Locomotive Magazine Volume 18 (1912)

No. 233 (15 January 1912)

Railway notes. 1

Vestibuled trains for the London, Tilbury & Southend Ry. 1-2. illus.
The first of two new trains was put on by the L.T. & S.R. on New Year's Day for the Southend-Ealing through service, leaving Southend at 07.27 and returning from Ealing at 09.32 to Shoeburyness. In the evening that place is left at 18.10 and Ealing on the return for Southend at 20.35. These "sumptuous trains" are of the vestibuled corridor type and. had been built by the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co., Ltd., to the designs of Robert H. Whitelegg, the locomotive, carriage - and wagon superintendent, by whose courtesy we were able to take the photograph reproduced on this page. the wood used in their construction rendered thoroughly fireproof, while each carriage is provided with two chemical fire extinguishers placed over the vestibule gangway, and emergency steps are carried at the end exits of the trains. Sliding doors are provided at each end of the carriage, giving access to the end vestibules, with flexible gangways between each coach. A central corridor extends the whole length of the passenger compartments, partitions fitted with swing doors dividing the body into two main saloons for the 3rd class cars and three saloon compartments for the. composite carriages. Double sliding doors are provided at the ends of the compartments. The upper panels of all inside doors have bevel edge cut glass panels with each train comprised two 3rd class brakes, one 1st and 3rd class composite and five 3rd class carriages, giving a total seating accommodation for about 400 passengers. At the time our photograph was taken the train consisted of seven carriages only. The carriage bodies were clipper built with vertical semi-rounded ends and were ot uniform dimensions, the principal of which were: length over vestibules 50ft., length over bodies, outside, 48-ft. 6-in., length over headstocks 47-ft. -in., centres of bogies .)3-ft., wheelbase of bogies -ft., width outside waist of body 9-ft., height rom floor to roof at centre 7-£t. 9f6'-in. The body and underframe were separate, the body framing, outside panels and moulding being of {oulmein teak, while the underframe is of steel ngles arid channels. _The underside of the bodies was covered with asbestos panelite and all the company's monogram. The 1st class compartments are upholstered in tapestry, the character of which is in keeping with the oak panelling, and the floor is covered with Turkey felt. The 3rd class smoking compartment was upholstered in Rexine, and the non-smoking in mohair velvet of a bluish shade, the floors throughout being covered with linoleum. Torpedo ventilators were fixed in the roof, operated by a "Bowden" wire laid on to a fitting conveniently placed, and above the windows flat ventilators are fitted. The 3rd class carriage brakes at each end of the train are provided with lavatories and luggag-e compartments. The carriages are electrically lighted and heated, the current being generated by a dynamo under each. The floors were packed with felt to render the carriages free from noise. Continuous draw-gear and standard buffers were fitted, and also the air brake with hand brakes worked independently in the guards' vans. The weight of the train empty was over 200 tons, and two of the District Ry. electric locomotives are used between Barking and Ealing to maintain rapid acceleration after each stop, as with the multiple-unit trains, so as not to delay the local services. Without doubt these are the handsomest trains so far running on any London underground railway, and the management of the L.T. & S.R. are to be congratulated on their latest enterprise.

London & North Western Ry.. 2
Nos. 1185, 1548, 1665 and 1790 are the latest 0-8-2 shunting tanks to be completed. These engines have 24-in. cylinder stroke and not as printed in our last issue. They have sloping coal bunkers and level footplates and the boiler ends are lagged. The 4-6-0 (" Experiment ") passenger engines, fitted with the Schmidt superheater, are all at work, but only five are painted as yet. They are fitted with the "Trusty" lubricator. No. 1859, three-cylinder compound mineral engine, has been converted to simple, and No. 2653 of the same class rebuilt as a simple last year has been fitted with a superheater. The output of new engines from Crewe Works during 1911 totalled 74, and comprised 43 4-4-0 (George the Fifth) passenger engines, 10 4-6-0 passenger engines, 18 4-6-2 passenger tanks, and three 0-8-2 shunting engines. It may be of interest to add that no fewer than 61 of these engines are equipped with the Schmidt superheater.  No. 2161 Jeanie Deans (4-6-0) has been fitted with the Hasler speed indicator and recorder as well as the Wakefield lubricator. No. 2663 "George V." is fitted with Frodsham's speed indicator. A ¾in. scale model of the engine" Coronation" has been made at Crewe and is now being exhibited in the Great Hall at Euston. A mirror beneath the model and windows in the smokebox enable the spectator to study the mechanism.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 2
Stroudley Terrier tanks were being reboilered for the first time, Nos. 677-8-9 being the first to be dealt with. They had lately been working motor services at reduced boiler pressures, but the fact that the first of these useful little engines started work as far back as 1872 was a remarkable record as to the quality of the workmanship and materials used in their construction. The new boilers were composed of' a single plate. The engines would now have extended smokeboxes carried on a saddle. The six new Atlantics Nos. 421-426 were all at work, but they had not yet been painted in the Company's standard colours. The tare weight of carriage stock was now painted on the underframe solebars. .

Gt. Indian Peninsula Ry., rebuilt loco., No. 63, "Prince of Wales," used for Royal Trains. 2. illus.
See also feature pp. 6-8.

North Staffordshire Ry. 2.
Three new 4-4-2 superheater tank locomotives in service, No.8, illustrated last month, and Nos. 46 and 55.

Great Eastern Ry. 3.
On Sunday, 31 December 1911, the first of S.D. Holden's new 4-6-0 express engines, No. 1500, ran a satisfactory trial trip from Stratford to Broxbourne and back. No. 1500 has inside cylinders 20in. diameter by 28in. stroke, a boiler pressure of 180 psi, grate area of 26.5 sq. ft., six-coupled wheels 6-ft. 6-in. diameter. It is fitted with the Schmidt superheater, having 21 tubes 5¼in. outside diameter and 191 tubes 1¾in. outside diameter, with the following heating surface: tubes 1,489. 1ft2., superheater 286,4ft2.; firebox 143.5ft2, total 1,919ft2. This was the first GER locomotive fitted with piston valves: these were 10in. diameter. Five of these engines were scheduled to be built. All the new 2-4-2 tanks, Nos. 1 to 10, were running. No. 1900 Claud Hamilton was to have a large new tender like those supplied to the latter engines of this class (1800 series). Ten six-coupled tanks were to be built next to take the place of ten of the earliest six-coupled passenger tanks, which were to be converted to "shunting engines" with reversing levers and cast iron wheels

Great Northern Ry. 3.
Nos. 988 and 271 (both superheater engines) have been running trials on the same trains as the L. & N. W. and G. N. engines ran in 1910 (1.30 and 5.45 p.m. ex Kings Cross) to compare the outside cylinder engine with the inside. Several more of the latest 0-6-2 condensing tanks are building at Doncaster. Fifteen of the new superheater goods engines like No. 521. illustrated in our November issue, are now running. They are numbered 521 to 535. Two more" twin bogie " suburban trains are building. .There are now three of these trains working in the London district. Mr. E. Thompson of the N.E.R., Gateshead, has been appointed carriage and wagon works superintendent at Doncaster in succession to Mr. Gresley, the new locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent of the G. N. R.

Stratford & Midland Junction Ry. 3.
Russell Willmott, engineer and manager of the SMJR had been appointed secretary and General Manager of the Isle of Wight Central Ry., but would still have charge of the locomotive and permanent way departments of the SMJR. A.E. Diggins, the secretary of the SMJR, had been appointed traffic manager also. On Saturday. the 30 November 1911, at the staff supper of the SMJR at Stratford-on-Avon, Mr. Wilmott was presented with a handsome silver plated tea and coffee service, subscribed for by all grades of the staff, on his retiring from the managership of the Company.

Cork City Junction Ry. 3.
On 1 January 1912 the Cork City Link Ry. was opened for traffic connecting the G. S. & W. Glanmire Station to the Cork, Bandon and S.C.R. close to its terminus on the quay at the River Lee on the level, which includes two bridges over the River Lee. Hitherto the C.B. & S.C.R. had been isolated from the railway system of Ireland, but by the new line direct communication was established between Rosslare and Bantry (for Glengariff), Castletown and Berehaven. The GWR of England by its partnership in the Fishguard & Rosslare H. & Rys. Co. was interested in this new undertaking.

Recent French locomotives. 3.
The Nord had ordered from French, German and Belgian makers a large number of 4-6-0 four-cylinder compounds with coupled wheels of  750 m. diameter to be numbered 3538 to 3662: twenty of the Pacific type from the Societe Alsacienne, of Belfort, and sixty four-cylinder compound consolidations, of which forty will be built by Schneider & Co., of Creusot, and twenty by the Societe des Batignolles (Ern. Gouin). All were fitted with Schmidt superheaters. The Est Co. placed orders at the Epemay Works for twenty consolidation locomotives with Schmidt superheaters, of series 4001, and for one hundred 4-6-0 four-cylinder compounds with Schmidt superheaters, to be numbered 3791 to 3890. Of these Nos. 3791 to 3810 from the Societe Alsacienne, of Belfort, and Nos. 3811 to 3830 from Schneider & Co., of Creusot. were already in service. During the 1911 twenty express locomotives of the 4-6-0 four-cylinder compound type with Schmidt superheaters; constructed by J A. Maffei, of Munich, and numbered 3171 to 3190, had also been put into service. The PLM had on order 40 Pacific locos. with four equal cylinders and Schmidt superheaters, which were under construction by the Societe Cail at Denain. Further orders for four cylinder compound Pacifics and four cylinder compound consolidations, with Schmidt superheaters, were being executed by the Societes Franco-Belge and Batignolles. For the Paris-Orleans the Cie. de Fives-Lille had constructed 20 decapod (2-10-0) four cylinder compound locos., with Schmidt superheaters, Nos. 6031 to 6050. The Etat had also issued considerable orders.

Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 3.
R. Stephenson & Co., Ltd., had recently delivered two new 0-6-2 tank engines. Nos. 168 and 169, similar to No. 99 illustrated in our May issue of  1905, 11, 80..

New tank locomotives, Ottoman Ry. (Smyrna, Aidin, Diner). 4. illus.
0-8-2 side tank built by Robert Stephenson & Co. of Darlington (No. 65 illustrated): 4ft 6½ coupled wheels; 19½ x 26in outside cylinders, Belpaire firebox with 1755.4ft2 total heating surface ; 23.35ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure
Adds that the Smyrna-Cassaba Railway used to be British owned, but had been acquired by the French. The Constantinople-Ismid line had been purchased by the Germans and was being extended to Angora and was part of the Anatolian Railway whose main line ran from Haidar-Pacha opposite Constantinople to Konieh and ws being extended to Marash and Bagddad and to Bussorah on the Persian Gulf..

Superheater goods locomotive Midland Ry. 5. illus.
Fowler 0-6-0 Nos. 3835  fitted with Schmidt superheater and No. 3836 fitted with Swindon superheater with automatic dampers. No. 3835 had 20 x 26in cylinders, 5ft 3in coupled wheels, 1170ft2 total heating surface, 313ft2 superheat and 21.1ft2 grate area. Fitted with steam reverser. No. 3835 was working passenger trains between Serby and Birmingham.

The Imperial Durbar at Delhi. 6-8. 4 illus., map.
A separate terminus at Kingsway was created with separate approaches and stabling yard at Stukurpur with 30 miles of sidings capable of accommodating 3000 carriages. The Bombay to Delhi Mail had been accelerated and an average speed of 40 mile/h had been achieved over the 869 miles. There was a narrow gauge railway to serve the camps which used military railway technology. The Royal Train described in the December Issue was actually constructed in 1904-5 under H. Kelway-Bamber and had been reconditioned under C.G.H. Danby with the immediate supervision of S.J. Kendrick (photographs of interior). The Great India Peninsular Railway locomotives associated with the Royal Train had been painted dark blue with chocolate framing and with exception of the Ghat bankers (Nos. 320 and 330) named. 4-4-0s: Nos. 63 Prince of Wales, 67 Princess Mary, 137 Edward VII and 138 Queen Alexandra; 4-6-0 Nos. 216 Prince Albert, 217 Queen Victoria and 4-4-2 Nos. 921 King Emperor, 921 Queen Empress, 1273 George V, 1274 Queen Mary, 1278 Prince Henry. The Bengal Nagpur Railway had painted its de Glehn compounds green.

New tank locomotive, Dublin & South Eastern Railway. 9. illus.
No. 20 King George. Built at Grand Canal Street Works to design of Cronin. 4-4-2T with 6ft coupled wheels; 18 x 26in cylinders; 1200ft2 total heating surface; 20ft2 gratre area and 175 psi boiler pressure. New type of safety valve and Wakefield mechanical lubricator.

Atlantic type locomotive, North Eastern Railway. 9 + col.plate (facing page) and folding general arrangement diagram.
Raven design supplied by North British Locomotive Co.: ten Z class with Schmidt superheaters and ten Z1 without. Three cylinders (15½ x 26in on saturated and 16½ x 26in on superheated engines); piston valves. Designed to run 124½ miles non-stop at an average speed of 53 mile/h. 

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 9-11.
Refers back to Volume 17 page 261

Schulz, G.C. Three-cylinder compound loeomotives of the N.E., Midland and G.C, Rys. 11-13.
Refers back to Volume 17 page 269 and to coloured diagram in November 1911 Issue. This part considers the Midland Railway design and includes estimated cylinder pressures at statrting 130.3k psi; in semi-compound mode 84.5 psi and in fully compound: 81.2 psi.

Heseltine, P.A. The Van Railway. 13-16. 5 illus., map.
Built to serve the Van Lead Mines, which had lost their market to Spanish imports. Worked by the Cambrian Railways. No. 22, a Manning Wardle outside cylinder 0-4-0ST, purchased secondhand in 1901 was the motive power and this locomotive also relieved the secondhand ex-Lambourne Valley Railway locomotive on the Kerry branch. The original Van Railway locomotives had become CR Nos. 25 and 24. No. 25 was working the Elan Valley branch and was a Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST WN 374/1872 with inside cylinders (12in x 18in); 3ft coupled wheels; 356ft2 total heating surface and 120 psi boiler pressure. The other, WN 668/1877 was similar and had become CR No. 24. Water was obtained by a pump on the locomotive from the bridge over the river at Carno. Illustrations show the engine shed at Caersws with flat bottom rail and a derelict passenger coach built by the Midland Railway Carriage & Wagon Co.

Hydraulic wheel drops for running sheds. 16-17. 4 diagrs.
The diagrams show Atlantic type No. 289 having its wheels being dropped, but the article neither acknowledges the Great Northern Railway nor the supplier of the machinery. It refers back to an item in Volume 9 (19 September 1903) to a similar installation on the Furness Railway. Other recent installations had been on the LNWR and at Neasden (GCR) and Brighton.

The late Mr Heny Cooper. 17.
Had started at Crewe Works in 1852 and had become foreman and chief of the boiler shop. He retired on 22 November and died on 8 December 1911.

Walschaerts' valve gear. 18-20. illus., 2 diagrs.
Illustration of Eastern Ry of France (but see page 50 which states that PLM 4-6-0). AAdvantages: lighter, less friction, requires less lateral space. Movement of slide valves very good. Constant lead. Trammels for valve setting aand calculation of dead centres. Appearnace was considered to be awkward.

Glasgow & South Western Railway. 20.
Retirement Manson and appointment of Peter Drummond: very brief biographical details of both men.

4-6-0 locomotive, Victorian Rys. 21 illus.
Twenty Baldwin 4-6-0 type to design of T.H. Woodroffe, Chief Mechanical Engineer, DD Class. Belpaire boiler; piston valves, Westinghouse brake; 5ft 3in gauge; 18in x 26in cylinders; 5ft 15/8 coupled wheels; 175 psi boiler pressure; 1380ft2 total heating surface; 21..9ft2 grate area. Copper firebox and plate frames. Designed for high calorific fuel.

Abolition of second class. 21.
From 1 January 1912 second class abolished on LNWR, except for suburban traffic south of Harrow: from L&YR, NSR, Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith Railway, Cambrian Railways and Maryport & Carlisle Railway.

4-4-0 express locomotive. 22. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
5ft 6in gauge, Nasmyth Wilson & Co. Belpaire 5ft 1½in boiler, inside cylinders. For Calcutta (Sealdah Terminus) to Damukdeah mail (for Darjeeling) 116 miles

Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Light Ry. 22.
See Volume 17 page 104: 0-4-2ST mentioned therein since named Hecate and fitted with vacuum brake.

Tools for emergency use on trains. 22-3.
The Board of Trade was critical in its Report on the accident at Hawes Junction (24 December 1910: official report available Railway Archive). Notes that extensive provision was made on the Victorian Railways, the New South Wales Government Railways and New Zealand Railways and that the relief trains in India were better equipped.

How to deal with a defective hydraulic jack. 23. 2 diagrs.

20-ton bogie timber wagon, L. & N.W. Ry. 23. illus.
Flat top trolley fitted with four removable bolsters.

New G.C. Ry. wide suburban trains. 24-5. 2 diagrs. (s. & end els., plans)
8ft 10½in wide. Five car sets: 2 brake thirds; 1 composite; 1 first and 1 third (with 6 aside seating). Green leather upholstery in smoking firsts.

Steel rolling stock, Pennsylvania Railroad. 25.
Pennsylvania Railroad was the first line to adopt all-steel passenger cars, and since June, 1900, over 2,000 of them had been placed in service. At the Altoona Works practically all standard types of passenger cars were built entirely of steel at a very similar cost and of almost the same tare weight as wood, with the advantage of being nearly indestructible in place of only having a decidedly limited life. fhe framing was of pressed section to economise in weight and reduce number of joints. The plate was of open hearth steel containing less than .06 % of phosphorus. Sheets of asbestos non-conducting composition were attached to the plates, and all sections rivetted up by hydraulic and pneumatic appliances. Loose parts were reduced to a minimum, and much rivetting up obviated by inter-locking of the details. Panels, doors, etc., were made from pressed parts assembled and welded up by oxy-acetylene or electric welding, and all ornamentation was carried out in thin steel plate. Considerable care was taken in painting the steel cars. Every part was sand-blasted, and received a coat of priming before rivetting up, and care taken to cover every crevice with paint and varnish.

Correspondence. 25

Antwerp.
The L. & Y. running numbers of the eight-coupled goods locomotives were: 65, 95, 378, 412, 656,739, 792, 822, 827, 987 (Horwich Works Nos. 821-830), 114, 157, 169, 373, 394, 408, 423, 434, 436, 396, 512, 522, 612, 720,1435 to 1440 (Works Nos. 841-860), 1451 to 1460, 117, 413, 461, 820, 831, 835, 841, 880, 866,870. (Works Nos. 881-900). Nos. 1451 and 1452 were converted to. four-cylinder compounds in 19°7.

E. T. Macdermott
We hope to publish articles on famous G.W.R. narrow gauge engines shortly.

John Batey
Particulars af the special run af No. 2663, L. & N. W. Gearge the Fifth were given in August, 1910 issue, page 157.

Reviews. 26.

Who's Who for 1912. London: A. & C. Black.
Managers of most of our railways, and many of our chief engineers and locomotive superintendents.

Memorandum on steam boilers. William Buchan. London: HMSO.
Practical guidance: illustrations of grooving and corrosion.

No. 234 (15 February 1912)

Railway Notes. 27

Hull & Barnsley Ry. 27. illus.
Matthew Stirling, locomotive carriage and wagon superintendent of the H. & B. Ry. illustration of No. 16: superheated 0-6-0 goods engine built Kitson & Co., of Leeds. The cylinders were 19 x 26in. coupled wheels 5ft. diameter. The domeless boiler carried a working pressure of 170 psi, was 5ft. diameter externally at the firebox end. Grate area 19.6ft2. Total heating surface of 1407ft2. The engine was fitted with Phoenix superheater, a description of which appeared in this journal for February, 1911 page 38-9. Other special equipment included a vacuum Detroit lubricator. Sandboxes were provided to the front of the leading pair of wheels, to both sides of the driving wheels, and at the rear of the trailing wheels.

London & North Western Ry. 27.
Only one of the 4-6-2 tanks was working in the London district: No. 1797  stationed at Bletchley. The others had been mostly transferred to the Birmingham and other districts. The latest 0-8-2 shunting tanks built at Crewe were Nos. 289, 1163, 1494, 1592 and 1659. Including No. 2653, which was noted last month, 40 of the 0-8-0 mineral engines already built were to be fitted with Schmidt superheaters. The one referred to was not previously a compound as our note implied, but was built as a simple, January, 1910. Work had commenced on a series of 0-8-0 simple engines which will have 20½in. by 25in. cylinders, and equipped with Schmidt superheaters. They would be followed by two further series of the same type. The new 4-cylinder simple engines will not be out probably before the autumn of this year; the work which was already in hand having been put on one side for the present.

Great Eastern Ry. 27
No. 1500 was in the paint shop at Stratford, and scheduled to be in service in the course of a few weeks. Nos. 1501 and 1502 were also nearly finished. Several new Y 14 class goods engines were in hand: in anticipation of these No. 564 had been renumbered 0564. Good progress was being made with the construction of the Elsenham and Thaxted Light Ry.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 27-8.
Another 4-6-2 tank locomotive was under construction at Brighton to be similar to No. 325 Abergavenny, but with Walschaerts valve gear. No. 59 (formerly Baden Powell) to be fitted with a Phoenix superheater. Ten more 4-4-2Ts, like No. 22, to be constructed. Number plates being removed as locomotives pass through shops.

Western Australian Government Rys. 28. illus.
Beyer Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2 supplied by Beyer Peacock to 3ft 6in railway. Four 12½ x 20in cylinders operated by Walschaerts valve gear. Maximum axle load 9 tons, capable of traversing 5 chain radius curves and 1 in 22 gradients.

Dublin & Blessington Steam Tramway. 28.9. diagr. (s. el.)
Terenure to Blessington 15½ miles opened in 1887, extended a further 4½ miles to Poulaphouca Waterfall in 1890. T. Green of Leeds 2-4-2T tramway locomotive with 12 x 18in cylinders, 3ft 03/8in coupled wheels 373ft2 total heating surface.

"Pacific" type express engine for the Sao Paulo Ry of Brazil. 29. illus.
5ft 3in gauge 4-6-2 with narrow Belpaire firebox constructed by North British Locomotive Co. to design of C.R. Hillman, locomotive superintendent and D.M. Fox, consulting engineer. Walschaerts valve gear. Wakefield mechanical lubricator. Steam reversing gear. By-pass valves for downhill running. 5ft 6in coupled wheels, 21½in x 26in cylinders; 2029.7ft2 total heating surface, 28.5ft2 grate area. 200 psi boiler pressure

Six coupled bogie express engine, Great Eastern Ry. 30. illus.
S.D. Holden superheater 4-6-0 with inside cylinders (20in x 28in), 10in piston valves, 6ft 6in coupled wheels, Belpaire boiler with four safety valves set at 180 psi with 1919ft2 total heating surface and 26.5ft2 grate area. Wakefield mechanical lubricator. No. 1501 was the 1500th locomotive built at Stratford.

Mallet freight locomotives for the Southern Pacific Ry. 31-2. illus.
Baldwin 2-6-6-2 for passenger trains weighing 250 tons and 2-8-8-2 for freight. Designed for climbing Sierra Nevada from Sacramento City: a 7000ft rise in 105 miles. No. 4022, the freight locomotive, had 26in x 30in high pressure and 40in x 30in low pressure cylinders; 4ft 9in coupled wheels; 6393ft2 total heating surface; 68.4ft2 grate area. Cab in front oil firing. Information supplied by Lawford H. Fry.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 32.
Report of AGM held at St. Bride Institute on 13 January 1912 where Prof. Elliott elected President, A. Trevithick, a Vice President; C.A. Suffield Chairman of Council and H.W. Garratt Vice Chairman. On 27 January H.P. Bray presemted Superheating as applied to locomotives. Paragraph includes list of future papers.

Pacific express locomotives for the Hungarian State Rys. 32-3. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
Designed Petz Kornel, Bruck Géza and (valve gear) Stephan Ledecs Kiss. $-cylinder simple and 4-cylinder de Glehn compound with Ashton safety valves and Schmidt superheaters. Cylinders approx. 17 x 26in; total heating surface 2819ft2 and grate area 50.5ft2.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Ry. 34-5. 3 diagrs.
Figs. 213-215.

Taff Vale Ry. 35.
J. Cameron succeeded T. Hurry Riches as Locomotive Superintendent.

Schulz, G.C. Three-cylinder compound loeomotives of the N.E., Midland and G.C, Rys. 36-7.
Further explanation of running compound and semi-compound on the Midland Railway locomotives, and the differnces on the North Eastern and Great Central Railway locomotives. See also letter from Charles Dauncey p. 201.

Metropolitan District Ry. 37.
New station at Stamford Brook.

The Bourdon pressure gauge. 38-40. 10 diagrs.
Partly historical. The earliest devices combined safety valve function and used weights or levers and weights aand were not adaptable to locomotives which used spring devices, notably that developed by Salter. Mercury tubes are emntioned. Gooch invented on device. In 1849 Schaffer invented a device which was manufactured by Schaffer & Budenberg of Manchester. See also letters from Frank Hennell on page 67 and E.A. Forward on page 109.

Pfeiffer, H. Some old German locomotives. 41-3. 7 illus.
Fig 1 shows a Sharp Bros. 2-4-0 of 1846-7 built for the Main-Neckar Railway: originally they were all long-boiler singles with all wheels in front of the firebox, but in about 1875 Nos. 5 to 8 were rebuilt like Fig. 1 Nos. 9 to 12 were rebuilt as goods engine 2-4-0s with all wheels in front of the firebox. Fig. 2 shows Carl IV built in 1853 by Maschinenfabrik Carlsruhe for the Frankfurt-Hanau Railway There were six of this type, but the figure shows one partly dismantled: they were outside cylinder 2-2-2s. Fig. 3shows Mathilde, a Crampton engine built by Esslingen Maschinenfabrik  for the Hessische Ludwigsbahn: the railway owned nine Crampton-type locomotives, This was one of the few German locomotives with a domeless boiler and was fitted with the Carpentier air brake. Figs. 4 and 5 show Beethoven and Emil Kessler built for the Hessische Ludwigsbahn by Esslingen Maschinenfabrik as 2-2-2 in 1862. In the 1880s they were rebuilt as 2-4-0s: Beethoven became an express locomotive; but Emil Kessler became a freight engine with small (4ft) coupled wheels and a long wheelbase. Esslingen Maschinenfabrik  built four types of 2-4-0 (some of which are considered in the next part on page XX): goods engines; slow passenger engines; express engines; and express engines with a longer wheelbase. Fig. 6 shows Aschaffenburg shows a freight engine built for the Hessische Ludwigsbahn in 1858. Fig. 7 shows a slow passenger type built for the Nasauische Eisenbahn (No. 115) in 1863-4. Continued p. 55. See also letter from Thomas Anderson on p. 109

Belgian locomotives. 43-4. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
No. 340 La cinquantenaire was an outside cylinder 0-8-2T built by Société Metallurgique Tubize (WN 609/1885)  for the Belgian State Railways as a Liege banker. It had 3ft 53/8in coupled wheels; 19¾ x 2111/16 cylinders; 1594.5ft2 total heating surface; Stevart valve gear and a square chimney. It was exhibed at the Antwerp Exhibition.

