No. 10, Beyer, Peacock & Co., 1914, was illustrated in Issue for February 1914, p. 29. The dimensions were similar to No. 14 with the exception that the boiler was larger with a total heating surface of 1,360 sq. ft., and the weight in working order is 44 tons. Finally in 1921 an almost similar engine, No. 4, was built by Beyer, Peacock and Co but with a total heating surface of 1,483 sq. ft. The last two engines were usually employed on the heavy summer excursion trains to Newcastle; these often load edto fifteen six-wheelers, and the return fare, for 75 miles was but Is. 6d. third class. No. 29 was a 0-6-4 side tank built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1923 for shunting work in Belfast goods yard; it was illustrated in VoL 29, page 317; the cylinders were 17 in. by 24 in., coupled wheels 4 ft. 0 in., total heating surface 1,064 sq. ft.; tanks 1,350 gals., weight in working order, 55t tons. The two Diesel locomotives carried the numbers 2 and 28. The former worked stopping trains round Belfast, and the latter was usually on the Ardglass branch. It will be noted that none of the locomotives were superheated.

Driving wheel slip. 84
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad carried out a series of investigaeions into the damage resulting to raids from the slipping of driving wheels. These investigations showed that when slipping occurred to such an extent that the rails became burned it was necessary, on the average, to replace at least three rails. As this is naturally an expensive matter the Company have endeavoured to eliminate it by instructing drivers Ito apply sand previously to coming to a stand, open the sanding gear before the regulator, and handle the latter carefully after starting.

L.M.S.R. 84
Six hundred members of the Crusaders' Union who were visiting the Crewe Locomotive Works of the LM.S. Railway on Monday, 17 April had planned for them a railway "thrilL" On the return journey to London, their special train was being timed to run parallel for some distance with the streamlined Coronation Scot express from Glasgow to Euston; the Crusaders ' Union train will be held at Nottingham [sic must have been Northampton!] until shortly before the Coronation Scot was due to pass the junction at Roade, near which point the two trains will come side by side. [KPJ C.J. Allen probably involved]

More miles—fewer locomotives. 85.
Argued that productivity was improving due to invrestment in more powerful locomotives and improved motive power depots

Swiss Federal Railways, new 12,000 h.p. locomotive. 86. diagram (side elevation)
A/e 8/14 manufacted by Oerlikon and Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works at Winterthur

Self-lubricating bearings. 86
Oilite microcellular bronze

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. II. Carriage and wagon underframes. 87-8. illustration, 5 diagrams
Includes illustration of cast steel underframe for hopper wagon built by Uicast Corporation of Toledo, U.S.A.

A Belgian veteran. 89. 2 diagrams (side elevations plus 1 front elevation)
Locomotive discovered in 1934 in Zeebrugge. Information supplied by Godfrey Soulens. Locomotive probablly owned by Grand Central Belge and possibly built in 1847. See letter from F. Gaiser in October 1931

Dual-gauge locomotive design. 90. diagram.
For South Australian Government Railway: contract placed with Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. for locomotives capable of switching between standard gauge and broad gauge (5ft 3in)

The Model Railway Exhibition. 90.
Central Hall Westminster, April. Exhibit of Coats of Arms of LNER constituent companies

L. & N.E. Railway. 90
Four new V2 class 2-6-2 from Darlington, Nos. 4816-19. Nos. 453 (J71) and 855 (N8) withdrawn.

Diesel mechanical locomotive. Guaqui-La Paz Railway, Peru. 91. 2 illustrations
Hunslet Engine Co. designed to work at high altitude: 16,000 feet

Producer gas locomotive. Australian Paper Manufacturers Limited. 92. illustration
Green Eucalyptus cubes waste for forestry railway to serve mill at Gippsland in Victoria. Saurer diesel engine.

Federated Malay States. 92
Crown Agents for the Colonies ordered sixteen metre gauge locomotives from North British Locomotive Co.: five 2-cylinder Class C2 4-6-4T and eleven three-cylinder Class O1 4-6-2 tender engines.

The Jaipur State Rialway. 92
Order for six metre gauge 4-6-0 tender engines placed with Hunslet Engine Co. Robert White & Partners, Consulting Engineers

Early Stephenson Engine. 93. iillustration 
The Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway Co. hold the honour of having built and worked the first line of railway in Australia, their line from the metropolis to Sandridge (now Port Melbourne), a distance of 2¼ miles, having been opened in September 1854. Actually the first running was done with a small improvised locally built engine, but the real locomotive stock was Stephenson built, commencing with 2-4-0 well tanks, followed later by 4-4-0s.
In addition, two engines of uncommon type for shunting on "Sandridge Pier" were imported from the same makers, one in 1859 and the other in 1875. The first of these, No. 5, is depicted in the accompanying picture of a very faithful model made in 1869, and quite recently made over to the Railways Department by Professor Wilfred Kernot of Melbourne University. It is intended to locate it in a glass case at Flinders St. station, Melbourne, now one of the greatest suburban traffic centres of the world, but even more celebrated in the enthusiast's eyes as the starting point for Australia's historic first train mentioned. The model depicts the details so clearly that it is hardly needful to give more than a few dimensions of what. was No. 1177 in  Stephenson's list. Her drivers were 3 ft. 9 in. diam., cylinders 8 in. by 14 in., boiler pressure 130 lb., weight 101 tons, and tractive power 1,998 lb. The heating surface was 330 square feet, with 5¼ square feet of driving grate (from which it may be gathered that an automatic stoker was not required). This engine and her similar though larger mate, No. 24, continued as Pier Donkeys for ten years or more after the acquisition by the Government Department, but thereafter came a period of retirement, from which she was bought by the contrac- tors for the Outer Harbour works at Adelaide, South Australia, and eventually she came to her end about 1910. See also page 269

Correspondence. 93

The Webb compounds. James H. Anderson
In the issue of March 1938, at· page 90, F.C. Hambleton refers to F.W. Webb's. Teutonic class of locomotives, ten in number, all of them named after White Star liners except No. 1304, which was. named Jeanie Deans. Alfred Rosling Bennett (an ortginal member of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers) was Chairman of the Engineering Section of the Edinburgh International. Exhibition of 1890, and worked very hard d to make it the success it was, and the railway section was particularly' good.
Bennett .interviewed Webb to get him to send a locomotive to the Exhibition which at first he seemed disinclined to do unoifhe heard that Mr. Worsdell had promised to send' one of his latest compounds.
When Webb did promise to send an engine he asked what name hould be given ,to it, and Mr. Bennett at once' suggested "Jeanie Deans."
I knew Bennett—he was very pleased at this—he looked, upon it as a compliment not only to himself but also to—Edinburgh and to the memory of the author of The Heart of Midlothian.

Harvey Coombe. C.F. Dendy Marshall. 93
With reference to the remarks relating to the Harvey Combe in your review of Royde Smith's book, the writer does not seem to be aware that Warren correoted his. descripnion of this engine, in a letter to The Engineer of 24 September 1926, giving another illustration, which correspends exactly with Royde Smith's.

Reviews. 93-4

The theory of' heat engines. W. Inchley. London: Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.,
The fourth edrtion of this work, edited and revised by H. Wright Baker, contains little of the or.iginal book, but great care has been taken to retain the author's intention to give in a complete and concise form the thermodynamical' principles of the subject.
In addition to the new material incorporated, dealing especially with internal combustion engines, refrigeration and heat transfer, the whole book has been replanned to present a logical development of the subject. The figures and diagrams are nearly all new and many worked and unwor ked examples are included. A feature most helpful to the elementary student is the marking, by means of an asterisk, of the simpler sections in order that these may be read first. This work deals with the principals in a thoroughly logical manner.

Electrical Year Book 1939. Emmott & Co. 94

New Simplex oxygen cutting machine. 94.  illustration
Hancock & Co. (Engineers) Ltd.

London & North Eastern Railway. 94
Seventy carriages being built for Darlington to Saltburn service. To be formed into sets formed of four articulated units of two coaches, three of which to form normal train with further unit to be added to handle heavy traffic

Brush Coachwork Ltd. 94

Number 560 (15 April 1939)

Locomotive facts and figures. 95

G.W.R. [appointments]. 95
W.H. Bodman appointed Divisional Locomotive Superintendent, Cardiff in succession to C.T. Hurry Riches. A.W.J. Dymond appointed as assistant to Bodman.

New express locomotives: German State Railways. 96. illustration

Central Uruguay Railway. 2-8-0 reconstructed locomotives. 99-103. 4 illustratiions, 5 diagrams (including 2 side elevations & sectinalised front elevation)
P.C. Dewhurst modifications. 2-6-0 converted to 2-8-0.

The first railway in China: Shanghai and Woosung. 112-14. 3 illustrations
Involvement of Sir Robert Macdonald Stephenson and Richard Rapier of Ransomes & Rapier Ltd.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers: air conditioning of passenger stock. 114-
Precis of Paper 405 by A.H. Chilton

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers: X: Thomas W. Worsdell. 115-18.

J.W. Armstrong. The Forcett Railway. 119-20. 5 illustrations
Five miles long, built to convey limestone from the Forcett Quarries and opened in 1867. The engineer was William Bryson and the contractors Trowsdale & Sons of Stockton. It branched off the Darlington to Tebay line.

E.R.S. Watkin. Locomotives of the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd. 120-1

Irish Notes . 122-3
Clogher Valley Railway.
This line, of which an illustrated description appeared in the LocoMOTIVE, Vol. 19, page 276, is scheduled for closing down. It is of 3 ft. gauge, running for most of its length of 37 miles alongside the public road, and since 1928 has been operated by a joint committee of the Tyrone and Fermanagh County Councils. Several changes have been made since the article referred to appeared; of the six original locomotives built by Sharp, Stewart & Co. in 1886/7, two, Nos. 1 and 4, have been scrapped, while No. 5 is dismantled. These engines are of the 0-4-2T type, with cylinders 131 in. by 18 in., coupled wheels 3 ft. 0 in., trailing 2 ft. 3 in., wheelbase coupled 5 ft. 7 in., total 10ft. 4 in., total heating surface 514 sq. ft., tanks 600 gals., weight in working order 23 tons 16 cwt. It has been the custom to run bunker first, in order to obtain a better look-out for the driver. They are fitted with Joy's valve gear, the only example of this gear in Ireland, though three engines on the Cork & Muskerry Light Railway (now dismantled) also had it. No. 7 locomotive, a 0-4-4T built by Hudswell, Clark & Co. in 1910, was scrapped in 1934. No. 8 was an Atkinson-Walker steam tractor built in 1928, which is now running on the County Donegal Railways as No. 11 Phoenix; it was illustrated in the LOCOMOTIVE for February 1939. Finally, there is a Diesel rail coach and a similar engine, but with tractor b 0 d y, both built by Walker Bros., Wigan, i n 1932. These were illustra- ted in the LOCOMOTIVE, Vol. 39, page 8, and Vol. 40, page 8. The power unit is of similar type to those running on the County- Donegal Railways. Most of the train services on the line are now maintained b J these units, the tractor hauling a passenger coach as trailer. Only one steam train is now normally in service except on special occasions, such as fair days. The service has been considerably accelerated by the use of Diesel units. In 1935, on the closing of the Castled erg and Victoria Bridge Tramway, one of the engines, a 2-6-0Tbuilt by Hudswell, Clark & Co. in 1904, was acquired by the Clogher Valley Railway. It was rebuilt at Auchnacloy shops as a 2-6-2T, an illustration and particulars appearing in the Loco- MOTIVE, Vol. 42, page 242, so further reference is unnecessary here. Since 1928 there has been only one class of coach, the first class being abolished.
Great Southern Railways.
The Tralee and j)ingle narrow gauge section will be closed down for passenger service on and from April 17. An illustrated account appeared in the OCOMOTIVE for February 1937.

LO~DO~, ~IIDL.\~D AKD SCOTTISH RLY.-
Fjve of the new series of 2-8-0 ·standard freight engines (Class "8") have so far left the Crewe shops, Nos. 8111-15. At Derby the first of the new 0-6-0's has been completed, No. 4577. The engines in this series are to be fitted with 3,500 gallon tenders, which are being exchanged for new 4,000 gallon tenders with ngines of the "Silver Jubilee" class as they pass through the shops. A series of 0-6-0 heavy-oil shunting loco- motives .is also now under construction at Derby and will be numbered from 7080 up. No. 5522 of the 4-6-0 "Patriot" series (Class "5X ") has been named P·restatyn. Two ex- L.N.W. "G1" class 0-8-0's have recently been rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers, Nos. 9135 and 9365. Recent with- drawals of interest include 4-4-·:) "George the Fifth." class, No. 25362 Fire Queen, and 0-6-0 Special tank No. 27334, Liverpool, the latter having completed 6hty-four years' service. Other withdrawals are: 4-6-0 "Prince of vVales" class No. 25752; 4-6-2 super-heater tank 10• 6960; 0-6-0 Coal Class No. 28099; 0-6-2 Coal tanks Nos. 7764 and 7799; and 4-6-4 "Baltic" tank No. 11113.

Photo. A. C. W. Lowe

OBITUARY.-We regret to announce the death of Mr. Wi lliarn Cowie, retired Locomotive Inspector of the High- land Railway. He was 68 yea-rs of age and had 48 years' service when he retired three years ago. Mr. Cowie had charge of the Royal Train on several occasions between Perth and Inverness, and could boast that he had driven at one time or another almost every engine of the old Highland including singles Nos. 12 and 32. An exception was the Findhorn Branch tank. L.M.S No. 14402, "BEX ARMI:-l," WITH ·MR. WM. COWIE STANDING IN FOREGROUND

AMERICAN LOCOMOTIVE BUILDlNG.-The United States De-

partmen.t of Commerce has issued figures showing the posi-

tion of locomotive orders, both for home and abroad, during

January 1939. During that month the leading manufacturers

delivered 23 engines and had in hand orders for an addi-

tional 01. This compares unfavourably with the correspond-

ing month for the previous year, when 35 were delivered and

156 on order. Of the 91 locomotives on order this J anuar y

only 11 were steam, 24 being electric and 56 oil-electric.

.'\MEHtCAN LOCOMOTIVE FUEL EFFICIENCY.-The President of

the Association of Amerioan Railroads has stated that the

railways of .the United States during 1938 required on the

average 115 lb. of fuel to haul 1,000 tons of freight and

equipment over a distance of one mile. 14.9 lb. of fuel were

necessary to move a passenger car over the same distance.

G.\Y.RY.-Old Oak Common Locomotive and Carr-iage

Depot has been undergoing enlargement for the past five

years and will be completed this month. The depot covers

over 100 acres and is the largest of sts kind in this country.

Some 450 engines and 2,000 carriages are dealt with dai ly by

a staff of 1,700. There are separate up and down lines for

working empty stock between Paddington and the depot with

automatic signalling throughout the 3~ miles. A 70-ft. turn-

table is provided and five signal boxes control movements.

111 all there are 15 miles of sidings.

Wemyss Coal Co. locomotive. 124. illustration
Coal had been mined in Fife from a very early date, certainly since the twelfth century, and in November 1428 there is a record of the raising of coal at Wemyss. David, second Earl of 'Wetnyss, obtained a charter from King Charles II and. built Methil harbour, thereby establishing an extensive export trade. A number of collieries had since opened on the Wernyss Estate, which had continued throughout in the same family ownership. R.E. Wemyss obtained a Board of Trade certificate to construct a private railway, which was opened from Thornton to Buckhaven, 4¼ miles, on 8 August 1881, and worked by the N.B.R. To facilitate the export business this was soon extended to Methil, a further 1¼ miles, and a new dock constructed at the latter place. The railway, hitherto known as the Wemyss and Buckhaven, was from the opening of the extension on 5 May 1887, known as the Methil Ry. Both railway and dock were sold to the N.B.R. on January 11, 1889, and on 17 March 1894, the Wemyss Coal Co. Ltd. was registered to work the minerals on the Wemyss Estate. The present chairman of the company, Capt. Michael Wemyss, is a direct descendant of David, the second Earl, previously mentioned. The company has formed an extensive system of railways connecting their collieries With the harbour at Methil, where two further docks have been completed by the North British Railway. They are the owners of a stud of locomotives, of which No. 6) is shown in the illustration. This engine, formerly G.N.R. No. 601, was one of a very numerous class first built in 1874, and had 4 ft. 7 in. wheels on a base of 15 ft. 6 in., of which 7 ft. 3 in. were between the leading and driving and 8 ft. 3 m. between the driving and trailing. The cylmders were 17½ in. by 26 in. and the boiler had a length of 10ft. 1 in., with a minimum external diameter of 3 ft. 10½ in. The saddle tank held 1,200 gallons of water, and the working weight was about 40 tons. The engine was built at the Doncaster Works in 1875 and was sold during the period of the Great War to J.F. Wake, of Darlington, who reconditioned it for the Wemyss Coal Co.

Recent accidents. 124.
Wishaw. Thc Inspecting Officer of the Ministry of Transport issued the report upon the accident which took place on 4 August at Wishaw South Station, situated on the L.M.S. main line dram Carlisle to Glasgow Central. A special freight train from Carlisle overran signals on a falling gradient and collided at about 20 miles an hour with the rear of an empty passenger train. The driver of this latter train who was alone at the time was thrown off by thc impact and his engine, with the regulator open, broke away. After travelling some 3½ miles it overtook a passenger train, partly wrecking the last coach and killing thc guard. The Inspccting Officer found the prirnary cause of this series of accidents was the inability of the driver of the frpight train to stop at signals, which may have been contributed to by under estimarion of the load. A signalman is also mentioned for hls failure to observe that there was nobody on the engine when it passed him, especially as it was running tender first.

L. M. & S. Ry. 124
Dr. Leslie Burgin, Minister of Transport, made a trip on the footplate of No. 6226 Duchess of .Norfolk, with the down Royal Scot Express as far as Blisworth. A special stop was made there for Dr. Burgin to alight and return on a homeward run. Although permanent way checks caused delays between London and Tring a fine run was recorded, the 62.8 milcs being covered in 65 minutes. The train consisted of eleven coaches, approximately 350 tons.

Correspondence. 126

West Cornwall Railway. Reginald B. Fellows.
Two interesting items have very recently come into the market and have been purchased by the Railway Club. One is a ticket of admission to a dinner held on Wednesday, 25 August 1852, to celebrate the opening of the West Cornwall Railway, and the other is a quaintly worded notice which was issued with the Dinner Tickets. The notice runs as follows:-

NOTICE.
All persons having Dinner Tickets will bring a Plate. Knife and Fork and Pint Cup. The Dinner will consist of Roast and Boiled Beef, Pudding, Bread and Beer; and those who intend to dine will assemble on the Western Green, at Two o'clock, there to await the arrival of the Procession from the Town Hal!, and then proceed to the Dinner Tables, which will be presided over by the Rev. Henry Batten and Edward Boljtho, Esq.
No one will be admitted without a ticket.

The notice was printed ·by F. T. Vibert of Penzance. It has occurred to me that in view of the recent interesting art icles on the West Cornwall Railway your readers may like to hear of the Dinner Notice.

The steam locomotive in traffic. C.W. Clarke
At page 9 of the January issue, reference is made to a 100-ton locomotive hoist. Both, in the text and at Fig. 34, the hoist illustrated is described as being in use on the South Indian Railway. Actually, the 100-ton hoist illustrated installed at the Bhusawal Shed of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, and Fig. 34 shows a 4-6-0 type, D/5 class locomotive hoisted for wheeling.
The D/5 class is a modified B.E.S.A. design, placed in service in 1923. They are the last type fitted with the distinctive G.I.P. Railway chimney, before the railway became a State Railway. Works Manager's Office, G.LP. Rly., Bombay.

[Addenda/corriegenda]. James F. McEwan. 126
Re Locouotive Mag Volume 44 p. 391, foot of second column. The old G. & S. W. Ry. loco. referred to was sold in 1932 by the L.M.S. The loco. ex L.M.S. 17196 was built at Kilmarnock in 1898 by James Manson. It was one of the 160 class (No. 173), renumbered in 1919 to 171.
Re Locouotive Mag Volume 44 p. 383-4, top of col. 1. p. 384 The Caledonian did not have any well tanks until 1851 when two were built and so far as McEwan knew were the only two well tanks with the tanks sandwiched between the two frames on thnr line. All the other well tanks had the tanks underslung between the inner frames. The two engines referred to above were for a short local service and the next rebuilding of an engine to tank form was done by Canner in 1858, and later this gentleman made some of the original single drive engines into well-tanks for branch work.

William Adams. J.E. Kite.  126
The figure of 60 Jubilee's in .the Adarns article (page 54) should be 90,

Locomotive design. J. G. B. Sams.
Re leading article of March Issue; the alleged popularity of roller bearings for locomotives; is this a fact outside Sweden? I believe that a few are in use in America and France, but they have a regrettably long way to go before they can be referred to as "popular". I am also a little confused over the question of maintenance and accessibility of freight and passenger engines; my experience has been that the large wheeled engines are if anything more expensive to maintain owing to their higher speeds and the greater care spent on the passenger fleet. It is usual, for example, to examine passenger engines daily, while many Freight and shunting engines have to be content with a weekly look-over. As to accessibility, the greater height from the ground of ,the axles of a large wheeled engine balances out the clearance-below-boiler question and I would suggest that as springs and their gear are usually dealt with from the pit, the question of the awkwardness of the wheels does not arise. See response frpm P.A. Hyde page 158  

N.E. Railway No. 523. J.W. Armstrong. 126. illustration.
Accompanying photo is one of the numerous 0-6-2T engines designed by T.W. Worsdell for the N.E. Rly., of which the one pictured, No. 523, was buidt at Darlington Works in May 1889, Works No. 77, and was originally a 2 cylinder compound on the Worsdell-Van Borries' system; they had cylinders 18 in. and 26 in. by 24 in. stroke, and driving wheels 5 ft. 1 in. diameter, and classed B. All were later rebuilt as 2 cyinder simples, and in the period 1915-20, many were superheated, including No. 523. The interest of this photo. is that it is taken at Tebay N. E. Rly. shed (which was closed in 1903), and the old lamp, style of painting (needless to say, green), bunker without coal rails, and the compound number plate is discernible on the leading splasher. They were sent to Tebay to replace the 1001 class, with mineral traffic over Stainmore, and were in time replaced by T1 class 0-8-0 in 1902. No. 523 worked many years in the Hull area, and was broken up in 1937, the L.N.E. Rly. classification being N8. Added interest is that the driver was Joseph Armstrong (who had this engine new till 1901) and the fireman was Robert Armstrong, father and son, who were my grandfather and father respectively. .

L.N.E.R. (North Eastern Section). 126
On and from Monday 1 May 1939, the undermentioned sections of line will be closed for passenger traffic :-Durham-Blackhill via Witton Gilbert; Towlaw-Blackhill.

Number 561 (15 May 1939)

Railway propaganda. 127-8
Mainly as relating to the steam loomotive which the "public love". Questions the value of streamlining in publicity value. Cleanliness more important  than livery. Mixed reception to general use of Caledonian hooter rather than a whistle on the LMS. Misgivings about blue. Naming criticised for the loss of names like Penrith Beacon, Merrie Carlisle and Rising Star.

