Railway World Volume 36 (1975)
Key Volume

No. 417 (January 1975)

No. 6100 rebuilt Scot at Bressingham Steam Museum. M.L. Williams
Colour image with red livery and much "unauthentic detail" like The Royal Scot nameplate on smokebox door

Paul Drew. Two Paris Gares d'Orléans. 6-9.
Gare de Quai d'Orsay was designed solely for electric trains and had 19 platforms to serve the Paris Orleans Railway.  Also served by Gare d'Austerlitz

Museums in the making. 9
Photograph of Shutt End Railway Agenoria and a Stockton & Darlington Railway coach from the old Yotk Railway Museum to the new one by rail. Photograph of North Road Station, Darlington being restored as Museum.

A.C. Sharpe. Railway air brakes—1. 10-13.
Author member of staff of Westinghouse Brake and Signal Co. Ltd. Straight air brake was introduced by George Westinghouse in 1869. Introduced into Britain in 1871/2 where its main outlet was on the District Railway. Control was via a three-way cock. The automatic air brake was described in Engineering 1871 February. In 1887 the quick acting triple valve was introduced and demonstrated at the Burlington Brake Trials in the USA. Distributors were introduced for controlling trains on long descents and first made public in Humphrey's Patent of 1892. Synthetic rubber O ring seals make the system reliable.Illustrations: North Eastern Railway cab showing Westinghouse brake controls; diagram (elevation and plan) from Westinghouse technical manual showing Great Northern Atlantic with Caledoanian Railway eight-wheel tender.

D.E. Canning. Journey to Meppen.  14-17
Member of theRailway Photographic Society who went to Meppen, stayed with the stationmaster Kulloch and photographrd double-headed 2-10-0 hauling imported iron ore mainly in heavy rain.

C.P. Boocock. The North Yorkshire Moors Railway. 18-22
Illustrations cover  a wide variety of motive power including diesel multiple units; P3 class 0-6-0; Lambton 0-6-2T and K1 class No. 2005. At time of visit the preserved railway was only recently open to the public. The locomotive stick is tabulated

Peter Grafton. Carnforth revisited. 23; 26
Became involved with Flying Scotsman Enterprises in 1974 which involved taking No. 4472 Flying Scotsman from Olympia to Carnforth via Banbury, Birmingham, Derby, Sheffield, Leeds and Skipton then taking charge of the locomotive whilst it gave footplate rides over about ¾ mile of track

F.S. Birch. More Canal Zone memories. 30-2
Employed at 169 Railway Workshops, Royal Engineers, near Suez where the 8F Stanier 2-8-0s were named after Crimean War Victoria Cross medal holders. These were subgected to Egyptian terrorist activities and some damaged locomotives were shipped back on the Ben Ledi from Abadiya. These were replaced by Robinson 2-8-0s which were popular with the footplate crews, and many were working on the Egyptian State Railways. Illustrations: L.D. McNaughton, photographer: ESR 2-6-0 derailed in saltmarsh after derailment near Suez; WD No. 34 Napoleon  (Hawthorn Leslie 0-4-0ST of 1917); French-built 0-4-0T; Orenstein & Koppel 0-4-0WT Jasper used as shunter at Suez; ex-US Transportation 0-6-0T.

R.W. Thomson. A railtour bookings clerk reflects. 32
In the days of stamp addressed envelopes and cheques.

J.C. Locke. The Association of Railway Preservation Societies. 33-4
Full members listed

LMS passenger livery for a "Jinty". 34
Midland Railway Company's restored 0-6-0T No. 16440 in LMS crimson livery.