Bogie tank locomotive for the Netherlands Central Ry. 44. illus.
4-4-0T designed J.W. Verloop, locomotive superintendent, constructed by Hohenzollern Locomotive Works in Dusseldorf. 5ft 5in coupled wheels; 16in x 24in inside cylinders; 1070ft2 total heating surface; 12.5 ft2 grate area and 170 psi boiler pressure.

Tate flexible firebox stay. 44.
Used iu USA and Canada: British agent Flannery Bolt Co.

"Otto" petrol locomotive for 2-ft gauge: Barton Mines, Nottinghamshire. 45. illus.
Gypsum mines: replaced horse traction on line to wharf on River Trent.

Mallet locomotive at the Turin Exhibition. 45-6. illus.
0-4-4-0T: Borsig locomotive for Societa Nazionale of Rome: exhibited at Turin Exhibition. Coupled wheels 3ft 7½in; high pressure cylinders 15 x 19¾in; low pressure 17¾in x 19¾in; total heating surface 1182.05ft2; grate area 21.3ft2; 170 psi boiler pressure. Seven locomotives of this type in service on Italian railway.

Obituary [Samuel Waite Johnson]. 46.
S.W. Johnson: death, occurred on Sunday, 14 January at Nottingham, of S.W. Johnson, late locomotive superintendent of the Midland Ry. Samuel Waite Johnson was born on 14 October 1831, at Bramley, near Leeds, his father being J. Johnson, an engineer in the service of the GNR. at Leeds, and afterwards locomotive superintendent of the North Staffs. Ry. He was educated at Leeds Grammar Sehool, and on leaving entered the engineering shops of E.B. Wilson & Co., of Leeds, where he became the pupil of Jas. Fenton, and assisted in designing the celebrated Jenny Lind type of express engine. He was next appointed assistant. district locomotive superintendent. of the G.N.R. at Peterborough, and in 1859 became acting locomotive superintendent of the M.S. & L. Ry. at Gorton. . Five years later he was chosen as locomotive superintendent of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Ry. at Cowlairs, and on. its amalgamation with, the N.B.R. in 1865 he was given charge of the locomotive department of the Western District system, including the Monkland Ry. In May, 1866, he entered the, service of the G.E.R. as locomotive superintendent, a position he retained until June 1873. A full description of the locomotives designed by Johnson while he was in charge at Stratford appeared in this joumal in 1910. When M. Kirtley, the first locomotive superintendent of the Midland Ry., died in 1873, S.W. Johnson was given the post of head of the loco. dept. at Derby. He held this position with distinction until the end of 1903,. a period of thirty years, when he retired fromi active work. The neatness and symmetrical proportions of Johnson's engines have long been the admiration of engineers at home and abroad. His famous bogie singles had 7-ft. 9-in. drivers at the time they were built, the largest fitted to any inside cylinder locomotives running. The four-coupled bogie express engine No. 1751: Beatrice (now No. 377) took the Gold Medal at the Saltaire Exhibition in 1887, and his single driver express No. 1853 (now No. (08) won the Grand Prix at the Paris Exposition of 1889. Later a similar, but larger engine No. 2601 Princess of Wales (now No. 685) took a Grand Prix at Paris in 1900: Mr. Johnson was one of the first British locomotive superintendents to adopt piston valves and metallic packing.

First and second class composite carriage, Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Ry. 47. diagr. (s. el and plan)
Drawing reproduced shows a first and second-class composite carriage built at the Burntisland works of the Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Ry. A number of these vehicles were built during the years 1858 and 1859. The reader will observe the seat on the roof at the end of the carriage for the guard and brakesman, which was the usual custom before passenger brake vans were introduced. The dimensions of the carriage were: Length over headstocks, 20-ft., width over all, 8.fL, wheel base, la-ft., width of second.class compartments, 4-ft. 8½ in., length of saloon, 8-ft. 8-in., wheels 3-ft. diameter, centres of journals, 6-ft. 4-in., centres of buffers, 5-ft. 7-in. It will be noticed that the buffers stand out more than the modern pattern. The Edinburgh, Perth and Dundee Ry. wa<> an amalgamation of the Edinburgh, Leith and Granton and the Edinburgh and Northern Railways. This took place in 1849, and the undertaking of the E.P. & D. Ry. was amalgamated with the North British Ry. system in July, 1862. The Edinburgh Northern Ry. was opened in September, 1847.

Our Supplement. 47 + col. plate (facing page)
With this number we present a colored plate of one of the latest Atlantic type North British Ry. express engines, No. 802, Highland Chief, built by Robert Stephenson & Co., Ltd., of Darlington, to the designs of Mr. W. P. Reid, locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent. The leading dimensions were: cylinders, 20-in. dia. by 28-in.stroke; diameter of bogie wheels, 3-ft. 6-in., of coupled wheels, 6-ft. 9-in., and of trailing wheels, 4--ft. 3-in.; boiler pressure, 200 psi.

Reviews. 48.

Transactions of the Swindon Engineering Society, 1910-11. Published by the Society, G.W.R. Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Department. Swindon.
The Presidential Address and nine papers are printed in this volume. In his address Churchward emphasised the necessity for giving the most careful study to the small but, nevertheless, very important subjects, instancing the method of avoiding carbon deposit on piston valves as one problem the solution of which would be of great practical value. The subjects dealt with during the session were: heat treatment of carbon steel, the cylinder lubrication problem, locomotive erecting, systems of erecting re-inforced concrete structures, the GWR. road motor car department, modern machine tools, some notes on cranks, the legal development of invcntions and centrifugal fans. The cylinder lubrication problem was exacerbated by the use of superheated steam. Many useful hints were contained in the paper on locomotive erecting.

A Text Book on Gas, Oil and Air Engines. by Bryan Donkin. Fifth edition revised and enlarged. London: Chas. Griffin & Co., Ltd.
This book was received from the publishers last year, and through an oversight we omitted to mention it in our editorial columns at the time. As the title implies, the work is divided into three sections, viz. - Part I. Gas Engines, Part II. Petroleum Engines, and Part III. Air Engines. Since the fourth edition appeared the development of the internal comlmstion engine has become restricted more or less to details, the general design remaining the same. All recent improvements are referred to in a very complete manner in bringing the numerous chapters up to date. A new chapter on the theory of the gas engine has been added, written by Professor Burstall. The chapters of modern British gas engines and British oil engines have been almost entirely re-written by Mr. T. Graves Smith,. Readers will find this book most useful in connection with designing internal combustlon engines, and we recommend it without hesitation.

A Register of all the Locomotives now in use on the L. & N. W. Ry. Compiled and published by C. Williams.
As this list comprises a total of 3,089 locomotives, exclusive of the seven narrow gauge engines used in the Crewe Works, it can be understood that its production has entailed a vast amount of time and trouble being spent. There were only 211 of the special DX goods engines in service. Details are given of all the different classes, together with particulars of the Departmental locomotives and the Crewe Works narrow gauge engines.

Railway and Locomotive Engineering for Jannary 1912
Contains account of the trans-continental Silk train, which held the record for time between Seattle, Washington and New York City, the entire distance from the Pacific to the Atlantic, a distance of 3,224 miles, being now covered regularly in 81 hours and 50 minutes. The best previous record was 97 hours 40 min., so that the actual saving by the new service (since October 1911) was over 16 hours. A description of the Long Key Viaduct of the Florida and East Coast Ry. drew attention to the completion, of this remarkable piece of railway construction. Accounts of the new Chicago and North Western shops. at Boone, Iowa, and a visit to the works of Messrs. Wm. Jessop & Sons, Ltd., of Sheffield, are also included, as well as the latest examples of locomotive construction in the States.

Modern Locomotive Types. 48
A very interesting and instlrudive lecture on this subject was given to the, Tyne district members of the Foremens' Mutual, Benefit Society, on Monday, 5 February 1912, in the Lecture Theatre, Mining Institute, Newcastle-on-Tyne, by John W. Hobson, of R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.'s Locomotive Works, Forth Banks, Newcastle-on-Tyne. The meeting which was, well attended was presided over by Ross of the same firm. At the outset, the lecturer explained the fundamental principles controlling- this question of types, and proceeded to show that the enormous varieties illustrated the evolution of the locomotive to suit the varying conditions of climate and service in all parts of the globe. Then followed a resume of the types in most common use under the headings of tank and tender engInes, wheel arrangements, cylinder arrangements, and locomotives for extraordinary work. and conditions of service.  By special request the lecturer alluded to industrial locomotives, describing fully the patent combined crane locomotive and standard engines constructed by the firm. The lecture was amply illustrated by about 70 lantern slides.

[Highland Railway: appointment of F.G. Smith]. 48
The directors of the Highland Railway Company had appointed F.G. Smith, works manager, locomotive works, Inverness, as loco. supt. of the Highland Ry. in succession to P. Drummond, who was. recently appointed loco. supt. of the G. & S.W.R. Thos. Brown, loco. foreman NBR., Berwick, was. appointed asst. loco. supt.

No. 235 15 March 1912

New Great Eastern. Ry. locomotive. our coloured plate. 49.
OUR coloured plate accompanying this - issue shows Mr. S. D. Holden's new 4-6-0 superheater express locomot~' . n its running colours. We are indebted to Mr~ olden for assisting us in securing accuracy in t e details of the -picture. Full particulars of this handsome engine were given in our February number. Nos. 150l and 1502 G.E.R. have just been completed and have made successful trial trips. Three of the new G.E.R. goods engines are out, Nos. 562-3-4. Ten large goods engines with superheaters (F. 48 class) are to be built, with "1,5°0" class cylinders.

London & North Western Ry. 49. illus.
-By the courtesy of Mr. C. J. Bowen Cooke, the Chief Mechanical Engineer, we are able to illustrate one of the new eight-coupled shunting tank engines: illus. of 0-8-2T No. 289 in Works photographic livery with LNWR on tanks. These engines are of similar dimensions to the 0-8-0 mineral engines, with" Precursor" class boilers. They have 20½in. dia. cylinders, with a stroke of 26-in., 4-ft. 3-in. driving wheels and 3-ft. 9-in. dia. trailing wheels ; the new style of 12-in. letters for the initials on the side tanks, als:o the two sand boxes for the two front pairs of coupled wheels. In addition - to the numbers already noted a further - two of these engines have just been completed at Crewe, Nos. 1663 and 2013. To avoid any confusion in the numbers.of this class it may be as well to say that 1548 was previously 1790 for a short time, so that there is now no No. 1790 of of this class.
The first five of a new series of 0-8-0 mineral engines (superheater) are now complete, and bear Nos. 1329, 1384, 1426, 1633 and 1697. The latest 4-ft. 6-in. 2-4-2 tanks to be adapted for motor service are Nos. 5, 286, 298,430,521 and 2523. It is reported that some further passenger engines of the" George the Fifth" (4-4-0 superheater) type have been put on order. No. 1548, a special 0-6-0 saddle tank, has been transferred to the company's carriage works at Wolverton and has been allotted NO.7 in that list. This engine has an interesting history. Built at Crewe in 1878, it was numbered 2329. In 1896 it was replaced by an 18-in. goods and was renumbered 1946. In 1901 it was again renumbered- 3317, and in 1909 took the number of the three-cylinder compound" John Penn" (of the" John Hick" class), which had been scrapped. This number it bore, until last Decembe}:,. when it was transferred, as stated.

BE1fore - iinally quitting the L. & N.W. list the engine would pass again through the duplicate list, having:- t}lus been known by no fewer than five different numbers. The last of the Metropolitan 4-4-2 ,tanks, No. 3036; has been scrapped, also No. 2001 ~'Henry Crosfield," a 6.ft. 6-in. 2-4-0 engine

Great Western Ry.  49-50.
The latest series or four-coupled bogie express engines built at Swindon were working the heavy North and West expresses over the difficult line between Shrewsbury and Bristol, four being stationed at each depot. The numbers and names are: 3821 County of Bedford; 3822 County of Brecon; 3823 County of Carnarvon; 3824 County of Cornwall ;3825 County of Denbigh; 3826 County of Flint; 3827 County of Gloucester; 3828 County of Hereford; 3829 County of Merioneth; 3830 County of Oxfard. These engines are almost identical with their predecessors of the County class, except that they are fitted with Swindon superheaters, new top feed apparatus, and are similar to the Saint class in respect to the footplate at the smokebox end as well as the cab end. They had screw reversing gear and were supplied with the larger type of tender, holding 3500 gallons af water. No. 76 Wye has been rebuilt with a Belpaire firebox and new boiler similar to No. 74 Stour No. 3018 Racer, 7-ft. 6-in. single, has been renamed Glenside. -

Great Western Ry. petrol-electric rail motor. 50. illus.
The GWR were running an experimental petrol-electric passenger coach on the Windsor branch. The power was supplied by a 4a-h.p. Maudslay petrol engine coupled to. a dynamo from which the current is supplied to two electric motors on the axle. Accommodation is provided for 46 passengers, the dead weight per passenger being about half that of the G.W.R. steam rail motors of the same carrying capacity. Considerably less space was required for storing the fuel, although sufficient petrol iwa carried tor a run of nearly 250 miles. Only one man was required to drive the car, and a maximum speed approaching 35 miles per hour was attained. The car had been designed by the British Thomson Houston Co., who supplied all the electrical equipment.

Belgian State Rys. 50.
Further Pacific locomotives of type 10, numbered. 4501 to 4518, and Decapod locomotives of type 36. numbered 4401 to 4442, had been put in hand, and many were already completed and in service.

French Rys. 50-1.
The locomotive illustrated on p. 18 of our January issue is one built for the Paris Lyons & Mediterranean Ry. (series 2611 to 2620) by the Societe Franco-BeIge in 1905, and not an Eastern Ry. locomotive. There are 160 of these engines running on the PLM, Nos. 2601. to 2760, built from 1905 to 1909. at which Nos. 2691 to 2700, built by Henschel & Son in 1908. have Schmidt superheaters. The Eastern Ry. Co. have ordered 20 Consolidation locomotives from the Sachsische Locomotive Works of Chemnitz in addition. to the 20 mentioned, which were building at their Epernay works. New ten-wheel four-cylinder compound superheaters of the 4-6-0 class, Nos 3191 to 3210, were also in service: The Northern Ry. were fitting all the 2600 class of 4-4-2 express engines with Schmidt superheaters and piston valves as they go into the works for repairs.

Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Light Ry. 51
On Wednesday, February 22nd, the Criggion branch was reopened for goods and mineral traffic. This six.-mile branch runs from KinnerIey Junction, on the main line from Shrewsbury to Llanymynech, in a westerly direction to Criggion, at the foot of the Breidden Hills in Montgomeryshire. It formed part of the Potteries, Shrewsbury and North Wales Ry., and had been derelict for over thirty years. The old wooden bridge over the river Severn at Melver1ey had long ago been swept away by floods,- and the rebuilding by a. new girder bridge proved the biggest undertaking in the reconstruction of the line. Some large stone quarries in the Breidden Hills were now to be reopened, and a new granite-crushing plant had been erected af Criggion. A "tarmac" plant was also to be installed. The Potteries railway stations at Melverley, Crewe Green and Criggion were buried under brushwood and bushes, and new "haltes" will be built for a rail motor service from Kinnerley.

Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 51.
Two new four-coupled bogie express engines were fitted. with Phoenix superheaters Nos: 42 Munster (illustrated in the Locomotive Magazme for October last) and 12 Ulster. The other three engines of this class: Nos. 44, Leinster, 50 Donard and 129 Connaught were not superheated. All built by Beyer, Peacock & Co.Ltd.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 51.
New Pacific tank No.326 was to be named Grosvenor. Nos. 661, 673 and 680 were latest rebuilds of Stroudley's Terrier tanks.

Great Central Ry. 51.
No. 110 4-4-0 express engine had been named George V. a sister engine No. 104 being named Queen Alexandra. Both were stationed at Woodford. The new superheater .mineral engines of the 2-8-0 class were Nos. 26, 69, and 331 to 335. Baldwin Moguls Nos. 949, 954 and 962 had been scrapped.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 51.
One engine had been fitted with the Schmidt superheater for test purposes.

London, Tilbury & Southend Ry. 51.
Recent changes of locomotive names since those noted on p. 214 of previous volume:  No. 18 Shoeburyness renamed Burdett Road, No. 58 Hornsey Road changed to Hornsey, and No. 60 Highgate Road to Highgate. No.9, formerly Purfleet, to Black Horse Road, No. 13 Benfleet to Commercial Road, and No. 22 East Horndon to Tilbury Docks. The engine concerned in the mishap at Fenchurch Street Terminus on 3 January was No. 66 Earl's Court.

Great Northern Ry. 51.
Nos. 1581 to 1586 of the new series of 0-6-2 suburban tanks were working in the London district. No. 190, the first engine of this type, had been working in the Bradford district for some time. The extension of the Cuffley branch to Stevenage was to be put in hand very shortly.

The Coal Strike. 51.
All the large British railways, with the exception of the Great Eastern, Furness,and London, Tilbury & Southend, reduced their services to a minimum during the Coal Strike, commencing on 2 March . The Great Northern, Ry. knocked off nearly 600 trains per day. On account of their general adaptability for goods and slow passenger trains, several six-coupled tender engines were seen in King's Cross, while the superheater eight-coupled mineral engines were working 80 wagon goods trains. With commendable enterprise the Midland Railway officials proceeded to fit a number of their locomotives with the Holden liquid fuel apparatus, by which coal or oil firing can be used at will without alteration to the fireboxes. The Midland Great Western Ry. of Ireland were also fitting the Holden burner on locomotives. Much confusion reigned on some of the suburban lines of the London railways as a result of the curtailed services. Quite a number of stations on the S.E. & C. Ry. were closed entirely, and the Moorgate service suspended.

Obituary. 51.
Death of Mr. Thos. Purvis Reay, chairman of Kitson & Co., Ltd., Leeds, occurred suddenly on the 22 February 1912 at his residence, Headingly, near Leeds. Mr. Reay was born in 1844, and commenced as a pupil at the Airedale Foundry in 1859. After serving in the drawing office he became works manager in 1876, and in 1885 a partner in the firm. When the business was converted into a limited liability company in 1900, Mr. Reay was made managing director, and on the death of Lord Airedale of Gledhow, he succeeded him as chairman of the Company.

Tank locomotive, Snailbeach District Rys. Co. 52. illus.
W.G. Bagnall Ltd. 2ft 4in gauge outside-cylinder (12 in x 18in) 0-6-0T: coupled wheels 2ft 9¼in, 429.4ft2 total heating surface; 6.52 grate area; woring pressue 150 psi. Bagnall & Price valve gear. Named Dennis after the General Manager. Line was 3 miles long and had severe gradients: 1 in 38 with one stretch of 1 in 13, with severe curvature. Intended to serve lead mines.

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 52.
Running numbers for twenty recent superheated 2-4-2Ts: 18, 70, 111, 112, 151, 162, 188, 221, 223, 224, 227, 230, 233, 275, 276, 285, 480, 519, 618, and 637. (Horwich WN 1152-51. Following four-coupled express engines fitted with superheaters: 1098, 1104, 1105, 1110 and 1112.

North Eastern Ry. 52.
Norman Gibb, of the Federated Malay States Railways appointed assistant locomotive superintendent of the Northern Division of the NER in succession to E. Thompson, recently appointed Carriage & Wagon Department, GNR, Doncaster. Gibb was nephew of Sir George Gibb, former General Manager.

[Junior Institutionn of Engineers]. 52.
Its origins and aims booklet. Institution originated in works of Maudsley & Field in 1884. Rooms at 39 Victoria Street open on Friday evenings for reading periodicals and discussing engineering subjects.

LGER: 53. Fig. 216

Schulz, G.C. Three-cylinder compound loeomotives of the N.E., Midland and G.C, Rys. 53-5. diagr.
Deeley type of regulator; non-return valve: differences in NER design.

Pfeiffer, H. Some old German locomotives. 55-6. 5 illus., 2 diagrs.
Began on p. 41. No. 142 (Fig. 8) built Henschel & Son of Cassel for Hanau Bebra Ry,: 2-4-0 found to be unsteady at high speed. Taken over by Prussian State Rys. No. 162 (Fig. 9) represented one of four 2-4-0s also built Henschel, but with high firebox with large dome over it. Cylinders lagged with brass which Prussian State Rys attempted to paint red, but paint failed to ahere. Fig. 10 shows Doctor Parcus, a 2-4-0 built at Esslingen in 1872 for the Hessische Ludwigsbahn, which also acquired a Borsig locomotive in 1873, named Dalberg. It had a very high firebox and large cab. Fig. 12 shows No. 353 as rebuilt with a new boiler by Von Borries: originally it had been fitted with a high firebox like Dahlberg. Fig. 13 shows No. 286 built by Hannoversche Maschinenfabrik in 1874 for the Hannover Railway: small wheel 2-4-0 for hilly routes. Fig. 14 shows No. 186 Bismark also built by Hannoversche Maschinenfabrik in 1873 and sent to the Vienna Exhibition: it was the firm's thousandth locomotive

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 56.
Prof. A.C. Elliott took/to take Chair at Annual Dinner

The Bourdon pressure gauge. 57-8. 6 diagrs.
Testing

Dublin & South Eastern Ry. 58.
Slew track inland by about 40ft between Bray Head and Greystones due to damage by south easterly gales.

MacLean, J.S. Some early locomotive myths, North Eastern Ry. 59-60.

Weight distribution in locomotives. 60-2, 2 diagrs., 2 tables.
Tank engines were more difficult to balance as their centre of gravity varied with the amount of fuel and water being carried. Calculations for establishing the centre pof gravity for a Pacific: 4-6-2.

Saunderson's light petrol locomotive. 62. illus.
Saunderson & Gifkins, Elstow Works in Bedford: 2ft gauge with petrol/paraffin engine and 3-speed gearbox. Large water tank provided cooling water and acted as ballast.

The Easingwold Ry. 63-4. 3 illus.
Connected Easingwold with Alne: a distance of 2 miles 37 chains. Obtained Act in 1887 and opened on 27 July 1891. It employed light flat-bottom rail and had two level crossings. In 1912 the main motive power was provided by No. 2: Hudswll Clarke 0-6-0ST WN 608/1903. It had 13 x 20in inside cylinders; 3ft 3½in coupled wheels and 150 psi boiler pressure. The original locomotive had been named Easingwold and was a Manning Wardle product with 12in x 18in cylinders. NER 0-6-0 No. 1263 (a Spencer Gilkes 0-6-0) was hired when the Company's locomotive required maintenance.

Protecting steel boiler plates of locomotives. 64.
Prevention of pitting and corrosion (see Volume 13 p. 73) by coating with Portland cement.

The "Robinson" Superheater. 65-6. illus., diagr.
Locomotive Superheater Co. Ltd.: notes advantages claimed, especially for its simplicity.

Tunnel inspection car—Prussian State Railways. 66. illus.
Propelled by electric motors and illuminated by electric lighting powered by batteries.

Correspondence. 67

F.W. Webster
With reference to the enquiry of Decembet 15th last on the subject of tempering wagon bearing and buffing spring plates. If Mr. Sutcliffe cares to tell me the kind of steel he is using or proposes to use for the purpose I will be pleased to give him the desired information.

Steam pressure gauges. Frank S. Hennell
The indicator described near the top of the first column of p. 39 (beginning page 38) in your issue of the 15th inst., as showing the pressure by the rise of a piston against the resistance of a spring, and a pointer indicating the pressure of the steam against a marked plate fixed to the casing of the fitting, was designed by John V. Gooch about the year 1843 or 1844, when he was locomotive superintendent of the London & South Western Ry. None of Daniel Gooch's engines on the Great Western Ry. had any pressure gauge in addition to the Salter spring balance at the end of the safety valve lever, up to the time when writer left Swindon Works in August, 1864. Of course I do not remember the introductzon of this pressure gauge, but I well remember seeing it on John V. Gooch's engines on the L. & S. W. Ry. about the year 1859. It is also described in Bourne's Catechism of the Steam Engine, in the description of the L. & S. W. Ry. engine Snake. See also letter from E.A. Forward on page 109.,

Reviews. 67

Rating Locomotives. H.L. Cole, district locomotive superintendent I. S. R., and assistant secretary Railway Board. London: W. Thacker & Co,
The object of this little book was to provide as concisely as possible an account of the general principles governing engiue loads and train speeds, and also place on record investigations regarding the actual power developed by locomotives, as well as the resistance to tractive effort of various types of rolling stock. As an allied subject meriting attention by locomotive engineers the question of brake power is also considered. Diagrams and charts for dealing graphically with problems connected with engine rating, and the computation of train loads, make the subject easy to follow, and also condense the somewhat complicated problems.

Everyday Uses of Portland Cement. The Associated Portland Cement Manufacturers, Ltd., London.
Book published by the cement manufacturers as a work of reference for members of the technical professions: a complete summary or the varied uses to which this material is employed. Among the profusion of illustrations in the 350 pages were examples of concrete railway sleepers, telegraph posts, fences, signal posts, railway stations, coaling stations, etc. The maguitude of applications of reinforced concrete was apparent from the developments illustrated.

British Railway Companies' Docks, Harbours and Steamers. London: The Boswell Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd.
Reprint of series of articles which appeared in Railway News, with additions to bring it up to date. Practically complete record of the facilities for carrying on foreign trade, and meeting the demands for cross-channel communication which have been provided by railway enterprise in this country. Large number of illustrations and maps and plans of the various ports, as well as the tables of statistics which are included. The railways are treated in alphabetical order, the Scottish railway ports and harbours being dealt with separately at the end of the volume. Recent developments include Immingham, Fishguard and Heysham, and the latest docks at Newport, Cardiff,. Southampton, Methil, and Barrow.

The World's First Public Railway. 67.
Title of large plate published by E.D. Walker & Wilson, of Darlington. Reduced facsimile, from which it will be seen that several interesting pictures relating to the opening of the Stockton & Darlington Ry. had been collected together as a souvenir for framing. The original was printed on plate paper and measured 16in. by 18in.

