Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 25 (1919)

key to all volumes

Number 317 (15 January 1919)

4-8-2 type locomotives for the South African Rys. 1. illustration
Built at the Montreal Works of the American Locomotive Company to design of D.A. Hendrie, Chief Mechanical Engineer.

Great Northern Ry. 1
New 521 Class 0-6-0 goods engines: Nos. 601, 602 and 603. 0-8-0 mineral engine No. 429 had been rebuilt with larger boiler like No. 420. Stirling 0-6-0 goods engines, Nos. 342 and 1100, rebuilt with larger boilers.
New water troughs at Langley Junction.

Messrs. Wm. Beardmore & Co. Ltd. of Dalmuir. 1
To manufacture locomotives at their Naval Construction yard

Cambrian Rys. 1.
Herbert E. Jones, locomotive superintendent since 1899 retired at end of 1918. G.C. McDonald, Chief Engineer, also to act as Locomotive Superintendent

Engines for the Corean Railways (4ft. 8½in. gauge). 2-3. 2 illustrations
Locomotives for Korean Government Railways to orders of Mitsui & Co., Japan: American Locomotive Co. 4-4-0 (outside cylinder) and Baldwin Locomotive Works 4-6-4T

Shunting locomotives, Caledonian Ry. 3. diagram (side elevation)
Outside-cylinder (17 x 22in) with 4ft coupl;ed wheels to design of W. Pickersgill, built St. Rollox Works. Capable of traversing sharp curves

A giganic smash "to order". 3. illustration
Retreating German troops blew up bridges and ran locomotives and rolling stock into gaps: photograph shows Makini River bridge in East Africa

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Railway. and its locomotives. 4-7. 5 illustrations, map, diagram
Railway grew out of the Railway Mania. Many records lost in great earthquake of 1907. Gradient profiles (highest point reached at Greenvale, the summit of the Kingston to Montego Bay line (1680 feet); some quite long tunnels and major bridges (Wag Water bridge illustrated). Other illustrations: Troja station with locomotive No. 29; Spanish Town Junction; Gibraltar Tunnel; Kingston running sheds

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. 7-9. 4 diagrams
Introduction. Continued page 24

The standardization of locomotives and rolling stock. 9-11
An Advisory Council of the Ministry of Reconstruction has issued a report on the above subject, in which certain recommendations, some good and others indifferent, have been made. The standardization of locomotives has been con- sidered from the two points of view of the require- ments of British railways, and also of foreign railways such as those of the Argentine Republic, in which British capital is invested, and for which the engines are usually constructed in this country.
In regard to the standardization of complete locomotives for this country the report admits that there are considerable difficulties, and rightly points out that owing to differences in structural and clearance gauges such standard locomotives, if adopted, would have to be a compromise, and would not be the best possible for each particular railway system. But so far as the main trunk lines are concerned the Advisory Council "are informed that a reasonably efficient engine could be designed for use generally on most of them." They also state that" the Committee on Locomotive Standardization, which was set up because the [members of the Association of Railway Locomotive Engineers were of opinion that standardization was desirable, have now fixed on two standard engines with the intention to design later two engines of each type, one heavy and one light, with many of the parts common to all four."
From one point of view the standardization of complete locomotives is detrimental to progress'; it has the effect of stereotyping designs so that im- provements . are adopted only with great difficulty and progress is impeded. Are the standards adopted to-day to remain unaltered five years hence? Taking an extreme case, suppose the advocates of standardization of British locomotives had carried their views twenty-five years ago, when the express traffic of the London and North-Western Railway was worked almost entirely by Mr. Webb's three-cylinder compound engines. It is difficult to conceive a standardization committee of those days sitting without the presence of Mr. Webb, and as he was considered to be a very great authority on locomotive matters, it is just conceivable that he might have carried the day and had his compound engines adopted as the standard. And we wonder how long such a standard would have been maintained after his departure!
Apart from India the only country in which standard locomotives have been adopted throughout has been Prussia, when the State took over the old railway companies. These were all railways of comparatively small size and their engines at that date (1878-1880) were small and not powerful enough, so that they were allowed to wear themselves out, and were replaced by engines of certain standard designs all over the country, to the number of several thousand new engines. But the old standards of the Prussian State Railways have long since disappeared as standards, and have had to be replaced several times over by new standards. And so many new standards have had to be designed that the Prussian State locomotives of 1914 showed a very large number of variations,not only in general design, but also in details, so that the general effect has been such as would surprise the advocates of general locomotive standardization were they to study the history of Prussian locomotive designs. It is true that one or two standard goods types have shown signs of a considerable lease of life, but even these have had to be modified in details as experience proved the necessity o£ alteration.
Even Indian experience has shown that a too rigid adherence to standard designs could not be main- tained in the case of certain types. The first standard 5 ft. 6 in. gauge heavy 2-8-0 goods engine with outside cylinders had the crank pins in the second pair of coupled wheels, and Stephenson's link motion inside the frames. The connecting rods were very short, and it did not take very long to prove that a considerably better engine than the" standard" could be made; so the" standard" was scrapped, and in place of it a new one was adopted, in which the connecting rods drove the third coupled axle, and Walschaerts outside valve gear was used. There is also on the Indian State Railways a standard 2-6-4 heavy passenger side tank engine with inside cylinders, which has the advantage from the point of view of standardization of having its boiler, motion, cylinders and wheels interchangeable with the standard 0-6-0 goods engine. But when the Great Indian Peninsula Railway wanted a number of heavy six-coupled passenger tank engines just before the war, they did not adopt the Indian standard, but instead there appeared an entirely new design of the 2-6-2 type with outside cylinders and Walschaerts valve gear.
The Advisory Council is of opinion that in countries such as the Argentine, for instance, where the conditions are well suited to it, if the consulting engineers would agree to design standard types of locomotives and rolling stock, the results would be equally as good as in India. It is possible that there is opportunity for some degree of standardization on the Argentine railways. Several of them have already arrived at what are almost standard designs for two main types, the 4-6-0 passenger and the 2-8-0 heavy goods engines, both of which are two cylinder compound engines. These engines have the same general dimensions on several of the large railways. But the 4-6-2 engine is beginning to replace the 4-6-0 engine, and there seems also to be a tendency towards simple two- cylinder engines with superheaters in place of the two- cylinder compound engines.
But when it comes to getting the locomotive and the consulting engineers of all the railways in the British Empire, and of those lines in foreign countries financed by British capital, to agree to certain defined standard locomotives we are afraid that the proposition will be found to be beset with innumerable difficulties. Are the metre gauge lines of the Argentine to adopt the stand- ard of the metre gauge Indian railways? And are we to get the engineers of the South African railways, where the largest 3 ft. 6 in. gauge engines in the world are in use, to conform to the standards of other British Dominions having railways of the same gauge, or vice versa? It is probable that the extreme advocates of standardization will be bluntly told that if they do not wish to build the designs which those countries want to use, the engines will be ordered elsewhere.
From the standpoint of the British locomotive manufacturers, standardization, especially under present conditions when so many new engines are required, has much to be recommended. Then the builders could turn out engines of a few: standard designs at minimum cost and trouble after the manner of " shelling peas." But, if carried too far, it is possible that it would not in the end be the best for the locomotive export trade of this country. If we suppose the British home and the Argentine locomotives to be completely standardized, in addition to the existing Indian standards, there may be a danger of the British locomotive builders taking the path of least resistance, and filling up their works with orders for standard engines from these sources during the next few years, when there will be a scramble on the part of the railways especially in India and the Argentine to place their long-delayed orders. There are other countries such as France, Belgium, Spain, to say nothing of South Africa, Brazil, etc., which require engines urgently. and these engines will not be of the universal standards which it is proposed to set up. If the locomotive manufacturers prefer to build for those railways which buy to standard, there is danger of leaving a very large and most important field abroad to our competitors, who are by no means troubled with the disease of over-standardization. The American firms are at present building large numbers of engines for France, Spain and Italy, to the designs of the locomotive engineers of those countries, designs which are very far removed, from American practice.
In this connection the fact that British home railway companies build such a large proportion of the engines they require at their own works is perhaps a blessing in disguise for the locomotive export trade of this country, in that the locomotive builders have I to obtain" the bulk of their orders from abroad. And to the credit of these firms it must be said that they have penetrated all over the world and produced a name for workmanship and quality of British engines which stands second to none. If they were to build all the engines required by our home railways the manufacturers would either have to extend their works very considerably or forego a great part of their export trade.
The manufacturers have always had a feeling that the shops of the home railways should be devoted entirely to repairs, and leave the building of new engines to the private firms. This has been the German and American system, where a proportion of the manufacturers' works are kept constantly employed on home orders: These in Germany par- took somewhat of the nature of a State bounty at good prices, enabling the locomotive builders to undersell their competitors by low prices abroad. If the British locomotive manufacturers are to build all the engines required by the home railways then there would be a strong case for the standardization of our locomotives, but if the railway works are to be allowed to continue their present practice of building a large proportion of their own engines then the best argument in favour of standardization loses much of its cogency. There is also the question of new patterns, jigs and templates for the standard loco- motives, and the gradual scrapping of all the old ones to be taken into consideration.
The report states that" other countries have not suffered so much from the riot of individuality, because almost without exception locomotives are purchased from private firms of manufacturers. The only railway company outside Great Britain that manufactures most of its own stock, we were informed, is the Pennsylvania Company in the United States, and this is done in order to keep check on the private manufacturers." In regard to both of these statements the Advisory Committee have been insufficiently informed. Amongst other important railways which manufacture the greater part of their own locomotives may be mentioned the Canadian Pacific and the Eastern of France, and now the New Zealand and Some of the Australian railways are building their own locomotives in increasing quantities. As for the "riot of individuality," had the Advisory Council been able to make a tour of the world's railways and inspect for themselves the various locomotive stocks in other countries, there is hardly any doubt but. that this assertion would have been profoundly modified.
Perhaps the most astonishing paragraph in the' report is that which states that the Advisory Council " were impressed with the necessity from a business point-of.view of having the costs of construction in the railway workshops thoroughly investigated by competent and independent audit." This seems to be in the nature of a sop thrown out to please the "Locomotive Manufacturers' Association," and it would have been better had the reasons which led to this conclusion been fully stated. It is perfectly true that the costs of building a batch of, say, twenty locomotives in the railway workshops come out at a figure considerably less than the costs of twenty exactly similar engines constructed by the private builders. It is probable that the costs of material and labour will differ but little in the two cases, but it must be remembered that the private firm has patterns. jigs and templates to make which probably exist already in the railway company's works. The private firms, moreover, have the large expense of an extensive selling organization to maintain, and in addition to this they must show a profit on their work. The railway works have neither of these important items to consider. The report states that the railway companies do not provide in their costs for rates and taxes, ground rent and depreciation. These omissions seem wrong. The fact is that the railway shops were originally intended for the repairs of engines and plant, and that the building of new locomotives began as a " bye-product" in order to keep certain tools and men at work, until in certain cases, such as at Crewe and Swindon, large establishments sprang up, apart from the repair works, devoted to the building of new engines.
At one period many years ago such railway works appeared likely to compete with the private builders in supplying new engines to other companies, and during the years 1871 to 1874 the London & North-Western Ry. built no less than 100 new locomotives for the Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. to the Crewe standard designs. This was undoubtedly unfair and was the reason for the formation of the Locomotive Manufacturers' Parliamentary Association, who rightly set about defending their proper interests. An injunction was obtained which stopped the building of new locomotives by one railway company for another.
In any case the merits of the question of 'auditing the railway works costs do not matter much now, for since the report of the Advisory Council was issued, the announcement has been made that the railways are to be taken over by the State, so that in the end, what with politicians who play for votes, and permanent officials who play for safety, the tax- payers, the mercantile community and the general public appear likely to have a very" thin" time of it, whatever the locomotive costs may be:
The most useful portion of the report is that which points out that an unnecessary number of locomotive parts are used, which could well be standardized. Wheel centres, tyres and tyre fastenings, axles, springs, buffers, draw gear, and to a large extent axleboxes, especially those of tenders, could well be standardized with great advantage. These parts are usually purchased outside, and it would help the manufacturers of these details if they could work to recognised standards.
Lastly, the report deals with wagon stock. Here the conditions are very different from those of locomotives. Comparatively few patterns, jigs and templates are required, and there does not appear to be any reason why wagons should not be completely standardized. The evidence before the Council showed that on British railways there were no less than two hundred different types of axle boxes, to say nothing of completely different axles, springs and tyres. Moreover, although the railway companies laid down standard dimensions governing the construction of private owners' wagon stock, they did not -themselves comply with the Clearing House regulations.

