Journal Institution of Locomotive Engineers
Volume 15 (1925)
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Journal No. 68 (January to February 1925)

Brown, E.C. (Paper 174)
Boiler feedwaters and preservation of boilers. 3-40. Disc.: 40-63.
Argentinian conditions: scale formation caused by sulphate of lime; sulphur salts; sulphate of magnesia (magnesium sulphate), sulphur compounds, silica, iron and aluminium oxides, magnesium chloride, magnesium carbonate and calcium carbonate were the water impurities considered. There was the need for analysis and treatment with soda salts. Foaming and corrosion were problems. There was a need for blow down and thorough washing out. Cylinder oil was added to the feedwater by some drivers. Brief emntion was made of water in the USA. Discussion: Percy Sedgfield showed an anlysis of water used on th Central Uruguay Railway..

O'Brien, E. (Paper No. 175)
Main line electrification. 66-9; 80-4. Disc.: 70-9. + folding plate. 8 tables .
Presented in London on 29 September 1924, chaired by J.E. Anderson
Includes comparative costs for steam: argued that repair costs were between one third and one quarter in favour of electric traction.
Discussion: Anderson (70) opened the discussion with some comments on his lack of rapid reading ability: "Those who, like myself, have had no opportunity of reading it before the meeting have rather a difficult task in picking out from so many interesting points something for discussioii. It struck me that traffic density, according to the Author's basis of a purely mineral line, should be higher than it would be on a passenger line, but possibly there is not very much in it on account of the difference in speed. I have always been in the habit of looking at main line density as a percentage of the total traffic that could be put on a line with existing blocks, passenger traffic of course being the highest during the day and goods traffic during the night." . W. Cyril Williams (72-4); E.A. Phillipson (74-5) unusual for 4-6-0 to burn coal more than 45lb/mile; also highly critical of third rail electrification.

Caprotti, A.  (Paper No. 176)
A new locomotive distributing gear using poppet valves. 86-110. Disc.: 110-19; 452-65.
Presented in Glasgow on 27 November 1924; chaired R. Guest. Discussion: Walter Chalmers (113-14) remembered experiments with drop valves: these had led to excessive wear. C.H. Robinson (114)
Discussion in London chaired J.E. Anderson At the second meeting the paper was read for the Author by A.G. Strathern, and the meeting was chaired (badly) by J.E. Anderson. He opened the discussion (pp. 452-4) with an extensive criticism of most aspects of the paper. "Is the advantage obtainable from a poppet valve gear driven in this way sufficient to warrant the education of all fitting staff in the sheds?" and cites the 11,000 locomotives and a "good few thousand men" more than borders on rudeness. Further, he added that "In my opinion there is more coal to be saved by improvements in boiler arrangements and educating the men in efficient firing than can be saved by the most perfect and at the same time practical gear which can be put in a locomotive." Refering to 4-cylinder designs he stated "in my opinion the three-cylinder engine is a more efficient machine." On the question of 135 degree crank settings for 4-cylinder locomotives he noted the Hookham locomotive (but not Hookham): "but I don't know very much about it myself". In reply Strathern noted that poppet valve locomotives operated like any other locomotive, that maintenance was rduced and that coal was saved.
E. Cecil Poulteney
(Lentz Patents) (454-5) noted that "In the United States, the home of the really high-powered locomotive, a four-cylinder engine with two inside cranks is out of question". The 5% cut-off was an advantage, but "for any given cut-off we have a corresponding variation in the least back pressure". Also commented upon the decrease obtained in coal consumption on the 4-4-0 compounds between that reported by R. Deeley (1.29 lbs coal per ton-mile per hour), with later data relating to superheated locomotives (0.63). W.C. Williams (Beyer Peacock) (455-6) noted that poppet valves need less maintenance (running for one to two years without any) and are far easier to operate. In reply to this and a subsequent observation the speaker noted that only 1½ horsepower was needed to drive Caprotti gear. H. Kelway-Bamber (456) noted the greater and steadier drawbar pull obtainable. W.A. Lelean (Rendal Palmer & Tritton) (456-8) corrected the citation to the Holcroft paper on 135o crank settings should have been 1918 paper, not 1920 paper. J.C. Cosgrave (Locomotive Publishing Co.) (458) noted that Walschaerts gear was not more compact. Communication from J. Riekie (460-3) which was critical of the low pressure used on the LMS compounds..

