LMS locomotive profiles
Uniform series with a considerable number of engineering drawings, tabulated information, and photographs selected to show changes made to designs. Published in association with the National Railway Museum. Some of the later volumes have shown a greater maturity in presentation and make some of the earlier volumes seem to be rather "thin". Norfolk County Library shows an extraordinary non-policy by purchasing two copies of some volumes, but zero copies of others: it seems to abhor the Pictorial Supplements whilst acquiring many inferior pictorial assemblages on locomotives and many other subjects produced elsewhere. Some comment on whole concept under truly magnificant No. 13. Statement on future plans
The rebuilt 'Royal Scots'. by David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James.
Didcot. Wild Swan, 1999. 60pp. including folding diagram
Now (2008) seems very poor value in comparison with later offereings, especially No. 6. Further information in LMS Journal No. 2 page 25: livery, No. 46115 was purchased by R.A. Bill not Sir William McAlpine, eleven locomotives fitted with roller bearings to inside connecting rod big ends; modifications to tenders; smaller front footsteps fitted when smoke deflectors added. LMS Journal No. 12 p. 52 locomotives fitted with smoke deflectors whilst still pianted black and locomotives fitted with self-cleaning smokeboxes. . LMS Journal No. 19 page 40. LMS Journal No. 25 p. 43: Tony Gillett: rebuilt Royal Scots fitted with roller bearings for inside big ends: Nos. 46101, 46114, 46120, 46125, 46128, 46129, 46134, 46136, 46152, 46163 and 46169
The Horwich moguls. by Fred James, David Hunt and Bob Essery.
Didcot. Wild Swan. 2000. 72p. including folding diagram
Further information in LMS Journal No. 2 page 25 origin of the term Mogul, power classification, use of terms emblem and crest in relation to devices applied under BR; exhaust steam injectors; number of G9HS boilers manufactured; firedoors, snifting valves and replacement cycliners: Further information LMS Journal (9), 35-40.
The parallel boiler, 2-6-4 tank engines. by David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James
Didcot. Wild Swan, c2002 . 63 pp.
Further information in LMS Journal No. 2 page 25 notes error of 2-6-2T included as a "2-6-4T". Further information LMS Journal (9), 35-40: Note 2 is one of those infuriating bibliographical lapses (broadly equivalent to stating that some of this class were fitted with double chimneys) is that it refers to a book entitled Locomotive engineering published in 1922 to which Sir Henry Fowler contributed. This was probably Railway mechanical engineering of 1923 to which Sir Henry contributed a section on carriage lighting in which gas was considered before electricity.
The "Princess Royal" Pacifics. by David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James. 112pp.
Well received and awarded five stars by John Edgington in Backtrack, 2004, 18, 316.
Further information LMS Journal (9), 35-40.
Further information LMS Journal (15), 61-3.
Further information LMS Journal (19) 41.
LMS Journal No. 25 p. 43: Dennis Monk stated that the derived motion fitted to No. 6205 in 1938 caused a lot of trouble through breakage of the rocking levers. Also noted that assisted Laurie Barraclough to redesign levers for 46202 Princess Anne. Nos. 6208-12 were fitted with Hoffman roller bearings on pony trucks.
The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 1. Nos. 5000-5224. by David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James with David Jennison and David Clarke. 104pp.
Well received and awarded five stars by John Edgington in Backtrack, 2004, 18, 316. Further information LMS Journal (9), 35-40.
Photographic Supplement to Number 5.
Pictorial Supplement to LMS locomotive profile. No. 5. John Jennison and David Clarke with David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James.
Error in caption to that describing No. 45084: had a vertical throat plate boiler in May 1954 see LMS Journal 33 page 41.
The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 2. Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear engines from the 5225-5499 and 4658-4999 series. David Hunt, Fred James and Bob Essery with David Jennison and David Clarke. 128pp incl. folding diag.