Correct crank spacing. three cylinder locomotives. 140-2.. 5 diagrams, 2 tables
Advantages of three cylinders: more uniform turning effort with more even drawbar pull; more constant pull on the fire with less spark emission, elimination in variation in rail pressure. See also letter from P.C. Dewhurst on page 213.

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon designn and consrreuction.  II, Carriage and wagfon underframes. 146-7. 2 diagrams, table
Welding: butt welds and fillet welds

Canadian National Railways The Royal Train. 147
Cars to form a special train to be used by Their Majesties the King and Queen during their travels in Canada have been prepared at the Point St. Charles shops, Montreal.
The Royal Train has 12 cars altogether, two of them usually reserved for the Governor-General which have been assigned for the personal use of the King and Queen, will be placed in the rear of the train.
One of the cars has two main bedrooms with dressing rooms and a bath, two other rooms for members of the royal staff, and a spacious lounge for the use of Their Majesties. The other car contains a dining room, kitchen and large lounge, an office and two bedrooms with bathroom for members of the staff.
Two of the Canadian National business cars known as Atlantic and Pacific have been remodelled and redecorated for the use of the ladies-in-waiting and the equerries. One of the latest type of standard dining car used on The International Limited, has been included. The train was air conditioned throughout and presented a uniform appearance, the exterior decoration being carried out in royal blue and aluminium with a horizontal gold stripe above and below the windows. The cars in which Their Majesties will travel bear the royal coat of arms in the centre of each car below the window level.
Four locomotives have been prepared for hauling the Royal Train; one of the 6400 class, two of the 6000 class and one of the Pacific type. In the wooded sections of the Rocky Mountains oil burners will be used. Each locomotive will display a plaque bearing the royal coat of arms.
A pilot train, consisting of seven cars, will preceed the royal train.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Review of Electric Traction In England. 147-50.
Symposium preented to the Institution at a meeting held in London on 19 April. The following is an abstract.
The subject was divided into four sections; the first of which, devoted to a Statistical Review, was dealt with by W.A. Agnew, Past President, M.I.Mech.E., M.Inst.T., who was also responsible for arranging the whole, and began by referring to the historical aspect. The first practical demonstration of electric traction, with curent supplied from a power station, was made in 1879.
In that year 'Nerner von Siemens, who had constructed a small electric locomotive for use in a coalmine, arranged for it to be temporarily installed at the Berlin Trade Exhibition where it served to haul three small passenger cars round a circular railway. Siemens' railway was later transferred to London where it was demonstrated in the Crystal Palace during 1881.
In the summer of 1883 Sir William Siemens associated with William Acheson Traill, made some experimental runs on the Portrush and Giant's Causeway Railway with a car driven by an electric motor, the current being supplied from a small steam-driven dynamo and conveyed to the vehicle by means of a metal bar mounted on posts along the side of the track.
On the completion of a water power station the line was formally opened by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on 28 September 1883.
On 3 August 1883, Magnus Volk opened his small railway along the beach at Brighton, power being supplied from a shunt-wound dynamo, driven by a 3 h.p. gas engine, to a series-wound motor on the small passenger car. Several other small electrical railways were laid down in this Country in succeeding years, but it was not until 1890 that a standard gauge railway, fully equipped with stations and signals and with locomotive hauled trains, capable of handling large numbers of passengers was established. This was when the City and South London Railway was opened from Stockwell to King William Street in the City of London.
In 1893 the Liverpool Overhead Railway opened and in 1898 the Waterloo and City Railway followed by the Central London Railway in 1900. Tables were then shown in which particulars of the various eleclrified lines in this Country were given, including descriptions of the types of rolling-stock in use, horse-power of motors, system of control equipment, etc.
Among his concluding remarks this speaker said that while the main purpose of this symposium was to illustrate the present position of electric traction in this Country and indicate the generall trend in rolling stock design and equipment, it might he permissible to mention certain advantages from electrification. Electrification is, of course, economically justifiable on lines where existing traffic is heavy, or there is reason to expect considerable traffic increase from a faster and more frequent service.
For trains working through long tunnels and over very heavy grades, electrification has proved to be most successful.
Electric locomotives can be constructed with a large proportion of axles motored to secure a high tractive effort, or several locomotives may be coupled together and operated by one train crew. The maintenance and operating costs of electric rolling stock engaged in really intensive service is substantially lower than with other forms of railway traction.
The second section, referring to Power Supply for Railways, was presented by W.G. Thompson, Ph.D., B.Sc., A.M.LE.E., who, dealing with the matter of supply and distribution, said electrical energy for traction purposes has to be supplied in a suitable form with the maximum reliability and minimum cost. Unfortunately, the form of electrical energy used for traction in this Country is not the most suitable for transmission requirements, hence the need for converting equipment. Usually three-phase extra high tension alternating current lines transmit power at voltages of 11,000 volts or upwards from the generating station to the track sub-station, where the supply is transformed down, converted to direct current and supplied to the track at, say, 3,000, 1,500 or 600 volts D.C.
To-day most of the converting equipment is of the mercury arc rectifier type, although there is still a number of rotary converter plants in operation. The size and arrangement of the equipment will depend upon the power demand and the overload requirements dictated by traffic conditions. Sub-station capacities up to 8,000 KW. may be required, but individual rectifier units are unlikely to exceed 3,000 KW. or 4,000 hp.
Reliability of electrical equipment is achieved in several different ways, the chief of these being the inherent self-protection of the selected equipment, the provision of the necessary additional protective gear, the duplication or sectionalising of essential circuits and the carrying out of regular maintenance inspection.
Minimum costs are attained by adjusting the balance between capital expenditure and supply losses and through the incorporation of labour-saving automatic control, whereby the majority of sub-stations are unattended and are operated from a central control room.
A diagrammatic layout of mercury arc rectifier equipment was shown and the arrangement of the components-intended to provide both safety and flexibility in operation-described.
The thlrd section was on Electric Traction Motors and was given by J.W. Voelcker, B.Sc., A.M.LE.E., who commenced by describing the characteristics of motors. It was mentioned that the fact that these can be designed to give adequate power within the physical limitations of wheel pairs of almost any gauge and axle load enables the motive power to be distributed over a number of vehicles, thus demonstrating one of the outstanding features of electric traction. The principal characteristics of a motor are torque and speed and are usually expressed in terms of tractive effort at the driving wheel and vehicle speed respectively, both to a current base at average line voltage. The general nature of their relation is a matter of design, while by suitable selection of gear ratios and wheel diameters the desired vehicle performance may be obtained. Moreover, the choice of gear ratios for a given gear centre dimension has an important advantage when applied to electric traction, for it often permits the same motor and control equipment to be used in both passenger and freight service, the gear ratio alone being altered, thus enabling a valuable degree of standardisation and economy in spares to be obtained.
On the subject of speed control the contributor of this section said that the speed of a motor can be controlled by variation of either applied voltage or of its feld excitation. In traction work with constant supply pressure the former method can only be applied to a reduction of voltage by the wasteful insertion of resistance, as at starting. Field weakening, on the other hand, permits a series of increased speeds to be obtained economically though accompanied by a reduction of tractive effort.
The excitation may be varied either by making tappings in the field windings, or by shunting the field with suitable resistances. The subjects of rating, power-weight ratio, mechanical details, etc., were all referred to under this heading.
Lastly came the section devoted to Control Equipments, which was contributed by J. H. Cansdale, M.LE.E., who described the methods of control in use.
Generally speaking, in this Country, electric locomotives have not, up to the present, been used for railway work, though a very important section of the L.N.E.R., the Manchester-Sheffield line, is now being electrified and will employ 70 locomotives. The Southern Railway is also building two electric locomotives for trial running. Details of these being not yet available, consideration was confined entirely to multiple unit stock. There are, in general, two types of control. electra-magnetic and electro-pneumatic, both of which may again be sub-divided into unit contactor and camshaft types.
Brief particulars of the different types were then given, together with a schematic diagram showmg the method of resistance notching of .the P.C.M. control. This contral is installed on the London Transport 1938 tube stock and is new to this country although it has been operating satisfactonly in the U.S.A. for a number of years. A reference to the Metadyne control concluded this comprehensive and interesting paper.

Irish notes. 149-50. 3 illustrations
"In view of the probable closing down of the remaining narrow gauge systems in Ireland..." Considers narriow gauge operatted by Northern Counties Committee and refers back to article in Locomotive, 1902, 7, 92 noting that most of the locomotive types described then had disappeared. The 3 ft. gauge lines of the Northern Counties Committee (L.M.S.R.) comprised the lines from Ballymena to Larne, with branch from Ballyboley to Doagh, Ballymena to Retreat, Ballymoney to Ballycastle and Londonderry (Victoria Road) to Strabane. The Ballymena and Larne Iine is now only in use for goods traffic, while the same remark applies to the section from Ballymena to Retreat; the last portion of this line, from Rathkenny to Retreat, was closed to all traffic on 19 April 1937. The section from Ballymoney to Ballycastle was, until 1926, an independent company; passenger traffic was still operated on this line. The last section from Derry to Strabane was worked by the County Donegal Rlys. Joint Committee, who provided the rollmg stock.
A class of six 2-4-2 compound side tanks was built as follows: Nos. 101 and 102 (formerly os. 113 and 112) by the N.C.C. in 1908/9; Nos. 103 and 104 by the N.C.C. in 1919/20, and Nos. 110 and 111 (formerly Nos. 69 and 70) by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1892. The original dimensions were: cylinders 14¾ in. and 21 in. by 20 in.; coupled wheels 3 ft. 9 in. and wheelbase coupled 6 ft. 3 in., total 20 ft. 3 in. Heating surface, tubes' 677.86, firebox 63.03, total 740.89 ft2, grate area 11.29 ft2., tanks 570 gals., weight in working order 30 tons, of which 20 tons was adhesive. The classification was S, but only Nos. 104 and 111 were still running in this state, No. 103 had been scrapped in December 1938.
Nos. 101 and 102 were rebuilt as class S1 in 1933, the wheelbase being lengthened 2 ft. 0 in. in the rear to provide a larger bunker; the weight in working order being 32 tons 18 cwt. These two engines worked the Ballycastle section.
No. 110 was rebuilt in 1931 as class S2; in this case a four-wheeled bogie was substituted in the rear, the wheel arrangement of 2-4-4 being probably unique in the British Isles; a larger boiler of G6s type was also provided; it measured 9 ft. 10ft in. by 4 ft. 0 in., and the centre is 6 ft. 1 in. above rail level. 164 tubes of 1¾ in. provided a heating surface of 825 ft2., which with 83ft2. added by the firebox bring up the total to 908 ft2. The pressure was 200 psi., the grate area 12 ft2, and the weight in working order 44 tons 4 cwt. This engine was still at work on the Ballymena and Lame section. Two 4-4-2 side tank engines were taken over from the Ballycastle Rly. in 1926, which had been built for that line by Kitson'in 1909; the cylinders were 14½in. by 22 in., wheels 3 ft. 7 in. and 2 ft. 6 in., wheelbase coupled 6 f.t. 6 in., total 22 ft. 5 in.; boiler 9 ft. 6 in. by 4 ft. 0 in. with 170 tubes of 1 ¾ in. Heating surface, 769 (tubes) plus 83 (firebox), total 852 ft
2., grate area 12 ft2., tanks 800 gals., weight in working order, 39 tons 11 cwt. They had proved too heavy for the Ballycastle road, so they were adapted by their new owners to work on the Ballymena and Lame section; the top of the funnel was reduced from 10ft. l0in. to 10ft. 2½ in., the coupled centres were reduced from 2 ft. 3 in. to 2 ft. 0 in., and a new boiler 9 ft. 10 in. by 3 ft. l0½ in. fitted; they were numbered 113/4 and classed T, and were still at work bringing up the narrow gauge total to seven locomotives. Illustrations: N.C.C. No. 102, class SI as rebuilt in 1933; N.C.C. No. 110, class S2 as rebuilt in 1931; N.C.C. No. 114, class  T. (Photographs. H. Fayle)

Locomotives for Turkey. 150
The Turkish State Railway placed orders for fifty eight locomotives with English builders. The firms to be entrusted with the construction of these engines are Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd., the Vu1can Foundry Ltd., and Robert Stephcnson and Hawthorns Ltd.

Metre gauge Beyer-Garratt locomotives Abidian-Niger Railway. 150
Acquired ten 4-8-2 + 2-8-4 Beyer Garratt articulated locomotives for working the heavy traffic. The main line is about 500 miles long between Port Bonet-Abidjan and Bobo Dionlasso, and has many steep gradients and sharp curves; the maximum gradient being 1 in 40 and the minimum curve 460 feet radius. Rails 50 to 60 lb. per yard. The total weight of each engine in working order was 148 tons and the total length over buffers was 90 feet 5 inches. The maximum axle load is lit tons and the tractive effort at 85 per cent. b.p. is 44,660 lb. Other particulars are as follows:- cylinders (4), 17 in. by 24 in ; coupled wheels 4 ft. 3 in. diameter. heating surface:-tubes, 1,805 ft2.; firebox, 186 ft2; superheater, 258 ft2. Total, 2,249 ft2 grate area, 47 ft2. Boiler pressure, 200 psi. The Walschaerts gear is operated by a steam motor placed in the boiler cradle manipulated from the cab by a hand lever. Shaftings run from the motor to each set of valve gear, crossing the articulation gap by special universal joints. Each rod has a worm actuating a block to which the lever operating the radius rod is attached. Check sectors at the valve gear and an indicator in the cab are provided.
The tanks carry 6,160 gallons of water. The fuel is usually wood (hard) but a proportion of coal is necessary for obtaining the higher speeds of 45 m.p.h. with a 750 ton train on the level. The engines were built at Raismes, France, by the Societe-Franco-Belge in collaboration with Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. Manchester. Tests with these locomotives have been so successful that a repeat order for ten more had been placed with the same firm.

South Australian Railways. New steel passenger cars. 151-2

L.N.E.R. 152
"It is interesting to note that all of the Great Eastern express locomotives built at Stratford since 1900 and taken over by the LNER were still at work"

Locomotive stock returns, 1938. 153-4. table
4-4-0T type became rextinct with withdrawal of Lambie former Caledonia Railway No. 15025
Tender locomotives
GWR. Twelve new Manor class mixed traffic 4-6-0; additions to Castle and Grange 4-6-0 classes and 4-4-0 Earls were under construction. Ten n ew standard goods 0-6-0 brought up the class size to fifty; and after a long gap more 2-8-0 coal engines were under construction.
LNER. New construction: ten Pacifics, 19 Green Arrows, 5 Lochs and 37 standard goods 0-6-0s and NBR Atlantic restored to traffic
LMS: Ten new Pacifics to an enlarged design; twenty standard mixed traffic (4-6-0) and two 2-8-0 coal engines were added to stock.
S.R. A new class of goods engine (Class Q 0-6-0) was introduced, eleven of an order for 20 being completed.
Tank engines added:
GWR. The 72XX class of 2-8-2T was increased to a total of forty engines (conversions from 2-8-0T) whilst three varieties of 2-6-2T were turned out and 35 standard 0-6-0 pannier shunting tanks.
LNER. Fifteen standard passenger tanks V.1 and five standard goods tanks J.50 were the only additions. It is worth noting that the goods tanks were built at Gorton; new engines have not been built here for many years with the exception of two special tank engines of a modified G.C. design.
LMS. Sixty passenger tank engines were put into traffic, Nos. 2618-2651 of the 2-6-4 type and Nos. 173-184 and 196-209 of the smaller 2-6-2 variety.
S.R. The only addition was No. 1302, transferred to ordinary stock (previously "service vehicle" No. 234S, and originally S.E.R. No. 302).
Engines withdrawn. "It is not practicable" to give these in detail, but it may be mentioned that on the G.W.R. the M. & S.W.J. 0-6-0 and 4-4-0 tender engines had now disappeared from the list as well as several Dukes and Bulldogs and Dean goods. Many of the engines withdrawn, were being renewed as new standard types as already recorded in these pages:
On the LNER. the B13 (Paris Exhibition) class 4-6-0 had become extinct, also some H. & B. and N.B. classes of 0-6-0 goods engines. Two classes of tank engine had also disappeared, the North Eastern 2-4-2T and the Great Eastern 0-4-4T as well as other numerically small classes. On the LMS, as regards tender engines the L. & Y. types had been the heaviest sufferers and three of the L. & Y. Baltic tanks had also gone. The Caledonian 4-4-0T and the Midland 0-6-4T were both extinct. Nineteen of the L. & Y. 2-4-2T had disappeared, but quite a number of this class still remain in traffic. On the S.R., Drummond's first 4-4-0 class had now disappeared, No. 298 having been the last survivor. Three Adams' 0-4-2 Jubilees and four Stroudley 0-4-2T were other noteworthy withdrawals.
The scrapping programme has not been so heavy during 1938 as in 1937; of 11,909 tender erigines 234 were cut up, and of 7,770 tank engines 186 were withdrawn. Readers who wish to make further comparisons should turn up Locomotive Stock Returns 1937 on page 131 of our 1938 volume.

L.M.S.R. 154
Four stations on the main line between Preston and Lancaster (Castle) had closed: Barton and Broughton, and Brock for passenger traffic, and Scarton and. Galgate for all traffic. It is anticipated express train working over this section will be facilitated.

Old third class carriage District Railway, London. 154. illustration
Photograph taken outside the Gloucester Carnage and Wagon Company's Works and shows an example of a carriage built (about 1874) by them for the District Railway, London. It will be noticed that the vehicle had the familiar round topped doors characteristic of the Metropolitan and the Metropolitan District, or as it was called, "The Daylight Route." The carriage was fitted with the continuous vacuum brake, and more interesting, had arrangements for lighting by coal gas carried in a longitudinal flexible reservoir of india rubber sheet concealed in the box like structure on the roof. The gas was filled through pipes brought down to platform level to connections which could be coupled up to the gas mains at the terminal stations.
The guard had no special compartment but travelled in the last one of each train, this being provided with observation windows to the rear, and a large gas tail lamp. Carriages composing the trains were first, second and third class.

Private carriages on railway trucks. (From a Correspondent).. 154
The custom of travelling .in one's own carriage in the early days of railway operation is mentioned by Charles Dickens in Dombey and Son. The eccentric Duke of Portland usually travelled in this way between Welbeck and London. His last journey was performed in this manner, the private road carriage being mounted on a M.S. & L.R. carriage truck. A serious accident on 8 December 1847, probably conduced to the abolition of this means of travel, for it became obsolete soon after 1850.
On the day mentioned the "up" Leeds to London express was approaching Rugby when a private carriage in which the Countess of Zetland was travelling with her maid was set on fire by a spark from the locomotive. The "umbrella," or hood, caught first, then the carriage. The two women were obliged to evacuate the body of the vehicle and clung to its wheels while the train rushed along, despite efforts of other passengers to attract the attention of the driver. Before the. train could be stopped the maid fell off on to the track and was killed, whilst the Countess was badly burned and rendered insensible. She was ill at Rugby for some days afterwards in a critical condition.

Walschaert [sic] valve gears. Stephenson-Molyneux system. 155-6. illustration, 2 diagrams
axle of one of the engines constructed by Messrs. R. Stephenson & Hawthorns, Ltd., for the Buenos Ayres & Pacific Railway, to which this gear was applied, was assembled without the use of keys or dowels, reliance being placed entirely on the careful fitting of the "grip." In service this has proved very successful.

L.N.E.R. 156
A steamer similar to the Tattershall Castle and Wingfield Castle with accommodation for 1,200 passengers, .hads been ordered for the Humber Ferry Service and cruises. This Ferry Service operated between New Holland. on the Lincolnshire side of the Humber, and Hull (Corporation Pier) on the Yorkshire side.

L.M.S.R. 156
It is officially announced that the Hcadquarters Organisation of the Chief Mechanical Engineer and Eleclrical Engineer's Department, London, Midland and Scottish Railway, is to be transferred from Euston to Derby. The staff to be transferred number between 200 and 300, comprising (in addition to the Chief Mechanical Engineer and Deputy Chief Mechanical and Elcctr ical Engineer and Assistants) technical staff', headquarters draughtsmen and 'clerical staff also certain of the Chief Accountant's staff engaged on work connected with the locomotive and clerical accounts. Th. transfer of staff and officer·records will commence shortly ant will nor interfere with current work.

Reviews. 157

The theory of machines. Thomas Bevan, London: Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd. 549 pp., 357 fig.
Intended principally for students preparing for an. engineeriing degree or for an associate membership exaninattlon of one of the technical institutions, this book contains a good deal of information useful to the practising engineer whose theoretical knowledge has become rusty, or who has to make a study from first principles of some phase of mechanical engineering outside his normal orbit. To the locomotive engineer the chapters on valve diagrams and gears and balancing will attract .the first attention, but unfortunately these two chapters are none too long for the ground they have to cover. In the former, such out of date and rarely used motions as the Joy, Gooch, Hackworth, and Marshall are illustrated and described, but .it would have been far more valuable to have concentrated on the Stephenson and Walschaert [sic] types and to have left out the others. There is still a real need for competent and conoise instructions as to the working out of the proportions and characteristics of these two—so far and away the most widely-used of all locomotive valve gears. High commendation is due to the author for having adopted Dalby's graphical method for the balancing of masses revolving in different planes. It gives quickly, simply and aocurately all that is required in locomotive calculations, and there seems to be not the slightest reason for the perpetuatron of clumsier methods. But it is probably dangerous of the author to say that at high speeds the effects of unbalanced forces may lift the wheel from the rail. The speed at which this occurs is probably universally above what the particular engine could attain. For example, uhe three-cylinder 4-8-0 engines with 55½-in. wheels belonging to the B.A. Great Southern Railway, which have proportions suspiciously like those of the author's question 23 on p. 481, have a critical speed of about 110 m.p.h., but if the balance weights for the reciprocating weights had been concentrated in the driving wheels, which may have been what the author had in mind, instead of being spread over the six coupled wheels as is normal praotice, the critical speed would have been lowered to 63-65 m.p.h. Among the remaining 23 chapters in this well-written and well-produced book is included material on brakes, gearing, governors, and vibrations, in addition to elemental chapters on friction, inertia and kinematics, and one of the most interesting subjects touched upon is coriolis acceleration, which is rarely covered in any text book, the normal author apparently being scared of the complications of determining the acceleration of a sliding point relative to another fixed point on the same moving link.

The Taff Vale Railway. D.S. Barrie. The Oakwood Press.
The Oakwood Press are doing good service in publishing short histories of some of the many railways which have recently been absorbed 'in the four groups and are likely inl consequence to become forgotten. No. 2 of the series, dealing with the Taff Vale Railway, has just been issued, and as it is from the pen of D.S. Barrie there is no need to stress the care and accuracy with which it has been produced. Of the many independent lines serving South Wales, the Taff Vale was not only the oldest and most important, but is historically interesting in that the upper part of its main line is the modern equivalent of the Penydarran tramroad, the first line to be traversed by a steam locomotive. Its system of lines was somewhat intricate and perhaps not easily followed by those not well acquainted with the district, but the author has been at great pains to make this clear both in the text and in the diagrams accompanying it. The development of the system is traced from the beginning and the multitude of dates given bears testimony to the amount of research bestowed on it. The principal types of locomotive are described, half a dozen of them being illustrated by half tone blocks, whilst portraits are also included of such Taff Vale stalwarts as Ammon Beasley and Tom Hurry Riches. The next volume of the series will be looked forward to with interest.

