Railway World Volume 34 (1973)
Key Volume

No. 392 (January 1973)

Edward W. May. New Year's Eve. 6-7.
31 December 1966 marked the closure of Clay Cross station: a station that the writer had got to know during WW2; had watched the trains go by and had travelled to from Leicester and to Leeds on slow through trains. Noted the demise of thhe Midland 2P 4-4-0s,  the Beyer Garratts and the brief passage of the V2 class and the slow progress of 4F hauled holiday train from Yarmouth (all stations from Nottingham to Chesterfield)

Cecil J. Allen. Performance can still sparkle. Locomotive running past annd present— No. 244. 8-11.
Logs of Class 47 on down Saturday Cornish Riviera on the non-stop section to Exeter amd Class 46 No.139 between Newcastle and Berwick

P.W.B. Semmens. Golden Hind journey— Chapman style. 12-15
Written in the style iof W.G. Chapman: imaginery journey from Paddington to Plymouth, non-stop to Exeter, behind a Western diesel hydraulic non-stop to Exeter with lunch in the dining car

Derek Cross. Electric to Crewe— a laymans's impressions. 16-20
Cab ride on Class 86 No. E8158 on 08.00 from Euston to Glasgow as far as Crewe where motive power was changed.

From a railway album— 2. Samuel Worthington. 22-3
Caption states "Worthington's picture" may imply that was taken by him: Great Central Pollitt 4-4-0 No. 868 of 268 class on a stopping train; print from the collection of North Eastern Railway Class J 4-2-2 No. 1519 at York; Wilson Worsdell Class S 4-6-0 No. 2009 with short train of clerestory stock and "13" on headboard;  Caledonian Railway Brittain 4-4-0 No. 184 in yard at Oban; Peter Drummond Highland Railway Small Ben 4-4-0 No. 373 Ben Armin; Dugald Drummond 4-2-2-0 No. 373 with watertube firebox

White backgrounds. 24-5
Photo-feature of snow scenes: DMU on Keswick to Penrith service approaching Troutbeck in March 1972 (colour: M. Mullins); semi-fast from Victoria to Bognor Regis leaving Ifield station on 29 December 1962 (Brian Haresnape); SECR Class D 4-4-0 No.  731 passing Shortlands on an express c1909 (W.S. Gray); snow and track at Sapperton (T.G. Flinders)

R.W. Thomson. Sentimental journey: return to a former Lancashire & Yorkshire main line. 26-7.
Journey behind Class 50 No. 445 from Liverpool Lime Street to Preston on 1 October 1972 on train diverted via Bootle, freight only link to Aintree and Ormskirk where the former main line had been split and the line singled to Midge Hall and eventually Preston [KPJ travelled on this route from Exchange station to Glasgow after disembarking from the Empire Clyde at Liverpool Pierhead in November 1955]

Via Preston. 28-9
Black & White photo-feature: class 5 No. 44713 passing Farington Curve Junction with 09.50 Sunday Liverpool Exchange to Preston on 5 May 1968 (A.G. Cattle); Jubilee No. 45705 Seahorse backs empty stock out of Blackpool Central on 27 August 1964 (P.F. Claxton); No. 45574 India on 17.10 Blackpool North to Preston on 23 June 1964 (D.Ian Wood); 8F passing Accrington en route for Blackpool on 1 August 1968 (M. Dunnett); 8F No. 48727 exits tunnel at Blackburn on/by as previous.


No. 393 (February 1973)