Journal No. 69 (March to April 1925)

Fowler, Sir Henry (Paper No.177)
Solid crank axles. 130-43. Disc.: 143-55; 324-34. illus., 6.diagrs., 2 tables.
Paper presented in London on 30 October 1925. Results of metallurgical research carried out by H.A. Treadgold under Sir Henry Fowler's supervision. A.C. Stamer (145-6) reported statistics for crank axle failures on the NER. Between 1901 and 1903, when 28-30 ton steel was used there were 35 failures. Between 1921 and 1923 when 35-40 ton steel was being used 26 failures were recorded. Some crank axles achieved 980,000 miles. J.W. Smith (LNER 146-7) noted that life varied very greatly with route. J. Clayton quoted SECR data for period 1914-22. He noted that most of the MR problems were with 7ft 9in singles. Manchester meeting 30 January 1925: J. Parry (LNER, 327-8) noted that a crank axle was preserved at Gorton Works which had run 983,269 miles on the MSLR; J.R. Billington (328-9); W. Rowland (329-30) that coupling rods experienced the greatest bending moment..

Anderson, J.R. Presidential Address. 125-9.
Delivered on 30th Octobcr, 1924, in London.. After a lengthy statement claiming that he was not going to say very much he "put before [his audience] a few notes and opinions regarding the locomotive of to-day, particularly regarding its reliability in service, in the hope that some point raised may form the subject of a discussion an same future occasion.". The remainder is as set out in the Journal.
In traffic, a locomotive is expected to work its booked train to time. Failure to do this is generally due to same inherent defect, impairing its efficiency, and time is gradually lost an the journey; or a breakdown occurs, necessitating the engine giving up its train. Failures at times result in very considerable dislocation of traffic, inconvenience to the travelling public and cost to the railway company, and it should be the aim and object of every locomotive engineer, whether he be designer, constructor or operator to acquaint himself with the various causes of failures and apply his knowledge and experience to the mitigation of such occurrences
The modern locomotive in this country is a more powerful and complicated machine than it was 25 to 30 years ago, consequently more liable to failure.
We have modern engines fitted with apparatus to superheat the steam, with the necessary adjuncts; with three and four cylinders with the accompanying complication in valve motion; with carriage warming for the trains; feedwater heaters; water pick-up apparatus, and refinements may I call them, to some of the above and to automatic brake apparatus; lubricating systems, injectors, etc., all necessitating additional fixtures and increasing the number of parts liable to lead to the failure of the engine in traffic.
Superheating has brought about a very considerable saving in both fuel and water and enabled additional power to be developed, but has added to engine failures, such as leaking superheater flue tubes, superheater elements, steam joints, restriction of free passage of gases through superheater flue tubes, etc., etc. Again; superheated engines are generally fitted with a non-collapsible type of piston valve, which, when the engine is running at speed with steam shut off, results in high cylinder compression and vacuum, intensifying big and little end knock, and under these conditions high cylinder temperatures — higher than that of the superheated steam are produced, resulting in deposit in ports and steam chest, and may increase the friction in pistons and valves; these conditions appertaining to the condition in the cylinders when superheated steam is used, have to be catered for by the introduction of further complication in the way of air valves, bye-pass valves, etc.
Generally speaking, the superheater, although adding very materially to the efficiency of the locomotive as a power unit, has probably brought about more complication than any other improvement adopted in modern times.
Again, three and four-cylinder engines have become numerous on account of the impossibility within our restricted load gauge to obtain the necessary power with two cylinders, except perhaps by high steam pressure, which, as is well known, shortens the life of the firebox.
In my opinion, three cylinders will meet all requirements for express traffic in this country, and personally I believe in one gear operating one valve. This may add slightly to the number of moving parts, but I suggest that there is a gain in efficiency with a reduction in coal consumption, which will outweigh any small increase in the moving parts of the motion. In locomotives with three or four cylinders and with three or four valves operated by two valve gears there may be a reduction in the number of moving parts, but during probably one-third of its running time immediately preceding the shopping date. there is a considerable loss in efficiency resulting in increased coal consumption.