New books. 36

North Eastern album. K. Hoole. Ian Allan Ltd. 112pp Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
It is all too easy for those who do not live in the North East to dismiss the North Eastern Railway as just a part of the East Coast Main Line and to have only a nebulous idea of its network east and west of that highway. Hoole has assembled illustrations from his own collection and other sources which give the railway its own image. An introduction tells the North Eastern story in outline from the formation of the company in 1854 to Grouping, and a full- page map shows its extent. The pictures are grouped by sources and subjects. For example, the book opens with the work of photographers specialising in the North Eastern scene, some of whom fortunately took freight and mineral trains at a period when views of this kind were rarely chosen. But trains and locomotives are only two of the subjects of the album. Lineside furniture, NER notices, rolling stock and miscellaneous items from the author's collection fill in the everyday background of a railway at work. Most of the photographs are more than fifty years old but we also see NER motive power in early LNER days and then LNER classes allocated to that com- pany's North Eastern Area. The colour frontispiece is from a painting of a North Eastern Atlantic and train by G. F. Heiron. All pictures have detailed captions and commentaries from which not only can much be learned about the North Eastern Railway but something of its atmosphere can be absorbed.

LMS Pacifics. J.W.P. Rowledge. Profile Publications Ltd 24pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
The Stanier Pacific locomotives were built for the LMS between 1933 and the post-war 1940s. They fall roughly into the two categories of the original Princess Royal engines and the later Coronation class, streamlined and non-streamlined. The initial order was for three Princess Royals, but it was then decided to build the third as a turbine locomotive using as many parts of the others as practicable. and this divergence from the main stream is dealt with briefly. The four-cylinder engine designs are described in detail and well illustrated, with elevation drawings as well as photographs. Liveries, alloca- tions and performances are also covered. The subjects of the centre colour spread by David Warner are The Princess Royal in LMS red and Coronation in the blue and silver in which it worked the Coronation Scot. Fully maintaining the enthusiast's expectation of this series, LMS Pacifies intensifies interest in the steam locomotive by showing even the knowledgable that there is always more to know. This, indeed, has been the achievement of the Loco Profile series as a whole and one reads with regret that this Profile, No 37, is the last but one of these monographs in their present form.

WR diesel hydraulics. Norman E, Preedy and G.F. Gillham. D. Bradford Barton Ltd .96pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
Modern rail album.
Two photographers, Norman E, Preedy and G.F. Gillham.have drawn on their files to illustrate a phase of WR motive power now fast fading. There is a short introduction on the stages of diesel-hydraulic development in the Region, and the illustrations show each class in turn with introductory notes on its characteristics. The difference between the Voith transmissions of the Warships, Westerns and NBL hydraulics and the Mekydro system in the Hymeks is insufficiently emphasised. A specialist pictorial book such as this, also, might well have included one or more cab views and perhaps workshop shots of locomotives stripped down to show what an hydraulic transmission and its system of cardan shafts and final drive gearboxes looked like. Pictorially however, the album is satisfying in subject and execution.

Modern Rail Album. A.W. Hobson, editor. D. Bradford Barton Ltd .96pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
Edited by A. W. Hobson for the Phoenix Railway Photographic Circle, which was formed to show that when steam stopped, the art of railway photography continued to flower. Electric and diesel power are both represented in this gallery of members' work, which gives ample evidence that the faith which led to the society being formed was well founded. The informative captions suggest that members take more than an aesthetic interest in their subject.

The social and economic development of Crewe 1780-1823. W.H. Chaloner. Manchester University Press. 326pp. Reviewed by J.T.G.
Monks Coppenhall and Church Cop- penhall were Cheshire townships grow- ing slowly in the years before the railway age. In time their names were to be all but forgotten, submerged by the fame of Crewe and its railway works. The author has chapters on how the railway discharged its reponsibilities towards the populations that grew around its establishments, and on the history of the works and sheds. Most of the book takes a wider view of the social and industrial scene. There was a period when local politics were darkened by charges of intimidation of voters by foremen at the railway works. From 1845 the Co-operative Movement was active in the town. It supported the Mechanics' Institution and encouraged adult education. By the time of the First World War Crewe had experienced alternating periods of unemployment and comparative prosperity, but the inter-war years saw industrial stagnation, with the number of men employed in the railway works falling from over 10000 in 1920 to 6520 in 1938. In that year occurred "the most important event in the economic history of Crewe since 1843"-the decision to establish a Rolls Royce aero engine factory iin the town. The author first published his book in 1950. The present reprint concludes with his assessment of that date that "Crewe's industrial future seems assured". There will be no more "railway towns," and this account of the first of them provides necessary background for a full appreciation of the railway age as an historical epoch.