The locomotive stock book, 1939. D.R. Roberts, C. Smith, D.E. White and K.R. Prentice. London: Railway Correspondence and Travel Society.
This publication comes out in full once more this year, and contains in its fifty-four pages a considerable mass of statistical matter. Compared with the issue for 1937, all the former features are retained, with the addition of a list of locomotives ,preserved in various places and those of many minor lines which appear for the first time. For the four main groups complete lists are given of all the locomotives in stock at the end of 1938, together with up-to-date tables of all named engines, and particulars of those added and withdrawn during the year. Illustrations are given of those classes which became extinct, whilst ·the representations of name and number plates introduced in 1937 have this year been added to with a completely new set which also includes certain transfer coats of arms used by some of the railways. This is a very interesting feature which, it may be hoped, will be further extended in future issues.

Train speeds and services in 1938. Lionel Wiener. Brussels: The International Railway Congress Association.
Abstracted from the Bulletin of the International Railway Congress, the particulars reproduced in this booklet form a comprehensive analysis of all the fast train timings in Europe. In addition to the statistical tables giving the longest and fastest runs in each country, distinguishing between those made by steam, diesel and electric traction, a number of useful diagrams are inserted showing the routes taken by the trains dealt with. The author's name is sufficient guarantee of the care taken to secure accuracy, but it seems a pity that more care was not taken in checking the proofs. This would undoubtedly have avoided such anomalies as crediting (Table 17) runs between Paris-St. Quentin and Paris-Troyes to the L.M.S.R., or the discrepancies in the distance between Euston and Carlisle , 467 km. in Table 13 and 481 km. in Table 18; the lattcr is correct.

Narrow gauge locomotives. R.W. Kidner. The Oakwood Press.
In our January issue we reviewed a booklet British Light Railways by the same author, and the present work supplements the particulars given in the former publication. It contains principally tables of dimensions, these were not given in the previous volume, and also reproduces many of the engine sketches which were. Some new half tone blocks, however, have been included which add to its usefulness. There is also a list of former locomotives on narrow gauge railways which have now been withdrawn.

Manufacture of high strength light alloy extrusions. R. Worsdale. The Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd., London.
Treatise discusses fully the manufacture of extrusions in the high strength light alloys and shows their present-day use in general engineering design, including aircraft, transport and shipbuilding.

Correspondence. 158

Locomotive design. P.A. Hyde.
Re issue of 15 April, letter from J.G.B. Sams, in which he asks if the popularity of roller bearings for locomotives exists outside Sweden. From this it would appear that . Sams is lacking information on the subject and it might interest him to have certain facts which point to the steadily growing adoption of that for m of bearing, at least in the United States and in the British Commonwealth.
As a matter of fact, Sweden is behind other countries in the adoption of the roller bearing for locomotives. Not very long ago I was shown a statement issued by the A.R.A. which stated that over 60 per cent. of the engines then under construction in the States were roller equipped, and a reference to the descriptions of engines lately built shows that a very large proportion are equipped on all axles with one or other of the outstanding makes of bearing. I think I am right in saying that all the Diesel electric passenger trains and vehicles are so equipped. Sams may be interested to learn that of the locomotives lately delivered from the UK or on order here a high proportion are partly or fully equipped with roller bearings, while two systems within the British Commonwealth, viz., the South African Railways and the New Zealand Government Railways, seem to be standardising the roller, the former for all carrying axles of engine and tender and the latter for all axles.
Within the last three or four vears South Africa will have had more than 300 engines so fitted, while New Zealand have now more than 50 engines under construction here and have placed orders for some 20 further sets of bearings. Within the last few months the papers have noted that 16 Garratt's with rollers on carrying axles have been shipped to South Africa and it is within my knowledge that a further 9 similarly equipped are being built for other systems. Two engines of normal design were lately shipped to India with rollers on bogies and tender and I believe that I am right in saying that a further 20 are so building at the moment for that country.
As far afield as Manchuria completely rollerised engines are in service, and I think that Sams can agree that the above facts point 'In the "long way" as having been covered and he need have no regrets on the subject.

Locos. of the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co.  R.A. Wheeler. 158
With reference to the interesting serial article now appearing in the Locomotive on the subject of the Locomotives of the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co., it is of interest to note some further details regarding engine No. 9 which I obtained some time ago from the Yorkshire Engine Company. This locomotive was built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. in January 1902-Makers' No. 628-and had cylinders 14 in. by 20 in. and wheels 3 ft. 3 in. in diameter. It was purchased about 1917 by the Redbourn Hill Iron and Coal Co. Ltd.

Soutiiern Railway. 158.
Swanley Junction station was closed and a new four-track station with two island platforms known as Swanley was brought into use. The new station is on the main line a short distance to the west of Swanley Junction.

Floodlighting a railway depot.  158
New system of floodlighting installed at Nairobi Station and Goods Yard, the main centre of the Kenya-Uganda Railways. Increase of traffic at this point, where most of the work is carried out at night, necessitated some improvement of the former lighting system. A new floodlighting scheme supplied by the General Electric Co. Ltd. was carried out by the mechanical engineer's department of the railway. The installation consists of twenty G,E.C. Broadway-type floodlights mounted on steel poles. Six of these poles are equipped with two units each and eight have one each. Fourteen of the lamps are of 1,000 watt capacity and six of 500 wntt.
The total area illuminated is about 75,000 sq. yards. The standards were carefully positioned so that all lines and points were brilliantly lit up. Ground signal lights arc no longer necessary for indicating the position of the points; these can be seen by engine drivers from a considerable distance. Each lamp is provided with a focussing device and also with "sights" similar to those on a rifle. These enable the lamps to be correctly focussed so that the beam is thrown in the desired direction.

Trade publications. 158

Stone-Deuta electric speed indicator for locomotives. 158
J. Stone arid Co. Ltd., booklet describing the new Stone-Deuta electric speed indicator for locomotives. This device is easily installed on locomotives or railcars and its makers claim, among other advantages over mechanical systems, that its accuracy is not affected by wear and little artent ion is required. A useful feature of this instrument is that it can be cal ibr a ted to suit any size of driving wheel within the range of 4 ft. to 6 fit. 9 in. diameter. The above named company have also sent us a book on the Isothermos axlebox. With the increase of speeds and journal loadings which have taken place in recent years it has been necessary to evolve a box which will withstand modern condlitions. The axlebox in question has been brought out after much study, and the fact that stock fitted with it is stated to run some 80,000 miles without the axleboxes receiving any attention

Number 562 (15 June 1939)

The articulated locomotive. 159.
Garratt, Meyer, Fairlie and Mallet types.

L.M.S.R. No. 6230 "Duchess of Buccleuch". 159 + colour plate

Class "15F" 4-8-2 locomotives South African Railways. 160. illustration.
44 being supplied by North British Locomotive Co. to design of W.A.J. Day under supervision of T.C. Swallow, Advisory Engineer to the South African High Commissioner for South Africa in London.

L.N.E.R. 160
Five new V2 class from Darlington Works; Nos. 4828-32. J24 Nos. 1822, 1823, 1829, 1846, 1950 and 1954 and J25 Nos. 1963, 1969, 1976, 1982, 1986, 1993, 2000, 2040, 2047, 2061, 2075 and 2138 taken out of service, but not broken up; but Hull & Barnsley 0-6-0 No. 2409 hadv been broken up.
V2 No. 4843 The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry named by Lady Deedes, wife of General Sir Charles Deedes, Colonel of the Regiment..

Diesel-electric locomotives, South Africa. 161-2. 3 illustrations

Southern Railway. 162
The annual Continental outing arranged under the auspices of the Mutual Improvement Class at Norwood Junction Locomotive Depot took place from Friday 19 May to 23 Tuesday 1939. Holland was selected for attention. Visits were made to the Locomo-tive Depots at Amsterdam (Central) and Rietlanden, on both of which the party was accompanied by L. Derens. One whole day was devoted to a round-trip of Holland by rail, the itinerary selected involving passage over the great bridges spanning the Lek, Waal, Linge, Maas, and Hollandsch Diep. A halt was made en route at Utrecht to visit the Railway Museum, where the party was received by Asselberghs, the Curator ; this aroused the greatest interest, and the demonstration of the signalling system in use on the Netherlands Railways by means of the model track on exhibition was highly appreciated, as it enabled the principles of operation to be acquired in the minimum of time. The visitors were subsequently entertained to luncheon at the Hotel Terminus by the Conductor, J. Pelham Maitland, at which Baron van Pallandt van Eerde and G. J. de Vos van Nederveen Cappel were also present. An excursion was also made to Volendam and Marken, in the Zuyder Zee, and around the city of Amsterdam, by water, in a private launch specially chartered for the party.

82 B.H.P. diesel locomotive , Hibberd-Crossley. 162. illustration
Diesel mechanical shunting engine built by F.C. Hibberd & Co. Ltd. of Park Royal, London, for service in the Crossley Works, Sandiacre: fitted with Freeborn automatic gear which enables the driver to work the locomotive in either direction by the throttle; reverse and brake handles completing the control. There are five speeds ranging from 3 to 10.4 m.p.h. S.K.F. roller bearings fitted to the gear shafts and jackshaft.

G.W.R.. 162
100 open and 100 covered wagons fitted with shock absorbing device recently introduced were to be built Swindon. The principle on which this device worksd is simple.. The body moves independently on the underframe and fitted with spring buffers to absorb shocks.

Latvian Railways.. 162
Henschel and Son secured an order for twenty locomotives from the Latvian Administration.

The Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad. 162
Cut schedule of one of the Zephyrs operating between Chicago and St. Paul from six hours thirty minutes to six hours fifteen minutes. As the distance is 431 miles the average speed was raised to 68.9 miles per hour.

Rhodesian Railways.. 162
An order placed with Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Co. for four diesel railcars, two of which articulated. All fitted with Ganz engines. The experimental car described in our July issue of 1937 has given very satisfactory working results.

H. Fayle. The Cork, Bandon and South Coast Rly. and its locomotives. 163-5. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)

G. & S.W.R. single driver express locomotives. 165. illustration

Experimental determination of the overturning speeds of railway vehicles on curves. 166-7. 3 illustrations
South African Railways experiments on 3ft 6in gauge with vehicles released down a steep gradient onto a test curve. Experiments followed the derailment of a train at Vlakteplaats on 10 December 1936.

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 168-71. 4 diagrams

Great Western Railway. 171.
The following engines had been completed at Swindon: No. 6873 Caradoc Grange, No. 6874 Haughton Grange, No. 6875 Hindford Grange, No. 6876 Kingsland Grange, No. 6877 Llanfair Grange, and No. 5090 Neath Abbey. Five tanks, No. 7252 (2-8-2), No. 8105 (2-6-2), Nos. 3617, 3618 and 3619 (0-6-0), also No. 3225, a 4-4-0 tender engine. Sixteen engines withdrawn, No. 4069 Westminster Abbey (4-6-0), Nos. 3270 and 3433 tender engines (4-4-0), No. 2439 0-6-0 goods, Nos. 3179 and 5133 2-6-2 tanks, No. 3500 2-4-0 tank, Nos. 1615, 1632, 1785, 1795, 1875 and 1979 0-6-0 tanks, also Nos. 1161, 3571 and 3577 0-4-2 tanks.

L.M.S.R. 171
The first five, Nos. 7080-7084, of the new 350 h.p. Diesel electric shunting locomotives (Class "O" freight tank) had been completed at Derby Works and allocated to Toton. They were being used there in connection with the mechanisation of the Down Sidings.

E.A.  Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 172-4. 3 illustrations, diagram

C.R.H. Simpson. Some early American wheels. 175-6. 5 diagrams
These compound wheels were more successful than anything previously tried, and continued to be used for several years. Many years later there were some lines having a gauge of 5 feet which it was apparant must soon be converted to standard gauge. To avoid exten- sive alterations to wheels and axles when the time for conversion came, Rogers in 1881 introduced a wheel centre having a wide rim, a projection pp being cast on the inside of the wheel centre. When the engines were new the tyres were set on the out- side, Fig. 5. When gauge alteration became necessary they were pressed further on and the portion of the wheel centre left projecting on the outside then turned off.

Wheels of this type were first used on an engine for the Alabama & Great Southern R.R: in 1881, and thereafter all 5 feet gauge engines built by Rogers were fitted with them.

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 176
Orders placed by the Crown Agents with Craven's Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. for sixteen low-sided bogie wagons and 36 low-sided four-wheel wagons, for the Federated Malay States Rlys.

Peat fuel for locomotives. 176
Some very successful experiments with peat fuel burning on locomotives had recently been made in Eire. Details of the firebox arrangements are likely to be available shortly, when we hope to publish particulars

Railway Exhibits at Zurich. 176-7. 2 illustrations 
The railway section of the Swiss National Exhibition held in Zurich, and open until 29 October 1939, was divided iinto outdoor and indoor exhibits, and compared with the last of these exhibitions to be held in Zurich, that of 1883, was a complete change-over, for whereas the piece de resistance half a century ago was the then new 4-6-0 steam locomotive class built for the Gotthard line, steam at the 1939 show was relegated to two old machines, both of which were running before the 1883 exhibition, and a snow-plough. However, the Gotthard line was again very much in evidence.
First of the two steam locomotives was the Speiser, an 0-4-4 Engerth tank engine built in 1857 by the Maschinenfabrik Esslingen for the Swiss Central Railway, and rebuilt at the Hauptwerkstatte Olten in 1880. It has inside cylinders and outside pipes leading from a steam stand and regulator just behind the chimney to the valves beneath the smokebox. The second steam engine is the original four-wheeled Riggenbach rack locomotive of the Rigi Railway. It has a vertical boiler and 'outside cylinders, and bears the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works No. 1, date 1873.
The rotary snow-plough is one of those used on the metre-gauge Rhaetian and Bernina Railways. It is of the 0-6-6-0 type, WIth a four-wheeled tender, and the mechanism is driven by two sets of outside cylinders having valves controlled by Walschaert motion .. Steam is used only for the knives and for runnmg light ; when in operation in a drift the plough is pushed by one or more electric locomotives. A snow cutter belonging to the Bernina Railway was also on show.
Largest of all the exhibits was the 244-ton 12,000 h.p. electric locomotive for operatmg passenger and freight trams over the sinuous 1 m 38-40 grades on the Gotthard (Lucerne-Chiasso) route of the Swiss Federal Railways. Normally it had a starting tractive effort of 110,000 lb. and. an adhesion weight of 160 tons, but the electncal equipment can produce a starting effort of no less than 140000 lb. and can maintain it up to nearly 40 m.p.h. when this is to be used ompressed-air weight-transferring cylinders are brought into operation, and transfer some a! the weight from the carrying axles on to the driving axles. Even so, against this maximum load of 172 .tons .on the driving wheels the factor of adhesion was only 2.75, and a special wheel-slip indicator was provided in the driving cabin to assist the dnver in maintaining adequate control. The tractive effort at the one-hour rating of the electrical equipment was 88,000 lb. at 45 m.p.h. Express passenger trains of 600 tons weight are hauled up the 1 in 38-40 grades at 40 m.p.h. and 750-ton freight trains at 31 m.p.h.; the top speed is 68 m.p.h. A glass side panel is fitted down one side so that he motors and part of the control and ventilat- ng apparatus can be seen, but the layout of most ,f the main equipment can be observed from the entral passage down the cab.
Cheek by jowl with this 28-wheel machine wsa a double-bogie diesel-electric locomotive of just one-tenth the power, built for hauling light fast assenger trains over the non-electrified lines in le north of Switzerland. It is powered by an eight-cylinder 1,200 b.h. p. Sulzer oil engine running at 750 r.p.m. and equipped with a Buchi isupercharger; this engine was coupled to a 700-kw main generator which supplied current to four nose-suspended traction motors. The locomotive weight is 65 tons and the top speed 68 m.p.h. A special single-phase generator is inserted between le main and auxiliary generators, so that the locomotive can supply standard 16. 6-cycle electric eating current to the carriages in the train, all of which are fitted for the single-phase type of heating of the electrified lines.
The Bern-Lotschberg-Simplon Railway (or Blerner Alpenbahn Gesellschaft) showed one of its new I-Co + Co-l express electric locomotives with Secheron electrical equipment and individual axle Jive, but bearing the Swiss Locomotive and lachine Works number 3678 (1939). It can Ivelop a maximum output of 6,000 h.p. The siss Federal Railways have developed their well- mown Red Arrow single-unit single-phase fast :ectric motor-coach into a twin-car non-articula- ' ~ unit with a buffet and with 126 second class md third class seats. The construction is mainly hluminium. Another twin-car motor-coach set the articulated vehicle with Liechty guided Wes which hauls trailers over the Bern-Neuchatel le; it has 18 second class and 115 third class ts, a postal compartment and a baggage room a tare weight of 68 tons; it is allowed a top d of 68 m.p.h. against the 81 m.p.h. of the Red Arrow set.
Among the carriage stock is a special observa- n trailer, with glass round the ends and sides with a partial glass roof, for use on the metre-gauge Brunig section of the Federal Railways, running from Lucerne to Meiringen and Inter- laken. Built by the Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft, of Neuhausen, it contains 28 mov- able arm-chairs and a baggage compartment on a tare weight of 16 tons. It has the Brown Boveri form of lighting dynamo drive through bevels and a cardan shaft from the end of one of the axles. A new 37-ton all-steel standard- gauge postal sorting van of the Swiss Federal Railways is another exhibit built by the same firm. It has 9 ft. 10 in. bogies pitched at 53 ft. 9 in. centres and is equipped with Westinghouse automatic and non-automatic brakes.
Under cover, the exhibits generally are of a smaller character, but include a full-size under- frame and wheels of a four-wheel freight van fitted out with a complete set of Westinghouse automatic brake gear, and with an explanation of its operation There is a large working model of freight and passenger trains at four periods of Swiss railway history, each train of a weight and running at a relative speed corresponding to its period. Other models are those of the Wiesinger high-speed train, which, it is claimed, could maintain a speed of 225 m.p.h. on its own special track and run to a schedule of 50 min. for the 179-mile journey from Zurich to Geneva, and of the new Rhaetian Railway 34½-ton 600 h.p. motor-coaches of normal design, several of which are now under construction.
Illustrations: Old Engerth tank, Swiss Central Railway; 1,200 H,P. Diesel·electric loco. Swiss Federal Rys. See also letter from C. Hamilton Ellis on page 300. .

L.M.S,R. 177
Nos. 8119-22 were the latest 2-8-0 freight tender engines (Class 8F') to be turned out at Crewe. Four others. completing the order, would shortly be in traffic. The first of a new series of 4-6-2 Princess Coronation class locomotives—all of which were to be streamlined— also nearing completion at Crewe. It is understood that alI the engines in this and the subsequent series are to be named after Cities served directly by the L.M.S. At Derby some further Class 4 0-6-0 freight engines had been completed, the latest in service being No. 4581. After being "run in," these engines are transferred to stations on the Midland Division. Royal Scot class 4-6-0 No. 6144 has been named Honourable Artillery Company. Recent withdrawals included two further ex-L.N.W. engines: 0-6-2 coal side tank. No. 7751 and 0-6-0 saddle tank No. 27469, originally one of Webb's 0-6-0 coal engines.

E.R.S. Watkin. Locomotives of the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd. 178.
No. 15 was acquired from Andrew Barclay in 1907. It was intended for hauling material from the crusher chutes to the high level furnace bunkers and for taking slag to the tip. In 1915 it fell from the top of the slag tip and required rebuilding. No. 16 was purchased from Peckett & Sons and intended for haulage of ironstone from the Conesby mine and after 1910 from the Thealby mine partly over the North Lindsey Light Railway and following WW1 was used within the works mainly on short hauls up steep gradients. No. 18 was obtained from Hudswell, Clarke & Co. in 1910 and was used on ironstone haulage. It was renumbered 19 in 1938.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XI. Francis William Webb. 179-82. 4 illustrations (including portrait)
Probably an excessive amount of attention was given to Webb's persistance with compounding.

Notes on Fell's inventions. 183. illustration
John Barraclough Fell was born in 1815 and spent the early part of his life with parents in London, removing with them some twenty years later to the Lake district. Here, in the 1840's, he carried out his first railway work in connection with the Furness and Whitehaven Railway. Much of Fell's work is well known and has received adequate recognition in the technical press, but there are some of his activities less known and it is these which it is proposed to mention here. In 1852 he went to Italy where for some years he, was associated with Brassey and others in the construction of several of the early Italian railways. Among these lines, which were constructed by the firm of Brassey, Jackson, Fell and ]opling, were the Central of Italy, the Maremma and the Genoa and Voltre Frequently traversing the mountains by road led him to give his attention to mountain railways, with the result that he evolved the Fell Centre-Rail system for extra adhesion. This scheme was patented in 1863. In the years 1864-55 he carried out experiments on the Gothland indine of the High Peak Railway in Derbyshire which resulted in the subsequent adoption of the system to the crossing of the Mont Cenis Pass of the Alps between St. Michel in France and Susa in Italy. This was the first Alpine Railway and carried the International traffic between Italy and France, as well as the Indian mail, prior to the opening of the tunnel. Fell's inventive ability was by no means confined to devising ways of working steep inclines, for he also devised a single-line suspended railway, operated by a wire rope which was erected between the Parkhouse Hematite Ore Mines, near Furness Abbey, and Roose Station on the Furness Railway. This was later replaced by a line of 8 inches gauge, but certain practical troubles occurred in operation and Fell determined to adopt a rather wider gauge, 18 inches being decided on. The Board of Trade became interested in this project, and as a result the Government constructed an experimental line during 1873-74 at South Camp, Aldershot, to provide transport between various stores. The rails were laid upon a continuous wooden structure formed of parallel beams supported at regular intervals by wooden pillars which were suitably braced with transverse struts. The rails were four in number, two being fitted on the upper faces of the beams and two on their outer faces; the sur face rails were of iron while those at the sides were of wood and contacted with the horizontal wheels of the rolling stock. The tender locomotive illustrated was designed and constructed by Manning, Wardle & Co. of Leeds; the cylinders were 6t in. diameter by 10 in. stroke. The six flangeless wheels carrying the engine were 16 in. diameter: the wheelbase being 10 ft. 8 in. The boiler was of interest at the time in that it was welded and flanged, angle-iron being dispensed with in its construction. A copper firebox was fitted having a heating surface of only 14 sq. ft., while the grate area was but 3 sq. ft.: the tubes, of brass, were 22 in number, with an external diam. of 1 kin., giving- a heating surface of 62 sq. ft. The boiler was fed by two injectors. Dimensions of the engine were: length 13 ft. 2t in., width 5 ft. 1 in., the weight in working order being 4 tons 8t cwt. The tender, which was also carried on wheels of 16 in. diameter, had a water capacity of 172 gallons and space for 15 cubic feet of fuel. The length of the engine and tender was 25 ft. 4 in. and their total gross weight 8 tons 4 cwt., distributed over a total wheelbase of 22 ft. 5 in. Although the trials passed off favourably the line was-in the words of Sir Arthur Heywood, an acknowledged authority on narrow gauge railways-"a sad failure."
Fell was fond of relating that he was respon- sible, among other achievements, for placing the first steamer on the English lakes, this appearing on Windermere in 1851; that he constructed the first railway in the Papal States of Italy, and that he carried the first railway over the Alps. In both his centre-rail system and his light railway work he was assisted by his son G. Noble Fell. J. B. Fell died at his residence in Southport aged 87 oo 18 October 1902.