If I were asked which class of failure figures most against the locomotive, I would say failures due to faulty lubrication, and I have come to the conclusion that wherever possible the method of applying the lubricant should be by mechanical means, which not only relieves the driver of this responsibility, but I venture to say will, when details are perfected, decrease the number of failures due to hot axleboxes, and give considerable economy in oil.
After the type and main points of a locomotive have been agreed the designer should always strive to carry out the accomplishment of the design in a simple and straightforward manner, both as regards the production of the part, its accessibility for examination and maintenance in traffic, and any "pet" scheme of fixings, etc., should be at once abandoned if there is a straightforward, practicable, and well-tried method possible.
I am strongly of opinion that in the initial stages of a design no time or thought should be spared in the arrangement and simplification of details, not that some detail "will be good enough," but it must be of a simple construction, easily manufactured and accessible for examination and - maintenance.
One sometimes comes across an unsatisfactory fixing of a part, which, with a little more forethought and re-arrangement of adjacent parts in the initial stages of a design, would have permitted a more orthodox and satisfactory method to be adopted and thus avoid failures which occur from time to time from a part which should never have been passed from the drawing office to the factory.
It is necessary that the present day locomotive be more complicated than its predecessor where increased power and economical fuel consumption is required but "gadgets," shall I call them, which may only result in questionable economies should not be adopted unless it is fully established that the satisfactory carrying out of the locomotive's duties in. traffic will not be impaired.
In the production shops, not only must the work be carried out on a good sound basis, but a strict supervision Over all parts kept to ensure that such are sound and free from any latent defect. The assembling and erection calls for the same supervision and care, and every engine (and tender) frame should be systematically lined off and squared and the fixing holes in cylinders, dragbox and all frame stretchers reamered out and secured by turned rivets or bolts. This will be more costly than erecting these parts direct from jigs, but I am satisfied that it pays, and provided satisfactory methods have been in operation for the testing and inspection of raw material, one may rest assured that the best has been produced to undertake the work it was designed for.
In traffic, engines should not be systematically called upon to work up to their maximum power.(KPJ's emphasis) The loads should be regulated to be well within their maximum capabilities and should be such that the engines are working at an efficient rate. By this means during abnormal weather conditions, little lost time will be debited to the locomotive.Engines which are habitually called upon to develop their maximum power day after day cannot be expected to be so economical in maintenance and fuel consumption as engines whose work is scheduled as suggested above.
In the engine sheds, carefully considered arrangements must be made to periodically inspect and examine all vital parts. However carefully designed, however well the material is inspected, and however carefully the engine is built, defects will occur and the success in handling traffic with a minimum of failures will in a great measure depend on the sound basis on which examination of parts of an engine are made in the running sheds, quite apart from drivers' reports or the inspection which is made before the locomotive of to-day takes up a trip.
The object should be to detect flaws, parts showing signs of becoming loose, leakages, etc., before the failure point is reached, and to accomplish this entails an organised system of first of all being advised of all failures. and their nature, and collecting all data from a careful examination of the part at fault, etc., whereby a carefully considered conclusion can be arrived at as to the cause of the failure. Records of these will be of the utmost value in putting into operation examinations on a mileage (or time) basis whereby failures can be very materially reduced.
The apprentice of to-day who has ambition to advance in his profession will attend the excellent classes on technical subjects provided by the educational authorities and will, if he diligently pursues his studies, acquire information. which will be of inestimable value to him during his career.
I have formed the opinion from experience that many' fail in the practical application of the theoretical knowledge gained. I consider there are few mechanical failures to any machine from which the thoughtful student, by diligent and careful investigation of the cause, will not benefit, and the knon ledge so acquired will assist him towards a successful career.
A.C. Stamer gave the Vote of Thanks: seconded by H. Kelway Bamber.