Steam over Switzerland. George Behrend. St Martin, Jersey: Jersey Artists Ltd, , 48pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper 
The author's informal style shepherd's the reader pleasantly on a tour of Swiss lines linking points where steam still operates at times. He is profuse with information, so much so that one is not always sure whether one is still on the Bodensee-Toggenburg Railway or somewhere else. The BT bulks large in the book because it was on this railway, at Degersheim, that a Steam Festival was held to celebrate the 125th anniversary of Swiss railways. Some sounds of this event were recorded by Peter Handford, and Steam over Switzerland has been written to complement the record, references to which and to its pictorial sleeve pop up from time to time in a manner puzzling to the less agile mind. When the BT train from Romanshorn, on Lake Constance, arrives at Lucerne, allusions to other railways come thick and fast—the SBB metre-gauge link with Interlaken, the Brienzer Rothorn, MOB, Blonay Chamby, and so on. The itinerary ends at Geneva. Newcomers to the country will find useful hints on getting there; and lists of locomotives, electric and steam, provide material for intelligent spotting. The number of pages has purposely been kept low to permit a modest price, but the author has perhaps tried to cram too much information into them..

A Great Western gallery. B.L. Davis and A.I. Rivers, editors. Great Western Society Ltd. 136pp. Reviewed by K.H.S.
Those who feel there can be nothing more to illustrate on the Great Western Railway will be agreeably surprised by the variety of views the editors of this book have assembled. They are grouped in sections with titles such as Great Western Enterprise, Commerce, London Suburban, Among the Staff, and so on, and collectively they build up the atmosphere of this famous railway for the pleasure of those who knew it and the enlightenment of those who did not. The time span extends from broad gauge days to the final years of steam, but the album ends on the happy note that Great Western steam can still be seen at work through the enterprise of the Great Western Society. An unusual view of No 111, The Grear Bear, shows it coupled smokebox-to-smokebox with a 111 class 2-4-0 for publicity purposes. Locomotives and trains are by no means the only aspects of the Great Western scene to be featured. Old posters and other publicity are recalled. We see signalbox and goods station interiors, and are perhaps reminded by a picture of road/rail freight interchange in 1933 of the more recent activity of the Great Western in developing zonal schemes for concentrating "smalls" traffic—an activity taken over by BR in its early days, who were sometimes not displeased if it was thought to be their own brainchild. The railway was also an early operator of road feeder services, and in later years aircraft in Great Western colours flew between Birmingham, Cardiff, Torquay and Plymouth. Among the pictures is one of the Westland Wessex six-seaters on this route, destined in later years to perambulate RAF trainee wireless operators above the Hampshire landscape for "air experience"..