C.P. Atkins. The eleventh hour of steam—1. 56-60.
The ultimate stream locomotive designs of various countries were by no means necessarily the largest, for a definite post-war trend, linked with the changing pattern of rail transport economics, resulted in the production of moderately-proportioned general-purpose designs intended to combine high versatility with high route availability. (Walschaerts valve gear in association with piston valves was all but universal in new construction and outside Great Britain Belpaire boilers were very much in the minority). It is thus interesting to note that although the 4-8-4 made a brief appearance in Germany, France and Australia, the ultimate designs in these countries were considerably smaller six-coupled engines of either 4-6-2 or 4-6-4 type. What was probably the most notable of these, the solitary French de Caso/Chapelon four-cylinder compound 4-6-4 232U1, has been amply documented elsewhere and lies outside the scope of the present article.
Latter day development in Great Britain and West Germany was closely parallel, each country almost simultaneously initiating a range of standard designs culminating in both cases in an advanced 22-ton axleload three-cylinder 4-6-2 intended for heavy express passenger service.
In May 1954 the solitary British Railways standard Class 8 4-6-2 No 71000 Duke of Gloucester emerged from Crewe Works. It closely resembled the BR standard Class 7 from which it was directly derived, differing only in incorporating an additional inside cylinder, British-Caprotti valve gear, a double blastpipe and double chimney, a larger firebox, plus a high capacity tender, and cost £33,919 to build. It was thoroughly tested both on the road and on the Swindon Test Plant and this swiftly revealed two characteristics. Despite its larger firegrate (48.6sq ft as compared to 42sq ft) the remainder of the boiler being almost identical, its maximum steaming capacity was hardly any greater than the Class 7, but what steam it did produce it utilised with unprecedented efficiency in a simple expansion locomotive, due to the sophisticated poppet valve gear. Minimum indicated steam consumption was 12.2lb/ihp hr as compared to a corresponding figure of 13.2Ib for a variety of ultimate British, American and European simple expansion designs, and 11.21b for the most advanced French compounds.
No 71000 was allocated to Crewe North shed for most of its short and rather obscure working life. It was not greatly liked by the enginemen on account of its inferior steaming capacity compared to the LMSR 4-6-2s with which it operated, and the entirely different driving techniques required. Having no regular crew to master its idiosyncrasies, it suffered the fate of all solitary locomotives. Consideration was given to building more in 1956 at a time when the diesel was yet to appear on the scene in quantity, and doubtless had these extra 4-6-2s materialised a number of modifications would have been made. As it was, the success of the British-Caprotti gear led to its being fitted to 30 standard Class 5 4-6-0s built at Derby in 1956-7 and the gear would almost certainly have been extended more widely still had steam continued. Similarly the success of the double exhaust resulted in its subsequent application to certain other BR standard classes, to WR four-cylinder 4-6-0s, and to ER/NER 2-6-2s and 4-6-2s with outstanding success in their last years. No 71000 was withdrawn at the end of 1962, initially to be preserved in entirety, but latterly only its outstanding cylinders were sectioned and exhibited in the Science Museum, whilst the remaining cylinderless hulk was still in existence at Barry at the end of 1972.
The corresponding German design appeared to the extent of two prototypes in 1957, five years after the original design was prepared, by which time there was no possibility of any additional units being built. Designated DB Class 10, these two magnificent machines were built by Krupp and constituted the world's last new design of high speed steam locomotive. They were semi-streamlined, partly to save horsepower at high speeds and partly to protect the running gear from deterioration, and routine maintenance was not impeded in any way. Post-war Bundesbahn practice under the direction of Herr Witte differed considerably from that of the pre-war Reichsbahn of R. P. Wagner. The latter's boilers had parallel barrels lacking combustion chambers, whereas the new DB boilers were tapered on the underside of the rear ring of the barrel, incorporated combustion chambers, and operated at more moderate pressures. Welding was utilised extensively in their construction as it was in the frames, which were now of girder section in place of the former bar variety. Roller bearings were extensively employed on both axles and big ends, whilst superficially the external appearance of the engines was considerably tidied up; handsome flared chimneys were fitted and a highly distinctive " bat's wing" pattern of smoke deflector added. The Class 10 incorporated all these features to the full, on top of which it possessed such refinements as nautical-style clear vision screens in the cab, a steam-heated cab floor, and a chime whistle. No expense was spared and the engines cost about £73,000 each te build.
In fundamental design the engines were quite straight-forward with divided cylinder drive, three independent sets of Walschaerts valve gear and large-diameter (11.8in) piston valves. The large 44-element superheater was arranged to give a very high degree of superheat of around 410 deg C (770 deg F) in conjunction with 256lb pressure. At the design stage the drawings were submitted to Chapelon for scrutiny and it was at his instigation that the double exhaust (unique in German practice) was incorporated although this was of the simple bifurcated variety and not the Kylchap type. Whereas No 10.002 was entirely an oil burner, No 10.001 was originally a coal burner with steam operated coal pusher and supplementary oil-firing to the extent of 30 per cent to cover peak needs. However this idea was not entirely successful and it was altered to conform with 10.002 in 1959.
The 22.4 tonne axleload of the Class 10 was the highest of any German main line steam locomotive built and thus largely restricted it to the main lines between North and South Germany, whence they mainly operated between Hamburg, Frankfurt and Stuttgart. Originally allocated to Bebra, the two engines were transferred to Kassel in 1962 after which they tended to be used on fairly heavy short-distance trains until rendered redundant by electrification four years later. They were retired in 1967-8; No 10.002 was scrapped but No 10.001 was at first offered for sale at a very meagre sum (£1,690) but was subsequently retained by the DB for preservation in its museum
Soon after the war the Victorian Railways in Australia commenced design work on a new general purpose locomotive at first envisaged as a light 4-6-2, but subsequently amended to 4-6-4. An order for fifty was placed with the North British Locomotive Co in Glasgow, but on the unfortunate advice of a consultant the number was later increased to seventy, and these were all delivered in 1951-2. Dimensionally the new engines were very closely comparable with the contemporary British Railways Class 7 Britannia 4-6-2, and although the grate area was identical at 42sq ft a mechanical stoker was installed in view of the long sustained power outputs envisaged. Provision was made for speedy conversion from the VR 5ft 3in gauge to 4ft 8½tin in the event of a standard gauge track being laid throughout between Melbourne and Sydney. Built on to 5in thick bar frames, these impressive engines typified latter-day VR practice with their wide Belpaire fireboxes having noticeably long combustion chambers, stovepipe chimneys, and German-style smoke deflectors which, like the valences, were painted scarlet to relieve the black livery.
Used in pairs, the engines operated the Victorian Railways' principal passenger working, the Overland Limited, for one brief year before supercession by diesels. All had relatively short lives, though 50 remained at work in 1964. Such had been the difficulties recently experienced with diesels (whose rated performance was in many respects inferior) that it is believed that the edict went forth at about this time that the surviving 4-6-4s should be made good for a further fifteen years service to the extent of re-boilering where necessary. There must very soon have been a marked improvement on the diesel side, however, for the VR 4-6-4s were effectively extinct by the end of 1966, although at least one is preserved in working order. Two of the class were equipped for oil firing and one for burning pulverised brown coal in the mid-1950s.
On account of the physical nature of the country, eight-coupled motive power was built almost to the exclusion of all else in twentieth-century Spain. The 4-8-0 began to appear in increasing numbers from 1912, and the first 4-8-2 in Europe appeared there in 1925. On the 5ft 6in gauge in Spain alone in Europe, at the very end of the steam era the 4-8-4 became established in regular service as a class, after somewhat fleeting appearances in Germany and France some years earlier. Despite a policy of main line electrification in Spain there was still a need in the early 1950s for a high capacity steam locomotive to handle the heaviest passenger services over the non-electrified sections of the main line between Madrid and Irun, which latterly lay principally between Avila and Miranda de Ebro.
A 4-8-4 type was decided upon and ordered in 1952, although the design was not entirely new, being based on the Norte heavy two-cylinder 4-8-2 then still in production. The boiler was the same, the driving wheel diameter was increased from 5ft 9in to 6ft 3 in and by incorporation of a trailing four-wheel truck the axleload was reduced from 21 to 20 tonnes. The cylinder design was greatly improved, although retaining the Lentz valves actuated by Walschaerts gear, and a double KyJchap exhaust was provided in association with German-style" bat's wing" smoke deflectors. The engines were of magnificent appearance, being accorded the unique accolade (on the RENFE) of a green livery, but were somewhat marred by the attachment of disproportionately small standard tenders. They were oil-burners and always kept beautifully clean.
The prototype was delivered in 1955 by la Maquinista of Barcelona, whence nine more followed the next year. By this time the Spanish National Railways (RENFE) had already placed their last steam orders and so the non-appearance of any further 4-8-4s was assured. During the 1960s ever advancing electrification and dieselisation increasingly curtailed the 4-8-4s' activities with the result that they were often only to be seen at night. By 1970 some were already in storage although the future of some, at least, was assured for a while and an example will almost certainly be preserved.
Just like the 4-8-4, the 2-10-2 seemed doomed to failure and comparatively early demise on the standard gauge in Europe, limited examples having appeared in France, Germany and Rumania, although again it fared somewhat better on the 5ft 6in gauge in Spain. The most powerful standard gauge locomotives in Europe appeared in Greece at the end of the steam era yet had few equals at so enlightened and late a date as downright failures. These were twenty 2-10-2s, built in Italy by Breda and Ansaldo during 1953-5 for heavy passenger service between Athens and Salonika, a line upon which gradients as severe as 1 in 40 are encountered.
Endowed with double Kylchap exhaust and delivered as handfired coal burners with 60sq ft of grate area, provision was made for the installation of mechanical stokers if deemed necessary, although all were soon converted to oil firing. The axleload was no less than 20 tonnes and in order to keep this down Australian-style SCOAP wheel centres (as also applied to the VR 4-6-4s) were used and rather light welded plate frames specified. Herein lay the trouble, for much of the weight was concentrated in the large boiler. Following the rigours of first international and then civil war, the permanent way was in an appalling state and despite the provision of a Krauss-Helmholtz leading truck the long wheelbase set up tremendous stresses. These were transmitted to the boilers, causing severe cracking of the firebox throat plates, to the extent that the entire class had to be temporarily withdrawn in 1958 and the boilers shipped to Henschel for modification. By the time the engines resumed service, diesels were taking over the principal duties. When brand new, one of the class was tested in Italy on the Brenner line, and as built they were of very handsome appearance if nothing else, but the later provision of German-style smoke deflectors detracted from this greatly. It is possible that some are still in service.
Following the experimental import about 1930 of a number of large American 2-10-2s and 2-10-4s, locomotive development in the USSR subsequently became very Americanised with the appearance of long series of 2-8-4s and 2-10-2s in the 1930s. The process continued after the war in the 1950s with the construction of 4-8-4s and last of all in 1954 of a pair of huge 2-8-8-4 Mallets. These all still fell short of American proportions as axleloads were on a European scale at only 18-20 tonnes but nevertheless the two Mallets built at Kolomna were the largest steam locomotives ever built outside North America on several counts, excepting the almost mythical Russian 4-14-4 of 1935. Classified P38, very little is known about the performance of these monsters except that it is believed they were not entirely successful. In any case steam construction abruptly ceased behind the Iron Curtain shortly afterwards.
This review would be incomplete without reference to Czechoslovakia. Although several fine series of 4-8-2s and 2-10-0s were built there after the war it was actually a tank engine that combined all the ultimate features and was in many ways the most remarkable. Czech locomotives were fundamentally of Germanic origin but collaboration with Chapelon immediately after the war had resulted in a series of elegant designs which combined the best of French and German practice whilst excluding the more extreme aspects of either. Thus Kylchap exhaust, roller bearings, extensive welding and mechanical stokers were included in successive batches of engines so that all these features were standard by the early 1950s. Owing to the nature of the country tank engines featured prominently in Czechoslovakia and before the war 2-8-4, 4-8-4, and 2-10-2 tank engines had become well established. After the war it was the 4-8-4T in enlarged three-cylinder form that came in for particular attention and reached its culmination in the 22 engines of the 477.0 class built by CKD of Prague in 1955-6. Although by no means the world's largest tank engines, these were quite unique as a class in being equipped with mechanical stokers. These locomotives were finished in attractive blue or green liveries, having skyline boiler casings and double chimneys, the latter an unusual feature in a tank engine.
In 1949 an order was placed by the Czechoslovak State Railways for five three-cylinder 2-10-4s of which the first unit was to be delivered in 1952 with the other four following in 1953. Regrettably this fascinating order for what would have been appreciably larger than anything ever actually seen in Europe was rescinded the following year. Basically inspired by the Class 45 three-cylinder 2-10-2s of the Deutsche Reichsbahn, the gross deficiencies of the latter's boiler with inadequate grate area and excessive tube length (24tft) were fully recognised. The Czech proposal was to have had 75sq ft of mechanically fired grate, far in excess of anything else in Europe, and in this respect was inspired by the contemporary Russian FD20 2-10-2. To have attached a ten-wheeled tender as applied to the 556.0 2-10-0 would have made for excessive length and so a disproportionately short double-bogie tender was to have been fitted, none the less giving an overall length of 88ft. (Rigid wheelbase would have been 24ft 3in, and engine wheelbase 45ft 6in, a Krauss-Helmholtz truck being provided.)
This majestic design, which was to have had a skyline boiler casing, was not proceeded with as it was considered that there would not be an increase in power and efficiency commensurate with the corresponding dramatic increase in size. The smaller and simpler two-cylinder 556.0 class 2-10-0 subsequently appeared in large numbers and very ably handled the freight traffic; 80 hefty two-cylinder 2-8-2s having several parts in common with the 2-10-4 and ordered at the same time were similarly cancelled.
The last Czech designs developed high power in relation to their weight without resort to the complexities of compounding, and thus formed an interesting compromise between French practice and the more straightforward approach of most other countries in the last years of steam when fundamentally American philosophy predominated.