Haigh, J.H. (Paper 178)
Accurate measurements and workshop gauges. 156-69. Disc.: 169-71.
Prior to WW1 engineers in the United Kingdom had not paid the same attention to fine measurements and gauging as had the Americans, and even then the subject was not thoroughly understood. The wartime experience brought the necessity for more efficient measuring in the rnanufacture of munitions, and in many works greater attention was being given to accuracy to ensure machines can be produced with economically interchangeable components.
Discussion: J.N. Gresham (169-70) asked what is the minimum limit at which an operator can use a gauge and below which he has to use a micrometer? RThe reply was with a good horseshoe gauge a man would have to use considerable force if the work was, say, one tno-thousandth ot its dimension over size, while the same amount under size would produce a distinct shake. With limit gauges, however, the “feel” of an operator is abolished by the sharply defined "go” and "not go” conditions. The greatest usefulness of the the micrometer is in approaching thc definite dimension desired so that the limit gauge could be more readily applied, or in transferring from a gauge or combination of gauges a certain dimension to the work in hand.

Adamson, W. (Paper 179)
Some attempts to improve boiler efficiency. 172-88. Disc.: 188-200.  11 diagrams
Presented in Glasgow at meeting on 18 December 1924, chaired by Richard Guest. Noted both historical and current boiler developments: compared mid-feather with thrmic syphon; considered cross water tubes; combustion chambers; feed water heaters (Weir; Worthington and exhaust feed injector). Discussion: C.H. Robinson considered that footplate crew required instruction on exhaust feed injector. Considered that the water tube boiler was too complex. J.G. Barr (196-7) considered that feedwater heaters including the exhaust steam injector were all right in theory, but the enginemen's first duty was to safety, and simplicity assisted this.

Baldock. J.W. (Paper No. 180)
Locomotive valves and valve gears. 202-29. Disc.: 229-40.
Considered Gooch, Allan (LYR shunting tanks and LNWR Precedents were late examples of locomotives fitted with this gear); Walschaerts, Joy, Marshall (1879), Riekie-McIntosh (patented 1903); Zeuner valve diagrams; valve setting.
Discussion: J. Riekie (229-31) In connection with the Riekie-McIntosh valve gear, there is one feature that Baldock did not refer to,namely the cavity of the valve may be made the same width as the exhaust passage in the walls: it may have an inch inside lap, allowing the steam to act on the piston during a longer part of the stroke. It has been suggested that trouble would arise from stopping the valve at half-stroke. He had an opportunity of riding on the front of an engine fitted with this valve gear, and found that at a speed of 80 mile/h the gear worked with an exceedingly smooth movement. A great point has always been made of the fact that in such gears as the Joy and the Walschaert the lead is fixed. To my mind a constant lead is wrong, and in practice i\ of no advantage whatever. The lead ought to be automatically increased as the speed 01 the engine augments, the valve gear being so devised as to give a full port opening to steam and exhaust at all periods of the cut-off. The results are obvious. Not only is the back pressure on the piston reduced as compared with other gears, but the forward pressure when running at high speed is appreciably increased owing to the greatly enhanced steam admission. I need scarcely say that the manifest advantage of this is a corresponding accretion of power, while at the same time the free exhaust is especially useful for the attainment of higher speeds, if required. Assuming, however, that the present average speeds ai e retained, then the augmentation in power can be utilised in hauling heavier trains. An arrangement which I have devised embodies the foregoing features, and is adaptable to all forms of reciprocating valve gears, but is especially devised for the Riekie-McIntosh gear, in which, as already mentioned, the valvc is brought to a state of rest at half-stroke. The improvement referred to consists of a simple attachment to the weigh-bar shaft, which attachment actuates the lap. and lead mrchanism, and varies the stroke of the valve in inverse ratio to that due to linking-up. In other words, the driver, when linking up the block in the radius link to shorten the stroke, simultaneously links up the lap and lead lever or its equivalent to increase the stroke, so that the stroke of the lalve remains uniform. The consequence is that at all points of cut-off the ports are fully open. The arrangement is such that any divergence From the Cull stroke of thr valve-a divergence necessarilv happens with all other valve gears-is prevented. The valve gear has, in fact, the same or coiistanf stroke under all circumstances, irrespective of the position of the reversing lewr. It follows that the admission and release of the stcam must be much more prompt than is the case with any other valve gear of the reciprocating type at present in iisr.; E.C. Poultney (231-6) spoke at length about Lentz valve gear.