Diesel-hydraulic locomotives of the Western Region. Brian Reed. David & Charles. 112pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper 
The era of diesel-hydraulic traction on the Western Region provides material for serious technical study rather than the glamour and heroics that often surround accounts of the steam locomotive. Here is all the detail, told with Brian Reed's characteristic objectivity. First there were the hybrid North British AlA-AlAs, cramping the potential of high-speed engines and hydraulic drive by allying them with the heavy mechanical construction insisted on by BR, and forced to have idle axles because the builder had not yet developed the practice of driving the centre axle of a six-wheel bogie. The D800 Warships were delivered with a bogie allowing insufficient freedom of lateral movement and many modifications were needed for safe running above 75mph. Western class bogies were similar in principle and most of them needed modification, while transmission troubles were experienced as well in the early days. Other transmission problems were met in the Hymeks, Reed describes each class in turn and then discusses performance in service, and from his account of how engines, transmissions and auxiliaries behaved in traffic conditions the reader gains an insight into these locomotives that will sharpen his appreciation of them. Designers, builders and opera- tors all made mistakes. Sometimes small troubles in auxiliary plant blew up into major ones affecting main equipment because they were not quickly reported and diagnosed, or their significance was missed. Reed's book is a technical education in itself, beginning on the "What are diesel-hydraulics?" level and leading on to an informed understanding. The illustrations include layout arrangementsof all classes and views of equipment which the average observer never saw. It is not all technicalities, however, and here will be found notes on liveries, external fittings, naming and other details which often exercise the mind more than the contemplation of oil acting on turbine blades.

Main line steam in the seventies. Rex Coffin. Steam in Hereford Ltd. 80pp Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper 
Steam runs on the main line have become so numerous that there is a risk of their being taken for granted. We should not however, forget, what went before the return of King George V to main line running in 1971, and the devoted work of the succeeding years that has made main line steam in the Seventies a reality. Coffin's pictorial history of this continuing episode has been excellently produced by the Oxford Publishing Company so that his 75 pictures are vibrant with life. They cover such significant events on the road travelled so far as the first use of two locomotives on a railtour, double-heading of the Atlantic Venturers' Express, and the first-ever photographic run past on BR. The record is brought up to June 1974 when Leander and Green Arrow were involved in running the Red Rose Special. Thus Clan Line's first outing last April is covered and locomotives of all Regions south of the Border are represented.

The Selsey Tramways. Edward Griffith. Farnham: Author. 64pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper   
By the end of the last century the small seaside resort without promenades or bandstands was already being sought by some people, but if it was close to a main line railway it was not likely to remain in that condition for long. The tip of the Selsey Peninsula in Sussex, however, was over seven miles from Chichester on the LBSCR and it seemed that independent rail access might increase its popularity without destroying its charm. There were commercial reasons, too, for a railway line through the agricultural communities of the Hundred of Manhood, and so the Hundred of Manhood and Selsey Tramways Company was born in 1896. Its standard gauge line started from its own station in Chichester, but there was a siding connection with the LBSC. Although only 7 miles 6lch long, it counted no fewer than 11 stations or halts along the route through Sidlesham to Selsey Beach. Griffith's history of the line in this new edition has been revised and enlarged. He traces its progress from a period of comparative success before the first world war to declining traffics in the 1930s and closure in 1935. The illustrations are both attractive and interesting, including contemporary views of construction and the opening day. If the line was a little ramshackle, it was also endearing, and the pictures preserve a railway atmos- phere that will not be experienced again.

The Reading to Tonbridge line. R.W. Kidner. Oakwood Press. 70pp. Reviewed by J.T.G.
Now long considered as one cross-country entity, the Reading-Tonbridge route consists in fact of a one-time main line and a lengthy branch. This is an illustrated account, with good maps, of the route, its history and the evolution of its train services, motive power and other equipment. There is a short concluding note on the Betchworth lime quarries and the narrow and standard gauge lines which connected the workings with exchange sidings at Betchworth Station. With parts of the route embraced by plans for the Channel Tunnel link, the author wonders whether the Redhill-Tonbridge line may one day provide a better train service for travellers alighting from WR trains at Reading and heading east. At present a passenger from Plymouth bound for Tonbridge gains no time by changing trains at Reading compared with journeying via London, although "for lovers of the countryside the 65-mile amble on the Reading-Tonbridge line has its compensations". For those who embark on it, the book would be a pleasant travelling companion, but it will appeal equally to those who number the Reading-Tonbridge line among the routes they would like to know more about.