G.F. Tyas. Early locomotives of the Alsace-Lorraine State Railways. 12-13. 2 illustrations
The Franco-German war terminated with Alsace and Lorraine being annexed by Germany in 1871 thus severing the Eastern Railway of France and forcing the German regime to work the railway with locokmotives from the Baden, Wurtemburg and Rhenish lines. The first engines to be acquired specially were two outside cylinder (but see letter) 2-4-0 of standard Belgian design built by Carels Frères of Ghent. There werre also four inside cylinder engines built by the Vulcan Foundry for the Somerset & Dorset Ry., but not delivered  to that line. In 1871 the railway authorities took over six goods locomotives built by Société Alsacienne at their Graffenstaden works for the Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Ry.: these were of the Bourbonnais type. Fifteen Bourbonnais type freight locomotives were ordered from Maschinenbau Gesellschaft Karlsruhe in 1871: one is shown in Fig.1. They had Belpaire boilers. In 1872 Andre Koechlin of Mulhouse built ten 2-4-0 for passenger traffic.  See also letter from B.K. Field on p. 40

Automatic couplers and continuous brakes for good trains in New South Wales. 13-14. diagram
Claimed the M.C.B. coupler waa cheaper than traditional coupling with buffers

Old locomotives of the Poti-Tiflis Railway, Russia. 14-15. 2 illustrations
Yorkshire Engine Co. 0-4-4T and 0-6-4T for steeply graded line through Suram Pass in Caucasus. Notes that Sir A. Cunynghame travelled on the line from Tilliwill to Poti in 1871

Substitution in railway work in Austria. 15
Fireboxes, formerly made of copper, made from ingot iron. Displacement of brass and bronze. Axle bearings made from tin alloy were repaced by zinc and lead. This enabled the copper to be used for military. Paper used as a substitute for rubber.

Rebuilding an Indian Prince's private train. 16-17. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior's train rebuilt by Great Indian Peninsula Railway workshops.

New carriages for the Uganda Railway. 18. illustration
Built in Nairobi: first class carriage 52 ft long with electric lighting

[Model 2-6-0 built in Nevada]. 18
C.A. Perkins of Elko, Nevada, USA built a model steam locomotive to run on 17/8 inch gauge track

Number 318 (15 February 1919)

2-8-2 tank locomotive, Nitrate Rys, Chili. 19-20. illustration
Four constructed by H.K. Porter Co. of Pittsburg for Chile. Oil-fired, standard gauge with 20 by 22in cylinders and Le Chatelier counter pressure braking

Tank locomotive (3 ft. gauge) for the Canadian Forestry Corps.  20
Half-tone photo reproduction of one of the very neat little six-coupled tank locomotives constructed by Kerr, Stuart & Co., Ltd., of Stoke-on-Trent, for the use of the Canadian Forestry Corps 3-ft. gauge lines in Britain. The wheelbase is only 4 ft. 71/8 in., which enables sharp curves to be taken. The engines had outside cylinders 8½ in. diameter by 11 in. stroke, the cylinders being arranged horizontally with D pattern valves above, and the connecting rods taking hold of outside cranks on the rear wheels. The valve motion was Walschaerts pattern. A powerful hand brake is arranged as shown, and sand boxes are located on top of the side tanks, fitted with sand valves worked from the footplate. The heating surface of the boiler tubes was 168.5 ft2. and of the firebox 23.25 ft2. The grate area was 4 ft2. Two safety valves, each are located on the steam dome. Locomotive illustrated named Haig

Great Western Ry. 20
Ten new 2-8-0 mineral engines had been turned out at Swindon, bearing Nos. 2866-75, 'We understand that amongst the first locomotives handed over by the Germans under the terms of the armistice were some of the G.W.Ry. goods engines of the 2800 and 4300 classes.

Great Eastern Ry. 20
The latest 0-6-0 goods engines of the E72 class to be finished at Stratford were Nos. 1265 to 1269. Another five of the same class were in hand, but these were to be fitted with 1500 class boilers. which will make the distance between the back centres 10 ft. instead of 8 ft. 10 in. Tank locomotives Nos. 1302 and 1308 were working at the National Shipyard at Chepstow, while several of the 1190 class have been stationed at Richborough depot for some time. For the summer traffic we understand five more of the 1500 class 4-6-0 express engines are to be built at Stratford, while two more of the 227 class of 0-4-0 shunting engines were on the way.

London & North-Western Ry. 20
Several more 0-6-0 saddle tanks have been renumbered in the duplicate list, as follows :-279 renumbered 3602; 1158, 3603; 1359, 3604, and 2497, 3605. An order for sixty new 4-6-0 engines of the Prince of Wales class had been given at Crewe. On the occasion of the Royal visit to Edinburgh recently, engine No. 1360 Fire Queen had its name changed to Queen Mary.

Dublin & Blessington Tramway. 20
Locomotive No. 70 of the Dublin and South-Eastern Ry. (0-4-0 type with outside cylinders) was working on this tramway. Workmen's trains, consisting of seven double-deck tram cars and hauled by two engines, had been running regularly on this line, presenting quite a remarkable sight. A branch had been constructed to one of the new aerodromes in the vicinity of Dublin, and was about a mile in length.

Obltuary. 20
Death of Robert Weatherbum, formerly London district locomotive superintendent of the Midland Ry., on 2 January 1919 in Torquay (KPJ: location probably incorrect). Weatherburn served his apprenticeship partly with Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson, and finished on the North-Eastern Ry. He next had experience in marine engineering in Laird's yard at Birkenhead, and then went to the L.&Y. Ry., after which he re-entered the N.E. service. He again took service with Messrs. Kitson & Co. and had a varied experience erecting engines and looking after the interests of the firm in various parts of the kingdom and for some time in Russia. As mentioned in another part of this issue, in 1874 Mr. Weatherburn superintended the erection of a number of Kitson's locomotives at Metz for the Alsace-Lorraine Rys. When he returned S.W. Johnson appointed him inspector of new work for the Midland Ry. loco. department and he afterwards became district locomotive superintendent at Leicester and London, from which position he retired in 1905.

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Ry. and its locomotives. 21-3. 2 illustration, 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Two Sharp 2-2-2 started work in Jamaica in 1845: they had been built in 1844 as part of an order for the Berlin-Hamburg Railway and were named Patriot and Projector: the latter is shown in photograph with David Smith, one of the founders of the railway on the footplate (photographed in 1866). Four further very similar Sharp singles, but built as well tanks were also suupplied and named Enterprise, Perserverance, Emancipation and Success. The well tanks were fitted with rubber bearing springs for a time, similar to those iused by McConnell on LNWR, but were replaced by steel springs in about 1870. One of the well tanks was replaced by a saddle tank and renamed Our Own. In 1875 Patriot was converted to a side tank and named Jamaican. Perserverance was also converted to a side tank. To meet the demands of the extension to Old Harbour two 2-4-0Ts with inside cylinders were bought from the  Yorkshire Engine Co.: WN 78-9/1868: these were named Extension and New Era. Numbers 1-4 were in very poor condition when the Government took over.

Mogul type goods locomotive, Belgian State Rys. 23-4. illustration
Text notes that Neilson & Co. had supplied McInrosh 4-6-0 type; then in 1881 supplied a 2-6-0 WN 2739 which was given No. 512. The engine part was very similar to that developed by William Adams for the GER. The photograph shows the locomotive as rebuilt with a picturesque Belgian experimental boiler

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. 24-5. 3 diagrams
Continued from page 9

H.C. Webster. Stresses in locomotive wheel tyres. 25-7. 3 diagrams, 3 tables
George W. Lindon paper Chilled iron car wheels presented to Railway Club of Pittsburg: caused by shrinkage of tyre onnto whel centre; effect of braking.

Train lighting batteries. 27-8.

Electric battery locomotives for the Ministry of Munitions. 28-9. 2 illustrations
Brush Electrical Engineering Co. llocomotives for narrow gauge lines at munitions factories at Gretna, Queensferry and Avonmouth.

G.F. Tyas. Early locomotives of the Alasce-Lorraine State Railways. 29-31
Thirty two 0-6-0 goods engines supplied by Société Alsacienne. Twenty were also supplied by Hannoversche Maschinenbau AG (Fig. 2 shows Sierck). Kitson & Co. supplied 2-4-0 passenger locomotives, similar to the Great Eastern Railway 374 class designed by R. Sinclair. They had three safety valves: Ramsbottom type on the firebox with polished gun-metal pillars, and the one on the dome had a spring balance with compound levers, a form of valve known as the Megenhofen type and at that time very often used on German and Russian locomotives. The names and numbers of some of these engines. were as follows 227 Braine, 228 Bistritz, 229 Brenz, 230 Bieber, 231 Bartsch, 232 Brahe, 233 Fecht, 234 Fuse" (Kitson's WN. 1922 to 1929 of 1874), 235 Sheer, 236 Honne, 237 Kirneeh, 238 Bigge, 239 Inster, 240 Tanger, 241 Enischer, 242 Lachte, (WN 1938 to 1945 of 1874). The mixed traffic 0-4-2 engines were very similar in their details, but smaller. Both classes were fitted with screw reversing gear and variable exhaust apparatus. After being finished, tried and painted at the makers' works, they were partially dismantled, the boilers, frames and cylinders and the tenders minus the wheels, making the largest packages, and were sent to Hull, then shipped as deck loads to Antwerp, where they were again put on their wheels and forwarded to the railway workshops at Montigny, near Metz. Here they were completely re-erected under the superintendence of the late Robert Weatherburn, the well-known engineer whose very interesting reminiscences in connection with the completion and trials of these engines appeared in the Railway Magazine for Feb., 1914, and Jan., 1915. Two of. these engines were lost overboard during a storm in the North Sea, and others supplied to replace them by the makers. Some of these mixed traffic . engines were named and numbered as under:- 258 Murr, 259 Mietze, 260 Alster, 261 Meister, 262 Plane, 263 Rems, 264 Rodach, 265 Ruda, 266 Stolpe, 267 Schler (Kitson's WN 1954 to 1963 of 1874). They are illustrated by Figs. 3 and 4. Continued page 39

Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd. 31
E.S. Luard , of 15, Dean's Yard, Westminster, has been appointed London representative for this firm.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 31
The first of the B4 class of 4-4-0 tender engines to be fitted with a superheater had been in service for some little time, and given every satisfaction. This engine, No. 46 Prince of Wales wa equipped with the Schmidt apparatus, and retained the ordinary flat balanced valves lubricated by a sight-feed lubricator. The only external difference from other engines of the same class was the altered position of the chimney to clear the superheater.

Great Central Ry. 31
A coal dust or powdered fuel-burning locomotive has made its appearance on this line, using an apparatus patented J.G. Robinson, the chief mechanical engineer.

Woolwich Arsenal. 31
To maintain on peace work a staff larger than pre-war strength, it has been decided to go on with the construction of locomotives at Woolwich, and a preliminary order for 100 has been placed. Work on them should commence in about three months, when the necessary alterations to the shops have been completed. We also understand that a number of railway wagons are to be built at the Arsenal.
As an indication of the railway traffic to and from the Arsenal during the war period, the number of wagons in and out per month rose from 1,800 during July, 1914, to an average of 26,000 per month for the last twelve months of the war.

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 31
Nos. 1599-1603 were new 0-8-0 superheater mineral locomotives.

Midland Ry. 31
Nos. 3876-9 were new 0-6-0 superheater goods engines.

Notes on the use of special locking for signal interlocking apparatus. 31-2. diagram
Safety of the running of railway traffic is primarily dependent upon the interlocking between the signals, points and bars within the jurisdiction of each signal cabin—apart from the electric block or tablet working. The problem is comparatively· simple for through running from point to point, but becomes complex where large shunting yards or intricate station and junction lay-outs are encountered. It is at such places that the traffic requirements that are laid down have to be met in as satisfactory a manner as possible, with the inevitable result that conditional locking has to be resorted to, to comply with all the movements that are neces- sary to the quick despatch of traffic.

Number 319 (15 March 1919)

Four-cylinder express locomotive, Dutch Central Railway. 33-4. illustration
J.H. Gehlen, chief mechanical engineer: 4-6-0 with Schmidt superheater. Tender had eight wheels: two on rigid axles and others on bogie. Painted dark brown.

Rebuilt 2-6-0 goods locomotive, New South Wales Government Rys. 34. illustration
No. 407 illustrated. E.E.Lucy at Eveleigh Works fitted with Belpaire boiler with increased surface

Tank engines on American railways. 34
Tender locomotives tended to be used for shunting due to the tightness of the couplers.

Great Central Ry. 34
2-8-0 No. 353 fitted with a mechanical stoker. No. 416 Lord Faringdon was stationed at Neasden shed.