This series has grown in stature and this Part makes the original profile on the rebuilt 'Royal Scots' look skimpy and very poor value for the original cover price: this Part is a very thorough examination of the far less standard class 5s. Very importantly it states the origins for many of the design decisions: for instance, the impetus for the manganese steel axlebox liners came from London Transport. Ivatt's genius lay in accepting an external innovation and translating it into a very different environment. For all of Cox's claims about the vast improvement not all memberrs of the "standard" class were equipped before the end of steam. Further comment in the section on the Class 5.. . LMS Journal No. 12 p. 52 changes to positions of smokebox lamp holders to bring lamps into line for Class H freight trains; picture of No. 44844 (p. 66) shows engine with BR-type mechanical lubricator; picture on p. 72 of No. 4783 with an X on cab side denoted manual blowdown and/or experimental fittings of equipment instigated at Crewe; Further information LMS Journal (15), 61-3. Further information in LMS Journal No. 19 p.41: which notes that the tenders fitted with roller bearings were either Timken or SKF types. Also suggestion of "blue liveried class 5 (KPJ: must have been the one in malachite green")
Photographic Supplement to Number 6
Pictorial Supplement to LMS locomotive profile. No. 5. John Jennison and David Clarke with David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James.
LMS Journal No. 12 p. 52 Keith Miles supplied further information on modification to design of Manson-type tablet catcher made at St Rollox to enable the whole apparatus to be brought into cab; illus. on page 55 probably shows a milk rather than a gas tank; locations of photos. on pp. 56 and 64. Further information LMS Journal (15), 61-3.
Further information in LMS Journal No. 19: from E. Padfield lever described in captions on paages 10, 39, 52 and 60 as actuating rocking firegrate were in fact scale cock levers and operated the blowdown valve (contributed by E. Padfield):
Mixed traffic class 5s: Caprotti valve gear engines and class summary: Part. 3. David Hunt, Fred James, R.J. Essery, and John Jennison.
See also LMS Journal No. 19: front cover features an 8F! Picture on p. 25 taken at Birmingham New Street (John Edgington)
The class 8F 2-8-0s. David Hunt, John Jennison, Fred James and Bob Essery. 136pp.
Like Number 6 this fascicule is highly indicative of the improvements which have taken place within this Series. The origin of the design is covered at length and includes the several designs considered and rejected plus the unsuccessful 7F 0-8-0. The original design work for the War Department locomotives is included, but the service of these locomotives is largely excluded unless thet were returned for service on the LMS or British Railways. .
Back in 1999, when the LMS Locomotive Profiles series was launched, we asked readers which engines they would like to see included. Whilst it seems that virtually everything that ever ran on the LMS Was requested by someone, the heavy freight 2-8-0s were high in the popularity ratings along with the ubiquitous mixed traffic 'Black Fives'. Coverage of the latter, because of their complex development and myriad design alterations, has taken us much longer than originally expected and has run to three volumes, the first two of which have already been published. Preparation of the final part is under way and so we have at last turned our attention to the 8Fs.
Regular readers of this series will be aware that whilst the first few volumes were produced by the same three authors, subsequent ones have seen fiuctuations in the make-up of the authorship team. In the case of the mixed traffic Class 5 books, two separate projects came together to produce them, resulting in the original team being reinforced by John Jennison with help from David Clarke. During the exercise, it transpired that John had it in mind to produce a Class 8 survey and had amassed a lot of material on the subject, so it made sense for him to join the team again.
Another departure with the first two Class 5 volumes from what had gone before was the addition of companion photographic supplements. These were conceived because of the number of photographs amassed by John Jennison which, when added to Bob Essery's large collection, gave many more high quality images illustrative of characteristics and detail of the engines than we could possibly use in the main Profiles. This situation applied even more so to the 8Fs - John alone having over 5,000 photographs - and so this work is being complemented by its own photographic supplement. Regular readers will also be aware that it is our policy to cross-refer between volumes in the series rather than repeating large amounts of information. For those new to our books, however, we should point out that in many places we refer to drawings and descriptions contained in earlier works. This is so that we can keep the size and therefore cost of each book within reaspnable limits.