Isle of Grain railways. Adrian Gray. Oakwood Press. 68pp. Reviewed by M.P.H. 38
The Hoo Peninsula, a comparatively little-known tongue of land between the Thames and the Medway estuaries, protrudes eastwards from the northeast corner of the county of Kent. It is the home of the former Hundred of Hoo Railway and the one-time Chattenden & Upnor Railway; it also happened to be the childhood home of your reviewer. Happy were those days, for there was much to interest the inquisitive. A strange mixture of munitions factories, oil refineries, cement works and the former port at Port Victoria lent a colourful industrial aspect to the history of this area. Gray has assembled a short but fascinating account of railway developments in a unique corner of southeast England. Among them figure certain exploits of Sir Edward Watkin, famous for his attempts to build an early Channel Tunnel. The book describes events from 1864 (when a North Kent Extension Railway was proposed to run from Denton (Gravesend) to Cliffe, Allhallows and Grain) to the present day. Now block gravel and oil trains with l00ton bogie wagons grace this rural branch with their presence as a reminder of our dependence on industry. There are useful maps and a number of plates depicting railway scenes from about 1910.

Letters. 38-

Prairie symphony. Martin Edwards
I have no doubt that H.A.V. Bulleid's nostalgic article will have caused many of your older readers to reach for their pens. For I too have waited for the Ampleforth local at Pilmoor and have travelled with delight behind a Webb Coal tank as it cajoled its two-coach train over the switchback between Abergavenny and Merthyr. (Only genuine LNWR products made that peculiarly hollow sound when the regulator was wide open, or, when closed, the equally characteristic tinkling which suggested that a team of pygmy bell-ringers were trapped somewhere in the motion). Abergavenny, Pilmoor and countless other localities have all earned a niche in my memory, but for drama, pride of place is unquestion- ably held by the Canadian Pacific.
Now I know that foreign railways are not everyone's cup of tea and I freely admit to having acquired my taste for the American and Canadian way of doing things only after spending two-and-a-half days in 1955 travelling from Ottawa to Calgary in the hands of the CPR. This was the prelude to two years spent at an RCAF airfield, not the least attractive part of which was the fact that the main line from Calgary to Edmonton passed within view of the windows of my house. Unfortunately it was rather too far away for much detail to be picked out with the naked eye, but nonetheless it was close enough to give a splendid initiation into the sounds of American railroading, for Canadian and American practices are virtually identical. I soon discovered that there was an indefinable something about the CPR which even the Great Western in all its glory could not hope to match, particularly where steam locomotives were concerned. For even as late as 1955, there was still a plentiful but dwindling number of steam-hauled freight trains to be seen and heard in Western Canada, although almost all of the sparse passenger workings had already succumbed to the all-conquering diesel.
A steam freight working could best be appreciated late on a cold night when sound travelled undisturbed for many miles over the prairie. It was indeed a symphony performance. The opening bars which broke the silence would be a faint and barely audible whistle call for a remotely distant grade crossing. No impatient Doncastrian screech this, but a dignified series of chords, two long, one short, one long, played continua on a superbly sonorous chime whistle with an artistry that must have taken years to perfect. This call enaed on a dying fall that would have delighted Orsino, the more so perhaps because his wish to hear "that strain again" would certainly be granted. For this part of Alberta is farming country divided into squares separated from each other by section roads precisely one mile apart, all of which cross the railways on the level. Regardless of their relative importance, each of these crossings would be accorded this same whistle call by statutory obligation.
Thus the opening chords would be played over and over again in a gradual crescendo until the accompanying sound of the train itself could next be distingui- shed. This particular noise was (and still is) utterly different from anything that marks the progress of trains on this side of the Atlantic. It is an unbelievably loud, deep, continuous and low- pitched rumbling which can very inadequately be likened to the distant roar of a large waterfall. It is caused by something as typical of the American railway scene as the skyline is of New York—the box car. As their name implies, box cars essentially consist of very large enclosed boxes mounted on eight wheels. String 50 or more of them together in a train and move it along at some 50mph or so over the short 39-ft American rails, with each box amplifying and retransmitting the noises made by its wheels, and that explains the all-pervasive rumbling roar that distinguishes an American freight train going about its business.
As this rumbling steadily grew in volume, still punctuated by frequent virtuoso passages on the whistle, so two other orchestral parts would gradually make themselves heard. First would be the deep sostenuto of the exhaust of a giant locomotive, settled in its stride and being worked hard to keep its vast train on the move. If this sound was characteristic of a hard-working locomotive at speed anywhere in the world, the next to be heard was arch-typically American, that of the locomotive bell starting its distinctive and rather mournful tolling for the grade crossing over the road which led up to the airfield, barely audible amidst the fortissimo of the rest of the orchestra (if rather drowned on these occasions, this bell would come magnificently into its own when the locomotive of a steam-hauled passenger train drifted slowly and majestically past as you waited to board its train at an intermediate station, but that's another story).
One final part remained to be played to complete this symphonic theme before the locomotive headlight finally passed out of view. The automatic warning bells on the airfield crossing would start a high-pitched clangour and remain sounding this strident alarm until the faintly glimmering lamps of the caboose had passed safely over it some 50, 60, 70—who knows how many?—rumbling box-car lengths behind the locomotive. The whole theme would then be repeated diminuendo until the last faint two long, one short, one long would be lost in the vastness of the night, leaving the prairie to brood on in a silence broken only by the occasional howl of a coyote. The CPR certainly had got something, yes indeed it had!