Journal No. 70 (May to June 1970)

Hookham, F.J. (Paper No. 181)
Automatic train control. 243-68. Disc.: 269-79.
Presented at meeting in London on 24 November 1924; chaired by H. Kelway-Babmber. In 1922 a Committee of the Ministry of Transport issued a Report on the railway accidents which had been reported during the ten years ending 30 September 1921. 49 (25%) were due to signalman error and 71 (39%) were due to errors by enginemen. Nearly one third were due to the failure to obey signals. Any system must be fail-safe. There is a choice between covering distant and stop signals, and a signal clear indication assists in working in fog. The methods of communication with the driver included visual, audible and the application of the brake. There were contact and non-contact systems and either could be electrical. The systems describes were the GWR system, the SYX system (which could be applied to both stop and distant signals and had been tested on the Palace Gates line) and the Reliostop system evaluated on the Great Central section of the LNER. The Raven system was mentioned but was not described. The others were both described and illustrated. H. Kelway Bamber (p. 269) asked whether the GWR had experienced failures and G.H. Crook (GWR) reported that there had been one or two due to dirt or frost. W.A. Lelean queried the frost and Crook replied that frost interupted electrical contacts, but was fail-safe. J.W. Baldock (270) asked if the plunger ever sheared off: Crook said never. Col Sir J.W. Pringle (270-1) confirmed the general reliability of the GWR system and considered it to be fail-safe, but sought a system for stop signals. A.F. Bound (LNER 271-5) queried the effect of speed on the ability to stop and admired the cheapness of the Reliostop system. T.S. Lascelles (W.R. Sykes Interlocking Signal Co 275-6) commented on the SYX system, noting that it was similar to the GWR system but did not require anything electrical on the locomotives. Dover (Vacuum Brake Co 276) commented on the train stop system used by the Meropolitan Railway and E. Graham noted that this was the same system used by the London Electric Railways. J.A. Hookham (277) noted that the SYX system had been evaluated on the NSR. J. Sykes (277-9) attempted to assess the financial benefits of safety measures.

Kelway-Bamber, H. (Paper No. 182)
Railway carriage bogie trucks in service. 292-8. Disc.: 298-310.
Presented at meeting in London on 29 January 1925; chaired by J. Clayton. On page 298 it was noted that rubber pads were used above the bolster bearing springs. Sir Henry Fowler (298-301) noted the lack of slipping on Underground trains between Charing Cross and Strand and wondered if this was due to hot wheels: tyres became hot in service. He also made observations on the loads on bearings: 7¼ tons on LER as against 19¼ tons on the GIP. Col. Graham (301-2) noted that the dryness of the Underground system reduced the risk of slipping; he also made observations on bearing pressures and on brakes acting upon wheel flanges. Lelean (304) made some comment on rubber springs.

Tyler, J.W. (Paper No. 183)
Railway communications in Great Britain. 311-19. Disc.: 320-3.
Presented in Glasgow at the Royal Technical College on 29 January 1925; chaired by Richard Guest. Considers several British mainlines and contrasts them with other forms of communication: canals and roads. Notes the difference in motive power used between the ECML, the GWR, the WCML and the Midland route to Scotland. Walter Chalmers (320-1) spoke on relating locomotive size with traffic demand. In response to the discussion author noted that Cathcart Circle appesared to be suitable for electrification..