Presentation to Mr. Ivatt. 68.
Marking Ivatt's retirement a presentation of a brass standing lamp was made on 12 February 1912 at Stanley Hall, Junction Road. Those present included H.N. Gresley, F. Wintour (Works Manager), F.J. Webster (locomotive engineer's chief assistant), H. Culpin (locomotive accountant), T. Smith (divisional superintendent), E.R. Notter, H. Sinclair, C.H. Laverick (district locomotive superintendents at King's Cross, Peterborough and Colwick) and W.E. Dalby. J. Wray, engine driver at King's Cross was in the Chair and made the presentation on behalf of the enginemen.

The "Rexos" automatic spanner. 68. illus..

No. 236 (15 April 1912)

Old and new tank engines: North Staffordshire Railway: our coloured plate. 69 + plate on facing page.
Comparison in F. Moore oil painting of "little engine No.8" built in 1878 (2-4-0T) that was very useful for ordinary local traffic with J.H. Adams 4-4-2T, the new No. 8 designed to cope with heavier traffic. The latest class was a series of four large bogie engines (4-4-2T) Nos. 8, 45, 46 and 55, which replaced older express tender engines which had not been capable of dealing with the increasing weight of trains on the main line North Wales and Manchester-Stafford services, especiIly on the continuous rise to Macclesfield. The boiler of this class had a Belpaire firebox, similar to that used on the new 4-4-0 press engines, except that. Schmidt superheaters were fitted. The cylinders were fitted with piston valves worked by Stephenson link motion. The steam passages had no bends; giving a straight path for the superheated steam. Lubrication was by an oil pump driven off the right and crosshead. Trials are being made between the superheater tank engines and the non-superheater bogie express engines.

Old No.8

New No 8

coupled wheeels

4ft 6in

6ft 0in

cylinders

16½ x 24

20 x 26

total heating surface

807

1281

grate area

15.5

21

boiler pressure

150

160

London & South Western Ry. 69-70. illus.
4-4-0 No. 463 illustrated: the first of a new series of four-coupled bogie passenger express engines designed by D. Drummond, chief mechanical engineer, and built at the new Eastleigh Works. These engines will be numbered 463 to 472. They had cylinders 19½in. x 26in. stroke; coupled wheels 6-ft. 7-in. diameter. The heating surface included 66 water tubes 2¾in diameter in the firebox making a total of 1724ft2; the grate area was 27ft2 and the boiler pressure 200 psi. The engines were fitted with Drummond smoke-box superheater and feed water heating apparatus. The superheater consisted of two cast steel boxes fitted with 2½in. by 8in. tubes, which were a prolongation of the boiler tubes. The entering steam is deflected by baffles to the bottom of the boxes, and rose to the steam-pipe at the top as dry steam.
The trains over the Didcot, Newbury and Southampton Ry. were being worked by L. & S.W. Ry. locomotives. This arrangement was made with the view of balancing the engine power supplied by the two companies over the lines of their respective neighbours.
The latest 4-6-0 express engines were numbered 458-462. Old No. 459, 0-6-0 goods had been re-numbered 316.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 70. illus.
No. 677 illustrated: one of Stroudley's small six-wheel coupled tank engines (0-6-0T) as rebuilt by L. Billinton, the locomotive superintendent. Known as Terriers from their small size and smart appearance, the first of these engines came out in October, 1872, and the last in September, 1880, their total number being 50. Originally the cylinders were 13in. diameter with a stroke of 20in., but they had since been fitted with 14in. cylinders. Stroudley arranged for the working pressure of the boiler to be 140 psi, but this was raised to 150 psi, and the new boiler works to this figure. As rebuilt, the smokebox is slightly longer, it is circular, and supported on a saddle. The dome was located a little farther forward on the boiler, which was composed of a single plate. The sandboxes are now placed below the tootplate with steam sanding gear. The only other alteration was the additional railing around the coal bunker. They had coupled wheels 4ft. diameter and a 12ft. wheelbase. Several of these useful engines had been sold to other railways and contractors, as noted in our columns, while the L. B. & S. C. R. now used them. exclusively for rail motor services, excepting two which were used at Brighton and Battersea by the locomotive department for shunting.

London & North Western Ry.70-1.
A further five 0-8-0.mineral engines with 20½in cylinders and superheaters completed at Crewe: Nos. 1778, 1791, 2001, 2015 and 2034. They complete, with those given last month a series of ten, and will be followed by another series ot the same type, which also will be equipped with Schmidt superheaters. Work would shortly be commenced on the four-cylinder 4-6-0 passenger engines, ten of which were on order, as also on a new series of 4-6-2 passenger tanks (superheater). In addition to those already mentioned, Nos. 303 Himalaya and 643 Sirocco (4-4-0s), had been fitted with Wakefield mechanical lubricators. No. 2002 Madge, a 6ft. 6in. 2-4-0 passenger engine, had been fitted to burn oil fuel. Several of the four-wheel shunting tank engines for the Liverpool Dock lines had been fitted with the Holden oil burning apparatus for many years. A further two 4ft. 6in. 2-4-2 tanks had been adapted for motor service: Nos. 729 a and 2505. It is intended, "we understand", to paint the initials "L.N.W.R." on the tenders in the same style as those on the new passenger and shunting tanks. No. 2284. a 4ft. 6in., 2-4-2 tank, and No. 3279, a rebuilt DX goods, had been broken up. No. 2607, one of the 5ft. 4-6-0 express goods. had been fitted with a Phoenix superheater and Whitaker six-feed mechanical lubricator.

Great Western Ry. 71. illus.
The useful shunting tank engine illustrated by No. 2012 was one of a numerous class on the Great Western Ry. designed by Armstrong: Originally they were fitted with saddle tanks, but as they went into the shops for repairs they were fitted with wing or pannier tanks of the same capacity. These engines were constructed with 4-ft 1½in. dia. driving wheels, and cylinders 16in. diameter with 24in. stroke; the total heating surface was 980.75ft2., the grate area 11.16ft2 sq. ft.; the working pressure 150psi. The water capacity of the tanks was 800 gallons. One of these rebuilt engines, No. 1850, was stationed at Old Oak sheds, and could often be seen shunting at Paddington.

Paris-Orleans Ry. 71-2. illus.
Swiss Locomotive Works of Winterthur had recently delivered a number of powerful Mikado type tank 2-8-2T locomotives to the Paris-Orleans Ry.: illustration of No. 5301. The leading particulars: diameter of cylinders 600m. stroke.650m. diameter of driving wheels 1400 m. boiler pressure 12 atmospheres (180 psi).

Pacific express locomotives for the French State Rys, (Western System). 72. illus., diagr.
Sixty large four-cylinder compounds were being delivered by several builders. Designed by Maison, chief mechanical engineer. Wide Belpaire firebox. 296.38m2 total heating surface; 4.2m2 grate area; high pressure cylinders 380cm x 640cm; low pressure 600cm x 640cm; boiler pressure 16kg/cm2. Coupled wheels 1.85m.

Great Eastern Ry. 72.
Nos. 1500-2 then in service. No. 1500 was used on a trial run from Liverpool Street to Parkeston Quay on Sunday 24 March 1912 when the run was accomplished in 75 minutes for 68¾ miles. New Westinghouse-fitted goods engines to No. 567 then in service. Six-coupled tank engines under construction would have high side window cabs and brass-capped chimneys.

East Indian Railway locomotives of 1866. 73. illus.
No. 400: Avonside 2-4-0 built in 1866 photographed in about 1874. At that time there was a shortage of drivers and LNWR men, mainly from the Leeds district were sent out on secondment. The locomotive was WN 473. It had 16in x 22in cylinders; 5ft 7in coupled wheels and a long awning to protect the British footplate crew.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 73-5.
Figs. 217 and 218

Pfeiffer, H. Some old German locomotives. 75-6. 3 illus.
Fig. 15 shows the standard Prussian State Railways express 2-4-0 during the period 1877 to 1892. No. 403 was built at the Grafenstaden works in 1889. The standard engine had 5ft 8in wheels: an experiment with 7ft coupled wheels was a failure. Figure 16 shows No. 323 a standard von Borries two cylinder compound built by Henschel & Son of Cassel in 1889. They had Walschaerts valve gear and piston valves. Fig. 17 shows 2-4-2 Werner built by Krauss & Co. of Munich for the Palatinate and Hesse Ludwig Railways which had a Krauss-Helmholtz bogie. The locomotive had a dome-shaped reservoir for the Westinghouse brake on top of the boiler, but this system was abandoned after a man was killed at Hanover station when one of the reservoirs exploded due to excessive heat from the boiler. Concluded p. 100.

Schulz, G.C. Three-cylinder compound loeomotives of the N.E., Midland and G.C, Rys. 76-7. diagr.
Reducing valves as used on Great Central and North Eastern Railway compounds

Railway notes from Java. 78-80. 7 illus., map.
Statistics of mileage and ownership. 3ft 6in gauge. Java Express connected Batavia and Sourabaya. Destination boards. signalling system. Liveries of locomotives and rolling stock. Wood fuel except in east where oil fuel buned on Holden system. Swiss Locomotice Co. Pacific with 5ft diameter coupled wheels, 17¾ x 235/8in cylinders; 25ft2 grate area and superheater.

Locomotive wheels. 80-3. 6 diagrs.
Tyres, balaance weights, construction

MacLean, J.S. Some early locomorive myths, North Eastern Ry. 83-4.
pdf

The "Aga" flash light for railway signals. 85-6. 3 illus.
Halvar A. Berggren of Stockhom demonstration of flashing light signals using acetylene gas dissolved in acetone as installed on several railways in Sweden including Swedish State Railways.

Testing vacuum barkes on carriages and wagons. 86-7. 2 diagrs.
Laycock equipment.

Great Central Ry. 87.
On 28 March 1912 a petrol electric car ran a trial trip fram Marylebone to South Harrow and back. A compartment at one end contained a six~cylinder petrol engine driving a dynamo to supply current to the axle motors. A small petrol-drivn set worked the pump for the vacuum brake and provided lighting. Accomodation was pravided for 50 passengers. A speed of 50 mile/h was attained.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 87
A.D. Jones of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry.had been appointed to the new office of outdoor locomotive superintendent on the SECR, Jones was a pupil of Aspinall at Horwich, and became outdaor assistant to the carriage and wagon superintendent, and then outdoor locomotive assistant to the chief mechanical engineer of the L. & Y. Ry.

Gt. Northern Ry. of Ireland. 87.
George Tertius Glover, manager of the N.E.R. locomotive shops, Gateshead, had been appainted locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent of the G.N. Ry. ([reland), rendered vacant by the resignation of Charles. Clifford, of Dundalk. Glover was manager of the N.E.R. wagon works at Shildon until 1909.

Laundry cars. 88-9. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el and plan)
Mentions the laundry car provided for the Imperial Royal Train in India which was 62 feet long and equipped with a stdam laundry, but illustrates a laundry car built by Hannover Wagon Works for the Russian Government Railways.

The Coal Strike. 89.
Since the end of March the coal strike had been gradually coming to an end. Before the collieries re-started, however, practically all the British railways, except the Great Eastern, had to curtail and alter their passenger train services. On the L. & N. W. all dining cars, except on the 2 o'clock trains between London, Glasgow and Edinburgh, were withdrawn. The Great Central closed the old Lancashire, Derbyshire line as well as the Wrexham and Brymbo line, and withdrew nearly all Sunday trains. The North London line was entirely closed on Sundays, and the week-day service had to be very much curtailed. At Paddington the shunting engines were burning wood sleepers as fuel. On some of the GWR South and North Wales branches the services were withdrawn, and also on the new Limpley Stoke line. The Great Northern proceeded to fit some of their engines with Holden's oil burners. Many of the principal main line trains were withdrawn, including the 2.20 p.m. Scotch express ex Kings Cross; the Halifax and Holmfield line was closed, and the branch services, particularly on the Cambridge line, very much restricted. The South Eastern closed 14 London stations, including Ludgate Hill; Snow Hill, &c., and also Dover Town; Cannon Street Terminus was closed on Sundays. The Caledonian Ry. had gone in for oil fuel on the Holden system for their express engines. All Caledonian trains were withdrawn from the Barrhead and Kilmarnock Joint Line. The North British withdrew all the Edinburgh suburban services and the closed the Lauder, Hamilton, Methil, Gretna and other branches. branches. Brighton, Longhedge and Swindon Works had to close, and other locomotive centres were put on half time. Thanks to the foresight of the able chairman of the G.E.R.-Lord Claud Hamilton -and to the management of Mr. Hyde and his assistants, none of the G.E. passenger trains were withdrawn; the whole of the staff were kept employed on full time, and a highly remunerative holiday traffic was secured at Easter. Although only two engines were fired with liquid fuel, arrangements were made to convert 75 engines from coal to oil had the need arisen. The fittings had been kept in stock since the strike of 1893.
All excursion arrangements for Easter were cancelled, except on the Metropolitan, L. T. & S. and G. E. Rys., and a few trains on the S. E. &C. and L. B. & S. C. Rys. During the course of the Coal Strike some experiments had been made on the G.W.R. with different kinds of Patent Fuel. A tank engine 0-6-0 No. 1706, has been burning oil fuel on a layer of coke. On the 29 February 1912 a trial run was made with a single driver engine burning solid oil fuel, between Swindon and Oxford, via Didcot. Bricquets had also been used, each engine being supplied with a proportion of coal and bricquets.

North British Ry. 90.
Twenty passenger tank engines ordered from the North Brirish Locomotive Co.

Great Northern Ry. 90.
Two 990 class Atlantics Nos. 253 and 259 and No. 401 (eight-coupled mineral engine) fitted with Holden oil firing equipment.

Midland Ry. 90.
No. 779 (4-4-0) fitted to burn oil fuel.

Easingwold Ry. 90.
No. 1 Easingwold (see XXX) was Hudswell Clarke WN 334/1891 with 12 x 18in cylinders was sold to a firm of contractors working on new Sculcoates Station, near Hull on NER.

Reviews. 90

The Modern Locomotive. C. Edgar Allen. Cambridge University Press.
Design and working of modern locomotive, written for the "general reader".. "The author is master of his subject and deals with it comprehensively."

Sketches of engine and machine details. Wallace Bentley. Halifax: Bentley Publishing.
Aimed at engineers and draughtsman: includes illustrations of several locomotive details.

No. 237 (15 May 1912)

Our supplement. Sectional elevation of London & South Western Ry. 4-6-0 express engine. 91 + folding plate (diagr.)
The general drawing given with this issue shows the latest development of the 443 c1ass of 4-6-0 express locomotives designed by D. Drummond, chief mechanical engineer of the L, & S.W. Ry., and built at the new Eastleigh Works. These engines had 6ft. 7in. coupled wheels, and differed from the earlier engines of this type in having all four cylinders placed in line between the bogie wheels. The boiler was 13ft. 9in. long and 4ft. 9½in. dia. inside; total heating surface 1976ft2; working pressure, 200-lb. per sq. inch; grate area 31.5ft2. The four cylinders were 15in. x 26-in. with piston valves 9in. dia., the inside valves being driven by a rocking shaft from the outside motion. The first four engines of this series, Nos. 443 to 446, were not fitted with superheaters, but Nos. 447, 458, 460 to 463, had the steam dryer shown on our drawing. This superheater consists of two chambers containing a number of 2in diameter tubes. which are in line with the flue tubes of the boiler, so that the hot gases of combustion are drawn through both sets of tubes. The steam enters these chambers at the top through a tee pipe, and is directed by three baffle plates (extending their full width and partially in length also) to the bottom, and thence upwards to the cylinder steam pipe connection at the top. The range of superheat is not over a temperature of 400°, which was considered sufficient for high speed engines, and therefore no special arrangement of dampers or forced lubrication was required. This arrangement also fits, without any alteration in the design of the boiler, and is easily removed when boiler repairs .are required. These engines work the Bournemouth and Weymouth expresses, and also the Plymouth trains as far as Salisbury. Nos. 443 to 447, 458 :md 460 are stationed at Nine Elms. Photographic illustration pp. 111-112

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 91-2. illus.
Courtesy of L. Billinton, locomotive superintendent, illustration of No. 326 Bessborough (named after the Chairman, Lord Bessborough): the latest 4-6-2 express passenger tank engine, built at Brighton Works. This engine differed from No. 325 Abergavenny (illustrated in our issue for January, 1911 17, page 1), in being fitted with the Walschaerts valve gear. Following leading dimensions: cylinders 21in. diameter by 26in. stroke, coupled wheels 6ft. 7½in. diameter. It was fitted with Schmidt superheater. The total heating surface is 1865ft2., of which the superheater gave 342ft2. The total weight in working order, with 2,300 gallons of water and 3 tons of coal, wass 86 tons, of which 56 tons were on the coupled wheels. No. 28, 4-4-2 tank, left the paint shop with only the initials L.B.S.C. on the side tanks. New 4-4-2 tanks (I/3 class), Nos. 82-9 would all have superheaters.

County Donegal Joint Committee. 92. illus.
Three superheater 2-6-4 tank locomotives had recently been built for the 3-ft. gauge Donegal Rys. by Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., Ltd. The numbers and names were No. 2A Strabane, No. 3A Stranorlar, and No.21 Ballyshannon.(last illustrated) Five engines of the same 2-6-4 classification for this line were described in Locomotive Mag., 1909, 15, 9, The later engines had the following dimensions: outside cylinders, 15½in x 21in. actuated by Walschaerts valve gearing; diameter of coupled wheels, 4ft. Heating surface: superheater 106ft2., total 724ft2. grate area 11.5ft2. Boiler pressure, 160 psi The following specialities form part of the equipment of these smart and powerful locomotives: Schmidt superheaters with piston valves 7in. diameter of the inside admission pattern working above the cylinders, Wakefield's sixfeed mechanical lubricators; the patent force feed axlebox lubricator, steam ash ejector under smokebox, patent blast by-pass, which are the inventions of Mr. R. M. Livesey, ,the loco. supt. The rods are fitted with Mr. Livesey's needle . lubricators, Other specialities are the Boyer speed. recorder, acetylene headlight, and the Caledonian firedoor. The main engine frames were outside the coupled wheels. Steam sand gear is. arranged at the front of the leading and rear of the trailing driving wheels. Hand and vacuum brakes fitted.

Midland Ry. 92-3.
Some 4-4-0 express engines with piston valves had been rebuilt with new frames and Belpaire boilers, fitted with Schmidt superheaters. The round topped boilers taken out were being used on goods engines. The bogie tenders fitted to the Belpaire passenger engines were being replaced with six wheelers with high side sheets. Engines Nos. 142-3-4 (0-4-4) tanks lent to the M. & G.N. Ry. earlier had been returned for some time. They had been repainted with the large transfer numerals 1232-3-4 on the tank sides. Four Baldwin Moguls had been scrapped: 2202, 2208, 2228 and 2211. Engine 2200 had the boiler of 2211, and was renumbered 2211. No. 1198 (see Locomotive Mag. April, 1909, p. 79) had been scrapped. No. 1605, an outside cylinder 0-6-0 tank, which formerly bore the number 1122A had also been scrapped: it had come from a South Wales line taken over by the Midland.

Great Eastern Rly. 93.
From 1 May 1912 the Continental express leaving Liverpool Street at 20.30 was accelerated by 5 minutes. The train was due at Parkeston at 21.52 allowing 82 mins. for the 69 miles with a very heavy train. The schedule only allowed 33 mins. for the 31½ miles, Shenfield to Co1chester. There was no alteration in the running of the up morning train. The four engines stationed at Parkeston for this service were Nos. 1500-1-2 and 3, the new 4-6-0 superheaters. No. 333, 0-6-0, tank is out of the shops, rebuilt also a shunting engine with lever reversing, cast iron wheels and steam brake only.

North British Ry. 93. illus.
4-4-2: four-coupled. ten wheeled tank engine (No. 1 illustrated) was the first of a series of thirty of a new type designed by W.P. Reid, locomotive superintendent of the NBR built by the Yorkshire Engine Co., Ltd. of Sheffield. The coupled wheel diameter was 5ft. 9in., the cylinders were 18in. x 26in. The boiler was NBR standard type, containing 1309ft2. heating surface, grate area 16.6ft2. The tanks had a water capacity of 1990 gallons, and the bunker 4½ tons of coal. These fine looking engines were to be used for working short distance express trains, this accounting for the liberal water and coal capacity. The engines are fitted with both the Westinghouse and vacuum automatic brakes.

Great Western Ry. 93.
Several mineral tank engines of the 2-8-0 class had just been completed: Nos. 4202 to 4212. The first of this type, No. 4201, was illustrated in Locomotive Mag., February 1911 page 20: twenty were on order. No. 172, The Abbot and 183 Redgauntlet had been altered from Atlantics to 4-6-0 express engines.

London & North-Western Ry. 93-4
Eight of new series of 0-8-0 mineral engines with superheaters had been completed at Crewe, bearing Nos. 1568, 1655, 1696, 1698, 1783, 1790, 2018, and 2104. Another ten were laid down, to be followed by twenty 4-6-2 superheater tanks. No. ??7 Snake (4-4-0) had been provided with new coupled wheels having crescent balance weights and large bosses, and No.7 Titan (4-4-0) had been fitted with the Wakefield mechanical lubricator. A further two 4ft. 6in. 2-4-2 tanks have been adapted for motor service, Nos. 760 and 820. The last of the DX class in the capital list had been renumbered, it was proposed to next deal with the remaining Webb 4ft. 3in. six-coupled tender engines. One of the latter No.2 104, had already been so treated. No. 3383 (late 1044), a special DX. goods, had been broken up. No. 643 Sirocco (4-4-0) had been fitted with a new spark arrester, operated by similar levers and rods to the superheater damper gear, but this engine was not fitted with a superheater. See also p. 112..

French State Ry, 94
Some interesting particulars regarding the Pacific type express engines, illustrated in our last issue, are to hand . from one of our numerous French readers. No. 231-011 was exhibited at Brussels in 1910 (Cie de Fives Lille, No. 3656). One of them was at the Bernay mishap when a fast train was derailed on a curve. At Rambouillet a Pacific turned over with its train. Consequently the engines were put on fast goods work until the weights were redistributed. The engines not suitable for express work had a red band around the chimney until altered. New method of classifying the State Ry. locomotives. Each engine had two numbers, the first being that of the series and the second that of the locomotive itself. The number of the series is formed on the following principle: Tender engines 3 cyphers. 1st cypher, number of leading axles; 2nd cypher, number of driving axles; 3rd cypher, number of trailing axles. Examples Series 231 represented a Pacific or 4-6-2. 230 ten-wheeler or 4-6-0. 120 2-4-0 engine. Tank engines-lst cypher, number of driving axles; 2nd cypher, number of other axles. Example-Series 32 represents either a 2-6-2 or 4-6-0 tank engine; series 30 is the well-known 0-6-0 tank engine. Tenders-The tenders are numbered with 5 -cyphers. The two first cyphers indicate the water capacity of the tank in cubic metres. The other, figures form the number of the tender itself. Example-Tender 18136: the number 18 indicates the capacity of the tank, and the number 136 is the number of the tender.

Great Northern Ry. 94.
The contract for widening the main line on the down side between Little Bytham and Stoke Tunnel, 8 iniles, had been placed with Robt. McAlpine & Sons, of Westminster.

Football Cup Tie Specials. 94.
There was a considerable falling in the number of special trains from the North due to the the coal strike for the Final Match on Saturday, 20 April between Barnsley and West Bromwich, the figures being: LNWR 29; Midland. 16; Great Western 15, Great Northern 12; Great Central 6 and Gi:eat Eastern, 1 (from Norwich).

The Railway Club. 94.
On 15 March 1912 the Railway Club moved into larger and more commodious premises on the lower ground floor at the same address as before, 92, Victoria Street, Westminster. The Club will now be open to members from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m. instead of only in the evening. The next meeting will take place on June 11th, when a.paper will be read by Mr. E. J. Miller on the" State Railways of Northern Italy." This will be illustrated with lantern slides.

London, Tilbury & Southend Ry. 94.
A number of large 4-6-4 express tank engines were in course of construction. No. 51, Tilbury Docks re-named Purfleet.

Hull & Barnsley Ry. 94.
The running numbers of the five 4-4-0 express engines with 6ft. 6in. drivers, built by Kitson & Co. in 1911 were Nos. 33, 35, 38, 41 and 42. These replaced five early 2-4-0 express engines. An illustration and description of No. 41 were given on page 27 of our last volume.

Midland & Great Northern Ry. 94.
The 4-4-0 outside cylinder passenger engines built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. were being equipped with larger tenders of the Midland Ry. pattern.

Isle of Man Railway. 94.
J. Sproat, Loco. Supt., died on March 10th 1912. The Directors have appointed Mr. Jas. Bradshaw to the post, as from April 17th. Mr. Bradshaw was formerly Locomotive Superintendent. of the East & West Junction Railway (SMJR). Previously to this he was on the LNWR at Crewe.

Shire Highlands Ry., Nyasaland. 94.
The Hunslet Engine Co., Ltd., of Leeds, had constructed a 4-8-0 tender locomotive for railway. The cylinders were 18in. by 21in. and the coupled wheels 3ft. 4½in. diameter.

[Obituary]. 94.
We are sorry to hear that Mr. Howard B. Case, managing director of the Vacuum Oil Co., Ltd., was one of the passengers on the unfortunate S.S. Titanic, and there is now no hope of his having been rescued.