Notes on British locomotives on active service. 35-6. 5 illustrations
During WW1 about 700 locomotives belonging to the railways of the United Kingdom were sent overseas to the various areas of operation for the use of the Railway Operating, Department. Readers on active service sent us at times notes of various locomotives that had come under their notice, but, for obvious reasons, the information could not be published. Now that the various restrictions had been withdrawn, we are able to publish photographs, taken in France, of some of the engines and also an interesting snapshot of two Belgian locomotives at Willesden, en route for heavy repairs at Crewe Works. Practically all the locomotives sent overseas were of the goods or mixed traffic classes. We have the numbers of 111 L. & N.W.R. engines in France, eighty-five being of the 0-6-0 type and twenty-six 0-8-0. The G.W.R. sent about sixty 0-6-0 tender engines, to France, as well as several to Salonica, and the latter were provided with large cabs and sunshades. Twelve of the new 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines were despatched as they were finished off at Swindon (Nos. 5320 up) and were reported to have done excellent work. Sixteen G.C.R. 0-8-0 and seventeen 0-6-0 were sent out in 1916, and these were followed by two hundred and ninety-five of the 2-8-0 superheaters, built to Mr. Robinson's designs by the North British Locomotive Co., Robert Stephenson & Co., Naysmith, Wilson & Co., and Kitson & Co. The North Eastern supplied over forty engines mostly of the 0-8-0 type, and we understand two were sunk in a torpedoed ship. The G.N.R. sent overseas about a dozen 0-6-0 goods engines and lent a few 0-8-0 mineral engines to the N.E. Ry. The S.E. & C.R. were the first to send engines to France, these being five 0-6-0 Kirtley side tanks, which were used for shunting at Boulogne from the early days of the war. Forty-three goods engines were taken from the G.E.R. stock, and about seventy or eighty from the Midland. Of the L. and Y. 0-6-0 goods engines about thirty went to France, but we learn that several 0-8-0 compounds were at Salonica. Several 0-6-2 radial tanks were furnished by the L.B. & S.C. Ry. for France. Thirty L. & S.W.R. goods engines (built by Neilson) were sent to Egypt and Palestine, and four of these went down in the Arabic. A few also were sent to Mesopotamia. Several trains of North London carriages were in service at Salonica. Amongst the first engines taken over by the R.O.D. were fifteen of the fine 4-6-4 tanks built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. for the Dutch State Rys. A few Glasgow-built 4-6-0 tender engines intended for the Transcontinental Ry. of Australia were diverted for service in France also. Of the Scotch railways the North British and the Caledonian seem to have been the only lines to have supplied engines, several 0-6-0 of both lines being reported. The Caledonian sent forty, and it is worth noting their numbers have been filled up in the C.R. list. The N.B.R. sent at least a dozen 0-6-0. The Baldwin Co. built seventy 2-8-0 tender engines, Engineers and put into traffic at the train ferry port at Richborough. At Richborough, too, were eight G.E.R tank engines, three S.E. & C.R tanks and one small L. & S.W.R loco (No. 740). Another of these small motor engines (No. 736) is used by the War Office at Shoeburyness. Two 0-6-2 G.N. Ry. suburban tanks, Nos. 1587 and 1590, were used on the armoured trains stationed on the Norfolk and Berwickshire coast lines.
Two of the small 4-4-0 tank engines built by Hudswell, Clarke and Rogers for the Lynn and Fakenham Ry. (now M. & G.N. Jt. Ry.)in the early eighties, may be seen in service with a train of as well as a number of 2-8-2 and 0-4-0 tanks for the standard gauge lines in France. They also built a large number of narrow gauge locos for the feeder lines. Messrs. Kerr, Stuart & Co., Ltd., supplied quite a num- ber of their useful 0-6-0 "Victory" type side tanks to the RO.D. As far as we can ascertain only two Irish locomotives were taken by the Government. These were Nos. 60 and 62, Dublin and and South-Eastern Ry. These engines (2-4-2 tanks) were built by the L. & N.W.R, and were altered to suit the Irish gauge; it was therefore a very easy matter to again fit them with standard gauge wheels and axles. These two engines were loaned to the. Inland Waterways and Docks Department of the Royal N.L. coaches between Rhyl and the camp at Kinmel Park. They run over the L. and N.W. main line for about a mile. The foregoing does not profess to give anything like a complete record, as a considerable number of engines were also commandeered for the various depots, training camps and munition factories in this country, but it will give some in- dication of the part played by the. locomotive departments of our leading railways during the war period, and partly explain the reason for some of the travelling restrictions we have had to put up with during the past two and a half years. About 250 Belgian locomotives also were in charge of the British operating staffs.. Illustrations: LNWR 0-6-0 No. R.O.D. 3411; GWR 0-6-0 R.O.D. No. 2316; tank loco. built for the Railway Operating Dept. by Kerr, Stuart & Co. Ltd., tank locomotive built for the R.O.D.by Baldwin Loco. Works. Belgian State Ry. locos. on the way to Crewe for repairs. cabs removed to clear English loading gauge.

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 37-8. 2 illustrations
Three shunting locomotivres, 0-6-0Ts with outside cylinders were assembled at Lochgorm in 1903/1 and given the numbers 22-4. The wheels came from Barclay 2-4-0 and the boilers were also secondhand.Peter Drummond introduced four 0-4-4Ts in 1905/6 built at Lochgorm: Nos 25 Strathpeffer; 40 Gordon Lennox and 45-6: they were intended for branch lines including those to Strathpeffer and Fochabers

Compressed air grease cup for locomotives. 38. diagram
Menno grease cup

G.F. Tyas. Early locomotives of the Alasce-Lorraine State Railways. 39-40. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Continued from page 31. Further 2-4-0 passenger locomotives were ordered from Henschel & Sohn in 1874: Fig. 5 shows Urbeis. In 1882 twelve 0-6-0 goods locomotives were supplied by Maschinenfabrik Esslingen and were similar to the Sierck class.  In 1884-5 Société Alsacienne. supplied an entirely new design of outside cylinder two-cyliner compound of the Bourbonnais type without Belpaire boilers but with outside Walscaerts valve gear: Fig. 6 photograph of Wadgassen

Correspondence. 40

[Early locomotives of the Alsace-Lorraine State Railway]. B.K. Field
On this railway, very familiar to many travellers on the Continent as the Elsass Lothringen Eisenbahn, were to be found almost all the most characteristic types of German locomotives. In Figure 1, however, page 13, I was surprised and pleased to see the portrait of an old friend, familiar to me when staying in Heidelberg in 1879 and 1880, and representing Class V. on the Baden State Railways, which worked regularly most of the heavy goods trains between Mannheim and Heilbronn, beyond which point the gradients became so severe that they were worked by a large type of 8-coupled goods engine, Class VIII., which rarely came so far down as Heidelberg. and probably only then when passing on their way to Karlsruhe for repair.
There is a slight inaccuracy in the description of the safety valve on the dome, this in fact having no spring balance, but merely a weight at the end of a long spindle, this being a characteristic of most of the classes on the Baden State Railways at that time, and produced, when the engine was running at any speed, a smart puff of steam from the safety valve at nearly every rail joint the locomotive passed over, while when running through points and crossings the escaping steam was very considerable.
It would be interesting to know whether the second type of locomotive built by Andre Koechlin was identical with those running on the Main-Neckar Bahn and usually working the express trains between Frankfurt, Darmstadt and Heidelberg. These also had names of which I remember engines bearing the four quoted and from the description, so far as .one can trace, were very similar engines, although the writer does not remember the builder's name at the moment.
I shall look forward with much interest to the continuance of these articles and should be pleased to contribute a few sketches, if desirable, of some of the standard type locomotives worked on the Baden State Railways during my time at Heidelberg.

Another reader writes pointing out that the first engines acquired, of Belgian State Ry. standard design, were inside cylinder, outside framed 2-4-0, and not outside cylinder engines, as stated on page 12 of our January issue.

London & North-Western Ry. 40
A new series of 4-6-0 passenger engines (Prince of Wales class) was in hand at Crewe, Nos, 28, 263, 295, 391, 740, 805, 863, 940, 1196 and 1546. Like the 27 Claughton class locomotives, built in 1917, the above were to be turned out temporarily without names. Recent conversions include the following :-No. 1937 Superb (Jubilee class) altered to two-cylinder simple (Renown class); No. 303 Himalaya (Precursor class) altered to superheater without external alterations; and Nos. 410 and 1353, four-cylinder compound mineral engines, altered to two-cylinder simples, and superheated. Of the six Precursor class locomotives converted to superheater in 1918, Nos. 469, 688, 802, 1363, 1439 and 2064, it may be noted that only one, No. 1363, was provided with an extended smokebox. No, 3027, Special Tank shunting engine, had been fitted with a cab, this being the last of the class to be so fitted. Several more compounds, both passenger and goods, were being converted to simple.

Special train for the Commander-In-Chief of the British Armies In France. 40-1 + 4 page supplement (10 illustrations, plan)
Oppulent accomodation fpr Butcher Haig and his incompetent fellow slaughterers with state of the art heating etc.  On 10 April 1917, the carriage superintendent of the London & North-Western Ry., A.R.Trevithick, was asked to provide at the Wolverton Works a train of ten vehicles for the use of Sir Douglas Haig and his staff in France. Five of the vehicles were despatched from Wolverton on 5 May, and the remaining five on 12 May, and thus the ten vehicles were completed in a month from the date of order. A further request for four additional vehicles was received later, and these were converted to their present use and sent out on 20 July 1917. As can be seen from the block plan reproduced in a Supplement to the present issue, coach No.1 comprises a dressing-room, bed-room and sitting-room for the Commander-in-Chief, No. 2 is a bed-room, bath-room and office for the chief of staff and his assistants, whilst Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6 are cars giving sleeping and office accommodation generally .No. 9 is a car for officers, orderlies, servants, etc. No. 10 provides more sleeping accommodation

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Ry. and its locomotives. 41-3.  3 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0T supplied by Kitson & Co. WN 2297/1879 given RN 7; followed by WN 2298/1880 RN 8 and WN 2361/1881 RN 3. Renumbered 1 to 3 in 1884. They had inside cylinders. Fig 11 shows No. 7 in original condition and Fig 12 No, 1 as rebuilt with larger tanks and cab in 1904. On 28 October 1892 No. 3 jumped the track near Gibraltar Tunnel and fell 60 ft on to the river bed killing the fireman. The locomotive was repaired, but broken up in about 1903. On 19 August 1913 No. 1 which had been fitted with a second-hand boiler blew up in Kingston running shed and was scrapped. In 1905 No. 2 was fitted with a saddle tank and extended smokebox: it was withdrawn in December 1915. For the Porus and Ewarton extensions two Black, Hawthorth & Co. 0-4-0ST with outside cylinders were ordered WN 674-5/1882: they were given RN 1 and 2, but were not part of the Railway stock. No, 2 was at Port Royal for several years and was scrapped in about 1907. No. 1 was sold to the Holland-America Steamship Co. and worked on the Kingston piers.  

Oil fuel on the North Western State Ry. of India. 43. illustration
Trials in Karachi District using Mexican trough and Holden systems

T.H. Saunders. Laminated railway springs. Section II. Mathematical design of the spring. Sub-section A. The formulae. 44-6. 3 diagrams

Dr. Angus Sinclair. 46
Founder and editor of Railway and Locomotive Engineering, New York, died at Millburn, N.J., on 1 January l919, at the age of seventy-eight. A native of Forfar, Dr. Sinclair was a driver on the Scottish North-Eastern Ry., and later obtained a post in the Customs at Montrose and then in London. He went to sea and then took up railway work in America, first on the Erie R.R., and then driving on the Burlington, Cedar Rapids and Northern. He studied chemistry and made a speciality of water analysis, and was appointed chemist of the line, combined with the duties of shed foreman. In 1883 he joined the editorial staff of the American Machinist, becoming president of the Com- pany a few years later. In 1887 the Company established Locomotive Engineering, of which the late John A. Hill was first editor. A few years later Messrs. Sinclair and Hill bought the paper, now known as Railway and Locomotive Engineering, and since Mr. Hill's retirement in 1897 Dr. Sin clair has been sole proprietor and editor.
In 1908 the faculty of Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind., conferred on him the honorary degree of Doctor of Engineering. Dr. Sinclair was author of several books on railway work, some of which have become text books. "Locomotive Running and Management," "Combustion in Locomotive Fireboxes," "Firing Locomotives," "Railroad Man's Catechism," "Twentieth Century Locomotives" and "History of the Development of the Locomotive Engine" have all passed through numerous editions. His book on "Locomotive Running and Management" was begun while he was running a locomotive, and was made up from personal judgment and observation. It has passed through twenty-six editions. His work on " Firing Locomotives" has been translated into eight languages, including Chinese.

Great Western Ry. 46
Recent appointments in the locomotive department are as follows :-Mr. J. A. Robinson, of Wolverhampton, will in future act as outdoor assistant superintendent, Swindon; Mr. B. Giles, of Newton Abbot, is to be divisional superintendent, Wolverhampton; Mr. E. G. Wainwright, of Worcester, to be divisional superintendent, Newton Abbot; and Mr. R. A, G. Hannington, assistant superintendent at Old Oak Common is to be divisional superintendent, Worcester.

Belfast & County Down Ry. 46
After forty years' service with this railway Mr. R. G. Miller, locomotive superintendent, has tendered his resignation, but will continue to act until a successor is appointed.

Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. 46
Received orders from the Bombay, Baroda & C.L Ry. for twenty- five Iocomotives and from the Madras & Southern Mahratta Ry. for fifteen. The engines to be built at Elswick Works.

East Indian Ry. 46
D. Wedderburn retiring from the position of locomotive superintendent of the E.L Ry., which he had held since Tomyns R. Brown retired in August, 1908. W.J. Tomes, who acted as deputy locomotive superintendent to Wedderburn since his appointment, would now succeed him as head of the locomotive department. Tomes was formerly on the L. & S.W. Ry. under W. Adams, and later with D. Drummond, and went out to India in 1897.

Number 320 (15 April 1919)

Mogul locomotive, Italian State Railways. 47-8. illustration. 2 diagrams (side elevations including one sectional)
Originally intended for the Roumanian State Railways and being built by Officine Meccaniche of Milan was diverted to the Italian State Railways during WW1.

Great Western Ry. 48
The old 2-4-0 passenger engines have lately been used principally on goods work. The follow- ing, amongst others, are stationed at the undermentioned sheds for that purpose: Southall 2220, Slough 723, 2214, 3245, 3247, Didcot 820, 3241. Recent withdrawals from service included the following engines; No. 1338, the ex-L. & N.W. coal engine taken over with the rolling stock of the Manchester & Milford Ry., and No. 2448 0-6-0 goods loco.

Cambrian Rys. 48
The appointment of G.C. McDonald, to the dual position of engineer and locomotive superintendent, has been confirmed by the Directors.