Gresham, J.N. (Paper No. 184)
Vacuum brake ejectors. 335-48. Disc.: 349-63.
Presented at meeting at the Engineers' Club in Manchester on 19 February 1925, Cited author's own paper in Vol. 14 Journal No. 65, Paper No. 162. Sir Henry Fowler (351): leak tests very dependent upon size and shape of hole: had collaborated with Gresley on testing. He also noted that with long trains the dimensions of the pipe were very important. He also refered to Fig. 4 as it shows how essential it is that the vacuum creating apparatus, whatever it is, is at the highest state of efficiency. There is a difficulty getting drivers to understand that there are certain conditions which allow him, if he will take the trouble, to work very much more efficiently in maintaining the vacuum. The figures which are given are particularly interesting with regard to the question of the 15 mm., ejectors. We have had some experience with them, but:feel that with an ordinary train one is running pretty near the margin when using them. A vacuum-fitted wagon is one of the worst offenders as regards leakage, due to the maintenance of the train pipe. On the locomotive side, care need to be taken in the fitting of the pipes on locomotives: he had figures which show the very great variation and losses which one can have even on the locomotive itself, necessitating a very much larger amount work being done by the ejector which creates the vacuur owing to the fact of the poor fitting of the pipes. R.C. Case (352-3) commented on the design of the steam' cones. The erosion of the jets by steam affects the efficiency of the ejector. Certain metals have considerable erosion resistance: lead stands up well against sand blast. Our railway [in India] has been trying cones of stainless steel. J.W. Haigh (295); H.D. Atkinson (295-6) use of ball valves and W. Rowland (296-7)..

Fleming, G.E. (Paper No. 185)
Water gauges on boilers. 364-70. Disc.: 370-3.
Author prefered term: water level indicators: must be visible at a glance; problems of glass; danger if it bursts; glass shields; shutting off water and steam in event of a burst; automatic shut-off; blow through cocks; ball valves; rapid replacement of broken gauge glass; Admiralty for ships; use of mica; higher boiler pressures. Discussion: Cochrane (371) noted that the GSWR provided handles which linked to cocks at the top and bottom of the gauge.

Journal No. 71

New locomotives, London & North Eastern Railway. 379-81.
U1 2-8-8-2 Beyer Garratt: main dimensions and weights, also notes the introduction of the P1, 2-8-2 or Mikado type: illus of Garratt.
"King Arthur", Southern Railway. 381-2.
Main dimensions and weights. illus.

Lewis, Martin (Paper No. 186)
Special machine tools for locomotive work. 391-448. Disc.: 448-50. 64 illus.
Two outstanding "recent" developments were noted: use of high-speed steel for cutting tools and electric power which enabled individual drives. The wheel and lathe shop had seen the introduction of wheel lathes from Noble & Lund (a single purpose machine); and from Niles Bament (Pond wheel lathe); Tangye machinery for machining and finishing axles; a Norton plain grinder for grinding wheel seats; a Cunliffe & Croom quartering machine; the GWR Swindon Works wheel balancing machine; a portable machine developed by Beyer Peacock for re-turning cramk pins; also a similar function tool from Craven Brothers, who also supplied a patent tyre boring machine; and a Webster & Bennet boring & turning mill. In the boiler shop  a punching & shearing machine was supplied by J. Bennie & Sons; a vertical boiler drill from Campbell & Hunter; Asquith supplied a radial drill for machining boiler plates - this was equipped with a tilting table; the same firm also supplied a portable drill; Beyer Peacock supplied a portable seating facing machine for work on fireboxes; Alfred Herbert supplied an automatic copper stay machine; a Coventry hexagon turret lathe was able to machine crown stays. In the general machine shop a Craven machine was available for boring cylinders and piston valve chambers. Similar machines were available from Asquith, Beyer Peacock, Churchill and H.W. Kearn & Co. (Kearn Patent). Webster & Bennet supplied machinery capable of machining horn blocks and wedges. Archdale & Co. supplied a special attachment for milling ports in piston valve liners. Contributors to the discussion were H. Kelway-Bamber (448-9); N. Marryat (BB&CIR) who asked a question about power drives and E.A. Phillipson (LNER, Stratford: 450) who asserted the horsepower requirements for machine tool drives needed to be adjusted.

