GNR/LNER locomotive types
Thompson & Peppercorn types

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valve gear

A1/A3
A2 (Raven)
A4
B12
B16
B17
C1
D49
J38
J39
J50

K1/2
K3
K4
N2
O1
O2
P2
U1
V1
V2
W1
Y1

See also Gresley (biographical information)    

Notes on this page

This has now been modified to include Gresley's work for the Great Northern Railway.

General references

Armstrong, Jim. LNER locomotive development between 1911 and 1947, with a brief history of developments from 1850 to 1911. Beer (Seaton): Peco. 1974. 93pp. many illus and diagrs. (s. els)
Quite an attractive book at the time, but since overtaken by RCTS, Yeadon, etc.
Groves, Norman. Great Northern locomotive history. Volume 3B. 1911-1922. The Gresley era. RCTS, 1992. 132pp.
The work was completed after the death of the author. This part deals solely with the Gresley designs during the Great Northern period: in the case of some the designs, notably the Pacifics, this was extremely brief. It is, however, an excellent source for rare early photographs.
Hughes, G.J. '43 old engines to be withdrawn'. Rly Wld., 1983, 44, 6-10.
The Railway Finance Corporation was established in 1935 to fund the New Works Programme with £27 million of 2½% guaranteed stock to be repaid in 1951/2. The LNER share was £5.8m and nearly half (£2.8m) was dedicated to the Manchester-Sheffield/Wath electrification (where a 10% return was predicted); £¾m to improvements to the fish docks at Hull an Grimsby; improvements to the ECML, the conversion of rolling stock from gas lighting, 162 new coaches and the replacement of 43 locomotives. The locomotives to be replaced were D43 (ex-GNoSR 1); C2 20, C11 12, Q4 10 to be replaced by A3 17, B17 11, K3 10 and V2 5. A4s were substituted for the A3s. The K3 and B17 types were constructed at outside builders. The V2s were constructed at Darligton and the A4s at Doncaster.
Reed, Brian. 150 years of British steam locomotives.
pp. 99-100.
On the LNER Gresley was the obvious choice for cme. Robinson of the GCR was doyen of the old chiefs and Raven of the NER the most forceful, but both were on retiring age while Gresley, with a dozen successful years behind him as chief on the GNR, was still under 50. He was ready and able to meet the greatly increased responsibilities, and dominated his department from the beginning. At no time did he incline to a policy of strict standardisation based on a limited number of planned classes, though parts standardisation was not neglected. He brought out new designs as the traffic required, and though tying himself for main-line power to three-cylinder propulsion with conjugated valve motion, and using a trailing carrying axle with a wide firebox above it whenever possible, he was not at all averse in the early stages to perpetuating pre-Group designs of other men for specific jobs and areas. He preferred concentrating the drive of three-cylinder engines on the second coupled axle of six- or eight-coupled types because he felt the front axle had sufficient to cope with in large flange forces. In coming to the Sandringham 4-6-0s he had to accept divided drive.
Gresley's practice was progressive from the time he succeeded H. A. Ivatt on the GNR; but from the inception of his three-cylinder 2-8-0 coal engine in 1918 and the big-boiler 1000-c1ass three-cylinder Mogul of 1920 he moved definitely into new conceptions of size and power that culminated, in pre-Grouping days, in his first two A1-class Pacifics of 1922. Continued with consideration of Pacifics..

2-8-2

P1:1925
The P1 type was developed from the Al Pacific design for the haulage of heavy freight trains on the Great Northern main-line. The boilers and cylinders were interchangeable between the two types, but the 2-8-2s had smaller, 5 ft 2 in, driving wheels. The nominal tractive effort was 38,500 lbf, to which a further 9000 lbf could be added from a booster which acted on the trailing wheels. The class was introduced at the same time as the Ul Beyer Garratt and the types were available for the Stockton & Darlington Centenary celebration. Most contemporary references consider the designs simultaneously.
L.N.E.R. locomotive developments: Garratt 2-8-0 + 0-8-2 six-cylinder and 2-8-2 three-cylinder freight engines. Rly Engr., 1925, 46, 267-72. 9 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
NEW locomotives, London & North Eastern Railway. J. Instn. Loco. Engrs, 1925, 15, 379-81. illus.
NEW locomotives for the L. & N.E.R.. Engineer, 1925, 139, 715-17. 8 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
NEW mikado & Garratt locomotives, London & North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 202-5. 2 illus., 2diagrs. (incl. s. & f.els.)
NOTABLE locomotives for the London and North Eastern Railway. Rly Mag., 1925, 142-5. 3 illus.

Retrospective & critical

Bulleid, O.V.S. The booster. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1928, 18, 239-91. (Paper No. 228).
An exhaustive study of booster development on the L.N.E.R.
Bulleid, O.V.S. discussion on Spencer, B. The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941.  J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 211-12. (Paper No. 465)
The P1 class engine was interesting, and he had always regarded her as the best-looking engine Gresley ever built. She worked trains of 100 loaded wagons from Peterborough to Ferme Park, and the real reason for her withdrawal from that class of work was that the train occupied three block sections and it was necessary to divide it at Ferme Park on a running main line before it could be disposed of.
Clay, John F and J. Cliffe. The LNER 2-8-2 and 2-6-2 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1973. 111pp.
Hawley, RA
.The Gresley mikados. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 449-53. 6 illus., table.
Describes both the P1 and the P2 designs.
Hughes, G.J. Nigel Gresley and the booster. Rly Wld Ann., 1988,  104-12.
Included the P1 type.
R.H. Mann. Odd man out! Part 1: 1903-1926. Rly Wld, 1957, 18, 105-8.
Single-purpose locomotives: 0-10-0 for Lickey Incline; Holden 0-10-0T Decapod (not illustrated), Churchward Great Bear (not illustrated here), U1 2-8-8-2 Beyer Garratt for Worsborough Incline and P1 2-8-2 with Booster (two locomotives, one of which attained 65 mile/h)
Poultney, E.C.  Locomotive performance and its influence upon modern practice. J. Instn. Loco. Engrs, 1927, 17, 172-261. Disc.: 261-72. (Paper No. 213)
General assessment of class alongside other British and other contemporary locomotives
RCTS. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6B. Tender engines—classes O1 to P2. 1983. 196pp.

P2 class:
This class was introduced for the haulage of 550-ton passenger trains between Edinburgh and Aberdeen without recourse to double-heading. On the basis of tractive effort (43,462 lbf) the locomotives were the most powerful passenger engines in Britain. There has been a considerable amount of discussion on the efficacy of the design, and this aspect is considered with the retrospective material. The design was the first in Britain to incorporate many of Chapelon's ideas. Although there are colour photographs of several A4s in a variety of liveries there appears to be no colour photograph of a P2, but there is an excellent Vic Welch painting (Nock: Scottish railways). The class was rebuilt by Thompson into a very flawed Pacific type (A2/2).

P2/1 :1934:
No. 2001 Cock o' the North was the first of the class to be built. It differed from the five subsequent locomotives in being fitted with Lentz rotary cam valve gear. Many of the extensive contempoary references also describe a test run from London to Barkston, near Grantham, with a 650- ton train : 2090 drawbar horsepower was recorded on the climb to Stoke Summit.

Allen, C.J. Britain's first eight-coupled express engine: L.N.E.R. 2-8-2 locomotive No. 2001, "Cock o' the North". Rly Mag., 1934, 75, 33-7.3 illus., 3 diagrs., (incl. s. el.)
"COCK o' the North". Rly Engr., 1934, 55, 233-43. 17 illus., 11 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els. and sections).
A detailed account which includes the London to Barkston test run.
DYNAMOMETER tests of "Cock o' the North". Engineer, 1934, 158,16-17. diagrs,
Includes reproductions of the continuous records of speed and power output made in the dynamometer car on the London-Barkston test run.
L.N.E.R. eight-coupled locomotive. Engineer, 1934, 157, 550-3. 12 illus., 6 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
L.N.E.R. 2-8-2 express passenger locomotive "Cock o' the North" in France. Rly Mag., 1935, 76, 263. 2 illus.
Illustrations of the locomotive on exhibition in Paris.
TEST of 2-8-2 type locomotive No. 2001, London and North Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1934, 138, 20.
The Barkston test run.
TEST run with engine No.2001 "Cock o' the North", L. & N.E.R., between King's Cross and Barkston. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 205-6.
THREE-CYL. 2-8-2 express loco., L. & N.E. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 169-71. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-8-2 type express passenger locomotive, London & North Eastern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1934, 24, 468-71 + folding plate. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
2-8-2 type three-cylinder express locomotive: L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1934, 137, 621-3; 715-6; 728-30 + plate f.p. 721. 13 illus., 9 diagrs.
Perhaps the most extensive of the several extensive accounts.

P2/2:1934:
The four locomotives of this sub-class differed from No. 2001 in being built with Walschaerts-Gresley valve gear. No. 2002 was fitted with a modified form of the streamlining which clad the prototype, but Nos. 2003 et seq were built with the A4-type wedge-shaped front-end. Subsequently Nos. 2001 and 2002 were rebuilt to conform with Nos. 2003 et seq. No. 2006 (P2/3) was built with a combustion chamber, but this is not mentioned in contemporary sources.

No. 2002 Earl Marischal

L.N.E.R. 2-8-2 locomotive, "Earl Marischal". Rly Mag., 1935, 76, 112. illus.
2-8-2 type engine, "Earl Marischal". L. & N.E. Rly. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 378. illus.
2-8-2 type loco., No. 2002, "Earl Marischal", L. & N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 32, diagr. (s. el.)

Nos. 2003-2005

L.N.E.R.-new locomotives. Engineer, 1936, 162, 20. illus., diagr.
Includes a diagram of the Kylchap blast arrangements.
NEW L.N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Mag.. 1936, 79, 110-12. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
Also includes a description of the V2 design.
2-8-2 three-cylinder engine, L. & N.E.R.: "Lord President". Loco. Rly. Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 203-4. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-8-2 type three-cylinder engines, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1936, 65, 12-13. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective and critical
A controversy has arisen about the efficiency of the design. This has partly resulted from Thompson's drastic rebuilding of the class is Pacifics (see A2/2), which implied official condemnation. McKilliop, who drove the locomotives in service and on tests, was critical of the poor riding qualities and high coal consumption. It should be noted that McKillop usually praised Gresley designs, especially the Pacifics. C.J. Allen has disagreed with McKillop, however, (see "Ponies, Pacifics and mikados") basing his argument in terms of performance and power output. O.V.S. Bulleid also had a high regard for the design and was closely associated with the tests performed at the Vitry testing station, near Paris. Geoffrey Lund gave an excellent account of the class in a special issue of Backtrack devoted to the LNER.

Bellwood and Jenkinson (presumably the former) summarized P2 performance: There were insufficient passenger trains loaded to over 500 tons on the Aberdeen route to utilise fully the six locomotives, with the result that many workings were 'over-engined'. The eight-coupled axleboxes did not take kindly to the numerous curves on the route, and with Pacific train loads the P2s were expensive to both operate and maintain.
It is a great pity that their prodigious haulage capacity could not have been used to assist in the working of the enormous wartime loads between Kings Cross and Newcastle. Certainly there would have been ample opportunity for them to be run under near optimum operating, if not maintenance, conditions in relation to power output and adhesion. However, it was not to be. There was no place for Gresley 'super-power~ in the strategy of the new CME and all the P2 class locomotives were rebuilt by Thompson into ungainly Pacifics. As 4-6-2s, they had a very short life on the Aberdeen. road and had all been scrapped before the end of 1961.
Whatever the merits or shortcomings of Cock o'the North, it probably represented Gresley's greatest single step forward and was certainly ahead of its time. It is significant that when, twenty years later, the last express passenger steam locomotive was built for British Railways, it had three cylinders fitted with poppet valves.

Allen, C.J.  "Ponies, Pacifics and mikados". Trains ill., 1957, 10, 120-6. illus., 6 tables.
The article was written in reply to McKillop's "Memories of the mikados (see below).
Bellwood, J. and Jenkinson, David. Gresley and Stanier, 1986.
Bellwood was the Chief Mechanical Engineer at York Railway Museum. He was responsible for bringing many of the once static exhibits back to life. Sadly his life was shortened by working with asbestos boiler lagging when working with the LNER.
Brown, F.A.S. Nigel Gresley : locomotive engineer. 1961.
Folding diagram at end of book giving cut-away drawing of 2001 Cock o' the North in original condition prepared by LNER
Bulleid, O.V.S. discussion on Spencer, B. The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941.  J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 211-12. (Paper No. 465)
Testing 2001 Cock o' the North on the test plant at Vitry. It is interesting that he always refered to the locomotive as "she" as in she compared favourably with the French engines in coal consumption per rail-h.p., and, better still, per d.b.h.p. When tested on the open road between Orleans and Tours it developed a very high horse-power, of the order of 2,800, and was again shown to be an efficient engine from the point of view of coal consumed per d.b.h.p. In service, however, it was an extravagant engine as it was not properly used: instead of working trains well within its capacity over long runs, it was employed on a service such as Edinburgh to Dundee on trains much under its capacity; it stood for a long time at Dundee, went to Aberdeen and hung about there, and did a very poor mileage per day, with the result that it showed a heavy coal consumption, most of the coal being burnt through misuse rather than in working trains.
Bulleid, H.A.V. Master builders of steam. 1963.
Pp.86-7 give a brief account of the Author's father's work at Vitry and elsewhere in testing the initial P2 locomotive.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotives I have known. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1945, 152, 341-52
One of a select group of locomotives reviewed by the author.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Discussion on Robson, T. The counter pressure method of testing locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1943, 33, Pp. 206-7 (Paper No.441)
Comment on the Vitry tests.
Clay, John F and J. Cliffe. The LNER 2-8-2 and 2-6-2 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1973. 111pp.
Coggon, A.P. London & North Eastern Railway the "P2" class 2-8-2 locomotives. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1945, 21, 36-8. 3 illus. (drawings : s. el.)
Coster, P.J. From Cock o' the North to Saint Johnstoun. in Essays of steam; ed. John F. Clay. 1970.
"It seems to me that the influence of the French genius [Chapelon] can be seen throughout the design."
Craig, J.M. The driver's story: Charlie Peachey in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 71-6.
Joined the GNR in 1895 and was a driver for 33 years until retirement in 1942. Described a trip on 2001 Cock o' the North with Gresley on the footplate: immense power but huge coal consumption.
Cullen, David. Gresley's mighty Mikados. Backtrack, 2014, 28, 53-7.
A fairly superficial account which briefly trails a group which is hoping to construct a replica at Doncaster.
Dobson, K.S.
Poppet valve development on the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 197-300; 176-7. 8 illus.
Clearly there is something very odd about this reference: please inform KPJ if you know correct one!
Farmer, John. I helped to build Mons Meg. ,Rly Wld, 1982, 43, 593-8.
Winner of LNER Railway Scholarship in 1935. He was a Stratford apprentice and was awarded the scholarship at Queen Mary College with the vacations spent at Doncaster Works where he encountered Eggleshaw and was involved in the construction of the P2 which used an experimental boiler lagging made from metal foil.
Gray, D.D.  discussion on E.S. Cox Locomotive axleboxes  J. Instn Loco. Engrs. 1944, 34 . (318-20)  Paper 447
said he had been asked at short notice to give a brief description of the axleboxes used on the L.N.E.R., and particularly of the axleboxes used on the 2-8-2 locomotive which underwent tests at the Vitry testing plant. On the L.N.E.R. there had been very little trouble so far as their modern outside cylinder locomotives were concerned, but the heating of the boxes of the larger inside cylinder engines still frequently caused considerable trouble. At one time or another almost all the recognised forms of installing and lubrication had been used for the driving boxes of those engines, but their latest design, and one which seemed to be giving good results, was a box with a machined oil groove gin. wide and gin. deep in the crown of the box on the vertical centre line. The white metal is in pockets, leaving r$n. of bronze at the back and front above the horizontal centre h e , and there was an inch bronze bar in which the oil-way was cut on the vertical centre line. Mechanical feed for the oil was used, and all boxes were provided with an Armstrong pad in the tray, giving an auxiliary under-feed lubrication.
Their larger oil boxes, previously mentioned, are normally of the type which have three white metal pads keyed to serrations machined right across the box. The pads are divided by bronze bars at 45' to the vertical centre line. Each bar is provided with a machined oil groove, the back groove being fed by mechanical lubrication and the front bar by an auxiliary syphon feed. In service those boxes gave no trouble, but it was with regard to that type of box that the President had expressed the view that it would be of interest to show some slides dealing with the hot boxes experienced on the Vitry testing plant.
The boxes were 9½ by 11 inches, and the first slide showed the bronze box with the two.oil grooves. The engine had done a very substantial mileage in England before being placed on the plant, and from the time of leaving the works in England to going over to France not one hot journal bearing had occurred. On trials in this country speeds of over 80 m.p.h. had been recorded, and special load capacity tests had been made in Scotland. On the stationary testing plant, however, the heating of the boxes was a constant anxiety, and many days which could have been spent in obtaining test data were lost while overhauling took place. Furthermore, b.h.p. tests were carried out between Paris and Orleans at a period half-way through the stationary tests, .while some adjustment was made on the testing plant, and on those road tests there were no signs of heating.
On the test bed oils brought from England were first used, but trials were also made with pure rape oil and with the oil used by the French railways. Standard qualities of white metaI were used as well as metal provided in France. The boxes started with the standard bronze bars, but boxes were also tried with a white metal crown. The next slide showed one with a single oil groove at one side, the other being filled up with white metal. The following slide showed one with a solid white metal crown. The oil-ways were gradually being filled up with white metal. It all went to show, he thought, that there were very definite limits to theorising about what really happened within the lubricating film on a locomotive axlebox, and, valuable as theory might be, it was experience in running under traffic conditions which must be the final criterion. The next slide showed a box with the lubrication slots cut in the fop of the box and at one side, which did not prove very satisfactory. The white metal did not function very well. The very bad markings shown in the last slide were put down to hydraulic action between the axlebox guide and the horns.