The steam sound in Japan but soon to fade. A Japanese National Railways 4-6-2 leaves Kugoshima with a pick-up freight on 6 April 1974, about 10 days before the end of steam in the area. (J.R.M. Parker). 39

Fowler's ghost. Steamologist
With reference to Seyrnour's commendable article, The Ghost walks again in the October Railway World, continued thought to the many points, queries and conjectures he makes suggests the need for a much more detailed analysis than that attempted in my brief reply at the end of his contribution.
Meanwhile, may I be permitted to mention but one item that has crossed my mind?  Seymour states that he is not sure why the cylinders were inclined at about 1 in 7 above the centre line on the Gooch well-tank engines. I agree that Ahrons' reason is hardly convincing; but, although this is no more than a surmise on my part, would not a more likely answer be that, as these engines carried their connecting rods in the more conventional manner outside their coupling rods (as can be proved from contemporary drawings and as shown incorrectly on my part concerning the "ghost"), the distance between the centre lines of the cylinders would be increased. Seymour stresses the importance of this fact on the "ghost". but perhaps the real reason for this angularity might have been due to clearing the numerous platforms on the Metropolitan "Circle" route?
If this were true, it would go a long way to explaining why the "ghosts" "managed to combine horizontally-set cylinders with carrying wheels of 3in larger diameter", due to their being set just that much further in to the frames. History repeated itself in this respect— in so far as inclined cylinders and station platforms were concerned-with the Horwich "Crabs" until Sir William Stanier successfully sorted it out for future designs.
When, however, we come to examine the A class engines, we find the motion arrangement again reverted to that of the "ghost", yet the cylinders were inclined at 1 in 9; so this platform theory may not be the true answer after all!

Surface travel to scenery and sun. A.C. MacLeod 
Mrs Jennifer Lean (October issue) had best beware that it will not only be a "wondering gaze" directed at her family next time they travel by train on the Continent. I fear my language may become a trifle strong should I enter a Second Class compartment and find the other seven passengers have adopted her suggestion and brought along their shopping trolleys to carry the luggage!