Oil Fuel on British Railways. 95-6. 3 illus.
One consequence of the Coal Strike had been the development of oil as fuel on the British railways.It wass not a novelty, at any rate when burnt in a liquid .state under boilers to make steam, but in spite of its many advantages it has not, up to the present, taken the place of coal owing' to the difficulty of getting supplies of oil in sufficient quantities in this country. However, the large number of tank steamers at present'building should mean competition in the near future, with lower prices and larger supplies.
On the Caledonian Ry., profiting by the experience gained by Holden on the Great Eastern Ry., McIntosh fitted in March 1912 two engines with oil-burning injectors. The oil is stored in a cylindrical tank holding 520 gallons,placed on the tender, and flows by gravity to the two burners, spaced about 18in. apart, which atomise it by a supply of steam in the form of a fine spray in the'firebox. A series of steam jets from a ring on the burners act on the spray at an angle, so that it is broken up before striking the fire-brick wall, which is built up to protect the copper plates, as an addition to the customary firebrick arch~ Two holes for the ,burners are made through the water space of the firebox and lined with bushes 4-in, diameter inside. They are placed about 8-in. above the firebars on which is placed a thin layer of coal or wood fire to ignite the spray. Regulating ,valves control the supply of oil and ensure perfect combustion. Ifworked properly an oil burning engine should be absolutely smokeless. The engine can still be fired with coal if desired without in any way interfering with the liquid fuel apparatus, and this is one of the great advantages of the Holden system.
E. Cusack, locomotive superintendent ot the Midland Great Western Ry. of Ireland, sends us a photograph of his fine bogie express engine Faugh-a-Ballagh. No. 10 he has fitted with the Holden apparatus, and which is successfully working some of the heaviest trains to the West of Ireland. It has driving wheels 6-ft. 3-in. diameter and cylinders 18-in. by 26-in.
The Caledonian locomotives were the. first liquid fuel burners in Scotland, but in Ireland Mr. Malcolm equipped one of his compounds, No. 51 on the Northern Counties Ry., and Coey ,fitted one of the 305 c1ass, 4-4-0, on the Great Southern & Western some years back.
Mr. Hy. Fowler. chief mechanical engineer of  the Midland Ry., has been good enough to send us a photograph of No. 762, one of three engines fitted with oil fuel apparatus. The burner fitted to this engine is really an inverted "Best" burner, which is largely used in America. It is a simple casting which allows the oil to fall from an orifice 3-in. wide by 9/16in. deep over the top of a flat steam jet from a slot 3in. wide and 0.015in. deep, the steam picking up the oil and sending it into the firebox in the form of a spray; this underneath jet of steam acts on the spray of oil at an angle. Provision is made at the back of the burner for a bolt to give vertical adjustment, so that the flame impinges on to the best position under the fire-brick arch.
The tube plate is protected by a lining of fire brick to the underside of the arch. Coal tar or oil gas tar is used and is ca.rried in two tanks of 350 gallons capacity each, situated at the back of the tender. Each tank is fitted with an independent stop cock and the tanks are connected by an equilibrium pipe: From these tanks a pipe is brought down at the side of the coal space to a regulating valve (fixed conveniently for the fireman) from which the pipe continues to the injector, which is inserted through the bottom of the firehole door and carried by a bracket. Steam is supplied from a small valve on the back of the firebox. A small quantity of coal is used to keep the bars covered and prevent the admission of cold air. The engines work the fastest express trains between Manchester, London and Bristol, and' full boiler pressure is maintained with ease. No. 779, of the same class of four-coupled bogie express engines, is fitted with Holden burners.

Superheater goods engine, London and North Western Ry. 96-7. illus.
To ascertain from practical working whether or not the advantages and success of superheating as applied to goods locomotives were as great as in the case of passenger engines, C.].B. Cooke, the chief mechanical engineer of the L. & N. W.R., introduced a new class of engine as above. In outward appearance and most of the details, except those directly connected with superheating (which is of the smoketube type), they are practically the same as the well-known eight-coupled engines now so largely used on the L. & N.W.R. for mineral traffic. The first of these superheater engines was built at the Crewe Works in February. The wheels are nominally 4-ft. 3-in. diameter over the tread, but when new with 3-in. tyres they were 4-ft. 5½in. diameter. The two inside cylinders were 20½in. diameter by 24-in. stroke, and fitted with piston valves 8-in. diameter. The valve gear used was Joy's. The boiler, which carried a steam pressure of 160 psi, had a mean diameter of 5ft. 0¾in., the largest diameter being 5-ft. 2-in. The barrel was 14-ft. 6-in. long and the firebox outside the casing 7-ft. 10in. long by 4-ft. 1in. wide, the depth of the firebox below the centre line of the boiler being 5-ft. 2´in. The total heating surface of boiler 1772.4 ft2 and total heating surface of boiler and superheater 2151ft2.; firegrate area 23.6ft2.The tender was fitted with the water scoop by which water can be taken into the tanks whilst the engine is travelling. No. 1384 illustrated.

Mallet articulated freight locomotive, Union Pacific Railroad. 97. illus.
2-8-8-2: coal burning; most Mallet engines for American lines have been arranged to use oil fuel, but the freight hauler shown in illustration was a coal burner for the Union Pacific Railroad. Following leading dimensions: diameter of hp cylinders 26in. and lp cylinders 40in.; stroke of both groups 30in.; balanced piston valves; diameter of coupled wheels boiler 7ft. diameter, working pressure of 200 psi.Total heating surface 6393ft2., grate area 68.4 ft2. Total weight ot the engine, exclusive of tender over 190 tons, of which 175 tons available for adhesion. No. 2002 illustrated..

The Key West Extension of the Florida East Coast Ry. 97-8. 2 illus.
Financier H.M. Flagler; original engineer J.C. Meredith; completed under W.J. Crome. Extension of the Florida East Coast Ry. to Key West was formally opened tor traffic on 22 January 1912. This line brought Havana within 90 miles of the American railway system, and the port of Key West is made the nearest American centre to the nearly completed Panama Canal, about 1075 miles distant.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway.99-100.
Figs. 219/220 port TWW

Great Northern Ry. 100.
Latest 0-6-2T fitted with condensing gear Nos. 1587-91

Pfeiffer, H. Some old German locomotives. 100-1. 4 illus.
Continued from p. 75. Fig. 18 shows outside-cylinder 0-4-2 Seligenstadt built by Henschel & Son for the Frankfurt-Hanau Railway in 1872. The deep firebox enabled by this arrangement was negated by unsteady running. The 0-6-0 locomotive superseded the 2-4-0 type for freight working in the 1870s but their speed was limited to 28 mile/h (this aspect of German thoroughness never seemed to have been observed in Britain KPJ).  Fig. 19 shows an outside-cylinder 0-6-0 with the firebox supported on the leading axle of its six wheel tender. This was the Behm-Kool system of articulation: the figure shows No. 731 of the Braunschweig (Brunswick Railway) built by Hannover Maschinenfabrik in 1886. Fig. 20 shows an outside frame 0-6-0 Strassburg built by Kessler for the Hessische Ludwigsbahn in 1872 and Fig. 21 shows an outide-cylinder 0-6-0 with a high firebox built by Hannoversche Maschinenfabrik in 1873 for the Koln-Minden Railway. This type was also built by Borsig and Hartmann for other railways.

The development of American locomotive practice. 101-2.
Lawford H. Fry

Schulz, G.C. Three-cylinder compound loeomotives of the N.E., Midland and G.C, Rys. 102-3. diagr.
Considered that in negotiating a heavy bank the GCR and NER system whereby auxiliary steam could be diverted to the low pressure receiver gave the system the edge, especially with skilled drivers. Diagram shows sight feed lubricator fitted to Midland locomotives.

Petrol electric car, Great Central Ry. 103-4. illus.

Re-metalling and fitting eccentric strap liners. 104-5. 3 diagrs.

Snailbeach District Rys. Co. 105.
Locomotives: Fernhill built Lennox, Lange & Co of Glasgow: outside cylinders (12 x 20in); six coupled: 3ft gauge; 0-6-0ST
Belmont: Hughes & Co.: 0-4-2ST: outside cylinders (13 x 15in); 2ft 7½ gauge

The Borsig force feed lubricator. 105-6. 2 diagrs.

Railway carriage and wagon building. I—Arrangement of the sawmill. 106-7.

Siamese Railways. 107.
Falcon Railway Carriage & Wagon Works contract: 12 covered goods wagons; 8 open wagons; 10 all-steel rice wagons; 12 cattle wagons; 8 timer & rail trucks: Royal Siamese Rys.

Great Northern & City Ry. 107
Clocks fitted inside cars. Automatic cigarette and match vending machines inside smoking cars

Cleaning leather cushions of railway carriages. 107
Washing with soap and water then apply Harding's Morocco Reviver

Great Western Ry. 107.
Saw mills, timber yards and carriage sheds at Swindon Works: new paths and roads accessible to fire engines

Duplex bolster carriage bogie, Great Northern Ry. (Alex. Spencer's Patent). 108-9. 2 diagrs (el. & plan)
George Spencer, Moulton & Co.

Reviews. 109

Locomotive Management from Cleaning to Driving. J.T. Hodgson and J. Williams. London: The Railway Engineer.
This is the second edition, and the opportunity has been taken to revise and to add fresh illustrations of recent inventions and developments in locomotive practice. The arrangement of the chapters is systematic, dealing first with the duties of the cleaner, and then the different grades of promotion to driver of an express passenger train. with progressive sections describing the operation and uses of the various parts of the boiler, engine, tender, brakes, etc. Practical hints on firing, smoke prevention, control of injectors, etc., will !be of service in every day work on the footplate.
Chapters are also given on compound engines, valves and valve setting, breakdowns and temporary repairs while in service. The simplicity of the work is as great a recommendation to the locomotive driver or fireman as its thoroughness and .utility.

Correspondence. 109

Steam pressure gauges. E.A. Forward.
In connection with the above article (page 38 et seq) and F.S Hennell's letter in the March number (page 67), it will no doubt interest your readers to know that the piston and spring gauge mentioned by Hennell existed 50 years before J. V. Gooch made use of it. It was used, and it is believed invented, by James Watt about the year 1790, and it formed the basis of his steam engine indicator of about the same date. He also used it, with a beam between the piston and spring, as a vacuum indicator. Pambour, also, seems to have used it in his locomotive experiments. and he described and illustrated it in his Treatise on the Locomotive (2nd edition, 1840). Pambour appears to have used two other forms of portable steam pressure gauge as well. In one of these the steam acted upon the surface of mercury in one leg of a U tube and compressed the air contained in the closed end of the other leg; the other was simply a mercurial thermometer graduated to read the pressures corresponding to the steam temperatures. In writing of pressure gauges, mention should be made of that patented. by Sidney Smith in 1847. This was a diaphragm gauge, similar to the later one of Schaffer, but the diaphragm consisted of a vulcanised rubber disc. In 1854 the rubber disc was supported by a spiral spring. One of these gauges was used by Geo. Stephenson in 1847.

Some old German locomotives. Thomas Anderson.
Pfeiffer's articles put writer in mind of old days in Germany long ago:.he felt fairly sure that Crampton engines were running in the Hannover-Bremen service in 1872. He thought, although probably his memory may have been playing him a trick, that the cylinders, reversing the usual position, were near the footplate, above the framing.

The old tank engine Aerolite. W.J. Barker
In your issue for the 15th of October last I noticed a paragraph, together with an illustration, of the old tank engine" Aerolite." I am writing this in reply to the letter of Mr. C. Hylton Stewart in your journal for the 15th December last, in which he states that the present" Aerolite" (No. 66 engine) has on her number plate: "Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson, Leeds, No. 28/, 1851." Now, this information is a copy of that inscribed on the plate of the makers affixed on the original " Aerolite," but not shown in your illustration. I cannot understand why this should be inscribed on the present engine bearing that name, for according to the very best authority, the book records and tradition together, show that the original" Aerolite" (No.. 369) was entirely broken up, and the present one (No. 66) was built September, 1869. This latter engine was rebuilt and remodelled about about eleven years ago. P.S.-Engine No. 1162 (N.E. Ry.), "Saltburn," built by R. S. & Co. in the year 1862, was broken up towards the end of the year 1879.

K. A. C. R. Nunn. 109.
The sections of the L.T. & S. Ry. were opened as follows: Barking to Upminster, 1 May 1885; to East Horndon, 1 May 1886; and to Pitsea, 11 June 1888. Tilbury to Leigh in 1855, and through to Southend June 1856. Thames Haven branch opened 7 June 1855; Southend to Shoeburyness, 1 February 1884; Commercial Road goods branch, 17 April 1886. The Tilbury Fort Ry. was incorporated as a separate company, known as the London, Tilbury & Southend Ry., in 1862.

E.T. Macdermott. 110
Nos. 1561-80 were br5oad gauge 0-6-0ST. No. 1568 was Falmouth branch engine in 1891.

D. Poston. 110
Johnson compounds 2631-5 now 1000-1004. Deeley compounds 1000-1029 1005-34

L.J.M. 110
Palmerston reb 1910; Welsh Pony being rebuilt

Signalling. 110
NZGR auto tablet exchangers: 260 stns; 450 locos. 45 mile/h. 1 in 100,000 failures: Tyer & Co.

Laundry cars. 110.
See XXX: Russian Red Cross Society: Russo-Japanese War

No. 238 (15 June 1912)

Our Supplement: sectional elevation of Northern Railway of France 4-6-4 compound express locomotive Baltic type. 111 + folding diagr.
Sectional elevation of compound express locomotive, No. 3.1101 built by Chemin de Fer du Nord, at its La Chapelle Works, Paris, to the designs of Georges Asselin, engineer in chief. In order to show the details of design and construction of the interior arrangements the drawing has been shaded. The section is taken through the centre of the boiler and , firebox, and through the high pressure cylinder on the left hand side. Schedule of all the parts of engine correspond with numbers given on the drawing. A similar engine was built for the Northern Ry. by Schneider & Co., of Creusqt, but with a round topped water tube firebox. These two were the largest and heaviest passenger locomotives in Europe, being slightly heavier than the latest Pacific type locomotives of the Belgian State Rys. weighing over 100 tons in working order.
A novel feature of the design was the arrangement of the two low pressure cylinders beween the frames, details of which were given h the "Locomotive" for July, 1911, p. 155. Further particulars, of these engines were also given in our issues of October, 1910, p. 223, and December, 1911, p. 262. The six-coupled driving wheels were 6ft. 8¼in diameter, and the leading and trailing bogie wheels 3ft. 5in. Schmidt's superheating apparatus was fitted, the boiler pressure being 227 psi. Engine compounded on De Glehn system; the 4-cylinders having the following dimensions :high pressure, 440 mm. by 640 mm. (175/8. by 251/8in.); low pressure, 620mm. by 730mm. (243/8in. by 28¾in.); provided with piston valves actuated by Walschaerts gear.

London & South Western Ry. 111-12. illus.
Illustration of No. 462, the latest Drummond new 4-6-0 four-cylinder simple express engine completed at Eastleigh. A drawing of one of these engines was the supplement to our last issue (page 91 and facing page), but No. 462 was provided with a larger tender than those attached to the earlier engines of this class. The tender of No. 462, carried 5800 gallons of water and 5 tons of coal The wheelbase of the engine and tender was increased to 55ft. 7in and the total length of engine and tender over buffers was 65-ft. 5¼in.
The two small six-coupled Terrier tank engines, Nos. 734 and 735, bought from the L.B. & S.C.R. in 1903 were being fitted with new boilers.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 112
From 1st June second class abolished on this system, except on the Continental boat trains between London and Newhaven. No. 59.4-4-0 express engine, fitted with Phoenix superheater, had left the shops.

Great Western Ry. 112.
Over 500 locomotivese had been fitted with, superheaters on this system. Nos. 186 Robin Hood and 188 Rob Roy had been altered from 4-4-2 Atlantic type to 4-6-0 engines. New 4-6-0 engines of the Court class were: 2941 Easton Court, 2942 Fawley Court, 2943 Hampton Court, 2944 Higham Court, and 2945 Hillingdon Court.

South Hetton Colliery Co. 112
In our article upon the Colne Valley & Halstead Ry. last year we showed an illustration of No. 10, Cornwall Minerals Ry., afterwards Haverhill on the former railway. Mr. Inness, of Newcastle, informs us this engine was still working at the South Hetton Colliery, Co. Durham. It had the name Haverhill still, and also Sharp Stewart's plate (2358-1873,) and was having a general repair, including a new boiler made at the colliery workshops (South Hetton & Murton Coal Co.) They used to have the old North London 0-4-2 saddle tank of Beyer, Peacock & Co.'s build, that afterwards worked on the Colne Valley line, with the name Halstead, but this engine had been broken up. The same Colliery Co. bought old No. 14 off the Met. Ry., Beyer, Peacock's 425 (1864), originally named Dido. This engine had been rebuilt at the colliery workshops. The bogie had been done away with, and the driving and trailing wheels replaced by wheels of smaller diameter, and a single leading axle in place of the bogie, making it into a 6-coupled side tank; new plate frames had been provided. and new back cylinder covers, and two motion bars in place of four originally, new crossheads, etc., and the inclination of the cylinders lowered. The driving - to trailing wheelbase was altered, but there are only about 9-in. between the leading and driving tyres.

London & North Western Ry.. 112.
Nos. 2119 and 2284 complete the series of 0-8-0 mineral engines with superheaters referred to in the last issue of the Locomotive. A further series of the same type was under construction, and the first two would bear Nos. 1162 and 1505. It will be noticed that the latter number was that of the John Hick class compound Richard Arkwright, which was scrapped. No. 1162 was a 6-ft. 2-4-0 passenger engine, named Saddleback, also scrapped. The 4-ft. 3-in. Webb coal engines Nos. 2104 and 2119, both now replaced by 0-8-0 engines, had been renumbered 3195 and 3198 respectively. The following additional 4-ft. 6-in. 2-4-2 tanks had been adapted for motor service :-Nos. 765, 1438 and 2519. No. 1817, three-cylinder compound mineral engine, was being converted to simple with small boiler, and 18½in cylinders.

North British Ry. 112.
The name of the Atlantic engine No. 869 had been changed from Dundonian to Bonnie Dundee.

Great Central Ry. 112.
No. 361 was the first of Robinson Atlantic to be fitted with a superheater.

Northern Ry. of France. 112
Engine No. 2.741 of the 4-4-4 type was built in 1907 with a water-tube firebox, and fitted with a larger boiler in 1909. The water tubes still gave trouble owing to the vibration of the engine, so the engine had been rebuilt with an ordinary locomotive boiler as a Pacific type or 4-6-2. The engine is now numbered 3.999. The first 4-cylinder compound Consolidation type engine, a No. 4.261, has been completed by the Societe de Constructions Mecaniques des Batignolles.

Diesel locomotive. 112.
The steam locomomotive had many threatened rivals, and the internal combustion motor was to be tried on the Prussian State Railways. The locomotive was the design of Dr. Diesel, and the engine has been constructed at the Winterthur Works of Sulzer, while the underframe and gear has been built by A. Borsig, of Berlin. The motor was of the four cylinder type, working on the single acting two-cycle principle, and capable of developing normally about 1,000 b.h p., though this may be exceeded. The engine drives a loose shaft to which the two driving wheels are coupled, the locomotive having two four-wheeled bogies. To accelerate at starting and develop greater power on inclines, an arrangement has been devised by which an auxiliary supply of fuel and air is provided for the cylinders. The weight in working order was between 80 and 90 tons, and the length over buffers 55-ft.

Great Northern Ry. 113. illus.
H. N. Gresley, locomotive superintendent of the G.N.R.,  sent photograph ofNo. 259, reproduced here, which. was fitted with Holden's liquid fuel burning apparatus during the coal strike. Two burners were fitted, arranged similarly to the Great Eastern. installations. . The rectangular tank provided on the tender carried 600 gallons of oil:
New 0-6-2 side tanks up to No 1601 then completed at Doncaster, making, with No. 190, 52 of these engines in service. A further series iwa in hand.. Ten more superheater six-coupled goods engines were to be built. No. 1442, which was exhibited; at Shepherd's Bush in 1909, is now in the shops, and is to be painted similar to the others of this class. No. 668, 8ft. single. has been scrapped recently. No. 769, 0-4-4 Stirling tank, had been rebuilt with a boiler with dome. The others of this class rebuilt were 766, 936, 941 and 944; .

Great Eastern Ry. 113.
On Friday, 17 May :a special train conveyed a large patty of London and provincial press representatives to Aldeburgh, by way of bringing to the public notice the attractions of this once busy port and the neighbouring district. In the afternoon they journeyed by coach to Southwold by way of the pretty village of Yoxford. They stayed at the Grand Hotel, Southwold, and on the Saturday again took the coach to Halesworth where a restaurant car train picked them up and returned to London. The train, was headed by No, 1794, one of the latest Claud Hamilton class with superheater. This season a full summer train service will commence to run on 1 July. Seven trains daily will run between Liverpool Street and Aldeburgh in each direction, and there will be six trains to and five from Southwold. Three of the Aldeburgh trains will have restaurant cars, and two of the Southwold trains.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 113.
A meeting was held on Saturday., 27 April 1912, at St. Bride's Institute, at which a paper was read by Mr. Frank L. Bassett, B.Sc., A.I.C., on Water Softening as Applied to Locomotives. Mr. H.W. Garratt, M.I.Mech.E., in the Chair. The author dealt at some length with the chemical nature of the salts producing hardness in natural waters, and proceeded, to describe the various kinds of scale met with in locomotive boilers. He then outlined the principles underlying the removal of scale-forming compounds in softening apparatus, and gave a description ofa typical water softening plant. The paper concluded with a comparison of the cost of water softening and the expense involved. by the use of hard water.. The use of boiler compounds was also dealt with during the evening the author showed several chemical experiments demonstrating the more important chemical reactions. Messrs. Beckton, Gobert, Bennett. Maitland and Dearberg joined in the discussion which followed.

Obituary. 113.
It is with regret that the death of Mr. A. Watt is announced, one of the first members ot the above Institution. The sad event took place at Doncaster on May 2nd. The'tate Mr~, Watt, who was assistant district loco. supt:' at, Doncaster, was only 28 years of age. Born in India. and coming to England 14 years ago, he , served.. b1.s apprenticeship at the Hyde Park Loco. Works, Glasgow, subsequently gaining experience in electrical engineering at the Glasgow Iron and Steel Works, Wishaw. :' He entered the service of the G.N.R., eventually beihg:ap'pointed assist. dist. loco: supt. at Colwick; and transferred to Doncaster last September. )

Furness Ry. 114.
A. Aslett, General Manager: endeavours to increase tourist traffic to Lake Dictrict with excursion tickets, including circular tours, the Furness Abbey Hotel, improved rolling stock and Guidebook.

The Abbey Station, Shrewsbury in 1872. 114. illus.
Potteries, Shrewsbury & North Wales Railway 0-4-2 purchased from LNWR Southern Division. Nicknamed Black Tom on PSNWR. Had been built by Bury, Curtis & Kennedy in 1848 and had bar frames and 5ft coupled wheels. They had 16 x 20 cyls; ths 1017 an original numbers had been 6, 16, 22, 33, 34 and 206. 6 and 16 were broken up in 1862 and the others became 622, 633, 634 and 806. No. 806 was sold to moss, a railway contractor and was destroyed in a collision with Midl;and engine No. 191 between Northampton and Billing Road. The remainder were rebuilt with outside frames. Photograph taken in 1872 does not display "outside" frames, but does show train of old LNWR coaches. By 1912 the line had become th Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Light Railway...

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 115.
Saturday 29 June: visit Old Oak Common Locomotive Depot

Heavy tank locomotive, Northern Ry of France. 115. diagr. (s. el.)
4-6-4 Side Tank Engines. 1.664 coup; .46 x .6 cyls; Serve tubes. Earlier locomotives slide valves, but later superheater piston valves. Guide bar for slide valve spindle replaced by links.

Narrow gauge quarry locomotive for Achill Island. 116. illus., diagr.
W.G. Bagnall for Irish Industrial Minerals. King George. livery green. Circular steel f/b. 9x14; g=2ft; 2ft 3½ coupled 0-6-0T 244 ths 4.5 ga 150 psi

Superheating. 116
Schmidt Superheating Co. orders recd: 8 4-6-4T LTSR; 30 new 50 reb MR; GIPR; Oudh & Rohilkund & South Indian Rys; 70 NSWGR; LNWR; 12 Dutch S R; 25 Rhodesia Rys; 11 LBSCR; GNRI 5 ex; 5 fr

Postal train, Ottoman (Aiden) Ry. 117-18. 2 illus.

Consolidation locomotive, Union Pacific Railroad. 118. illus.
Baldwin 2-8-0 with 4ft 9in coup; 22x30; 3403 ths, 49.5 ga, 200 psi, Vanderbilt tender

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 119-20.
F 221-4

Schulz, G.C. Three-cylinder compound loeomotives of the N.E., Midland and G.C, Rys. 120-2. diagr.
Indicator diagrams: work done in each cylinder. Failure of low pressure valve spindles; failure of low pressure cylinders or their gear; failure of high pressure piston or connecting rod or reversing gear; breakage of high pressure valve spindle

Motor rail car, Midland Gt. Western Ry. 122-3. illus.
Constructed Charles Price & Son of Broadheath, Manchester petrol railcar with four wheels to seat twelve including driver with two boxes for mails.

London & North Western Ry. 123.
Brake vans in main line trains carried glass case containing tools including saw, axe and crowbar to help passengers escape in event of accident.

Six coupled bogie express engine, Queensland Government Rys. 123. illus.
First locomotive from Toowoomba Works of Griffiths Bros. No. 590 (B15 class). On trial run 58 mile/h achieved. On the crowded footplate were: Driver Perrett, A. Richardson (ex-LSWR and son of J. Richardson, LBSCR) who was in charge of erecting the locomotive, Bert Griffiths, Simpson (Government inspector), Jessop, chief draughsman at Toowoomba, T.F. Watson (locomotive inspector) and Thompson (locomotive foreman)

Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Ry. 123
New side tank supplied Hudswell Clarke with 16 x 24 in cylinders. Number 11: similar to No. 10 illustrated "last year"

The Tal-y-Llyn Railway. 124 2 illus.
Railway opened in 1865 and extended from Towyn to Abergynolwyn where there were slate quarries. Two locomotives No. 1 Pretoria an 0-4-0 with 2ft coupled wheels, 8¼ x 16in cyls; 4ft2 grate area and 100 psi. It was formerly Dolgoch. No. 2 Tal-y-Llyn is an 0-4-2T with 2ft 2in coupled wheels, and a higher boiler pressure of 120 psi. Both were built by Fletcher, Jennings & Co. of Whitehaven. Illustration shows Pretoria and second class coach.

Tank locomotive, Dutch State Rys. 125. illus.
2-4-2T Hohenzollern Works. Inside cyl (15 x 22); 5ft 0¼ coup; 1026 ths; 155/8 ga; 170 psi. Fitted with steam bell.

Walschaert valve gear. 125.
Cardboard model

Railway wagon brakes. 126-8. illus., 5 diagrs.

Belgian locomotives. 129. illus., diagr.
Le Belge: John Cockerill at Seraing WN 1/1835. 2-2-2.

Caledonian Ry. 129.
Death of Driver John Souter aged 78. 90 miles iin 80.5 min in 1895.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 129.
All boat trains using old South Eastern main line. Test of coal from Shakespeare Cliff. Colliery for locomotive use.

Immingham Dock, near Grimsby. 130.
GCR booklet prepared for opening to traffic scheduled for 15 May and the Royal opening on 22 July. Desccribes entrance locks, jetties, 170 miles of railway, the electric tramway between Grimsby and Immingham and in greater detail the facilities for shipping coal: seven hydraulic hoists which exploited gravity for the movement of both loaded and empty wagons intended to ship 5000 tons of coal per hour. There was also a graving dock.