Haresnape, B. Gresley locomotives. a pictorial history. 1981.
Excellent photographs, but very concise text.
Hawley, RA. The Gresley mikados. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 449-53. 6 illus., table.
Livesay, E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences. No. 3 — L.N.E.R.: Edinburgh and Dundee trains, "P2" class engines. Engineer, 1939, 168, 342-4. illus., diagr., (s. & f. els.), table.
Footplate observations (a comparison with North American practice).
Lund, Geoffrey. LNER P2 2-8-2s. Backtrack Special Issue No. 2: The London & North Eastern Railway. Pp. 55-9.
Author was a technical assistant at the Scottish Area headquarters (posthumous contribution) at the time when the P2 class was being considered for desconstruction into Pacifics. The main problem at that time was poor workmanship at Cowlairs which led to problems with the superheaters which did not disappear after the conversion into inferior Pacifics. Lund is critical of McKillop's assessment of the P2 class. He mentions that the W1 was sent to Scotland by Thompson to assess the sutability of a large-boilered six-coupled locomotive to handle the Aberdeen sleeper traffic. It appears that E.D. Trask tried to halt the rebuild. [KPJ: I can still recapture the magic of a black Cock o' the North arriving at Dundee Tay Bridge sometime prior to rebuilding during WW2: all other British passenger locomotives thereafter seemed small]
McKillop, N. The Gresley touch. Trains Ann., 1956, 5-10. 2 illus.
Describes test runs made between Edinburgh and Dundee, noting poor riding qualities and heavy coal consumption.
McKillop, N. , Toram Beg, pseud. Memories of the mikados. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 454-6.
Heavy coal consumption and poor riding qualities.
Nock, O.S. British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1960, 106, 342-50. 3 illus., 8 tables.
The author includes some of his own observations plus some details of the tests carried out at Vitry, in France, as observed by Baron Vuillet.

Nock, O.S. British locomotives of the 20th century. Vol. 2 1930-1960. 1984.
Nock's comments on ride appear to be wildly at variance with most other reporters:  "on page 110 Nock stated that "my footplate experience on several of them they rode easily and elegantly round the sharpest curves and never gave any impression of binding, or spreading the road." This is in direct contrast to senior engine driver McKillop's assessment (above). The potential user of this information must question whether a railway signal engineer was qualified to make such assessments. Furthermore, one suspects that Nock's overall knowledge was very limited (a few footplate rides by a relatively inexperienced recorder).
RCTS. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6B. Tender engines—classes O1 to P2. 1983. 196pp.
Rutherford, Michael. Express eight coupled — some notes on the Gresley 2-8-2 and Chapelon 4-8-0. (Railway Reflections No.126). Backtrack, 2006, 20, 724-32.
Suggests that Heywood who was in charge of mechanical engineering in Scotland may have been responsible for the ultimate failure of the locomotives to reach their potential in Scotland. Also suggests that Heywood and Gresley may not have got on. Includes a reproduction of an LNER painted photograph of Cock O' the North in its original state.
Tuffrey, Peter. Cock o' the North; Gresley's bold experiment. Fonthill Media. 143pp.
Reviewed by CPA in Backtrack, 30, 62. Notes the Lentz rotary cam poppet valve gear and the ACFI feedwater heater. Notes the excellent coverage of the Vitry tests. Regrets that the casting of the cylinders at Gorton had not been photographed and the ugly Thompson rebuild.
Tuplin, W.A. Cock o' the North. Rly Wld, 1958, l9, 2l7-19.2diagrs. (s.els.)
A critical assessment, plus details of the author's own proposed 4-8-0 design.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-763. (Paper No. 378).
The P2 boiler is considered on a comparative basis.
Windle, E. Discussion on Holcroft, H. Smoke deflectors for locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, Pp. 490-9 (9 illus.). (Paper No. 430)
Windle explains the development of smoke deflection for this class.

Names

L.N.E.R. engine name competition. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1935, 41, 10.
Boy Scouts were asked to submit suitable names. Names suggested and used included Mons Meg and Thane of Fife.

2-8-0

O1 class: 1913-
Two-cylinder type: Groves Great Northern locomotive history. 3B pp 17-24 covers this interesting design which featured the largest cylinders (21in x 28in) ever fitted to a Doncaster product. Walschaerts valve gear was fitted and this drove 10in piston valves. One obsolete feature was the inclusion of tail rods. Lever reverse was fitted.  A large boiler with a grate area of 27.5 ft2, but with only a modest boiler pressure (170 psi) was designed. The safety valves were of the Ramsbottom type. This 5ft 6in boiler shared much in common with the boilers fitted to the large Atlantics, except for the narrow firebox. The new boiler was tested at the North British Loocomotive Co at 250psi (hydraulic) and the deflection recorded led to the fitting of transverse stays. Six boilers were constructed, but only five locomotives were ordered, the sixth boiler was retained for the three-cylinder prototype.A further fifteen locomotives were constructed by the North British Locomotice Co. in 1919. In November 1918 locomotive No. 460 was fitted with the type of piston vales used on the Canadian Pacific Railway and this type was also used on the final NBL batch, but these were replaced in 1922 by a new type of valve with a single split ring with tiny holes in its circumference to admit lubricated steam to the surface of the ring to overcome friction when starting. There was doubt as to whether injectors would be able to cope and additional feed pumps were fitted on some locomotives.Nos. 456-60 were fitted with a single injector plus a Weir pump and feed water heater. Fig. 13 shows No. 459 with an elongated dome. It was claimed that 6½lb/mile of coal could be saved when the pumps were clean: the apparatus was removed before the Grouping. A somewhat convoluted note (Groves p. 24) observes that No. 457 posing as No. "456" was painted in green livery, but fails to note if, and when the number was re-changed and for how long that the green livery survived. The class received the nickname Tangos. Following introduction of Thompson O1 became class O3..

2-8-0 mineral engine, No. 456, Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1914, 20, 1.

No. 459: top feed arrangement with large dome. Locomotive Mag., 1916, 22, 253.

Le Fleming, Hugh M. International locomotives. Plate 48
Painting: apple green GNR livery

O1 (later O3) :1922 : feed water experiments (No. 476).
Fig. 14 in Groves shows No. 476 fitted with a feed water heater and pump. This was replaced by a larger pump in 1924.

Worthington locomotive feed water heater and boiler feed pump. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 91-2.2 illus.

Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history Part 3B.) 1992.
Pp 17-24.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6B. Tender engines—classes O1 to P2. 1983. 196pp.
As noted in the introduction this is a very thorough account which extends over a greater time span than some of the other Volumes in this series, which appeared to grow even better with time.

O2: 1918-
This was Gresley's first three-cylinder design and design work had dated from 1916. This employed the Gresley conjugated valve gear for the first time and Groves discusses the origins of the great and its patent (15769/1915) at length. He also notes that whilst the prototype (No.461) was under construction consideration was give to a two-cylinder design with 21in x 30in cylinders. CPR-type piston valves were fitted to the inside cylinders. Nos. 477-86 were constructed at North British Locomotive Co. which incorporated a modified form of the conjugated vlave gear: this included improvements suggested by Holcroft. No. 461 introduced the three-bar slide bar to Britain from the Pennsylvania Railroad's K class Pacifics. Later type Spencer double-case buffers were fitted. The GWR dynamometer car was borrowed in 1918 to test No. 461. Post-grouping tests of the O2 versus the O1 type showed the superiority of the three-cylinder design.

Several modifications were made in post-1923 batches.

O2/2:1923:
Built to conform to the composite loading gauge.

New 3-cylinder mineral engine, London & North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 39. illus.
Three cylinder mineral locomotive, London and North Eastern Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 186-7 + folding plate f.p. 172. 3 diagrs., plan.

1925 : Feed water heating experiments (No. 3500).
The "Dabeg" feed-water heating apparatus. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 180-1. illus., diagr.
A new locomotive boiler feed system. Engineer, 1925,140, 20. illus., diagr.

O2/3:1932 : Side window cab and standard tender.

Three-cylinder 2-8-0 mineral engine, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 266. illus.

O2: 1942: new build utilising tenders from Q4 0-8-0 converted to Q1 0-8-0T

Converted 0-8-0 tank, London and North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1942, 48, 118-19. 3 illus.
Illustrations: Q1: No. 5058 and Q4 No. 5059 0-8-0 (then converted to 0-8-0T and O2 No. 3834 fitted with tender from Q4 converted to shunter

Retrospective and critical

Fiennes, G.F. Recollections of some lesser LNER locomotives. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 67-70.
As perceived by the Assistant Yard Master at Whitemoor in 1931. The O2s were the most powerful locomotives, but these were limited southwards to working to Temple Mills. There were difficulties in getting enough work out of these locomotives, although the speed was greatly increased when March Town was playing at home. The J39 class was regarded excellent, although prone to rolling. Eventually K3 class locomotives were acquired for the Norwich to Whitemoor workings.
Gresley, H.N. The three-cylinder high-pressure locomotive. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1925, (2), 927-67.
Gresley's preference for 3-cylinder design was partly based on the results of test runs made between London and Peterborough with the O1 and O2 classes.
Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history Part 3B.) 1992.
Pp 25-33.
King, S. discussion on Harbord, V. (Paper No. 348) Metals and alloys in locomotive construction. J. Instn Loco Engrs.,1936, 26, 46-62. Disc.: 62-77
Noted weight saving in connecting rods for three-cylinder 2-8-0s made from Hiduminium alloy (103 lbs) as against 284lbs for carbon steel; see page 23 of RCTS History (below).
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6B. Tender engines—classes O1 to P2. 1983. 196pp.
As noted in the introduction this is a very thorough account which extends over a greater time span than some of the other Volumes in this series, which appeared to grow even better with time.

0-8-0: modifications to pre-grouping designs

Hull & Barnsley Railway

Q10/2 :1924: This M. Stirling class of engines with domeless boilers was re built with domed boilers from 1924.

HULL and Barnsley Railway : the 0-8-0 mineral engines. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1944, 20, 200-1. 2 illus. (s. els.)

North Eastern Railway

Q5 :1932: When the Q10/2 class was withdrawn the relatively new boilers (see above) were transferred to some of the W. Worsdell 0-8-0s.

L.N.E.R.: interesting rebuild. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1940, 46, 84. illus.

2-6-2

V2 class

The V2 class was evolved from the A3 Pacific design, but there were several changes in the basic dimensions, other than the obvious one of wheel arrangement. The major changes were as follows (the figures for the A3 types are shown in parentheses): coupled wheel diameter, 6 ft 2 in (6 ft 8 in); cylinder diameter, 18½ in (19 in); length of boiler barrel 17 ft (19 ft); and total length of engine and tender, 66 ft 5 in (70 ft 5 in). Although these figures show a general reduction in size, nevertheless the grate area (41 ¼ft2) was identical in the two classes and the nominal tractive effort of the V2 type was, in fact, slightly higher. The new class was, therefore, capable of hauling all, but the very fastest or heaviest, main-line trains. 184 locomotives were eventually bailt.
Later the concept of large mixed traffic locomotives was developed by Gresley's successors and by Bulleid on the Southern and by Riddles for British Railways. These later designs were Pacifics, however. There is some indication (see Watts and Wilson ) that the leading pony track was inherently unstable.

The "GREEN Arrow". Engineer, 1936, 151, 676. illus.,diagr. (s. el.)
NEW L.N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Mag., 1936, 79, 110-12. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
NEW three-cylinder 2-6-2 locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1936, 64, 1176-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
THREE-CYLINDER 2-6-2 express locomotive, L. & N.E. Rly. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 182. illus.
2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive L.N.E.R., Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 136-7 + folding plate f.p. 146. diagr., plan.
Detailed working diagrams.
2-6-2 three-cylinder locomotive, L.N.E.R. Railway; "Green Arrow". Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 204-6. diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-6-2 type locomotives for the London & North Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1936, 141, 704. 5 illus.,diagr. (s.el.)

Self-cleaning smokeboxes
Harvey, Bill. Self-cleaning smokeboxes on the V2s. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp.25-6.45.
Alterations at suggestion of S.O. Ell improved steaming with self-cleaning screens (alterations to size and position of chimney choke). Improvements to grate suggested by Horace Bussey (ex-MGNN man and District Boiler Foreman),

Testing
Britsh Railways. E. & N.E. Regions V2 class 3 cyl. 2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive. London, British Transport Commission, 1953. 44 un-numbered typescript sheets. 2 illus., 32 diagrs., (incl. s. & f. els.), 3 tables. (Performance and efficiency tests with exhaust steam injector Bulletin No.8).
Results of controlled road tests.

Derailments
Joyce, Michael. The 'Green Arrow' derailments in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 47-50.
The V2 class experienced a series of derailments associated with poor track. The first was at Newark on 13 March 1944 when 4844 hauling a ten coach express derailed near Newark at about 55 mile/h. It was thought that this accident was due to part of the water scoop falling off and derailing the leading coach. On 24 February 1946 4878 derailed near Thirsk due to excessive speed over a temporary speed restriction (at 40-50 mile/h over a 20 mile/h limit). On 15 July 1946 3645 heading the 7.5 pm down train for Aberdeen derailed near Red Hall signal box , near Hatfield,on relaid track. The driver noted that the locomotive had railed. The coil springs on the pony truck had fractured. Lt Col G.R.S. Wilson recommended improving the side control on the pony truck. 905 derailed at Marshmoor, south of Hatfield on an up train on 10 November 1946. Col. Wilson once again recommended improved side control on the pony truck and the class was fitted with the type designed for the L1 tank engines and there were no further problems.
Watts, F.J.R. [Discussion on] J.C. Loach: Bogies and pony trucks their behaviour on the locomotive and track. J. Instn Loco. Engrs. 1948, 38, 4-79. (Paper No. 472).
Pp. 25-6 : Watts discussed the behaviour of the Cartazzi trailing trucks on curves and the question of weight.distribution.
Wilson, G.R.S. Report on the derailment which occurred on the 15th July, 1946, at Hatfield on the London and North Eastern Railway. Ministry of Transport Railway accidents [monograph]. London, H.M.S.O., 1946. 9 p. + folding plate. 5 diagrs., (incl. s. & f. els.), 3 tables, plan.
Wilson concluded that the leading pony trucks were sensitive to lateral instability of the track and he recommended that the side control should be improved. The V2 derailments at Newark (13/3/1 944) and Thirsk (24/2/1946) were also considered.