M.D. Crew. The preservation bubble. 61-4.
Written by the Secretary of the Association of Railway Preservation Societies. Indicates the high costs of moving locomotives and of major repairs, and that it may not be possible to raise the necessary finance for the latter. 

John A. Lines. First of the SDJR 2-8-0s. Locomotive portraits—7. 65.
The locomotives differed markedly from Derby practice in having outside cylinders and valve gear. The Midlnd and LMS attempted to use them more wdely, but they were too wide for many routes. The tender cabs were removed because they tended to trap smoke.

Christopher Bakalarski and Christopher Magner. Cornwall to Caithness: Wirral Railway Circle's 1972 excursions reach Britain's extremities. 66-7.
Railtours to Penzance from Chester in May and to Wick and Thurso in October under the title Orcadian. Both tours included sleeping cars and dining cars and made full use of the haulage capacity of diesel traction. A Western hydraulic  was sought for the stretch from Bristol to Penzance and on the return journey the train was worked over the Dart Valley behind two 45XX

Railway club photographic competition. 68-9.

East European journey. 70-1

J.M. Tolson. To Switzerland—for steam  (and so much else). 72-5.

T.L. Evans. The Carmarthen & Cardigan Railway. 76-7.

Liverpool University photographic prizewinners. 78

Michael H.C. Baker. The railways of Bord na Mona. 79-80.

Annual report on railway accidents. 81-2

No. 394 (March 1973)

News of the month. 92

Mr Cecil J. Allen. 92.
As we go to press, the sad news of the sudden death of Mr Cecil J. Alien on February 5 reaches us. He was one of the original Directors of lan AlIan Ltd when the Company was formed in 1945 and had been in constant touch with the firm's affairs ever since; indeed, he had been visiting the Company's hotel at Broadway, Worcestershire, when he collapsed on the return journey. Although in his 87th year he was still contributing regularly to Modern Railways, Railway World and History of Railways and, at the same time, adding to his last of some forty books. Surely no one could have produced more words on railway matters or promoted railway interest as much as he.
"CJ" was a dedicated railway enthusiast almost from birth; he joined the Engineer's Department of the Great Eastern Railway in 1903 and remained in its service and that of the LNER until his retirement in 1946. But during that time he had recorded nearly every rail journey he made and his regular articles on British Locomotive Practice and Performance in the Railway Magazine were approaching 500 in unbroken series.
By the time he wrote his memoirs in 1965 he reckoned to have travelled over two million miles by train, much of it on the footplate. But railways were not his only interest; he was a lifelong Christian and had devoted much of his time to the Crusaders Union, having been honorary editor of its magazine for some years. He played an active part in his local Methodist Church at Epsom and was an accomplished organist as he demon- strated at one of our Railway Film Shows at the Royal Festival Hall—the only occasion I ever perceived him to be nervous before facing an audience, for he was a superb lecturer and broadcaster and his sermons, always given without a note, were inspiring.
Switzerland was another of his interests and loves; he made his way there each year, always by train; latterly on his own and even at the age of 86 managed to cope with long and tedious journeys even to the tops of is mountains.
As a Director of lan AlIan Ltd for twenty years, he was famed for his expression Festina lente (make haste slowly), advice which often prevailed.
British Railways and their Swiss counterparts had both acknowledged CJ's contribution to their PR by awarding him "all stations" passes and CJ would often take a ride for the fun of it and use the time writing a book or article. On arriving one day at Glasgow Central, with his hotel reservation at the North Bristol at Glasgow (Queen Street), he decided the cheapest way of making the ¾ mile cross-city journey   was to take the train from Central to Edinburgh Waverly via Shotts and return direct by the NB route to Queen Street, which he did! Indeed, ClA was the doyen of railway ir writers and a grand old man who will ir be sadly missed by many all over the world—not least by his friends and colleagues at Terminal House, Shepperrton. I.A. [Ian Allan]

R.S. Greenwood. Preserved locomotive maintenance. 106-8
This relatively short article generated a considerable correspondence. It  was based on a paper presented at the Standard Gauge Convention in 1972.

National Railway Museum at York. 109
Included a photograph of a model of the new buildings and noting that Margaret Weston, Director of the Science Museum was in overall responsiblity.