Brake van for ballasting, North Eastern Ry. 130-1. illus.
Combined with ballst plough which could be raised or lowered and used in association with 25 ton capcity hopper wagons built at Shildon Works.

The carriage of stone on Egyptian Railways. 131-2. 2 illus.
Statistics of limestone traffic carried on Egyptian State, Helouan, and Egyptian Delta Light Railways. The last were 2ft 6in gauge, the others standard gauge. 2ft gauge tracks were laid in the quarries. Included limestone from the Moqattam Hills as used in Egyptian antiquities.

Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 132.
Retirement of Charles Clifford. Joined Dublin, Wicklow & Wexford Railway. In 186.became locomotive superintendent of the Irish North Western Railway. In 1876 on the amalgamation to form the Great Northern Railway he became district locomotive superintendent Dublin until in 1895 he succeeded J.C. Park as locomotive superintendent.

Rerstaurant car windows, G. E. Ry. 132. diagr.
Holden design of sliding window to inhibit draughts and ingress of grit.

Railway carriage and wagon building. II—The machines in the sawmill. 133-5. 2 illus., 3 diagrs.
Continued from 106-7

Reviews. 135.

An Epitome of Railway Law. By E. E. G, Williams. London: Stevens & Haynes.
This handy book should considerably simplify the squabbles which so often arise between the travelling and commercial public and the railways. The records of decisions in the first and larger part of the book deal with the railways' responsibility for damage, rates, rerminals, sidings, rebates, reasonable facilities, etc., and will appeal to the merchant, manufacturer, dealer and consumer, as well as be of service to the lawyer and railway official; while the second section records the railway companies' obligations to passengers and liability for injury, etc., as well as their powers for dealing with offences by passengers. The short third part explains the law of State regulations chiefly exercised by the special railway department of the Board of Trade in regard to the inspection of new lines, prevention of accidents, signalling, brakes, hours of labour, ,etc. Most elaborate indices of cases cited and statutes consulted add to its utility as a work of reference. "

Lectures on Superheating on Continental Locomotives. by E. Sauvage. London: University of London Press/ Hodder & Stoughton,.
Given at the invitation of the University of London during October, 1910, the lectures published in this little book were delivered by Edouard Sauvage in the lecture theatre of the Institution of Civil Engineers. M. Sauvage, now Professor of Engineering at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, was locomotive superintendent of the Western Ry. of France, and possessed a wide and accurate practical knowledge of the recent developments which have taken place on the Continent in superheating. Most of the leading locomotive engineers had been experimenting with superheaters, and M. Sauvage's lectures not only give information as to then locomotive practice on the Continent, but also results of the trials which have taken place, with comparisons between superheated steam and compound locomotives. The requirements of locomotive work were considered, the vanous types of superheaters illustrated and described, .special arrangements of mechanism, lubrication, mode of working explained, and a comparison made with British and American practice. Appendices give a description of the compound superheater locomotives of the Eastern Ry. of France. as well as results of the trials of ten-coupled locomotives on the Midi Ry., and a synopsis of the discussion on superheated steam at the International Railway Congress at Berne in 1910.

Practical Gyrostatic Balancing. by H. Chatley. London: Technical Publishing Co.
The analysis of gyroscopic motion as applied to the automatic balancing of all kinds of locomotives, on land and in the sea or air, is a problem of growing importance, particularly to students of aeria1 engineering, and inventors. The practical application of the gyroscope to the Whitehead torpedo, the Beauchamp gun platform and the more recent Brennan mono-rail system, are instances of what can be effected. The .author carefully investigates the construction and mechanical princi~ 'ples of gyrostats and explains the calculations and geometrical complications of gyroscopic action. All who are interested in, the subject cannot do better than procure this little treatise.

Lubrication and Lubricants. by L Archbutt and R.M. Deeley. London: C. Griffin & Co.
This being the third edition of this valuable treatise it will be unnecessary to give the contents in detail. It would, be difficult to find a more exhaustive work on the subject in our technical literature, for it is treated from, the point of view of the engineer as well as the chemist. Each section is, as far as possible, complete, in itself. Among its merits the book possesses that of being up-to-date, additional information being included on recent scientific research on the relationship between the chemical composition, viscosity and lubricating values of different oils, also on the tarry impurities in mineral oils, and tests for detecting them. The subject of bearing metals has been revised and amplified, and considerable additions made to the section dealing with the lubrication of motor vehicles. Railway wagon greases are also discussed. Not only have the modern methods of lubrication and lubricators been added to. but in the last chapter the authors give particulars of the oils most suitable for lubricating the principal types of machinery and engines.

Vacuum cleaning apparatus for carriages. 136.
The illustration was taken from a brochure issued by the British Vacuum. Cleaner Co., Ltd., replete with photographs showing applications of their different machines; The plant supplied to the L & S.W. Ry. embodied the latest improvements, and waa mounted in one of the rai1way company's own covered carriage trucks. Three men  could be cleaning at once from ,this machine, which was driven by a petrol motor operating a vacuum pump through belts and pulleys. This pump creates a vacuum, and the suction is induced directly' by flexible tubing from the broad nozzles of the dust extractors. Thus the cleaner removes every' particle of dust from the upholstering and draws it to a receptacle from which it can be removed at convenient intervals. The carpets and upholstery are not detrimentally affected, but, in fact, an improved appearance is given to the, materials.

Correspondence. 137.

Some famous heavy grades. B. Bolton.
Two illustrations of the former Lithgow Zig Zag incline with gradients of 1 in 42, 1 in 33 and 1 in 60. One of the illustrations showed a train from Sydney descending worked by a P class locomotive. The other showed one of the reversing stations. The summit at Clarence was 3,658ft above sea level. The Editor noted that a deviation opened on 16 October 1910.

Early North Eastern Ry. engines. W.B. Thompson. 137.
Asked whether Y.N.&B.R. No. 185 illustrated on page 83 could have been NER No. 185 stationed at Carlisle in the early 1870s. The wheels and framing appeared to be similar, but the boiler was different. The Newcastle-Carlisle trains at the time were worked by Fletcher 5ft. 6in. engines, principally by 64, 465, and 803 from the Carlisle end, and 68, 177, and 355 from Gateshead; and 185 was used as pilot or spare.

Early North Eastern Ry. engines. John S. MacLean. 138.
In reply to Thompson's query, the engine seen at Carlisle would very probably be the No.185 illustrated on page 83 of Locomotive Magazine April issue, The engine was replaced, and the number taken, in June, 1868, by one of the 5ft. 6in. four-coupled engines, but it may have continued to exist with a new number or been placed in the duplicate list. If YOl1t correspondent has no knowledge of the engine after 1868, then it is likely that it was scrapped at that date, Your correspondent, Mr. W.J, Barker, may be right in his statement in the P.S. to his, letter in the May Locomotive Magazine" that No. 1162 Saltburn was broken up in 1879, but I think the N.E. Ry. engine No.1162, built in the following year at Darlington, had some of the parts of the former incorporated in its construction, the No.1162, of 1880 was never looked upon as an entirely new engine, although it experienced a-good deal more modernising than the 1238 engines, which were, also being altered .at that time by the removal of their bogies, etc.

A miniature railway at Geneva. 138
The Narrow Gauge Railways, Ltd., of London, who were responsible for the Rhyl Miniature Railway, had obtained a concession for a similar line in the Luna Park, Geneva. The railway is nearly a mile in length and includes a 150ft. tunnel, deep cuttings, embankments, and also a viaduct across the corner of the lake. 'The equipment of the line is in the hands of Bassett-Lowke, Ltd., of London and Northampton. The locomotive, rolling stock, etc., signal box and signals will be of English design and practice and will give our Continental friends an opportunity of seeing correct models of English railway equipment.

No. 239 (25 July 1912)

Railway notes.

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 139. illus.
New series of 2-4-2 passenger radial tank engines, fitted with Schmidt superheaters, completed at Horwich Works. Courtesy George Hughes, chief mechanical engineer, No. 227 illustrated. Leading particulars: cylinders 20½in. diameter by 26n. stroke, driving wheels 5ft. 8-in. diameter; radial leading and trailing wheels 3ft. 7¾in. diameter. total heating surface 920.216ft2; grate area 18.75ft2.; weight in working order: leading radial wheels 12 tons 16 cwt., driving wheels 19 tons 11cwt., trailing coupled wheels 19 tons 14 cwt., trailing radial 14 tons 8 cwt., total 66 tons 9 cwt.; water capacity 1540 gallons, fuel capacity 63 cwt. No. 227 stationed at Colne, Nos. 230, 233, 275, 276, 285 and 480 at Newton Heath, and Nos. 590, 618 and 637 at Blackpool.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 139.
No. 325 Abergavenny had been fitted with a Weir feed pump, which pumped at all times, not being dependent on the motion of the engine. Nos. 185, 187, 198 (0-4-2 expresses) and 256 (0-4-2 tank) have been fitted with the new cast iron chimneys. No. 275 (0-4-2 tank) and 446 (Vulcan goods) had recently been. rebuilt. No. 82, the first of the new 4-4-2 tanks, is at work, and is fitted with Bosch automatic lubricator and Weir feed pump

London & North Western Ry.. 139-40
The first completed section of the new Willesden – Watford widened lines, between Willesden and Harrow, was opened for traffic on the 15 May 1912. Hitherto Wembley had been the only station serving the 5½ miles between Willesden and Harrow, but additional stations had now been provided at Harlesden and Stonebridge Park, between Wi1lesden and Wembley and at North Wembley and Kenton, between Wembley and Harrow. On the same date was also opened the Croxley Green branch, 1½ miles in length. This leads off the Rickmansworth branch and opens up the western suburb of Watford. It is said the Croxley Green branch will eventually be extended in a northerly direction and rejoin the main line at Tring. For the present the new lines will be worked as a steam railway, but ultimately they will: form part of the electrification undertaking referred to in our December, 1911, issue. A further six 0.8-0 mineral engines with 4-4-0 superheaters had been completed at Crewe, Nos. 2254, 2337, 2345, 2349, 2385 and 2393. Two more, to complete a series, were also nearing completion, but are not yet numbered. Work had recently commenced on a series of 4-6-2 tank engines, which would be equipped with Schmidt superheaters. Two more Precursors, Nos. 1395 Harbinger, and 2012 Penguin, had been fitted with new coupled wheels having half moon balance weights and large bosses. The latest 4ft. 6in. 2-4-2 tanks altered for motor service were Nos. 663, 721 and 769. No. 1746 Bevere, a 6ft. 6in. 2-4-0 passenger engine, had been broken up. No. 2491 Perseus had been fitted with a feed water heater and hot water pump. The heater was on the right hand side of the engine, and the pump on the left hand side.

North British Ry. 140.
Photograph No. 602 of the 592 to 603 class, of 4-4-0 express engine, as rebuilt by W.P. Reid, locomotive superintendent, with the new cab with side windows. These engines had 18-in. by 26-in. cylinders, 7-ft. dia. coupled wheels and 3-ft. 6-in. dia. bogie wheels. The boiler had a total heating surface of 1106.18 ft2., of which the 203 tubes furnished 989.68 ft2.., and the firebox 116.5 ft2.. The working pressure was 150 psi., and the grate area 20.3 ft2.. The tender carried 2,500 galls. of water and 4 tons of coal..

French State Railways. 140
On 12 July the Ouest Etat started a new non-stop train, making the journey between Paris and Trouville, a distance of 219 km in 2 hours 45 minutes. The service was worked by the new 4-6-2 engines of the 2700 class, fitted with Schmidt superheaters.

Rhymney Ry. 140. illus.
Photograph of 2-4-2ST locomotive No. 66 leaving Caerphilly shops after undergoing heavy repairs. Nos. 65 and 66 were the last two 2-4-2 engines on the Rhymney Ry., the others having been converted to the 0-6-2 type. These engines had driving wheels 5-ft. diameter, cylinders 17½in. diameter by 26in. stroke, and a working pressure of 140 psi. The new standard R.R. colours and lining adopted by C.T.H. Riches, the locomotive superintendent, will be noted.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 141. illus.
P class illustrated on a rail motor (push & pull) train at Greenwich Park station. Dimensions of both locomotive and train.

Great Eastern Ry. 141.
0-6-0T Nos. 41 and 42 completed.

W.J. Coe, Chief Stores Superintendent, Great Western Ry of Brazil. 141.
Returned to Pernambuco by SS Aragon following serious illness.

Our supplement: County Donegal Railways Joint Committee. 141-2 + col. plate facing page
Class 5a 2-6-4T No. 21 Ballyshannon. F. Moore oil painting. Supplied Nasmyth Wilson to the design of R.M. Livesey, engineer and locomotive superintendent. 15½ x 21in cylinders; 160 psi boiler pressure and superheater. Capable of hauling 200 tons on long gradients of 1 in 51.

Signalling trials at Watchet. 142. illus.
The West Somerset Minerals Railway between Watchet and Washford was used to demonstrate a system of automatic train control invented by A.R. Angus of Sydney in Australia which involved electric signals passed to a shoe on the locomotive from a ramp on the track. Two GWR 2-4-0s were used in the demonstration on 5 July 1912..

New engines, Buenos Ayres Great Southern Ry. 143-4. 2 illus.
Mixed traffic 4-6-0 supplied by Beyer Peacock to requirements of Livesey, Son & Henderson, Consulting Engineers. Two-cylinder compounds with 19in (high pressure) and 27½in (low pressure) by 26in cylinders; 6ft coupled wheels; 1627.5ft2 total heating surface; 25ft2 grate area; 200 psi boiler pressure; Stephenson valve gear and Richardson balanced slide valves. Also mixed traffic 2-6-0, also suppled Beyer Peacock with Belpaire firebox, Walschaerts valve gear, outside cylinders and piston valves. 5ft 8in coupled wheels; 19in x 26in cylinders; 1386ft2 total heating surface; 22.2ft2 grate area and 150 psi boiler pressure.

Wiener, L. The locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway, Brazil. 144-6. 3 illus., map.
Compagnie Auxiliaire des Chemin der Fer au Brésil. a train operating company but with a concession for sixty years required to operate on metre gauge over sharp (330ft radius) curves and steep gradients (1 in 33.3). The Rio Grande do Sul Railway had taken over several lines. The Porto Alegre & Uruguayana Ry. had purchased its locomotives from Fives of Lille. There were three 0-6-0T with outside cylinders (Fig. 1); six 2-6-0 (Fig. 2) and four 4-4-0 (Fig. 3)

Removing broken crank pins in a running shed. 146-7. 2 diagrs.
Using sheer legs, a special cutter and simple tackle (both of latter illustrated).

Lubricating materials. 147-9.
To combat friction and frictional heating lubricants had to form good films and adhere to the surfaces. They had to possess high temperature resistance, and perform at low temperatures. Viscoity ranged from thin oils to thick greases. Animal fats, such as tallow, were still used. They and vegetable oils tended to carbonise. Mineral oils were available at different viscoities. Graphite is also considered.

Matthews' patent buffer. 149. illus.
George Turton, Platts & Co. of Sheffield

Schulz, G.C. Three-cylinder compound locomotives of the N.E., Midland and G.C, Rys. 150.
Concluded from page 122. Horse power of MR compounds.The greatest i.h.p. on record for an MR compound appears to have been developed with an engine running at 37 m.p.h. with the regulator fully open. The high pressure cut off was 63%, the low pressure cut off 57% (i.e., full fore gear), a boiler pressure of 195 psi. and a receiver or low pressure steam chest pressure of 80 psi. The total i.h.p. then recorded was just over 1,000. This i.h.p. was taken between Mallerstang and Ais Gill on an up-gradient of 1 in 100, with the 4 p.m. train ex Leeds on October 12th, 1902, and with a train of 248 tons behind the tender. This piece of undoubtedly very fine work was performed by one of the early compounds fitted with Smith's reducing valve, but with a boiler pressure of only 195 against the present boiler pressures of 220 psi
Approximately a MR compound couldl develop :
300 indicated horse power at 8 miles per hour; 400 at 10 mile/h; 500 at 14 mile/h; 600 at 20 mile/h; 700 at 27  mile/h; 800 at 32 mile/h; 900 at 35 mile/h; 1000 at 40 mile/h; 980 at 50 mile/h; 940 at 60 mile/h; 880 at 70 mile/h; and 840 at 76 mile/h. 
Testing valves and pistons.-It is quite impossible for a driver to test the high pressure piston and valve; and, as the low pressure valves nearly always blow when they have not got a full pressure of steam behind them to keep them on their seatings, it is almost impossible to accurately detect a blow on either the low pressure pistons or va.lves.
Cut off.-The cut off" on a compound in full fore gear are about 65% high pressure and 60% low pressure. On a simple in full fore gear, the cut-off is usually about 75 %. On a compound in third notch the cut off is about 40% high pressure and 37% low pressure. This is about the top running position, but very few engines will in actual practice stand more than the fifth notch.
The three-cylinder compounds dealt with in this article are as follows: M.R. engines Nos. 1000 to 1034 inclusive N.E. No. 1619; G.C. Nos. 258, 259, 364 and 365.
As far as we are able to judge, the three-cylinder compounds on the Smith's system are the only compound locomotives in England which are at present giving absolutely satisfactory;
It would be extremely interesting to see if, these engines would be in any way improved upon by the introduction of superheating into their design; we fear, however, that it is very' unlikely that this experiment will be made, at all events for the present.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 150-2. 5 diagrs.
Figs. 226-31.

Leipzig new station. 152.
Fourteen platforms.

Railway wagon brakes. 152-4.
Monarch brake

"Le Tenax" screw spike and socket for permanent way. 154. 2 diagrs.

Arica-La Paz Ry. 154.
Joined Chile to Bolivia: 14,000ft high in Andes

Railway carriage and wagon building: II— The machines in the saw mill. 155-6. 3 illus.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 157. illus.
On 18 May at St. Bride's Institute, M. F. Long read paper on the Electrification of the L. B. & S.C. Ry. The chair was taken by C.A. Suffield and the meeting was numerously attended. The author dealt at great length with the subject, tracing the early history of the Brighton Railway suburban system down to the present time. The comparative carrying capacity, speeds and loads of the steam and electric systems were dealt with in detail. At the conclusion of the paper an interesting discussion followed, both the steam and electric systems finding keen supporters. On Saturday, 15 June the first annual dinner was held at the Trocadero Restaurant, London. The President, Prof. A. C. Elliott, D.Se., presided, and was supported by Vice-Presidents B. K. Field, A. Trevithiek, A. Rosling Bennett and E. L. Ahrons.
On Saturday, 29 June a party of members visited the locomotive depot of the G.W. Ry. at Old Oak. This depot is one of the most modern and largest in London, 179 engines being stationed there.

Messrs. F.C. Poulton & Co., of Eccles, Manchester, consulting engineers to the Ambajee Taranga Ry Co., Ltd., have now en route for Bombay their Mr.Williamson, who is going out relative to extensions to the original scheme.

Demonstration of wireless signalling on the Stratford & Midland Junction Ry. 157.
A large party of signal engineers of British and Continental Railways met at the Stratford Station of the Stratford-on-Avon and Midland Junction Ry. on Friiday, 28 June, to attend a demonstration of the improved Railophone Wireless Inductive System of Telephoning, Telegraphing and Signalling. In the Locomotive Magazine for June, 1911, an account was given of the firlst installation of the railophone system for the transmission of telephonic or telegraphic messages to or from trains in motion. A far wider field for the application of this system is in the controlling of trains and safeguarding traffic. It is now possible to cause the ringing of bells, the sounding of whistles, the operation of the vacuum brake and stopping of trains without the intervention of the guard or driver. To do this by wireless methods, H. von Kramer and Gisbert Kapp have invented a highly sensitive detector, by which exceedingly feeble electrical impulses received on the train, from a vibrating charge sent into a ground wire alongside the track are picked up and relayed.to sufficiently strong currents to ring a calling bell or hooter. The ringing up of a station from a moving train is thus effected.
The tests included the sending of messages from a moving train to Stratford Station, and vice versa the warning of a moving train by audible signal, signalling to a station from a moving train, the stopping of a train in motion by pressing a button in the signal box, and the stopping of a train after it had been alJowed to enter a particular section. A final experiment illustrated the use of the Railophone system to prevent a "head on" collision on a single line which would have occurred by a signalman's mistake and only discovered too late to rectify under normal working. Both trains were automatically brought to a standstill, a collision being impossible with this system. Professor Silvanus P. Thompson presided at the luncheon which followed the demonstration.

Correspondence. 158

E J. Dunstan. Shanghai.
Your issue of the 15th June, 1907 (which has only just been shown to me), contains a Jetter from the Austrian State Railways mechanical engineer pointing out that on the Shanghai Nanking Ry., coaches and short wagons had been adopted fitted with the American automatic buffer coupling, and pointing out troubles which were probably in store for that railway on this account. It may be of interest to your readers to have the actual results. Prior to the stock being supplied the particular requirements of the case were very carefully considered, and the effect on the buffers between all classes of stock in traversing the minimum permissible curves or turnout,; both on the direct curve and reverse curves elucidated. As all railway men are aware it is extremely difficult to provide and maintain transition curves and straights in all cases, and the above direct reverse curve sooner or later comes into existence. The net amount of clearance theoretically found necessary was provided, and the initial small flexibility in the couplers themselves was left to provide for bad running conditions and working clearances. A powerful centralising device and coupling beam was evolved and springs of round section and ample strength provided. From the opening of the railway to date no difficulty of any nature whatsoever has been encountered attributable to the buffer couplings. The running is free and sweet and the side gear tends to steady the stock at high speeds. Owing to certain labour problems the gear was removed from a number of wagons in the early days, but this has been, or is being, reinstated without alteration.

F.B.D.H.
When pulling up the reversing lever of a locomotive it is agreed that the travel of the spindles is shortened. I should like to know whether that has the effect of shortening the travel of the eccentric straps or not. if not, what effect does it have on the eccentric straps?
The Editor responded: The reversing gear of the engine is evidently of the two eccentric, or link motion, type, having two eccentrics keyed on to the axle in such positions that one actuates the valve so that the engine moves forwards and the other so that it may move backwards. These two eccentrics are coupled by means of eccentric rods to the top and bottom respectively of a slot link. If now this link is moved so that the quadrant block in it is near to one eccentric rod, the full effect of the movement of the rod to which it is nearest will be transmitted to the valve rod or spindle. The effect of the other eccentric rod's movements is comparatively little, as it is more remote from the quadrant block. When the gear is moved so that the quadrant block occupies a place more towards the middle of the slot link, the effect of the movement of each eccentric rod is felt by the valve spindle and as one eccentric rod is being pushed forwards while the other is being pulled back the effect upon the movement of the valve spindle will be equal to the difference between these two movements. . Thus it will be seen that if one rod moved forwards exactly at the same rate as the other moved backwards and the link was so placed that the quadrant block was midway in it, the effect on it would be nil, that is the valve would be stationary. It very seldom happens that this is the case, as the rods and link are short, so that there is always some movement. to the valve spindle when the engine is moving. When the axle has turned so that both of the eccentrics are above the axle, as is the case when the crank is on and near the bottom centre, both of the eccentrics are travelling in the same direction and both help to move the link and valve, and so they will when both eccentrics are below, as when the crank is on and near the top ccntre. The valve spindle and valve will therefore have definite movements while the crank is passing through these positions, Midway between these positions of the cranks there will be positions in which the eccentrics are travelling in opposite directions with regard to the valve. so that one pushes and the other pulls the valve spindle and its movement is only equal to the difference between their movements. The moving of the reversing gear has no effect whatever on the travel or any other movements of the eccentrics themselves, they move exactly the same in any case, but the effect of their movement is made different by reason of one interfering with the other's effect. see also H. Pfeiffer p. 264.

No. 240 (15 August 1912)

Our supplement. Four-cylinder 4-6-0 express locomotive No. 4023 King George, Gt. Western Ry. 159 + col. plate on facing page
King George, a coloured plate supplement with this issue, was one of a series of ten four-cylinder express engines built at Swindon in 1909 to the designs of G. J. Churchward, chief mechanical engineer of the G.W.R. These engines are very similar to the other classes of four-cylinder engines on the G.W.R. They were used on all the heavy trains, which seldom consist of less than eight bogie vehicles and more frequently of twelve. The Irish boat trains between Paddington and Fishguard (261½ miles) worked through regularly by one engine of this type. They were fitted with the Swindon superheater. The following leading particulars: Cylinders 14½in. by 26-in; driving wheels 6ft. 8½in. diameter. working pressure 225  psi; tota1 heating surface: 2014.4ft2.; grate area 27.07ft2. The weights, wheelbase and other particulars of these engines were given in 15 July 1909, issue, as well as a list of the numbers and names.

Great Western Ry. 159.
New engines ot the Court, class, 4-6-0 type, were 2946 Langford Court, 2947 Madresfield Court, 2948 Stackpole Court, 2949 Stanford Court, 2950 Taplow Court, 2944 is Highnam Court and not Higham Court as stated in our June issue. Nos. 181 Ivanhoe and 187 Bride of Lammermoor have been altered from 4-4-2 to 4-6-0 type. New 4-4-2 tank engines of the  2221 class with 6ft. 8in. coupled wheels were Nos. 2241-2. , On 12 July the Swindon Mechanics' trip took place, 24 special trains conveying 25,784 people were despatched, over 10,000 going to the West of England.

North Eastern Ry. 159. illus.
Photograph showed latest type of 4-6-0 superheater express goods engines (No. 797) designed by Vincent L. Raven, chief mechanical engineer. Ten had been completed at Darlington. The principal dimensions were: cylinders 20in. x 26in. with piston valves ; coupled wheels 6-ft. 1¼in. diameter; total heating surface 1,821 ft2.; fire grate area 23 ft2..; capacity oftender tanks 3.940 gallons; coal space 5 tons; tender fitted with water pick-up; total weight of engine in working order 68 tons 17 cwt., total weight of tender in working order 41 tons 2 cwt., total 109 tons 19 cwt.~ The numbers were given in our January issue. All were painted green except No. 797, which was black.

Twelve-coupled tank locomotive, Java State Rys. 163. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Designed and built by Hannoversche Machinenbau-Actien Gesselschaft of Linden, Hannover for Dutch East Indian Rys. 2-12-2 designated the Javanic type. The four middle axles had no side play, but first and sixth coupled axles were arranged on Golsdorf system. The leading and trailing trucks were Adams type. The tanks were arranged as a T-shaped cross section beneath the boiler between the frames. The engine was equipped with Schmidt superheater, Marcotty's smake consuming firedoor and Riggenbach steam brake. The cylinders were 540 x 510 mm, coupled wheels 1102 mm, grate area 2.6m2 and total heating surface 167.5m2. The gauge is 3ft 6in.