Wickham, R.G. (Paper No. 187)
The vacuum automatic brake. 466-72. Disc.: 473-6.
Graduate paper: speaker from Doncaster, presented on 27 February 1925, at Leeds. Considered the Dreadnought and Super Dreadnought ejector.  Discussion: C.O. Becker (473) considered the problems of automatic brakes (air or Vacuum) in countries, like Peru, where steep gradients abound..

Journal No. 72 (September to December 1925)

Special Issue to mark Stockton & Darlington Railway Centenary Celebrations: contains non numbered papers, but does include contributions by A.R. Bennett (pp. 501-6) and a lecture by Warren. Bennett noted that the locomotives exhibited at Faverdale were alone worth in excess of £250,000 and that the stewards were helpful and that there was a lack of fuss. He did note some errors in the catalogue, however. He also noted his personal involvement with that of Professor A.C. Elliott and Sir Edward Reed to preserve a broad gauge locomotive in the Science Museum: North Star or Lord of the Isles were not broken up until 1906. He also refered to the absence of the Sharp Roberts 2-2-2 "preserved" at Stafford Road Works (but the Editor noted that this had been cut up in 1920). He condemned the unauthentic state of the "preserved" Canterbury & Whitstable locomotive Invicta. He also commented on hearing "Mackintosh" of the Caledonian Railway taking some credit in about 1903 for having nearly obliterated the outside cylinder on his railway...He noted the absence of the 0-6-0 type at the Centenary Celebrations; that Ramsbottom safety valves had been replaced by the Ross pop type and the emergence of Belpaire fireboxes and Walschaerts valve gear.