Retrospective & critical

Atkins, Philip. New boilers for old... Steam Wld, 2003, (194) 8-14.
Table 4 lists boilers constructed at Darlington in 1960-2 for the V2 class and the locomotives to which they were allocated. 60813 reboilered in August 1963 was almost certainly the last locomotive to reboilered on British Railways.
Bannister, Eric.  'Green Arrow'  — the versatile 'V2'. Rly Wld, 1981, 44, 576
Re Meacher's comments regarding the vee-shaped front cab windows of the 'V2s'. Writer was present in Doncaster Works drawing office when the cab used for the 'A4s' was designed by E. Windle and T. Street (the Chief Draughtsman). Its shape had nothing to do with streamlining. The 'A3s' were fitted with hinged screens in front of the driver's window which were altered by me to drop into a slot so that the screen was at a 45° angle. The reason for these screens was that if an engine's tender overfilled when picking up from the water troughs, the water broke the front cab window. I was present on the footplate when it happened on one occasion, having been sent out to investigate by the Doncaster Chief Draughtsman. The vee-front to the cab of the 'A4s' was the result of my report and cured the problem; the design was perpetuated on the 'V2s' for the same reason.
Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-265. (Paper No. 520).
Annual mileage figures for the class are quoted.
Carling, D.R. in Peter Towned. LNER Pacifics remembered. Chapter 8.
Many footplate journeys on V2 from King's Cross to Peterborough or Grantham in 1937: locomotives were complete masters of task: later involved in tests involving comparison with A2 when V2 was nearing its limit. 
Clay, John F and J. Cliffe. The LNER 2-8-2 and 2-6-2 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1973. 111pp.
Collins, Bert. Memories of No. 866 in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 43-5.
A young, inexperience fireman working an unfitted freight from Ferme Park to Peterborough with Driver [Bill] W. Gilbey of Hornsey on 60866. Gilbey was an ex-Top Shed man and was mentioned in Nocks Locomotives of Sir Nigel Gresley (page 78) when a fireman. Also memories of Joe Holland who was killed in an accident at King's Cross.
Cook, A.F. Raising steam on the LMS: the evolution of LMS locomotive boilers. Huntingdon: RCTS, 1999. 233pp.
Table 50 (page 217) quotes the cost of classified boiler repairs on a comparitive basis in pence per mile in 1954: 2.7 pence/mile for a Duchess as against 0.8 for an A4 and 0.6 for a Merchant Navy, and nearly 2 for a V2 (presumably the mixed traffic duties led to the use of a considerable amount of untreated water)...
Durrant, A.E. Swindon apprentice. Cheltenham: Runpast, 1989. 216pp.
He was partly involved with Ell's Controlled Road Tests which on page 128 he called the class "generally successful... if rather slippery" and on page 142 he made comments on the double chimneys fitted to a few of the class.
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
Regards the class as a major milestone
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Collaboration with Bert Spencer to examine design weaknesses, especially those emphasised by wartime working: "A start was made with those common to all areas, the Pacific and V2 classes. All the principal depots on the East Coast main line between King's Cross and Edinburgh (Haymarket) were visited in turn and the views and suggestions of the maintenance staff canvassed. All complained of the deterioration in performance of the middle big-end and its tendency to run hot when subjected to additional loading caused by wear in the pins of the 2-1 gear due to ingress into their bearings of smokebox ash. The 2-1 gear was a simple and ingenious arrangement of two levers connecting the right- and left-hand valve gears in such a way that their combined motion gave a correct steam distribution to the middle valve, thus dispensing with the need for a separate inside valve gear. All advantages have corresponding disadvantages – any lost motion caused by wear in either of the outside gears was also imparted to the middle valve thereby increasing its port opening to steam and consequently the loading on the middle big-end. Over-running of the middle valve occurred at high speed due to whip in the two primary valve motions when these were subjected to heavy inertia forces. In peacetime with good maintenance and regular and thorough greasing, wear was easily contained within acceptable limits. The principal causes of excessive wear under war conditions were the ingress of fine smokebox ash into the bearings and over-long intervals between greasing. We recommended as a temporary expedient until pre-war standards of maintenance could be assured that an oil lubricated plain bearing of the largest possible diameter (which could be given attention by the driver) be substituted for the existing grease-lubricated main fulcrum roller bearing, also that special attention be given to making the footplating and inspection door above the 2-1 gear ash proof. Twenty-one items in all were listed for attention ranging in importance from those just described, down to the allegedly poor war-time quality of the india rubber neck ring bushes used in vacuum brake cylinders, the short life of which we found was not caused by inferior material but to locomotives awaiting disposal standing over heaps of live fire carelessly dropped in the four foot.
Regarding the middle big-end about which so much has been written in recent years, the evidence produced at the depots we visited confirmed my opinion that the semicircular strap was weak and was flexing under load, thereby distorting the brasses and causing these to nip the journal and so cause heating. Proof that flexing occurred was afforded by the fact that when a centre big-end was taken down for examination the jaws of the two brasses were invariably bright and polished where one had fretted against the other – likewise the surfaces of the bronze shims or gluts used for adjustment. More convincing proof was the fact that whenever a brass was found broken in two, as happened occasionally, it was always the back brass that broke, never the front brass, although the front was weakened by a %in keyway'" preventing the circular brasses from rotating. The polished) appearance of the fractured surfaces caused by fretting was convincing proof that the strap flexed. The design of the middle connecting rod and strap closely resembled on a larger scale that in a high class automobile engine and was a magnificent piece of forging and machining. Possibly its designer had such a prototype in mind but overlooked the fact that whereas an internal combustion engine was single-acting and the strap therefore carried little or no load, in a double-acting steam engine this was not so, for the loading was the same on both brasses, for which the strap as designed was ill-suited, being at its weakest at the point where it needed to be the strongest.
I had been much impressed by the excellent design of rod ends that I had seen on German locomotives. These were of T-section with a deep crescent-shaped rib or web at the back in order to resist deflection. This was the design that we recommended and which was ultimately adopted as the standard - not quite as we wanted, as the rib was made concentric instead of crescentshaped, but still a good deal stiffer than the original design.
This improved pattern may be seen on nearly all the Gresley three-cylinder locomotives that have been preserved. Prior to this, several alternative designs of big-ends for three-cylinder locomotives had been produced under Edward Thompson's direction but those seemed to be singularly unattractive in design, - being heavy and clumsy. An interesting aspect of our enquiries was the diversity of opinions expressed on minor points of design, troubles experienced at one depot with certain fittings being almost unknown at another.
An increase in the number of heated coupled axle boxes on Pacifics and V2s also came under scrutiny. These 50 pattern axleboxes had a large bearing area and before the war seldom gave trouble with heating. It was suggested tha~ lowering the rape content in the oil from 25% to 15% was responsible, but as this lower rape content oil was proving satisfactory under axlebox loading conditions much more severe than on the Pacifics or V2 classes there had to be some other cause. This was traced eventually to a change in Works procedure, in that the timehonoured (and time-consuming) practice of bedding axleboxes onto their journals by hand had been abandoned as a wartime economy measure. Instead, axleboxes were now bored out 0.014in larger than the journal and put on without fitting. This method resulted in the bearing having little more than line contact with the journal, causing the early development of knock and a liabi1ity to heat. A reversion to pre-war practice was therefore our recommendation.
A feature that formerly characterised the Gresley three-cylinder locomotives, the musical clang produced by the resonant lightweight alloy steel coupling and connecting rods which rang like a bell when struck with a hammer, disappeared in later years when these were replaced by rods made from ordinary carbon steel. The adoption of heat-treated nickel-chrome steel with a tensile strength of 60 tons for the motion of Gresley locomotives instead of ordinary 32.37 tons carbon steel succeeded in reducing by more than one-third the weight of the revolving and reciprocating masses, with a consequent reduction in rail hammerblow. This innovation stood the LNER in good stead in later years, for no alteration in wheel balance was necessary when alloy steel became unobtainable and heavier rods made from carbon steel had to be substituted, because this increase in weight was offset by a 'corresponding reduction in the reciprocating balance from 65% to 40%. The fact that O.V.S. Bulleid had eliminated reciprocating balance entirely in his own threecylinder Pacifics, no doubt influenced Doncaster in making this change from hitherto accepted practice. These are the rods seen today on those Gresley locomotives that have survived, and although much lighter and more elegant than those fitted to BR standard locomotives of comparable power, they do seem to me heavy in appearance when I recall the beautifully light originals with webs only 3/8in thick.
Hoole, K. 21 years of class "V2". Rly Wld, 1957, 18, 303-6. 6 illus., table.
A short, but useful history: includes details of all the naming ceremonies: 4780 The Snapper by Brigadier General J.L.J. Clarke at Hull Paragon station on 11 September 1937; No. 4806 The Green Howard by Major-General H.E. Franklyn at Richmond on 24 September 1938; No. 4818 St. Peter's School, by the captain of the school at York on 3 April 1939; No. 4843 King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry by Lady Deedes, wife of the Colonel of the Regiment at Doncaster Works on 20 May 1939; No. 4831 Durham School by the captain of the school at Durham Elvet station on 15 June 1939; No. 4844 Coldstreamer by Major-General Sir Cecil Pereira at King's Cross station on 20 June 1939.
Livsay,E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences, No. 4—L.N.E.R. Edinburgh-Aberdeen trains, "V2" class engines. Engineer, 1939, 168, 366-8. 2 illus., table.
Footplate riding judged on a basis of North American experiences.
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. The Aberdeen road. Trains ill. Ann.., 1959, 5-12. 5 illus.
Footplate work with the class on the Edinburgh-Aberdeen route.
McKillop, N. The Gresley touch. Trains Ann., 1956, 5-10. 2 illus.
The author praised the riding qualities of the V2 class.
Miller, Terry. Maintenance of the 'Green Arrows' in service. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 41-2.
Smokebox ash was the cause of damage to the vulnerable pin joints in the conjugated valve gear. Excellent boilers, but steaming was damaged when fitted with self-cleaning fireboxes.
Morrison, Bryce. The Pickersgill 4-6-0s of the Caledomian Railway. True Line, 1994 (51) 6-9.
Notes that over-travel of the inside valve spindle was an inherent characteristic of the Gresley/Holcroft form of derived motion. Stated that St Margarets mpd deliberately set the valve gear to give a marked uneven beat as this enhanced the fire on the long climbs to Falahill and to Whitrope.
Neve, Eric. The early years of the 'Green Arrows'. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 37-40.
Allocations and workings; excellent work on express passenger trains, including on the streamliners; haulage of very large trains during WW2.
Neve, E. The story of the Green Arrows. Rly Obsr, 1949, 19, 134-8 + 2 plates. 2 illus., 2 tables.
Lacks the depth normally associated with the Railway Observer.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society Locomotives of the L.N.E.R.. Part 6C. Tender engines – classes Q1 to Y10. 1984. 166pp.
Reynolds, W.J. "V2" ubiquity. Railways, 1952, 13, 138-9.6 illus.
A collection of notes rather than a history.
Rutherford, Michael and Blakemore, Michael. Green Arrow and the LNER V2 class. 1997.
Partially written in respect of the locomotive preserved within the NRM collection.
Rutherford, Michael. Heroes, villains and ordinary men. BackTrack 9, 528.
"Mr Windle's engine"
Townend, Peter. Their finest hour... Steam Wld, 2005 (221) 8-14.
Gresley's 'V2' class 2-6-2s were remarkable engines, but despite being masters of the mixed traffic work for which they were designed, it was not until a handful were fitted with Kylchap double chimneys that they achieved their full potential. Former 'Top Shed' King's Cross shedmaster Peter Townend, explains the difference it made to the engines. Col. illus. 60880 at New England mpd in June 1963 (Geoff Rixon); 60881 near Brookmans Park on down empty stock  in May 1963 (C.R. Gordon Stuart); ex-works green 60862 on the Scotch Goods at Brookmans Park in April 1962 (T.B. Owen); 60858 on Sunday 08.40 Peterborough to King's Cross leaving Potters Bar (b&w: Brian Stephenson); 60817 on 07.05 slow departing Peterborough for King's Cross in June 1963 (Paul Riley); 60817 at King's Cross on 18 August 1962 (Geoff Rixon); 60963 on parcels train near Ashby Magna in April 1964 (Roger Kingshott).
Woollatt, J.S. A criticism of some aspects of locomotive design. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1949, 39, 557-71. (Paper No. 489)
Critical of lack of side control on pony trucks
Yeadon, Willie B. Yeadon's Register of L.N.E.R. locomotives. Vol.4. Gresley V2 and V4 classes. Irwell Press, 1992.


Names

Another L.N.E.R. "School" locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 1001.
No. 4831 Durham School.
Coldstreamer locomotive. The Times, 15 June 1939, page 8
V2 No. 4844 to be named Coldstreamer at King's Cross station by Lieutenant-General Sir Alfred Codrington, Colonel of the Coldsteam Guards
Harding, Richard D. St. Peter's School York, A.D. 627. Rly Mag., 1989, 135, 250-1, illus.
Ceremony on 3 April 1939 opened by A.H. Peppercorn: actual naming performed by C.M. Jenkin-Jones Divisional General Manager in York Station
L.N.E.R. "Green Arrow" class locomotive named "The Snapper". Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 490.
No. 4780.
L.NE.R. "Green Arrow" class locomotive named "The Snapper". Rly Mag., 1937, 81, 386.
L.N.E.R. locomotive named "Coldstreamer": Regimental ceremony for "Green Arrow" class engine. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 1037.
No.4844.
L.N.E.R. locomotive naming ceremony. Rly Gaz., 1939, 70, 880.
No. 4843 The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry: see also colour image of locomotive after? naming ceremony in  White and Johnston's LNER locomotives in colour 2002 p.66; and paragraph in Locomotive Mag., 1939, 45, 160 which notes that ceremony performed by Lady Deedes, wife of General Sir Charles Deedes, Colonel of the Regiment..

V4: 1941:
Gresley's final design was this class of two mixed-traffic locomotives. Most of the contemporary accounts compare it with the V2 type as the classes share the same wheel arrangement and wide firebox/three-cylinder design concepts. The V4 was much smaller in all dimensions, however. The maximum axle-load of 17 tons permitted a high route availability. One locomotive was fitted with a Nicholson thermic syphon.

BRITISH locomotive developments. Rly Mag., 1941, 87,173-6.3 illus., 3 diagrs. (s. els.)
Also includes three other new designs.
L.N.E.R. new 2-6-2 type engine. Engineer, 1941, 171, 144-5. illus., 3 diagrs., (incI. 2 s. els.), table.
Followed by letter from Eric A. Robinson of the Superheater Company on page 164 of Engineer (7 March) pointing out that an LNWR lcomotive had been fitted with a thermic syphon in 1922.
NEW general utility locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 220-3; 225. 6 illus., 3 diagrs. (incl. 2 s. els.).
NEW 2-6-2 engine (class V4), London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 50-2. 5 illus., 2 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
NEW 2-6-2 type engine L.N.E. Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1941, 31, 90-6. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
OUTLINE diagram comparing the two types of 2-6-2 locomotives now running on the L.N.E.R. Railways, 1941, 2, 156-7. 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
Comparison with the V2 design.
A SMALLER "Green Arrow". Rly Gaz., 1941, 74, 217.
Editorial comment.
TWO interesting new motive power units for L.N.E.R.: a 2-6-2 steam locomotive, class V4, and an 0-4-4-0 electric locomotive. Railways, 1941, 2, 127-31.3 illus.
2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive for the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1941, 151, 266-8; 270. + 2 plates. 6 illus., 4 diagrs. (incl. s. els.)
A very detailed account.

Retrospective and critical

Clay, John F and J. Cliffe. The LNER 2-8-2 and 2-6-2 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1973. 111pp.
Cliffe, J. Bantam Cock, Gresley's last design. in Essays of steam; ed. John F. Clay. 1970.
Gnerally appreciative assessment of what could have become an outstandingly useful class of locomotives, which should have been very light on the track, yet have been capable of high haulage at moderate speeds: during WW2 they were capable of operating the Norwich to Liverpool Street expresses.
McKillop, N. The Gresley touch. Trains Ann., 1956, 5-10. 2 illus.
This design was considered in favourable terms.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society Locomotives of the L.N.E.R.. Part 6C. Tender engines – classes Q1 to Y10. 1984. 166pp.
Yeadon, Willie B. Yeadon's Register of L.N.E.R. locomotives. Vol.4. Gresley V2 and V4 classes. Irwell Press, 1992.

4-6-0

B17: 1928 Sandringham class
The bridges on the Great Eastern Section had been very lightly constructed and a severe axle-load limit was in operation. Further, the small turntables limited locomotive length. Until 1928 the largest locomotives per mitted were the Holden B12 4-6-0s, which had an adhesion weight of 44 tons. To supplement these light locomotives Gresley introduced his B17 class, in which the use of three cylinders permitted the adhesion weight to be raised to 54 tons. The nominal tractive effort of the new design was 25,280 lbf, which represented an increase of 3,411 lbf compared with the earlier 4-6-0s. The first batch was built by the North British Locomotive Co. and H.A.V. Bulleid (Master builders of steam p. 61) has stated that this Company undertook the detailed design work. See also Thompson B2 class.

[CLASS B17 4-6-0, L.N.E.R.] . J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1929, 19, 2-5. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
L.and N.E. Rly. passenger locomotive. Engineer, 1929, 148, 8-9. illus., diagr., plan.
NEW 4-6-0 locomotive, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1929, 64, 98-100. illus.
THREE-CYLINDER 4-6-0 express locomotive, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 4-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

1931 Tests
4-6-0 Sandringham class locomotive, Cambridge was reached in 61 minutes from Liverpool Street, including a stop at Bishop's Stortford; the distance is 55¾ miles in late 1931. Locomotive Mag., 1932, 38, 34 .

B17/5 :1937:
Two locomotives were rebuilt with A4-type streamlining to work the East Anglian express between London and Norwich.

The EAST Anglian express. Rly Gaz., 1937, 67, 646-8. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.), plan.
The "EAST Anglian" trains L. & N.E.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 339-41. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.), plan.
Mainly about rolling stock and train times which attained Notional Express levels. No. 2859 East Anglian illustrated
STREAMLINED L.N.E.R. engines. Engineer, 1937, 164, 426-7. illus.

Performance

Nock's British steam locomotives at work. 1967.).quotes a log he had made on the Marylebone to Nottingham newspaper train: "So far everything had gone swimmingly on the footplate; the engine was steaming freely; all was sweet and true at the front-end, and the long continued use of a short cut-off naturally resulted in economical working, even though the booked speeds were so high. When the regulator was full open the steam chest pressure was within 10 lb. per sq. in. of the boiler pressure. And then to conclude Gayton Hall and her crew treated me to a perfect little classic in the way of locomotive running, between Rugby and Leicester. In starting away the engine was put to it hard for the first six miles; she certainly responded in full measure, with an acceleration to 66 m.p.h. in 1½ miles from the start, and in mounting the Shawell bank at 57½ m.p.h. Then, with cut-off back to the 15 per cent position once more, came the climax of the whole journey. A very rapid acceleration from Ashby led up to a maximum speed of 90 m.p.h. at Whetstone. The engine developed this effort with the utmost ease, the regulator being no more than two-fifths open and steam chest pressure only 110 lb. per sq. in. Finishing in characteristic style, with top speed maintained to the very last minute, we made the run from Rugby to Leicester in a full minute under the 20 min. scheduled for this 19.9 miles.
This run afforded a perfect exposition of the functioning of the Gresley front-end. Sir Nigel Gresley designed his engines so that they could do the work on a short cut-off, and one rarely, if ever, saw one of his three-cylinder types pounded on a heavy bank. Driver Simpson took things quite easily on the climb to Amersham, and precisely the same methods were adopted when the new 'Sandringhams' of the 'Football Club' series arrived on the Great Central section. Never, I should imagine, has a group of top-link drivers taken more readily to a new class than the Leicester men did to Arsenal and her colleagues; these new engines required totally different methods of handling from those long practised on the Robinson Atlantics, but from the outset they received the right treatment. After all there cannot be a much simpler engine to drive than one which can be opened straight out to full regulator, and which will do nearly all its work on a nominal 15 per cent cut-off.
Robson, T. The counter pressure brake method of testing locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1943, 33, 171-98. Disc.: 198-217 (Paper No. 441).
Describes testing a B17 locomotive by this method.
[STREAMLINED B17 No. 2780 City of London: a record of continuous performance between Liverpool St. and Norwich, in which 100,103 miles were run in 452 days.]. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1941, 47, 151.

Retrospective and critical

"Balmore", pseud. Hardy, R.H.N. Farewell to the Gresley "B17'  4-6-0s. Trains Ill., 1960, 13, 266-71. 5 illus.
Champion Lodge. The B17 4-6-0 design. LNER: J. London & North Eastern Rly, (9), 9-14.
Argues that initial design work was based on the B16 design, but the larger driving wheels made this an impossible route to follow: most of this is stated in the RCTS account.
Checkley, Sid. Memories of Colwick. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 77-82.
Fitter at the end of WW2 and thereafter. The B17 class suffered from loose seats and loose cabs. It was difficult for the fitters to reach the piston glands for the inside cylinder. On the other hand there was less on the 2 to 1 arm as it was behind the cylinders, but maintaining the regulator valve of No. 1647 was difficult. He obtained a ride on 1648 Arsenal, and this was very rough, but also very fast.
Clay, John F. and Cliffe. The LNER 4-6-0 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1975.
Disappointing on B17 in that performance on the Great Eastern section is barely mentioned..
Evans, Martin. Inverness to Crewe: the British 4-6-0 locomotive. 1966. Chapter 12.
Very brief details of B17 class.
Gresley locomotive characteristics. Rly Mag., 1945, 91, 113-14.
Unpopularity of the types which lacked trailing axles.
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Page 135: "October 1947 was memorable for a series of trials carried out on the Colchester main line with the NER dynamometer car and its team of four test engineers under the supervision of D. R. Carling, for the purpose of establishing which of two locomotives, identical in every respect apart from the number of cylinders, was best suited for the service. The two were class B17 No 1622, with three 17½in diameter cylinders and No 1607, rebuilt as Class 132 by Edward Thompson with two 20in diameter cylinders. Both types had a common stroke of 26in and boilers pressed to 225 lb/sq in. I was privileged to ride in the dynamometer car when No 1622 was being tested with a trailing load of 313 tons including the dynamometer car on the 10.10am semi-fast train to London, returning with. the 3.40pm express. A peak figure of 1,050 drawbar horse-power was exerted in lifting the train out of the Stour valley, up the two-and-a-half miles of Dedham bank, which has a gradient of 1 in 134. RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 2B page 101 covers these tests in greater detail aand makes it clear that the B2 was less efficient than the B17.
Hoole, K. North Road Locomotive Works, Darlington, 1863-1966. 1967
"These three-cylinder engines [B17] were a six-coupled version of the "Shire" class but considering the fact that the design was prepared in two different drawing offices the similarity is remarkable".
Hughes, G.J. A Great Eastern locomotive emergency. Rly Wld, 1982,  43,. 259-61.
Gresley was faced with a difficult situation on the Great Eastern Section. A 2-6-4T was being developed for the Southend services, but work ceased on this partly due to the Sevenoaks accident and partly through the need for mainline motive power. The immediate need was met by ordering ten (rather than the twenty initially envisaged) of the B12 class from outsde builders. Robert Stephenson submitted the lowest tender at £5943 per locomotive, but Beyer Peacock was successful at £5975 as faster delivery was promised. Meanwhile negotiations were taking place with North British Locomotive Co for the development of a three-cylnder 4-6-0 costing £7280 each with a maximum axle load of 18 tons per axle. The boiler became one of the major standard designs (being used for the B1) but Hughes argues that it stemmed from that used on the J39 and D49. NBL was aggrieved that further orders went to Darlington, and there was a further major confrontation with Beyer Peacock concerning the B12 order which had been modified to incorporate Lentz valve gear. At that time Beyer Peacock was run by Sir Sam Fay and R.H. Whitelegg, and legal action was nearly taken against the LNER (Hughes failed to stress the dire economic climate at that time which prompted cost-cutting by the suppliers and financial caution by the railway companies). Relationships between the two suppliers ultimately improved and led to orders for J39s from Beyer Peacock in 1936 and NBL for K3s delivered in 1935. The Lentz B12 were unsuccessful and had to be rebuilt with piston valves. Bridge restrictions on the GE Section were gradually eased.
Hughes, Geoffrey. The Great Eastern's locomotive legacy [letter]. Backtrack, 1998, 12, 637.
The 'Sandringham' class had a tortuous beginning. In 1927 new locomotives were urgently needed on the GE section, but the development of a new design was hampered by the need to keep to a low axle weight, and by Gresley's insistence on a three-cylinder layout, with all three cylinders driving on to one axle. Because of the delay, the Chief General Manager requested the LNER Board for permission to order twenty B12s. Not surprisingly, this was refused, and only ten were authorised. However, after the order had been placed on Beyer, Peacock, Gresley decided that the locomotives should be provided with Lentz poppet valves. After delivery had been completed, Beyer, Peacock and the LNER were in dispute over the price. An acrimonious letter from Sir Sam Fay (then the Chairman of Beyer, Peacock) to Nigel Gresley led to an additional payment by the LNER of £1,500, to keep the matter out of the courts.