Scourfield, O.H.P. The Pembroke and Tenby Ry. 164-6. 4 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Absorbed into the GWR in June 1897 the railway had been an independent standard gauge line which opened from Pembroke to Tenby in August 1863, and reached Whitland in September 1866. In June 1868 the LNWR reached Carmarthen and the GWR laid an additional rail on its broad gauge which lasted until May 1872 when the broad gauge was abolished in West Wales. The locomotives were predominantly supplied by Sharp Strewart, and in the case of the 0-6-0 and 2-4-0 were identical to ones supplied to the Furness and Cambrian Railways. There were three 0-6-0s: Owen WN 1712/1866; Davies WN 1844/1868 and Tenby WN 2230/1872: these had 4ft 6in coupled wheels.  There was also a 2-4-0 passenger locomotive Pembroke WN 1845/1868, and two 2-2-2T with 5ft driving wheels, outside frames and inside cylinders (12 x 18in). These were Milford WN 1410/1863 and Tenby WN 1411/1863. Following the amalgamation Pembroke worked on the Didcot, Newbury and Winchester line where it received the number 1361. A small goods locomotive Llandinam is mentioned, but not described. The Llandinam's connection with the line was comparatively short. In the early 1880s two much larger engines came from the GWR and were given P. & T.R. numbers and named. One was a double-framed four-coupled engine of the 3201 class, with 5ft. 1in. driving wheels and 17in. by 26in. cylinders, built in December, 1884, and was named Stella. As the turntables were too short for this engine with the Swindon tender, an exchange was made with a goods engine, the latter taking the tender from the Stella. The other engine was a Swindon-built six-coupled single-framed side tank, built in 1882, and bore the name Holmwood. Both these engines kept their names when they reverted to the GWR and took the same numbers as they had before, i.e., Stella No. 3201 and Holmwood 1813. Holmwood was rebuilt as a saddle tank. Two of the seven P. & T. engines taken over were numbered into GWR stock when the line was absorbed: Milford became No. 1360 and. Pembroke No. .1361. See also letter from W.P. Martin page 246..

Great Northern Ry. 166.
Royal Specials conveying the King and Queen to Yorkshire and Grimsby for the opening of Immingham Dock were hauled by Atlantic No. 1442 which was painted witha special finish and included the Company's coat of arms on the splasher. Nos. 1602-1605 were the latest 0-6-2Ts. McAlpine had won the contract to construct the railway from Cuffley to Hertingfordbury which included a 2,700 yard tunnel.

Re-turning engine tyres in a running shed. 167-8. 10 diagrs.

Shire Highlands Ry. (Nyasaland) 4-8-0 locomotive. 168. illus.
Hunslet Engine Co.

Consolidation type locomotive, Northern Ry. of France. 170. diagr. (s. el).
2-8-0 tender engines designed under Asselin, but of de Glehn du Bousquet 4-cylinder compound type with Schmidt superheaters. High pressure cylinders: 420mm x 640mm. Low pressure 570 x 700mm. Coupled wheels 1.55m. Serve tubes; ths 212.98m2; grate area 3.22m2. bp 16kg/cm2.

The Diesel locomotive. 171. diagr. (s. el.section)
Built by Borsig: four-cylinder two-stroke 4-4-4 with direct drive. Small boiler to provvide heating. Suggests mmight be suitable for Indo-Persian Ry where there was a total lack of water.

Victorian Rys. 171.
McKeen rail motor cars imported from USA. Petrol engines. Shipped to Sydney. Had steel bodies with appearance of upturned boat and bogies. Assembled at Wadonga. Capable of ascending 1 in 40 and attaining 45 mile/h.

Victorian Rys: Newport Works. 171.
Victoria Railways intended to construct 70 locomotives per annum including an express 4-6-0 and a general purpose 4-6-0 and a 4-6-2T for suburban services.

35/40 h.p. oil locomotive for India. 172.
2ft 6in gauge supplied via Messrs Ironside, Son & Dykerhoff

The automatic regulation of feed water supply for steam boilers. 172-3. diagr.
Patented device supplied via Ronald Trist & Co.

[Antofagasta (Chile) & Bolivia Ry.]. 173.
Six Kitson-Meyer articulated ordered from Beyer Peacock

Wiener, L. The locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway, Brazil. 174-5. illus.
Continued from page 146. Baldwin 4-4-0: WN 7476-7/1884 and 8104-5/1886. Notes that European locomotives burned less fuel, but were far less robust. American bogies were suited to poor track, American firebox steel appeared to be of higher qulaity than European.

Steel sorting racks for mail vans. illus., diagr. (s. el. and plan). 175-6.
Racks supplied by Adjustable Shelving & Metal Construction of London to Indian Government for use on trains like the Punjab Mail.

Railway carriage and wagon building. II. — The machines of the saw mill. 176.

Midland Ry. 176.
Fifty further locomotives to be fitted with Schmidt superheater.

Novel waiting room. 177. illus.
London office of Cravens Ltd furnished like the interior of one of the Pullman cars supplied by this firm replete with arm chairs, table lamps, etc.

Reviews. 177.

Notes on railway signalling.': by J. Parsons and B. W. Cooke. 74- pages, 7t DY 5, 2S. 6d. .ber,and London.. The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd. ck at an
This is an elementary handbook on the practical side of signalling, and is written with the object of giving e method 5fl a concise form a general idea of the methods and t and an ],ppliances adopted in this country for signalling rail'bricating \vays. The first thirteen pages briefly review the progress wed that :lIlade in signalling from the earliest days to 1890, at ,"in what 'which date all the main principJ.es on which modern the saw Isignalling is based were established. ' ,n of the Modern semaphores and signal posts are next dealt ,y, a con- ~with, followed by" calling on" arms, various forms of ed. The (sh.unting signals, point connections, facing point locks -in. with land detectors and locking apparatus. Interesting :-ft. 6-in. .chapters are those on the interlocking of a station and reparin 0" !a junction, and the block system. Single line working Igenerally land the distinguishing of distant signals at night are 1. It is lalso treated upon. The authors have dealt in oplain eans of Istraightfonvard language with what is, to the majority, \a complicated subject, and the book may well be Irecommended to railway students. In addition to over !7° illustrations it contains a frontispiece and four . 'folding plates. . omotlves addition

Pitman's railway phrase book and guide. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.
Useful guide book to the adaptation of Pitman's shorthand to railway clerical work; including specimen correspondence.

Diary of a roundhouse foreman." By T. S. Reilly. New York.. The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. 132, Nassau Street. Price $1.
In this book the author gives a good description of the duties of a district locomotive superintendent or "roundhouse foreman" on a Transatlantic line. The characteristics of Western railway men and their life and work are written in the typicaL American idiom by a man who is often relating incidents and stories which have passed under his personal observation in his own actual railway experience. In dealing with the general idea of successful shed 'management many wise and often humorous suggestions for handling men are included in the troubles and triumphs of the young machinist, who has, for the author's purpose, been placed in charge ofa division. From cover to cover the book is full of funny incidents of railway work in America.

Standard forms' of field notes for civil engineers,". By C.C. Anthony. London: Hill Publishing Co., Ltd.
With the idea of simplifying the forms .for notetaking on surveys, this little book has been compiled. The instructions given will enable the engineer to record the results of a survey in a neat and workmanlike manner. Specimen sketches of railway construction work and examples of notes taken from actual surveys in the United Sates are included.

The model railway handbook." By W. J. Bassett-Lowke. 6d. net. LOlldon: Bassett-Lowke, Ltd.
This is the fourth edition of 'this complete handbook on model locomotives and modern railway equipment, including designs for rail formations and notes on laying model permanent way and signalling. The correct models of locomotives and stock of which the writer's firm make a speciality have done much to raise enthusiasm in this hobby, the pleasure to be obtained from which is unlimited. To purchasers of model railway supplies this little book will prove a useful guide.

W. J. Coe appointed Chief of Stores to the Brazil Ry. Co., in London.  177.

Dermatine. 178.
WE recently had an opportunity;of going throug-h the works of the Dermatine Compimy at Camberwell, who supply several specialities of interest to locomotive eng-ineers. :', The New Patent Anchor Gun Metal bushes are used for both flexible and hard valves; As will be seen from the illustration, the bush is embedded and vulcanised into the valve in such. a manner that it is c1aiined it cannot under any conditions work 10Qse. In the case of flexible valves the frames are hinged so as to give flexibility in the valve"

Dermatine hose is particularly suitable for railway use. It is not affected by climate like rubber and' can be, made to s1and very high pressures. It is claimed that Dermatine Steam Hose will stand higher temperatures than rubber and has been used extensively for steam heat couplings. The Dermatine inadhesive packing ring for stop valves. throttle valves, locomotive regulators, injectors, etc., has had severe tests and is to be recommended. This ring will not stick to the spindle no matter how long the valve may stand without being moved, therefore it does not suffer from removal, nor cause injury to the spindle.

Correspondence. 178.

W.G.W.
The main dimensions of the load limits of the Continental Rys. referred to are as under: Germany, Luxemburg, Servia and Bulgaria: height 4,300 mm., width overall 3,050 mm.; Belgian State: height 4,500 mm., width overall 3,150 mm. with a few minor exceptions of smaller gauges on branches, principally in the Charleroi district. Nord-Belge and Nord of France: height 4,280 mm. , width overall 3,250 mm.

D. Lewars.
Advantage of working the G.W. and G.C. rail motors by electric motors driven by a petrol engine instead of by a direct drive off the petrol engine lies in that - the petrol engine is often not sufficiently flexible for the requirements of heavy railway service; and again, this petrol-electric system. dispenses ,with the gearbox and clutch with its necessary complications.

Bernard De Nevers:
The 0-6-0 tank engine No.751 working the S.E. & C.R. motor service on the Beckenham branch, was purchased from the L.B. & S.C. Ry.

Metropolitan Ry. 178
The foundation stone of the new Baker St. station was laid on Wednesday, 24 July 1912. by Lord Aberconway, chairman of the Metropolitan Ry. The proceedings took place in a large marquee in the Marylebone Road, the company numbering about 150, including all the Directors and leading officials of the line. .The new buildings will be 85 feet in height and extend over 4,00 feet along the Marylebone Road, from.Upper Baker St. to Allsop Place, with return frontages of 70 feet to these streets. The ferro-concrete station building will have a 200 feet frontage and contain a booking hall 32-ft. by 16-ft ; circulating area 77-ft. by 46-ft.; booking office 33-ft. by 16-ft.; cloak room, refreshment room, tea room, various offices and parcels yard and offices. There will be two island platforms on the St. John's Wood line 375 feet lon:g by 35 feet wide, and four sets of rails. The two middle sets will be through lines to the City, while the outside lines will be terminal or bay roads.

Midland-Tilbury purchase. 178.
The Midland Ry. Bill for the purchase of the London, Tilbury & Southend Ry. had been passed by Parliament. The Tilbury line will thus form part of the Midland system, which will now be able to secure a commanding position for a Continentai steamer service, having its own lines direct from the manufacturing districts of the Midlands to Tilbury and Thames Haven. As far as Tilbury is concerned' the G.N.R.had secured running powers after much opposition from the Midland.

No. 241 (14 September 1912)

Chinese Government Rys., Atlantic type express locomotive.. 179.
For Taokow-Chinghua section of the Chinese Government Rys. the fine Atlantic type express engine illustrated on this page has been built by Kerr, Stuart & Co., Ltd., of Stoke-on-Trent, to the design and specification of Donald Fraser, locomotive superintendent of the railway. The cylinders were 19-in. diameter with a 24-in. stroke, placed outside the frames and fitted with outside admission piston valves. Some of the leading particulars are as follows :-coupled wheels diameter 6-ft., bogie wheels 3-ft., trailing wheels 3-ft. 7-in.; working pressure of boiler 150 psi., boiler barrel 4-ft. 9-in. diameter outside, length 15-ft. - l0-in.; heating surface, firebox, 132.35 ft2., 193 tubes 1,843.65 ft2, total 1,976  ft2; firegrate area 35 ft2.; total weight of engine and tender in working order 120 tons. Special equipment included Westinghouse quick-acting automatic brake, Westinghouse steam heating for the train, Holden & Brooke's steam sanding gear in front ot the leading driving' wheels, Gresham's' No. 9 combination injector, Cape Asbestos Co.'s lagging. United Kingdom Metallic Packing Co.'s self-adjusting metallic packing, Laycock's patent automatic centre couplers, Dayton Manufacturing Co.'s acetylene gas headlamps with "Mosher" gas generator and Smith's combined lubricator and cylinder vacuum destroying valves. The tender is carried on two four-wheeled bogies, with 3-ft. 1-in. wheels, 5-ft. wheelbase and 11-ft bogie centres. It has capacities for 4,250 gallons of water and 5 tons of fuel. The gauge of the Chinese Rys. is standard; 4-ft. 8½-in.

London & South Western Ry. 179.
Three of the five 4-4-0 express engines with 19½in. cylinders are now at work, numbered 463-465, and all five of the 4-6-0 type, Nos. 455-462 have been completed and put into service. Nos. 443-459 and 462 are now fitted with the new 6000 gallon tenders.

London & North Western Ry.. 179
The first five of a new series of 4-6-2 passenger tank locos., having cylinders 20in. by 26in., Schmidt superheaters and Wakefield mechanical lubricators, have just been completed at Crewe, Nos. 91, 375, 376,716 and 915. They replace 0-6-0 coal engines of Mr. Webb's design, which had been placed in the duplicate list. No. 1746 was the latest 0-8-0 mineral engine with Schmidt superheater in service. A further series of the latter class has been put on order. A further two 4ft. 6in. 2-4-2 passenger tanks had been adapted for motor service, Nos. 781 and 907.

Great Northern Ry. 180
Nos. 71, 72 and 73 were new 0-6-0 superheater goods engines, like 521 to 535, but with 5ft. 8in. diameter driving wheels, chimneys like the Atlantics and slight modifications to the cabs. No. 1163, 0-6-0 goods, built by Dubs in 1901, had been rebuilt with a large boiler similar to that fitted to the 31 class. Nos. 407 and 410, 0-8-0 mineral engines, had been equipped with Schmidt superheaters. In addition to the five 0-4-4 Stirling side tanks mentioned in the June issue, No. 824 should be included as having been rebuilt with a domed boiler in 1909.
Nos. 95, 8ft.single, and 880, 7ft. 6in. single, had recently been. broken up, as well as a number of of 2-4-0 and 0-4-2 tender engines. There were still seven 8ft. singles at work.
Nos. 1592 to 1595, 0-6-2 tanks, were in the Bradford district.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 180. illus.
Three more 4-4-2 tanks, Nos. 83, 84 and 85, were at work. These as well as No. 82 mentioned in our July issue were fitted with Schmidt superheaters and Weir pumps. The following D tanks were being fitted with the latest design of boiler: Nos. 254, 275 and 626. No. 546 is a rebuilt goods engine built by the Vulcan Foundry. Nos. 476, 485, 495 and 579, radial tanks, have been rebuilt with larger boilers, extended smokeboxes, etc. Illustration of No. 59, the engine which had been fitted with Phoenix superheater. The smokebox was 6-ft. in diameter. The ordinary flat slide valves were retained.

London, Tilbury & Southend Railway. 180.
The official title for this system is now Midland Ry. Co.-Tilbury section. The new Baltic tank engines are to have Midland numbers in the 2000s, and will be painted crimson lake.

Midland Ry. 180.
A number of the 7ft. coupled 4-4-0 express engines with piston valves are again being completely rebuilt at Derby with the addition of Schmidt superheaters. The new modifications also inc1ude an alteration to the splashers to look like those of the three-cylinder compounds. Brake blocks are also fitted to the bogie wheels; fluted coupling rods were fitted. The engines at present marked out for alteration as above are Nos. 483 to 522, and of these Nos. 483, 488, 490, 492, 493, 494, 502, 503, 505, 508, 515, 520 and 522 were already at work.

Waterford & Tramore Ry. 180.
We are sorry to hear that it has been decided to scrap the old Bury locomotive No.4. belonging to this line. This interesting- old engine was illustrated from photos by the Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd., in this journal in December, 1900, and again in April, 1908. It was withdrawn from service about seven years ago, since when it has been stored in the workshops at the Manor Station, Waterford. All lovers of bygone locomotives will regret that this relic can no longer be preserved for a railway museum.

Cambrian Rys. 180.
Doubling the main line between Newtown and Moat Lane Junction, 4½ miles completed and opened for traffic.

New 4-6-0 Great Central Ry. locomotive. 181. diagr. (s & f. els. sections)
6ft 9in coupled wheels, 21½in x 26in cylinders with piston valves, 2816.88ft2 total heating surface (including superheater), 26ft2 grate area.

Oudh & Rohilkund Ry. 181.
T. Gregson appointed locomotive superintendent based at Lucknow.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 181.
Announcement of future (25 September 1912) presentation of Frank A. Wardlaw's paper on The use of composite valves in locomotive operation.

Londonderry & Lough Swilly Railway. 182. diagr. (s. sel.)
4-8-4T: details provided by I. Sutcliffe, locomotive engineer. 3ft 9in coupled wheels, 16 x 20in cylinders with balanced slide valves and Walschaerts valve gear and a Belpaire boiler with 1063ft2 total heating surace and 17ft2 grate area.

Duplex petroleum locomotives. 182. illus.
Otto

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Ry. 183-4. 4 diagrs. (s. els.)
Figs 234-7

New locomotives, Northern Ry of France. 184. diagr. (s. el.)
Société Alsacienne of Belfort supplied 3.1151-1170 4-cylinder de Glehn compounds with Schmidt superheaters and separate valve gear for each cylinder. High pressure 163/8 x 263/8; low pressure 235/8 x 263/8. 6ft 8½ coupled wheels. 25/8in. Serve tubes. 2327ft2 total heating surface and 33.9ft2 grate area. 227 psi boiler pressure. Brief mention of two powerful 2-10-0 (described as Decapod) locomotives constructed at La Chapelle Works and at Hellemes near Lille designed by G. Asselin. No. 5.001 was a four-cylinder de Glehn compound and No. 5.002 was a four-cylinder simple. The boilers were manufactured by Henschel in Cassel, Germany. A Baltic locomotive had succeeded in cutting the time of 3hr 20min by half an hour on the Paris to Calais Rapide. The water tube boiler 4-4-4 was being rebuilt as a 4-6-0 with 6ft 6¾in coupled wheels and a conventional boiler with a grate area of 35ft2.

A fine superheater exhibit. 184.
Great Central Railway locomotive with Robinson superheater exhibit at Latin-British Exhibition at Shepherd's Bush.

Articulated tank locomotive, Nitrate Railways. 185.
Two locomotives supplied by Yorkshire Engine Co. 0-6-6-0T of Meyer type to work between Iquique and Carpas 19½ miles over 1 in 35 gradients and 300ft radius caurves. 3ft 9in couped wheels; 17 x 22in. cylinders; 2306 total heating surface; Belpaire boiler; grate area 39.32

Midland Ry, 185.
Bedford to Hitchin singled

Great Northern Ry (Ireland). 185.
Several engines painted black instead of green

The Weir system of feed water heating for locomotives. 186-8. illus., 2 diagrs.
G. & J. Weir of Cathcart. Established supplier of marine feed water pumps. Extended business to supply pumps to railways in hot countries: Indian State Railways, Bombay Baroda & Central India Railway, Central South African Railway and Egyptian State Railways. In 1868 the LNWR fitted Perseus with a feed pump. The Midland Railway had fitted an express 4-4-0 (diagram: side elevation). The SECR had fitted No. 746; the Glasgow & South Western Railway Nos. 129 and 389, and the LBSCR 4-4-2T No. 82 (illustrated).

Swiss Federal Railways, new locomotives. 188-9.
Four-cylinder compound 4-6-0 built Swiss Locomotive Works, Winterthur: No. 605 illustrated. Series A 3/5 603-616 to work heavy trains between Geneva and Brigue on the Simplon route, Lausanne and Berne, and Zurich, St. Gall and St. Margrethen. No. 616 was shown at the Turin Exhibition in 1911. On test one hauled 445 tons from St. Maurice to Brigue, developing 1450 horse power on coal consumption of 2.4 lb per hp/h. Hp cylinders 425 mm and lp 630mm x 660mm. Coupled wheels 1780 mm; total heating surface 202.3m2 plus 40.7m2 for superheater; grate area 2.8m2; boiler pressure 14kg. On test hauled 445 tons from St. Maurice to Brigue 94 km achieving 1450 hp with a coal consumption of 2.4 lb/hp hour.Also 2-6-2T for suburban service with Schmidt superheater. Type E 3/5 5801-5816. Cylinders 520 x 600 coupled wheels 1520; total heating surface 153.3m2; grate area 2.3m2; boiler pressure 12kg. Walschaerts valve gear with rocking shafts. Coal consumption reduced by 3.9-6.5% by superheating

French State Rys. 189.
Non-stop train de luxe Paris Gare St. Lazare to Trouville-Deauville dep. 15.45 arrive 18.29: 220 km  2hr 32 min.

Wiener, L. The locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway, Brazil. 189-91.
In 1885 the Baldwin Works supplied three standard 14in cylinder 2-6-0 to the PAUR Nos. 18-20. These were joined by Baldwin 2-4-2ST and 4-4-0 and by larger 2-6-0s.

Foundation and firehole rings. 192-4. 6 diagrs.

London, Tilbury & Southend Railway vacuum cleaning van. 194-5. 2 illus., diagr.
Gardner petrol engine set in a well

Barker, W.J. Some fragmentary notes on N.E. Ry. engines, old and new. No. 1. 196. 2 illus.
2-4-0 No. 1068 was originally built for the Stockton & Darlington Railway under Bouch at North Road Works, Darlington in 1875 and was shown at the celebratory Exhibition on 27 September 1875. It had 6ft coupled wheels; 17 x 26in cylinders; 1100ft2 total heating surface; working pressure 140 psi, and was fitted with Bouch's steam retarder. The other illus. shows No. 1248 also built for the Stockton & Darlington Railway under Bouch by Hopkins, Gilkes & Co. in March 1873. It was a long boiler 0-6-0 with 5ft coupled wheels and 17 x 26in cylinders.

Coupling rod brasses. 196-7. diagr.

The Ragonnet steam reversing gear. 197. diagr.

The Tickhill Light Ry. 197.
Connected GNR main line at Bawtry with GN & GE Joint at Haxey: single track. Opened Monday 26 August 1912.

Stratford Works, fifty years ago. 198. illus.
Photograph taken c1862 by George Spencer, founder of George Spencer Moulton & Co. Ltd. Dismantled locomotives including parts from a Longridge single, a Sharp single, a Slaughter single and a Jones & Potts rear single (Nos. 91-7)

Railway carriage and wagon building: the machines in the saw mill. III—Preparing machinery for marking off. 199-200. illus.
Planing and matching machine

Correspondence. 201.

Old G.W.R. engines. O.H.P. Scourfield.  201.
I wish some of your correspondents could give particulars of certain very old engines of Sir D. Gooch's design, still in use on the G.W. These are the 6ft. 6in. coupled 69-76 Avon, 49-56 Chancellor classes, and the 4ft. 6in. and 5ft. six-coupled goods. All four classes had sandwich frames with outside. bearings. "There can be scarcely any engines in the kingdom of so old a date, the Chancellors, though the newest, dating from 1862, and the others from 1855 downwards." It seems strange that engines with sandwich frames are not built nowadays, as their durability seems so great. The engines I allude to have seen generations of locomotives come and go; yet the Avons have only lately been rebuilt with Belpaire fireboxes, even No. 76 Wye which was so damaged in the collision, some years ago, near Chippenham, that it was announced that she was to be broken up, is "alive," and certainly not "kicking," but going smoothly. The rebuilding plates on all these engines are very misleading, as I was assured that, in many cases, the old frames still exist. Hoping to hear something more about these venerable, but still efficient, engines,

3-cylinder compound locomotives. Chas. W. Dauncey.  201
Your contributor, G.C. Schultz, is to be congratulated on his most interesting article on the above subject. It seems to me, however. that the engines under consideration are interesting chiefly on account of the fact that so few have been built. In view of modern practice it would appear that the "economy" supposed to be due to compounding is a negligible quantity. I have it on good authority that the economy of the Midland compound engines is, as near as can be estimated, 7%, when compared with the 700 class simple 4-4-0 engines; and this is not considered to be sufficient to warrant the perpetuation of the compounds. The rebuilt super'heater 4-4-0 engines are, I understand, giving excellent results, and new engines will probably be of the simple type, with superheaters. The compounds will then have to take a back seat. ; The present chief mechanical engineer of the Midland Railway, Henry Fowler, is by no means prejudiced against compound locomotives, for, at a meeting of the Institution of Civil Engineers he expressed his satisfaction of the Midland compounds. I have for many years followed locomotive practice in this and other countries, and am convinced that, so far as England is concerned, compound locomotives are as dead as mutton.

Locomotives of the Great Eastern Ry. Chas. Macallan. 201
Whilst looking through some of the back Nos. of the Locomotive Magazine, re the G.E. Locomotives, came across the following: "No. 24 Norfolk Ry., no trace as having been taken over by the Eastern Counties Ry." This engine was taken over with the rest of the Norfolk stock and put into the surplus stock of the E.C. in 1850, and sold to the Royal Danish Railway during June, 1853, being forwarded to Lowestoft for shipment to Tonning. Mr. Gooch appears to have had dealings with the R.D.R. stock, as a tank engine, No. 349, seems to have run on the Lowestoft and. Fakenham branches during July, 1854-, and R.D.R. carriages were run on the London and Norwich express during 1854, previous to their dispatch to Tonning. "Nos. 162, 164 and 169, E.C.R., no trace as having been received by the E:C.R." These three engines were received as follows: No. 162 December, 1847. No. 164 February, 1848, and No. 169 ApriJ, 1848, and were taken by Messrs. Longridge as part payment for tank engines Nos. 4,5 and 6, during February, 1851. No. 167 and all the class were put into the surplus stock in 1850. The charge against them was the enormous coke consumption, 60 to 80 lb. per mile, and owing to the unequal distribution of weight, they did considerable damage to the road, their oscillation being considered dangerous and excessive. These evils were corrected by means of compensating levers and feed water heaters during 1853 and 1854.