No. 395 (April 1973)

Cecil J. Alien. Southern to the West Country. 142-5 
Posthumous contribution

C.P. Atkins. The eleventh hour of steam—f2. 146-9 .

H.J. Scowcroft. Spanish railway museum opens. 150-1
At Villaneuva y Geltru situated in an old roundhouse  

M.T. Hedderly.  A West German steam survey. 152-7.

lan Scrimgeour. Tram/railway crossings in Victoria. 158-9
In Melbourne trams at 650V and trains at 1500V had to have their traction currents separated from each other where they crossed and this was linked to the signalling on the railway.

LCGB photographic competition, 1972. 160-1
Photo-feature: DB class 044 2-10-0 crossing River Mosel at Bullay with a freight for Trier in April 1971 (S.M. Hammond: first prize in black & white section); Brush type 4 Co-Co diesel electric approaching gas lit New Southgate on down express (P.A. Dobson: second prize in black & white section); OBB class 52 2-10-0s Nos. 52.7046 and 52.844 double head an iron ore train through snow-covered Gstatterboden in 1969 (J.B. Toy:  first prize in colour section); SAR Class 19B 4-8-2s leaving Middleburg with Mossel Bay Express on 25 August 1972  (A.J. Targett:  second prize in colour section);

V.R. Webster. The archaeology of a railway. 162-5
A study of the closed Border Counties line of the former North British Railway forms the basis for what is intended to be a methodology for research. 

David Williams. Towards the goal on the SVR. 166-70

New books. 171-2.

The steam locomotives of Eastern Europe. A.E. Durrant. , Newton Abbot, David & Charles: 160 pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.
Since the first edition of this book appeared in 1966 steam traction in Eastern Europe has been declining rapidly, and the author has had to renounce the updating of informa- tion of locomotive allocations and duties originally pub- lished because of the speed at which such information becomes out of date. The book has therefore become something of a memorial, and a very handsome one, to the steam locomotive in one of its last European retreats. The many excellent illustrations recall a period when the impressive, the homely and the slightly off-beat (such as a 2-6-0 with a carrying axle between the drivers) flourished in vigour in territories which always had the fascination of comparative remoteness and some of which were later made to seem even less accessible by the barrier of the Iron Curtain.
The author's "Eastern Europe" comprises countries behind the Iron Curtain plus Austria, Greece, Turkey and the non-conforming Jugoslavia. Many locomotives in the territory he covers were inherited from Austria and Prussia and so those countries are the subject of his first two chapters. These are followed by chapters on Hungary and the Balkan countries, the new states formed after 1919, and finally on miscellaneous and wartime engines. The author's research into building dates, quantities, numbering and other details has been meticulous and puts on record an area of steam locomotive history which presented peculiar difficulties to the inquirer. The enthusiast who penetrates eastwards in pursuit of the last of steam is in his debt.

The Metropolitan Line. Charles E. Lee. London Transport, 32pp.  Reviewed by K.H.S.
The Metropolitan Railway, opened to public traffic between Paddington (Bishop's Road) and Farringdon Street on 10 January 1863, was the first urban underground railway in the world. On 1 June 1910, it surprisingly became the first railway in Europe to operate electrically-hauled Pullman cars. This expansion towards main-line status is a fascinating aspect of Mr Lee's history, but so, too, is the background of conflicting personalities behind the development of the Inner Circle, eventually completed under an Act which contained a section obliging the Metropolitan and District companies to accommodate each other's trains on the circle route so that the public could benefit from "continuous working of the said Inner Circle" with the other portions of the two companies lines". There was another clash later over electrification, for after the two companies had set up a joint committee to recommend a system, and the Metropolitan had accepted the proposal to use 3,000V three-phase ac with overhead conductor wires, control of the District passed to Charles Tyson Yerkes of Chicago, who strongly opposed the idea and favoured low-voltage dc. Yerkes' views were upheld by arbitration and the Metropolitan began electrifying with dc in 1905.
The book includes maps of the Metropolitan "Extension" line into Buckinghamshire and of the Inner Circle, both with dates of opening. There are several pages of illustra- tions of construction, early stations, locomotives and rolling stock.

The electric multiple units of British Railways. P. Mallaband. Sutton Coldfield: Electric Railway Society, 80pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.
The apparent similarity of multiple-unit sets conceals a wealth of variety for the informed observer. This soon becomes apparent from the concise account of electric rolling stock on all Regions presented in this useful booklet. It does not deal with power equipment in depth but notes its essential characteristics. Here, for example, one is reminded of the Eastern Region motor coach which ran for some time with a continuously-variable transformer control system, based on equipment supplied for raising and lowering control rods in nuclear reactors. For newcomers to the Southern Region it must be regarded as required reading, enabling them to participate in discussion of VEPs, BEPs and CIGs without embarrassment. Useful appendices include the standard BR letter classification system and lists of car numbers showing the units to which they belong and their composition. The book is based on the position at December 31, 1971, but all additional available information has been included

The North Midland Railway Guide, 1842. Leeds: Turntable Enterprises, 32pp and folding map.. Reviewed by B.K.C.
In reproducing this traveller's companion of 1842, a selection of the lithographs by Samuel Russell has been included although they were not in the original. Thus the present-day reader can see how the work of Robert Stephenson and Francis Thompson, architect of the stations, appeared to comtemporary travellers when they ventured on the journey by train from Derby to Leeds. The publisher has also felt free to comment in the captions where appropriate, rather than simply reproducing the artist's own titles, which adds interest for the reader today. A foreword by O. Carter suggests that Thompson may have asked Russell to illustrate his work after seeing what J.C. Bourne had done for the London & Birmingham, and he seems to have paid for the lithographs himself, although making an unsuccesful attempt to secure a contribution from the railway. The guide contains historical and topographical descriptions of Derby and Leeds, with some details of Derby station, and notes of places of interest on the journey with their distances from Derby. Chesterfield is made the occasion for a eulogy of George Stephenson and "his skilful adaption of the locomotive engine"

Future railways and guided transport.  P.M. Kalla-Bishop. London:  I PC Transport Press Ltd, 123pp Reviewed by B.K.C
The pace of development in technology makes it hard to keep abreast with what is going on and to understand the new principles involved. Much current achievement, with its bias towards electronics and computing methods, is also somewhat outside the experience of the general reader. In fact, a large proportion of this book deals with what is already becoming common practice. The author provides a concise review of the latest developments in motive power, signalling and high-speed operation before discussing the less conventional modes of guided transport. In doing so he looks briefly at early origins before tracing the course of development under the many pressures of day-to-day operation and economics. An impressive volume of information is compressed into modest space. The chapter on motive power, in 25 pages, covers the main ac and dc electric traction systems, control by resistance, transformer, or thyristors, diesel transmissions and the gas turbine. Automatic train operation begins with the Never-Stop Railway at Wembley in 1924-5 and leads on to a hopeful look at a Southern Region with only 13 signal boxes, driverless trains, and possibly lower fares because of the cut in operating expenses. All this information Mr Kalla- Bishop conveys lucidly and accurately with minimal use of diagrams. Apart from a drawing of an Italian locomotive bogie to illustrate a modern form of suspension, there are none until the final chapter on Other guided transport modes, which is unusual in an age when visual aids to learning are highly esteemed. The "other modes" of this chapter are mainly the air cushion hovertrain and the train which "hovers" by magnetic levitation, and in the author's view the levitation system will displace the air cushion type. The concluding chapter ends on the hopeful note that the techniques now at the railways' disposal, including computers to assist forward planning, put them in a position to make substantial contributions to cheaper and more reliable transport.