Crewe Suspension Bridge. 183
"The Spider" bridge, which had been for many years a familiar landmark to travellers over the West Coast Route was to be demolished. It was built in 1878 to convey stores to and from the station, and was 720 feet long. It crossed the network of lines just north of the station and at one time it carried a narrow gauge track  on which the srnail steam locomotives Tiny and Midge used to work.

Tore  Westerman. The Lapland Ore Railway. 184. 2 illustrations

Correspondence Early Stephenson Engine, Melbourne And Hobso:-'S Bay Railway.
In our March issue we illustrated an interesting old model of a shunting locomotive built by Robert Stephenson and Co. for the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Railway.
Mr. Er nest F. Smith has kindly sent an old photograph of the pier ta-ken by Mr. C. Nettleton and we now have pleasure in introducing it. The following extract from Mr. Smith's letter which accompanied the photograph will be of interest.
"There can be very little doubt, I think, that the engine in the picture is the prototype of the model illustrated in your March issue. On account of its diminutive size there can hardly have been a smaller one, and in any case the photo. was probably taken before the larger engine was built in 1875. What detail can be seen corresponds very model the pump can be seen arranged vertically on the frame between the wheels.
"The front guard. irons so conspicuous in the model do not appear in the photograph: probably they suffered too much in the rough and ready working about the wharves to allow of them remaining in position for long at a time. There appears IQ be a bunch of rope slings, or perhaps a towrope, draped over the exhaust pipe on the left hand ide of the smok ebox : no doubt a very useful item in the class of work."

Locomotive design.
I am very grateful to Mr. P. A. Hyde for taking so much notice of me, but with the exception of Sweden I propose to stick to my guns; I would say that my remarks on the above country were founded on information from what might reasonably be called a very author itative course.

Melbourne And Hobson's Bay Railway Pier, Sa:-Dridge.

closely with the model, with the exception of what I take to be a vertical board carry,ing the steam gauge. The exist- ence of the lat icr , however, is chiefly conjecture on my part, as it is not too clear in the photograph. There is also what appears to be a whistle spindle running through this board, and this is fairly plain. It is quite feasible that this lltling for the gauge may have been added to the engine after she had been in service for some time, and the short whistle handle which I think can be seen in your reproduc- i ion of the model would then have to be extended so as to make it acces ible to the enginemen. It is clear from the height of the t r aver ser in front of the engine that there would have to be very considerable clearance underneath, as, of course, unless the tr aver ser is in position, there is a gap in the rails, as seen in the adjacent lines.
"You wi ll notice the two sloping rods running from the footplate alongside the boiler. I suggest that one of these is for the pet cock of the pump, and the other perhaps for the cylinder or st camch es t cocks, or perhaps feed cock from tank. These rods apparerrtly existed on each side of the engine, as shown hy the model and the photograph. In the The dict ionary definition of "popularity" is "general esteem" and I fail to see that roller bearings can as yet lay claim to this. However, Mr. Hyde certainly knows more about ,j.t than I do and perhaps he will inform us through your columns of the precise number of locomotives actually fitted throughout with roller bearings in, say, this country, Africa and India. This will enable your readers to judge. Yours faithfully, J. G. B. SAMS.

Diesel electric traction.
The brief article on page 132 of your May number, which quotes statistics approved by several eminent authorities, reads suspiciously like propaganda in support of Diesel- electric traction.
Using the operating cost per train-mile as a basis, no fair comparison can be made between the Southern Pacific Com- pany's "Sunbeam" trains which operate on a 260-mile run, and the "Denver Zephyrs," whose run from Chicago to Denver covers 1,017 miles. Furthermore, nothing is said about the relative capital investment in the two trains, in- volving at least a possible difference in the fixed charges for interest, depreciation and taxes, though all this must be taken into account before any dividends can be credited to the shareholders.
The accuracy of the assertion that' the daily mileage of oil- engined trains is "four times that of steam locomotives" depends entirely on what kind of steam locomotives one has in mind and upon the circumstances under which they are operated. Given sufficiently long runs, the most modern steam locomotives are daily demonstrating their ability to run from 18,000 to 20,000 miles per month without any par- ticular difficulty. To quadruple this performance, it would be necessary for an oil-engine to run non-stop during the entire month at an average speed of 100 m.p.h.The increased availability of the oil-electric locomotive will be readily ack- nowledged by all, but it must also be realised that this ad- vantage can only be fully utilised if the available traffic permits a suitable arrangement of train schedules.
The Committee on Locomotive Construction of the Associa- tion of American Ra'ilroads has for sorne time been assemb- ling statistics pertaining to the operation and maintenance of Diesel-electric locomotives, with a view to providing com- parative data of an absolutely unbiassed nature. Up to the present moment, this work has not been completed. Until it is, it may be well to accept the reports of consulting engineers, no matter how disinterested they appear to be, with a certain degree of caution.
In conclusion, your readers may be interested to know that the Southern Pacific Company ,announced on February 25th, 1939, an order for forty new steam locomotives of the largest and most powerful types, to cost approximately £1,500,000. This does not indicate any loss of confidence in the steam locomotive. WM. T. HOECKER.

Reviews·

Heat treatment and the application of electric furnaces. -By E. F. Watson. London: Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd. Price 2/- net.
This publication gives an outline of the major heat treat- ment processes, dealing with the methods used, the effects on material treated, etc. Electric furnaces are described and reference made to their advantages for certain classes of work.

Liliputbahnen.-By Jng. Dr. WaIter Strauss. Printed in Germany. 20s. net.
This is the finest book dealing with passenger hauling model locomotives yet produced. Although railways of 2! in. gauge are included, it deals more especially with those of 3~ in. gauge and upwards.
American and German models are illustrated and described but by far the greater number are of British origin, practic- ally every model railway in the larger gauges being men- tioned. Such lines as the Ravenglass and Eskdale, and the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch naturally receive much atten- tion, but in addition are some less known to present-day en- thusiasts, such as Sir Perciva! Heywood's Duffield Bank Rail- way dating from 1875.
The numerous illustrations are excellent- and although the text is in German there will be many who will consider the book worth purchasing for the illustrations alone.

Locomotive drawings.-The stephenson locomotive Society. 2/-.
The Stephenson Locomotive Society are to be congratula- ted on the publication in a single volume of a collection of roughly 200 outline drawings representing most of the loco- motive types that are or have been in service in this country during recent years. The drawings have been selected from those which have been published in the Society's Journal to which have been added a number that have appeared in the pages of this magazine as well as elsewhere. No half tone blocks' have been included. The book is not loaded up with reading matter of which there is none beyond the foreword and index, but the blocks have been printed on one side of the paper only and make a very useful reference series for all interested in the locomotive.

Trade Notes and Publications

"Stainless Steel, Stainless Iron" (Galahad, trade mark) )/0. 423 (Folder). "Steels for Automobiles and Aircraft, to B.S.I. and Air Ministry Specifications," No. 424 (Abridged List). "Steels Resistant to Heat and Corrosion" No. 425 (Abridged List). "Improved Pulling Jack for use in Col- lieries, Mines, Quarries, etc." No. 426 (Pamphlet). "Steels for Internal Combustion Engine Valves (Era 144, trade mark) No. 273a (pamphlet), from Hadfields Ltd., East Hecla Works, Sheffield. "Cambridge Automatic Regulators," from the Cambridge Instrument Company L;td., 13 Grosvenor Place, London, "Westinghouse Rectifiers for Battery Charging," "West- inghouse Metal Rectifiers for Projector Arcs," "A.C. to D.C.;" "Westinghouse Chargers for Electric Vehicles and Trucks," from the Westinghouse Brake and Signal Co. Ltd., 82, York Way, King's Gross, London, N.!.

Messrs. Ruston and Hornsby Ltd. are exhibking at the 1939 Royal Show at Windsor a 10/13 H. P. Diesel locomotive suitable for light railways on farms and plantations. Timken bearings for a rolling mill have an inside diameter of 30 in., an outside diameter of 48 in., and are 32 in. wide. Designed for the 56 in. diameter back-up rolls of the mill, they have the largest load carrying capacity in the world, 3,500,000 pounds at 10 r.p.m., and each bearing, when it is assembled, weighs nearly 4 tons. The Rolling Mill has been built to the order of Samuel Fox and Co. Ltd. of Sheffield, for the production of stainless steel sheets.

L.M.S.R.-It has been officially decided that the 20 new streamlined 4-6-2 locomotives building at Crewe shall be named after Cities on the L.M.S. system. The first engine will be No. 6235 "City of Birmingham," followed by Nos. 6236 "City of Bradford," 6237 "City of Bristol," 6238 "City of Carlisle," 6239 "City of Chester," 6240 "City of Coventry," 6241 "City of Edinburgh," 6242 "City of Glas- gow," 6243 "City of Lancaster," 6244 "City of Leeds," 624;1 "City of Leicester ;" 6246 "City of Lichfield," 6247 "City of Liverpool, 6248 "City of London," 6249 City of Manchester," 6250 "City of Nottingham," 6251 City of St. Albans," 6252 "City of Salford," "6253 City of Sheffield," 6254 "City of "Stoke-on- Trent."

Toton sidings, l.m.s.r.-A new system of electro- pneumatic control has been installed at the down sidings at Toton, Derbyshire. Operators in the Hump Room and Control Tower respectively are now able to direot wagons to any of the 34 sorting sidings. The control tower operator can also bring wagons to a stop by retarders. Diesel electric locomotives are used for working the "Hump." A tele- type apparatus is used for communicating instructions for the shunting sequence of each train from the Hump Room to the Control Tower.

L.N.E.Rv.-Mr. R. Thompson has been appointed to suc- ceed Mr. O. P. Hutchinson as District Locomotive Supt., Darlington. Mr. Hutchinson is retiring.

Reviews. 186.

Number 563 (15 July 1939)

Locomotive Department Liaisons. 187
Comprising as it does many "industries within an industry", and many occupations and professions within a vocation the modern railway system of any size is inevitably an organisation complex in structure. To attain maximum efficiency of the whole, understanding and liaison between the various sections of this organisation must reach a high pitch of perfection; the "departmental outlook" must be avoided or if it already exists must be broken down, and a close harmony of co-operation must be attained among the almost innumerable cross-sections that go to make up the vast entity of a railway.
That the attainment of this objective presents a definite problem was evidenced by the stress laid by the largest British railway company upon the dangers of the "departmental outlook", when it recently established a training school for its personnel. The smaller is the concern, usually the more intimate is the personal contact between those responsible for its conduct· the larger the undertaking, the greater the' risk (but not necessarily the prevalence) of losing or weakening personal contacts, enthusiasm and initiative. On the other hand, the phrase "depart- mental outlook" does not necessarily imply lack of interest in or enthusiasm for the particular task which the individ ual is called upon to fulfil; a man may be one-hundred-per-cent. efficient at his own job, yet neither know nor care what is the effect of his work beyond the restricted orbit of his own particular sphere. Obviously an organisation which consists of various activities all carried on within water-tight compartments presents the potentialities of weakness, and lacks united effort or central driving force. It is in order to red uce this risk, and to encourage an interest and a morale beyond the confines of purely sectional interest, that many great organisations (certain railways among them) have devoted much thought and trouble to such functions of industrial psychology as staff Journals and educational or instructional films, which help to stimulate interest in the general work of the undertaking as well as to encourage personal efficiencv in the immediate task of the individual.
Esprit de Corps.
Two factors exist in the railway industry which make it all the more important that the "departmental outlook" should be avoided. One is the amalgamation of railways into groups, a process which has left the tradition and spirit of the con- stituents m mid-air, so to speak, whilst fresh counterparts applicable to the new undertakings. are established among the personnel. The other factor is the vast degree of progress achieved (and still m course of achievement) in almost all spheres of rail:--vay activity, more particularly on the technical side. This progress means that the technical man especially has to be constantly alert, constantly studymg, If he is to keep pace with deyelopments.. In a large railway organisation It is the function of the executive to survey and determine broad principles and for subordinates to work out the plan in detail. The rate of progress to-day is such that no man can reasonably expect, even if he. has the inclination, to keep abreast with detail m all fields of technical pro- gress. On the other hand, it is essential that he should be fully abreast of the broad trends of development in other departments whose func- tions Impmge upon his own, and that he should keep aware of changes in detail which may affect him personally. A particular example is the locomotive man (and especially the locomotive running official) who must keep in touch with what  is being done by his colleague on the civil' engineermg, signalling, stores, and traffic-working.sides, so that he may be alert to the effect which such progress may have upon his own work. Traditionally the locomotive man possesses such external interest, for there were no railways worthy of the name until he provided the engines to work them, and, conversely, the other de- partments with whom the Locomotive Department is in contact and collaboration have an obligation to watch locomotive progress with equal interest and vigilance, .since they must know both the capacity and the Iimitations of the motive power used by the railway.
Bearing in mind . the foregoing conditions as they apply 'to-day, It IS not surprising to find a keen interest among all ranks of the locomotive staff, including the enginemen themselves, in phases of railway progress outside the Locomotive Department. This is all the more important nowa- days when the locomotive is regarded essentiallv as an economic unit! and not as in the old days, as a necessary but highly technical machine which the Locomotive Department alone understood and which was of no interest to other departments, so long as it duly appeared to take its train at the appointed time. and ran that train to the schedule required of it.
Locomotive Economics.
In recent years much thought and study has been devoted to the question of locomotive run- ning expenses as a factor in the overall efficiency of the railway. Standardisation and mass-production, intensive user, and the improvement of such statistics as ton-miles per engine-hour, and miles-per-day-per-engine-in-use, have all made their contribution towards the reduction of this ex- penditure, which on the four British main line railways represents an annual cost of some thirty- three million pounds.
The attention thus paid to locomotive working has, moreover, fostered an undoubted tendency to take the locomotive aspect more fully into con- sideration when planning other railway developments, so that the locomotive has become still more closely knit to railway efficiency as a whole, and has exercised a correspondingly greater influence upon it. This being the case there is a parallel tendency for the locomotive man to examine with greater interest the work and problems of other departments so far as they affect him, and it may therefore be not without profit to study some of these tendencies in other fields of railway enter- prise, from the particular standpoint of the rail- wayman whose work lies in the design, construction or running and maintenance of locomotives.

3 ft, 6 in. Gauge 4-6-2 Locomotive Gold Coast Government Railway. 188-9. illustration
Seven 4-6-2 locomotives had been constructed by Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. for working main line passenger services between Sekondi, Kumasi and Accra. They had been built to the specifications of Major C. R. Turner, the chief mechanical engineer of the Gold Coast Government Railway, and under supervision of the Crown Agents for the Colonies. The cylinders were 18 inches diameter with a stroke of 26 inches. The piston valves were 10 in. dia., actuated by Walschaerts gear. The coupled wheels were 5 ft. diameter and have a wheelbase of 11 ft. equally spread. In full working order the engine weighed 63 tons 9 cwt. The boiler working pressure is 180 psi. The firebox was of the round-top pattern and had a combustion chamber. The M.L.S. superheater provided 332 sq. ft. of heating surface and this, combined with 1,358 sq. ft. evaporative surface (1,222 sq. ft. by the tubes and 136 sq. ft. by the firebox) gives a total heat- ing surface of 1,690 sq. ft. The grate is fitted with ordinary bars and had an area of 25 sq. ft. The tractive force at 85 per cent. boiler pressure is 21,480 lb.
The main frames are of the bar type and the cylinder castings are bolted together to form a saddle for the smokebox. The bogie is spring controlled and the truck wheels have Cartazzi radial axleboxes.

Metre guauge 4-10-2 locomotive, Araraquara Railway, Brazil. 189-. illustrationj

P.C. D[ewhurst], L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. -195.

L.M.S.R. 195
An important milestone in railway development in the Xorth of England—the public opening of the first section of the Manchester and Leeds Railway, later part of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway and now part of the LXl.S. system reached its centenary on 4 July 1939. Proposals for a railway between Manchester and Leeds were mooted as early as 1825, and the route was surveyed, and the line constructed, by George Stephenson, who regarded the Summit Tunnel, between Littleborough and Walsden, as the greatest piece of railway engineering he had yet achieved. This tunnel is 2,885 yards long and is the eighth longest on the L.M.S. system; it cost over £250,000 and required the labours of 1,000 men for nearly four years. At its deepest point the tunnel is 300 ft. below the Pennines. It was owing to the Summit Tunnel being unfinished that the line could not be opened further than from Manchester to Littleborough, 14 miles. on July 4th, 1839. At the opening there were only eight trains a day in each direction, whereas at the present lime about 150 trains pass through Littleborough on a normal day, and about 200 in the holiday season. The original Manchetcr terminus of the Manchesrer and Leeds Railway was at Oldham Road, which is now an important L.M.S. goods station (dealing with about 2,000,000 consignments per annum. and where traces of the original buildings were still to be seen. Passenger trains were transferred to Hunt's Bank [later Vicroria) Station in 1844. Among interesting features of the railway were its employment at first of the unusual gauge of 4 ft. 9 in

Irish notes. 195
Great Southern Railways. Thc three engines of the 800 class to be named after Irish Queens as Iollows:. 800 Maeve, No. 801 Macha; No. 802 Tailte, The name plates will have bronze lettering (in Irish) on a blue background. No. 800 wouldl be in regular service on 17 July. The second engine, No. 801, was approaching completion. It is understood that the up and down Cork day mail trails were to be accelerated by 15-20 minutes in each direction.
The locomotive shed at Wexford was to be closed, and the engines work through to Rosslare Harbour where the shed had been enlarged. This has involved strengthening the bridges between  Wexford and Rosslare.
Sleigo, Leitrim and Northern Counties Railway.-No. 1A railbus was at Dundalk , and to take its place G.N.R. (I.) railbus D has been lent to the company. There were two railbus workings in each direction between Sliigo and EnniskilIen.
Londonderry and Lough Swilly Ry. Nos 7 and 13 (4-6-2T') and 17 (0-6-0T) were lying derelict at Pennyburn shed, Londonderry, and No. 1 (4-6-0T) was under repair. Nos. 2, 12 and 14 were working Burtonport trains. Goods trains still worked to Buncrana, but beyond that to Carndonagh the line was completely dismantled.

Tube extension. 195
Highgate to East Finchley.-The first part of the North London eleotrification scheme, covering a distance of two miles between Archway (Highgate) and East Finchley, opened for service on 3 July. The new line has a physical connection with the L.N.E.R. at East Finchley and uhere will be a new tube station at Highgate underneath the L.N.E.R. By invitation of the L.t .E.R. and London Transport, Lord Ashfield and Sir Ronald Matthews, the chief officers of both systems, and a number of guests attended a private inspection of the line a few days before the opening. On this occasion a special train ran non-stop from Leicester Square Station to Archway—where Sir Ronald Matthews entered the motorrnans cab and piloted the train over the new line.

Southern Railway electrification. 195
On Sunday, 2 July, electric trains were brought into public service on the GilIingham and Maidstone lines. Seventy-six 550 h. p. two-car trains hade been built at Eastleigh and Lancing for this extension. Half of the stock was provided with side corridors and lavatory accommodation. Each train set had a seating capacity for 24 first class and 102 third class passengers.

L.N.E.R. 195
Carriage repair work hitherto undertaken at Dukinfield to be distributed between Doncaster and York carriage shops. The forge and smithy at Dukinfield would continue, also repairs to wagon stock.

L.M.S.R. 195
Further 2-S-0 freight engines turned out at Crewe were Nos. 8123-25, thus completing the present order. The first of the new streamlined Princess Coronation class 4-6-2s, finished in red and gold livery, had left the Crewe shops, No. 6235 City of Birmingham. No. 5518 of the 4-6-0 Patriot series had been named Bradshaw, in commemoration of the centenary of Bradshaw's railway guide which takes place this year. A total of fifty ex L.N.W. 0-8-0s of class G1 had the boiler pressure increased from 160 lb. to 175 lb., the power classification being also raised from 6 to 7. Recent additions to the series, which is officially designated class G2A, included Nos. 9045, 9130, 9185 and 9356. Withdrawals included ex-LNWR superheated 4-4-0s Nos. 25293 Levens and 25409 Dovedale, also ex Mid. 4-4-0s Nos. 722, 723, 750 and 777. Six new 0-6-0 Diesel eleotric locomotives ex Derby were now in traffic, Nos. 7080-85.

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 196-8. 3 diagrams.
Previous part began page 146. Concerned with flange wear on curves for both four and six-wheel bogies.  Cites G.J. Morrison paper which is difficult to trace in alleged Volume 21 of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers

"Pacific" locomotives in Finland. 198.
Finish State Railways: 5ft gauge. Pacifics used on Helsingfors to Tampere sleeping car trains and on Helsingfors to Kouvola expresses which demanded speeds of 50 mile/h average.

L.N.E.R. 198
A4 Pacific No. 4498 Golden Plover worked the Edinburgh to London Coronation serviice on 38 out of 39 consecutive days that the train operated: 14924.5 miles at an average speed of 65.5 mile/h and 12000 miles at at least 80 mile/h.