The Furness Ry. 201
Were issuing a further series of photo postcards of their past and present rolling stock and the Barrow and Fleetwood steamers. There were three packets, each containing six cards: Series 18: Rolling stock, including photos of old single dr:iver tank engine No. 35, four-coupled Bury locomotive No. 3, the Duke of Devonshire's old saloon, rail motor and trailer, old train and inspection car. Series No. 19: Specimens of the present day locomotives and carriages. Series No. 20: The Barrow and Fleetwood steamers Lady Evelyn and Lady Moyra.

Obituary. 201.
Death of J.W. Howard, late general manager Gloucester Railway Carriage and Wagon  Co, Ltd., which occurred in New Zealand on 14th August following an attack of influenza. Howard received his early training in the Stratord shops of the G.E.R., and was afterwards :onnected with Messrs. John Spencer & Son, of Newburn, Newcastle-on- Tyne. He went to the Gloucester Wagon Works as assistant manager in 1894, and succeeded Alfred Slater as General manager ten years later. He resigned his position in early 1911 owing to ill-health.

No. 242 (15 October 1912)

Railway notes. 203.

Nigerian State Ry. 203; 204. illus., diagr. (s. el).
Photograph and diagram, of one of several 4-8-0 superheater engines, built for the Southern Nigerian (Lagos Govt.) Ry. by Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., Ltd., Patricroft, near Manchester. These engines will be the first to arrive in Nigeria since the amalgamation of the Northern and Southern Nigerian Rys. into the Nigerian State Railway. The linking up of the two systems was nearly complete. The main line of the S.N.R. is from the port of Lagos to the Niger River at Jebba, 306 miles: the river to be spanned by bridges on the north and south channels ot Jebba Island to make connection with the Northern Nigerian line, which runs in a northerly direction to a junction with the Baro-Kano line at Minna. 467 miles from Lagos. During the building of the bridge the Niger was crossed by a ferry steamer. Thirty hours was time occupied by the weekly mail train, which would connect with both the outward and homeward mail steamers at Lagos. The train consisted of saloon carriages with sleeping accommodation, lavatories and bathrooms, and fitted with electric light and fans. A restaurant car was run on this train. The gauge is 3ft. 6in. and the permanent way consists of rails 50 and 55 lb. to the yard, and the worst gradient on the main line is 1 in 80, and on the branches 1 in 50. Axle loads limited to 10 tons. The engines had large boilers with Belpaire fireboxes, and the cabs had double roofs. The 18in x 23in cylinders drove on to the second pair of coupled wheels were operated by Walschaerts gear. The Belpaire boiler was equipped with Schmidt superheater and had a total heating surface of 1048ft2. Grate area, 17.5ft2. Working pressure, 160 psi. Total weight in working order of the engine is 49 tons 16 cwt., and of the tender 24 tons 19t cwt. 4-8-0 No. 259 illustrated.

Midland Ry., Tilbury Section. 203.
L.T. & S R. engine No. 66 Shoeburyness had been repainted crimson, and numbered 2 173 in large numerals on the side tanks.

Midland Ry. 203.
In addition to the engines mentioned in the September issue of the Magazine, Nos. 495, 501, 504 and 509 had also been completely rebuilt with Schmidt superheaters. We understand that some of the 700 class are also to be similarly equipped.

Great Central Ry.  203.
New 2-8-0 superheater mineral engines had entered service. The following were built at Gorton Works: Nos. 966, 331 to 335, 26, 69, 102, 346 to 350, 402 to 408. Kitson & Co. had almost completed delivery of 20 of this class, Nos. 1183 to 1202, and the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. had delivered 1203 to 1218, part of an order for 20 more, being built at Hyde Park Works.

London & North Western Ry. 204.
A further five 4-6-2 passenger tank engines, with Schmidt superheaters, completed at Crewe, Nos. 327, 704, 932, 944, 962, 858 and 2004. The two latter replace the 6ft. 6in. Jumbos Sir Salar Jung and Witch, which were scrapped. The other numbers were those of Webb 0-6-0 coal engines, renumbered in to the 3000 list. A further five engines of the above-mentioned type are nearing completion, Nos. 811, 963, 1006, 1021 and 1184. No. 2534, three-cylinsIer compound mineral engine, had been converted to simple with 18½in. cylinders and small boiler. Several Whale 4-4-0 Precursor passenger engines were being fitted with superheaters, and No. 561 Antceus had been provided with new coupled wheels having large bosses and half-moon balance weights. No. 975 is the latest 2-4-2 passenger tank engine to ba adapted for motor service, and No. 1184 of the same type has been broken up. No. 1529 Cook, the engine in the recent terrible disaster at Ditton Junction, was to be broken up.

Garratt Locomotives for the Tasmanian Government Railways. 204-5. 2 illus.
The first Garratt locomotive was built for the 2ft. gauge section of the Tasmanian Government Rys. in 1909. This engine has proved so satisfactory in service that two passenger and two goods engines have just been constructed on this system for the 3ft. 6in, gauge main line of the Tasmanian Rys. by Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., of Manchester. The principle of the Garratt system is to carry a large boiler by a longitudinal underframe on two steam driven bogies, thus securing a flexible and powerful locomotive with a light axle load. For the passenger engines, each bogie has four cylinders, driving on to one axle with four-coupled driving wheels, a four-wheeled bogie and a two-wheeled truck (4-4-2+2-4-4). The 5ft. driving wheels enable a speed of 50 mile/h. to be attained on the straight parts of the line, with the corridor trains which have lately been introduced on the Tasmanian Rys. The Belpaire boiler was fitted with a Schmidt superheater of 24 elements. Three bushes through the water space would have enabled liquid fuel burners to be fitted, as it was probable that oil fuel would be used on these railways. The grate area was 33.9ft2, superheater 333ft2. total heating surface 2019ft2. Boiler pressure 160 psi.

Superheater mixed traffic locomotive, G.N. Ry. 206. illus., diagr. (s/f els.)PDF

Heavy locomotives for the Londonderry and Lough Swilly Ry. 207-8. 2 illus.PDF

Narrow gauge tank locomotives for India. 208. illus.
Supplied Hunslet to Martin & Co. for use in CalcuttaPDF

Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Ry. 208.PDF

Four-cylinder tandem compound locomotive, Ceinture Ry. of Paris. 209-10. 2 diagrs. including side elevation.
4-6-0T designed by du Bousquet in collaboration with Robaglia, Chief Engineer of the Ceinture Ry. following dynamometer tests. It was possible to switch from tandem to simple working working with a compressed air driven servo-motor attached to the regulator handle.

The first locomotive in South Africa. 210-11.
@@@

Tank locomotive for the Cliffe Hill Granite Co's 2-ft gauge ry. 211-12. illus.
W.G. Bagnall 0-4-2T used on railway with severe gradients (1 in 34 and 1 in 22) and curves on railway which connected quarry to Midland Railway at Bardon Hill. 8 x 12in cylinders; 2ft 0½im coupled wheels; total heating surface 197ft2; grate area 6.66ft2 and 160 psi boiler pressure. Name was Mary.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Ry. 212-13. 4 diagrs. (s. els.)
Figs. 238-41

Highland Ry. 213.
NBL 0-6-4T Nos. 42 and 44. No. 141 Ballindalloch fitted superheater and extended smokebox.

Wiener, L. The locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway, Brazil. 214-15. 3 illus.
@@@

Freight locomotives for the Great Northern Ry of America. 215-16. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
2-8-2 Mikado

Gaiser, F. Some old German locomotives. 217-19. 4 illus.
Tabulates eighteen Crampton type built by Kessler of Esslinger for Hessische Ludwigsbahn between 1860 band 1864. Also illustrates Kopernicus built by E. Kessler of Kahlsruhe in 1848 for the Cologne-Minden Railway.

Glasgow & South Western Ry. 219.
o/c 4-6-0 Nos. 126 and 127. Livery light olive green instead of previous dark blue-green. Narrow black bands with fine white edges. Corners rounded rather than scalloped. Goods engine painted black.

Special wagon for the Great Central Ry. 220. illus.
55ft long bogie well wagon; also bogie wagon for carrying heavy plates

Central London Ry. 220.
Brush Electrical: 24 motor cars, 26 motor trucks, 26 trailer trucks.

Railway carriage and wagon building: the machines in the saw mill. IV—Tenoning, mortising and boring. 221-2. illus.
Illustration of multiple spindle boring and automatic gaining machine

Electric train lighting. The Leeds Forge Company's system (Ferguson Patent). 222-3. 5 diagrs.

[R.W. Tweedy appointed chairman of  Tyer & Co.]. 223

Brown, Myles. Locomotive coal. 224.
Broad specifications, sources of variability and contracts.

New wagon axleguards. 224-5. 2 diagrs.

London, Tilbury and Southend Ry. 225.
British Vacuum Cleaner Co

Bengal-Naagpur Ry. 225.
A.C. Carr succeeded A.S. Bailey as CME

Midland Ry. Northern Counties Committee. 225
2-4-0  No. 46 Phoenix fitted with superheater.

Floods in the Eastern Counties. 225.
The heavy floods on 26 August 1912 in the district around Norwich seriously disorganised the services of the Great Eastern and Midland & Great Northern Joint Rys. Owing to the collapse of a three-arch bridge at Flordon, the Ipswich main line was not re-opened until October 2nd, the Norwich traffic in the meantime being worked via Forncett and Wymondham or Cambridge after August 28th. Cromer and Sheringham were isolated until August 29th and September 3rd respectively. Other sections affected were the Wymondham and Wells (re-opened September 5th partially and throughout on September 10th), the Reedham, Yarmouth and Lowestoft lines via Norwich (re-opened Norwich to Brundall August 30th, Cantley to Reedham September 5th and Brundall to Cantley on October 1st. The Waveney Valley line was soon re-opened between Tivetshall and Harleston, and between Becc1es and Bungay, and on September 30th Harleston to Homersfield; the remainder was opened for through traffic on October 7th, this being the last section affected by the deluge. Other branches which were affected for a few days were the Framlingham branch and Warboys and Ramsey line.
The Midland and Great Northern line was seriously damaged. Two trains and engines were fastened up on the line between North Walsham and Melton Constable for nearly a fortnight. All trains for Yarmouth were sent in the meantime via Sheringham and Runton Junction to North Walsham. Through working was not restored until October 1st.

Reviews. 225-6.

Hungary. Edited for the Royal Hungarian State Rys. by Albert Kain, inspector of the Hungarian State Rys. Published by order of the Royal Hungarian Minister of Commerce at Budapest by Erdelyi.
A copy of the edition de luxe of this beautiful work has been sent us by the Direction of the Royal Hungarian State Rys. It is a magnificent book of 400 pages on art paper, 14½in. by 11½in., and beautifully illustrated with views of the places of interest. Articles by leading authorities are contributed on the trade and industry of Hungary, with an interesting history of the country, as well as notes on the customs and people.
The sections are divided geographically as follows :The Lowlands (Alfold), Western Hungary, the Western, Central and North Eastern Carpathians, the Sea-b0ard, with a chapter at the beginning dealing with the capital, Budapest. The book will prove most instructive and interesting to prospective tourists or travellers to that part of the Continent, as well as to all who wish to be better acquilinted with this enterprising nation of Central Europe. Hungary abounds in natural beauties her railways are the cheapest in Europe, and the proverbial Hungarian welcome is offered to all by the Directors of the State Rys.

Manual of Railway Statistics. G.L. Boag. London, The Railway Gazette. 226.
In this book information is clearly and concisely set out as to the compilation of statistics in railway traffic receipts, as well as data relating to other departments, such as the locomotive, way and works, locomotive running and repairs, carriage and wagon repairs, etc. In the locomotive and some of the other departments, graphic statistics and other diagrams are often required and information as to the best methods of making these out is given. By the new Railway Companies (Accounts and Returns) Act of 1911 it is evident that in future the statistics of railway operation in this country will have to be more comprehensive, and the writer had in view a uniform method of compiJing these returns when writing the book.

Correspondence. 226.

Fredk. Beauchamp.
I am a member of the Improvement Class attached to the G.W.R. Locomotive Department at Southall, and recently purchased for instructional purposes several diagrams of a G.W.R. 4-6-0 express locomotive, as advertised in "The Locomotive Magazine." So far as the general details are concerned the diagrams are very instructive and useful to men who are often working on these and similar classes of engines, but a curious error appears to have crept in, and I have been asked by the clitss to write to you upon th'e subject. These engines are fitted with piston valves of the inside admission type, and the position of the eccentric sheaves relative to the crank should be following the crank at an angle of 90° minus lap plus lead.
If you will refer to the diagram you will see that the eccentric sheaves are at an angle of 90° plus lap plus lead in advance of the crank, being the position for an engine fitted with outside admission piston valves, or slide valves, or inside admission valves, driven through the medium of a rocking shaft by which the motion of the eccentric is reversed. There is certainly a rocking shaft on these engines, but both the inner and outer arms are below the centre of the shaft, and the action of the eccentric is not reversed. The eccentrics being wrongly placed causes the expansion link to be inclinec in the wrong direction also, and, as shown, if the engine is put into a fore gear position the valve will be drawn back, opening the back receiving port to steam, in which case the engine would move in a backwaId direction. If put into back gear the valve would be pushed forward and the front receiving port opened to steam, causing the engine to move ahead. I shalI be g1ad on behalf of my fellow class members to receive a reply from you.-
[We are extremely obliged to our friends on the G.W.R. for pointing out the slip our draughtsrnan has made. and we trust the purchasers of the chart mentioned will take note of Mr Beauchamp's interesting remarks. We regret very much the mistake was not noticed sooner.-ED] See also letter on page 264 from E. Twining

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 226.
On 25 September paper read by F.A. Wardlaw, at St. Bride Institute: The use of composite valves in locomotive operation. C. A. Suffield in the chair. The following took part in the discussion; Whitelegg, Nethercott, Bennett and Lamport. At the conclusion of the paper a Special General Meeting was held for the passing of new and amended rules. The Vice-Chairman, H.W. Garratt, having gone to South America for some time, had resigned and Mr. Wardlaw was elected to fill this position. Lawford Fry was elected to the Council, vice Mr. H. J. Malden, who had resigned.

No. 243 (15 November  1912)

Our Coloured Supplement. New express goods locomotive, Great Northern Ry. 227 + col. plate facing page
Coloured plate this month illustrates No. 1630, the first of the series of ten new mixed traffic locomotives under construction at Doncaster Works, to the designs of H.N. Gresley, locomotive superintendent. In our last issue we gave a dimensioned diagram, with the leading particulars, of these engines, to- which we would refer our readers. It will be noticed that Ivatt's cab, boiler mountings, etc., have been retained, but a novel feature is the raised footplate above the coupled wheels, combined with the Walschaert valve gear and outside cylinders. These engines are fitted with the Schmidt superheater, and the pistons and piston rods have tail rods.

Midland Ry. (Tilbury Section). 227. illus.
Illustration of 0-6.2T radial tank engine No. 2191. Built by Beyer; Peacock & Co., Ltd., to the order of the London, Tilbury &. Southend Ry., and designs of Robert, F H. Whitelegg, locomotive. superintendent. These engines transferred to Midland Ry. and numbered in their stock and painted the usual black of the Midland goods locos. Like the earlier engines of this class, they had 18in. by 26in. cylinders and 5ft. 3in. coupled wheels; total heating surface of 1046ft2. The working pressure was 170 psi, Special equipment included. Holden & Brookes steam sanding gear and Detroit lubricators. As compared with the older engines of this class, the special covers on the coal bunker and the coping at the top of the tanks were novel..

South African Rys. 227.
For working heavy, express.trains on the main lines of the S. A. R. the Vulcan Foundry, Ltd., of Newton-le-Willows have recently supplied Pacific type locomotives, with 19in. by 28in. cylinders and 5ft. 1in. drivers. They have bar frames and Belpaire fireboxes. The total heating surface was 2066ft2. The tenders ran on two four-wheel bogies, carried 4000 gallons of water and 10 tons of coal.

London & North Western Ry. 228.
In our last issue the numbers of the new 4-6-2 tank engines were given out of order. Nos. 327 and 704 are the two first of a batch of seven engines, the others being 841 (not 811 as stated), 963, 1006, 1021, and 1184.Work had commenced on a new series of ten 0-8-0 mineral engines with 20½in. cylinders and Schmidt superheaters. The first of the long expected 4-cylinder passenger engines would be named after the Chairman of the Company and the series would officially be known as the Claughton class. These engines would have 6ft. 9in coupled wheels, four cylinders 16in. by 26in., all driving the leading coupled axle, with Walschaert's valve gear outside: cylinders cast in pairs, one inside and one, outside together joined up on the centre line of the engine, an unusual construction. The Belpaire fireboxes would be pitched rather high, with sloping grates. They would be fitted with Schmidt superheaters. No. 1835, three-cylinder compound mineral engine with 18½in.cylinders and, small boiler was the last of the type to be converted, there being no three-cylinder compounds, either passenger or goods, in service. The following additional 4ft. 6in. 2-4-2 passenger tanks had been adapted for motor service: Nos. 294, 891 and 1072.

Virginian Railway. 228-9. illus.
The Mallet locomotive (illustrated No. 604) was one of four built by the American Locomotive Co., for this line. In working order the engine weighed over 241 tons and with 335 tons. From rail level to the top of the chimney was 16ft. 6in.. The size of the firebox may be appreciated from the second photo, which shows one of the little yard locos., made at. the Schenectady Works, easily accomodated inside. These immense engines were equipped with fire-tube superheaters ot the double-loop type. Vanadium steel had been used for parts subjected to the greatest strain, such as the engine frames, driving wheel tyres, axles, etc. The two high pressure cylinders were 28in. diameter, and provided with piston valves, while the two low pressure had slide valves, and were 44in. in didmeter with a stroke of 32in. The diameter of the first ring of the boiler was 7ft. 4in., and the working pressure 200 psi. Total heating surface 6760ft2. Superheating surface 1310ft2. Coupled wheels were 4ft. 8in. diameter. The firebox was 14ft 6in. long by 9ft. 1in. wide. The firebrick arch was supported by water-tubes passing from the front to the back of the firebox, and these also tended to improve the water circulation of the boiler. These engines claimed to be the largest and most powerful yet constructed, and were capable of exerting a tractive effort of 115,000 lb. which could be increased to 138,000lb. at slow speeds by working the engine simple. They were used on the Deepwater division of the Virginian Railway, the crucial point being between Elmore, and Clark's Gap, a distance of about 14 miles, nearly all on a grade of 1 in 48, with many bad curves. With two of the new locomotives, as helpers, and with one of the earlier Mallets, having 92,000 lb. tractive power at the head, a trains of 3776 Imperial tons could be taken over the grade.

Highland Ry. 229.
The first No. 1 Highland Ry., built in 1855 and named. Raigmore renumbered 29 and then 29A, had been purchased by a Glasgow firm to be broker up.

Italian State Rys. 229. diagr. (s. el.)
Courtesy of Virgilio Affer, of Milan: dimensioned diagram of new Pacific type locomotive (Group 690), illustrated in the Locomotive Magazine for July, 1911:

Canadian Pacific Ry. 229. illus.
A 'trial trip of a 20 h.p. Drewry petrol motorcar was recently made between Montreal and Mont Laurier, the distance for the double trip being 316 miles. On this line there' is a considerable section with ~a 2½% grade, with many sharp curves~ The gradients were taken on top gear at over 20 'm.p~b., a.nd on the level the' speed touched 50 mile/h. For track inspection it can be run at a slow. speed Of about 5 m.p.h. Throughout the run the average was 3° m.p.h., which is a very good performahce on a heavy linp. such as the Laurentian branch of the C.P.R. The'car carries six passengers and is fitted with a fqur-cylinder engine, with three-speed gear and reverse, giving all the speeds in both directions. Two sets of  control- are provided, one at each end.

B.B. &. C.I. Ry. 229.
W.G. Bagnall, Ltd., of Stafford, have received an order for nine locomotives for the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway, 2-ft. 6-in. gauge section. They are all of the 0-6-2 type with 11in. by 15in. cylinders, with six-wheeled tenders.

French State Rys. 230. illus.
Electric car for the suburban electric Paris-Invalides to Versailles line (Rive Gauche) built at the Ivry Works, near Paris.

Eastern Ry. of France, 230
2-10-2 two-cylinder simple engine weighing 119 tons under construction. It will have driving wheels 4-ft. 5-in. diameter.

Dublin & South Eastern Ry. 230
The 2-4-0 tank No. 47 Stillorgan built in 1889 at Canal St. Works, had been rebuilt with larger boiler, standard cab, etc. Three engines of the same type were recently converted to 2-4-2 tanks, viz.. No. 28 St. Lawrence, No. 45 St. Kieran and No. 46 Princess Mary.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 230.
Vulcan goods, Nos. 448 and 549 were now running. rebuilt with large boilers, etc., and Nos. 441 and 542 were nearly finished.

North Eastern Ry. 230.
No. 1172, one of the P3 c1ass goods engines, stationed at Newport-under-Middlesborough, has the number in large white numerals on the smoke box front, and at the back of the tender. It was proposed to treat all N.E. engines in this manner, so that signalmen where necessary, can easily distinguish the numbers of engines. At night a light showed on the number.

Great Eastern. Ry. 230
No. 790, 2-4-2 tank, had been rebuilt with new cab and 180 psi boiler. Nos. 327 to 336 had been converted to 0.6-0 shunters with reversing levers and the steam. brake only. S.D. Holden had resigned the position of Locomotive Superintendent, and been succeeded by A.J. Hill, Locomotive Works Manager.

Avonside Engine Co., Ltd., 230.
Avonside of Bristol, had completed locomotives for Rosario Nitrate Co., Ltd., London Nitrate Co., Ltd., Mersey Docks and Harbour Board, and the Corporation of Calcutta: the last being heavy saddle tank engines.

Victorian Rys. 230.
T. H. Woodroffe,.chief mechanical engineer, had retired, and succeeded by his former assistant, W.M. Shannon.

Obituary, 230.
Vaughan Pendred, for 40 years editor of the Engineer, died on 12 October 1912. He was born in 1836 at Barraderry, Co. Wicklow. He succeeded Mr. Zerah Colburn in 1865 as editor of the Engineer, which had been founded in 1856.

Dugald Drummond.  230.
Chief Mechanical Engineer of the London & South Western Ry., died at Surbiton on the 7 November 1912 in his 73rd year. He served under W.Stroudley on the Edinburgh & Glasgow, Highland and Brighton Rys.. prior to his appointment as Loco. Supt. ot the N.B.R. in 1874. He changed to the Caledonian in 1882. and succeeded W. Adams on the L. & S.W.R. in 1896.

New locomotive for the West Clare Railway. 231. illus.
4-6-0T side tank engine No. 1 Kilrush built by Hunslet to the requirements of W.J. Carter, locomotive superintendent. Outside frames; 15in x 20in cylinders; 3ft 9in coupled wheels; 696ft2 total heating surface, 11.5ft2 grate area; 160 psi boiler pressure. Narrow gauge line had three miles at 1 in 55 with sharp curves.

North British Railway: old front coupled locomotive. 231-2. diagr. (s. el.)
0-4-2 tender engines built by R. & W. Hawthorn. No. 26 was one of ten given running numbers 17-26 built between 1845 and 1846. It carried a plate which stated R. & W. Hawthorn Engineers Patent Expansion No. 418 1845. It had 14in x 21in cylinders, 5ft coupled wheels and felt under wood lagging.

North British Ry. 232.
New Sir Walter Scott type 4-4-0s built at Cowlairs Works: 243 Meg Merrilees, 244 Madge Wildfire, 245 Bailie Nicol Jarvie, 338 Helen McGregor, 339 Ivanhoe, 340 Lady of Avenel, 359 Dirk Hatteraick, 360 Guy Mannering, 361 Vich Ian Vohr and 362 Ravenswood. Sixteen Scott class in service. They had 19 x 20in cylinders and 6ft 6in coupled wheels.

Superheater goods locomotive with feed pump, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry. 232. illus.
North British Locomotive Co. 0-6-0: 20 x 26in cylinders; 4ft 7½ coupled wheels; 1521ft2 total heating surface; 27ft2 grate area'

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 233-4
Figs. 242-5

Wiener, L. The locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway, Brazil. 234-5. 3 illus., 2 diagrs (s. el.)
The Southern Brazilian Rio Grande Railway ran from Rio Grande to Bagé. The locomotive stock consisted of two 4-6-0 built by Neilson, 17 Baldwin 2-6-0s, and three Porter 2-4-2STs. The last were originally owned by the Costa do Mar Railway.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 235.
Nos. 36 and 73 fitted with superheaters.

Barker, W.J. Some fragmentary notes on N.E. Ry. engines, old and new. No. II. 236. 2 illus.
Two locomotives withdrawn in 1912. No. 2258 was reserve list number. Previously No. 267: an 0-6-0, originally built by Robert Stephenson & Co. for the Blyth & Tyne Railway in 1843. Inside cylinders 15in x 24in; 4ft 6in coupled wheels. Latterly allocated to Sunderland and had run over 1m miles by time of withdrawal. 2-4-0 No. 691 was one of twelve engines (RN 686-97) built by Beyer Peacock in 1870. A further lot (RN 698-705) were constructed by Robert Stephenson & Co. Coupled wheels 6ft in diameter. No. 688 and 691 were rebuilt at Leeds; the remainder at York and Darlington.

Northumberland Colliery locomotives. 236.
An old Crewe type goods locomotive had been scrapped at a colliery near Newcastle. It had formerly been LNWR No. 176 and had been built at the Canada Works, Birkenhead WN 53/1857. In 1898 it received a new boiler from Chapman & Furneaux of Gateshead and later received a North Eastern Railway tender. The same colliery owned a former North London Railway four-coupled inside-cylinder locomotive with a carrying axle (unstated position). It had a saddle tank and was possibly built by Sharp Stewart.

Sarragossa, Duke of. Pacific type express locomotives for Northern Railway of Spain. 237-9. illus., diagr. (s. el.), map.
4-6-2 express engines. 4-cylinder compounds with Schmidt superheaters built by Société Alsacienne of Belfort. Intended for working expess traiuns between Maddrid and Hendaye both via Avila and via Segovia. Maps and gradient profiles show the severity of the route. Tables show the slow progress over the Pyrenees.

Metcalfe's vacuum brake ejector. 240-1. 3 diagrs.
Manufactured Davies & Metcalfe of Romiley.

Locomotive feed water treatment. 241-3. illus., diagr.
Kennicott Type K: cross-sectional diagram and installation at Carlton on Hull & Barnsley Railway with 2-4-0 No. 41 alongside. Mentions large installation on GWR near Severn Tunnel.