Armoured trains fpr the defence of the East Coast. 49-50. illustration
Reproduced in NBR Study Group Jounal Number 122 page 12 but the illustrations are different: latter fitted with a cowcatcher on gun truck and has a wire fence in foreground and lacks buildings behind

T.H. Saunders. Laminated railway springs. Section II. Mathematical design of the spring. Sub-section A. The formulae. 50-3. 4 diagrams

Washing out locomotive boilers. 53-4.
Cold water practice: plugs annd mud hole doors, ensuring closure and time elapsing before raising steam

Midland Ry. 54
New superheated 0-6-0 numbered up to No. 3879. No. 479 latest superheater rebuild stationed at Leeds.

London & South Western Ry. 54
Nos. 424 and 430 had been rebuilt with superheaters and extended smokeboxes. Nos. 736-8, express 4-6-0 (later known as N15 cllass) were in service.

New Mallet articulated locomotives for the Virginian Railroad. 54-8. illustration, diagrams (elevation and cross sections)
2-10-10-2 Mallet compounds built for the difficult section between Elmore and Clark's Gap. Built by American Locomotive Co.

G.F. Tyas. Early locomotives of the Alasce-Lorraine State Railways. 58-60. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation drawing)
2-4-0T supplied by Henschel & Son No. 536 Ella stationed at Strasbourg in 1905. Société Alasacienne supplied compound express passenger 4-4-0 typr between 1893 and 1904.

30-tons rulley wagon, North British  Railway. 60. illustration
Built by Hurst, Nelson & Co.

The working of railway switches by wire. 61, diagram
Tyer & Co. equipment for operating points by wire was universal in South Africa and common on Continental Europe, but!

Great Eastern Ry. 61
Coaching stock to be painted dark crimson lake

Great Northern Ry. 61
Fifteen 2-8-0 of 456 class under construction by North British Locomotive Co.

Reviews. 62

Mechanical World Year Book, 1919. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd., . 62
This popular reference book, as usual, contains a large mass of information for the use of the practical man. Among the new features introduced is a lengthy section dealing with the properties of metals and alloys, giving information on a subject of particular interest at the present time. Another new section relating to steam heating contains data that should be of interest. The section on grinding has been extended to cover internal grinding, while the table of cutting speeds has been added to, and new tables are given on the weights of balls and rivets. The tables of squares, cubes, square roots and cube roots have been amplified considerably. Some of the tables have been re-arranged for ready reference, and tables of foreign weights and measures have also been included.

The locomotives of the railways of the Isle of Wight. 62
Booklet compiled by Mr. P. C. Walker, giving dimensions and full particulars of the locomotive stock of the three railways in the island.

Correction. 62
We are glad to be able to state that the information we received relative to Great Western Railway engines handed over under the terms of the armistice, which appeared on page 20 of our February issue, is not correct. We are informed from an authoritative source that there was only one (standard gauge) British engine captured by the enemy throughout the whole campaign. This was Midland Railway 0-6-0 tender goods locomotive No. 2717, taken near Gouzeaucourt, between Epehy and Carnbrai, in December, 1917. The German military-railway authorities (Militar eisenbahn direktion) took it into stock, and renumbered it G02/0125IH; more than once it was observed working behind their lines. Under the conditions of the armistice, it was duly returned, and last January [1919] was acting as passenger station shunting engine at Mons, still bearing both numbers, although the metal figures had been removed from the smokebox door.

North-Western State Ry. of India. 62
Arrangements were being made to use pulverized fuel on a large scale, and so utilize some of the very considerable deposits of inferior coal found on the North-West Frontier lines. Several wagons have been equipped with an arrangement of brake gear, enabling an increased leverage to be obtained for the vacuum brake when the vehicle is loaded; the respective powers being now 1 and 1.75. This procedure has been dictated by the want of brake power in controlling heavy trains on descending grades..

London & North-Western Ry. 62
New series of 4-6-0 passenger engines of the Prince of Wales class was in hand at Crewe, but they were without names. They were Nos. 57, 621, 707, 974, 1373, 1453, 1584, 1673 and 2184. The following four-cylinder compound mineral engines were being simplified and superheated :-Nos. 842, 859 and 905. Recent withdrawals were Nos. 974 Richard Cobden, 1673 Lucknow, and 2184 Reynard, all 6 ft. 6 in. Precedent class, also No. 57, 4ft. 6in. tank. No. 3501, DX. goods was then the only L. & N.W·. engine at work on the Highland Ry. A number of L. & N.W. engines of the George V type were being repaired by Armstrong, Whitworth & Co.

South-Eastern & Chatham Ry. 62
Engines Nos. 445, BI class, and 591, D class, were derailed between Bekesbourne and Canterbury stations on 3 March owing to a severe landslide. Both engines were considerably damaged, especially No. 445, which fell over on its side. The buffer beam was badly buckled, gangway and driving splasher swept clean and tender axleboxes shorn off. Luckily no one was injured.

Indian Railway affairs. 62
At the annual meeting of the Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent's Committee of the Indian Railway Conference Association, recently held in Lucknow (10-15 February 1919), a momentous question concerning the future of the Indian railways came on for discussion, namely the substitution of central automatic couplers for the present screw couplings and side buffers used on the broad gauge railways. The subject was placed on the agenda at the instigation of the Railway Board, who, we believe, are now seriously considering the possibility and advisability of the change. A resolution was passed recommending the adoption of a mechanical coupler, the increasing weight of trains and the introduction of more powerful locomotives, coupled with the unique opportunity afforded by the war period, being given as very pressing reasons for the change. It may be noted that the Administration of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway have urged the desirability of some modification in the couplings for some years past, and have had numerous experiments made, the latest proposals being based on the Australian procedure illustrated in our January issue.

Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd. 62
Re-organizing all the departments of their various works with a view to undertaking a wide range of commercial engineering products, and assisting thereby to meet the requirements of the engineering industry both at home and abroad. In this connection they have formed a Central Commercial Department, with headquarters at 8, Great George Street, Westminster, London, S.W.l, and this department will now control all matters relating to the commercial handling of the engineering products manufactured by the firm.

Number 321 (15 May 1919)

Belgian State Ry. locomotive repaired at Stratford. 63. illustration
Engine No. 3783 built at SA Thirian of La Croyère in 1908, a superheated 0-6-0, following McIntosh Caledonian Railway design, had been overhauled at Stratford with new cylinders and motion and Great Eastern chimney. Work done on behalf of Railway Operating Department: tender lettered ROD.

Weston, Clevedon & Portishead Ry. 63
Receipt of new Manning Wardle & Co. inside-cylinder 0-6-0T WN 1970/1919. K&ESR No. 2 Northiam had been in service on line. Former GWR 2-4-0T No. 4 named Hesperus.

Lord Jellicoe arrival in India. 64. illustration
Lord Jellicoe arrived at Bombay, the" Gateway of India," in H.M.S. New Zealand on  14 March and left the next day for Delhi. Our illustration shows the special train conveying the Admiral and his suite leaving the Victoria Terminus of the G.LP. Ry. on 15 March. The engine, No. 426, was one of the latest 4-6-0 superheaters, fitted with the Weir pump and feed water heater and Walschaert valve gear.

Locomotive fuel in Sweden. 64
Owing to the scarcity of coal m Sweden substitutes have had to be found, including wood and peat. A mixture of wood and peat briquettes has been experimented with on some lines. One disadvantage is the excess of sparks from the funnel and no form of spark arrester seems entirely satisfactory. It was found with coal and peat mixed in equal proportions that steaming depreciated and affected the drawbar pull to such an extent that the mixture could only be used on locomotives hauling trains with a speed not exceeding 30 miles per hour. A system, known as the" Ekelund," of using powdered peat was first introduced in 1890. Although the first trials were not satisfactory the Swedish Government took the matter up in 1916 and equipped a factory for producing 20,000 tons of dried peat per annum. This fuel is now being used on a number of locomotives. It is started in the firebox with a small quantity of coal, and after the coal has become fairly lighted the peat powder is fed through a nozzle by means of compressed air. The coal fire requires about 3 to 4 lb. of coal per 100 lb. of peat powder.

The Baldwin Locomotive Works, Record No. 92. 64
This beautifully printed and illustrated booklet, the latest issued by the above company, deals with the fifty-thousandth Locomotive built by the famous Philadelphia firm. This is a huge articulated Mallet Compound for the Southern Railway, and besides a ful! description of this machine, many interesting details of the Baldwin Company's history are given, with some striking statistics of their productive capacity since the building of the first Baldwin locomotive in 1832.

Midland Railway. 64
Robert W. Reid appointed Carriage and Wagon Superintendent, as from 1 May in succession to David Bain, C.B.E., retired, and J. F. Anderson became Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer.

Obituary. 64
We regret to have to record the death of 'Mr. Geo. W. Reid, which took. place recently at his residence at Bearsden, Glasgow. Mr. Reid was formerly Works Manager at the Highland Ry. Shops, Lochgorm, Inverness, and subsequently became Locomotive Superintendent of the Natal Government Rys. On his retirement he acted as Inspector of Locomotive material for the South African Government Rys. Mr. Reid on several occasions assisted us in the preparation of our articles on the locomotives of the Highland Ry., especially in connection with the early engines.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 64
No. 179, 4-4-0 passenger engine, Class 3, rebuilt with a telescopic boiler, Maunsell superheater, piston valves and Wakefield mechanical lubricator worked from the left coupling rod.

London & North Western Ry. 64
No. 504 completed the series of new goods engines referred to in our last issue. Old No. 504 was a 5 ft. compound goods, now scrapped. Only three of this class remained: Nos. 1113, 1407 and 2059.

Great Eastern Ry. 64
An order for 20 express engines of the 1500 class (4-6-0) placed with William Beardmore and Co., Ltd.,of Dalmuir, Glasgow. This was the first order placed by the G.E.R. for locomotives with a private firm since 1884. Ten engines of the same type were under construction at Stratford, as well as five goods engines of the 1140 class, and five goods engines with 1500 class boilers, and two four-wheeled shunting engines similar to Nos. 226 and 228. Forty bogie composite carriages, brake and third-class corridor, had been ordered from the Midland Ry. Carriage and Wagon Co., Ltd., of Washwood Heath, Birmingham.

North Eastern Ry. 64
Fifty 0-8-0 goods engines (Class T2) ordered from Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., Ltd., and ten 3-cylinder eight-coupled mineral engines (Class T3) under construction at the Darlington Works of the N.E.R.

Midland Great Western Ry. 64
Passenger rolling stock now painted lake colour of a similar shade to that employed by the North-Eastern Ry. instead of the umber brown so long in use. The locomotives being lined out with narrow red lines.

New 4-6-2 locomotive for the Eskdale Railway, 15 in. gauge. 65. 2 diagrams (side & front elevations)
Built by Hunt & Co. of Bournemouth to design of William V. Cauchi, locomotive superintendent. Locomotive named Sir Aubrey Brocklebank.

Great Western Ry. 65
No. 4700, the first of the new mixed traffic locomotives had been completed at Swindon; also latest 2-6-0 No. 5366.

The railways and locomotives of the County Donegal Joint Committeee. 66-8. 4 illustrations, map
Large involvement of State funding. Lines taken over by Midland Railway and Great Northern Railway (Ireland) on 1 May 1906: latter declined to participate in the line to Londonderry

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Ry. and its locomotives. 68-70. 5 illustrations, diagram (side elevation).
Kitson 0-6-0Ts WN 2631-4/1884 RN 4-7.  A further 0-6-0T was added in 1885: Kitson WN 2905 RN 8. This locomotive was rebuilt at Kingston in 1917. The centre driving wheels were made flangeless and the Westinghouse brake was fitted in 1901-2

North British Ry. 70
New superheated 0-6-0 from Atlas Works of North British Locomotive Co: 123, 139, 151, 157, 158, 161, 162, 167, 274, 295, 305, 314, 315, 456-9. Five locomotives of same class had been constructed at Cowlairs Works: Nos. 292, 297, 304, 454 and 455. Several Holmes 6ft 6in passenger 4-4-0s of 633 class had been rebuilt with new boilers and large side-window cabs including Nos. 36, 37 and 633 to 642. No. 695, a Holmes 5ft 7in West Highland 4-4-0 had been rebuilt with superheater andv piston valves and fitted with a large square cab. Nos. 242 Glen Mammie, 270 Glen Garry and 278 Glen Lyon were new into service.

W. Paterson and H.C. Webster. The arrangemment of stores at running sheds. 70-3. 3 diagrams
Card indexes, sliding doors, racks and pegs for piston rings.

T.H. Saunders. Laminated railway springs. Section II. Sub-section B. Testing, skin stress and "nip". 73-5. illustration, 3 diagrams

The work of the British Engineering Standards Association as applied to locomotives and rolling stock. 75-7. 3 tables

E.L. Ahrons. Great Western Railway broad gauge tank engines. 77-8. 2 illustrations
0-4-2ST No. 3541 and 0-4-4T No. 3560 illustrated: latte4r had Mansell wheels on bogie. All built as coveribles; also fitted with bogie arrangemnt when converted to standard gauge.