Experimental determination of the overturning speed of railway vehicles on curves. 199-201. 5 illustrations, diagram, table
Began page 166, T.H. Watermeyer, General Manager South African Railways responsible

Southern Railway. 201
Lord Nelson class modifications: No. 859 Lord Hood fitted with 6ft 3in coupled wheels in place of 6ft 7in. No. 860 Lord Hawke fitted with an extended boiler barrel; No. 857 Lord Howe fitted with a larger boiler with a combustion chamber. Also refers to multiple jet blast pipes and single double coned chimneys of large diameter, but neither Kylchap nor Lemaitre mentioned

H. Fayle. The Dundalk, Newry & Greenore Railway. 202-3. 2 illustrtions
Railway was incorporated in 1862. The Lnwr provided capital to develop port at Greenore at the end of the Carlingford Peninsula and the railway to serve it and connect it the GNR (I). The locomotives were 0-6-0ST built at Crewe: Nos. 1 Macrory, 2 Greenore, 3 Dundalk (Crewe Works Numbers 1509-11 of January 1879), Nos. 4 Newry and 5 Carlingford (Works numbers 1962-3 of January 1876) and 6 Holyhead (WN 3877/May 1898). The locomotives and carriages werre paintred in LNWR livery. Prior to WW1 a GNR (I) through train with dining car ran to Belfast connecting with the boat from Holyhead. The division of Ireland left the port in Ireland with its main source of trade in the so-called United Kingdom and the sea route waas restricted to freight. In 1933 the GNR(I) took over the railway and brought in its JT class to work the passenger services and presented iit with two railbuses Nos. 1 and 3. The route passed through beautiful country

The centenary iof the Eastern Counties Railway. 203-6
Several attempts to build railways into rural East Angia failed, but on 4 July 1836 the Royal Assent was received for the Eastern Counties Railway. It was built vto the 5ft gauge, but the earthworks were constructed to accept 7ft gauge. In late 1838 a temporary terminus in Devonshire Street, Mile End provided a train service to Ilford and this was extended to Romford on 15 June 1839. On 4 July 1840 the line was extended inward to a terminus at Shoreditch and outward to Brentwood amd this opened in the presence of the Persian Ambassador. On 29 March 1843 Colchester was reached.
The Northern & Eastern Railway sought to exploit the Lea Valley to escape from London. It  was also built to the 5ft gauge and relied upon the ECR for its terminus in Shoreditch and on its line as far as Stratford where it set off to the north, but the toll rate was a problem and it was leased by the ECR from 1 January 1844: the lines were converted to standard gauge in September 1844. Broxbourne had been reached by 18 September 1840; Bishops Stortford in 1842 and Hertford on 31 October 1843. Norwich was linked with Yarmouth on 1 May 1844 and later in the same year the Norwich to Brandon Railway was amalgamated with it to form the Norfolk Railway. Norwich was initially linked to London via Brndon and Ely and under the auspices of the Eastern Counties Railway much of East Anglia was eventually reched including King's Lynn, Peterborough and Hitchin (the last was sold back to the Great Northern). The Eastern Union Railway linked Colchester to Ipswich and Norwich and was worked by the ECR from 1854. 
The Eastern Counties Railway after a somewhat checkered history from the financial aspect, at the time of its absorption into the Great Eastern Railway owned or leased 299 route miles of track to which should be added the Norfolk Railway, 92 miles, the East Anglian Railway 67 miles, the Eastern Union Railway 106 miles, the East Suffolk Railway 69 miles and the Wells and Fakenham Railway 9 miles. The Eastern Counties Railway thus formed the main portion of what became one of the principal trunk railways in the country prior to the grouping scheme of 1923.
The finances of the Eastern Counties Railway were never in a strong position and in an attempt to remedy the position George Hudson was in October 1845 invited to join the Board, which invitation he accepted, and became Chairman of the Company with almost dictatorial powers. It was largely at his instigation that the locomotive and carriage works at Stratford came into existence, the original premises being completed and brought into use in 1848. Previous to this the locomotive shops were located near Romford on a site which was in 1939 still known as Romford Factory.
On the formation of the Great Eastern Railway in 1862 the Eastern Counties Railway owned 330 locomotives, whereas at the opening of the first section of the line in 1839 the number was only twelve. The earliest locomotives used on the Eastern Counties Railway were four four-wheeled engines with inside cylinders and bar framing built by Braithwaite, Milner & Co., of New Road, London, in 1838, and named Essex, Middlesex, Norfolk and. Suffolk respectively. These were known as the ballast engines, and they do not appear to have done much work other than on the construction of the line.
The first passenger engines comprised six locomotives of the 2-2-0 wheel arrangement built by Braithwaite, Milner & Co. in 1839. Thev had inside cylinders 12 in. diameter by 18 in. stroke, and 6 ft. 0 in. diameter driving wheels, and were known as Nos. 1 to 6 on the Company's books.
The remammg two engmes were of the 0-4-0 type with 5 ft. 0 in. driving wheels and inside cylinders 14 in. diameter by 18 in. stroke., and were intended for working the goods traffic. The first Locomotive Superintendent of the Eastern Counties Railway was John Braithwaite. In 1843, the mechanical side was separated from the remainder of the Engineering Department and Fernihough was appointed Locomotive Superintendent who resigned in 1845 and was succeeded by Scott, who was a protege of George Hudson. In 1846, John Hunter took charge, and in August, 1850, . J. V. Gooch, formerly Locomotive Superintendent of the L.S.W. Railway, was appointed to the position. He held office until 1856 and was succeeded by Robert Sinclair, from the Caledonian Railway: he continued in office for some years after the formation of the Great Eastern Railway.
Many improvements and extensions followed consequent upon the formation of the Great Eastern Railway, one of the most important of which was the extension to Liverpool Street Station, which was opened for traffic on the 2 February 1874 at a cost of £2,000,000, and the consequent abandonment of the Shoreditch (later known as Bishopsgate terminus.
In conclusion, it will be appreciated from the foregoing paragraphs what an important part the Eastern Counties Railway and its allied lines played in making the railway system of East Anglia what it is to-day.

G.I. P. R. track recording car.. 206
A standard bogie coach had been converted to a track recording car for detccting and recording defective sections of track. The car has a verandah at one .end leading into the instrument room in which the detectors, recorders, switchboard, electrically driven air compressor, etc., are located. The remainder of .the coach is reserved for the staff. Many ingenious devices have been introduced by Mullineux of the G.I.P.Ry., who was also responsible for the conversion and details of design.

"The Pngeant of the Railroads" at the New York World's Fair. 206
Story of transport in the U.S.A. from the days of the covered road wagon to the present time streamliners. The stage on which the spectacle appears is 250 feet wide by 100 feet deep, and on its forepart there are two tracks capable of supporting the largest present day locomotives. Some of the earlv engines in the pageant are the Stourbridge Lion (1829), Best Friend of Charleston. (1830), De Wilt Clinton (1831), and Peter Cooper's Tom Thumb. The modern engines are changed from month to month, i.e., in May the D. L. & W. 4-6-4 No. 1939 and the Pennsylvania Streamline Pacific No. 3768, in June the N.Y.C. & H. R.R. Commodore Vanderbilt; to be followed this month by the Canadian-Royal Train Engines.

A century of Austrian loco. practice.  207-8. illustration
Continued from page 44.. From what figures are available it appears that in 1880 the locomotive stock of the principal railways in Austria had reached a total of almost 2,400, exclusive of Hungarian locomotives. The individual totals were as follows, the figures in brackets being the opening year of the company or of the oldest of its constituents: K.F.N. B. (1838), 329; Siidbahn (1841), 564; State Rly. Co. (1845), 590; Galician Karl-Ludwig's Bahn (1856), 169; Westbahn (1858), 331; Kaiser Franz- Joseph's Bahn (1868),117; Kronprinz Rudolfs- bahn (1868), 114; Austrian North-Western (1869), 149; and the Vorarlberger (1872), 13.
Compounding in Austria began in 1879 with unsuccessful experiments on the K.F N B. with a two-cylinder compound 2-4-0 engine, Juno , which was rebuilt from a simple-expansion engine. In 1884 a Webb uncoupled 2-2-2-0 three-cylinder compound was built for the State Railway Company by Sharp, Stewart & Co., but does not appear to have been a success, although six or seven years after its delivery it was used to obtain data on receiver pressures to apply to the first Golsdorf two-cylinder compounds. This engine was named Combermere.
The double-expansion principle was developed continuously from 1889 up to the war years and was closely connected with the younger Golsdorf , Experiments were made by Steg with an old 0-6-0 and an old 0-8-0 locomotive in 1889 by fitting an enlarged cylinder on one side and raising the boiler pressure from 128 to 142 lb. per sq. in. In the same year Steg built for the Austro-Hungarian State Railway Company a three-cylinder compound 0-6-0 locomotive which had one inside high- pressure cylinder 15¾ in. by 25½ in. and two outside low-pressure cylinders 17½ in. by 25½ in., all of which drove the middle coupled axle. The 57½ in. wheels were spread over a base of 13 ft. 8 in.; slide valves were used and actuated by three sets of Allan link motion, two sets being outside. The boiler pressure was 156 lb. per sq. in. and the working order weight 41½ tons. In the same year the K.F.N.B. ordered from the Wiener Neustadt locomotive works, which had then passed out of the hands of G. Sigl's company, a series of 14 inside-framed outside-cylinder 0-6-0 engines, Nos. 511-524, of which Nos. 515-518 were simple-expansion engines with two 18 in. by 26 in. cylinders, and the remainder were two-cylinder compounds with an 18.9 in. by 26 in. high-pressure cylinder on the left and a 29½ in. by 26 in. low- pressure cylinder on the right. The wheels were 56¾ in. diameter, the boiler pressure was 156 lb. per sq. in., and the working order weight was 42 tons.
For the next 25 years the history of Austrian State locomotives was one of two-cylinder and four-cylinder compounding, although simple-expansion locomotives were to be found on the Hungarian division. About 1894 a three-cylinder compound 4-4-0 engine was built for the northern section of the Vienna-Marchegg-Bratislava-Budapest division. In 1897 two 68-ton Consolidation two-cylinder compound engines to the design of Karl Golsdorf were built art Wiener Neustadt for operating express trains over the Arlberg route, the loads taken being 180 tons unassisted westbound and 225 tons eastbound. These engines were very large for their time, and had a 21¼ in. by 25 in. h.p. cylinder and a 31½ in. by 25 in. l.p. cylinder. The boiler had a heating surface of 2,690 sq. ft., a grate area of 36 sq. ft., and a working pressure of 190 lb. per sq. in. The valves above the cylinders were actuated by Walschaerts valve motion and the drive was to the third pair of 51 in. wheels. These engines had an adhesion weight of 56 tons, and were amongst the first to have the familiar Golsdorf feature of two domes with an external connecting pipe. They were followed in 1898 by another six for the State Company and by seven for the Semmering section of the Siidbahn. In 1900 a two-cylinder compound Mogul engine was built for the Austro-Hungarian State Railway Company, but tests showed it to have a coal economy of only 3 per cent. compared with similar two-cylinder simple-expansion locomotives. In the same year some 65-ton 0-10-0 engines were built for the heavily-graded lines in the Bohemian mining district; they had a 22 in. by 25 in. h. p. cylinder and a 33½ by 25 in. l.p. unit, 51 in. wheels, a boiler pressure of 200 lb. per sq. in., a heating surface of 2,180 sq. ft., and a grate area of 32¼ sq. ft. The first, third, and fifth axles had a play of 28 mm. per side on what is usually, but rather erroneously, oalled the Golsdorf system. Two-cylinder compound 4-4-0 engines began to appear in numbers in 1898, when a dozen were built by Steg works, and numbered 10.601-10.612. Others were built by Steg, Floridsdorf, and Wiener Neustadt up till 1902, when there was a total of 99 engines numbered consecutively. The cylinders were 19¾ in. and 30 in. by 26 in., and they drove 7 ft. 1 in. wheels; the boiler was 4 ft. 8 in. in diameter and had a heating surface (water side) of 1,675 sq. ft. and a grate area of 32 sq. ft. The weight was 55 tons and the adhesion weight 28½ tons. From 1904 to 1906 Series 10 was supplemented by 45 engines classified Series 20; the principal external difference was the suppression of the two domes and connecting pipe of Series 10 in favour of a single dome on the back ring; the boiler was of the same size but was pitched at a height of 9 ft. 2 in. above rail level instead of at 8 ft. 6 in. The heating surface was 1,605 sq. ft., but 142 sq. ft. was from the firebox against the 123 sq. ft. of Series 10. The working pressure was 185 lb. per sq. in. in each case; the wheels and wheelbase were the same, but the second engines weighed 54 tons, of which 28½ tom was on the coupled wheels. Seventeen of the Series 20 engines were built by the First Bohemian Works (Erst bohm mahrische Maschinenfabrik) and the remainder by Steg, Wiener Neustadt and Floridsdorf.
The Golsdorf compound system was applied at this time not only to the engines of the big lines but also to those of the Vienna Stadtbahn, where many two-cylinder compound 2-6-2T locomotives were set to work. The cylinders of these engines were 20½ in. and 29¼ in. by 25 in., and the wheels 51 in.; the height from the rail to the top of the chimney was 14 ft. 11½in. Thirty of these engines were built by Steg, Wiener Neustadt, and Floridsdorf in 1896-97, and 25 by the same three works in 1898-99, and one of them was shown at the Paris Exhibition in 1900. From 1897 to 1901 another 50 to the same design were built for the State Railways. Another development about the same time was the Brotan water-tube boiler, which was fitted first to a heavy lignite-burning 0-8-0 engine in 1901. Brotan himself was an engineer on the State lines, and his invention comprised a water-tube firebox with walls of vertical tubes leading up to a water and steam drum, which was carried forward above the smoke-tube type of barrel as far as the smokebox, and connected lo it by two or three short necks. Steam was led to the cylinders by outside pipes from the front of the top drum. The Brotan boiler eventually had a large-scale application in the old Empire, and on the Hungarian lines was in use until the present decade.

The Institute of Transport. 208
The Annual Congress was held at Southampton,  14-17 June and was attended by the President, Gilbert Szlumper, and over three hundred members and friends. After Szlumper had formally opencd uhe conference, Bilbrough of Birmingham read a paper advocating the establishment of a National Transport Board. The difficulties arising from the creation of such a body were emphasised in the subsequent discussion by Sir Joseph Nall, Ashton Davies and others. In the evening, an official reception in the Guildhall of the palatial new Civic Centre was held by the Mayor and Mayoress of Southampton.
The following morning the Eastleigh Works of the Southern Railway were visited. The principal interest here was in the completion of the order for new coaches for the Maidstone electrification. The driving ends of these trains, 76 in number, are all of a new welded all-steel construction. The building jig was observed for the erection of the first of a series of all-steel coaches for steam traffic, whilst some hopper wagons for the Company's own ballast traffic were nearing completion. -
The newly-adopted livery of the Southern locomotives was in evidence, This is bright "Bournemouth" green with black edging and yellow lines for the Lord Nelson and Schools classes, and darker "Dover" green with the same lining for the other passenger classes, goods engines remaining unlined black as hitherto.
Most of thee painting is now done in the erecting shop and starts as soon as erection commences so that the painting is finished before the valve sebting and later adjustments are made. This enables the time taken for the complete overhaul of a locomotive to be reduced to 22 working days. The last four of the order for 20 Q type 0-6-0 mixed traffic engines were the only new Iocomotives in production. These engines are built in jigs, as has been the custom at Eastleigh for some years past.
The whole of Friday was allocated to the Docks. In tlie morning a paper was read by Mr. Biddle, the Docks and Marine Manager, followed by a new cinema film. After lunch a tour of the Docks was made, the day finishing with the Institute's Dinner aboard the SS. Alcantara. Other visits were made by various seotions of the delegates to the Airport, Bus Depots, and the works of Messrs. Thornycroft, Cunliffe-Owen, etc. On Saturday, a very enjoyable trip in the Solent and Spithead, in which all took part, concluded an excellent and instructive congress.

Two ancient "Fliers". 209-11. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Locomotives which were based on the concept of a low centre of gravity. L'Aigle (Eagle) was designed by Blavier and Larpent and built by Gouin & Cie for the Paris Exposition of 1855. It had 9ft 4in coupled wheels and an underslung boiler. Cites Zerah Colburn and notes photograph in Locomotive Mag., 1901, 6, 204  La Parisiene was designed by Estrade and built by J. Boulet & Cie in Paris in 1889 to work double-deck trains. The locomotive had 2.5 m diameter coupled wheels.

L.P.T.B. 211
Stations renamed: Highgate became Archway (Highgate) and St. John's Wood became Lords.

High capacity tank wagons. 212. illustration
Hurst Nelson & Co. bogie tank wagon for Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd for carrying caustic liquor

Railway Club. 212
C.N. Anderson paper on Traffic control systems

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe RR steam, diesel-electric. 212. illustration
Photograph by O.C. Perry of The Super Chief in Raton Pass, Colorado hauled by 2-10-2 plus two Co Co diesel electric locomotives on all Pullman train

Reviews. 213

Engineeri:ng questons and answers, Vol. 2.:Manchester: Emmott and Co. Ltd.,
This volume of 176 pages, wel1 illustrated with line diagrams and sketches, contains a collection of questions sent to the Mechanical World between 1900 and 1938, together with the answers supplied. The value of this collection lies in the fact that the questions all arose originally out of difficulties encountered by engineers in the course of their work. A great diversity of subjects is dealt with, and the book wil1 be useful to many as a compendium of modern engineering practice.

Locomotive running department. J.G.B. Sams. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
Although only consisting of 104 pages the author has con- trived to include in this booklet a mine of information of value to all connected with the running department of a large railway. He has based his remarks on personal experience of which he has had a good deal both in this country and the colonies, and the procedure described in quite up to date and is exemplified by instances taken from actual railway practice. The work is divided into seven chapters covering depots, plant, engine workings, storekeeping, failures, breakdowns and operation, each of which, in addition to describing the various methods of dealing with the subject under review, include a number of useful illustrations and specimens of actual .forrns and diagrams now or recently in use. These examples appear to be largely taken from the Kenya and Uganda Railway and the Great Eastern Section of the L. & N.E.R., on both of which the writer has had considerable experience.

L.M.S.R. 213
At the annual presentation of Shields to the Ruinning districts in the Motive Power League (for the reduction of Engine Casualties) held at Euston last month, reference was made by T.W. Royle, the Chief Operating Manager, to several records which had been attained during 1938, The past year had produced the highest miles per casualty figure; in the last four weeks the debitable engine casualties only amount to 202. the lowest on record; Plaistow District had achieved a splendid hat-trick by winning first place in the last three years competitions, their aggregate points being the greatest so far and the struggle amongst the districts in the centre of the league had been more intensivc than ever before.
In presenting the awards, Lord Stamp, the Chairman of the L.M.S. said that the comperitions did not lose interest as the years went by but that with thc remarkable improvement shown it was going to be more and more difficult to improve, and he jocularly visualised the time when there would be no casualties at all. He referred to visits paid to this country by railwnv experts from abroad who studied our methods of working and stressed the point that we in turn may learn from them"
Ashton Davies (Actiing Vice- President) and D,C. Urie (Supt. of Motivc Power) also spoke, the latter calling attention to the fact that out of between 80,000 and 90,000 locomotive axle bearings in use every day, 7 only per day gave trouble by overheating. The shield-winning districts were placed as follows:- 1. Plaistow; 2, Bristol; 3, Shrewsbury; 4, Bescot; 5, Derby; 6. Motherwell; 7, Carnforth; 8, WelIingborough; 9 Bank Hall; 10, Crewe,

Correspondence. 213

Correct crank spacing on three-cylinder locomotives. P.C. Dewhurst
Re article in May Issue gives in extenso the proof of the correctness of the method—adopted by most locomotive designers, including the writer—of arranging the centre crank of three-cylinder non-compound locomotives at 120 degrees. plus and minus—or plus and minus whatever nominal angles may exist in a compound design—according to the angle variation of the inside cylinder to the two outside ones, which, indeed, a priori (i.e. geometrically) is evidently correct. It may be of further interest to mention that a disadvantage, unfortunately inherent, in the three-cylinder (non-compound) arrangement is the spacing of the coupling-rod pins at 120, deg. and 240 deg.; this gives very considerable variation in the effective transmission of the load from the main driving to the other coupled wheels, being at its worst when the crank of the inside cylinder is about the position of greatest effort. On eight-coupled engines with three-cylinders the effect may be quite marked and in some cases the coupling-rod main crank bearings may exhibit excessive wear evidently caused by the extreme stresses set up at that point, and' this is not surprising as considerably over three-quarters of the total tractive effort of the engine may be transmitted through it at certain positions. It is even correct to say that· coupling-rod pins of inside cylindered two-cylinder locomotives should theoretically be set with an allowance for any inclination there may be of the cylinders to the horizontal—as was referred to by ·the writer as far back as 1917 (Locomotive Vo!. 23, p. 128).
In the article reference is made to the difference in the arrangement of the wheel-balancing brought about by adjusting the inside crank to the proper angle, but this merely causes some modification in the balance calculations although it does mean some—usually very slight-difference in patterns. between the wheel-centres of the respective sides of the locomotive,

Southern Railway. 213
The second section of the new line from Motspur Park to Chessington South was opened on 28 May with three electric trains an hour to and from Waterloo and a journey time of 31 minutes. This new line is laid for the most part on embankments and through cuttings, the embankments being completed with dry filling material obtained from slum clearance and demolition works in London. No less than eleven bridges over and under the railway have been constructed with steel girders completely encased in concrete. New style stations of a novel type built in reinforced concrete work and giving unobstructed platforms free of columns, the platform roofs supporting themselves between cantilevers, have been provided. The illumination of the platforms is by means of fluoroscent tubes.

L.M.S.Ry. appointment. 213
J.S, Elliott, formerly with the Divisional Superintendent of Operation at Crewe, appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, Leeds.

L.N.E.Rly, (N.E. Section).. 213
New halt, known as Penda's Way, situated between Cross Gates and Scholes, opened for passenger traffic in June 1939.

L.M..S.Rly,. (L.N.W, Section). 213
Garston (Church Road) Station on the Garston Dock branch, closed for traffic.

GWR, 213
Mutley station (Plymouth) closed for all traffic.