In the meantime, because of Doncaster's lack of progress on the new 4-6-0 design, Lord Faringdon, the LNER Deputy Chairman, took the matter direct to Sir Hugh Reid, Chairman of the North British Locomotive Company, which had recently built the 50 LMS 'Royal Scots'. NBL solved the latter by disregarding Gresley's insistence on single axle drive, and, by moving the inside cylinder forward to drive on to the leading axle, weight was transferred to the bogie, so reducing the weight on the coupled wheels. However, NBL lost money on the contract, which it hoped would be made up by repeat orders. But whatever may have been said originally, future B17s were built by Darlington (for whom Armstrong Whitworth provided some of the boilers) and Robert Stephenson, but none by NBL.
Hughes, Geoffrey. LNER 4-6-0s at work. Ian Allan.
"Geoffrey Hughes's text is as lucid and enjoyable as ever" anon reviewer in Rly Wld, 1988, 49, 396.
Jackson, David  and Owen Russell. 'North Country Continental' 1927-39. Rly Wld, 1978, 39, 483-7.
Through working with lodging turns was instigated between Ipswich and Manchester using B12 class and then B17 class locomotives. Includes photographs on No. 2806 Audley End at Deepcar, B12 No. 8577 at Worksop, No. 2806 at Worksop, Driver Pinkney in cab of No. 8535 and No. 2807 Blickling at Sheffield.
Jackson, David  and Owen Russell. The 'Footballer' interlude: G.C. Section notebook. Rly Wld, 1981, 42, 13-17.
B17 with football club names and standard tenders on use on Great Central route between 1936 and 1939.
Neve, Eric. The last LNER luxury expresses – the 'West Riding Limited' and the 'East Anglian'. Rly Wld, 1987, 48, 614-17.
Includes logs of runs: the East Anglian was aimed at giving the Norwich and Ipswich businessman a full afternoon in London and enough time in the office before a fast transit to London: the LNER obviously hoped to lunch and dine its customers en route. Speeds were not high..
Proud, P. The Sandringhams. Rly Obsr, 1960, 30, 304.
RCTS. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.
Considers most aspects of the class including its difficult genesis and its origins at the North British Locomotive Co. Notes that consideration was given to building further locomotives of the type for the North Eastern Area (but more powerful K3 supplied instead) and for the Scottish Area (V2 class built instead).
Smith, George. A different class - the LNER B17s. Backtrack, 2016, 30, 242-7.
Mainly the names asssociated with the "Footballer" series.
Swinger, Peter. The power of the B17s and B2s. OPC
"The book is a valuable photographic record, but this does not make it interesting or attractive" anon reviewer in Rly Wld, 1988, 49, 396.
White, Malcolm. The Yarmouth train. 2005.
Many of the class are illustrated mainly on services to Yarmouth South Town (some are based on colour photographs). B17/5 streamlined No. 61670 City of London is shown on the East Suffolk line on p. 3 and as destreamlined and classified B17/6 on pp. 87 entering Ipswich station with a down express and the similar No. 61659 East Anglian (in colour) on p.99 approaching St. Olaves swing bridge and on p. 100 near same location.

Names

London and North Eastern Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1936, 42, 79
Darlington-built B17 class 4-6-0 No. 2848 was named Arsenal. It was fitted with a standard straight-sided tender and brass replica footballs on the central splashers flanked by panels in the club's colours.The Earl of Lonsdale, the chairman of the club unveiled the nameplate at King's Cross station on Thursday 5 March.
NAMEPLATES for football clubs. Rly Mag., 1960, 106, 50. illus.
When the locomotives were scrapped the nameplates bearing club names were presented to the relevant clubs.
NAMING of L.N.E.R. locomotive "Suffolk Regiment". Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 1272.
No. 2845.
[NAMING of No. 2848 – Arsenal]. Rly Mag., 1936, 78. 306.
No. 2849 with nameplate Darlington at North Road Works: see Hoole North Road Locomotive Works fp. 50
Actually named Sheffield Wednesday: clearly fun & games at Works

Modifications to pre-Grouping 4-6-0 designs

B3/2:1929:
In 1929, and in 1938, some of the Robinson Lord Faringdon (B3) 4-cylinder 4-6-0s were rebuilt with Caprotti valve gear.

CAPROTTI gear for L.N.E.R. engines. Rly Mag., 1938, 83, 227.
The equipment of two further "Lord Faringdon" locomotives with Caprotti valve gear.
FOUR-CYLINDER 4-6-0 locomotive fitted with Beardmore-Caprotti valve gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, 43. illus.
No. 6168 Lord Stuart of Wortley illustrated.
4-6-0 four-cylinder locomotive with Beardmore-Caprotti valve gear. Engineering, 1930, 129,132-4.3 illus., 4diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
RECONSTRUCTED four-cylinder express locomotive, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1930, 66, 200. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Dobson, K.S. Poppet valve development on the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1950, 96,197-200; 176-7. 8 illus.
Tuplin, W.A. The Robinson 4-6-0s of the G.C.R. Trains ill,, 1951, 4, 56-60. 9 illus., 2 tables.
A short critical assessment.

B12
This nominally S.D. Holden design (1500 class), introduced in 1911, was the subject of several modifications during Gresley's term of office. Firstly, experiments were made with A.C.F.I. feed-water heating apparatus. Then a new series, which incorporated Lentz valve gear, was built by Beyer, Peacock in 1928 (B12/2). Finally in 1932, a start was made on rebuilding the class with long-travel valves and larger round topped boilers (B12/3).

1928 : A.C.F.I. feed-water heating apparatus.

The A.C.F.I. feed-water heater. Rly Engr. 1928, 49, 267-9. illus., 3 diagrs., plan.
APPLICATION of A.C.F.I. feed-water heating apparatus to L. & N .E. Ry. locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 118-19. 2 illus.

B12/2:1928
Gresley Beyer Peacock series with Lentz O.C. poppet valve gear.

EXPRESS passenger locomotive with poppet valves: L. & N.E. Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 273-5. 5 illus.
This describes the fitting of oscillating cam valve gear to one member of the existing class: the following relate to new construction. Te actual valves are illustrated
NEW 4-6-0 express locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. (G.E. Section). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 307.
NEW 4-6-0 locomotive for G.E. Section, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1928, 63, 370.

B12 locomotives sent to Great North of Scotland Section
Note in Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36 (450), 65 that type to be sent.

B12/3 :1932:
Larger boiler and long-travel valves. Bellwood and Jenkinson consider this rebuild to be comparable with that of Stanier's rebuilt Scots.

REBUILT 4-4-0 and 4-6-0 express locomotives, G.E. Section, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1933, 72, 462-8. 3 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.), table.
REBUILT 4-6-0 passenger engine, London & North Eastern Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 415-16. illus., diagr. (s. & f. el.)

Retrospective and critical

Atkins, Philip. New boilers for old.. Steam Wld, 2003 (194). 8-14.
Notes that the preserved B12/3 No. 61572 retains the most recently constructed boiler of its class.
Bellwood, J.
and Jenkinson, David. Gresley and Stanier, 2nd ed. London, HMSO, 1986.
Chapter 7: p. 73: "The B12/3s were an immediate and lasting success... the improved front end resulted in a saving of 20% coal and water consumption... they were probably the best riding 4-6-0 ever built. 61572 is preserved on the North Norfolk Railway.
Bulleid, O. [V.S.]. Poppet valves on locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1929, 19, 569-605.
Disc.: 605-23.(Paper No. 248).

See B12/2 type (above).
Hardy, R. "Balmore", pseud. Memories of the Great Eastern "500" class 4-6-0s. Trains ill., 1959,12, 361-5+. 2 illus.
Hughes, G.J. A Great Eastern locomotive emergency. Rly Wld, 1982,  43,. 259-61.
Gresley was faced with a difficult situation on the Great Eastern Section. A 2-6-4T was being developed for the Southend services, but work ceased on this partly due to the Sevenoaks accident and partly through the need for mainline motive power. The immediate need was met by ordering ten (rather than the twenty initially envisaged) of the B12 class from outsde builders. Robert Stephenson submitted the lowest tender at £5943 per locomotive, but Beyer Peacock was successful at £5975 as faster delivery was promised. Meanwhile negotiations were taking place with North British Locomotive Co for the development of a three-cylnder 4-6-0 costing £7280 each with a maximum axle load of 18 tons per axle. The boiler became one of the major standard designs (being used for the B1) but Hughes argues that it stemmed from that used on the J39 and D49. NBL was aggrieved that further orders went to Darlington, and there was a further major confrontation with Beyer Peacock concerning the B12 order which had been modified to incorporate Lentz valve gear. At that time Beyer Peacock was run by Sir Sam Fay and R.H. Whitelegg, and legal action was nearly taken against the LNER (Hughes failed to stress the dire economic climate at that time which prompted cost-cutting by the suppliers and financial caution by the railway companies). Relationships between the two suppliers ultimately improved and led to orders for J39s from Beyer Peacock in 1936 and NBL for K3s delivered in 1935. The Lentz B12 were unsuccessful and had to be rebuilt with piston valves. Bridge restrictions on the GE Section were gradually eased.
McNaught, R.S. The Great Eastern "1500s". Rly Mag., 1957, 103, 680-5.5 illus.
Nock, O.S. Steam distribution and locomotive performance. Rly Gaz., 1942, 76, 430-1. 2 diagrs., 3 tables.
Discusses steam distribution in the B12/3 design.
Proud, P. The "1500" class. Rly Obsr, 1945, 24, 260-1; 313-16 + 3 plates. 8 illus., 2 tables.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.
Skeat, W.O. The Great Eastern Railways "1500 Class" locomotives. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 42. 75-97. Disc.: 97-106.
Extremely detailed history which includes the B12/3; experiments with ACFI feed-water heating, superheating, compressed air operated reversing gear, performance and liveries. In the discussion D.R. Carling noted the comfort of the ride.
Tuplin, W.A. The Holden 4-6-0s of the G.E.R. Trains ill., 1955, 67-73+. 6 illus., 3 tables.

North Eastern Railway

B16/2:1937.
The RCTS History states that from 1932 the original locomotives were fitted with new, solid bronze axleboxes, cast steel horn guides, forged steel horn stays, extra mechanical lubricators, new springs, modified coupling rods and were re-balanced to enable them to operate at higher speeds. Several of the Raven S3 (B16) 4-6-0s were rebuilt with new cylinders and Gresley derived valve gear. Some "authorities" imply that these locomotives were further rebuilt under Thompson with three sets of valve gear, but this is not so, see RCTS history (below) . Return to top

A REBUILT ex-North Eastern 4-6-0. Rly Mag., 1938, 82, 386-7. illus.
REBUILT 4-6-0 type engine, No. 2364, L.N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 32-3. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
REBUILT 4-6-0 type locomotive, L.N.E.R.: former North Eastern Railway engine converted at Darlington works. Rly Gaz., 1938, 68, 597-8. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)

Retrospective

Bertram, D. The "B16" 4-6-0s of the N.E.R. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 139-41.
Surveys the duties performed by the class in c1953.
Henstock, M.A. discussion on Tuplin, W.A. Some questions about the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1953, 43, 693.(Paper No. 528).
Tuplin had advocated the cylinder layout adopted on the B16/3 but Henstock noted the problems associated with short connecting rods: heated bearings and crosshead wear
Hoole, K. The 4-6-0 locomotives of the N.E.R. Rly Wld, 1958, 19, 181-3; 204-6. 9 illus.
Very detailed survey especially in relation to modifications.
Hoole, K. North Road Locomotive Works, Darlington, 1863-1966. 1967
During the 1930s the performance of all seventy locomotives was enhanced especially to axleboxes, horn guides and stays and left hand drive was adopted
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 2B. Tender engines—classes B1 to B19. 1975.
Clearly indicates the various modifications, started under Gresley's authority and continued under Thompson.
Swan, C.H. discussion on Tuplin, W.A. Some questions about the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1953, 43, 712.(Paper No. 528).
Noted B16 class little end bushes had short life of the due to the short connecting rods
Thorley, W.G.F.. discussion on Tuplin, W.A. Some questions about the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1953, 43, 698.(Paper No. 528).
Criticism of assertion that B16/2 Class could be prepared without the use of a pit: "in these circumstances the driver would have to pass between the trailing bogie wheels and the leading coupled wheels to gain access to some of the inside oiling points and this was a practice which could not be officially countenanced."
Webster, V.R. The B16 class 4-6-0's of the North Eastern Region. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1958, 34, 124-6. 2 illus.

Liveries

Mullinger, C. Bertram. Liveries.Br Rly J., 1991 (36) 307.
Notes that B12/3 were painted in LNER green but with black valances, also some notes on liveries adopted for Clauds and Super Clauds

2-6-0

Groves (page 3B 34 et seq) noted that the 2-6-0 had been introduced into Britain in 1878/9 by the GER for working between Peterborough and London via March. They incorporated American features, notably outside cylinders and had small side window cabs. They had complicated pony trucks and did not steam well. Other 2-6-0s had been purchased from American manufacturers by British railways during times of locomotive shortage: Ivatt had done this in 1899 by purchasing 2-6-0s from Baldwin. Groves also notes the two odd 2-6-0s supplied to the M&SWJR by Beyer Peacock in 1895/7. The Churchward 43XX design was introduced shortly before Gresley's more modern? design: more modern in that outside Walschaerts valve gear was used and in many respects the design was very similar to Ivatt (junior)'s final 2-6-0 designs for the LMS.

K1 (GNR H2): 1912/13
Groves (p. 35) notes that the leading pony truck reduced wear on the leading coupled wheels and gave a steadier ride than the 0-6-0s. The 20in x 26in cylinders were to become a virtual norm on the LNER and had 10in piston valves. The superheated 4ft 8in diameter boiler was common to the K1 0-8-0, but the barrel was shorter. Ten locomotives of this type were constructed.
Described in Engineer, 1913 (28 November) and Locomotive 1912 (15 October). Both references from Ahrons, and both are suspect.
Superheated mixed traffic locomotive, G. N. Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1912, 18, 206
Gresley H2 2-6-0 class: No. 1630 illustrated

Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history Part 3B.) 1992.
Pp 35-55.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6A. Tender engines—classes J38 to K5. 1982.
One of the more thorough sections (pp. 59-90) of this excellent survey is given to the K1/K2 class.
Yeadon, W.B. Yeadon's Register of L.N.E.R. locomotives. Vol.18: Gresley K1 and K2, Thompson K1/1 and Peppercorn K1. Booklaw/Railbus, 2000

K2 (GNR H3):1914-:
This class was introduced in 1914. It was a revised version of the K1 class with a larger boiler (5ft 6in diameter and slightly slonger). The grate area was slightly reduced to 24ft2. Boiler pressure was set at 170 psi.Ten were constructed at Doncaster in 1914 and a further ten in 1916. An order was placed with Beyer Peacock in 1916 for twenty locomotives, but work associated with WW1 delayed progress and the order was transferred to North British Locomotive for completion (Beyer Peacock forwarded semi-completed items). A final batch of 25 was supplied by Kitsons, but delays were experienced, but the locomotives still entered service in 1921.This final batch lacked tail rods and had Ross pop safety valves. The class was nicknamed Ragtimers.

One of the more interesting aspects of the Groves account, and to an extent in his description of Gresley's O1 type, the period surveyed covers the introduction of superheating and piston valves, and the problems encountered with lubrication, carbonization and leakage in the valves. The Doncaster double-admission type of piston valves were prone to fault lubrication and were prone to wear. Nos, 1680-1704 were fitted with CPR valves: that is valves designed for the Canadian Pacific Railway. These still suffered from steam leakage, but this problem was solved in October 1923 when No.1693N was fitted with the Knorr type of valve used by the GER. Between Groves pp 43-4 and the RCTS fascicule (pp 67-8) the development of lubricators is described. Early mechanical lubricators were associated with carbonisation and severall locomotives were fitted with Detroit sight feed lubricators and in October 1921 No. 1644 was fitted with a SECR-pattern sight feed lubricator (see Clayton J..Instn Loco Engrs. 1922, 12, 473 (Paper 124). Although Walschaerts valve gear had been used on tthe steam railcars annd on the four-cylinder Atlantics Gresley found it necessary to improve it for the 2-6-0s and this is described in two places by Groves: on page 38 for the original 2-6-0 and on page 45 for later enhancements. During the early 1920s some of the class were fitted with the Scarab system of oil-firing: see Topham, J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1935, 25 Paper 345, but RCTS history below gives rather more information, especcially with an experimental use of the system adopted at Derby..