Renewable locomotive firebox stays. 78. diagram
Bowen Cooke and "another" patent

Institution of Locomotive Engineers Leeds Centre. 78-9.
The above Institution held its eleventh meeting on Tuesday, March 25th, 1919, in the Philosophical Hall, Park Row, Leeds. The meeting took the form of a discussion night, the subject being Engine Failures. J.W. Kidd was in the chair. The first paper was given by Groom, of Doncaster, whose subject was Tube Troubles, divided into three headings, viz., leaking tubes, broken and pitted tubes, and collapsed tubes.
Taking leaking tubes first, Groom stated that .one of the causes of this trouble was cold air coming through the fire, causing sudden contraction of the tube plate, and was mainly due to bad firing, though the indifferent quality of coal now being used might have something to do with it. Another source of trouble was unsatisfactory means of securing the tubes in the firebox tube plate. Groom went very fully into the practice in vogue on the Great Northern Railway, enumerating the difficulties they had experienced and the various remedies they had adopted. Details were given of the results of trials with all-steel tubes, and with steel tubes having copper ends.
Elongation of the tube holes was bound to occur so long as the present practice of expanding tubes into tube plates continues, and boilers being washed out too hot also was the cause of a good deal of the trouble experienced by locomotive engineers with their engine tubes. Pitted tubes had been found on engines running in districts where the water is soft and deposits very little lime on the tubes. This is a trouble which does not appear where scale is deposited freely on the tubes. The subject is having attention, and it should be possible to overcome this difficulty.
Failures from collapsed tubes are mainly due to heavy deposits of scale and dirt being allowed to accumulate between the tubes, with the result that the water in the boiler cannot get near enough to prevent them becoming red hot and collapsing inwards with the pressure. The obvious remedy, of course, is constant examination and frequent cleaning out of the boilers.
Groom detailed the methods in use of making ferrules, and in conclusion expressed the opinion that tube failures will be greatly reduced if it is found that steel fireboxes even- tually are a success, and the steel tubes be welded into the tube plate, though as a rule when one trouble is remedied another comes along, so there may be trouble with the tube plates then.
Kidd, in opening the discussion, mentioned the difficulty of keeping steel tubes tight in copper boxes. He also gave particulars of a patent tube which had been very successful. :\Ir. Hamer raised the question of ferruling steel tubes, in reply to which Mr. Groom stated that only steel tubes with copper ends were ferruled, the steel tubes themselves being beaded, and Paterson gave the results of his experiences with firebox tubes, stating that probably the thickness and shape of the tube plate had something to do with the troubles dealt with in the paper.
In reply to Paterson, Groom did not agree that the particular type of tube plate had anything to do with the matter, in proof of which he gave details of locomotives fitted with various kinds of fireboxes, in all of which th se troubles had occurred in some form or other. In Groom's opinion the whole trouble was caused by the expansion and contraction of the tubes not being at the same rate as the expansion and contraction of the boiler, and the steel tube does not get the same grip in the tube plate that a copper tube does.
Mitchinson opened a discussion on the subject of crank pin failures. He gave details of failures which had occurred in the past, and the various methods adopted to overcome the difficulties.
Kidd was of the opinion that the crank pin shown on Mitchinsori's diagram was not a good design, and that the billet from which it was made was not large enough for a forging of that size.
Dow, Hird and Kidd discussed the whole question of broken pins very thoroughly. Mitchinson replied stating that they had tried Brymbo and other steels, but were were now using Yorkshire iron casehardened.
Mr. Hamer dealt exhaustively with-the question ot over-heated bearings, the causes of which he divided into the following heads:- .
(a) Overloading in a vertical direction.
(b) Overloading in a horizontal direction
(c) Uneven distribution of lubricant
(d) Presence of foreign matter and water.
Hamer stated that overloading a bearing causes the lubricant to be unable to keep the surfaces apart, so that in design a moderate pressure per square inch should be given,. and, if possible, some latitude' for emergencies. Spring failures as a cause of vertical overloading, and axle box seizing in the horn block, were analyzed, and the question of the wearing of journals was gone into.
Various points for consideration were given by the speaker with a view of modifying or remedying these matters, and he then went on to deal with the question of overloading in a horizontal direction which, he stated, caused intensity of pressure in the fillets of the journal.
Another cause of trouble, in Hamers opinion, is that the spring pillars from overhung springs wear into the top of the box and constrain it in a certain direction.
Under the heading of Uneven distribution of lubricant, Hamer gave various methods for eliminating this trouble, and particulars of the best kinds of packing to use. Dealing with the presence of foreign matter and water in locomotive bearings, Hamer specified the causes and suggested that to overcome this trouble auxiliary oil boxes might be fitted on the frame and pipes led from them to the axlebox, the oil being syphoned over from the well of the box by means of worsted trimmings.
Kidd opened the discussion on this topic by dealing with the question of mechanical lubricators to axleboxes, and the correct position of inducing a lubricant to a locomotive axlebox.
Paterson stated that, personally, he was prejudiced in favour of axle boxes packed with waste, and gave instances of tests in which he had been concerned.

The post-war reconstruction programme of Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Company, Ltd. 79
The Armistice and the dislocation to the whole of the war work consequent thereon, rendered it both urgent and incumbent for this Company to concentrate and to give effect to the reconstruction programme which had already been fully considered and mapped out. The name of this Company has been known throughout the world during the past in connection with the production of armament materials, and from the point of national security every provision will be secured for rapid resumption of war work should future events require it. There is now in course of progress an extensive scheme of reconstruction and re- arrangement of the works at Elswick, Scotswood and Openshaw, the object of which is to thoroughly equip the shops for supplying commercial products to meet the requirements of civil industries. The principal changes involved in this reconstruction programme are as follows:-
Locomotives. The large projectile and ammunition works at Scotswood are being entirely converted into locomotive works. The shell plant has been removed and the shops are being rapidly equipped for the manufacture of all types of locomotives. It is anticipated that this department will be fully equipped at an early date, and that an output of from 300 to 400 heavy type locomotives per year will be attained, in addition to the manufacture of narrow gauge and yard locomotives. Considerable orders for this department have already been received from the North-Eastern, Caledonian and Leopoldina Rys., and it is hoped to make the first delivery of locomotives by the autumn of this year.
Marine Engine Work. The large riverside shops at Elswick where the heavy naval and land gun mountings were constructed, will be occupied with the manufacture of marine engines and boilers; engines of all types, either reciprocating, turbine or internal combustion will be undertaken. The equipment of these shops is well advanced; and work on the component parts of these engines is proceeding. Brass Manufacture. The existing brass foundry is now in course of removal from Scotswood, and is being re-erected at the west end of the Elswick Works. This plant when re- erected, will be considerably extended, to deal with the manufacture and machining of brass and all classes of non- ferrous alloys, as well as brass and bronze powders. It will supply not only the requirements of the firm, but also customers at home and abroad.
Castings, Stampings, etc. The existing steel-casting foundry at Elswick will be considerably enlarged, and the extensive drop stamping plant increased to enable this department to cope with the orders for these classes of steel products. A new iron foundry will be laid down upon a site connected with the steel works at Elswick, Pneumatic Tools. The manufacture of hand pneumatic tools, which has for many years been part of the Company's business, will now be largely increased to meet the demand for this class of engineers' and miners' tools. New and more efficient types of tools will be produced and, in addition to the tools themselves, the Company is arranging to manufacture and supply the whole of the necessary compressing plant. Machine Tools and Small Tools.
The Openshaw Works at Manchester are largely developing their existing machine tool and small tool trade, and for 'this purpose new shops and a very large increase of plant are being allocated and installed. It is proposed that the manufacture of machine tools shall be upon the best modern methods, and that all standard types of engineers' machine tools will be produced and put upon the market. Steel Products. A new steel works on an extensive scale has been (during the war) in course of erection at Openshaw, and has recently been completed. The large output which will be obtained from this steel works will not only meet the firm's own requirements, but will enable all classes of steels to be supplied.
Shipbuilding. The Company's extensive shipyards upon the Tyne will continue to undertake upon a larger scale the construction of all Glasses of commercial shipbuilding, such as cargo or passenge;r boats, oil tankers, heavy liners, ice breakers, cable-laying ships, etc., etc. It is the. intention of the Company at all their works that the maximum of efficiency shall be attained, and with this object everything possible is being done to modernize the existing shops and to replace all obsolete plant throughout. Another feature in the reconstruction programme of the Company is the organization of a central commercial department whose headquarters have been established at the firm's London offices. The object of this department is to centralize and eventually control the sales of the Company's commercial products and to deal with alladvertising and publicity matters. The engine works department of the Company, which dealt with the manufacture of hydraulic cranes, dock gates, etc., and which during the war was removed from Elswick to Glasgow, has now become amalgamated with the firm of Messrs. A. Main & Co. of that city. This combination will, in future, be known under the name 'of Messrs. Armstrong, Main & Co., Ltd., and will undertake, not only the class of work previously done by the engine works department, but also contracts in connection with steel structural work, buildings, bridges and civil engineering.
Arrangements are in progress for the resumption by the Company of motor-car construction, and also the manufacture of electric power plant. It may be of interest to note that the contribution of this Company to the national resources, during the war. in connection with munitions included the following actual deliveries from their works :-13,000 guns and mountings. This number, which includes the guns for tanks, represents about one-third of the total national output, as well as 14,500,000 shells, 18,500,000 fuzes, 21,000,000 cartridge cases, 12,500,000 complete rounds of field gun ammunition, 6,000,000 projectiles completed and filled, 1,075 aeroplanes, three airships, forty-seven warships, twenty-two merchant ships, 583 merchant ships equipped with anti-submarine guns and gear, and 100 tanks.

Wagons for carrying heavy Naval guns. 80-1. 3 illustrations
Built by Metropollitan Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co. Ltd. for Ministry of Munitions.

Midland Railway locomotive mutual improvement classes. 82. illustration
Photograph of Manningham group.

Number 322 (14 June 1919)

New goods engines, Cambrian Railways. 83; 85. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built by Beyer Peacock: ordered in 1915 but delivery delayed by WW1. Fitted with Ross Pop safety valves as shown in diagram, but illustrated with No. 31 of 1908 series, fitted with Ramsbottom type safety valves. Ordered by Herbert E. Jones, late Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent

2-8-0 mixed traffic locomotive, Great Western Railway. 84-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Churchward 47XX class: No. 4700 illustrated

E.L. Ahrons. Egyptian State Railways — new tank rngines. 85-6. diagram (side elevation)
R.G. Peckitt 2-6-2T for shunting at Gabbary, Alexandria

Superheatrer tank locomtive, Buenos Ayres Great Southern Ry. 86. illustration
2-6-2T supplied Robert Stephenson & Co. under supervision of Livesey, Son & Henderson.

The railways and locomotives of the County Donegal Joint Committee. 87-90. 8 illustrations, table
West Donegal Railway contributed three Sharp, Stewart 2-4-0T WN 3021-3/1881 which became Nos. 2 Blanche, 3 Lydia and 1 Alice (illustrated in Fig. 1). Nos 2 and 3 were withdrawn in 1909 but Alice was working on the Cork, Blackrock & Passage Railway including workmen's trains for the Admiralty. Six 4-6-0Ts were supplied by Neilson & Co. in 1893 (WN 4573-8). They received running numbers 4 to 9 and were named: Meenglas, Drumboe (Fig. 2), Inver, Finn, Foyle and Columbkille. Two 4-4-4Ts were bought for the Londonderry  extension: Neilson, Reid & Co. WN 6103-4/1901; RN 10 Sir James and 11 Hercules (Fig. 3). The Sir James was Sir James Musgrave, Chairman of the Donegal Ry. Four 4-6-4T were supplied by Nasmyth, Wilson & Co.: WN 697-700/1904, RN 12 Eske, 13 Owena, 14 Erne and 15 Mourne (Fig. 4).  In 1907 for the opening of the Strabane to Letterkenny Ry. five 2-6-4T were bought from Nasmyth, Wilson & Co.: WN 828-32, RN 16 Donegal (Fig. 5), 17 Glenties, 18 Killybegs, 19 Letterkenny and 20 Raphoe. Three further locomotives of this last type were added in 1912 WN 956-8; RN 2 Strabane, 3 Stranorlar and 21 Ballyshannon (Fig. 6).

The Channel train ferries.  91-3. 4 illustrations
Ships and berthing facilities at Richborough: latter designed by F.O. Stamford. Idea came from Sir Guy Granet, Director General of Movements and Railways. Sailings started on 4 February 1918 from Richborough to Dunkirk and from Southampton to Dieppe (only former illustrated). One photograph shows dazzle camouflage and two show loaded with very heavy artillery. the three vessels were built by Sir W.G. Armstrong Whiworth & Co. (two) and by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd.

The work of the British Engineering Standards Assiociation as applied to locomotives and rolling stock. 93-4. diagram, 2 tables
Standard tensile test piece (Fig. 1). Laminated springs; volute and helical springs. Steel forgings, blooms and castings for locomotives.

T.H. Saunders. Laminated railway springs. Section II. Sub-section B. Testing, skin stress and "nip". 94-7. 3 diagrams

W. Paterson and H.C. Webster. Enginemen's reports. 97-100. 2 diagrams (facsimile forms) 
Mishaps and locomotive failures. Instances brake failures and draw gear and derailments and reportage by drivers.

Wagons for the Mesopotamian Railways. 100. 2 illustrations
Built at Khargpur shops of the Bengal Nagpur Railway

Furness Ry. 100
The carriages of this line in future are to be painted royal blue throughout, instead of the upper part white and the lower blue.

Cambrian Rys. 100
E. Colclough, works assistant at Oswestry, had been appointed Locomotive Works Manager.