Number 564 (15 August 1939)

Pacific Locomotive Committee Report. 215
The Report of the Committee appointed in July 1938 to inquire into the design, operation, general suitability, etc., of the XA, XB, and XC classes ef Pacific locomotives in use on the railways of India had been published by the Government of India and was devoted to findings on the administrative side as well as those on the technical. This Committee consisted of Lieut-Colonel A.H.L. Mount, Chief Inspecting Officer of Railways, Ministry of Transport, who was the Chairman; . R. Carpmael, Chief Engineer (Civil), Great Western Railway; Rai Bahadur P. L. Dhawan, former Chief Engineer (Civil), North-Western Railway of India; R. Leguille, Regional Chief 'Mechanical Engineer, French National Railways; and W.A. Stanier, Chief Mechanical Engineer, London, Midland and Scottish Railway.
As was to be anticipated with such a galaxy of talent available, the Report is most far-reaching and informative, constituting not only an exhaustive treatise on the particular engines concerned but also containing' a wealth of information on locomotive design and operation, much of which is applicable to main line locomotives the world over.
The reason which led up to the introduction of locomotives of the Pacific type in India was the rise in the cost of first-grade coal resulting from the Great War. Supplies of second-grade fuel were available over wide areas, including from collieries which had been acquired bv the Railway Board, but to use this fuel satisfactorily wide fireboxes were considered essential, practically necessitating the 4-6-2 wheel arrangement.
The Report, which is well indexed and clearly illustrated by diagrams, begins by referring to the general aspects of the problem and proceeds to trace the history of this type of engine in India. It would appear from the summary of performance included in the last-mentioned section that these engines gave considerable trouble in other directions than derailments, although it was the derailment at Bihta in July 1937 that led to the investigation. The 284 engines concerned covered a total of 90 million miles up to the end of March 1938 and during this period there were no less- than 347 frame fractures and 205 firebox tube plates had to be changed due to cracks in the- radius. On the E.B.R., where 18 "XB" locomotives were in use, it appears that the average time-spent in the shops under repair was three years out of a total average life of eight years, viz., 37 per cent. of their time.
The next feature of the report consists of a chapter on the disturbing forces in a locomotive and its characteristic movement on the track. This we consider to be such an important contribution to the published matter on the subject that we are including extracts from it elsewhere in this issue. Permanent way is the next point to be dealt with, this in a country such as India where the grade of labour available is not of as high a standard as is desirable and where extreme climatic conditions and unsatisfactory sub-forma- tion are apt to be encountered, is most difficult to' adequately maintain, although many miles of excellently laid and maintained track exist in various parts of the country.
Some people perusing this report may consider a few of the opinions expressed on the relation ot the engine to the permanent way to be axiomatic. but the points mentioned are all ones that while heing fundamental are apt on occasion to be overlooked. As is pointed out, the most important consideration in the investigation of the performance of a locomotive as a vehicle, and of the track upon which it runs, is that they are in effect two parts of the same machine. The essential feature of an engine in this respect is that it should run smoothly and steadily, subjecting the track to a minimum of stress at the highest designed speed. Substantial and well maintained track may mask the lateral instability of a locomotive. so that it may appear to be a good riding engine. and yet it may prove unsatisfactory when running- on weaker track or over more yielding formation. Footplate experience, Hallade records and engine maintenance receive due consideration together with research and development; these latter are not confined to Indian praotice but include work carried out abroad.
The suitability, conditions subject to which these engines can safely be used and possible modifications form subjects of additional chapters leading up to the Committee's concluding remarks. See also 222

New South Wales Govt. Railways. New trains for inter-city services. 218. illustration
The N.S.W. Government Railways placed two new train sets on the Sydney-Newcastle Inter-City services—the third replacement of equipment since the Inter-City Express and the Newcastle (formerly Northern Commercial Limited) Express trains were instituted in 1929. The new trains each consist of five cars, converted at Eveleigh Workshops from former main line MCX oomposite and MFX second-class corridor cars, measuring 74 ft. 4 in. over buffers and carried on six-wheel trucks with loop brakes. The regular set consists of four cars which tare 180 tons, with one spare car for each set. The seating capacity of 228 passengers made up of 72 first-class and 156 second-class.
The exterior colour-scheme of bright red with windows and pillars of cream has been perpetuated and the interior of each car has been extensively re-arranged to provide for open sitting saloons and some enclosed compartments. In the first-class cars the saloons are equipped with movable lounge type chairs made of chromium plated tubular steel and upholstered in blue leather. The seats are adjustable. Seats in second-class are fixed and upholstered with maroon enamelled leather. Removable tables are provided in all cars and all metal fittings are chromium plated. A feature of the interior decoration is the panelling of beautiful native timbers.
Each train has an efficient buffet service and push-buttons to summon the attendants are installed in the car walls near the seats. Attention has been paid to the lighting of these trains which carry a large number of business men who often require to read while travelling. Ventilation is provided by means of ceiling extractors and there are electric ceiling fans in first-class saloons and bracket fans in other compartments.
The attached photograph shows one of the new train sets. The handsome exterior appearance of the cars can be seen and the train is hauled by engine No. 3609, a heavy 4-6-0 passenger locomotive of class C36. Like many of the other 74 locomotives in the class, No. 3609 is painted in the striking green livery of the N.S.W.G.R., lined in red, yellow and black.

G.W.R. 218
Eleven 4-6-0 express engines had been completed at Swindon. No. 5078 Lamphey Castle. No. 5079; Lydford Castle. No. 5080 Ogmore Castle. No. 5081 Penrice Castle. No. 5093 Upton Castle. No. 5094 Tretower Castle. No. 5095 Barbury Castle. No. 5096 Bridgwater Castle. No. 5082 Powis Castle. No. 6878 Longford Grange. and No. 6879 Overton Grange. Nos. 3226 and 3227 (4-4-0) and the following tank engines had also been put into service: Nos. 3620 to 3630 (0-6-0). and Nos. 3102 and 8106 (2-6-2). Recent withdrawals included Nos. 3280 (4-4-0). Nos. 2340. 2354. 2362. 2419. 2447. and 2480 (0-6-0). Nos. 2642 and 2652 (2-6-0). Nos. 1247. 1524. 1624. 1709. 1722. 1747. 1756. 1968. 2014 and 2019 (0-6-0T). Nos. 3561 (2-4-0T). No. 5115 (2-6-2T). No. 244 (0-6-2T. ex Barry No. 46). No. 782 (0-6-0T ex Barry No. 34) and No. 876 (0-6-0 ex Cambrian No. 74).

Southern Railway. 218.
Nos. 543-546. further engines of the Q 0-6-0 goods class. had been completed at Eastleigh. The first two are allocated to Guildford depot and the last two to Nine Elms. The latter are the first of thi type to be stationed in London.

Fayle, H. The Cork, Bandon and South Coast Rly. and its locomotives. 219-21.
poor state of repair. Out of eight engines only four were employed in running trains, three re- quired repaumg, and one was used for shunting only. There was a difference of nine inches in the level of the buffers of some of the wagons, and m many cases marks of buffers having mounted could be seen, so no wonder derailments were so frequent.

Single driver engines were hardly suitable for the Cork and Bandon line with ItS heavy gradients, so No. 2 was rebuilt at Cork as a 2-4-0 engine with 5 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels, and 4 ft. leading wheels. (Fig. 10). However, it soon be- came necessary to replace these three engines which did little work on the C. and B. Rly. ' In 1874, Messrs. Dubs & Co. built the first of a new 2-4-0 side tank class, that may be said to : have remained the standard for passenger work until 1891; the makers' No. was 760, and the Cork and Bandon No. 1; the cost was £2,335. The dimensions were:-Cylinders 15 in. by 22 in. ~ coupled wheels 5 ft. and leading wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter; wheelbase 13 ft. 4 in. equally divided; 143 tubes; heating surface 726 (tubes) plus 75.5 (firebox), total 801.5 sq. ft. Tanks 500 gallons (later enlarged to 750 gallons), weight in working order, 12 tons 15 cwt., 13 tons 19 cwt., and 10 tons 10 cwt.; total 37 tons 4 cwt. (Fig. 11).
A similar engine, No. 2, followed in July 1875,. makers' No. 861, and cost £2,100. Both these engines had brass dome covers on the second boiler ring, with spring balance safety valves on top, which were later replaced by pop valves. No. 2 was rebuilt at Cork in December 1908 with a lead- ing bogie having wheels 2 ft. 6 in. diameter, and in this condition was similar to No. 7 already referred to; both Nos. 1 and 2 passed over to the G.S. Rys. in 1925, No. 1 being re-numbered 482 and classed "G6", and No. 2 becoming 477 with classification "D 18"; they were withdrawn from service in 1 930.
A third engine of this class, 0.8, makers' No. 1072, was supplied by Messrs. Dubs & Co. in 1877. It differed from the first two in a few details, notably in having a plain dome and sepa- rate Ramsbottom valves over the firebox; this engme was replaced in 1920. (To be continued).

Mechanically fired locomotive. 221
Successful experiments had been made with a tank locomotive in the Newcastle area fitted with a mechanical stoker fed from a bunker by pipes under the footplate. Dual steam brake control was provided. enabling the driver to work from either side of the cab as a fireman can be dispensed with. Small coal was used.

L.M.S.R. recent appointments. 221
W.H. Ensor, District Loco. Supt.,. Shrewsbury, to be Dist. Loco. Supt. Derby. J.W. Phillips, Assistant. Office of the Divisional Supt. of Operation. Derby. to be District Loco. Supt. Shrewsbury. D.W. Scott, Assistant. Office of Supt. of Motive Power. Euston, to be Assistant District Loco. Supt. Leeds.

French railway electrificatlion. 221
Electrification had been completed of the line from Paris to Hendaye, the 512 miles constituting the longest electrified run in France. For working this section 4,000 h.p. electric locomotives have been built; one of these hauled the inaugural train of 500 tons over the route at an average speed of 68 m.p.h.

[Gold Coast Government Railway]. 221
Order placed by the Crown Agents for the Colonies with the Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. for 23 low sided bogie wagons for the Gold Coast Government Railway.

The disturbing forces in a locomotive. 222-3
Summary of the key elements from the Pacific Locomotive Committee Report on the relationship between the locomotive and the track.

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 224-7. 2 illustrations, 6 diagrams

E.A.  Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 228-30. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams

Union-Pacific 5,000 H.P. steam-electric locomotive. 231-2. illustration

Locomotive wheel centres. 232-3. illustration
Kryn & Lahy (1928) Ltd of Letchworth cast steel wheel centres from a special mix of haematite pig iron with selected scrap steel which was smelted in a cupola. Sodium carbonate was added to remove the sulphur then the manganese, silicon and carbon were blown out followed by the addition of controlled amounts of manganese, silicon and carbon. The molten steel was then cast in carefully constructed sand moulds.

G.W.R. recent appointments. 234
W.N. Pellow, Division. Locomotive. Superintendent Bristol, to Division. Locomotive. Superintendent Old Oak Common; C. L. Simpson, Outdoor Assistant to C.M.E Swindon, to Division. Locomotive. Superintendent Bristol; H. G. Kerry. Assist. Division. Locomotive. Superintendent Old Oak Common. to Outdoor Assistant C.M.E.. Swindon; L. G. Morris. Assistant. Division. Locomotive. Superintendent Newton Abbot. to Assistant. Division. Locomotive. Superintendent Old Oak Common.

L.M.S.R: Scottish centenary. 234
The first section of the Glasgow, Paisley, Kilmarnock and Ayr, as between Ayr and Irvine, eleven miles, was opened on 5 August 1839. The line was the L.M.S. Railway between Glasgow and the Ayrshire coast and opened throughout in 1840. The Glasgow. Paisley. Kilmarnock and Ayr Railway was also linked with the first railway in Scotland. which it absorbed in 1846. This was a tramway constructed by the Duke of Portland for the conveyance of coal from collieries in the Kilmarnock area to the port of Troon: it was opened in 181I and at holiday times passengers were conveyed in horse-drawn trams. It was on this line that one of the earliest experiments was made in the use of locomotives in Scotland.

Locomotives at the World's Fair. 234-5.  illustration
The railroads' exhibit at the New York Warld's Fair, in the words of the official description, is intended. "to do full tribute to the American Railroad". It would appear that this endeavour has been amply fulfilled as the exhibits which have been prepared by the Eastern Presidents' Conference are both extensive and of great interest, constituting one of the largest collections of early and modern locomotives ever assembled, and well illustrating the development of the locomotive aver the last 110 years.
In the space at our disposal it is impassible to describe the many engines an show but in some instances these have already been illustrated and described in the LOCOII'IOTIVE; in other cases descnptions will he appearing in forthcoming issues. Same idea of the size of the exhibit may be gathered from the fact that it covers 17 acres and results from the co-operation of twenty-seven railroads.
An elaborate Pageant-Drama of Transport is presented and forcibly canveys the enarmaus progress since the Stourbridge Lion first made its appearance in 1829. Amang the many other engines either included in the pageant or an view in what is styled "The Yard", may be mentioned Tom Thumb (1829), Best Friend (1830), John Bull (1831), Atlantic (1832), Wm. Galloway (1837), General (1855), Thatcher Perkins (1863), which, in conjunction wi~h many others lead by engines representmg varying stages of development, such as the Union Pacific Pride of the Prairies (1882), to the well knawn New York Central No. 999 and thence to the present time.
In the case of same of the engines mentioned, as the original is no longer extant a replica is utilised, the reproductions being excellent. Exhibits are not confined to large locomotives, small ones being also included ; a good example of the latter is the Northern Pacific Minnetonka (1869) . Amang the modern locomotives probably the mast autstanding is the Pennsylvanian 6-4-4-6 engine, rated at 6,500 h.p., briefly described in our May issue; other modern examples are the 4-6-4 locomotives of the Lackawanna, New York Central and New Haven Railroads, and an engine of this wheel arrangement sent by the Canadian Pacific Railway. The Canadian National Railways are represented by a 4-8-4 type.
Many of the modern engines changed durmg the course of the Fair, their place being taken by others representative of the latest practice. Complete trams were also an view, including, of course, the L.M.S. Coronation. Scot and a three-coach electric train from Italy reputed to have a sustained speed of 120 m.p.h. Included in the most interesting items must oe mentioned the collection of prints and models arranged by the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society.
A point apparent in early American practice is the extent to which the vertical boiler was used, no less than five of the engines exhibited being so equipped; these include the Pep persauce (1869), the first locomotive to be constructed for the rack-railway up Mount Washington.
The operation of railways is depicted by avery large model containing no less than 3,800 ft. .if track and worked by 50 locomotives and 400 cars. This is situated in an auditorium capable of seating one thousand spectators who witness a performance lasting forty minutes which shows an average days' work on a representative road. It is refreshing in these days when so much is heard of the replacement of the steam locomotive by other forms of prime mover to be able to record the impression formed by the locomotives gathered together. A study of these leads one to conclude that so much development has been made in the last few years, and is still being made, that it may well be considered that the steam locomotive still has the best part of its life before it
.

L.M.S.R. 235
Two further streamlined 4-6-2s of the Princess Coronation class had left the Crewe shops, Nos. 6236 City of Bradford, and 6237 City of Bristol. The next two had also been completed and were the paint shop. The following additional superheated 0-8-0s of G1 class had been converted to class G2A Nos. 9022, 9078, 9150, 9192, and 9228. These engines, formerly power class 6, were now designated power class 7. As now running they are all fitted with standard Belpaire boilers. Engines recently withdrawn from traffic at Crewe included 4-4-0s Nos. 25279 Sunbeam, and 25310 Thunderer (both of the superheated "Precursor" class), and 0-8-2 shunting tank No. 7890. Two further 0-6-0 heavy oil locomotives have been completed and turned out at Derby, Nos. 7086-7. The latest standard 0-6-0 in traffic is No. 4586. Recent withdrawals at Derby included one of the few remaining 2-4-0 tender engines, No. 20194. Two of the 4-6-2 express engines were stationed at Longsight for working the Mancunian, Lancastrian and Comet expresses. The loads would be increased when necessary. The maximum load for the Royal Scot class was 415 tons. We recently travelled on one of these trains and No. 6206 Princess Marie Louise--one of the transferred engines-easily kept exact time on the difficult 92 minute non-stop schedule, Nuneaton-Euston (97 miles) with nearly 500 tons behind the tender.

E.R.S. Watkin. Locomotives of the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd. 236-7. 2 illustrations

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Mr. O.V.S. Bulleid (President, 1939-1940). illustration (portrait)

Some aspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department, 238-40. illustration

L.M.S. 240
A scheme of partial renumbering of certain locomotive classes: two Class 2 0-6-0 freight tender (former L.N.W) , Nos. 8128 and 8129 to become Nos. 28128 and 28129. Fourteen Class 3, 0-6-2 freight tank (former L.T. & S.), Nos. 2220 to 2233 become Nos. 2180 to 2193. Ten Class 2 0-6-0 freight tank (Standard), Nos. 7100 to 7109  to become Nos. 7160 to 7169. Five Sentinel locomotives, Nos. 7160 to 7164 to become Nos. 7180 to 7184.

L.N.E.Ry. Electrification. 240
At Worship Street, just outside Liverpool Street Station, the construction of a new widened bridge was taking place simultaneously with the demolition of the old one. Below, uninterrupted, run 1,264 trains a day, the busiest train service in the world. Above, 4,000 telephone lines must be kept in use continuously.

New Royal Saloons. 240
Two new saloon coaches for the L.!VI.S. Royal Train are being constructed. Their interiors will be decorated in modern style.

G.W.R. 240
J.W.A. Kislingbury retired from the post of Divisional Locomotive Supt., Old Oak Common. He joined the G.W.R. in 1894 as an apprentice in the Bristol Locomotive Dept. where he remained for 3 years. He became draughtsman at Swindon and afterwards Inspector of Materials. In 1907 he was appointed Assist. Divisional Loco. Supt. at Swindon and then transferred to Old Oak Common and Wolverhampton in the same capacity. In 1919 he became Divisional Loco. Supt. at Neath where he remained for 3 years previous to his appointment to Old Oak Common. London.

Diesel electric railcars. Societe Nnationale des Chemin de Fer Francais. 240. illustration
Nine railcars put into service on the Grenoble-Col de la Croix-Marseillrs 195 mile long route with steep gradients (1 in 40). Capable of hauling a trailer and of working in multiple. Saurer Oerlikon engines.

New buffet-restaurant car, York-Swindon service. 241. illustration
For use on York to Swindon section of the Aberdeen to Penzance service.

Colour photographs on stainless steel decorate air conditioned buffet car on Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. Old locomotives depicted on the pictures. 241

Canadian Royal Train engines. 241

Number 565 (15 September 1939)

Steam locomotive development. 243.
If it ever comes to pass—and we doubt if such a thing is possible—that the steam locomotive be replaced by some other form of prime mover, historians will at least record that it did not disappear until every reasonable line of development had been explored.
A study of our pages over the last few years will show the amount of research, thought and finance which has been expended with a view to :mcreasmg the earning capacity of the orthodox locomotive, and although one might be excused for concluding that this has in some cases nearly attained its optimum, it is as well to remember that this opinion has always been held by some since the early days of locomotives and has repeatedly turned out to be erroneous. It is however reasonable to assume that the non-articulated reciprocatimg locomotive, fitted with an orthodox boiler as 'represented by' some of the latest examples, has reached a position where no great improvement in efficiency can be looked for either thermally or mechanically.
This view is supported by the fact that many of the more recent experimental locomotives have departed from the conventional either in the manner in which steam is generated or utilised or both. An .example in the last category is the Union Pacific 5,000 h.p. locomotive recently described The Locomotive , and by no means the least mterestmg feature of this engine is the use of a closed steam circuit enabling less than 100 gallons of water to be carried in the boiler. Obviously the great benefit to be derived from this is the rapidity with which steam can be raised from cold, removing one of the chief objectrons to the steam locomotIve when compared with other forms of prime mover.
Another boiler capable of rapid steam raising is the Velox, which can produce 290 lb. per sq. in. within 15 minutes from cold. This boiler utilises pressure combustion of oil or gas and it is interestmg .to note that, whereas, under given tests the efficiency of the ordinary locomotive boiler has proved to be from 65 per cent. to 75 per cent. the Velox boiler under similar conditions has produced efficiencies of between 83 per cent. and 86 per cent. High steam pressures with their attendant advantages are still finding favour in some quarters although long experience has convinced others that for locomotive purposes the disadvantages outweigh the gains, Whether this is so is largely dependent on the type and general constructional details of the boiler employed and the quality of the feed water available. In the latter connection as readers will be aware some railways now prefer to carry large supplies of treated wa.ter in the tender rather than rely on water obtained at a number of points en route as was previously the practice .
Among recent high-pressure locomotives we may mention one for the French National Rai1ways; this burns coal m a water-tube boiler which operates at 879 lb. per sq. in.; motive power is derived from six three-cylinder engines driving the axles through geanng. At full output this engine develops 3,000 h.p.
Another engine from which much valuable information should be obtained is that built by Schneiders also for the French National Railways; in this case an orthodox locomotive boiler constructed of high-tensile steel supplies steam at 365 lb. per sq. in. to a turbine mounted on each axle. The examples quoted are selected at random and represent but a few of the many attempts at present bemg made to produce a locomotive which shall be of equal reliability to the present machine and shall exceed.It from the profit earning aspect. Although nothmg worth while was ever achieved without effort and much outlay has been necessary to bnng some of the most beneficial of inventions to their present state of perfection, there does nevertheless appear to be a tendency for experiments aiming to achieve the same result by identical. means to be carried on simultaneously, The poolmg of resources under such conditions could not fail to result in substantial financial savings and technical gains, but the idea is no doubt too Utopian for the present time. It is, however, worth recalling that the enormous strides made by the internal combustion engine in the years 1914-1918 were largely due to the policy of concentrating and co-ordinating all the available talent on the subject in contra;tst to the independent and over-lappmg efforts which had previously persisted.

G.W.Ry. 243
Two further 4-6-0 express engines were in servIce, No. 5085 Evesham Abbey and No. 5097 Sarum Castle. Other engines recently completed at Swindon were No. 2201 (0-6~0), No. 8107 (2-6-2T) and Nos. 3631 to 3634 (0-6-0T). Engines withdrawn from service were No. 213 (0-6-2T) formerly Barry Ry. No, 19, Nos. 1740, 1866, 189I, 1923, 1966, and 1989 (0-6-0T), Nos. 2315 (0-6-0), No. 2657 (2-6-0) and No. 3335 (4-4-0).

A fine miniature locomotive. 244-5. illustration
7¼ inch gauge 2-6-0 with high haulage capacity built by J.S. Beeson & Co. of Ringwood

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 249-51. 7 illustrations
Four 0-4-4T locomotives built by Vulcan Foundry (WN 1071-4) running numbers 52-55 were supplied in 1884: they were rebuilt with Johnson boilers in the 1900s. Between 1906 and 1910 the nine Avonside tanks were rebuilt with Deeley boilers. No. 30 was equipped with push and pull gear for working bewtwwn Highbridge and Burnham; Glastonbury and Wells, and for a short time beween Templecombe and Bournemouth. Nos. 32, 53 and 55 were rebuilt with Fowler Belpaire boilers. No. 54 was scrapped in 1921 and was replaced by LMS No. 1305 fitted with vacuum cotrolled push and pull gear and for a time remained in red livery but numbered 54. In 1928 No. 32 was renumbered 52 to replace the scrapped No. 52.

C.R.H. Simpson. Some modern locomotive wheels. 255-6.
Scullin Double Disc wheel manufactured by Scullin Steel Co. of St Louis and the Boxpok type manufactured by General Steel Castings Corporation.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XII. Alexander McDonnell. 257-61. 5 illustrations (including portrait)

Ulster Traansport Services. 261
The Joint Select Committee appointed by the Norfhern Ireland Parliament made some far-reaching recommendations, among which is that the special task of enforcing the duties upon the Transport Board and the railways of providing a properly co-ordinated system, should be a function of the Government, with a Minister directly responsible to Parliament. A merger of road and rail interests should be deferred until a co-ordinated system had been achieved, and the closing of all but some main line railways was foreshadowed.

C.R.H. Simpson. Greig & Beadow's Patent locomotive. 261. illustration
Patent: GB 402/1880: jackshaft drive: photograph of locomottive built  by John Fowler & Co. in 1881.

The Minister of Transport . 261
Order taking control of the following railways: Southern, Great Western, London Midland and Scottish, London and North Eastern, London Passenger Transport Board, East Kent Light, Kent and East Sussex Light, King's Lynn Docks and Railway, Mersey, and the Shropshire and Montgomeryshire, and has appointed the Railway Executive Committee, consisting of Sir Ralph Lewis Wedgwood, C.B., C.M.G., Chairman, Sir James Milne, K.C.V.O., C.S.I., Mr. C. H. Newton, Mr. Frank Pick, Mr. Gilbert Savil Szlumper, C.B.E., and Sir William Valentine Wood, to be his agents for the purpose of giving directions under the Order.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Italian locomotive notes. 262-5. 6 illustrations

S.O. Ell. Development of coned boiler barrels. 265-8. 11 diagrams.
Calculations

Reviews. 269

Auto-electric model railways. A. Duncan Stubbs. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, Ltd.
The author describes the various methods of electrifying model railways and then deals in considerable detail with control systems. Remote and automatic control are fully explained and clearly illustrated; a chapter is also included on the radio control of model boats. This book should prove of considerable use to those interested in the subjects covered.