Contemporary

New 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines, Great Northern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20, 142. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
H3 class with larger boiler

Ahrons cited Locomotive, 1914 (15 June) and Engineer, 1915 (1 January),

Thompson, W.T. Rolling bearings – their contribution to modern rolling stock design. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1950, 40, 343-80. (Paper No. 495).
Author employed Railway Technical Division, Skefko Ball Bearing Co., Luton. Self-aligning ball bearings were first applied by Gresley to return cranks of Walschaerts link motion on GNR locomotives in 1916.

Clay, John F. and J. Cliffe. The LNER 2-6-0 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1978. 80pp.
Dunbar, Alan G. and Glen, I.A. Fifty years with Scottish steam.  1982.
Experienced class as Parkhead chargehand fitter where type was condemned for its difficulties of maintenance, notably the replacement of the vacuum rolling rings; the position of the pipework for the rear sanders, and the position of the exhaust steam injector..
Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history Part 3B.) 1992.
This makes a significant contribution to the history of the type.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 16. Steamworld, 2006, (226)  40-5.
Illus. of K2 Ragtimer No. 4688 (not as stated KPJ can still cop off the front buffer beam) approaching Stratford on 7 August 1932 with excursion for Clacton in penetential looking stock. Caption notes the strengths and weaknesses of the new arrivals at Stratford (spartan cabs, lever everse, pull-out regulator, GNR injectors and eccentric combined vacuum and Westinghouse brake. Latterly the class suffered from block tubes and full ashpans.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6A. Tender engines—classes J38 to K5. 1982.
One of the more thorough sections (pp. 59-90) of this excellent survey is given to the K1/K2 class.
Yeadon, W.B. Yeadon's Register of L.N.E.R. locomotives. Vol.18: Gresley K1 and K2, Thompson K1/1 and Peppercorn K1. Booklaw/Railbus, 2000

1934: side window cabs
Locomotives were modified with side-window cabs for service on the West Highland line. At the same time Loch names were fitted. (See also retrospective material for K4 class). Nock, O.S. British locomotives from the footplate. 1950. noted that the K2s were great favourites of the men..

2-6-0 locomotives for the West Highland line, L. & N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 331. illus.

K3 (GNR H4):1920- :
This class of 2-6-0s may be regarded as the first product of Gresley's "big engine" policy. A 6 ft diameter boiler and squat chimney caused a massive appearance and the internal dimensions were in line with the exterior. Large grates were incorporated (28 ft2). In consequence, the locomotives were able to handle almost any main-line duty. According to Groves (3B pp. 55-64) an outline sketch had been produced in 1918. The locomotives had three 18½in x 26in. cylinders driven by Gresley's derived motion (see Groves page 56 and for greater detail 25-7 (O2 class)). The boiler operated at 180psi and 5ft 8in driving wheels were fitted. They acquired the nickname: Jazzers. No. 1002 was fitted with a Lockyer regulator valve.. Problems were experienced in excessive power being generated in the inside cylinder and guidance was sought from Raven: the maximum cut-off was reduced from 75% to 65%. The bushings for the levers driving the inside cylinder had to be improved. Like the later two-cylinder 2-6-0s the class was fitted with CPR-type piston valves, but these were replaced by the Knorr type following the Grouping. Wakefield No. 7 mechanical lubricators were fitted except on No. 1008 which was fitted with a Detroit sight feed lubricator.The pony trucks used the Gresley patented double swing link suspension. Robinson superheaters were fitted. The original locomotives received side window cabs in 1939/40 and long lap valve gear between 1929 and 1934. The original duties included fast freight for Manchester and Liverpool via Colwick. Thre class received the full GNR green livery. The coal strike brought them into prominence when they worked very heavy passenger trains..

THREE-CYLINDER 2-6-0 locomotive, Great Northern Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1920, 26, 72-3. illus. diagr. (s. & f. els.)
Three-cylinder 2-6-0 locomotive, Great Northern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1920, 26, 255 + Supplement
Photograph of No. 1001 (Supplement missing from copy examined).

Post-Grouping construction
The LNER adopted the class as one of its standard designs and it is noteworthy that sixty were constructed at Darlington and were subject to a number of "Darlington modifications": notably steam reversing gear and a typical North Eastern cab (the diagrams on page 101 of Part 6A of the RCTS Locomotives of the LNER demonstrate the progress from the typical piece of bent metal which showed its ancestry back to Stirling's thoughtful sister (as fitted to the first ten) through to more and more advanced thinking.

K3/2: 1924: Locomotives modified to meet the composite loading gauge.

The LATEST type of "mogul" locomotive, L. & N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 329-30. illus.
NEW 2-6-0 type locomotive, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1924, 55, 481 + folding plate. f.p. 421. illus., diagr. (S. & f. els.)

K3/5:1931: Armstrong, Whitworth series.

THREE-CYLINDER mixed traffic locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1931, 37, 181-2. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)

1936: Experimental installation of top-feed apparatus and an American pattern of foam indicator on No. 227 : un-titled reference: Rly Mag 1936, 79, 464.

Retrospective and critical
Baxter, F.L. Balancing of three-cylinder locomotives. Engineer, 1935, 160, 84-6. 5 diagrs., 8 tables.
The K3 is considered on a comparative basis.
Bulleid, O.V.S. discussion on Spencer, B. The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941.  J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 211-12. (Paper No. 465)
Described K3 No. 1003 as "a very nice engine", and the first to demonstrate the advantage of high average speed on the level and uphill.
Clay, John F. and J. Cliffe. The LNER 2-6-0 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1978. 80pp.
Gahan, J.W.
The passing of the "K3s". Rly Mag., 1963, 109, 686-90. 4 illus., table.
Gresley locomotive characteristics. Rly Mag., 1945, 91, 113-14.
Criticism of the riding qualities of the designs without trailing axles.
Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history Part 3B.) 1992.
The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 6A is far more important for this class.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 16. Steamworld, 2006, (226)  40-5.
K3 61815 between Brandon and Thetford (travelling wrong road) on stopping passenger. Caption notes that latterly the sparkle went out of the K3s which mystified Terry Miller who had helped to set valves on class whilst at Doncaster.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 34. Steam Wld, 2007 (244) 22-6..
Illus. with long captionof K3 No. 61810 (R.C. Riley) where caption gives an appreciation of the class, noting its ability to haul heavy freight; also note on steam reversers on Darlington-built engies..
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Page 52: "exceptionally free-steaming locomotives thanks to the 6ft 0in diameter boiler, short tubes and long firebox, found its firehole just the right height and had no difficulty in making the locomotive blow-off when challenged to do so by the regular fireman, who would cover the pressure gauge with his cap. The firing technique was to keep the back corners of the grate well packed, and not to fire more than half way down the sides, for vibration would do the rest, as the K3s were notoriously hard-riding despite their large axleboxes". Over the years he found that rough-riding locomotives generally steamed well, possibly because the vibration shook the ash and cinders, out of the fire and kept the air spaces clear...! also possibly because the steam bubbles detached themselves more easily from the plates. On pp. 55-6 he described how the application of Duralamin to the 2 to 1 valve motion had failed due to scuffing of the rubbing surfaces. A similar failure occurred at Norwqich when K3 Nos. 1970 and 1973 were fitted with chromium plated valve heads and liners: these failed through inadequate wear resistance..
Hoole, K. North Road Works, Darlington, 1863-1966. 1967. p. 51
Notes the transfer of steam reversing gear from this class to NER X class (LNER T1) from 1932.: this is also covered in greater detail by RCTS (below)
What is that vertical smokebox pipe on a Maunsell 'L1' class 4-4-0? John Jones. Steam Wld, 2007, (237) 20.
Reply with illustration from R.H.N. Hardy: pipe carried exhaust steam from blast pipe to exhaust steam injector. At time photograph taken of No. 31754 exhaust steam injector was probably still capable of working. Also notes that exhaust steam injectors of F pattern (as fitted to K3 class and GNR Atlantics) was more reliable than H type fitted to LNER Pacifics and V2 class which mainly ran on live steam unless newly ex-works.
King, S. discussion on Harbord, V. (Paper No. 348) Metals and alloys in locomotive construction. J. Instn Loco Engrs.,1936, 26, 46-62. Disc.: 62-77
Noted fracture in the grooves of Hiduminium alloy piston valve heads on 3-cylinder 2-6-0s (presumably K3 class) See page 111 of RCTS History (below)
Miller, T.C.B. Salad days in steam. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 59-65.
As part of his premium apprenticeship in 1932 the writer spent a considerable amount of time on the footplate when working a great variety of trains. One vivid memory was a trip on a K3 in darkness when the crew were thrilled at the view of glow worms in the cuting at Stoke summit..
Mitchell, Alan. Gresley's 'K3' 2-6-0s were just right. . Steam Wld, 2008 (248) 21
Response to Dick Hardy's contribution in Issue 244 page  22: the K3s (as experienced on Hull fish trains between Doncaster and Leicester) were strong, steamed well and were not heavy on coal, but tended to roll at high speed.
Poultney, E.C.  Locomotive performance and its influence upon modern practice. J. Instn. Loco. Engrs, 1927, 17, 172-261. Disc.: 261-72. (Paper No. 213)
General assessment of class alongside other British and other contemporary locomotives
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6A. Tender engines—classes J38 to K5. 1982.
One of the more thorough sections of this excellent survey is given to the K3 class.
Tuplin, W.A. Some thoughts on the K3s. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1962, 38, 248-52. 2 tables.
Thorough appraisal.
Weight, R.A.H. Gresley moguls and their work. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 586-91. 5 illus., table.

K4: 1937:
Operating conditions on the 100 miles long West Highland line are extremely severe, due to the steep (1:50/1:60) gradients and sharp curvature. Further, the lightly built viaducts and many miles of track constructed over partially consolidated peat bog restrict locomotive weight. Before the introduction the K4 class single locomotives were limited to loads of 220 tons, but the three-cylinder K4s were permitted to haul up to 300 tons. The increase in power as achieved by the use of three 18½ in x 26 in cylinders, a 200 lb/in2 boiler and large grate area (27.5 ft2). No. 3442 The Great Marquess is preserved. One locomotive was rebuilt with two cylinders and became the prototype for the Thompson/Peppercorn K1 class.

NEW L.N.E. Railway locomotives. Engineer, 1937, 163, 457. illus.
NEW2-6-0 locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1937, 80, 351. illus., table.
NEW 2-6-0 locomotives for the London & North-Eastern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1937, 27, 318-21. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
Includes gradient profile of West Highland line.
NEW 2-6-0 locomotives, London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 128 + plate f. p. 112. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW 2-6-0 type locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1937, 66, 758-9. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
2-6-0 type locomotive for the L.N.E.R. Engineering, 1937, 143, 443. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective and critical

Clay, John F. and J. Cliffe. The LNER 2-6-0 classes. London: Ian Allan, 1978. 80pp.
Dow, G. The story of the West Highland. 1947.
Livesay, E.H. Scottish locomotive experiences. No. 2 — L.N.E.R., the West Highland Mallaig trains. Engineer, 1939, 168, 31 8-20. 2 illus., table.
K4 and K2 class working.
Paterson, A.J.S. West Highland "moguls", 1937-1957. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1958, 34, 167-71.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6A. Tender engines—classes J38 to K5. 1982.
Thomas, J. The West Highland Railway. 1965.
Weight, R.A.H. Gresley moguls and their work. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 586-91. 5 illus., table.

0-6-0

J22(GNR)/J6

This originated as an Ivatt saturated design, but was superheated under Gresley: known as the J22 class (both saturated and superheated) on GNR and as J6 on LNER. There were fifteen locomotives in the 521 series built at Doncaster in 1911. Further 95 locomotives in the 536 series constructed between 1912 and 1922. The class had 5ft 2in driving wheels, 4ft 8in diameter boilers working at 170 psi, a grate area of 19ft2 and 19in x 26 in cylinders. Originally fitted with Schmidt superheaters then with Robinson. The tail rods were removed during the 1930s. The initial series received the GNR green livery, but Gresley locomotives were grey. Groves Great Northern locomotive history (3B) pp 6-16 covers the GNR period and RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 5.

Great Northern Ry. Locomotivbe Mag., 1911, 17, 237. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
No. 521 illustrated: text noted raised footplate and Schmidt superheater

No. 563
Fitted with Gresley twin tube superheater in 1913, replaced by tripe tube type in 1915:Groves Great Northern locomotive history (3B) page 8.

Feedwater heaters
No. 522 was fitted with a top-feed arrangement which looked like an elongated dome and mud collector in 1916 (Fig. 3) and No. 589 was fitted with a similar arrangement between 1917 and 1926 (Fig. 5) of Groves Great Northern locomotive history (3B).

Checkley, Sid. Memories of Colwick. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 77-82.
The J6 class was popular, being trouble-free, with easy to maintain valves and pistons.
Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history Part 3B.) 1992.
Obviously RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 5 is important for this class, but Groves is far later.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 5. Tender engines—classes J1 to J37.
1966.

J38: 1926:
This class had 4 ft 8 in driving wheels and a boiler which was 6 in shorter than that fitted to the J39 class. The locomotives were used for working mineral trains in Scotland. Like, the J39 class which followed it was a Darlington design.

MODERN L.N.E.R. locomotives in Scotland. Rly Mag., 1928, 63, 11-18. 10 illus.
Includes the J38 class.
NEW six-coupled goods engines, London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 172. 2 illus.

Retrospective & critical

Dunbar, Alan G. and Glen, I.A. Fifty years with Scottish steam.  1982.
Experienced class as Parkhead chargehand fitter where type was condemned for its inadequate bearing surfaces and difficulties of maintenance.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6A. Tender engines—classes J38 to K5. 1982.

J39:1926:
These locomotives had 5 ft 2 in driving wheels and a boiler 6 in longer than that of the J38 class. The 271 engines were distributed over most of the LNER system, and worked both regular and excursion passenger trains in addition to freight. like the slightly earlier J38 class this was a Darlington design and according to the RCTS history showed very little Doncaster influence.  .

SUPERHEATER goods locomotives, London and North Eastern Ry.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 345. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.).
Original design.

J39/1 :1930: 3500-gallon capacity, self-trimming tenders.

NEW locomotive tender, L.N.E.R. Rly Engr. 1930, 51, 231. illus.

1936 Beyer~Peacock series.

NEW goods engines, L.N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1937, 43, 5-6. illus.

Retrospective & critical

Checkley, Sid. Memories of Colwick. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 77-82.
The J39 class was regarded as powerful, but it was difficult to replace the gudgeon pins and the rolling rings on the vacuum cylinders. Some locomotives were sent to Derby for overhaul where they were not popular and came back with serious faults, especially in the snifting valves which were left disconnected.
Dunbar, Alan G. and Glen, I.A. Fifty years with Scottish steam.  1982.
Experienced class as Parkhead chargehand fitter where type was condemned for its inadequate bearing surfaces and difficulties of maintenance.
Earnshaw, Alan. Buried in the bog. Steam Wld, (109) 24-6.
Drumburgh accident (Silloth branch) involved J39 No. 64880 on 23 October 1950. Mainly due to poor track. Colonel McMullen reported and criticed the high speed limit and inadequate maintenance of the track.
Earnshaw, Alan. The Silloth branch - part 2. BackTrack, 4, 230-6.
A serious derailment of a J39 near Drumburgh on 23 Oct 1950 was mainly due to poor track: accident is described at length.
Fiennes, G.F. Recollections of some lesser LNER locomotives. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 67-70.
As perceived by the Assistant Yard Master at Whitemoor in 1931. The O2s were the most powerful locomotives, but these were limited southwards to working to Temple Mills. There were difficulties in getting enough work out of these locomotives, although the speed was greatly increased when March Town was playing at home. The J39 class was regarded excellent, although prone to rolling. Eventually K3 class locomotives were acquired for the Norwich to Whitemoor workings.
R.H.N. Hardy. Attention to detail. Steam Wld, 1996 (106) 26-30
J39 were good engines but tended to fall to pieces in inconvenient places.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 26. Steam Wld, 2007 (236) 48-51.
Illustration by H.N. James and account of broken crank axle experienced by member of class on Belstead bank, also noted that J39 class not permitted on passenger work on Great Eastern section after catastrophic disaster at high speed with Stratford locomotive in about 1951.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 36. Steam Wld, 2008 (247) 42-5.
Notes that J39 type was powerful, handy and free-running, but tended to fall to bits at speed..
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years in steam. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1986.
Page 92: noted that gudgeon pins were liable to work loose through the failure of the castle nut to remain tight and this would lead to broken brakets.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6A. Tender engines—classes J38 to K5. 1982.
Reed, Gordon. Boilersmith: a high-pressure job. Part 1. Steam Wld, 2002 (182) 18-23.
Noted that most LNER boilers were trouble-free: "you cannot beat a round-toped boiler with a copper firebox and stays". The J39s were a boilersmith's dream.

0-6-0: Modifications to pre-grouping designs.

Great Eastern Railway

J15: 1934:
This T.W. Worsdell 1883 design was modified by changes to the chimney and the introduction of pop-type safety valves.

REBUILT goods loco., L.N.E.R. (G.E. Section). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 236. illus.

Retrospective

Lynch, P.J. The "J15" class 0-6-0s. Rly Mag., 1954, 100, 239-42. 4 illus.

J19/2: 1934:
Class J18 and J19 were rebuilt with round-top boilers. The Belpaire type was originally fitted.

REBUILT Great Eastern Section goods locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1935, 77. 437. illus., diagr. (s. eli, table.
REBUILT six-coupled goods locomotive, L.N.E.R. (G.E. Section). Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 105-6. illus.

J20 :1926: Lentz valve gear experiments.

GOODS locomotive with poppet valves, London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 48-51. 4 illus., 3 diagrs.

Retrospective and critical

Bulleid, O. [V.S.]. Poppet valves on locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1929, 19, 569-605.
Disc.: 605-23.(Paper No. 248).

An examination of the L.N.E.R. experiments with Lentz Oscillating cam & Rotary Cam valve gears including their application to the J20 class.

North British Railway 0-6-0s:
After the grouping the NBR practice of replacing saturated boilers was continued.

[LNER — superheating of Reid's earlier locomotives]. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 45.

4-4-2 Atlantic-type
The L.N.E.R. acquired 240 4-4-2s at the grouping, which represented a high proportion of the British locomotives of this wheel armngement In 1923, Atlantics formed the principal motive power on the GNR, NBR and NER. The GCR also operated a few. Although no new locomotives were constructed by the LNER, the more recent designs were the subject of development. Many locomotives were used on express duties, including the high speed Pullman services, until displaced by Pacifics in the 1930's.

Evans, M. Atlantic era.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 3A. Tender engines—classes C1 to C11. 1979.
The allocation of a whole volume to this one wheel type is further evidence of the significance of the Atlantic-type on the LNER at its inception.