The LMS heavy freight 2-8-0s introduced by W.A. Stanier in 1935 shared many characteristics and details with the earlier mixed traffic Class 5 design and became equally highly regarded by railwaymen and enthusiasts alike. Although neither as numerous in LMS and BR service nor as widely travelled on the LMS system as the 4-6-0s, they were destined to become not only the most numerous examples of the company's designs built but also went further afield than any other. Fairly obviously, this statement will require amplification, which we will give in subsequent sections, but simply stated, only 331 of the 852 locomotives built were to LMS orders. Of the remainder, 208 were built by various firms for the War Department to be used overseas and the rest to orders placed on different railway company works by the wartime Railway Executive Committee and the London & North Eastern Railway for service in Britain. Thus, as well as LMS works and outside contractors building them, 8Fs were produced by three works on the Southern Railway and two LNER establishments as well as at the Great Western's Swindon Works. Many of the WD engines did go abroad and although some returned to Britain, others were either lost at sea or remained in the Middle East and Turkey, where the last survivors were still in use in the mid-1980s, whilst fifteen served in Italy. To complicate the issue further, 53 WD engines were loaned to the LMS in the early years of World War 2, some LMS locomotives were requisitioned by the War Department, and many of those built to Railway Executive orders were loaned to the LNER and GWR despite carrying LMS numbers. Eleven of the requisitioned locomotives and 31 WD engines returned to Britain after the war. A further potential confusion was caused by the fact that one of the LMS locomotives requisitioned during the war, as well as thirteen WD examples that were loaned to the LMS, were purchased by British Railways and entered that company's service with different numbers from those they had previously carried. Altogether, 751 of them carried LMS or BR (LMR) numbers at one time or another, although the maximum number to see BR service simultaneously was 666 achieved between 1957 and 1960. From the foregoing, it can be seen that the story of the 8Fs was extremely complex and we hope that we can make it a little clearer in the following pages. .
We don't consider it within the scope of this book to attempt a detailed story of the history of the WD engines during their time abroad, even if we were confident that we had sufficient information to make it meaningful. We will, therefore, restrict ourselves to discussion of locomotives in British railways' service, although production details of all the various batches will be covered. In addition, at Appendix F we have included some information on building dates for the WD engines, where and when they served, and their ultimate fates. Like the 'Black Fives', the 8Fs have been popular subjects for preservation and examples can easily be seen by anyone wishing to portray one in model or picture form. As we have stated before, though, this s:an be a mixed blessing as there have been many alterations and additions to the preserved locomotives since they ran in BR revenue-earning service. This fact, together with the number of variations exhibited by the engines both as built and due to subsequent alteration, means that our usual advice to use photographs of an individual one at a given time is particularly applicable.
Much has been written about the .Class 8s over the years and there will be places where what we offer differs from what has gone before. As usual, we will give our reasons or sources wherever we are aware of conflict. In addition to the constructional differences between batches, there were a great many officially recorded modifications to the 8Fs, their applicability ranging from just a few engines to the whole class. Some were very minor changes to screw types and the like - and have been omitted from our coverage as we feel that they would take up space to no appreciable effect. Those that we feel do merit attention, whilst in some cases being relatively minor, we deal with in roughly chronological order in the relevant sections. Whilst we have tried to be definitive as far as possible, some aspects of the engines have proved puzzling, leading to instances where we have only been able to surmise about their purpose or history. Despite our best endeavours, we are human and therefore fallible and there will be readers who can add to or amend our work. in which case we would appreciate them contacting the series editor, David Hunt. At the time of writing, the structure of our web site is being changed but when this volume is published details should have been given in LMS Journal. Alternatively, please write via Wild Swan Publications. We will publish updates in the 'Further Information' column of LMS Journal.