Letters. 172

Diesel shunter histories. W.G. Boyden
Referring to the letter from Mr Toms in the October issue, I write to say that WD882 was in Hamm (Westphalia) loco shed yard when, with a party, I visited that depot on October 8, 1972. This shunter is Armstrong Whitworth D57/1935 (one plate was still carried) and was originally LMS 7062 and later WD 70215 before receiving its present WD number.

Versatile Warships. B.F. Till
Re July, 1972, Photo Feature on the Warship diesel-hydraulic locomotives. These locomotives may have been very versatile, but I should say most drivers and second men will be glad to see them go to the scrap heap. My recollections as an ex-fireman and secondman on Warships are of dislike for them. When there was a shortage of Brush Type 4s in the Wolverhampton area to work the Londons the locos that replaced them were Warships from Newton Abbot. To be sure, we did not get the pick of the crop, but even so I consider the Warships as the most unhealthy and least reliable locos that I have ever been on.
We would leave Birmingham, and before Leamington the hydraulic transmission would begin to overheat and the cab would start to fill with blue smoke and fumes from the burning oil in the transmission under the floor, The noise level was sometimes unbearable and the cab was cold through having all the doors and windows open to let the fumes out. It was not unusual to travel miles on one engine while the other engine was cooling down after overheating. On booking on one morning my driver was told that the engine for our job had failed and he had to collect one from the shed that had come off the first London. Before we could leave we had to have 17 gallons of oil in the front transmission and 14 gallons in the rear, replacing what the locomotive had burned on the run down from London and back in the early morning. Even a steam engine was more healthy and a lot more reliable than the more expensive Warships.

Alec Guinness wouldn't know it. Geoffrey Pharaoh Adams
The article by lan Siege was quite fascinating, the two photographs excellent. As one who worked on both bridges at Tha Makan (Tamarkan), the site of the bridge illustrated and the wooden one now dismantled, I can tell you of one or two slight errors in the articles-
The bridge is not over the River Khwae-Noi (or Kwai-Noi) but over the River Mae Khlaung. The Khwae flows into the Mae Khlaung a couple of kilometres South of the two bridges, very near to Kanchanaburi Town. After crossing the Mae Khlaung the railway follows quite closely the valley of the Khwae-Noi, almost to the Burma border at Three Pagoda Pass, some 220km NE of Kanchanaburi.
The wooden bridge mentioned was not dismantled until after the war. When the spans were blown out of the steel bridge, the wooden bridge was put into use as a by-pass.
Thai tourist literature has cashed in on the infamous Death Railway enough to call the steel bridge the one of the film (and book); both film and book were admitted to be fiction by the author, Pierre Bouille. It seems OK now to refer to that bit of the Mae Khlaung as the "River Kwai"- purely for tourism income!
The connection of the Death Railway to the Thai State Railway system was effected at Ban Pong (near Nong Pladuk). The Thai construction joined the Burma Group teams near Konkuita at the 263 kilometre point from Ban Pong.
Construction of the two Tha Makan bridges was organised and executed by a unit of the Japanese Railway Battalion under a Lieut Fuji. POW were merely the very hardworked labour force. It may also be of interest to your readers that after POW and native labourers had completed the railway late in 1943, they were used to cut wood for the locomotives, build water tanks, and construct or improve a nearby track for road transport
.

The 5X locomotives of the LMS . D.S.M. Barrie
Referring to Pegasus' letter in the February issue, the train with a late afternoon arrival at Euston would be The Lakes Express and not The Fylde Coast Express. The latter, which received its name with the introduction of the LMS Spring timetable in May, 1935 (yes, we had three issues of the timetables annually at that time!) left Blackpool (Central) at 08.25 am and was due Euston 12.50, non-stop from Crewe in 154min for the 158.1 miles. The normal load was only 8 vehicles, about 255 tons, the set returning from Euston to Blackpool about 17.10. I had two very good up runs that summer with Driver Tommy Crosthwaite of Preston, the engines being 5567 and 5639 respectively. Malton, Yorkshire

Motive power miscellany

No. 396 (May 1973)

J.N. Young. Centenary of the 'Ally Pally' branch. 182-5.
The Alexandra Park Estate purchased the building from the 1962 Kensington Exhibition and re-ercted it in a prominent position above Wood Green. The Edgware, Highgate & London Railway received its Act on 13 May 1864 and when opened provided access from Finsbury Park to Highgate from beyond which a branch to the Palace opened on the same day as the building itself  on 24 May 1873. Unfortunately, a fire led to the closure of the building on 9 June 1873 and it did not reopen until 1 May 1875. The Alexandra Palace Electric Railway provided competition from 1898 to 1899 and the Metropolitan Electric trams arrived in December 1905. The line featured in thre London Transport 1935-40 New Works Programme and conductor rail and cabling were installed over part of the branch, but like the extension to Aldenham and Bushey were thrown away in Postwar Austerity. The passenger service ceased on 5 July 1954. Illustrations: railway approach to Alexandra Palace station in 1954, map, station frontage in August 1972, Cranley Gardens station in 1954,Pollitt 2-4-2T No. 5785 on push & pull near Crouch End in 1946, GNR 0-4-4T No. 623 with Alexandra Palace headboard, C12 4-4-2T No. 7374 on push & pull set on branch with conductor rail.

Paul Cottterell. The railways of Israel. 186-9.
At that time the railways were in a poor state apart from that between Haifa and Tel Aviv. The line to Jerusalem was in poor condition. Belgian and General Motors diesel locomotives were in use (the Belgian ones being illustrated).