Great Central Railway:
Only slight modifications were made to the Great Central Atlantics under Gresley. Some of these are mentioned in E.S.P. Rawstron's article.

Rawstron, E.S.P. Some notes on the Great Central Railway "Atlantics". Rly Obsr, 1932, 4, 150-3.

Great Northern Railway

Cl:
Gresley had improved this 1902 Ivatt design, before the grouping, by the addition of high-degree superheating and piston valves. Subsequent modifications included the experimental use of a booster on No. 4419. This provided an extra 8500 lbf of tractive effort. This was useful for starting heavy trains on steep gradients, particularly on the exit from King's Cross. In 1938, the experimental four-cylinder simple was rebuilt with two K2-type cylinders. This design continued to give excellent service on high speed trains until WW2: notable for their fast running on Pullman car trains to Leeds (recorded by O.S. Nock, but published by C.J. Allen) and on very East Coast expresses when deputising for failed Pacifics: examples in book by Evans or in C.J. Allen's own summary.

No. 279
In 1915 No. 279 was rebuilt as a four-cylinder simple locomotive in anticipation of the then design process for a Pacific. Although the proposed Pacific would have had 16½ diametter cylinders, on 279 were lined up to 15in. Outside Walschaerts valve gear was linked to the inside piston valves via rocking shafts. All cylinders drove onto the rear coupled axle. Design is considered by Macnair in Backtrack, 2012, 26, 756,

Contemporary

Great Northern Ry four-cylinder engine No. 279. Locomotive Mag., 1915, 21, 217-18. illustration, diagram (side elevation) 
Gresley rebuild of Ivatt 2-cylinder locomotive with 15 x 26 in cylinders; the inside cylinders being actuated by rocking shafts from the outside Walschaerts gear

Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history. Vol. 3A. 1990. Pp 211-13.

No. 1300
Vulcan compound rebuilt to two-cylinder simple: inside cylinders removed and outside valve gear replaced with that used on K2 class 2-6-0
Rebuilt express locomotive No. 1300 Great Northern Railway. Locomotive Mag., 1918, 24, 42-3. 2 illustrations

Booster experiments.
This work was begun by Gresley in 1922 with a booster being fitted to No. 1419: locomotive also fitted with Pacific type cab see Groves

Auxiliary driving motor on Atlantic type engine, London & North, Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 221-5.3 illus., 5 diagrs., (incl. s. el).
Bulleid, O.V.S. The booster. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1928, 18, 239-91. (Paper No. 228).
An exhaustive study of booster development on the L.N.E.R.
INTRODUCTION of the locomotive "booster" on the London & North Eastern Railway. Rly Engr, 1923, 44, 385-8+. 2 illus., 4 diagrs., 2 plans.
LONDON & North Eastern Railway booster locomotive. Engineer, 1924, 137, 156.2 illus., diagr.
[Nokes, G.A.] Sekon, G.A., pseud. The locomotive booster on the L. & N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1923, 53, 176-80. 2 illus,diagr. (s. & f. els.)

1938: Rebuild of four-cylinder simple locomotive with two K2 cylinders.
This entry was based on Jones and contained a fundamental error not corrected until 16 April 2015: it had been stated that locomotive was a four-cylinder compound: it was a four-cylinder simple see No. 279 above modified by Gresley in anticipation of a four-cylinder Pacific

Converted lvatt Atlantic. Rly Mag., 1938, 83, 229-30. illus.
Converted Ivatt Atlantic locomotive, L.N.E.R.. Rly Gaz., 1938, 69, 129. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Rebuil Atlantic engine No. 3279, L.N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 242-3. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. British Atlantic locomotives. 1968 rev. 1976.
Allen, C.J. A famous locomotive class: the Great Northern Atlantics. Trains Ann., 1948, 68-74. 4 illus.
Allen, G.F. The booster locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Trains Ann., 1950, 68-72; 64. 5 illus.
A digest of Bulleid's "The booster" (below).
Brewer, F.W. The Great Northern Atlantic type express locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 329-33; 362-5: 1924, 30, 15-17; 50-3. 14 illus.
A detailed technical history of pre-1923 development.
Bulleid, O.V.S. The booster. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1928, 18, 239-91. (Paper No. 228).
Includes results from the experiment with No. 4419.
Bulleid, O.V.S. Locomotives I have known. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1945, 152, 341-52
The Cl class was one of the few locomotive types selected for review.
Clay, John F.  Britain's most modern Atlantic in John F. Clay's Essay is steam. 1970.
Cook, A.F. A locomotive obituary: the Ivatt Atlantics. Trains ill., 1950, 3, 292-6; 334-9; 363-8. 20 illus.
Evans, M. Atlantic era : the British Atlantic locomotive.
London, Percival Marshall, 1961. [iv] , 94 p. + front. 49 illus., 20 tables.
Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history. Vol. 3A. 1990. Pp 213-15.
Hennessey, R.A.S. Atlantic - the well beloved engine. Tempus, 2002; History Press, 2009.
Hughes, G.J. Nigel Gresley and the booster. Rly Wld Ann., 1988,  104-12.
Included the booster-fitted to large Atlantics..
Neve, E. The Great Northern Atlantics: a history of a great locomotive class. Rly Obsr, 1950, 20, 151-4; 174-7; 218-19; 249-51, 256-8. +8 plates. 16 illus., 4 tables.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 3A. Tender engines—classes C1 to C11. 1979.
Includes diagram of proposed streamlined version on page 147. See also page 29 (No. 4420 may have been selected)
Reynolds, W.J. The G.N.R. "Atlantics". Railways, 1950, 11,146-8; 162-3;182-3. 18 illus. Notes and illustrations.
Tuplin, W.A. Reflections on firing an Ivatt Atlantic. Trains Ann., 1965, 16-19+. 3 illus.
A critical appreciation which includes notes of a footplate journey.
Webber, A.F. The proportions of locomotive boilers. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1937, 27, 688-725. Disc. 726-63. 8 diagrs., 8 tables. Bibliog. (Paper No. 378).
C1 included on a comparative basis.
Weight, R.A.H. Ivatt Atlantics and their work. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 555-8. 3 illus., table.

North British Railway Atlantics 
The NBR Atlantics of classes C10 and C11 were the subject of two minor developments — superheating and feed-water heating. One locomotive was scheduled for preservation, but it was scrapped during the Second World War. Although well before the period being covered here within the vital book on the Reid Atlantics by John Thomas should not be forgotten.

Superheating:
The LNER continued the NBR policy of superheating the earlier Reid locomotives: un-titled reference: Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 45.

1926: Worthington feed-water heating apparatus was fitted to No.9903 Cock o' the North, as described in Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 32.

1938 : Preservation The selected locomotive was re-painted in NBR livery.

PRESERVATION of the North British Atlantic. Rly Mag., 1938, 82, 384.
Hughes, Geoffrey. Preservation of the North British Atlantic Midlothian. Backtrack, 2003, 17, 710-11.
Mr C. Smith of Kilburn wrote to The Scotsman dated 1 December 1937 to advocate the preservation of 9875, the last NBR Atlantic. This came to the attention of Sir Eric Hutchinson of Esinburgh who wrote to Edward Marsden the LNER's Information Agent at Head Office who in turn communicated with George Mills, the Divisional General Manager of the Scottish area who in tun wrote to William Whitelaw, the Chairman (letter reproduced in full). It would seem that Whitelaw was keen on preservation and his involvement led to the re-assembly of the locomotive at Cowlairs in spite of Gresley's lack of interest. As is well-known he two-be-preserved locomotive was a casualty of WW2.

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. British Atlantic locomotives. 1968 rev. 1976.
Hawley, R.A. The Reid Atlantics of the North British Railway. Trains ill., 1952, 5, 339- 42. 2 illus., 4 tables.
Jarvis, C.C. Dynamometer car working on the L.N.E.R. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1933, 23, 2-33. Disc. :34-46. (Paper No. 297).
In the discussion section (pp. 35-7) the author discusses L.N.E.R. tests with the Cl1 class.
McColl, J. Impressions of modern locomotive design, with impressions on their performance on the road. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1923, 13, 175-92. Disc. :192-203. (Paper No. 137).
This accentuates North British policy. W. Chalmers chaired the meeting. (Chief Mechanical Engineer).
Nock, O.S. British locomotive practice and performance. Rly Mag., 1960, 106, 342-50.
Analysis of L.N.E.R. tests performed on this class.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 3A. Tender engines—classes C1 to C11. 1979.

North Eastern Railway:
The Raven Atlantics were involved in three experimental modifications, namely feed-water heating, Lentz valve gear and boosters.

1928: ACFI feed-water heating

The A.C.F.I. feed-water heater. Rly Engr. 1928, 49, 267-9. illus., 3 diagrs., plan.

Matthewson-Dick, T. Address by the President. How they run. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1967, 57, 155-96.
His experience with these devices had made him "somewaht sceptical of devices ever since.

C9: 1932: booster experiments:
A bogie booster unit was substituted for the trailing axle on two C7 class locomotives (Nos. 727 and 2171). This unit was articulated to the tender, producing a locomotive which could be described as a 4-4-4-4. Larger boilers were fitted at the same time..See especially Spencer.

DEVELOPMENT of the locomotive booster on the L.N.E.R. Rly Engr. 1932, 53, 102-3; 106-9. 5 illus., 3 diagrs. (incl. 2 s. els.), 2 tables.
A NOTABLE L.N.E.R. locomotive reconstruction. Rly Mag., 1932, 70, 117-19. 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
REBUILT 4-4-2 type locomotive with booster, L. & N.E.R. Engineering, 1932, 133, 38-9. illus., 2 diagrs., (incl. s. el.)
REBUILT 4-4-2 type passenger locomotives fitted with "boosters", L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr.Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 2-5. 3 diagrs. (incl. 2 s. & f. els.).

C7/2: 1934 :
Two locomotives were modified with D49/2-type cylinders and Lentz RC poppet valve gear.

ATLANTIC type locomotive fitted with poppet valve mechanism, L.N.E.R. Rly Engr. 1934, 55, 90. illus.
A POPPET-VALVE Atlantic on the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1934, 74, 261. illus.
REBUILT Atlantic type engine with poppet valves, L. & N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1934, 40, 66. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. British Atlantic locomotives. 1968 rev. 1976.
Allen, C.J. The last North Eastern Atlantic. Trains ill., 1949, 2, 38-42. 9 illus.
A history which includes Gresley modifications.
Allen, C.J. Lone locomotives. Trains Ann., 1956, 67-79; 82-4.
The C9 design is included in this survey.
Allen, G.F. The booster locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Trains Ann., 1950, 68-72; 64. 5 illus.
Ball, J.D.W. Equivalent distributed loads for recent locomotives. Rly Engr. 1932. 53, 399-401. 4 diagrs, 2 tables.
Examines the C9 type in relation to axle loading.
Dobson, K.S. Poppet valve development on the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 197-200. 8 illus., (some on pp. 176-7).
Describes the C7/2 modification (Lentz RC valve gear).
Gresley, H.N. The three-cylinder high-pressure locomotive. Proc. Instn mech. Engrs, 1925, (2), 927-67. Disc. 968-86. 9 illus., 15 diagrs., 6 tables.
Gresley arranged comparative tests between the C6 and C7 (2 and 3 cylinder types), the results of which are given in this paper. Sir Vincent Raven presided over this meeting.
Hoole, K. An illustrated history of NER locomotives. 1988.
Notes that the modified locomotives were virtually total replacments and included new boilers
Hoole, K. The North Eastern Atlantics. Rly Obsr, 1949, 19, 29-32; 52-5; 98-100
+ 3 plates. 4 illus., 4 tables.
Hoole, K. The North-Eastern Atlantics. 1965.
Hoole, K. Odd N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Wld, 1959, 20, 382-9. 7 illus., 2 tables.
Includes L.N.E.R. modifications.
Hughes, G.J. Nigel Gresley and the booster. Rly Wld Ann., 1988,  104-12.
Included the C9 type.
Jarvis, C.C. Dynamometer car working on the L.N.E.R. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1933, 23, 2-33. Disc.: 34-46. (Paper No. 297).
Comparative tests of classes C6 and C7 (pp. 35-7).
Lund, G.H.K. Railway breakdown and rerailing equipment. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1950, 40, 281.
In his response to the discussion Lund mentioned the difficulties in re-railing articulated rolling stock and the particular difficulty encountered with the C9 locomotives..
Matthewson-Dick, T. Address by the President. How they run. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1967, 57, 155-96.
His experience of ACFI and poppet valves on these locomotives had made him somewaht sceptical of gadgets ever since.
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 3A. Tender engines—classes C1 to C11. 1979.
Spencer, B. The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941.  J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 211-12. (Paper No. 465)
In reply to a question from E.S. Cox, Spencer noted that engines Nos. 727 and 2171 which had been re-built in 1931 and fitted with an articulated connection between the' engine and tender and had been fitted with a booster and new boiler of increased capacity to meet the additional demand placed by the booster Spencer recorded that the modifications were intended to increase the weight of trains hauled, particularly over the section between Edinburgh and Berwick, which includes the long gradient of 1 in 95 at Cockburnspath. The load hauled was limited by the ability to start on this gradient if a train was brought to a stand by a signal. In practice it was found that, with the heavier loads, there was a considerable drop in the speed of the trains up this gradient and as the booster could not be engaged until the speed had fallen to at least 27 m.p.h., it was too late then to make effective use of the booster and time was consequently lost which could not be regained. The riding of the converted engines was not good, due, no doubt, to the large amount of unsprung weight on the articulated bogie. When the boosters were removed and the engines ran in the articulated condition, the general opinion of the enginemen was that the riding was greatly improved, and was  superior to that of the original 4-4-2 type. But some difficulty was experienced under the existing shop repair system in having to lift and remove the tender from the engine, and it was also necessary to provide a carrying bogie to enable the tender to be moved about the works.

4-4-0

D49: 1927:
This class, sometimes known as the Shire or Hunt classes, was introduced for working secondary express duties on the Scottish and North Eastern Sections. Three 17 in x 26 in cylinder were incorporated, but the boiler was standard with class J39. In consequence, the total heating surface was restricted to 1669 ft2 and the grate area to 26 ft2. Comparative figures for the B17 and Southern Schools classes were 2020 ft2 (2049 ft2) and 27½ ft2 (28.3 ft2) (the figures for the Schools class are within parentheses). The capacity of the locomotives was, therefore, limited, but O.S. Nock (The locomotives of Sir Nigel Gresley pp. 724) has described one run on which 1230 drawbar horsepower was achieved whilst hauling 435 tons.
The original design was fitted with Gresley derived valve gear and was known as the D49/1 or Shire class. In 1928, Lentz oscillating cam valve gear was experimentally fitted to six new locomotives (D49/3) and in the following year the rotary cam version was applied to two further locomotives (D49/2). This latter modification formed the basis for a series, constructed from 1932, known as the Hunt class.
Rutherford (BackTrack, 15, 292) noted that Darlington Drawing Office, under the chief locomotive draughtsman, R. J. Robson, undertook all the design work and does not seem to have been closely supervised by Gresley or Doncaster as to detail features. The derived valve gear was placed behind the cylinders and its joints were kept away from smokebox char. The valves themselves were easy to remove for inspection without dismantling the valve gear.
Both RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 4 and more unexpectedly Part 6C (the section appropriate to the W1 indicate that Gresley had contemplated using the Smith arrangement of compounding for an experimental version of the D49. A V6 version was also contemplated (RCTS Part 4). Return to top of page.. A paragraph in Loco, Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 32 suggested that three compound locomotives might be built and that they would be fitted with boilers similar to the last 2-6-0 built at Darlingon Works (K3 type?): clearly this was not so.

4-4-0 type locomotive on the London and North-Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1927. 124, 722-3. illus., 6 diagrs. (incl.. s. & f. els.)
NEW 4-4-0 type express locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Engr, 1928, 49, 66-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW three.cylinder 4-4-0 type locomotive, London & North Eastern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1927, 17, 574-7 + plate illus.,diagr. (s. el.).
THREE-CYLlNDER 4-4-0 express locomotives, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1928, 62, 14-16. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
A more detailed account than usual for the Railway Magazine at that time.
THREE-CYLlNDER 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 378-9. illus.,diagr. (s. el.).
THREE-CYLlNDER 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 1 + folding plate. illus.

D49/3:1928 : Oscillating cam poppet valve gear.

THREE-CYLlNDER express engine with Lentz valves, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 278-9. illus.,diagr. (s. & f. els.)

D49/2 :1929 : Rotary cam poppet valve gear.

4-4-0 passenger engines, L. & N.E. Ry. with rotary cam poppet valve gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1929, 35, 380-1. illus.
LENTZ locomotive valve gear. Engineer, 1930, 149, 132. illus., 2 diagrs.
LONDON and North Eastern Railway 4-4-0 locomotive fitted with poppet valves. Rly Mag., 1930, 66, 58. illus.
NEW 4-4-0 three-cylinder passenger locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 156. illus.

A modified version for new construction: "Hunt" class.

THREE.CYLINDER locomotive with rotary cam poppet valve gear. Engineering, 1930, 129, 39-41. illus., 4 diagrs.
A very complete account.

D49 : 1931 : Improvements to the main drive using the "Woodard" arrangement.

IMPROVEMENTS in the main drive on crank pins. Loco. Rly Wagon Rev., 1931, 37, 295. 2 diagrs.