We have been helped by several people during preparation of the book and want to record our thanks to them. Staff at the National Railway Museum have, as usual, been extremely helpful and have provided many of the drawings. Those we must thank in particular include Helen Ashby, Head of Knowledge and Collections, Hazel Wright of the access team, and Phil Atkins, who is the Research Centre Manager. Phil Chopping, our own archivist and organiser, continues to make our lives easier by copying and arranging reams of material essential to our task. He has also helped with information concerning 8Fs on the Somerset & - Dorset. Assistance has also been freely given by Andrew Biwandi and John Jennison has managed to acquire his extensive collection of material pertaining to the class. David Clarke has helped with photographs as well as some analyses of early BR liveries and detail changes whilst footplate impressions are largely based on information from Terry Essery. Alen Grice, who knew the engines well during his time as a fitter at Kirkby, has assisted with some mechanical details, as has Dennis Monk who worked in the Development Section of the Derby Locomotive Drawing Office and later became a Mechanical Inspector. Last but certainly not least, as is now becoming normal, our good friend Bob Meanley has helped with all sorts of advice, proof reading and information which has proved invaluable and without which this volume would be decidedly poorer.
Note that throughout this book. left-hand and right-hand invariably refer to those sides of the locomotive or tender when looking towards the front This applies despite the orientation of photographs.
Further information LMS Journal (15), 61-3.
Pictorial Supplement to Number 8
Pictorial supplement to Locomotive Profile 8: The class 8 heavy freight 2-8-0s. John Jennison, Fred James, Bob Essery and David Hunt
Main line diesel electrics 10000 and 10001
Further information LMS Journal (15), 61-3. and in (33) 41-2: latter referring to working in multiple, "air brakes" and water pick-up gear.
The standard class 4 goods 0-6-0s. David Hunt, John Jennison, Bob Essery and Fred James..
Mel Holley (Steam Wld, 2008 (250) 66): "detailed, thoughtful and considered text" plus reproductions of 17 original engineering drawings, including two fold out general arrangement. Also reviewed in Backtrack, 2008, 22, 382 with "Pictorial Supplement" by "MJS" (who is presumably Michael J. Smith who received them well but were awarded only three stars (the locomotives did not deserve any, but surely this history deserved more). A copy of the main work seen at Robert Humm's bookshop in Stamford by KPJ certainly indicated that this is one of the best in this magnificent series (the so-called Millennium Library in Norwich has two copies of some of the series, but none of the others!: it would seem that the employment of professional librarians thereat ceased long before Con-Dem policy). Further information LMS Journal (29) pp 41-3.
Pictorial Supplement to Number 10
Pictorial Supplement to Locomotive Profile 10. The standard class 4 goods 0-6-0s. Bob Essery, John Jennison, Fred James and David Hunt
The 'Coronation' class Pacifics. David Hunt, John Jennison, Bob Meanley, Fred James and Bob Essery. 174pp.
"This is probably our best effort to date and will, we hope, prove to be closer to the real 'Coronation' story than anything hitherto published. We have spent a tremendous amount of time and effort researching the subject and have unearthed a lot of material that we do not believe has been published before. In the process we have found many mistakes in what has been written previously on these magnificent engines and hope that we have been able to dispel some of the urban myths surrounding them. To accompany the Profile, we have prepared a pictorial supplement." Hunt LMS Journal (24), 79. Further information see Hunt 33 pp. 41-2. Tom Robertson stated that No. 46227 was not at Polmadie, but at Camden. Ian Robertson: No. 6231 probably did not receive 1946 style livery until May 1947; No. 6236 had its front cab windows enlarged prior to mid-1952, probably during general repair ending 30 November 1951; No. 6247 received cylindrical smokebox before summer of 1956 probably during repair ending 21 May 1955 and further nameplates with red backgrounds (BR green livery): No. 6228 (July 1957), No. 6236 (21 August 1957); No. 6247 (1954 or 55) and No. 6248 (June 1955). No. 6243 had incorrect right-facing crest on tender..