Warren, J.G.H.
The evolution of the locomotive engine. 509-75. 55 diagrs.
This was a densely worded abstract of Warren's lecture illustrated by slides, most of which were reproduced with the paper. The slides have been reproduced well in the pdf version of the paper and the following records the illustrations, their sources if stated, and sufficient detail to assist the researcher to find the relevant section of this seminal contribution to locomotive his
The next remarkable experiment was made in 1827 by Robert Stephenson & Co., in the design of an engine which afterwards bore the name “ Experiment.” It was first carried on four wheels without springs, but was later rebuilt on six wheels with springs as shown on Fig. 13, a sketch made by Rastrick in 1829 when he saw the engine at work in Darlington. This is the first engine known to have two cylinders driving on to one axle ; their horizoiital position, too, is remarkable, being a conscious or unconscious return to the arrangement of Trevithick’s Gateshead design of thirteen years previously. The engine at any rate shows a considered attempt by the builders to' break away from the vertical position for cylinders, and to obtain an increased heating surface by means of an interiial water drum and water tube firebars ; the feed water was heated by exhaust steam. The imaginary drawings of this engine (by, the late C. E. Stretton) hitherto widely published, copies of which are to be seen at Faverdale Exhibition, are incorrect in every respect. This engine " Experiment," with the dril-e from two cylinders on to one axle, and an arrangement for feed water heating, anticipated by six months Hackworth's " Royal George, * ' generally supposed to have been the first to embody these features.
Figure 1: Savery & Newcomen pumping engine, 1712
Figure 2 Trevithick's dredger engine, 1803
Figure 3: Trevithick's Gateshead locomotive, 1804
Figure 4: Blenkinsop & Murray locomotive, 1812
Figure 5: The Collier (with Blenkinsop & Murray locomotive at work in background)
Figure 6: Old Hedley dengine at Wylam
Figure 7: George Syephenson's patent locomotive
Figure 8: Hetton Colliery
Figure 9: Stephenson & Wood's dynamomter
Figure 10: Title page of Nicholas Wood's Practical Treatise on Rail-roads
Figure 11: Page 293 from previous relating to draughting
Figure 12: Locomotive engine Darlington [diagram of Stockton & Darlington Railway No. 1 Locomotion
Figure 13: Stephenson's Experiment from Raistick's Noterbook of 1829
Figure 14: Hackworth's Royal George from Raistick's Noterbook of 1829
Figure 15: Model of locomotive with tubular boiler built for Marc Seguin,
Figure 16: Stephenson's Lancashire Witch, 1828
Figure 17: Stephenson's Twin Sisters type
Figure 18: Rocket, Novelty and Sans Pariel from Mechanics Magazine 21 November 1829
Figure 19: Boiler of Sans Pariel (plan) from Nicholas Wood's Practical Treatise on Rail-roads 
Figure 20: Boiler of Novelty (elevation) from Nicholas Wood's Practical Treatise on Rail-roads
Figure 21: John Dixon's account of the Rainhill Trials
Figure 22: as above continueation (impossible to read on pdf version)
Figure 23: Drawing of Rocket (drawing then in possession of LMS Railway and showing locomotive as modified following the Trials)
Figure 24: Stephenson's Northumbrian, 1829 (original diagram)
Figure 25: Original design for Stephenson's Planet
Figure 26: Planet and train on the Liverpool & Manchester Railway
Figure 27: Frame of Planet type (diagram)
Figure 28: Bury's standard locomotive for the London & Birmingham Railway (R. Stephenson drawings)
Figure 29: Sharp Roberts' Hibernia for the Dublin & Kingstown Railway
Figure 30: Galloway Bowman & Co.'s Manchester for Liverpool & Manchester Railway
Figure 31: Hackworth's Director type 1832 (0-6-0)
Figure 32: Early Planet type cylinder (diagram)
Figure 33: Piston valve with cylinder for early Planet type (original diagram)
Figure 34: Bogie locomotive from Robert Stephenson & Co. for America, 1835
Figure 35: Stephenson's Goliath for Liverpool & Manchester Railway
Figure 36: Evolution of locomotive boiler 1825-1830 from Warren's century of locomotive building at Robert Stephenon
Figure 36: Robert Stephenson's Patentee (original diagram)
Figure 37: Stephenson's six-wheeled goods engine of 1833
Figure 38: Medal inscribed first railway beween St. Petersburg and Pavlovsk opened 30 Octyober 1837
Figure 39: Stephenson's patent locomotive, 1836
Figure 40: GWR North Star
Figure 41: Stephenson's "long boiler" locomotive, 1841
Figure 42: Stephenson's narrow gauge "long boiler" locomotive   North Star
Figure 43: Evolution of the link motion, 1835-42
Figure 44: Stephenson's "long boiler" type, 1843 (with outside cylinders)
Figure 45: Stephenson's rear-driver "long boiler" locomotive "A" 1845
Figure 46: Stephenson's rear-driver coupled locomotive 1848
Figure 47: Great Western standard gauge locomotive 1889
Figure 48: Drawings of eight lcocomotives showinng development between 1833 and 1848 from Warren's century of locomotive building at Robert Stephenon
Figure 48A: Joy's Jenny Lind 1847
Figure 48B: LC&DR 0-6-0 Constantine with outside cylinders 1866
Figure 49: M.W. Baldwin's locomotive engine for passengers: 4-4-0, c1845
Figure 50: Philadelphia constructed locomtive engine: outside-cylinder 0-6-0, James Millholland, c1845
Figure 51: Stephenson's passenger locomotive for Stockton & Darlington Railway 4-4-0 Saltburn, 1861
Figure 52: Crampton Liverpool
Figure 53: Eight-wheeled locomotive for London & North Westeern Railway
Figure 55: Locomotive development on the Great Western Railway

The Council of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers at Darlington. 576.
Group photograph in front of replica North Star: F. Burtt, J. Clayton. F. Turner, G. Mitchell. S.J. Symes. W.S. Edwards. W.A. Lelean. J.A. Hookham, R. S. Whitelegg , R.W. Reid. A. Stamer, C.N. Goodall, W. Kelway-Bamber, S.H. Whitelegg. L.V. le Clair, J.C. Sykes, J.W. Smith, E. Graham