The ghost train. P.M. Kalla-Bishop. 39 
I greatly enjoyed John Rumens' cautionary story of the regrettable occurrences on the Crumblebuffer Railway Preservation Society's line in the December issue-the more so because everything that he related befell military railway troops somewhere during the last world war. The sad truth is that it is one thing for a skilled man to carry out more or less the same duties every working day on a home system and quite another for him to tackle unfamiliar equipment on a strange railway. In the latter circumstances, however great the man's skill, it did not seem to prevent him putting his foot in it somewhere unless he was exceptionally lucky. One story to illustrate the theme.
A dusk in 1941 discovered two rail-mounted 13in naval guns coupled together and standing on what was known as a firing spur at Lydden in Kent—each gun weighing 320 tons tare. The buffers at one end were just athwart a road crossing and in due course a motor car appeared that wished to cross the line. The car's tooting produced a shunter who observed that the guns had to be moved three or four feet at the most and who therefore called up an ex-LMS diesel shunting locomotive to give them a tap. The locomotive gave a hearty tap while the shunter stood by a ground level brake handwheel, but more than a tap was needed to start 640 tons. So as he was buffered up and without further reference to the shunter (or so I believe, the evidence became garbled in the telling) the driver pushed his controller across and gave the guns a hefty shove.
Probably the shove was greater than the driver intended, for the two guns started moving at a ponderous four or five miles an hour towards the buffer stops. At a run the shunter screwed down his brake, but eight braked axles out of 64 brought no reduction in speed. The shunter charged up to the next handwheel and again screwed down at a run, then the next and the next and so on. Eventually a very out-of-breath shunter stopped the 640 tons just in time. Unfortunately the occupant of the motorcar which was the cause of the incident was the Royal Marine colonel OC guns, and he was not overjoyed to see his precious ordnance heading towards the open fields out of control. Next morning the L/Cpl shunter found himself a sapper once more on the grounds that he failed to couple up the locomotive; and justice was seen to be done, more or less (especially by the Royal Marines, who took military ranks more seriously than did army railway tradesmen). A magnificent model of one of the guns concerned will be found in the Imperial War Museum, London, and despite such experiences as described we won the war didn't we?, for what it was worth.

The greatness of the Great Western. C. Praeger.  40
J.F. Clay and J.N.C. Law mention some high-speed King and Castle performances in their August article (p328). A great feat by a humble Hall was reported by Cecil J. Allen in The Railway Magazine (January 1955). Without notice, Fountains Hall was taken off an up freight to replace a Castle which had failed on the up Bristolian, and averaged 80mph from Swindon to Ealing, including over 47 miles at between 80 and 84 mph. If my notes are correct (I have not the original article), then perhaps on a size-for-size basis of comparison this Hall deserves to rank alongside the giants that figure in your contributors' Table

No. 420 (April 1975)

Derek Cross. A "scenting" of locomotives. 142-5.
"The Gasworks and Copenhagen tunnels on the initial climb out of Kings Cross were uniquely odiferous things while the one on the exit from Marylebone smelt of carbolic soap." "Just what the Queen Street tunnel's smell was I am hard put to diagnose, I think it was basically sewage, salted by stale smoke and a liberal dose of suppurating shellfish".  No mention of Woodhead or Standedge (KPJ: both extremely acrid), but Polehill Tunnel was experienced by Cross as a passenger when assistance had to be sought from the rear, the Severn Tunnel where a Warship class failed and had to be dragged out, and Devonshire Tunnel with its lack of ventilation. Stations still had smells in 1975, but most of those departed with the traffic: milk, fish, catlle, pigeons, etc.

Robert Barton. China clay traffic to Fowey. 146-7.
When hauled by Western diesel hydraulic locomotives

Robin Morton. The Portrush Flyer. 148-50.
Joint Northern Irish Railways and Railway Preservation Society of Ireland first ran in 1973 on four Saturdays from Belfast to Portrush using WT class 2-6-4T No. 4 and GNR(I) 4-4-0 No.171 Slieve Gullion. with the Society's historical rolling stock. The event was repeated in 1974

Adrian Searle. The Spalding connection. 151-3.
Travel on the remnants of Lincolnshire's railway notwork including a section which has since vanished, namely March to Spalding, and using a service which has since disappeared, namely Birmingham to Norwich: author travelled from Stamford to Spalding and Sleaford and back within the day

Paul Cotterell. Wonders of the Oriental. 154-5.
Travel on the Athens to Instanbul express hauled by Batignolles & Schneider 2-8-0s based at Halkali where eldectric traction took over for the final miles into Instanbul.