Railway carriage and wagon building: the machines in the saw mill. V—The planing mill. 244-5. illus.

Reviews. 245.

Superheating on Locomotives. J.F. Gairns. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
This is the author's second book on the subject, his previous one, Locomotive Compounding and Supereating had been published in 1907.  Gairns was well able to deal with the subject of superheating, having made a study of it for several years, and his present work was produced to provide a review of superheating suited to then present conditions. No attempt was made to go deeply into the more scientific spects, but the technical facts essential to an understanding of the subject are set forth simply and sufficiently. Chapter 1 deals with the why and wherefore of superheated steam; Chapter 3 with the history and development of the subject, and we note that so far back as 1839, R. & W. Hawthorn patented a superheater apparatus for locomotives. In the following pages various forms of modern superheaters are described and illustrated, and the author concludes the subject by a chapter on the maintenance of superheater engines. The book contains 31 figures in the text and a large folding plate of the Schmidt superheater with explanatory references. Reduced facsimile of plate in "Superheating on Locomotives."

How to take out Patents in England and Abroad." Arthur E. Edwards. London: Wyman & Sons, Ltd.
This little book will give inventors itfformation that will enable them to take all necessary steps when applying for British patents and for protecting their inventions when patented. Abstracts of the Patent Laws of different countries have been carefully prepared and corrected up to date.

Locomotive Souvenir No. 19 consists of a series of 12 collotype reproductions of photos of standard locomotives of the Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Rv. each illustration has full dimen~ions appended. The souvenir is identical in style and finish with its predecessors.

The First Locomotive in South Africa. 245.
-Referring to our a\lticle on the above in the October" Locomotive Magazine," it is evident that the flanges were turned .off the driving wheels, when the engine was at the Salt River Works being fitted with its third axle, as it would have been quite impossible for a four-wheeled engine to have kept the road with only one pair of wheels flanged, even if the train was coupled up.

Steel sorting racks for mail vans. 245-6.
-Referring to the article on the above in our issue of August 15th, we have been asked to state that these racks were designed by Mr. G. W. B. Clegg, of t~e Steel Equipment Co., Bombay, India, who has received orders from the Madras & South Mahratta, South Indian and Bengal Nagpur Rys., to fit their mail vans with these racks.

Some old German locomotives.-Mr. F. Gaiser, 246.
the author of this' article, which appeared in the last issue of this magazine, sends the following correction: In describing the engine" Kopernicus" on page 217, it should be stated" the dome on the firebox was as originally supplied," and on page 219 in referring to the System Desgrangeprussan we say" there is an intermediate space between the two cylinder channels," whereas it will be seen from the drawing there is no intermediate space between the two channels.

Correspondence. 246

Old G.W.R. Locos. W.P. Martin
It may not be known to all your readers that prior to their rebuilding in 1895-7 the G.W.R. locos., Nos. 69-76, were running as 2-2-2 locos., carrying plates dated from 1872 to 1875. Two or three of them shared with 585 the running of the Cornish express between Bristol and Exeter just after the abolition of the broad gauge in 1892. I understand that 69 and 70 have been scrapped. Not long since I saw 71 working between Taunton and Bristol.
Pembroke and Tenby Ry. In 1898 I spent a considerable amount of time in Pembrokeshire and Nos. 1362,1363 and 1364 — GWR which were very similar and quaint 0-6-0 locos. were still working there. The G.W.R. shareholder's report states that seven locos. and five tenders were taken over. Is it certain that the three engines in question were ever named? They certainly carried no names in 1898, but they were then very old, I should imagine, and the plates may have been removed.

L. DERENS (UTRECHT.)-The diameter of cylinderg on the G. W. R. four-cylinder engines is 14-t-in., and the working pressure 2251b. per sq. in. The Knight class have two cylinders ,8t-in. in diameter.

J. MacDonald.--'- The last series of goods locomotives (0-6-0) built for the Glasgow & South Western Ry. at the North British Locomotive Co.'s Atlas Works are numbered 17,4-1,4-3,4-6,4-7,4-8,4-9, So, 5l, 118,22, 23j 24-,35 and 37 (builders' Nos. 19244- to 19258).

F. Neale. 246.
(1) In Ramsbottom's time, L.. & N.W. engines were painted medium green with black bands and yellow figures. We think the buffer beams were green, but are not quite certain as to this. Unable to give colour of inside frames. (2) All the information we have about the Cornwall was embodied in our article in 1897. Our illustration makes plain the alterations that were effected. Reply from Frank Hennell page 264..

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 246.
On 26 October paper read by W.H. Nethercott at St. Bride Institute on the construction of the Wootton type of locomotive boiler." The chair was occupied by Mr. C: A. Suffield. The vice-chairman, Mr. F. A. Wardlaw, opened the discussion, which was carried on by Messrs. Worthy, Smith, Perren and Fullagar. On Thursday, 28 November at 7 p.m., at St. Bride Institute, J.P. O'Callagan will read paper on the softening of water for locomotive use.

No. 244 (14 December 1912)

Our Coloured Plate: Mr. Beattie's four-coupled express locomotive for the London & South Western Ry. 247 + col. plate (facing page)
J. Beattie had many original ideas on locomotive construction and patented a number of modifications to boilers, etc. His engines had two grates, two fire doors and a water bridge in the firebox, they also had feed water heaters, a portion of the exhaust steam being led around the feed pipe as shown, and were fitted with steam :rumps to supply the boilers when standing. The safety valves were spherica1. The leading axles had four springs; the two outer springs being carried under the lower guide bar were found to be of great service in steadying the engine and preventing rolling, to which all outside cylinder engines with a short wheelbase were liable. No. 70 Ariel was built at Nine Elms Works in 1864. The cylinders were 17in. by 22in, driving wheels 6ft. 6in., tractive force 6,458 lb.; heating surface: tubes 801.66ft2, firebox 102.7ft2; grate area 18ft2, working pressure 130 psi; wheelbase: engine 14ft., tender 10ft. 3in.; weight ot engine (working order) 35 tons 16 cwt., tender 20 tons 15 cwt.. This engine was one of the best of its class and worked some of the express trains in turn with more modern engines up to the last. It was scrapped in 1888.

Great Eastern Ry. 247-8. illus.
Ten new superheater goods engines being completed at Stratford Works under A.J. Hill. No. 1240 illustrated. Series numbered 1240 to 1249, known as F48 class. They had coupled wheels 4ft. 11in. dia., with a wheelbase of 17-ft. 8-in. equally spaced. The cylinders, 20-in. diameter by 28-in. stroke, placed horizontally between the frames, with inside admission piston valves with their centres vertically above the cylinder centres, driven through rocking shafts by Stephenson. link motion. A Wakefield mechanical lubricator driven off the right hand valve spindle, afforded forced lubrication to the cylinders, valves and piston tail rods. Four safety valves were fitted to the boiler. The telescopic boiler carried a working pressure of 160 psi was fitted with Belpaire firebox. The boiler barrel, was 11-ft. 9-in. long, 4-ft. 8-in. diameter inside, and 12-ft. 1 -in., between tube plates. The firebox was 6-ft. 3i-in. long inside and 3-ft. 4t-in. wide, with a grate area of 21.6 sq. ft. The heating surface ofthe 158 Ii-in. dia. tubes = 874.7 sq. ft., 18 5-in. dia. tubes = 282.7 sq. ft.; firebox 117.7 sq. ft.; superheater elements = 226 sq. ft., making a total of 15°1.1 sq. ft. Weight in working order: leading wheels, 16 tons 19 cwt. 2 qrs., driving 17 tons 9 cwt. 3 qrs., trailing wheels, 12 tons, 18 cwt. I qr.total 47 tons 7 cwt. 2 qrs. Diameter of blast pipe top, 5t-in. The engine fitted with steam and hand brakes. As compared with the 1150 class of goods engines described in the last two issues of this journal, it will be noticed the centre of the boiler is pitched ?-t-in. higher, being 8-£t. 6-in. above rails.

Glasgow & South Western Ry. 248. illus.
One of the first applications of the Weir system of feed water heating to locomotive work was on superheater engine No. 129 of the GSWR. In this installation the heater was placed on top of the boiler, but in more recent applications, as illustrated in our September issue, it is placed along the frame on one side of the boiler. The dimensions of No. 129: cylinders 21in. by 26in. stroke, driving wheels 6ft. 6in. diameter, working pressure 165psi. The water heater contained 40. copper tubes and heated the feed water to 180° by exhaust steam. The Weir pump had a steam cylinder on top, 6in. diameter, and a water cylinder below, 4in. diameter, with a stroke of 8in. The engine was equipped with Schmidt's superheater. Illustration shows 4-6-0 No. 129.

London & North Western Ry. 248
The series of 0-8-0 superheater mineral engines referred to in the last issue was now in hand at Crewe, the first five of which bore Nos. 955, 1108, 2162, 2225 and 2281. The first mentioned took the number of the once-famous express engine Charles Dickens now scrapped. The latest 4-6-2 tank engines differed in certain respects from the earlier engines of the same type; instead of the steam brake and vacuum brake they were fitted with the vacuum brake only and are not provided with the water pick-up apparatus. There were 25 engines of this class in service. Several engines of the Precursor and Experiment classes had the steam brake and vacuum brake valve removed and the vacuum brake substituted. Nos. 60 Dragon and 1510 Psyche of the Precursor class had been provided with new coupled wheels, having large bosses and half-moon balance weights. The latest 4ft. 6in. 2-4-2 passenger tanks altered for motor service were Nos. 730 and 761. No. 631 Hotspur, a 6£t. 2-4-0 passenger engine, had been broken up. This engine replaced, in January, 1896, the engine of that name and number built in October, 1874, the latter being still at work under .the Engineer's Department, Manchester.

Great Western Ry. 248.
Three new 2-8-0 side tank mineral engines had been completed at Swindon, Nos. 4213-4-5. Atlantic type engines recently altered to 4-6-0 are Nos. 179 Quentin Durward, 184 Guy Mannering, 185 Peveril of the Peak and 190 Waverley. Eight new 4-4-2 passenger tanks (2221 class): Nos. 2243 to 2250 inclusive, also 11 Consolidation type mineral engines of the 2801 class, Nos. 2835 to 2845.

Pacific type locomotive, South African Rys. 249. illus.
Vulcan Foundry, Ltd;, despatched some Pacific type locomotives of type illustrated. The cylinders were 18in. diameter by 28in. stroke, steam distributed Richardson's balanced pattern valves; boiler pressure 200 psi.. The grate area 34.2ft2. Total heating surface of 2066ft2. The driving wheels were 5ft.1in. diameter. Belpaire firebox fitted and an extended smoke box. Equipment included De Limon's sight feed lubricator and Gresham's injectors.

Personal. 249
Following death of F.E. Robertson,. a partner in the firm .of Sir A. M. Rendel & Robertson, Seymour B. Tritton, has been taken into partnership, and the new firm will be known as Rendel & Tritton.

R.W. Urie, 249
Locomotive works manager had been appointed chief mechanical engineer of the London & South Western Ry.

C.W.L. Glaze. 249.
On the appointment of A. J. Hill as locomotive superintendent of the G.E.R., Mr. C. W. L. Glaze has been given the position of manager of the Stratford Shops. Mr. Glaze has been London district locomotive superintendent for several years.

Mr. P. R. Leigh-Bennett, 249
Former LSWR district locomotive superintendent at Salisbury, had been appointed assistant locomotive superintendent of the Bengal Nagpur Ry.

The locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway. 250 .2 diagrs.
Figs. 246 illustrates ten-coupled wheel tank engine known as the “Decapod” with 4ft. 6in. diameter wheels equally spaced over a wheelbase of 19ft. 8in. Three cylinders, two outside and one inside, were provided, all being 18½in. in diameter by 24in. stroke. The boiler, pressed to 200 psi was of exceptional proportions, having a mean inside diameter of 5ft. 3in. and a heating surface as follows: total 3010ft2.; grate area 42 ft2. It was numbered 20 and turned out in December, 1902; it was designed to attain a speed of 30 miles per hour from rest in 30 seconds with a train of 18 suburban coaches weighing 315 tons, a feat it successfully accomplished, but a falling off taking place in the suburban traffic at this period the need for putting this into practice never arose and No. 20 was consequently converted in 1906 into a tender engine for mineral traffic. One pair of wheels and the inside cylinders were dispensed with, the engine thus becoming an ordinary eight-coupled with outside cylinders, having a wheelbase of 23ft. 3in., from leading to driving centres being 7ft. 6in., from driving to intermediate 8ft. 9in., and from intermediate to trailing 7ft. A new boiler of the Belpaire type was supplied, its external diameter being 4ft. 9in., working pressure 180 psi, and having a heating surface as follows: total 1869.6 ft2..; the grate area was 22.9ft2.. A standard tender of 3500 gallons capacity, as used on the 1150 class, was provided, as shown in illustration, Fig. 247. Next part in Volume 19 page 16

Locomotive Magazine Souvenir No. 20. 250
North British Locomotive Co. locomotives built for railways of India. 36 collotype illustrations.

Locomotive Magazine Souvenir of the locomotives of the Northern Ry. of France (Locomotive Magazine Souvenir No. 18). 250
12 collotype illustrations

R.G. Rosever. 250.
Former chief test inspector locomotive department Midland Railway. Became General Manager Manning Wardle

Superheater express locomotive, North British Ry. 251. illus., diagr.
No. 400 The Dougal Cratur illustrated. Built at Cowlairs. W.P. Reid design. 6ft 6in coupled wheels; 20 x 26in cylinders; 1306.6ft2 total heating surface; 21.3ft2 grate area, 165 psi boiler pressure. Piston valves. Wakefield mechanical lubricator. Intended for Waverley route: Edinburgh to Carlisle.

Compound superheater express locomotive, Royal Prussian State Rys. 252. illus.
Henschel four-cylinder compound with Schmidt superheater: high pressure cylinders 0.4m x 0.66m; low pressure 0.61m x 0.66m; 1.98m coupled wheels; grate area 2.95m2; 15kg/cm2 boiler pressure

Four-cylinder simple superheater locomotive, French State Rys. 252-3. diagr. (s. el.)
Société Alsacienne of Belfort supplied C de F de l'Etat with 230.781-800: 4-cylinder siumple 4-6-0 with a steeply inclined grate provided with a shaker mechanism and compensated suspension. They had 230mm x 640mm cylinders, a total heating surface of 136.07m2 and a grate area of 2.76m2. Fitted with Schmidt superheaters. They were used on Paris Cherbourg and Paris Dieppe boat trains and the train de luxe to Trouville.

Recent superheater locomotives for Swedish Rys. 253-4. 3 illus.
Motala Verkstadt Nya Aktiebolag products: 4-6-0 express locomotives for Swedish State Railways with Schmidt superheaters. Latest locomotives fitted with Marcotty smoke consuming apparatus. No. 1026 illustrated. 4-4-0 for Stockholm Nynas Railway with outside cylinders and valve gear (No. 7 illustrated). Mogul 2-6-0 built for Christianstadt-Hessleholm Railway (No. 14 illustrated) with Krauss truck, inside cylinders and four wheel tender.

Ghent Exhibition. 254.
Future event.

Express engine, Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire (now Great Central) Railway. 255-6. 2 illus.
4-4-0 Nos. 423-34 built at Gorton in 1877. Nos. 435-46 built 1878; Nos. 128-9 built 1879; No. 4 in 1880. Sacré with double-frame, slotted at front, but not attached to bogie (Adams type). Cylinders 17 x 26in; coupled wheels 6ft 3in; 1016ft2 total heating surface. Stationed Gorton. The Bullhouse accident (near Penistone) in 1884 was caused by No. 424 experiencing a broken crank axle. Robinson reboilered. Then working CLC expresses.

Eight-coupled locomotive, Gold Coast Government Ry. 256-7. illus.
Hunslet Engine Co. 4-8-0 for 3ft 6in gauge. 17in. x 21in. cylinders with balanced slide valves. Belpaire firebox stated in text (not visible in illus. of No. 153) 3ft 4½in coupled wheels; total heating surface 1060ft2; grate area 16.75ft2; 160 psi boier pressure..

Wiener, L. The locomotives of the Rio Grande do Sul Railway, Brazil. 257-8. 3 illis., table
Porto Alegre & Novo Hamburgo opened 1876. All tank engines built Dubs: 2-4-0T (WN 641-3); 0-4-4T (WN 1160/and 4-4-0T (3368/1896). Next part in Volume 19 page 16.

The selection of iron for locomotive castings. 258.
Chemical composition and mechanical properties. Frodair Iron & Steel Co.: Frodair brand.

Twinberrow, J.D. The design of tank engines for express working. 259-62. 4 diagrs.
Factors considered include the number and size of coupled wheels: the latter being influenced by the speed and proximity of stops and gradients. Grate area was influened by gradient. Lateral stability, especially on curves, was considered: calculations are given for a 2-4-2T, although it was noted that some railways favoured the 4-4-2T and a few the 4-4-4T (Wirral and Midland & South Western Junction mentioned).

A simple wagon brake rack. 262. diagr.

Great Northern Ry. 262.
New superheater 0-6-0 goods engines of the 521 class were Nos. 536-541. The 0-6-0 with 5ft 8in coupled wheels and superheaters were 71 to 80. No. 439, 0-8-0 had been fitted with a Weir feed pump. Nos. 427, 432 and 435 (0-8-0s) had been fitted with superheaters. Nos. 133, 137 and 140 (0-8-2Ts) had been fitted with new boilers and No. 140 had cab raised and sloping bunker rails up to the top of the cab. No. 1024 (Stirling mineral engine) and No. 1212 (0-6-0ST) had been painted a slate colour. Nine more more 1630 class engines were uner construction at Doncaster.

Railway carriage and wagon building: the machines in the saw mill. VI—Finishing. 263.

"Felrubite" floor covering for carriages. 263. illus.
Waterproof rubber felt composite.

Saloon carriage, Metropolitan Ry. 264. illus.
The success of Pullman cars on the services between the City (Aldgate) and Aylesbury had been such that it had been necessary to add to the saloon accommodation, and the car illustrated now forms part of one of the trains. The chief dimensions of this vehicle: length over body 55ft. 7½in., width over body 8ft. 3in., centre of bogies 38ft. 1in. apart, wheelbase of pressed steel bogies 7ft., diameter of wheels 3ft. 4½in. The body of the car was arranged to form two large saloons, divided in the centre by a partition provided with a door, each being 18ft. 1in. long, and at each end there were also private 1st class compartments. Lavatories with sliding rloors opening into a vestibule were located between the saloons and the end compartments. The carriage was fittted with electric light. Seating accommodation was provided for 34 passengers. The rebuilding and renovation of this car for the Pullman service had been carried out at Neasden Works by Mr. C. Jones, chief mechanical engineer of the Metropolitan Ry.

Correspondence. 264.

Old G.W.R. locomotives. G.H.W. Clifford
The following incomplete list of G.W. engines, built prior to 1870, and still running, may be of service to Sir O. H. P. Scourfield: (1) Avon class, Nos. 69-76. Built by Beyer, Peacock & Co., four in 1855 and four in 1856, as 6-ft. 6-in. singles. Converted at Swindon to 6-ft. 6-in. 2-4-0'S in 1895-7. No. 70 (not 76) was in the Thingley accident in January, 1907, and was then broken up; No. 69 was scrapped in March, 1907. The rest were still in service, and Nos. 74 and 76 were rebuilt with Belpaire fireboxes about two years ago. (2) Chancellor class, Nos. 150-156. Sandwich frames. Built by Messrs. Geo. England about 1862. All still in service. Nos. 150 and 155 had recently had larger boilers (not Belpaire) fitted. (3) 6ft. 2-4-0s (plate frames), Nos. 7, 8, 30, 110-114, and 1004 and 1005 (Wolverhampton Nos. 1-10); 374 and 375; and 1006-1011 (Wolverhampton Nos. 35-40), built 1868-9. A few had been broken up. (4) 6ft. 2-4-0s (inside bearings to drivers), Nos. 439-444 (Swindon Nos. 129-134), built 1868. All running. (5) Nos. 196-201 and 206-214, taken over from West Midland. Built by Beyer, Peacock & Co, Nos. 196-201 were 6ft. 2-4-0s. Nos. 206-14 were 6ft. 6in. singles, but were rebuilt at Wolverhampton in 1883 as 6ft. 2-4-0s. (6) Nos. 57-68, 132-146, and 310-318 were 5ft. 2in. goods engines with sandwich frames. Nos. 57 and 62 have Belpaire fireboxes. Also. Nos. 119-130 and 302-9 converted to saddle tanks. (7) Nos. 79-90 were 4ft. 7½in. mineral engines with sandwich frames. Nos. 80, 88, and 90 had Belpaire fireboxes. (8) Nos. 360-371, 5ft. 2in. goods. Plate frames. Built 1866. These engines are readily known from all others by the peculiar shape of the frames, which have long, narrow slots cut out to lighten them. (9) Nos. 322-341 and 350-359, 5ft. 2-in. goods with curved plate frames, built by Beyer, Peacock & Co., about 1862-3, for the West Midland, on which. line they never ran, owing to its absorption by the GWR Nos. 322-327 were rebuilt as saddle tanks. Nos. 337, 339, 340, 341, 351, 353 and 354 have Belpaire fireboxes, and No. 339, although nearly 50 years old, has a superheater. (10) Nos. 378-387, 471-480 and 577-586 were 7ft. singles, the first ten being 1866 engines, the others 1869. Plate frames. Rebuilt as 5ft. 2in. 0-6-0s about ten years ago. Nos. 577 and 586 have Belpaire fireboxes. No. 581 was broken up in 1905 and several others have since gone. (11) Standard 5ft. 2in. goods engines were Nos. 388-411 and 419-438, Nos. 388-391, 396, 407, 411, 422, 425 and 436 have Belpaire fireboxes. Nos. 445-454 of the same class were Swindon Nos. 135-144 (1868). Nos: 446, 449 and 451-3 have Belpaire fi.reboxes. (12) Standard 6-ft. 2-4-0s were Nos. 481-490, Swindon Nos. 195-204 (1869). No. 489 was rebuilt in 1910 with a Belpaire firebox.
Sir O.H.P. Scourtield may not.know that there were also 21 2-4-0 tanks and 72 0-4-2 tanks built prior to 1870 and still in service. (We are publishing an illustrated article on the Avon class early next year). Ed., L.M.

E.W. Twining.
In further reply to F.. Beauchamp's letter published on page 226 relative to the G.W.R. 4-6-0 locomotive chart, I should like.to add a few words to your editorial remarks. To the locomotive student the chart is still of value if he ignores the fact that it is a Great Western engine represented and for No.59 reads "Live steam space" and against No. 60 "Exhaust steam space." In other, words, the Nos. 59 and 60 in the first column should be made to change places.

In answer to your correspondent Mr. F. Neale. Frank S. Hennell.
In Ramsbottom's time the LNWR engines had the buffer beams painted bright red with a.white horizontal diamond in the centre. I think the inside frames were painted black. At a much earlier dated some of Mr. McConnell's large express engines of the southern division of that railway had their buffer beams painted green with a panel in red and yellow lines in the same style as the side sheets and the tender tanks of those engines.

H. Pfeiffer (Dresden)
May I refer to your reply to a correspondent's question in your July issue; The question was whether there is any reaction of the stroke of the link of that, of the eccentrics. Of course, you were quite right in saying there is not, and such a. question should not be asked by a person who claims to know anything about valve gears. But it seems to me that your explanation, why the slide valve moves when the engine is "out of gear" is not correct. You say it is owing to "play" in the valve gear, whereas, such play would rather tend to leave the slide valve stationary, than to move it. The fact that the slide valve moves when the engine is out of gear is owing to the eccentrics not being at right angles to the crank.  Editoria response: .Pfeiffer's explanation is  quite correct, but the angle of advance of the eccentric is generally greater on German railways, than in Britain.

Interested.-Piston Valves.
One of the principal reasons for" inside admission" for this class of valve is to keep the valve spindle glands away from the steam pressure, more especially in the case of engines fitted with superheaters.

J.R. Murray, N. McCracken and others. 265
No. 650 G.E.R 2-4-2 tank had the liquid fuel apparatus for a short time only, No. 193 0-4-4 tank ran so fitted for many years.

Reviews. 266

Combination among Railway Companies. By W. A. Robertson, B.A. London:, Constable & Co.
This book of 105 pages is No. 26 of a series of monographs by writers connected with the London School of Economics. It is divided into five sections, v:iz., (1) History; (2) Forms of combination; (3) The combining companies; (4) Outside companies; (5) The public. The first part deals with the early history of railways, and shows that, to a limited extent, working agreements were in existence in the 1840s. In part two the author discusses various forms of combination, i.e., amalgamation, joint lines, working agreements, running powers, &c., whilst in parts three and four the effects of combination on railway companies who are parties and those who are not parties are respectively dealt with. To the ordinary reader section five is the most important, hr it points out the advantages or otherwise of combination to the travelling public. '

Engineering and Metallurgical Books, 1907-1911. By R.A. Peddie London: Grafton & Co.
Bibliography of books in the English language on engineering and metallurgy during the five years mentioned. It has been compiled by Mr. R. A. Peddie, librarian of the Technical Library of the St. Bride Foundation, and is arranged in th~ alphabeti~al order of subjects. Both English and American publishers and prices are given. The work is to be kept up to date by the issue of annual supplements, which will be re-issued in volume form at the end of every five years.

Freight Terminals and Trains." By J. Droege. London: The Hill Publishing Co., Ltd.
This work is a study of the best operating methods and principles of freight transportation in America, as well as the designs of new stations or enlargement or revision of existing goods depots. Professor Cunningham contributes a special chapter on "British freight service." The physical and traffic characteristics of nearly every goods station are different, so that to generalise is impossible, yet the expert opinions which are freely quoted and the many examples of successful and economical operation given will, no doubt, be appreciated by students of traffic problems.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 266.
On Thursday, 26 November a paper was read by. J. P. O'Callaghan at 81. Bride Institute, the subject being The Softening of Water for Locomotive Use. The chair was occupied by . C. A. Suffield. At the conclusion of the reading of this interesting paper, which, was illustrated by charts and diagrams and a working model ofa Lassen and Hjort softener, . Suffield opened a vigorous discussion, which was maintained by Messrs. W. J. Bennett, F. A. Wardlaw, A. Creswell Chignell and a written communication from Mr. Lawford H. Fry was read., , On Saturday, 21 December at 7 p.m. at St. Bride Institute, J. Pelham Maitlaud will give a paper on Coal as a factor in locomotive practice. H. Fowler, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Midland Ry., had accepted the Presidency of the Institution for 1913.