Charles Long. Scenes from Pullman life. 190-3
The diesel fixed formation Pullmans—Blue Pullmans had been introduced and there were problems when locomotive haulage and older cars had to be substituted, especially for the Midland Pullmans.
The Pullman offices at Victoria overlooked Platform 2. This gave us a grandstand view of the comings and goings of Princes, Presidents and other Important Persons who merited special trains. On the Southern, of course, VIP specials were traditionally formed of Pullman cars, although—from the late fifties—one of the splendid 1908-built Eastern Region Royal Saloons was generally included in trains for Heads of State. But my most vivid memory is of a slightly less exalted occasion. This was a visit by Dr Adenauer, West German Chancellor, for political talks with the British Government. A steam-hauled Pullman special was provided from Gatwick Airport, routed by devious means to Platform 2 at Victoria. While there was to be no elaborate red-carpet welcome, certain special arrangements were made, one of which was the erection of temporary barriers towards the end of the platform near the main station concourse to keep the curious at bay. The Prime Minister, Mr Macmillan, and the Foreign Secretary, Mr Selwyn Lloyd, duly arrived to greet their guest. The train pulled in, Dr Adenauer stepped out and a few formal words were exchanged. Then, as Mr Macmillan made to lead the way to the official cars waiting outside in Hudson's Place, Dr Adenauer turned on his heel and briskly strode off up the platform, pushing aside the barrier—behind which a small crowd had collected. Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary were plainly nonplussed. Had they already said the wrong thing? Perhaps Der Alte had gone in search of a ticket collector to give up his ticket? But no! Here he was again, picking his way back through the knot of spectators and past the barrier. What had happened was that Dr Adenauer had simply wanted to express his appreciation to the engine- driver and his mate by presenting each of them with a handsome tip—and the locomotive, a rebuilt West Country, had drawn up well beyond the line of the temporary barrier.
After the end of his second term as President of the United States, General Eisenhower returned to Europe to make a highly-publicised nostalgic Grand Tour. In Britain, the visit is probably best remembered by the use made of a white open Rolls-Royce for driving the General around London. But it is worth recalling another vehicle in which he travelled during his stay. This was Pullman car Joan, which had formed part of a mobile military headquarters in the war, before D-day. The original plan was to use Joan in the special train intended to convey General Eisenhower to London, after his arrival at Gatwick by air from Paris; but, because of fog, these arrangements were completely altered at short notice.
Col F.D.M. Harding, the Pullman Company's Managing Director, was not to be thwarted, however. He knew that, at a later stage of his visit, General Eisenhower was due to travel by rail to Ayrshire for a period of rest and relaxation out of the public eye. Thus it was that behind-the-scenes negotiations were conducted with the London Midland Region and, on the day that "Ike " was to travel, Joan duly appeared in the formation of the Thames-Clyde Express. This time everything went as planned. No union clashes were risked either. Joan was staffed by a London Midland restaurant car crew. When the idea of using  Joan during the Eisenhower visit was first mooted, that car was undergoing a major overhaul and, for a time, it was doubtful if work would be completed in time. As a safeguard, a second "Joan" was prepared. If memory serves me aright, this was car Loraine (from the same 1928-built series) temporarily running under an assumed name
.

R. Powell Hendry. Narrow gauge, 1920s style. 194-8.
Notes on how the Isle of Man Railway southern line  to Port Erin operated in the 1920s with most trains being mixed and delays were caused by shunting. Day described is 19 March 1928. Individual Beyer Peacock 2-4-0T locomotives and footplate crew's names are mentioned based on information provided by Robert Tate of Douglas. Coal consumption data are mentioned. Illustrations by author: No. 11 Maitland with Driver Joe Buttell at Douglas in November 1962; No. 12  Hutchinson arriving Douglas in August 1965; No. 13 Kissack shunting at Douglas shortly before 1965 closure; No. 12  Hutchinson taking on water at Castletown and picking up a van at Ballasalla; Port Soderick station; No. 14 Thornhill at Ramsey c1928

John McKenzie. Metre gauge to Corinth. 199
November 1972 travelled on Piraeus, Athens & Peloponnesus Railway behind ALCO Co.-Co. Steam locomotives were seen at Corinth: photograph of oil-burning 2-8-2 thereat

Southern steam in the 30s: photographs by G.J. Jefferson, FRPS, except where stated. 200-2.
Drummond Paddlebox 4-6-0 passing Byfleet with a Waterloo to Portsmouth express in August 1934; Schools class No. 928 Stowe on 11.50 Waterloo to Portsmouth Harbour non-stop passing Woking station in July 1936; Adams 0-4-2 No. 617 passing Byfleet on fast for Alton in July 1935; T9 No. 119 hauling down special formed of Stanier LMS stock in August 1938; Lord Nelson No. 857 Lord Howe with large taper boiler; Lord Nelson No. 852 Sir Walter Raleigh on down Sunday Bournemouth Belle passing Woking station on 4 October 1936; L12 No. 421 leaving Havant with an LBCS route train for London; Adams 4-4-0 No. 585 on up empty stock at Surbiton c1933 (G.B. Penny)

NSW steam museum. 203
Roundhouse at the Enfield yards in Sydney with working Class C36 4-6-0 No. 3642; working Vulcan Foundry 4-4-0 No. 381 and 13 class 4-4-2T No. 1301

B.K. Cooper. Shoreham for the Continent. 204-5

Flying Scotsman at home and in steam again. 205.

Brian Perrin. French Turbotrain impressions. 206-7.

C.P. Boocock. The mighty tanks at Maesteg. 208-10

John A. Lines. CR No. 50, Sir James Thomson. Locomotive portraits—8. 211-12
Caledonian Railway: McIntosh inside-cylinder 4-6-0: leading dimensions and biography of a pair of locomotives built in 1903 and which lasted until 1933

A North Eastern scene in Grouping days. 212

No. 397 (June 1973)

G. Scott-Lowe. Steam in the Valleys. 226-8
National Coal Board steam locomotives still at work. Tablee lists all locomotives then still liable in service at the following collieries: Brynlliw, Pontardulais, Maesteg, Tymawr, Mountain Ash, Merthyr Vale, Hafodyrynys, Talywain, Blaenavon and Kilmersden

W. Awdry. Five maps of Gloucester stations. 231-3.

Brian Bennion. Journey to the highest railway station in Europe. 234-9.

David R. Wright. The Ghana Railway today. 240-2.

From a railway album—3. 243
Mrs F. Moore Dutton owned a photograph album which had belonged to the photographer Samuel Worthington (1884-1917): two of the following were by him: LNWR Ramsbottom Lady of the Lake class 2-2-2 No. 723 Clive and Webb three-cylinder compound 0-8-0 No. 1862. The other is of GNR Stirling 4-2-2 No. 5. (with initials "P.W.P".)

Leonard J. Muir. A "2000" on Inter-City service. 250-2.
Footplate journey from Doncaster to King's Cross on No. 345 on 11.10 from Leeds and how the  mountains near Bawtry brought speed down to 50 mile/h and the bend at Hatfield was taken at 67 mile/h and arrival was about half an hour late

Portrush Flyer steam excursions. 253

What is this that roareth thus? 254-5
Black & white photo-feature of Crosti boiler 9F 2-10-0s

New books . 256

The train that ran away . Stewart Joy. lan Allan Ltd. 160pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.
Described as a business history, but when the business is an enterprise as much in the public eye as British Railways there is no need to fear that such a history will be dull. Here, in fact, are drama, some elements of tragedy, and perhaps a little discreet conspiracy.
The author, a former Chief Economist of the British Railways Board, goes back to 1948 in looking for the causes which decided the Government in 1968 to cancel £1,262 million of BRB's capital debt. An early error in his view was dilatoriness in deciding on a motive power policy in line with trends elsewhere, and he considers the building of the BR standard steam locomotive classes to have been unfortunate to say the least. Dr Joy is of the opinion that had steady development of diesels taken place from 1948, they would probably have been chosen as the permanent solution. The most costly effect of dilatoriness in this matter was to "defer for nearly ten years the most important single technological advance in railway history". When at length action was taken, too many designs were ordered and both capacity and (sometimes) experience were lacking to meet the demand.
Similarly, thinks Dr Joy, steady concentration on electrification from 1948 would have avoided over-spending during conversion of the LMR main line. It is surprising, in a book so thoroughly documented, that the author does not mention as a contributory cause the switch of policy from de to 50Hz ac which set the electrical industry by the ears, or contrast the decision to follow a Continental lead in this respect with the reluctance to purchase proven diesel locomotives from America.
The modernisation plan is criticised for ill-matched aims, and "the superficiality of the Beeching report was to cost BR and the country a lot in wasted resources in the coming years". After all this and much more, a chapter headed What went wrong? may well strike the reader as asking a superfluous question. Dr Joy concludes, however, with a look at the future in which he affirms that some BR services are offering higher quality service today than ever before in British railway history. But now the loss-makers on the freight side must be got rid of. Some degree of control has been regained over the runaway train; it could be lost all too easily and we might end up with something barely recognisable as the railway system we know today. Some enthusiasts will not be pleased with Dr Joy's opinions. Others may ask themselves if they have really been enthusiasts for the railway as such, or have simply enjoyed seeing trains running about. Dr Joy's book could then point the way to a more balanced appreciation of railways in the future.-