Retrospective & critical

Bulleid, O.V.S. Poppet valves on locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1929, 19, 569-605. Disc. 605-23 + 9 folding plates. 9 illus., 29 diagrs., 3 tables. (Paper No. 248).
Examination of LNER experiments with special reference to the D49 class.
Carling, D.R. Locomotive testing on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1950, 40, 496-530. Disc.: 530-91 . (Paper No. 497).
The discussion includes consideration of tests performed on the D49 class.
[D49 class prediction of compound version]. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 32.
This may refer to Gresley's abortive design for a V six-cylinder Uniflow engine (see Bert Spencer (The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 146-210)), or to Gresley proposal. for a Smith type of compound (Hughes Sir Nigel Gresley p. 107).
Dobson, K.S. Poppet valve development on the L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 197-200. 8 illus., (some on pp. 176-7).
Partly based on Bulleid's paper (see above).
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Page 56: noted that Lentz poppet valves actuated by oscillating cams remained steam tight far longer than piston valves.
Hoole, K. The class "D49" 4-4-0s of the L.N.E.R. Trains ill., 1957, 10, 97-102. 9 illus., 2 tables.
Hoole, K.  North Road Locomotive Works, Darlington. 1967.
Page 50: "In 1932 the piston valve D49 engines were giving quite a lot of trouble and 15 had already had rheir cylinders renewed; of the remaining 13, five had their cylinders concreted and the others were expected to require new cylinders within a short time. Broken and cracked frames had also been giving trouble and a number of engines had undergone extensive welding and patching of their frames. Many of the class had their coupled wheels rebalanced...."
Jarvis, C.C. Dynamometer car working on the L.N.E.R. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1933, 23, 2-33. Disc.: 34-46. (Paper No. 297).
The discussion elucidates comparative tests performed on the Walschaerts and Lentz valve gear locomotives.
Poultney, E.G. Poppet valves as applied to locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1930, 20, 704-6. Disc. : 706-15. (Abstract of a lecture).
The lecture was associated with a visit to Neville Hill Depot (Leeds) where Lentz O.C. and R.C. D49 class locomotives and Sentinel locomotives were inspected.
Riemsdijk, J.T. van. Compound locomotives: an International survey. 1994. 140pp.
Written mainly about Midland compounds, but added that the maximum sustained power outputs achieved by the Midland Compounds, Southern Schools, LNWR George V and LNER Shire (D49) 4-4-0s were all much the same, but the Midland and LNER types were rarely required to produce such outputs.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part  4.
Very important source (except for proposed compound version), notes Robson's contribution to design; an appeal to Stanier whilst he was still on GWR, to assist with rough riding problem (presumably his expertise on County class 4-4-0) and several attempts to cure it including use of manganese axlebox liners and on five locomotives the B1 bogie.
Spencer, B. The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941.  J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 211-12. (Paper No. 465)
In reply to a question from E.S. Cox, Spencer noted that comparative maintenance costs for the piston valve and poppet valve gear types of D49 class engines were not available, but LNER experience certainly shows that the poppet valve engines were the cheaper to maintain. There were D49 class engines then in service with the original cams and valves.
Smeddle, R.A. discussion on Cox, E.S. A modern locomotive history: ten years' development on the L.M.S. — 1923-1932. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 168-9. (Paper No. 457)
Experience of Lentz oscillating cam and rotary cam valve gears led him to believe that poppet valves caused less problems than Walschaerts or Stephenson valve gears :.
Toram Beg. The antics of the North British Atlantics. Rly Wld., 1963, 24, 475-6.
Noted that the great fault of the Shire class was rough riding.

Dl1/2 (Director): 1924:
There was a motive power shortage in Scotland and to meet this demand quickly, Gresley constructed a further series of the Robinson "large Director" class. The boiler mountings were reduced to meet the Scottish loading gauge.

Contemporary

4-4-0 passenger engines: "Director" class L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 1-2. illus., table.
Mainly the Scottish series.

Allen, C.J. Salute to the "Claud Hamiltons" & "Directors". Trains ill., 1961, 14, 113-17. 10 illus.
Amac, pseud. The "Director" class, L. & N.E.R. in Soctland. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 82.
The difficulties experienced by Scottish drivers with a strange design of cab, especially with the right-hand drive.
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. Driving the "Directors". Rly Wld, 1963, 24, 110-13. illus. (Enginemens lobby).
Similar to Amac's contribution. Reprinted in Whitehouse Railway Anthology. 1965.
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. Talking of "Directors": a footplate commentary. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 502-4.
Comment on good steaming and riding qualities.
Modern L.N.E.R. locomotives in Scotland. Rly Mag., 1928, 63,11-18. 10 illus.
Reviews the more modern N.B.R.designs plus the L.N.E.R. introductions.
Tuplin, W.A. Swan song of the Great Central "Directors". Rly Mag., 1953, 99, 88-90. 2 illus.
An appreciation.

Great Eastern Railway

D15 and D16:

The original D15 design dated to 1903 and was the subject of several modifications which culminated in the Hill "Super Claud" design introduced in 1923.The major Gresley modification was the modernization of several locomotives with round top fireboxes and modern front-ends, from 1933. See also S46 class Great Eastern Railway.

D16:1923: Hill Super Clauds

REBUILT 4-4-0 express locomotive, London & North-Eastern Railway, Great Eastern Section. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 125. illus.
REBUILT 4-4-0 locomotive, Great Eastern Section, London and North Eastern Railway. Rly Mag., 1923, 52, 492. illus.

D16/2 :1926:
Gresley rebuilds of Holden 4-4-0s in line with the Hill "Super Clauds", but with extended smokeboxes.

REBUILT 4-coupled express engine, London & North Eastern Ry., G.E. Section. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 138. illus.

Liveries

Mullinger, C. Bertram. Liveries.Br Rly J., 1991 (36) 307.
Notes on liveries adopted by LNER in 1930s for Clauds and Super Clauds

D16/3:1933 Gresley modernization.

RE-BOILERED 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 137. illus.
REBUILT 4-4-0 and 4-6-0 express locomotives, G.E. Section, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1933, 72, 426-8. 3 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.), table.

Retrospective

Brewer, F.W. The L.N.E.R. "Claud Hamiltons". Rly Mag., 1934, 74, 123-9; 397-8. 7 illus.
Hardy, R.H.N. Go East, young man! Part 5. Steam Wld, 1999 (150), 40-4.
The D16/2 Super Clauds; the locomotives used for Royal train working at Lynn. It is noted that some were erratic steamers due probably to the 5in blastpipe. They needed careful fiiring, but could be fast. Many still had only one water gauge glass. When Hardy was at South Lynn in 1946-8 the D9 class were displaced by two Super Clauds and four D16/3. Notes on the involvement of Edward Thompson, Albert English and L.P. Parker in the development of the D16/3 with long travel, long lap piston valves using J39 cylinders and motion parts (at Gresley's insistence: KPJ once again showing Gresley's true approach to standardisation). Later locomotives retained some of the Stratford motion parts.
Hilton, H.F. The "Claud Hamilton". Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1947, 23,117-19. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Locomotive No. 8900 Claud Hamilton.
Nock, O.S. Steam distribution and locomotive performance. Rly Gaz., 1942, 76, 430-1. 2 diagrs., 3 tables.
An assessment of the modernized Dl 6 and B12 designs.
Proud, P. The Great Eastern "Claud Hamilton" class. Kings Heath (Birmingham), R.C.T.S., 1959. 20 p. + 8 plates. 22 illus., 2 tables.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 3C. Tender engines—classes D13 to D24. 1981. 119pp.
Replaces the Proud monograph (above)

North British Railway:
The NBR policy of superheating the major designs was continued by the LNER. Un-titled reference Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 38, 45.

Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part  4.

North Eastern Railway

D20/2:
From 1936 some of the W. Worsdell R class (of 1899) were modernized with long travel piston valves. Hughes (Gresley influence) suggests that this action undertaken by Thompson did not please Gresley. Return to top of page.

[MODERNISED D20 class]. Rly Mag., 1937, 80, 71. illus.
REBUILT 4-4-0 passenger engine, L.N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1936, 42, 372. illus.

Retrospective

Hoole, K. Last of the L.N.E.R. 4-4-0 locomotives. Rly Wld, 1958, 19, 95-9. 10 illus.
Misprinted title for "N.E.R. 4-4-0".
Hoole, K. Odd N.E.R. locomotives. Rly Wld, 1959, 20, 382-9. 7 illus., 2 tables.
Includes the D20/2 type.
Hoole, K. The R class 4-4-0 engines of the North Eastern Railway. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1957, 33, 18-23. illus., 2 tables.
Hoole, K. The Worsdell 4-4-0s of the N.E.R. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 277-81; 313-17. 14 illus., 2 tables.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 3C. Tender engines—classes D13 to D24. 1981. 119pp.
According to this source the offence which Thompson committed was to inform the press of this modification.


2-4-0

E4
:
Some of this J. Holden class were modified with side-window cabs for vorking on the Stainmore route, between Darlington and Penrith.

GREAT Eastern engines among the Pennines. Rly Mag., 1938, 82, 143. illus.

Tank engines


Bert Spencer (The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 146-210) showed that the number of unfulfilled tank engine designs exceeded classes actually built. This was due to severe engineering limitations on the London suburban routes and to capital shortage. The restrictions on size on the Great Eastern and Great Northern routes (the latter in respect to Moorgate) were so severe that demands for further motive power were met by the construction of pre-grouping 0-6-2T designs. Gresley did, however, introduce one new 2-6-2T class which was used on some London outer-suburban services and on a variety of secondary and suburban duties elsewhere.

2-8-0+0-8-2

Ul :1925 :
This Beyer Garrett was the largest and most powerful steam locomotive in Britain. The wheels, cylinders (six in total) and motion were interchangeable with the O2 class 2-8-0s. The boiler had to be capable of supplying steam to the equivalent of two freight locomotives and was, therefore, correspondingly large (grate area : 56.4 ft2 total heating surface: 3640 ft2). The nominal tractive effort was 72, 940 lbf.
This massive locomotive was introduced to reduce the number of banking locomotives required on the 1 in 40 Worsborough incline, near Barnsley. When this line was electrified, as part of the Manchester.Sheffleld/Wath scheme, the locomotive became redundant. Subsequently it was modified for working on the Lickey incline, but was not successful (see L.T. Parker). Return to top of page.

"Garratt" articulated locomotive, L. & N.E.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 144.
This item referss to order being placed with Beyer Peacock when a four-cylinder locomotive with a tractivbe force of 62,650 lbf was envisaged.

L.N.E.R. locomotive developments: Garratt 2-8-0 + 0-8-2 six-cylinder and 2-8-2 three-cylinder freight engines. Rly Engr, 1925, 46, 267-72. 9 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
New locomotives for the L. & N.E.R. Engineer, 1925, 139, 715-17.8 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
New locomotives, London & North Eastern Railway. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1925, 15, 379-81. illus.
New mikado & Garratt locomotives, London & North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1925, 31, 202-5. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
Erratum p. 280.
Notable locomotives for the London and North Eastern Railway. Rly Mag., 1925, 57, 142-5. 3 illus.

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. Lone locomotives. Trains Ann., 1956, 67-79, 82-4. 25 illus.
Baxter, Peter: Gresley's giant: first of a fleet?. Steam Wld, 2001 (170) 24-7.
U1 2-8-8-2T: writer claims that two locomotives were orginally planned, and that these were intended to be based on O4 design. Writer refers to the erosive soft water of Mexborough and Barnsley.
Beastall, H. Discussion on: Williams, W.C. Modern articulated steam locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1933, 23, 85-132. Disc.: 132-57. (Paper No.299).
Mentioned the problems with steaming on the U1 at Mexborough and this had led to modifications being made to the blastpipe orifice
Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., Manchester. Beyer-Garratt articulated locomotives. London, Beyer, Peacock, 1947]. xvi, 164 p. + 2 folding plates. 199 illus., 2 diagrs.
Pp. 118-23 describe the L.N.E.R. and L.M.S. Beyer Garratt designs.
Durrant, A.E. Garratt locomotives of the world. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1981.
Includes then "recent" modifications for work on Lickey incline: consideration of fitting mechanical stoker off Merchant Navy class and then modified for oil firing
Essery, Bob. LMS Garratts. Steam Wld, 2009 (263), 28-39.
Also includes the LNER Garratt and its unhappy sojourn on the Lickey Incline..
Essery, R.J. and Toms, G. LMS & LNER Garratts. Didcot: Wild Swan, 1991.
Contains extensive tabulated data: follow up in British Railway Journal (68)page 103.
Grafton, Peter. Men of the LNER. London: Allen & Unwin, 1982.
Ottley 18106: as a boy author used to see Garratt working on Worsborough incline, and it performed reliably (to him).
R.H. Mann. Odd man out! Part 1: 1903-1926. Rly Wld, 1957, 18, 105-8.
Single-purpose locomotives: 0-10-0 for Lickey Incline; Holden 0-10-0T Decapod (not illustrated), Churchward Great Bear (not illustrated here), U1 2-8-8-2 Beyer Garratt for Worsborough Incline
Parker, L.T. Farewell to the Lickey banker. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1957, 33, 15-17.
Parker, L.T. The Lickey banker. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1955, 31,137-8; 151-60; 285. 2 illus.
The above references, by Parker, observe the difficulties experienced with the Ul on the Lickey incline.
Railway Correspondence & Travel SocietyLocomotives of the LNER. Part 9B. Tank engines—classes Q1 to Z5. 1977. 116pp.
The mighty Garratt appears to be somewhat lost in this volume which covers a large number of very small locomotives.
Return to the Lickey Incline. Trains ill., 1950, 3, 310-11.
See note for Parker (above).
Semmens, P.W.B. On the footplate of Britain's most powerful locomotive. Trains ill., 1952,
5, 272-3 +.
Account of a footplate journey on the Worsborough incline.
Slaughter, E. Discussion on: Williams, W.C. Modern articulated steam locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1933, 23, 85-132. Disc.: 132-57. (Paper No.299).
Page 151 Operating experience on the Worsborough incline. noted that the engine was hardly warmed up by the time it had to come to a stand
Whitelegg, R.H. The Garratt locomotive. Trans. Manchr Ass. Engrs, 1925/26, 287-306.
Disc. 306-13 + 2 folding plates. 4 illus.
A general paper, with some emphasis on the Ul design.

0-8-4T

S1/2 and S1/3: 1932
Robinson introduced this class in 1907 for shunting in hump marshalling yards. To increase the power available, by 35 per cent, Gresley rebuilt one of these locomotives with a superheated boiler and a reversible bogie booster (S1/2). Two further locomotives were constructed with boosters and were classified S1/3. Return to top of page..

CONVERTED locomotive with reversible booster on the L.N.E .R. Engineering, 1932, 134, 178-9. illus., 3 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
L.N.E.R.tank engine with booster. Engineer, 1932, 153, 691. illus.,diagr.
0-8-4 booster tank engines, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1933, 73, 400. illus.

S1/3

REBUILT 0-8-4 tank engine, fitted with reversible booster, L.N.E.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1932, 38, 193-5. illus., 3 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
RECONSTRUCTED tank locomotive with reversible booster, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1932, 71, 50-2. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
TANK locomotive fitted with reversible booster, L.N.E.R. Rly Engr, 1934, 55, 198-9. illus., 3 diagrs. (incl.. 2 s. els.)

Retrospective and critical

Allen, G.F. The booster locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Trains Ann., 1950, 68-72; 64. 5 illus.
Ball, J.D.W. Equivalent distributed loads for recent locomotives. Rly Engr, 1932, 53, 399-401. 4 diagrs., 2 tables.
Examines the design in relation to axle loading.
Dow, G. The S1 and T1 locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Railways, 1945, 6, 150-2. 5 illus.
Hawley, R.A. The Great Central eight-coupled tanks. Trains ill., 1956, 9, 259-61. 3 illus., table.
Hughes, G.J. Nigel Gresley and the booster. Rly Wld Ann., 1988,  104-12.
Included the S1/3 type
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9B. Tank engines—classes Q1 to Z5. 1977. 116pp.

4-6-2T: modifications to pre-grouping designs.

Great Central Railway

A5:
In 1923, G.C.R. No. 6 was built with a side-window cab. This was a Robinson modification. In 1925,.a new series was constructed by Hawthorn Leslie, modified to suit the composite loading gauge (A5/2). Return to top

1923 side-window cab.

NEW tank locomotives, Great Central Section, London & North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 160. illus.

A5/2 :1925 Hawthorn Leslie series.

4-6-2 passenger tank engines, London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 109-110.diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW 4-6-2 tank engine, London & North Eastern Railway. Rly Mag., 1928, 63, 55. illus.
NEW passenger tank engines, London & North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 69. illus.

Retrospective and critical

RAILWAY Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Part 7. Tank engines-classes A5 to H2. 1964.

North Eastern Railway

A8:1932:
This class originated as the Raven three-cylinder 4-4-4T class D, introduced in 1913 (LNER class H1), but from 1931 the design was modified as a 4-6-2T to increase adhesion..

CONVERTED tank engine, London and North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1931, 37, 289-90. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
CONVERTED tank locomotive on the London & North Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1931, 132, 208. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
An INTERESTING L.N.E.R. locomotive conversion. Rly Mag., 1931, 69, 280-1. 2 illus.

Retrospective

Hoole, K. The 4-6-2Ts of the North Eastern Railway. Rly Obsr, 1951, 21, 4-8; 26-9 + 2 plates. 4 illus., 2 tables.
Addenda p. 202.
Nock, O.S. Locomotives of the North Eastern Railway. (1954). p. 142
"The rebuilds are amongst the smoothest riding engines I have ever travelled on."
RAILWAY Correspondence and Travel Society. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R. Part 7. Tank engines-classes A5 to H2. 1964.

2-6-2T

V1 and V3:
The V1 class was introduced in 1930 and had 180 lb/in2 boilers. In 1939 similar locomotives, but with 200 lb/in2 boilers, were introduced. This latter design was classified V3. Return to top of page..

L.N.E.R. side-tank locomotives. Engineer, 1930, 150, 466. illus.
NEW three-cylinder tank locomotive. Rly Engr. 1930, 51, 462; 482. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
NEW 2-6-2 tank engine, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1930, 67, 336-7 + plate f.p. 353. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
THREE-CYLINDER 2-6-2 type tank engines, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1930, 36, 325-6. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els)
2-6-2-type tank locomotives on the London and North-Eastern Railway. Engineering, 1930, 130, 428. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Retrospective and critical

Bond, R.C. Organisation and control of locomotive repairs on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 175-265. (Paper No. 520).
Annual mileage for both the V1 and V3 types are quoted.
Cook, A.F. London & North Eastern Railway: the Gresley 2-6-2 tank engines. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1944, 20, 142-6.2 illus. (incl. s. el. drawing).
Dunbar, Alan G. and Glen, I.A. Fifty years with Scottish steam.  1982.
Experienced class as Parkhead chargehand fitter where type was castigated for its pull-out regulator (by the fitters); the pipework for the rear sandbox, and replacement of the vacuum rolling rings which required lifting the cab floor and about 8 hours work.
Hoole, K. The V1 and V3 tank engines. Rly Obsr, 1961, 37-8; 130-1 + plate. 3 illus., table.
Neve, Eric. The V1 and V3 2-6-2Ts. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. page 101
The class was originally constructed for Scotland to replace the N2 and NBR 4-4-2Ts. Further locomotives were constructed for the North East in 1935/6 and 15 were allocated to Stratford in 1938. In the North East they were used on the Newcastle to Middlesbrough buffet car service. A further 25 locomotives were authorized in 1940 and 1941, but the order was cancelled in 1943. Originally it had been intended to use the K2 as the basis, but a decision was made to use three cylinders and a larger boiler. The new boiler was also intended to be fitted to former NBR classes, but this not happen (KPJ: further evidence of Gresley's interest in standardization, and being thwarted by lack of bawbies). Writer saw V1 at High Wycombe on 27 September 1930 at at King's Cross on 22 April 1931. Illus.: 416 lettered "NE" somewhere in NE; 2916 in Princes Street Gardens on 4 August 1938 heading west for Fife?; 2929 and 2909 at St Margarte's on 1 August 1937 (L. Hanson) and 454 at Middlebrough coal stage in May 1937.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9B. Tank engines—classes Q1 to Z5. 1977.