The Railway Year Book, 1919. London: Railway Publishing Co., Ltd.  100
This year's issue is. the twenty-second edition of this useful book of reference. In outward appearance this issue shows but little change from its precursors, but many alterations have been made in the contents. The withdrawal of many restrictions consequent on the signing of the Armistice has permitted the inclusion again of particulars of railway- owned steamers, docks and harbours. To the articles descriptive of leading railways has been added an account of the Underground Electric Rys. of London. Various changes in railway personnel have been noted, and the Who's Who section considerably extended. Of new features reference may be made to the article on the Channel Tunnel, also particulars relating to the enlistment of railwaymen and of ambulance trains supplied for the use of our own and the American forces.

Number 323 (15 July 1919)

Three-cylinder "Uniflow" locomotive, North Eastern Ry.  101-3 + Supplement. illuustration,  2 diagrams (side elevations)
Raven Atlantic No. 2212. Also diagram of cylinder layout on 4-6-0 No, 825 built in 1913. Supplement (centre pages) shows diagrsm and plan of cylinder layout on No. 2212,

Locomotive for burning puverized fuel, Great Central Ry. 103-4. 2 illustrations
Robinson 2-8-0 No. 353

Further notes on locomotives for war service. 105-7. 4 illustrations
Four Baldwin Locomotive Works designs ordered under the supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton, Consulting Engineers to the War Office: 2-8-0, 4-6-0, 2-6-2ST and 0-6-0T: leading dimensions tabulated. Also lists other locomotives supplied to the Railway Operating Division with their operating numbers, locomotives supplied by the British main line companies for service in France (e.g. CR 0-6-0 and NER 0-8-0), the suppliers of narrow gauge locomotives for service near the Front and lcomotives in Belgium.

Midland Ry. 107
During the WW1 two 0-4-4 tanks, Nos. 1217 and 1234, were sent to Richborough for shunting duties, but they had now been returned to their owners. The following goods engines had also been returned from Overseas War service: Nos. 2710, 2711, 2713, 2715, 2721, 2726, 2731, 2732, 2751, 2757, 2761, 2762, 2770, 2771 and 2782. When the King and Queen visited Sheffield [on 20 May 1919] the L. & N.W. Ry. Royal train was used from St. Pancras to Sheffield over the M.R. main line, the engines being L. & N.W. 4-4-0s Blackpool and Carnarvon.

T.O.B. Otway-Ruthven. 107
Appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Nigerian State Rys. Otway-Ruthven was formerly in the Loco. Dept. of the L.B. & S.C. Ry.

M.F. Ryan. 107.
Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer, of the L. & S. W. Ry., had been appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Central Argentine Ry.

N.E. Ry 0-8-0 goods engine at St. Etienne Shops of the R.O.D. 108. illustration
R.O.D. 939 (photograph only)

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Ry. and its locomotives. 108-10. 5 illustrations
Four inside cylinder 4-4-0 supplied by Kitson & Co. WN 3124-7/1887. Fitted with wedge horns. In 1902-4 two (Nos. 10 and 11) werre fitted with equalizers between driving and trailing springs, but these were later removed. In 1910 a new boiler with steel firebox was fitted to No.  11 and in 1911 No. 12 was similarly modified. In 1916 No. 9 was rebuilt at Kingston with new boiler, cab, etc (fig. 25). On the Montego Bay section the new locomotives (Nos. 18, 20 and 21) were landed at Montego Bay and erected there. The new management ordered Americanboutside cylinder 4-6-0s wwith bar frames annd steel fireboxes. Bogies were of the swing link type. Le Chatelier water repression brakes were fitted, but were dismntled by 1902 due to trouble with cylindrr covers especially on the compound engines. 

The work of the British Engineering Standards Association as applied to locomotives and rolling stock. 110-12. 4 diagrams
Steel plates, angles and rivets for locomotives; Copper plates for locomotive fireboxes; Copper rods for locomotive stays, rivets, etc.; Copper tubes for locomotive boilers; Brass tubes for locomotive boilers; Seamless copper tubes for locomotive fuel pipes, etc; Copper-drawn weldless steel tubes for locomotive boilers; Charcoal iron lapwelded boiler tubes.

[Metre gauge locomotive at Shaiba Repair Shops, Mesopotamia]. 112.
Photograph of small tank engine captured from German Army at Baghdad.

London & North Western Ry. 112
Several of the Overseas engines were in Crewe Works, undergoing repairs. So far only one of these has been put into service ·again. This is No. 3404 (recently re-numbered 2437): It was stationed at Crewe South, and still has the large tender, with which it was sent to France. A new series of 4-6-0 passenger engines, Prince of Wales class, was in hand at Crewe Nos. 33, 388, 1123, 1215, 1351, 1437, 1670, 1732, 2073 and 2285. The latest four-cylinder compound passenger engine to be converted to two-cylinder simple (Renown class) was No. 1901 Jubilee. Another of the 18 in. goods locomotives, No. 812, had been broken up.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section II: Sub-section II. 113-17. 3 diagrams, table
British Standard formula. Modulus of elasticity. Stress strain behaviour.

Labour-saving locomotives, New South Wales Govt. Rys. 117
E.E. Lucy modifications to K class: superheaters, top feed, smokebox ash eejectors, rocker bar grates annd hopper as pans with slides to automatically dump the ashes. Improved lubrication. Tests on route to Ben Lomond, over 4000 feet above Sydney.

"The Cologne Express", British Army Service. 117-18.
Four dining car trains per day run between Calais and Cologne tto provide leave: many worked by Prussian State Railways four-cylinder compounds. A Sapper officer, D. McAulay snt details of timetable and names of trains.

New coal wagons, Bengal Nagpur Ry. 118. illustration
Four wheel 21 ton for locomotive coal

Train lighting notes. 119. illustration
Accounts given in the few books on train lighting make no mention of a system which was installed on a train of the Great Northern Ry. of Ireland in the early part of 1892 and as it worked very successfully, it is worthy of record. The regulating apparatus was on similar lines to one or two of recent times. Wm. Curtis & Sons, Dublin. were the contractors and Maurice Pitman carried out the work for them.
As with all train lighting systems of that period (up to 1894 when the Stone's dynamo was launched) the whole train of five coaches was lighted from one equipment fitted in the brake van. The illustration shows the regulating apparatus and battery erected in Van No. 260. There were two solenoids, the armatures of which were attached to a contactor passing over eight contacts. No. I solenoid was in the main circuit and controlled two sets of resistances simultaneously, one in series with the battery and the other in the dynamo field circuit. The second solenoid inserted resistances in the lamp circuit. The main circuit was closed at a pre-determined speed of the train by means of a magnetic cut-in-and-out switch. The battery consisted of 25 cells and a total of 65 lamps in the five coaches.
This equipment was in operation for some time on a Dublin-Belfast train and worked well and without trouble. The voltage variation at the lamps barely exceeded three volts-quite a good result at 50 volts with a single battery system. Although successful this installation was not extended on account of the introduction of independent generating sets on each coach, whereby the difficulties a,rising when vehicles are uncoupled or mixed are- avoided. It is interesting to note that in those days the public were quite pleased and contented with two 6-candle power lamps in the 2nd and 3rd- class and four 5-candle power in the 1st-class compartments. Nowadays double that candle power is considered a minimum illumination.
The dynamo in the Curtis System was placed on the floor of the van and run bv means of a long belt passing through the floor and over jockey pulleys to a pulley on the centre axle. About this time the Great Northern Ry. of England was also experimenting with a complete train supplied with light from a Brush dynamo, and the Midland Ry. had also a similar system with a Holmes dynamo. In view of the future extension of electric lighting of trains, it is very possible that the operating of groups of carriages and entire trains from one generating set will grow in popularity, as there is obviously considerable economy in such an arrangement. The L. & N.W., S.E. & C. Ry. and others have been operating such groups for several years, and in India the plan has been adopted very generally, only the upper class carriages being fitted with dynamos and cells, the " thirds" being simply wired. To develop it further a simple method must be devised by which the generator and battery are automatically able to supply a large or small number of coupled coaches without noticeable alteration of lamp voltage or damage to the batteries. It must be done without calling upon the traffic department to make special adjustments when carriages are coupled or uncoupled. Meanwhile there are many close-coupled and set trains where single generator equipments could be economically adopted and the use of half-watt lamps would help forward such a project.

Reviews. 119

Elementary manual of heat. engines. Prof. Jamieson and Ewart S. Andrews. London: Chas. Griffin & Co., 119
This is the 16th iedition of Prof. Jamieson's well-known elementary manual, which was largely revised by him in 1911. It serves the purpose of being an easy introduction to Prof. Jamieson's and other more advanced text-books on Steam and Heat Engines, and is a very suitable book for the ycung beginner or apprentice. The early lessons are devoted to elementary mensuration and the physics of heat. The formation of steam and the work done in the conversion of water into steam are then dealt with, and are followed by lessons on expansion curves, mean pressures, etc., and the elementary analysis of indicator diagrams. In dealing with the calculation of horse-power from the diagrams we note that the symbol N is used to denote the number of strokes per minute of an engine, instead of the more usual number of revolutio~s per minute. This we think is apt to be confusing to the beginner, and since it is always the number of revolutions that is counted, it seems better to let this be denoted by N, and multiply by the factor Q in the usual formula. The latter half of.the book is devoted to descriptions and illustrations of various types of engines and details, condensers, air-pumps and boilers with their fittings. Lecture twenty-eight deals with locomotives and on this we are obliged to offer a few criticisms. The illustration on page 177 of the Caledonian outside cylinder engine is that of a class long since obsolete, and might with advantage be replaced in future editions with a more modern example. Mr. Webb's engine Hardwicke, is described on page 178 as a four- cylinder compound, whereas it was a sister engine to the Charles Dickens, previously referred to by the author. This however would be an error of small importance were it not that the famous run of the Hardwicke between Crewe and Carlisle is wrongly ascribed to the four-cylinder compound class. Four diagrams of modern Great Western engines are given, followed by a lengthy description with detail drawings of the tandem compound tank engines of the French Ceinture Railway. These French engines are examples of an isolated and unusual design, which has not been repeated elsewhere, and though interesting they are much too complicated for the average first year student to master. We think that it would have been preferable to have described a simple straight- forward two-cylinder engine of the standard British design. A specification with illustration is given of a locomotive boiler of 1875 design, in which wrought-iron Low Moor plates and other details are specified. As all modern boilers are now made of mild steel, this out-of-date specification might with advantage be replaced in future editions by a more modern one, since it is liable to mislead the young student. Finally there are short lessons on steam turbines, gas engines, gas producers and oil engines. The book is copiously illustrated, the line drawings being good and clear, but the half-tone illustrations leave a good deal to be desired. It is undoubtedly a useful book for the beginner, the explanations being given in simple language easy to understand, and many examples are worked out. A few judicious modifications such as those pointed out above might with advantage bemade in future editions.

Great Northern Ry. 120
The passenger tank engines in the London Suburban district were again being painted in the standard livery of the company, namely, bright green with black panelling and white lines. During WW1 a dark grey colour with white lines was adopted. Delivery of the fifteen 2-8-0 engines is being taken, numbers from 462 to 471 being in service ..

Metropolitan Ry. 120
The Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. were building new passenger coaches, for electric working, with five doors each side, instead of the previousl two end and' one middle door. There were no gangways at the ends, and seating accommodation was provided here to take the place of that taken by the new doorways. The new cars will seat fifty-eight passengers instead of fifty-six.

Metropolitan District Ry. 120
The new all-steel cars for this line were to have six doors each side.

William Beardmore & Co., Ltd., 120
Secured an order from the Crown Agents for the Colonies for nineteen locomotives of the Emir class, for the Nigerian Rys., 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. These engines are to be fitted with the Schmidt superheater.

Obituary. 120
Death of Edward G. A. Gobert, B.Sc., on 26 May 1919, at Newbury Park, Ilford, after a short illness. Gobert was born at Abbeville, France, in 1857, and was the only son of Charles Gobert, the friend of Charcot and Director of Salpetriere and other great Parisian hospitals. Educated at the College Stanislas, where he had for class-mate the Pririce of the Asturias, afterwards Alfonso XII. and father of the present Spanish monarch, he subsequently attended the College Chaptal and obtained his degree at the early age of seventeen. Coming to England in 1878 he became known as a technical writer in engineering and scientific journals under the pseudonym of Mernök, his speciality being locomotive engineering. He became technical adviser to leading firms of patent agents at home and abroad, and was latterly in the service of the War Office.

[James Bull]. 120. illustration (portrait)
It is with great regret that we have to announce the death of Mr. James Bull at his home at Crewe, on 10 June 1919, after a brief illness. . Bull was born at Peterborough in September. 1832, and was therefore in his 87th year when he died. He entered the service of tbe L. & N. W. Ry. (Southern Division) under J. E. McConnell, at the age of fourteen, and became fireman and later driver on the main line. He was transferred to Crewe in 1863, and for many years travelled over the whole of the system inspecting the prevention of fire and water arrangements. He retired June joth, 1903, after 57 years' service with the L. & N. W. R., and was, we believe, the last of the old Southern Division men. The very complete history of the locomotives of the Southern Division of the L. & N. W. R., which appeared in this journal in 1897-8, was largely based on the very complete notes collected by the late Mr. Bull.

North British Ry. 120
A small 0-4-0 tank No. 50 was shunting at Chester.

London & South Western Ry. 120
The 0-4-0 motor tank locos. Nos. 736 to 744 were sold to the Inland Waterways & Docks Department of the War Office a year or more ago. They have been repainted and numbered in the I.W. & D. stock, and one or two were recently shunting at Richborough and one at Shoeburyness.

Number 324 (15 August 1919)

Consolidation locomotives: Madras & Southern Mahratta Ry. 121. illustration
Standard 2-8-0 built by Kitson & Co. Ltd.