Rails to the setting sun. Charles S. Small. Kigei Publishing Co. 188pp Distributed by Robert Spark, Railway Literature, Evelyn Way, Cobham, Surrey. Reviewed by B.K.C..
Searching the world for little railways, as the author has done, can bring a familiarity with daily life in the countries in which they are situated unknown to the ordinary tourist. Mr Small's survey of narrow-gauge lines has taken him to Europe, Australasia, Africa and the Far East and he vividly recreates his experiences for the reader. The many admirable pictures, including an introductory colour section, support the author's narrative and can be enjoyed for themselves. Maps and layouts are numerous and adequate, and a valve gear curiosity is shown in an explanatory drawing. Clearly the specialist in lines of mainly less than 3ft gauge has a fascinating field before him. Some of the motive power may appear quaint on superficial acquaintance, but often much ingenuity underlies the designs and there is good reason for the oddities

Russian steam locomotives. H.M. Le Fleming and J. H. Price. David & Charles, Newton Abbot.140pp. Reviewed by K.H.S
In this revised edition of a book first published in 1960 the text has been up-dated to mid-1971 and a map of the Soviet railway system has been added showing lines worked by diesel, steam and electric power. Steam was due to have been eliminated by the end of 1970, but 2.7 per cent of the country's train-mileage was still being steam-worked in 1971. The book reviews locomotive development in Russia from the building of a 2-2-0 in the Urals in 1833 to the present time, showing the principal phases and illustrating them with details of individual classes. Russia, too, had its big engine period, which continued in the post-war years and culminated in two 2-8-8-4 Mallets built in 1954 to reduce double-heading on freight trains. Between that year and 1956, also, 250 P36 class 4-84s were built for main-line passenger traffic, being the last Russian steam locomotives for such duties. Most of them went to the extreme end of the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1970, whither only the most devoted enthusiast is likely to follow them, particularly as they may have gone by the time he gets there. Those who prefer to admire from a distance will find the class illustrated in the 28-page pictorial section with which the book concludes.

Loco Profiles. Reviewed by B.K.C.. 256-7
No 30 GN large Atlantics
No 31 Lima super-power
No 32 The Brighton Gladstones
Profile Publications Ltd, Coburg House, Sheet Street, Windsor 24pp
Until the coming of the Pacifics, Ivatt's large-boiler Atlantics seemed to epitomise the East Coast Route. Ron Scott's detailed mechanical history of the class brings out many features of interest in these engines as originally built and subsequently developed in various ways. In the light of their performance, it is surprising to learn. of certain weaknesses from the crew's point of view, such as a jerky ride, an inadequate cab and a cumbersome reversing gear that sometimes had to be grappled with by both men on the footplate. None the less, the locomotives were well liked by those who drove them and did not ask for finesse in handling. Experiments were carried out with compounding, boosters, and four-cylinder simple propulsion but the longest survivors were those of the basic two-cylinder design, the last of which did not go until 1950.
In Lima super-power C. P. Atkins and Brian Reed com- bine in telling the story of the 2-8-4 and 2-10-4 designs from the Lima Locomotive Works between 1925 and almost the end of steam locomotive building for the US market. The series was launched to meet the railway requirements of the future as seen in the 1920s and for two decades the engines fulfilled their promise. Perhaps Lima clung to its successful formula too long. It merged with a diesel engine builder in 1947, but too late to meet demands for proven diesel locomotives of four-figure output.
Brian Reed tackles The Brighton Gladstones single-handed and rapidly demolishes Stroudley worship. One is reminded of Dr Johnson's " Sir, clear your mind of cant!" Reed's explanation of how Stroudley was ensured of a good press for his locomotives is ingenious. After concluding that a fulsome and unbalanced picture has been presented in the past, he gives a dispassionate account of the good and the not-so-good in Gladstone history which will earn appreciation even where there may still be some dissent.

The steam locomotives of Yugoslavia Tadej Brate. Slezak, Vienna. Available from lan Allan Ltd. 196pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.. 257
The complicated history of modern Jugoslavia endowed the country with steam locomotives from numerous sources, and reflecting a variety of technical backgrounds. Although .their numbers are now declining fast, there were still 31 classes at work in 1971 when this book was finished. These and their forerunners are reviewed in the opening chapters, together with the evolution of the numbering system, but the major part of the book consists of tabulated information, dimensioned and sectional drawings, and an exhaustive gallery of photographs spanning the decades from the thirties to the seventies. In tables and pictures, classes are arranged in numerical order instead of by date, enabling any locomotive observed to be quickly identified. Locomotives of the forestry railways and former private lines are covered as well as those of the State Railways proper, and in these categories there are some interesting mechanical varieties for providing a driving wheelbase able to adapt itself to sharp curvature. Four of the 263 illustrations are in colour and there is a double-page route map of the Yugoslav railway system, keyed to show gauges, industrial lines and electrification systems. Many readers, no doubt, will hope to use the book as a guide while in the country, but those who stay at home will find much pleasure in its ample picture of a little-known steam railway scene.

Forgotten railways: North-East England.   K. Hoole David & Charles, 212pp . Reviewed by K.H.S.
It is surprising how quickly railways become forgotten, and how difficult it is to be sure what is still open and what is not. Mr Hoole has compiled an exhaustive record of railways in the North East that are no more. To history he adds reminiscence of them in their working days and he notes what remains to be seen of them in the areas they served. There are numerous maps, and the illustrations are mainly vintage NER scenes. A gazetteer section at the end of the book gives the map references of buildings and civil engineering features which survive and are worth a visit.

The Severn & Wye Railway. H. W. Paar. David & Charles, 174pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.  257
Tramroad promotion began early in the Forest of Dean, where roads were poor but there was mineral wealth waiting for effective transport. An Act for a " single iron railway" from Lydbrook on the Wye to Lydney on the Severn received the Royal Assent in 1809, to be followed the next year by another which changed the name of the undertaking to the Severn and Wye Railway & Canal Company. The progress of the undertaking is followed from the years of operation as a tramroad charging tolls, to what the author calls" the long decline" from 1879 to 1962, sparked off by a dwindling iron industry in the 1870s. Earnings declined, and in 1894 came the sale of the undertaking to the GWR and the MR jointly. The first edition of Mr Paar's book was published in 1963. In the present one he continues the story to 1972 in an appendix. The future of what remains of this historic enterprise now rests with the Dean Forest Railway Preservation Society, which has its premises at Parkend, northern end of the of BR single track from Lydney Junction.