Alan Rowley. Two railway paintings. 159-61.
Partly autobiographical, but mainly reproduction of two paintings by Mike Jeffries depicting trains on the Necropolis Railway at Brockwood Cemetery and crossing the Basingstoke Canal en route to Bisley

R.T. Foster. New routes for old: former rail tracks developed for walking and riding. 168-9.
The Wirral Way, Greenways in Stoke-on-Trent and the Tissington Trail in the Peak District.

New books. 170

British trains of yesteryear C. Hamilton Ellis. Ian Allan. 126pp.
Third impression reviewed/trailed by B.K.C. presumably Basil Cooper

The Locomotives of the London Brighton & South Coast Railway. Part 3. D.L. Bradley. RCTS.
Reviewed by B.K.C. presumably Basil Cooper

The locomotives of the Great Western Railway. Part 12. Railway Correspondence & Travel Society.
Reviewed by B.K.C. presumably Basil Cooper

Minimum gauge railways. Sir Arthur Heywood. Turntable Publications.
Reviewed by B.K.C. presumably Basil Cooper

Charlton, L.G.
The first locomotive engineers; their work in the North East of England. Newcastle: Frank Graham. 1974. 70pp.

John F. Clay and J.N.C. Law. The supremacy of the Premier Line. 182-7.
Primary aim was to summarise the excellent performance which the superheated George the Fifth class achieved on the LNWR.

No. 424 (August 1975)

P. J. Coster and J. N. C. Law. French compound locomotives-2. 310

R. Powell Hendry. Port Erin railway museum . 317 

R. E. Goodman. "Bihar and Orissa"-2

Michael R. Bonavia . The last years of the LNER-1

Rheine-Emden farewells  

Robin Russell. West of Basingstoke  

D. J. Smith. The Dodington Railway

David Ogilvy. British branch lines No 4-What scope exists for branches?  

George Toms. LMS shunter survives in France. 336
Diesel electric shunter built by Englsh Electric in 1935 WN 3841 LMS running number 7069; became War Department No. 18 in 1940. Germans captured it in Brittany close to Nantes.

Durham Society photographs

New books

Letters. 339

No. 425 (September 1975)

D.R. Carling. Locomotives of 50 years ago—1. A review of types introduced or under construction in the Railway Centenary period. 350-3.
"Taken on the whole 1923 was not a year of any marked progress or development". This was Carling's assessment of the state of affairs in Britain in 1925, but added that progress had taken place in the preceding years and would take place in the subsequent period. There was more development in locomotives manufactured for export.

G.M. Kichenside. On bogies, birdcages and buffets: 150 years of railway carriages. 354-9.

L.F.E. Coombs. Some breaks with convention: alternatives to traction with the Stephenson style of steam locomotive. 360-4.

I.F. Finlay. Great Britain's first railway stamps. 365.

John A. Lines. The Raven Pacifics of the NER: Locomotive Portraits—14. 371. illus.
Illustration of locomotive in photographic grey; leading dimensions, detail differences (final three had Cartazzi trailing axleboxes); main tests on locomotives and general performance and duties; sole rebuilding (No. 2404 with Gresley boiler) and withdrawal dates.

No. 426 (October)

Norman Harvey. The King's Cross—Cleethorpes expresses. 390-3.

North Road museum. 397

D.R. Carling. Locomotives of 50 years ago—1. Eight-coupled and ten coupled designs feature in foreign building. 398-401.

Michael R. Bonavia. The last years of the LNER—2. 402-4.