2-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive, Chemin de Fer du Nord. 122-3. diagram (side elevation)

Four-coupled passenger engines, Ulster Ry. 124-5. 2 illustrations
Four 2-4-0 with 6ft diameter coupled wheels built by Beyer Peacock in 1863 WN 367-70; original RN 126-9 named Ulster, Munster Leinster and Connaught. Rebuilt by Great Northern Railway (Ireland); first not scapped until 1903.

W. Paterson and H.C. Webster. Locomotive coal. 125-9. 6 diagrams
Sings praises of the Barnsley seam which extended into Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire as well as Yorkshire; and of the enormous residual reserves in the Midlands Coalfield. Diagrams show correrct methods of stacking and tamping for storage and coaling stage design. Jimmys to sharpen the locomotive exhaust are mentioned in the text and illustrated

The work of the British Engineering Standards Association as related to locomotives and rolling stock. The standardization of locomotives for Indian railways. 129-32. 2 tables
Military requirements were paramount to enable troops to be moved quickly to keep the natives in their places. The 5ft 6in gauge had 4-4-0, 0-6-0, 2-6-4T, 4-4-2, 4-6-0 and 2-8-0 standard designs with dimensions tabulated. Similarly the metre gauge locomotives were 4-6-0 passengrt, 4-6-0 mixed traffic, 4-8-0 and 2-6-2T of dimensions tabulated.

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaican Government Ry. and its locomotives. 132-4. 3 illustrations
No. 17: 2-cylinder compound 4-6-0 built by Rhode Island Locomotive Works WN 2651/1891. No. 18 was a 2-4-4T built by Rhode Island Locomotive Works WN 2859/1893, but assembled at Montego Bay. No. 19 was Rogers two cylinder cross compound 4-6-0 WN 4875/1893, Next part page 153

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs, Section II. Mathematical design of the spring. Sub-Section C. The design. 134-5.

Baldwin Locomotive Works. 135
Alba B. Johnson President of Baldwin Locomotive Works: retired and succeeded by Samuel M. Vauclain. Johnson had been associated with  Works since 1877.

The Simplex petrol shunting locomotive. 135-6. illustration
Manufactured by Motor Rail & Tram Co. of Bedford

Steel-covered goods wagon for the Central Argentine Ry. 136-7. illustration
Hurst Nelson constructed for 5ft 6in gauge to transport grain. Inspected by Livesey, Son & Henderson.

Electrical train signalling instruments for railway working. 137. diagram.
Circui9t diagram for quite a complex theopretical? location

Reviews. 138

A textbook of heat and heat engines. Volume 1. Jamieson and Ewart S. Andrews. Chatles Griffin & Co.
18th edition divided into 2 volumes. Lecture on locomotive engines extended to only sixteen pages. Very good folding plate of Great Southern & Western Railway four-cylinder 4-6-0. Critices inclusion of cross section of "long defunct" Webb threee cylinder compound and lack of descriptionsn of Stephenson and Walschaerts valve gear

Transport: the magic carpet of industry. J.P. Griffiths. London: George Philips & Son.
Intended for young people. Looks back to the major caravan routes as well as "modern" transport

Number 325 (15 September 1919)

New superheater "Clan" class passenger locomotive, Highland Ry. 139. illustration
C. Cumming, locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent of the Highland Ry., supplied accompanying photograph and particulars of one of the new class of 4-6-0 passenger engines intended principally for working heavy trains between Inverness and Perth. Four of these engines had been delivered by R. and W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., Newcastle-on-Tyne, and were performing excellent work with heavy train loads on the gradients over the Grampians. The engines had cylinders 21 in. diameter, with a stroke of 26 in. The coupled wheels were 6 ft. in diameter and the total wheel base of engine and tender 50 ft. Length of engine and tender over buffers 59 ft. 3 in. As noted in our last issue these engines bear names and numbers as follows: 49 Clan Campbell, (illustrated) 51 Clan Fraser, 52 Clan Munro (all stationed at Perth) and 53 Clan Stewart (at Inverness). The boiler was fitted with a Robinson superheater, working on the circulating damperless system, while the horizontal outside cylinders had pistons provided with tail rods, are supplied with Robinson piston valves of the inside admission pattern, actuated by Walschaert valve gear. Wakefield's mechanical lubricator supplied oil to the valves, pistons, etc., as well as to all wheel bearings except the bogie wheels. The Belpaire firebox is surmounted with Ross patent " pop " safety valves, the working pressure of the boiler being 170 lb. per sq. in. The heating surface of the tubes was 919 ft2. and of the superheater smoke tubes 409 ft2. while the fire-box provides an additional 139 ft2. making the total surface exposed to heat 1,467 ft2

London & North Western Ry. 139
Further 4-6-0 passenger engines of Prince of Wales class were in hand at Crewe½Nos. 444, 497, 501, 522, 601, 783, 924, 1125, 1290 and 1307. Of the thirty 2-8-0 mineral engines, which the L. & N.W. Ry. had taken over from the Ministry of Munitions, nine were in service bearing L. & N. W. numbers, as follows: 56, 67, 635, 686, 812, 969, 1325, 1341 and 1620. Nos. 1902 Black Prince and 1939 Temeraire, four-cylinder compounds of the Jubilee class were being converted into two-cylinder simples of the Renown class. No. 1285, four-cylinder compound mineral engine, had been converted to simple and superheated. Engines recently withdrawn from service were Nos. 3179, 3197 and 3275 (Special DX goods) ; 686 (2-4-2 tank) and 3088 (Coal engine). No. 973, 18-in. tank, has been fitted with slide valves.

Shunting loco. with spark arresting chimney, G.W. Ry. 140.
Several of the 0-6-0 shunting tank engines of the Great Western Ry. were fitted during the WW1 period with very effective conical spark arresting chimneys, for use at the National Shell Factory at Hayes, the Ordnance and Air Force Depot at Didcot and other points where munitions were dealt with. By the courtesy of G.J. Churchward, chief mechanical engineer, we are able to reproduce a photograph of one of the engines so equipped. The engine is one of a numerous class built at Swindon, in December, 1877, with cylinders 17 in. by 24 in., and 4 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels. Originally they had saddle tanks, but had been rebuilt in recent years and supplied with the standard wing or pannier tanks of 800 gallons capacity. The special chimney shown is easily detached when desired, and is designed to churn and break up the sparks so that they are completely extinguished by the time they escape to the atmosphere. Illustrated 0-6-0PT No. 1282

North British Ry. 140
The twenty-five goods engines (18 in. by 26 in.) which were sent to France had returned to Cowlairs Works and were undergoing light repairs before recommencing work on the N. B. Ry. All these engines, which were built by Holmes, were rebuilt between 1912 and 1915 with large boilers and the new square cabs. At the suggestion of Whitelaw, the chairman, they were being named after something or somebody connected with the Great War. The new names are painted on the driving splashers. Those noted so far were—No. 176 French, 608 Foch, 650 Haig, 648 Byng, 661 Old Bill, 662 Birdwood, 682 Joffre, others were Plumer, Rheims, and St. Quentin. All locomotives on the N. B. Ry. were being classified by letters. The classification plate was put on the cab or bunker sides directly above the ordinary number plate.

Furness Ry. 140
Five tank engines of the 4-6-4 type had been ordered from Kitson & Co., Ltd., Leeds. These engines were claimed to be 33% more powerful than any other class in service on the system. The cylinders would be 19½ in. diameter and 26 in. stroke, placed between the frames, and fitted with piston valves on top, driven by ordinary link motion. The coupled wheels will be 5 ft. 8 in. diameter, 6 ft. 7½ in. centres, with an axle weight of about 18¼ tons. The boiler 5 ft. in diameter, and fitted with Belpaire firebox, having a total heating surface of about 2,000 sq. ft. and a grate area of 26 sq. ft. The working pressure 170 psi. Tractive force at 85 per cent. of the working pressure 21,000 lbf. Estimated total weight 95 tons, and the capacity of the tanks 2,200 gallons of water ; the bunker will carry four tons of coal. An engine of this type and weight has been rendered possible by the strengthening of the various viaducts and bridges which has taken place during the past ten years. At the carriage shops of the Furness Ry. at Barrow a number of third-class bogie carriages were in hand. These vehicles to have nine compartments, the length over mouldings being 57 ft. and the extreme width 9 ft. Pressed steel bogies of Leeds Forge manufacture with 9 ft. wheelbase to be used, having their centre pivots spaced 39 ft. apart. Electric lighting throughout is by Vickers' system. The underframe is of steel and the body built up of teak and oak. Steel disc wheels will be used. Steam heat and vacuum brake and alarm signals in each compartment are to be fitted. The coaches painted the new style of blue, with gilt lettering.

Cambrian Rys. 140
Considerable improvements made in summer service. The through bi-weekly train from Birmingham ran from Moat Lane to Dovey Junction and did not stop at Machynlleth. On the return journey it ran from Machynlleth to Welshpool, this being the only stop between Machynlleth and Wolverhampton. Also one train daily and another on Saturdays does not stop at Oswestry, but runs through from Welshpool to Whitchurch.

Kerr, Stuart & Co., Ltd. , etc. 140
Contract for eight 0-4-4 tank locomotives from the Metropolitan Ry. Eleven 4-6-0 type locomotives for the Ceylon Government Rys. to be built by Robert Stephenson & Co., Ltd. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., were to build six 2-8-0 tender engines for the Gold Coast Govt. Rys., and Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. two 4-8-0 type for the Uganda Ry. Orders had been placed with the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., for sixteen 4-6-2 type locomotives for the Federated Malay States Rys., as well as ten engines for the Sudan Govt. Rys. All these engines are to be fitted with the Robinson superheater.

Messrs. Vivian & Sons Works locomotives, Swansea. 141-3. 5 illustrations
Descriptions and illustrations of 0-6-0ST built by Neath Abbey Iron Co, in 1855 for Vivian; and 0-4-0STs No. 2 constructed by Vivian & Sons at Swansea, No. 3 built by Hughes of Loughborough; No. 4 built buy Andrew Barclay & Sons and two built by R. & W. Hawthorn & Leslie (No.5 illustrated)

James Watt. 143-4.
100 years since death and plans for celebrations/comjmemorations in Glasgow and Birmingham: at latter plans for 16-18 September included a service at Hansworth Parish Church where Rev. E.W. Barnes, Canon of Westminster was to preach. Visits to Watt engines at Ocker Hill and Bordesley were planned,

Storage battery locomotive, Park Works, Manchester. 144-5. illustration
For Mather & Platt; built by Hugh Wood & Co of Newcastle-on-Tyne with Edison Accunulators

Enlarging the loading gauge of our railways. 145-6.  diagram
Eric Geddes as Minister of Transport outlined in the House of Commons the need to standardize the loading gauge in Britain and cited the progress made by the Indian Railway Board. This last was lampooned by the Editor as India supported two track gauges. It also mentions the Berne gauge common throughout most of Europe

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs, Section II. Mathematical design of the spring. Sub-Section C. The design, 146-7. 3  diagrams
Shape of beam: Rhombus or two rectangular one being appropriate for dynamometers

W. Paterson and H.C. Webster. Running shed precautions. 148-50. 4 diagrams
Fire risk of old timer structures and especially smoke vents. Storage of calcium carbide covered by the Petroleum Act 1871-1881. Location of fire extinguishing buckets, etc. Protection of water cranes from freezing; also the use of water cranes to extinguish fires.

Roller bearings as applied to railway rolling stock. 150-2. 9 diagrams
Design of cages; alloy steels; Ransome & Marles Bearing Co. Ltd; tapered bearings; Hyatt type; axleboxes.

An apology for War work. 152.
Edgar Allen & Co. Ltd booklet describing WW1 activity

The London & South Western Ry. locomotive history. 153.
Errata and addenda for series published between 1903 and 1908. Locomotive Mag.,1903, 9, 352: add No. 63 Alecto one of three 6-ft passenger engines manufactured at Nine Elms in October 1866 WN 33 with outside 17 x 21-in cylinders; scrapped in 1890. Locomotive Mag., 1907, 13, 195 (KPJ: error within errata 1907 misprinted as 1917): Neilson goods engines: No. 69 renumbered 83 not 82; No. 71 renumbered 84 not 83. Numbers 101 and 105 were not renumbered. On same page R. Stephenson & Co. numbers also amended. Locomotive Mag., 1906, 12, 39 Beyer Peacock six-coupled goods engines. Also locomotives sequestered by Government or loaned to other companies during WW1

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Ry. and its locomotives. 153-5. 4 illustrations
Previous part 132. Fig. 30: Rogers 4-4-0 WN 4909/1893: assembled at Montego Bay. 16 x 26-in cylinders; 5-ft 2-in coupled wheels; 1142-ft2 total heating surface; 15.5-ft2 grate area, 180 psi boiler pressure. Withdrawn in September 1915. Following this engine came Rhode Island Co. 2-6-4T compound WN 3008-9//1894; running numbers 21 and 22; No. 21 erected at Montego Bay. 18 x 24-in high pressure cylinder and 28 x 24-in low pressure cylinder, 4-ft 2-in. coupled wheels, 944-ft2 total heating surface; 17.6-ft2 grate area, 180 psi boiler pressure. Leading end carried on a double radial truck. Fig. 31. These engines were not very satisfactory: No. 22 broke its main frame in 1899 and again in 1905 and was scrapped in 1907. No. 21 was withdrawn in 1906 and scrapped in 1908. Fig. 32 No. 19 cross compound 4-6-0 with 20 x 26-in high pressure cylinder, 31 x 26-in low pressure cylinder, 4-ft 2-in. coupled wheels, 1769-ft2 total heating surface; 26.6-ft2 grate area, 180 psi boiler pressure. Nos. 23-26 were Rogers WN 5053-6/1895 cross compound 4-6-0s, similar to No. 19 but with 2-in larger diameter boiler and 2-in larger low pressure cylinders. The front end was carried on four wheel radial trucks. A contractors shunting locomotive (0-6-0) was landed at Port Antonio and is shown in Fig. 33. It ha d bar frames. It was scrapped in 1907. See also letter from G.F. Starbuck on page 195

Transfers on rolling stock. 156-7. 8  diagrams
Mainly to indicate numbers: method of applying them to the varnished bodywork during correct period of tack. Cite J.H. Butcher of Birmingham as a major supplier of transfers

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 157-60. 6 illustrations
Cairo Helouan Railway was opened in 1889 to serve the health resort 16 miles south of Cairo. It also served the stone quarries at Tourrah. The line had been aborbed by the Egyptian  State Railways whose Chief Mechanical Engineer was R.G. Peckitt  Locomotives Nos. 1 and 2 were supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co.: they were 2-4-0T with 15¼ x 22-in. cylinders; 3-ft 6-in coupled wheels, 907ft2 total heating surface, 17¾ft2 grate area and 1400 psi boiler pressure. Fig. 1 shows No. 4 and Fig. 2 shows No. 6.  Egyptian State Railways locomotives associated with the line included No. 506, an 0-6-0T, W,G. Bagnall 2-4-2T No. 10 and Beyer Peacock 0-4-4T  supplied in 1911.