Pictorial Supplement to Number 11
Pictorial Supplement to Locomotive Profile 11. The 'Coronation' class Pacifics. John Jennison, Bob Meanley, Bob Essery, Fred James and David Hunt
Further information see Hunt 33 pp. 41-2: caption to No. 6233 (p. 49) incorrectly states last to wear LMS red livery: it was No. 6232. Date of photograph on rear cover was 25 July 1959 at head of 10.05 Birmingham Scotsman taken by Douglas Docherty.
The diesel-electric shunters. David Hunt and John Jennison. 124pp.
Covers diesel-electric shunters designed, built and owned by the LMS from the first Armstrong Whitworth jackshaft drive locomotive acquired in 1934 to the standard twin-motor examples built from 1944 onwards. The latter were adopted as a standard type by British Railways and turned out from both Derby and Darlington until 1952, after which the design formed the basis of the largest class of BR diesel locomotives - the Class 08s. Authors were fortunate in obtaining a lot of previously unpublished information on the diesel-electric shunters as well as drawings of all the different types, Further information see Hunt 33 pp. 41-2. Graham Smith noticed that survey failed to include the seven similar locomotives built for ICI at the Dick, Kerr Works: three in 1948 and four in 1951, two of which survive. Also No. 15107 built for the Western Region in 1949. was omitted as were many built for the CIE and overseas. George Toms. Brush diesel locomotives 1940-1978. Sheffield: Turntable, 1978. suggested reference.
The standard compounds. David Hunt, John Jennison and Bob Essery. 2010. 173pp.
Close examination of this volume (purchased by Norfolk County Library) has shown it to be amongst the best books on steam locomotive development ever to be written, although one is tempted to wonder whether some form of digital publication for this series might not be more efficaceous as navigation through the wealth of diagrams, texts, notes, appendices, etc. is not easy and the lack of contents listings and indexes does not help. It is a pity that a publication which includes the National Railway Museum' s logo does not include proper bibliographical citations for the many sources quoted albeit most can be traced via steamindex. The publisher does not deserve the extra sales which may accrue to the added access points provided via steamindex, but these will be provided in due course. The opening section contains an excellent review of the development of compound locomotives in Britain and adds considerably to the overall value of this work. In particular it shows most of the theoretical background (work by Callendar and Nicolson, for instance) to the adoption of compounding by Johnson and the reasons for the partial success/failure of the Webb compound designs. Smith's designs for the North Eastern and Great Central are also noted, including the issue of rights in respect of the former: notably Deeley's refutation of the Midland's compounds being Smith compounds is highly interesting. . Further information see Hunt 33 pp. 41-2. Stephen Lea doubts whether No. 1004 (page 48) was on Scotch express at Leicester as rolling stock was not appropriate and locomotive was waiting to takeover an express forward to Leeds. Also printer's errors in Appendix C. Appendix A is a commentary by Adrian Tester (part of a larger work in progress) on Diamond's IMechE paper on compound locomotive performsnce
The engines in service. 123-32
Includes mention of the record run from Euston to Edinburgh non-stop on 27 April 1928; difficulties in operating over the severe line between Girvan and Stranraer, but otherwise successful use in Scotland, both on former G&SWR and Caledonian lines.their lack of utility on secondary duties durin the latter part of their service
Maintenance and cost effectiveness. 130-1
Working on compounds. 131-2.
The standard class 3 tank engines. David Hunt, Bob Essery and John Jennison.
Further information see Hunt 33 pp. 41-2. Jim Perkins adds information on No. 7109 (page ii) and its location namely Nottingham shed. John Miles that the push & pull fitted locomotives shown on page 61 was Clydach-on-Tawe and that the suggestions which followed in the caption are incorrect.