0-6-2T

N2: 1920-
The N2 was introduced by Gresley in 1920, and was a superheated version of the Ivatt N1 class with slightly larger cylinders (19in x 26in). Like the N1 class they were intended for the Kings Cross suburban services, but a three-cylinder 2-6-2T had been sketched out in 1919 (Fig. 52 page 76 of Groves Great Northern locomotive history 3B), but had to be abandoned.[KPJ is tempted to wonder how the Fowler 2-6-2Ts were accepted at Moorgate]. The original batch of ten were supplied from Doncaster, but fifty were also manufacture by the North British Locomotive Co. All were fitted with condensing apparatus.

Passenger tank locomotive, Great Northern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1921, 27, 4. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)

Beyer Peacock series: Nos. 2583-94
Twelve N2 class were built by Beyer Peacock and differed from GNR locomotives in being left-hand drive and not being fitted with condensing apparatus nor feed pumps. Thhey were fitted with Stephenson link motion operating the valves by rocking shafts. They were fitted with Hulburd's valveless mechanical lubricators.
London & North Eastern Ry. Locomotive Mag., 1925, 31, 35.,

N2/4 and N2/3: 1925/1928
The N2/3 was a non-condensing version built for Scottish services. The N2/4, condensing locomotives, differed from the 1920 series in detail. In time it is hoped to add citations to original design in contemporary soures.

0-6-2 tank locomotives, London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1928, 34, 345. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Anderson, E.P. Report on the accident that occurred on the 1st October, 1929, to a passenger train, which was derailed between Gartmore and Buchlyvie. Ministry of Transport Railway accidents ... which occurred during the three months ending 31st December, 1929. London, HMSO, 1930.8 p.
Although poor track was the primary cause of derailment, Anderson criticised the high hammer blow and oscillation rates of the N2 tank engines. See also T.H. Saunders (below).
Bannister, Eric. Trained by Sir Nigel Gresley. 1984. pp. 25-6
Sent by Gresley to investigate derailments near Edinburgh which led to "high speed" tests between Edinburgh and Dunbar. A later investigation involved a Parkhead locomotive which showed that the permanent was at fault.
Collins, Bert. N2 footplate memories. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. pp. 89-96.
Between 1947 and 1956 writer worked on "Big Mets". He was examined by Inspector Mitchell at Top Shed to becoame a passed cleaner. He found it difficult to cope with left-handed shovelling. He, and the next writer, both fired on the freight trains which ran from Highbury Vale up the 1 in 60 gradients to Highgate and then on to Edgware, High Branet and Alexandria Palace, The less favoured individual locomotives were allocated to Hornsey where some locomotives were equipped with Detroit hydrostatic lubricators, rather than the Wakefield type. The Detroit type was located under the fireman's seat and impeded the shovelling path. He discovered that the pull out cock for the injectors was easier to use than the brass wheel and handle type. The Oakleigh Park to Luton working was very popular where it was known as "over the hills and far away". One driver took his twelve bore with him which he used in the fields whilst waiting at Ayot. He greatly enjoyed firing to Driver Bert Sims, who was the ASLEF Branch Secretary,
Dunbar, Alan G. and Glen, I.A. Fifty years with Scottish steam.  1982.
Experienced class as Parkhead chargehand fitter where type was known as teddy bears: disliked the Gresley superheaters, gradually replaced by Robinson type; the arrangement for the gudgeon pin which joined the small end of the connecting rod to the crosshead; and the means to keep the piston glands in position. Following a derailment on the former NBR Hamilton branch a 45 mile/h limited was imposed on the class.
Fowler, F.C. Memories of the King's Cross N2s. in Hughes, Geoffrey. A Gresley anthology. Didcot: Wild Swan/Gresley Society, 1994. page. 97
Writer also describes Edgware workings over the sharp gradients, as steep as 1 in 59, and of banking stalled trains out of Gas Works tunnel (where the train was located by the exploding detonators placed at the rear), and of assisting trains which could not restart having come out "the hole", and of the difficulties experinced on the Hotel Curve. The gas-lit Quad-Arts were easier to haul than those with electric lighting
Goslin, Geoff
. Steam on the Widened Lines. Volume 1: The Great Northern and Midland Railways and their successors.
1997
Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history Part 3B.) 1992.
The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 9A is far more important for this class.
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Page 51: The descent through the tunnels from York Road to Moorgate ('down the rat hole') was an unforgettable experience, for here we were compelled by law 'to condense our own steam and consume our own smoke.' This was enforced by the City authorities' smoke inspectors posted at strategic points, who recorded the numbers of offending locomotives with a view to prosecution. On leaving York Road the jet or blower was put. hard on and the condenser valve in the blastpipe closed, so turning the exhaust steam into the side tanks, where as it condensed it made the water bubble and crackle until it became so hot that condensation ceased and clouds of steam escaped from the vent pipes in front of the cab windows, filling the cab with wet steam mingled with the hot acrid fumes from the chimney. At Moorgate the tanks were refilled with cold water in order that the injectors could work properly on the return journey to Alexandra Palace, which was uphill all the way. The conditions in the cab as we climbed through the tunnel up the 1 in 37 gradient to No 16 platform at King's Cross resembled those of a turkish bath!
Page 71: as experienced on the Great Eastern at Brentwood where the men did not like the faceplate, or lifting injectors, and the Gresley superheaters were extremely difficult to maintain. due to blowing and distortioin.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9A. Tank engines—classes L1 to N19. 1977.
Reynolds, W.J. Tank engines of the G.N.R. Railways, 1950, 11, 27-9; 46-9; 65-8; 86-9; 109-1 0. 31 illus., diagr., 2 tables.
Rimmer, Alan. Testing times at Derby: a 'Privileged' view of steam. Usk: Oakwood, 2004. 120pp. (RS14)
Was involved in attempts to improve the ride of this class, and tests were conducted from Hatfield shed, both on the main line to King's cross and on the Dunstable branch from Welwyn Garden City. Modifications were made to the suspension of one locomotive and this led to an improved ride.
Sanders, T.H. The influence of springs in locomotive derailments, Rly Engr, 1931, 52, 209-13.5 diagrs.
Four actual, but un-named derailments are considered, of which the Buchlyvie accident is clearly one.
Sanders, T.H. Locomotive suspension, and its influence on derailments. J. Instn Loco.
Engrs,
1931, 32, 133-55. Disc.:155-63; 205-15; 859-65. (Paper No. 271).

As above.

0-6-2T: modifications to pre-grouping designs

Great Eastern Railway

N7
This design (GER L77) was introduced, by Hill, in 1914 for surburban services. The class was augmented, with some modifications, by Gresley.

N7 :1924 : new series, similar to the original design.

NEW surburban tank locomotives, London & North Eastern Ry.– Great Eastern Section. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1924, 30, 1. illus.

N7/1 :1925 :
A new series, modified and increased in weight, intended for Great Northern services.

NEW 0-6-2 tank engine, L.N.E.R. Rly Mag., 1926, 58, 120-1. illus.
NEW 0-6-2 tank engines, London and North Eastern Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1926, 32, 35; 37. illus.

N7/2 :1927 :
A series built with long travel valves.

NEW 0-6-2 tank locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1927, 33, 341. illus.

Retrospective & critical

Fry, E.V. The passing of Great Eastern steam. Rly Obsr, 1963, 33, 8-9.
Notes on several classes, including the N7.
Hardy, R.H.N. Balmore, pseud. Obituary for an outstanding surburban tank — the L.N.E.R. "N7". Trains Ann., 1964, 17-23. 8 illus.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 4. Steam Wld, 2005, (214) 34-9.
Describes how Sir Henry Thornton and R.V. Russell intoduced the Jazz service of intensively worked steam trains on the Chingford and Enfield Town lines out of Liverpool Street from 12 July 1920. The service began with J68 and J69 0-6-0Ts – Buckjumpers – and ended with electrification in 1960 with the N7 class. K.J. Cook had mandated that the N7 class should cease to be maintained which threatened the reliability of the service, but this was countermanded by Terry Miller.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 36. Steam Wld, 2007 (246), 26-9.
Long travel valve N7 No. 2601 on Brentwood Bank (W.A. Camwell): Hardy notes the problems encountered with the long travel engines when run at high speed as the valve spindles were liable to bend leading to failure of the valve gear..
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years of steam. 1986.
Pp. 72-3: experience of class at Wood Street on the Jazz service where high productivity maintenance was employed. Trials of the vacuum brake shortly after 1923 had shown that the Westinghouse brake was essential as the vacuum type was too slow to release. As the locomotives were not turned there was a tendency to develop sharp edges on the leading flanges which were liable to split points.
Paye, Peter. LNER N7 Class workings in the late 1920s. Backtrack, 2006, 20, 188-9.
Black & white photo-feature with extensive captions and notes: 2635 at Stratford shed on 7 September 1929; 2648 at Stratford shed on 28 July 1928; 2606 on an up train near Chadwell Heath on 25 May 1929; 2631 on a down train near Chadwell Heath on 25 May 1929 and 967 takes empty stock out of the siding at Woodford on 17 July 1926.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9A. Tank engines—classes L1 to N19. 1977.

Great Northern Railway

J50 :1913/1922

This Gresley class was pressaged by the GNR class J23. The first series were fitted with spare 4ft 2in boilers and in this condition they became LNER class J51, but the 221 series of 1922 were fitted with 4ft 5in boilers. On the GNR both types had been classified as J23. Hitherto the GNR had used saddle tanks for shunting, but Gresley produced a side tank with distinctive appertures in the tanks to provide access to the motion. The class is often known as the Ardsley tanks from which many of the class worked. A "Jay-Gee" moke eliminator was tested in 1949 on this type.

Superheater shunting locomotive, Great Northern Ry.  Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1914, 20, 118. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
J23 0-6-0T No. 167 fitted with Robinson superheater

1949 : Jay-Gee smoke eliminator.

The "JAY-GEE" smoke eliminator. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1949, 55, 173-4.2 illus.,diagr.
Fitted to No. 8950

Retrospective and critical

Goslin, Geoff. Steam on the Widened Lines. Volume 1: The Great Northern and Midland Railways and their successors. 1997
Groves, N. Great Northern locomotive history Part 3B.) 1992.
The RCTS Locomotives of the LNER Part 8A is far more important for this class, although Groves was written considerably later.
Ling, N. The J50 class of the L.N.E.R. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1948, 24, 69-70. + plate. illus.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 8A. Tank engines—classes J50 to J70. 1970.
On page 16 there is a note that Gresley had been impressed by Hookham's NSR 0-6-2T No. 25 which had been fitted with a superheater whilst retaining unbalanced slide valves and had contacted Stoke for details [KPJ suspects that Gresley may have wished to employ Hookham], but the class remained unsuperheated. The last were constructed in 1939.
Reynolds, W.J. Tank engines of the G.N.R. Railways, 1950,11, 27-9; 46-9; 65-8; 86-9; 109-10. 31 illus., diagr., 2 tables.

North Eastern Railway

J72:1925
Treated with NER designs (class E1)

2-4-2T

F4: 1933:
Three locomotives of this Great Eastern Railway class were modified with cow-catchers for use on the Fraserburgh-St. Combs line, which was unfenced

2-4-2 tank locomotive, G.N. of S. Section, L.N.E.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 319-20. illus.

0-4-0T

Y1 & Y3:
These Sentinel locomotives are partially considered in a separate section (Locomotive Manufacturers Products).

Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part 9B. Tank engines—classes Q1 to Z5. 1977.
Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. Locomotives of the LNER. Part  10B. Railcars and electric stock. 1990.
Includes the railcars

Y7: 1923:
This design was introduced in 1888, but was augmented in 1923.

NEW shunting engines, North Eastern Section, London & North Eastern Railway. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1923, 29, 351. iilus., diagr. (s. el.)

Unfulfilled projects

These are surveyed in great depth by F.A.S. Brown and Bert Spencer (The development of L.N.E.R. locomotive design, 1923-1941. J. lnstn Loco. Engrs, 1947, 37, 146-210) in works listed in the introductory section on Gresley.

Allen, C.J. Engines that were never built. Trains Ann., 1955, 59-70. 14 diagrs. (s. els.) Abstracted from the Spencer paper.

4-8-2

Hill, J., illus. Express engines that might have been. Trains Ann., 1958, 22-3. 3 illus.
Tuplin., WA. Two pre-war projects. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1963, 39, 309-11.
The other project was the Stanier 4-6-4 design.

2-8-2T

[L.N.E.R. building programme for 1932]. Rly Mag., 1932, 70, 231.

Diesel electric proposal
Brookman, James. Gresley's mainline diesel. Rly Wld, 1980, 41, 587-9.
Proposal to convert the Shildon-Newport Bo-Bo electric locomotives into diesel electric locomotives developed by Gresley in association with English Electric, suppliers of the original electric locomotives and William Beardmore proposed manufacturers of the diesel engines. This is a thorough examination, including Gresley's detailed reports to the Locomotive Committee and the LNER Board in the late 1920s: includes assessment as motive power on Peterborough (New England) to Ferme Park coal trains..

Specific facets of design

Axles

Thom, R.A. Built-up crank axles for modern express locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1935, 62, 510-17. 10 illus., 8 diagrs., table.
Thom was Mechanical Engineer, Southern Area, LNER and this paper reflects Gresley policy.

Cylinders

Machining locomotive cylinders at Doncaster Works, L.N.E.R. Rly Gaz., 1935, 63, 537-8. 2-illus.
Thom, R.A. The manufacture of monobloc cylinders for 3 cylinder locomotives details of the practice applied at Doncaster Works of the London. & North Eastern Railway. Rly Engr, 1932, 53, 340-3.6 illus., 2 diagrs.
Both of the above refer to the manufacture of monobloc cylinder - castings which were applied to several designs.

Fireboxes

Musgrave, G.A. Discussion on Spencer, B. Some features of locomotive design. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1924, 14, 216-21. Disc.: 221-7. (Paper No.158).
Spencer outlined some design desideratta which included Belpaire fireboxes. Musgrave presented a defence of the Doncaster traditions.

Jointing materials

Hinds, C.N. Joints and jointing materials. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1923, 13, 581-4. Disc. : 584-94. (Paper No. 156).
Doncaster practice.

Smokeboxes

L.N.E.R. smokebox doors. Rly Mag., 1937, 80, 461.
Variance in practice between Doncaster and Darlington Works.

Valve gears:
The Walschaerts-Gresley valve gear was the source of much controversy and criticism, which is partly answered in Harold Holcroft's article, where it is stated that "it may be recalled that in recent times a speed of 125 m.p.h. was attained by one of the L.N.E.R. "Pacifics" fitted with the Gresley gear". Return to top of page.

General form
Topham, W.L. The running man's ideal locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 3-29. Disc.: 29-91. (Paper No. 456)
Topham admired the arrangement of Walschaerts valve gear as applied to the V2 class

Conjugated
Conjugated valve gears. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1949, 55, 41-2. 5 diagrs.
Groves, Norman. Great Northern locomotive history. Volume 3B. 1911-1922. The Gresley era. RCTS, 1992. 132pp.
Groves describes development for O2 and for K3 classes, but refers to "Henry" Holcraft.
Holcroft, H. Conjugated valve gears for locomotives : their history and development. Engineer, 1946, 181, 145-7; 168-70; 192-3.21 diagrs.
Reviews the development of derived valve gear on the L.N.E.R.
Holcroft, H. Locomotive adventure: fifty years with steam. [1962].
Pp. 90-3 outline Holcroft's contact with Gresley.
Oxley, Charlie. Gresley valve gear. Gresley Observer,  1999, 38, (118) 16-26.
Considers it appropriate for large locomotives: Pacifics and V2 class, but not for smaller locomotives. Surprisingly long list of where Gresley derived gear was also used, including Japan, Australia and USA.
Russell, Owen. Some thoughts on the Gresley derived motion. Backtrack, 4, 244-50.
Development of the Gresley conjugated gear, including the involvement of Holcroft. Diagram of rebuilt Atlantic front end of 1915; detailed working drawings of K3 (elevation & plan), and A1 (plan & front and side elevations). See correspondence by Youlden 5-46 (error in description of Gresley slide bar) and further letters by Syms, vanRiemsdijk and Jackson (5-92). See also Sid Checkley's letter in Volume 5 page 142 on difficulty of maintaining B17 gear behind cylinders and problems of smokebx char in K3 engines
Russell, Owen. Some thoughts on the Gresley derived motion. – part 2. Backtrack, 5, 15-20.
.Argues that taper boiler was introduced on A1 to ease the problem of locating the derived motion; quotes several for assertion that right hand cylinders did an excessive amount of work as demonstrated by axlebox wear. The D49 was based more on NER principles and designed at Darlington, with the derived gear behind the cylinders. The B17 had divided drive and the conjugated gear behind the cylinders. See letter by Sid Checkley (142) on difficulty in maintaining this version.
Valve-setting for three-cylinder engines fitted with Walschaerts-Gresley gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1931, 37, 30-2. 2 diagrs.
Who invented the "Gresley" gear. Rly Gaz., 1941, 75, 607-8.
Editorial comment, answered much later by Holcroft.

Poppet Valves
Lovatt, J.J. discussion on Cox, E.S. A modern locomotive history: ten years' development on the L.M.S. — 1923-1932. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 169. (Paper No. 457)
Considered that a disadvantage of poppet valves was the large cylinder clearance and that this led to eddy currents in the flow of the exhaust steam.
Smeddle, R.A. discussion on Cox, E.S. A modern locomotive history: ten years' development on the L.M.S. — 1923-1932. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1946, 36, 168-9. (Paper No. 457)
Experience of Lentz oscillating cam and rotary cam valve gears led him to believe that poppet valves caused less problems than Walschaerts or Stephenson valve gears :.

1933: roller bearings for valve gear.

Roller bearings for locomotive valve gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1933, 39, 132.
Supplied by Ransome & Marles Bearing Co. Ltd. of Newark-on-Trent.

See interesting website which forms part of LNER "Encyclopedia"

Updated: 29-09-2016

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