Speeding North with the "Royal Scot." Driver L. A. Earl. The Oxford University Press,
Although nominally written by a driver of the L.M. & S. Railway, there can be little doubt that this book has had the approval of the officials of that company. Nevertheless Driver Earl, who is no doubt well known to many readers of this journal, gives a very interesting account of a day in his life, which includes a trip from London to Carlisle with the "Royal Scot." Driver Earl calls attention to many incidents and happenings on the journey which would probably occur to no one but the man in charge and therefore gives a view of the work on the footplate from a somewhat different angle from that from which it is usually described. The preparation of the engine before the journey, the proceedings at the Hostel at the end of the trip and a general talk on railway doings help to complete the driver's survey of the locomotive man's calling.
The book is well illustrated with many excellent half tone blocks, and contains lists of both standard and non standard classes of L.M. & S. locomotives bearing names. Finally there is an interesting diagram, covering 16 pages, of the line from Euston to Carlisle, which will be very helpful to readers wishing to pick out the many and varied objects seen from the carriage window.

L.N.E.R. Bank Top shed bell. 269
The old bell from the dismantled Bank Top Loco. Shed had been acquired by the Rector of Haughton-le-Skerne for his church hall in which services will be held until a new Parish Church can be built. Made hy S. Thompson of Darlington in 1841 it was originallv hung as a time bell at the Great North of England Railway Carriage and Harness Shops. This company was later merged into the North Eastern Railway, a constituent of the L.N.E.R.

Correspondence. 269

[Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Co.] James. C.M . Rolland. illustration
The little "pier donkey" of the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay Co. with a photo. of the model of it, I mentioned that it had ended its career on the Outer Harbour works at Adelaide, South Australia. The June number of the magazine shows what is undoubtedly little "No. 5" at its work on the Sandridge Pier, and if you do not think the little .machine is being given too much notoriety, I offer you a picture of it on duty in South Australia. Though reduced to its plainest details, the picture illustrates the very peculiar design very clearly. The dimensions appeared in the March number.

1\1r.

Liverpool Overhead Railway locomotive. 269. illustration
E.C. Box of Liverpool photograph of the only steam locomotive on the Liverpool Overhead Railway. Affixed to the front buffer beam were two scrapers for keeping the conductor rails clear of ice and snowduring wintry weather. The engine was built by Kitson & Co. in 1893, the year of the opening of the railway. In addition the engine is frequently in steam at week ends transporting material over the 6½ route miles of the line. It has 3 ft. dia. driving wheels and 8 in. by 12 in. cylinders.

Number 566 (15 October 1939)

War amd the individual. 271
Editorial: basically carry on reading the magazine at home or at war behind the front line: Kevin who can just remember his brief evacuation to Dorset has no railway memories of then, only of the differences of rural life

Metre gauge Beyer-Garratt locomotives. Kenya and Uganda Railways. 272. illustration.
4-8-4+4-8-4 supplied by Beyer Peacock of Manchester with the involvement of K.C. Strahan (the retired CME of the Kenya & Uganda Railways) and H.B. Stoyle then CME under the supervision of the Crown Agents for the Colonies. The locomotives had 4ft 6in coupled wheels, a grate area of 48.5 ft2, 2760 ft2 total heating surface including 484 ft2 of superheat, bar frames, four 16 x 26 in cylinders and Nicholson ther,,ic syphons. They were named: Mengo, Teso, Dasin Gishu, Narok, Marakwet, and Wajir

Railcars for Jamaica. 273-4. illustration.
Jamaican Government Railways: H.R. Fox, General Manager. D. Wickham supplied three diesel railcars for branch line service and for tourist traffic on the Kingston to Montego Bay route. Accommodation for 47 passegers. Lavatory. Fitted with two Perkins P6 engines, Mylius pre-selective air operated transmission and rubber blocks for vibration insulation

Freight locomotive development in Victoria 1918-1939. 275. illustration
C Class 2-8-0 was described in 1935 Volume 41 page 131. 26 were constructed at the Newport Works between 1918 and 1927. In 1922 the K class 2-8-0 was introduced for mixed traffic use on light lines: they had 20 x 26 in cylinders, 1728 ft2 total heating surface (including superheater), 20¾ ft2 grate area and 175 psi boiler pressure. The N class 2-8-2 was introduced in 1931 for working light lines: total heating surface 2274 ft2, grate area 31 ft2. One locomotive, No. 110, had been fitted with a booster (illustrated). The X class was introduced in 1929: this was described in the May Issue of 1929.  The boiler pressure increased to 205 psi.

Fayle, H. The Cork, Bandon and South Coast Rly. and its locomotives. 275-7. 5 illustrations, 3 diagrams (side elevations)
In 1880 the West Cork Railway was purchased. It had three locomotives: two 2-4-0T supplied by Cross & Co. of the Sutton Engine Works in St. Helens WN 17 & 18/1865l These had 15 x 22 inch outside cylinders and 5 ft 6 in coupled wheels. They were named Patience and Perseverance. The drawing was supplied by M.J. Reen who was the last locomotive superintendent of the Cork & Macroom Railway. Another 2-4-0T came from the Vulcan Foundry WN 806/1877: this came via the Ilen Valley Railway which linked Dunmanway with Skibbereen: it had 15 x 20 inch cylinders and 5 ft coupled wheels. The West Cork livery was olive greeen. The locomotive superintendent was Johnstone who was followed bu his son, J.W. Johnstone who took over the Cork & Bandon post.

C.A. Branston. F.W. Webb and the brake question. 278-80,

Some aspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department, 280-2. illustration

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railway Company. -290
Continued in next volume page 74.

R.B. Fellows. Some early Pullman cars. 292-3
Pullman Limited Express introduced by LBSCR in 1881 and ran between Victoria and Brighton and was formed solely of Pullman cars. Electric lighting was provided via batteries. In 1888 this was replaced by the Pullman Limited Fast Train formed of more modern cars with lighting provided by belt driven dynamos. In 1898 The Brighton Limited was the new name and this lasted until the Southern Belle took over in 1908. See also letters from J. Pelham Maitland and from Stevenson Y. Knight

R.O.D. locomotives. 293
Robinson 2-8-0 engines may again be sent to work on the Continent.

Great Southern Railways of Eire. 293
Two further Drumm battery electric trains had been built at Inchicore Works for the Dublin to Bay service

Oregon Steam Navigation Co. 293. illustration
Photograph shows a 2-2-4 (caption states 2-4-0) of what caption states was built by Danforth, Cooke & Co. of Paterson, New Jersey in 1861 and was shipped around Cape Horn to run between Dallas and Celiilos Portage in 1863.

Some notes on locomotive estimating. 294-6. 2 diagrams, 4 tables
Wheels, tyres, pistons, cylinders, firebars, ash-pans,, water, tubes, firebrick, tender tanks, propietary articles, buffers, rubber drawbar springs

The Cannock Chase Colliery Comany's locomotives. 297-8. 3 illustrations

Trade notes and publications. 300

The working display of Twin Trains at Messrs. Bassett-Lowkes London (Holborn) Branch
This layout includes gradients for high level tracks. They have now worked out a standard set which gives a gradient of 1 in 30 in a length of 8 ft. 6 in. and a clearance of 3 in. from the floor at the top. A number of high and low level roads can be arranged by using these standard fitments, which consist of straight and curved sections with special sections for points and piers of varying heights.

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Carrying on the bulk of its work at a temporary address in the country, The Meadows, Betchworth, Surrey , but the Institution building in Storey's Gate will remain open, possibly during restricted hours, for dealing with personal enquiries and for members or others wishing to make use of the Library.

The Dickson all-metal laminated gasket
Consists of a number of metallic laminations, different combinations of metal being used according to the type and service of the engine concerned. For example, all copper is used for marine and aircraft engines, while for Diesel engines they are either all copper or a combination of copper and terne plate, which is cold rolled steel, annealed and coated with an alloy of 80 per cent. lead and 20 per cent. tin. For small petrol engines combinations of copper-aluminium, copper-terne plate and alurninium-terne plate are employed, while terne plate is used for heavier engines. The thickness of the gaskets is usually 0.04 in. to 0.06 in. for exhaust and intake joints and 0.05 to 0.06 in. for cylinder head joints, while laminations are 0.010 in. thick. The manufacturers are Howard , Clayton-Wright, Ltd., of Stratford-on-Avon,

The General Electric Company Limited
wishes to state that the Osram Companies referred to in the list of enemy concerns are subsidiaries of the Osram G.m.b.H. of Berlin and have no connection of any kind whatsoever, financial or otherwise, with the G.E.C. Osram lamps and valves are made in England entirely of British and Empire materials. The Osram trade mark for Great Britain and the British Empire is owned exclusively by the G.E.C., which is itself an entirely British Company.

Ruston & Hornsby Limited,
The Directors elected William J. Ruston to a seat on their Board. Mr. Ruston is a nephew of the late Chairman of the Company, Colonel J. S. Ruston, and is also a Director of  J. Stone & Co. Ltd. of Deptford.

Westinghouse Brake and Signal Co. 300
The head office temporarily moved to Pew Hill House, Chippenham, Wilts. Correspondence. 300

First European 4-6-0 locomotive. C. Hamilton Ellis. 300. diagram (side elevation)
Re article on the Swiss National Exhibition a 4-6-0 locomotive for the Gotthard Railway, built in 1883 was mentioned. I was under the impression that the first European 4-6-0 locomotive, at any rate on the standard gauge, was the one built at Turin to the designs of Cesare Frescot, for the Upper Italian Railways, in 1884, a drawing of which I enclose. It was the prototype of the famous Vittorio Emanuele class on the Mediterranean system, later engines having alterations in detail, such as domes on the after ring of the boiler instead of behind the chimney. I am advised by the Swiss Federal Railways that the first Gotthard 4-6-0 locomotives, Nos. 201-2, class A 3/5 were built by the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Works, Winterthur, as late as 1894. The Italian engine had 5 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels and two cylinders 18½ in. by 24 7/16 in. with outside Gooch link motion. The working pressure was 156 lb. per sq. in.

Reviews. 300

Ripper's heat engines revised by A.T.Y. Kersey. London: Longmans Green & Co. Ltd.
The continued popularity of this text book is evidence that its contents have been appreciated by a large number of readers. It has now been thoroughly revised and brought up to date. Many changes in steam engine design and practice have taken place during recent years. The reciprocating type is still used as a prime mover and will be for some time to come, but it has to a large extent been superseded by the turbine. The internal combustion engine has also reached an important position as a competitor for both land and marine practice. There are over 300 pages of text liberally illustrated by diagrams and sketches.

The locomotive engineer's pocket book. 39th Edition. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
The 39th edition of this well known reference book contains new features. The tables and data, directories, etc., have been brought up to date. This is a useful compendium for the pocket or desk.

Number 567 (15 November 1939)

The importance of braking. 301.
Having started a train the most important thing is to be able to stop it, no easy matter—at least within the requisite distance—with the high-speed trains which operated up to the beginning of September. With automatic brakes, the increase in weight of the standard express train during recent years has not increased the braking problems, but long-distance schedules of 70 m.p.h. and short-distance start-to-stop timings in excess of about a mile-a-minute have caused serious difficulties in design and in maintenance, whether the braked weight is light or heavy. The magnitudes of the forces involved in a full-application or emergency stop of a high-speed train do not appear to be generally realised, although they are amazing. For example, with an axleload of 18 tons, a stop from 100 m.p.h. in 1,225 ft., if praoticable, would involve the dissipation of forces up to an instantaneous maximum of 2,000 h.p. per axle, or 500 h.p. per block, that is, 2,000 or 500 multiplied by 550 ft.-lb of work per second. Instantaneous forces of this magnitude can be attained.
For such instantaneous rates of retardation the mechanical problems associated with the brake gear and the wheel-axle assemblies are anything but simple, for the mechanics of a stop from high speed are full of complex variables, each of extremely short duration, an outstanding example of which is the variation in friction. If it is assumed that the ratio of the braking force to the wheel load must not exceed 25 per cent., that is, equal to the value of the coefficient of adhesion between a wheel and dry unsanded rail, the maximum rate of retardation will be about 5.5 m.p.h. p.s., but as a large allowance must be made for difference in rail and adhesion conditions, say 18 to. 20 per cent. of the mean, the braking rate wi th rails under the worst conditions would be only 3.3 m.p.h.p.s. as a top limit. From a speed of 100 m.p.h. a stop at an average rate of deceleration of 5.5 m.p.h.p.s. would be made in approximately 1,350 ft., but a rate of 3.3 m.p.h.p.s would require 2,225 ft., an increase of 65 per cent. and more akin to the quickest actual emergency stop. During such stops the rate of deceleration would vary greatly, and some form of deceleration controller would be essential. In order to obtain high-speed stops with consistent regularity without fear of wheel sliding it is becoming common to apply sand to the wheel treads whenever a full application is made.
Important though the mechanical problems may be, they certainly do not outweigh those associated with the adequate dissipation of the heat generated,. a side of the braking art which is linked indissolubly with maintenance and repair, and also with frictional variations. Flames, let alone sparks, have been known to stream out from tread blocks in the course of emergency stops from three-figure speeds. It is this question of heat which has led to the general elimination of the drum brake on European high-speed railcars, and the substitution of disc brakes or special forms of tread blocks. Yet, strangely enough, America is just discovering the non-tread brake, and one high-speed train—the General Pershing Zephyr—has been fitted with a disc form experimentally. Drum brakes, and disc brakes, too, seek to take advantage of the constant coefficient of friction of such materials as Ferodo, but the opportunities of gettmg rid of the heat are so limited that on the Danish State Railways 16 per cent. of the entire mamtenance costs of the first four Lyntog diesel-electric trains were due to brake drum lining renewals. On the Belgian National Railways an increase of three to five minutes of certain timings reduced the drum brake lining costs by nearly 50 per cent. In France attempts have been made to use the advantages of cast iron and special friction materials by using articulated blocks comprising both substances.
The high retardation rates possible with electro-magnetic track brakes cannot be used fully, because of purely railway considerations, such as points, crossmgs, track circuits, sanding and the like. As braking forces, apart from such novelties as wind brakes, are dependent upon the wheel and rail conditions, It is the pneumatic-tyred vehicles which can be stopped most quickly, as many bruised travellers will testify, and actually deceleration rates up. to 13 m.p.h.p.s. have been recorded With Michelin cars, that is, well over half the rate of g, or 32 ft: per sec. per sec., which results when the retardmg force is equal to the weight bemg braked.

4-6-4 tank locomotives, Federated Malay States. 302, illustration
Supplied by North British Locomotive Co. to specification of W.F. Wegener Chief Mechanical Engineer under supervision of Crown agents for the Colonies. Fitted with A.L.E. rotary cam poppet valve gear and smoke deflectors.

Lightweight passenger stock. 302-3.
For presentation at the American Summer Meeting of the Institution. of Mechanical Engineers which was to have been held m New York, W. A. Stanier, vice-president, prepared a paper on lightweight passenger rolling stock, describing developments which have taken place in the last seven years on the London, MIdland and Scottish Railway.
As the author pointed out .in his introduction, due to limitations of axle-weight m this country the tractive effort of a six-coupled engme is in turn limited to about 40,000 lb. w.hich fixes the maximum weight of a passenger train at 600 tons. We may remind our readers that, even if considerations of keeping the train weight within the power of the locomotive do not anse, weight reduction is still a desirable aim, for the lower the train weight the greater will be the acceleration and retardation and the lower the fuel and track maintenance costs.
Weight reduction may normally .be effected by the use of light alloys—usually a high-priced procedure—or as in the case of the stock described in the paper, 'by scientific design. It was stated that the normal British passenger coach consists of a steel underframe surmounted by a timber body, in some cases with outside panels of . sheet steel; this type of construction which results m. the weight per passenger seat m a third-class corndor coach being about 1,600 lb. has, WIth minor refinements remained comparatively standard for some time but since 1932 serious attempts have been made to reduce weight by new methods, and de- parture from. the traditional British standard form of construction is gradually taking place. The introduction of electric welding and the availability of suitable high-tensile steels have been the corner stones of recent progress and have permitted a freedom in design formerly unattainable. Timber has been gradually eliminated, resulting in an increasing identiftcation of the under frame and body, the all-steel coach having a weight of about 500 lb. per passenger seat.
This result was greatly contributed to by combining the body side and underframe into the form of a Vierendeel truss; this truss in a simplified form consists of a rigid frame incorporating parallel top and bottom booms with equal sections, and a number of vertical columns which are rigidly connected to the booms, to transmit bend- ing moments as well as tension, compression and shear. Regarding the body in this manner, the main under frame members form the bottom boom of the truss, the roof structure forms the top boom while the body side pillars perform the functions of the columns.
The author proceeded to analyse this arrangement and explained in considerable detail the method of calculating the stresses in the different members, diagrams being included to show the shearing force and bending moments of coach components constructed on this principle. Turning to the oonstructional side it was pointed out that although the conditions of limited production prevail, unit assembly had been achieved on new lines, but based to some extent on the construction of the old type of wooden car. As already mentioned, the possibilities of fabrication by electric and spot welding have been extensively employed; considerable press work is involved and jigs are largely used—the latter are a necessity as apart from the time saving effected they ensure the attainment of the degree of accuracy necessary.
While the stock described in the paper was built for use on the electrified Liverpool and Southport section of the L.M.S., as the author pointed out the principles involved appear equally applicable to main line stock, although after each new step forward a period of consolidation is desirable in which to study behaviour of the vehicles. Particulars of overload tests were described, these being made on the finished structure and although of an exacting nature, involving 100 per cent. overload, no greater variation than 1/16 inch occurred in the door pocket openings, the maximum deflection of the solebars under the condition mentioned being 5/16 inch.
Referring to the direction in which future progress may be sought it was suggested that as public demand for comfort in travel is always on the increase, it is possible that the bottom of the curve of total weight per passenger has been reached, but for operating economy it is desirable, if possible, to avoid any upward trend in tare weights. This puts the designers and constructors on their mettle in devising further savings in weight on the purely structural portion of the vehicles and in this sense progress is unlikely to be arrested. The body and under frame are already merging one into the other, suggesting a modified form of tube as a further line of development.

Some aspects of railway progress as they affect locomotive development. 303-5. illustration
Ordinary expresses. Engine loading schedules as applied by the LMS; load limits as applied by Great Western and Southern Railways. Local passenger trains.

L.M.S. two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive (class 5P5F) No. 5158 Glasgow Yeomany fitted with Manson tablet pick-up apparatus for working between Perth an Inverness. illustration (photograph). 305

L.N.E.R. 305
A record load of 721 tons was hauled by 2-6-2 mixed traffic engine, Class V2.

"First class" travel. 305
London Passenger Transport Board withdrew first class from all services except those to Aylebury and Watford (Met.). The French State Railway Administration abolished first class on suburban and local trains, but retained on long distance express trains. In 1846 vthe Great Western Railway had 107 first class, 103 second class and 18 third class carriages.

Ambulance trains. 306-7. illustration

A century of Austrian locomotive practice.  307-8
Continued in next volume page 129.

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 309-11
Continued in next volume page 13.

Early methods of wheel making, 312-13. illustration, diagram
Photograph of flangeless wheels from Great Western Railway Lord of the Isles. The diagram shows how the wheel was built up by making the spokes, followed by a segment of the rim. Welding demanded the greatest skill.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers: XIII: Samuel W. Johnson. 313-18. 5 illustrations (including portrait)
See also letter from W.B. Thompson on green Midland engines on page 357 and from James Bell

Lighting of trains test on L.M.S. 318
The first test of methods for the lighting of passenger compartments on long-distance trains during the "black-out" hours, was carried out on the L.M.S. Railway's 16.50 Euston to Heysham express on Monday, 30 October, This experiment follows research on the part of the railway companies, the Ministry of Transport, and the Home Office. The system tried out on the Heysham express can only be applied on main line trains; the greater number of stops made by suburban trains, together with the universal use of compartment doors on suburban stock, renders it impracticable for application to such services. Separate experiments are, however, being carried out by the railway companies in conjunction with Government departments with a view to seeing whether it is possible to provide a better standard of lighting in suburban trains. The standard of lighting tried out affords sufficient interior illumination for reading even small type. The opalescent light shades previously used are replaced by black shades which throw the light down directly over the passenger seats, whilst the windows are painted all round on the outside with a four-inch black border. In addition, close-fitting blinds are installed, which are kept drawn during the hours of darkness. Owing to the difficulty of obtaining the necessary materials it will not be possible to introduce the improved lighting on all main line trains for several months at least, but at least eight of the principal expresses will be equipped and running by now. The newly-equipped trains will be operated at first on the most important services running, during the hours of darkness, between principal centres of population. It is intended that these improved lighting facilities will be available on all main line trains. It is pointed out that the success of the present experi- ment depends to a large extent upon the co-operation of the travelling public for whose benefit it has been introduced,

L.N.E.R. (G.N. Section) . 318
The Hatfield-St. Albans branch which was closed for passenger traffic at the outbreak of war has now been re-opened. The suburban train service between King's Cross and Moorgate has been suspended since the commencement of hostilities, all local trains being now run to and from King's Cross terminus or terminated at and started from Finsburv Park. The L.M.S. through service between Broad Street and G.N. suburban stations has also ceased to operate. The Finchley (Church End) and Edgware branch has been closed but in this case a special service of buses is running in lieu of the passenger trains. The passenger service over the new line between Hertford North and Hitchin is also discontinued for the present.

L.M.S. Rly. (Midland Section) . 318
The through' passenger train service to. and from Moorgate had not been operated since the start of the war.

L.N.E.Rly. (G.C. Section) . 318.
The local train service between Marylebone and stations on the Met. and G.C. Jt. 1ine still remained suspended, but the service to and from High Wycombe and intermediate stations had been augmented.

G.W.Rly. 318
Automatic train control had been installed throughout the main line between Paddington and Penzance, Fishguard and Chester—a total distance of 2,852 miles.

Soviet Railways. 318
Building an experimental locomotive with an internal combustion engine as well as steam. Th: fuel would be coal with a gas generator. The total power estimated 4,000 h.p., 2,500 being supplied by the gas erigme and 1500 h.p. by the steam engine.

Lionel Wiener. Steam carriages Belgian State Railways.  319-22. illustration, 6 diagrams (including 5 side elevations)
Belpaire designs, including guitar boiler.

Some aspects of braking. 322-4. 2 diagrams, table
Early work on friction between brake shoes and the wheel included that by Coulomb and Morin who experimented from 1781 until the early 1830s; H. Bochet; Galton and Poirée

A new automatic drifting valve. 325-6. diagram
J. Stone & Co. device fitted to Kenya & Uganda Railway 4-8-4+4-8-4 Beyer Garratt.

Travelling rail welder. 327, 2 illustrations
For repairing rails, rail ends, crossings, and switches, as well as general engineering repairs, Lincoln self-propelling electric welder, operated by a self-contained petrol engine, and running on the track at any desired speed, up to 30 miles an hour. Essentially the design consists of a steel platform truck, carrying a 6-cylinder petrol engine, with radiator at the front, an electrical generator of the separately excited variable voltage type, providing current for the welding, an auxiliary electrical generator for working electrical tools,l:nd a D/C propelling motor. All the necessary electnc welding equipment is provided, including 1,000 feet each of welding cable and tool cable, both carried in an enclosed cable compartment at the back.