The miniature world of Henry Greenly . E.A. Steel and E H. Steel. Model & Allied Publications Ltd 251pp. Reviewed by A.B.M. 257
This book should have been called the Greenly Saga. It is much more than a description of the various activities engaged in by Henry Greenly during his lifetime. It gives the reader an insight into the family history and its influence, much from the railway point of view, on the young Greenly. Greenly developed into an engineer of many parts and carried out, frequently single handed, a great number of projects usually connected with locomotives in the model world. These took the form of publishing magazines, articles, and producing drawings for miniature locomotives and railways in a wide range from 15in gauge down to the smallest 00 gauge. His memorial will undoubtedly be his designing and construction of the Rornney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway in Kent, which is still going strong 26 years after his passing. The book is a fascinating story and full of incident and can be thoroughly recommended.

Narrow gauge railways in South Caernarvonshire. J.I.C. Boyd . Oakwood Press, 381pp Reviewed by J.T.G. 257.
Quarrying in South Caernarvonshire led to the construction of many short narrow-gauge railways by local interests. The main line railways, with an eye to the slate traffic, often schemed for a foothold in this area and there were numerous alliances and feuds. Much of the history in Mr Boyd's book was hitherto unwritten, and many of the names of companies will be unknown to the reader without local affiliations. Chapters are prefaced with a chronology of the railways to which they refer, showing dates of the companies' Acts, opening, absorbtion where relevant, and closure, also financial, statistical and topographical details. But this is by no mean, only a board room history. Mr Boyd is no less thorough in dealing with locomotive, rolling stock and physical features. The numerous maps and diagrams include track layouts, with signalling, which he has drawn himself from information gathered on the spot, and reproductions of old photographs take the reader back on to the period the author ably recreates in words.

Railway bridge maintenance. Frank Turton. Hutchinson Educational L.td. 152pp. Reviewed by J.T.G.  
In a foreword, the Chief Civil Engineer of BRB recalls how interest in bridge maintenance stimulated by a BR works conference in 1966 led to many enquines from younger engineers for a book on the subject. The answer at that time had to be that there was none, but now Mr Frank Turton has very handsomely filled the gap and fulfilled one of the aims of that conference some seven years ago—namely to make available to relative newcomers to the business the experience gained by their predecessors. This is a practical book, well illustrated with drawings as well as photographs, which should do much in the years ahead to promote sound practice in work essential to the safety and reliability of rail transport. It has been the author's aim to write in a style understandable by those who have not had a technical training so that there can be a general appreciation in operating as well as engineering departments of what the work involves. The general reader, too, will find much of interest in following the various forms bridges have taken, why particular designs were chosen, and the evolution of materials.

Railway print. 258
The Britannia Locomotive Society has published a large (perhaps over-large) black and white photographic print measuring more than 25in by 17in showing No 70000 Britannia breasting Belstead Summit, near Ipswich, with an express for Norwich on 15 July 1959. All profits from sale of the print will be used in the restoration of Britannia. This is a graphic reminder of a sight once familiar on the main line to East Anglia.

Letters. 258-60

Preserved locomotive maintenance.  S.C. Allsop
It is stated that, in event of a firebox stayhead becoming wasted, it is sometimes possible to remove the remaining material flush with the plate, drill and tap the stay end, and fit a false head. This kind of practice, whether with the Boiler Inspector's approval (unlikely) or not, cannot be classed as sound engineering practice, for although to do so is not actually dangerous, such a false head is not likely to provide a satisfactory seal for long (if at all), and the resultant leakage would promote further deterioration of the stay. A stay whose head has corroded to this extent should be renewed at the first opportunity even if this means taking the engine out of traffic for some time. My main point however, is that a false head of this kind could be used by the ignorant or irresponsible as a means of concealing the true condition of the stay from the Boiler Inspector and having been successful here, the practice might be applied to such items as rivet heads, with obviously much greater risks. There is a need for every society to ensure that the advice of a properly qualified engineer (as opposed to a self-trained amateur) is available within the group, or is sought from other societies if this is not possible, on all matters connected with boilers and their fittings. The ARPS could probably provide a useful service here, in forming a central consultative body of engineers with steam experience to whom societies without members in this category could apply for advice.

Preserved locomotive maintenance. S.F. Marcks
Articles of this nature bring home to many rank-and-file preservationists the innumerable problems with which the faithful few who are both able and willing to take an active part in preservation have to grapple. Within the ranks of the preservation societies there must be hundreds of people such as plumbers, mechanics, welders, etc, whose potentially valuable skills could be an asset to any society. Yet such persons are often considerably daunted by the fact that they do not know a gudgeon-pin from a clack, and for this reason regard work on rolling-stock as the awesome province of trained locomotive fitters. Articles on the lines of Greenwood's may well provide the initial insight for many into ways in which they can render valuable help to the railway preservation movement, perhaps after an initial probationary period.

Preserved locomotive maintenance. David Gordon.  
One item he mentioned was the wear on axle bearings, sometimes causing a hot box, especially on the smaller and less elaborate locomotives. A factor often overlooked by amateurs is that certain unspecialised oils may well prove too thin, thus showing up very minor faults in the bearing which would not normally matter, and causing considerable nuisance and worry. Use of a heavier oil will quite often solve this problem altogether, professional advice on the exact grade being recommended.

Preserved locomotive maintenance.  E.A. Lees
No doubt Greenwood has wide experience of steam locomotives in private operators' hands and has good authority for saying "Despite a widely held misapprehension in enthusiast preservation circles, by and large all locomotives withdrawn by British Railways were in well-worn condition". Can this statement be reconciled with one made by such an authority as O.S. Nock in his book LMS steam in the last paragraph of the last chapter, where commenting on the withdrawal of steam he said, "Like everywhere else on the railways of Great Britain it was a premature end. The Duchesses, the Scots, the Black Fives and the many lesser lights had years of economic life left when their death warrant was signed. . .. Future historians , .. may well ponder upon the assets that were thrown away in the early 1960s". If Greenwood's statement is correct one might wonder how it is that—only with few exceptions—such locomotives have not been preserved!

No. 398 (July 1973)

Michael H.C. Baker. A look at CIE in 1972. 278-82.
It may come as a shock that refugees were arriving at Dublin from Belfast to be met by the Red Cross due to the "troubles" in the North of Ireland and that holiday traffic was down due to the fear that homes left might be seized (it is sobering that some politicians are willing to return to such May-hem in 2018). The CIE was intrtoucing air-conditioned carriages manufactured by British Rail Engineering at Derby, but at the time had not decided on a livery for the vehicles.

Peterborough realigned. 283

No. 400 (September 1973)

H.A.V. Bulleid. The Manchester bank. 372-7.
Footplate work on the difficult Peak main line from Derby to Manchester with its heavy gradients (as steep as 1 in 90) and sharp curvature.

No. 403 (December 1973)

R.E. Goodman. Jubilees at Burton-on-Trent. 500-3.

K. Groundwater. Crewe Basford Hall disappears—2. 504-7.

M.L. Hooper-Immins. Main line steam at Loughborough. 508-9.

B.Y. Williams. Lady Margaret. 511
2-4-0T No. 1308 Lady Margaret: built by  Andrew Barclay for th e Liskeard & Looe Railway in 1902