Correspondence. 327

Some early Pullman Cars. J. Pelham Maitland
Canon Fellows' article in the October Issue affords a valuable synthesis of information on this. subject. It only contains, however, the briefest references to the two baggage cars constructed by the L.B. & S.C.R. in 1888 to match up with the Pullmans. These were 6-wheeled vehicles with Pullman type clerestory roofs and other similar details externally. No. 29 was also remodelled to conform to the outline of the cars when the end platforms were finally abolished, and early in the present century was repainted in the cream-and-umber livery then adoptel as standard by the Pullman Co. It lasted in service, I believe, until 1913, when it caught fire owing to a short-circuit from the dynamo, and was subsequently broken up. On the other hand, No. 80 remained in its original condition until the absorption of the L.B. & S.C.R.. by the S.R. became effective. It had not been in service' for many years previously, and did duty as a Carriage-Examiners' Lobby at Lover's Walk Carriage Shops, Brighton, until the end. I can never recollect ever having seen this van on the road, although I can well remember the cars with the open platforms referred to by Canon Fellows, and also the very elaborate panelling and gold lining which, survived until about 1902.
As long as the L.B. & S.C.R. lasted, the 10.05 down train and the 13.20 up, on weekdays, were colloquially- referred to by the operating staff as "The Pullmans." Vans 29 and 80 were designated the "Pullman Pups", by the same people.
It should also be recorded that the Sunday Pullman Ltd. train was designated in certain Victorian circles as "The Sabbath Breaker" for some years after its inception. See also letter from Stephenson V. Knight on page 357

Bridgen's Time Tables. Reginald B. Fellows. 327-8
Mr. Brown is quite right in thinking that the words at the foot of page 11 of Bridgen's Time Tables "Corrected October 18, 1839" indicate that there was an earlier edition. The Time Table was advertised in The Railway- Times of 5 October 1839 as follows:-"Alteration in the arrival and departure of Railway Trains Oct. 1 1839. This day is published price 6d. done up in cloth in so concise a way as to be adapted for the waistcoat pocket Bridgen's Time Table of the London and Birmingham, Grand Junction . . . Railways . . ."
So it was some weeks ahead of Bradshaw's publication of 19 October. But James Drake of Birmingham was much earlier, his maps and tables were first published in July 1838. The time tables showed the trains between London and Denbigh Hall and between Rugby and Birmingham with the connecting coach service, also the trains on the Grand Junction, and the Liverpool and Manchester Railways. New editions were issued in October and November 1838 and the latter included five railways. The maps were very elaborate, but the publication "in a case for the pocket" cost 2/-.
E. H. Dring read a paper on "Early Time Tables" to the Bibliographical Society in 1921, and the following is extracted from it:—

"Among other contemporary time tables are:
(]. Bridgen of Wolverhampton).
Bridgens/Railway /Time Tables/or guide to Railway Traveling / London:/ Simpkin Marshall and Co., .. ...../........../ Price sixpence./ Corrected to Aug. 1, 1840.
A note on p. 2 states that this is a new and improved edition. In 1904 there was exhibited at the Old Manchester Exhibition at Manchester an edition of this Time Table on page 11 of which there was printed 'Corrected October 18 1839'. a day earlier than the date of the earliest Bradshaw."

L.M.S.R. appointments. 328
E.A. Milne, Works Superintendent, Barassie to Carriage & Wagon Assistant, Glasgow; W.R. Ford, Shed Foreman  Birkenhead to be Assistant Locomotive Superintendent, Carnforth..

Number 568 (15 December 1939)

The continued need for efficiency. 329

Some aspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department, 330-3.. 2 illustrations

High-speed lightweight trains. 334-6
Continued in next volume page 18.

Fayle, H. The Cork, Bandon and South Coast Rly. and its locomotives. 336-8. 7 illustrations
Nos. 9 and 18 were two 4-4-0T supplied by Neilson & Co. in 1894: WN 4741 and 4740 and cost £1725 each. They were rebuilt with trailing radial axles and extender bunkers. They became GSR Nos. 480 and 481 and were scrapped in 1935/6. Two Baldwin Locomotive Works 0-6-2STs were supplied in 1900. They had 18 x 24 in outside cylinders, 4ft 8in coupled wheels,1179 ft2 total heating surface and 18.79 ft2 grate area. Fig. 21. They were withdrawn in 1914 (No. 20) and 1912 (No. 19) . The Beyer Peacock 4-6-0T wngines began with a prototype No. 11 (WN 4752/1906). It cost £3165 had 18 x 24in inside cylinders; 5ft 2½in. coupled wheels and a total heating surface of 1182.5 ft2. It was very successful and led to a further seven: Nos. 14 WN 5265/1909; No. 15 WN 5434/1910; No. 20 WN 5616/1912; No. 19 WN 5822/1914; No. 4 WN 5954/1919; No. 8 WN 6034/1920 and No. 13 WN 6077/1920. No. 4 cost £4389 and is shown in Fig. 22. They became GSR Nos. 463-70 and were class B4. No. 467 was rebuilt with a Belpaire boiler with superheater: 894 ft2 total heating surface (invcluding superheater), pop safety valves, 22.1 ft2 grate area and 150 psi boiler pressure. The livery had been sage green. The Timoleague & Courtmacsherry Light Railway had three locomotives at the time of take over: 0-6-0ST Slaney was a Hunslet product acquired from Robert Worthington, the contractor for the line. It had 12 x 15 in cylinders and 3ft coupled wheels. It was scrapped in 1914. St. Molaga was an 0-4-2T from Hunslet WN 520/1890. It had 10½ x 16in cylinders and 3ft 3in coupled wheels. Argadeen was a Hunslet 2-6-0T WN 611/1894 with 14 x 18in cylinders, 3ft 6in coupled wheels and 539 ft2 total heating surface. In 1925 it was rebuilt at Broadstone with a Belpaire boiler off Imp a Kerr Stuart railmotor with 623.26 ft2 total heating surface and a grate area of 9.5 ft2.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 339-41. 8 illustrations.
Continued in next volume page 43.Twenty eight 4ft 6in Johnson 0-6-0s known as "Scotties" as first came from Neilson & Co.: these werre rebuilt with Midland boilers from about 1896 Fig. 41 shows a Vulcan Foundry locomotive No. 43 in is rebuilt state. Fig. 42 shows Neilson No. 37  with new boiler (which had a total heating surface of 1133 ft2 and 140 psi boiler pressure. Fig. 43 shows No. 25 with q Johnson boiler and Fowler chimney and tender with handrail and footsteps at rear of tender. Between 1905 and 1910 Deeley boilers were fitten to Numbers 56-61. Fig. 48 shows No. 58. There was some recycling of boilers amongst locomotives. Fig. 45 shoows No. 36 with a Fowler chimney. Fig. 46 shows No. 57 as No. 34 (notess clackboxes on front ring of boier barrel. Deeley boilers werre fittedd to "Great Northern" Nos. 19-24. These had 1¾ in. tubes; a total heating surface of 1035 ft2 , a grate area of 14.6 ft2 and 160 psi boiler pressure. There were no safety-valves on the dome, and those over the firebox were of the Johnson-Deeley pattern having a lock-up auxiliary (directly-loaded) valve in front of the Ramsbottom columns; the whole being encased in a conspicuous casing of polished brass, later painted over. The original set of Neilsons were all scrapped by 1922, Nos. 33 and 34 in 1914 and Nos. 35 to 38 in 1922. Of the Vulcan's. of the first batch, Nos. 39, 41 and 43 were scrapped in 1922, 1925 and 1914 respectively, whilst Nos. 40, 42 and 44 became Nos. 67, 68 and 69 in 1928, later becoming L.M.S. Nos. 2886-7-8 in 1930; of the second batch, all Nos. 25-28 were scrapped by 1929, No. 27 going in 1914, and Nos. 25, 26 and 28 in 1929, whilst of the third batch Nos. 46, 48 and 51 were scrapped in 1925, 1922 and 1925 respect- iv~and Nos. 47, 49 and 50 became TOS. 70, 71 and 51 in 1928, and later LMS. 2889-90 and 2885. Finally, engines Nos. 56-61 were renumbered Nos. 33-38 in 1922 and although No. 33 was scrapped in 1928 engines Nos. 34-38 were rebuilt with Midland Railway G.5 pattern (Belpaire) boilers in 1929, 1929, 1928, 1927 and 1928 respectively, becoming L.M.S. Nos. 2880-4 in 1930. The new boilers carried 160 lb. pressure and were fitted with Ross pop safety valves. New frames and new cylinders were also supplied, but the original cabs were retained. Fig. 47 shows No. 2884 as rebuilt. The eleven engines of this class taken over by the LMS were, therefore, Nos. 34-38, 51 and 67 to 71, and they became Nos. 2880 to 2890, as mentioned above. They were all scrapped between 1931 and 1933, the last three to go being Nos. 2881-3, so that the class is now extinct. These engines, which were all classed 1, were replaced on the Burnham Branch line by the Class "3" 0-6-0s to be mentioned hereafter. Fig. 48 is of interest in that it shows engine No. 68 (formerly No. 42) when it had become L.M.S. No. 2887 still with a John- son boiler but with a Deeley chimney of the same tall pattern as used on the 0-4-4 tank engines and 0-6-0s when reboilered with Deeley boilers.

L.N.E.R. 341
Thc following further V2 class (2-6-2) engines had been built at Darlington: Nos. 4840, 4841 and 4842, another V2 class, No. 4846, and a V3 (2-6-2T) No. 390, had been built at Doncaster, and two J50 class (0-6-0T) Nos. 595 and 598 had been built at Gorton. The following engines had been withdrawn: Nos. 824, 4-6-0 class BI5, No. 1874 4-4-0 class DI7, No. 4126 0-6-0 class J6, No, 1825 0-6-0 class J24, and No. 6178 0-8-0 class Q4.
On the 4 December a revised train service was brought into operation. Many additional trains were being run throughout the L.N.E.R. system and a mid-day service between London and Edinburgh was available again.
The passenger services on the Louth and Bardney line, the Horncastle branch and between Leeds (Central) and Barley had been restored as also had the L.M.S. Co.'s through trains between Broad Street and the GNR suburban lines. The entire L.N.E. passenger service between Derby (Friargate) and Burton on Trent, Uttoxeter and Stafford had however been withdrawn.

An early Taunton locomotive.. 341. illustration
Although the outside-cylinder 4-4-0 locomotive was, in its day, extremely popular in America, inside-connected engines of the same wheel arrangement were also built, but in comparatively small numbers. The reproduced illustration is of one constructed by the Taunton Locomotive Works, of Taunton, Mass. in 1852. This engine, which had cylinders 16 in. by 20 in., was in the service of the New London Northern Railway, a subsidiary of the Central Vermont Railway which in turn was a subsidiary of the Grand Trunk Railway. As a Westinghouse brake air pump was fitted, the photograph could not have been taken earlier than the 1870's, by this date a number of changes had probably been made to the engine, which carried the name T.W. Williams.

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 342-3. 2 illustrations, diagram
R.A. Lister & Co., of Dursley. Petrol driven auto trucks including flat trailer and one with rotating brush and sprinkler; also electric capstan and oil dispenser.

G.W.Ry. 343
Several 0-6-0 goods engines had been reconditioned at Swindon and Eastleigh for service overseas,. including Nos. 2403, 2461, 2480, 2518 and 2533 which also did service abroad during 1914-18. No. 5089 Westminster Abbey, was a new 4-6-0 express engine, and the following had also been completed at Swindon Works, Nos. 3808 to 3813 (2-8-0), Nos. 2208 to 2210 (0-6-0),  Nos. 3635 to 3645 (0-6-0PT), and Nos. 3104, 4130 to 4136 and 8108 (2-6-2T).

Union Pacific R.R. 343
Fifteen 4-8-4 passenger and fast freight locomotives had been completed by the American Locomotive Company. They had cylinders 25 in in diameter, 6 ft. 8 in. driving wheels-with a tractive force of 63,800 lb. The tenders were carried on 14 wheels and carried 23,500 gallons of water.

Dublin University Engineering Society. 343
E.C. Bredin, Chief Mechanical Engineer, Great Southern Railways, delivered his inaugural address to a meeting of the members in Dublin on 17 November. The title of his lecture was "The Design of a Modern Locomotive," which had mainly for its subject the G.S.R. 4-6-0 3-cylinder 800 class locomotive. The design was referred to in detail and a number of interesting lantern slides were shown. Engines running on other lines were also described and illustrated and comparisons of two cylinder and multi-cylinder engines .were made. At the conclusion of the lecture R.G. Booth (presumably president) proposed and W.H. Morton seconded a vote of thanks. Mr. Morton also added some interesting remarks about the employment of Diesel locos. and railcars in Eire.

[Obituary]. 343
Regret to announce the death of A.B. Boxall. He was the staff of Sir Douglas Fox and Partners for 58 years.

Morris, O.J. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives., Central Section. 344-7. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Continued next Volume: see page 93. (12). The "Small Vulcans", 0-6-0, Class C2. Ashford features introduced including pop safety valves

Correspondence. 357

S.W. Johnson. W.B. Thompson
On p. 315 Ellis stated that the last Midland engme painted green was.a tank engine built in 1881. May I say that the green paint survived a little longer? The twenty express engines built in 1882, Nos. 1562-1571, which were fitted with the vacuum brake and ran between London and Nottingham, and Nos. 1572-1581, which had the Westinghouse brake and worked south from Carlisle, were all painted green when new. I had a trip from Carlisle on No. 1577; and I also remember being on a rebuilt Kirtley goods engme, No. 494, at Rugby early in 1883, which had recently come from Derby and was painted green.
The red paint was said to be cheaper; but it seemed a pity that the green was abandoned, for the engines never looked so well after the change.
Beauty is a matter of personal impression, but I think most people would agree with me in saying that Johnson was the greatest artist, not even exceptmg Joseph Beattie or Stroudley, that the locomotive department of a British railway has ever produced. For myself, I consider that his 60 class of express engines built towards the close of the last century were the most beautiful engines I have ever seen on any railway in the world. To those of us who remember the elegance of design and the spotless cleanli- ness of the Johnson engines it is a sad experience to travel on the Midland line to-day.

S.W. Johnson. James Bell.
Re. C. Hamilton Ellis's Famous Locomotive Engineers: is he is right in ascribing to S.W. Johnson any share in the design of N.B.R. Nos. 382-393. I cannot distinguish any particularly Johnsonian features in the design of these engines and the fact that they were built after his regime as Loco. Supt. at Cowlairs had ended does not favour the supposition that the design was his. Moreover, when they first appeared in 1866 they embodied features which were already familiar on the N.B.R. The design of frame was precisely similar in outward appearance to the frames of Nos. 90-95, built in 1861 by Neilson and Co. Later on, in 1865, exactly the same frame appears in the N.B. series Nos. 341-346 built by Dubs in that year. In all these classes the design of splashers. side-sheets, and stormboards are much alike and came, one would say, from the same hand.
As a boy I knew No. 393 well, prior to her rebuilding. At that time she had lost her original funnel which had been replaced by one of Mr. Wheatley's stove-pipes, but she still retained her wealth of brass beading. When new she must have been a very handsome engine. A clue to the authorship of the design might be found in the fact that the 382 class all had pull-out regulators. The other classes I mention may have had these regulators also. I cannot say; but I am absolutely certain that the 382 class had them.
At the time when I first knew 393 she had long come down from express rank, having been superseded by the Wheatley,· Drummond , and Holmes engines, but she was still a speedy and reliable engine, remarkably silent, and easy on coal and oil and Mr. Johnson, if he had anything to do with her design, had reason to be proud of his handiwork, Signed Inspector, L.N.E.Rly., Edinburgh.

Early Pullman cars. Stephenson Y. Knight. 357
Re Canon S.B. Fellows and J. Pelham Maitland's articles on the above have been of very interesting reading to me seeing that at that time my late father, the then General Manager of the L.E. & S.C.R., J.P. Knight, and Allport of the Midland Railway were the pioneers of the Pullman mode of travelling in the United Kingdom. My own recollections of these splendid trams go back to r883 when as a small lad I can well remember being taken to and from Brighton for a trip in the Pullman train. The early Pullmans were, as the Rev. Fellows says, of the open end balcony type of build; they were 60 feet each long, and one could walk the whole length of the train as wooden platforms covering the connections between the cars were provided, the cars being coupled with Stroudley's patent "Close coupling device" very ably set out in detail in Barry's Railway Mechanics. There were thirty lights in the cars and the current for these came from thirty-four Faure accumulators, charged in the first instance at a depot in the Strand somewhere near the Tivoli Music Hall. Afterwards Houghton, the Electrical Engineer to the Brighton Railway, put up a small charging unit at Victoria Station for this purpose and here the accumulators continued to be charged until Houghton brought out and invented his device for charging the batteries from a generator, belt driven from the axle of the car. The cost of the Pullman Train was about £12,000, and at the time (1881) it was the most luxurious of its kind running in Europe. The cars were fitted with what was then quite an innovation by way of blinds for the windows, they were sprung supported and could be lowered or raised to any desired position by the passenger. The train was also fitted with the Stroudley and Russbridge Electric Communication which had just then been introduced on the Brighton Railway. Henry Marks was the conductor of the train and he afterwards became the manager of the Pullman Car Company. Two other well known conductors of Pullmans on the L.B. & S.C.R. went by the names of "Nutmeg" and "Fussy," but to this day I am unable to trace the origin of these names. Mr. Snow must also be remembered for he was for many years in charge of the Pullman running in the Newhaven boat train.
The Rev. Fellows does not mention the standard livery of the cars. They were finished in a deep umber brown, with black and gold lining. The names of the cars were Albert Edward, Victoria, Beatrice, and Louise. When the 1888 Pullman Vestibuled Train made its appearance the old Pullman Train was divided up and the cars put into service on different trains running between London and Brighton; for many years, in fact well into the 'nineties [1890s], Albert Edward and Victoria ran in the 5 p.m. down and the 08.45 up expresses to and from Brighton. "Nutmeg" and "Fussy" had charge of these cars, and I remember their very courteous attention. Hot breakfasts of a limited menu could be had on the 08.45. train from Brighton, teas could always be served, also other liquid refreshments too numerous to mention.
About the year 1879, a Pullman Drawing Room Car was run in the 15.55 ex Victoria; this train ran to Portsmouth Harbour, having a through connection to the Isle of Wight, reaching Ventnor at 20.24. The Pullman adventure in this respect did not turn out to be a success and it was withdrawn.

Timothy Hackworth and the locomotive. A.V. Green, 357-8
Re books James Watt, Engineer and Craftsman, by H.W. Dickinson, and the other Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive by R. Young. Kindly allow me through the "Locomotive" to draw attention to a remarkable discrepancy in these two books. On page 6 of "Timothy Hackworth" note the portrait entitled William . Murdoch by courtesy of the Secretary, James Watt Centenary Memorial. Then compare Plate VIII on page 86 of James Watt, Craftsman, which claims to be that of Matthew Boulton, from the oil painting by Wm. Beechy, in possession of the Boulton family. facing. page 114 of the same book we have Plate X representing Wiilliam Murdoch, from an oil painting by Graham Gilbert, by permission of the Museum and Art Gallery Committee of the Corporation of Birmingham. Where does the error lie? I am inclined to the belief that it is in Mr. Young's book. On the other hand, it is strange that neither Mr. Young nor his friendly critics observed such a mistake.
The matter I trust, through your good offices, will be brought under notice of such bodies as the Stephenson and Newcomen Societies, as well as the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, etc. It is of importance that posterity be furnished with accurate history, and I shall endeavour to do my share in this respect. If I can furnish information about Australasian railways to bona-fide members of engineering and historical societies, I shall deem it a pleasure and a duty to help them:

Reviews=

The design of flat plates. C.C. Pounder. Epsom: The Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd.
The new edition of this booklet has been enlarged and contains much information of value to designers of flat plates.

The oil engine manual.-London: Temple Press Ltd.
This book, written by two members of the technical staff of The Oil Engine, provides in concise and well-illustrated form information on the principles and practical application 'of the modern oil engine as utilised for industrial and transport purposes. In the last mentioned section is a chapter devoted to British engines for rail traction which includes a useful table showing the chief characteristics of engines available here. An appendix contains much information on calculations and costs which, in conjunction with the other sections. will prove of value to all interested in oil engines, professionally and otherwise.

The railcar 1847-1937.- R.W. Kidner. Sidcup: Oakwood Press.
Yet another of the useful little handbooks, for which the Oakwood Press has now became noted, has been issued, and this time the subject treated is less known than that of any previous booklets. In fact, very little of a historical nature concerning railcars has hitherto been published and the work under notice gives in a compact. form and easy of reference many details which cannot be found elsewhere. Dimensions, dates and many other particulars are given of most of the cars that have run on British railways, and there is also a brief survey of the development of the railcar overseas. It is very profusely illustrated, but whilst the half tone blocks are excellent, the line drawings are rather sketchy. The author is in error with regard to Ariel's Girdle, which after being shown in the Great Exhibition of 1851, was purchased, not by the Eastern Counties Ry., but by the Eastern Union who used it on the Hadleigh branch. At a later date it passed into the hands of the E.C.R. and it is to this period that the details of its subsequent history belong.

Trade Nores and Publications, 358

Copper Development Association . 358
Thames House, Millbank, SW1 publication, The machining of copper. and its alloys which deals in a comprehensive manner with the machining properties of these metals and summarises modern practice. It is both a practical handbook and a guide to the selection of suitable materials for machined products.

Ronald Trist and Co. Ltd. of Bath Road, Slough. 358
Boklets describing their S.E.A. rings and packing, together with Thermofeed regulators. The rings have been fitted to numerous locomotives with successful results. Thermofeed regulators are operated in conjunction with feed pumps and a number have been supplied for rail cars; in addition, this company's Mobrey controls are utilised for steam raising boilers in restaurant cars.

Mr. Joseph Walton. 358
A Director of Thos. W. Ward Ltd., has been appointed an Assistant Managing Director of the Company. For many years he had been associated with the Rail and Siding Construction Department, and has been responsible for laying of important sidings in all parts of the country for Government factories and public works contractors. He was Managing Director: of the Darlington Railway Plant and Foundry Co., Ltd.

Coach painting. 358
At the annual meeting of the American Car Department Officers' Association held in October a number of useful reports were presented including one on passenger car painting. The American railways are now more than ever endeavouring to have all equipment meet with popular approval. As a result over 11,500 coaches were equipped with air conditioning systems. At the end of 1938 85 streamlined trains had been put into service and more have been added since. Exterior decoration has been revolutionised and car builders were employing new metals, allovs and other materials that require different treatment. There are red cars, grey ones, blue, green, yellow and other colours to attract the eye. Owing to their high speed and desire for smartness, constant cleaning is necessary to keep them spick and span. A problem is to keep the car, clean without damaging their finish as most of the chemical compounds used for cleaning cause streaks and blemishes.