North Wales Granite Co. 160. illustration
Former Metropolitan Railway No. 34 4-4-0T built by Beyer Peacock in 1879, sold to Bradford Corporation in 1906 for service on the Nidd Valley Light Railway when named Milner, but was too heavy and sold in January 1914 to the North Wales Granite Co. where it was named Conway.

The late Mr. Andrew Carnegie. 160
The romantic career of a working lad who became a multi-millionaire and his munificent gifts in the interests of education and the improvement of the workers, have already been given world-wide publicity in the Press. Our interest lies in the fact that Andrew Carnegie in his early days was a railway man, and laid the foundatron of his fortune while in the railway service.
After having charge of a stationary engine and boiler located in a cellar in Allegheny, Pa., he took up the calling of a telegraph boy for the Ohio Telegraph Co., and learning how to work the telegraphic instruments was given the post of operator. His energy and perseverance cornmended him to the notice of the President of the Pennsylvania RR— Mr. Thos A. Scott—who offered him first the position of telegraph operator, and then made him his private secretary. It was while so engaged that an improved sleeping car was brought to the notice of the Pennsylvania RR by a Mr. Woodruff, who proposed to introduce cars superior to any then running. As early as 1837 a so-called sleeping car had been built by a Philadelphia firm, Embury & Dash was tried on the Curnberland Valley RR (now part of the P.RR) in 1838. It ran between Chambersburg and Harrisburg. It was named Chambersburg, that point being the farthest west then reached by the railway. The car was 36 ft. long by 8 ft. wide, and had accommodation for twenty-four passengers. The seats were longitudinal and the upper bunks plain wood benches, hinged from the sides.
The Woodruff car was a decided advance, although modest in finish compared with those of Pullman to come later. The Pennsylvania favoured the introduction of the Woodruff car and a Company was formed to exploit the business under the title of Knight. Myer and others. Mr. Carnegie secured an interest in the concern, and thereby made his first step to fortune. This firm continued to run sleeping cars on many of the chief railroads for many years. until finally bought up by the Pullman Company. It is interesting to note that it was due to having to take a trip in one of these cars that the late G.M. Pullman conceived the idea of providing more comfortable and better-equipped cars, and after some experiments persuaded the Chicago & Alton R.R. to allow him to convert two of the ordinary day cars into "sleepers." These cars proved a success and practically formed the commencement of the Pullman Company.
Returning to the subject of our notes, we may add that Carnegie always evinced great interest in his old calling, and when our late friend, Dr. Angus Sinclair, visited this country he invariablv found his way to Skibo Castle, where a warm welcome awaited him, and many a chat took place on railway matters. Carnegie was a fervent believer in work and the dignity of labour, ann his career was one which should commend itself to the study of the young generation, although the modern ideas of nationalizing our industries will not tend to multiply such examples of the success of self-help. He s considered a good education necessary for a man's welfare, as if his gifts to learning testify. Carnegie died at Lenox, Massachusetts, US.A., on 11 August in his 82nd year.

Number 326 (15 October 1919)

4-6-4 tank locomotive, Java State Railways. 163-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Swiss Locomotive Company of Winterthur designed by J.C. Shafer, Chief Engineer to the Technical Department of the Colonial Ministry. Delivery delayed by WW1.

Class "W" rebuilt tank locomotive, North Eastern Ry. 164-5. diagram (side elevation)
Raven rebuild of Wilson Worsdell Whitby tanks (4-6-0T) with a radial axle and larger bunker to become 4-6-2T

American-built "Mikado" locomotive: Paris-Orleans Railway. 165. illustration
American Locomotive Company 2-8-2  with 50.2ft2 grate area

Six coupled goods engines, Great Northern Ry. (I). 165-6. 2 illustrations
Glover rebuilds of Beyer Peacock 0-6-0 locomotives and similar locomotives built at Dundalk Works between 1893 and 1896. Illustrated No. 83 Newry (not descibed in text) and No. 32 (gormerly Drogheda: as rebuilt)

Curiosities of locomotive boiler design. 167-9. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations plus 1 front semi-cross section))
2-4-0WT build by E.B. Wilson & Co. with two separate boiler barrels and fireboxes, but with a common smokebox probably in a bid to eliminate smoke. The locomotice had 12½ x 18-in cylinders, 5-ft coupled wheels, 7552ft2 total heating surface and 7.5ft2 grate area. The second locomotive was a Belgian 2-4-2 with a triplicat ed boiler barrel iin an endeavour to increase boiler area whilst achieving a low centre of gravity. it was built by Société St. Léonard of Liége for the Begian State Railways. A nearly 50% increase in heating surface was achieved, but the cost was inceased and the design ws not perpetuated.

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Ry. and its locomotives. 169-71. 5 illustrations
4-8-0 with outside cylinders supplied by Kitson & Co. WN 3986-8/1901 given running numbers 27-29. They had plate frames; 19½ x 24-in cylinders, 3-ft 10-in coupled wheels, 1412ft2 total heating surface, 24.2ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure. In 1914 No 29 was rebuilt with a larger Belpaire boiler with a steel firebox and Crosby pop safety valves. In 1915 No, 28 was similarly rebuilt: the new dimensions were 2122ft2 total heating surface and 30ft2 grate area .

Demobilised War Office locomotives, Great Western Ry. 171. illustration
We understand there were 521 locomotives of the 2-8-0 type built for the War Office to the designs of J.G. Robinson. Several of these were in hand at the time of the Armistice. and as there was no further use for them Overseas, most of them have found their way on to the English lines. The Great Western have quite a number, also the London & North Western, while others have been put into service on the Caledonian, S.E. & C. and Great Central. Illustrateion of one of the Great Western engines (No. 3006), and it will be noted these have been allotted numbers in their list which were formerly borne by the famous single wheelers of Dean's design. These engines weigh 76 tons — 124 tons with the tender — so that they cannot be used indiscriminately over the whole system, as their axle loads exceed what is permissible, but they may be found on most parts of the main line. It is worth noting that these engines are fitted with the air brake, and are the only GWR locomotives not fitted with the vacuum brake, whereas on the London & North Western they are the first and only locomotives fitted with the air brake. A large number of these engines have lately been standing at the Tattenham Corner (Epsom Downs) station of the S.E. & C.R. sent home from France, via Richborough.

North Eastern Ry. 171.
When visiting the Stooperdale Boiler shop of the N.E. Ry. at Darlington recently we were interested to note the methods adopted for ensuring tight fitting firebox stays. Every stay is provided as required in semi-automatic lathes, which are arranged in close proximity to the work of boiler mounting. The stays are not made in large numbers, but everyone is produced and made for a particular fire-box, and used as soon as made. This is done to provide for variation through wear and slight differences in manipulation. It is claimed that this method prevents any risk of there heing other than exact fits.
Twenty new 0-6-0 side tank shunting engines have recently been completed at North Road Works, Darlington, numbered 2173 to 2192. They are similar to the earlier engines of this class, but have half a ton more coal capacity in the bunkers, are fitted with Ross Pop safety valves, and Gresham and Craven injectors.
Most of the goods and mixed traffic engines now have their numbers in large figures painted on the tenders or tanks, while tender engines have also a very small cast iron number plate fixed on the cab sides.

Baldwin Locomotive Works. 171
Secured an order for fifty locomotives for the Egyptian State Rys. and are also to supply the Government of Poland with 150 Consolidation type engines similar to those supplied for the American Military Rys. in France.

Siamese State Rys. 171.
During July through passenger and goods traffic was begun on the Siamese Southern line (metre gauge) and connection effected with the Federated Malay States Rys. system. Three trains are now leaving Bangkok weekly and the mails are carried by this service. . Passengers are now able to make a continuous trip by rail between the capital of Siam and the chief port of the Straits Settlements, avoiding a three to five days' sea trip.

Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 171
T.R. Bonner, Locomotive Superintendent. of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, retired at the end of September and was succeeded by J.R. McNeill.

2-8-8-0 simple "Mallet" locomotive, Pennsylvania Railroad. 172-5. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
112 ft2 grate area; four 30½ x 32 in. cylinders. James T. Wallis superintendent of motive power.

Pennsylvania Railroad. 175.
110 foot turntable at Juniata Works

W. Paterson and H.C. Webster. Educational and recreation facilities afforded to loco. men. 175-7. 2 plans, table

James Watt Centenary. 178.
Memorial service at Handworth Church with an address by Canon E.W. Barnes. Also assessment of engine remains still extant at Bordesley, Ocker Hill and Lawley Street

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section II: Mathematical design of the spring. Sub-section C. The design. 178-80.  4 diagrams

G. Goddard. Smokebox construction and design. 180-2. 8 diagrams.

Number 327 (15 November 1919)

Heavy freight locomotive, Alsace-Lorraine Rys. 183-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Prussian State Railways G12 class three cylinder 2-10-0 as designed by Henschel  & Sohn and built by Société Alsacienne at their Graffenstaden works. The inside cylinder was activated by via shafts and combination levers from the outside Walschaerts valve gear. Knorr feed-water heaters were fitted.

Great Eastern Ry. 184
Pullman cars to be attached to some principal trains.

Superheated express locomotive, Class $B, New Zealand Govt. Rys. 185. illustration
4-6-2 Pacifics built at Addinngton workshops to design of H.H. Jackson, chief mechanical engineer, for Wellington to Taihape service: further locomotives  to be built by A. & G. Price Ltd. of Thames

[Woolwich Arsenal wagon output]. 185
2000 to be built for North Eastern and 500 for Great Western Railways

The Highland Ry. and its locomotives. 185-6. illustration
P. Drummond Big Ben 4-4-0 class built North British Locomotive Co. WN 18269-72/1908 and 18803-4/1909.

R.L.B. By rail from Alexandria to Aleppo. 186-90. 5 illustrations
During World War 1 in 1918 journey made from Alexandria to Ismailia to Kantara; across the Suez Canal; through Gaza to Ludd. At time of Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF). To Junction (for line to Jerusalem) where LNWR 0-6-0 seen. To Ramallah, Damascus, Haifa, the River Jordan where extreme heat experienced; the Sea of Gaililee noted for its mosquitoes and malaria. Baalbek, Homs and Aleppo. Huge range of motive power. Notes Red Cross and Red Crescent medical fascilities

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section II: Mathematical design of the spring. Sub-section C. The design. 190-3.  6 diagrams
Identifies ten different types of laminated spring including semi elliptical, single cantilever, elliptical or bolster and double cantilever

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Railway and its locomotives. 194-5. 3 illustrations
In 1904 Kitson & Co. built Kitson-Meyer 0-6-6-0T WN 4252-4 running numbers 30-2.. They came with two chimneys (the rear one merely to exhaust steam from the rear cylinders, but this was diverted to the main chimney which caused further problems with spark throwing. The rear tanks and bunkers were also extended. "The enegines have not proved very satisfactory being heavy on coal and repairs compared with other engines doing the same work, the character of the line, difficult as it is, hardly justifying the use of a type so expensive in fuel and upkeep.
The next set of engines to be put in service, were practically an American edition of the 27-29 class. They are two 4-8-0 outside cylinder tender engines, built by Baldwin Loco. Works, U.S.A., in 1907 (WN 32475-6), and were put into service early in 1908, being numbered 33 and 34. They are of American pattern with bar frame, etc. Fig. 41 illustrates No. 34. The boilers were of extended wagon-top type with a modified type of Belpaire firebox; the firebox was of steel and provided with direct roof stays; the barrel is composed of two rings, the dome being to the rear of the back one, with safety valves thereon, and two lifting-type injectors provided. The steam chests were above the cylinders with balanced slide valves operated by the usual American pattern of link motion. The crossheads were of the two-bar type with the crosshead between. The bogie is of the swing link type with "two-point" suspension hangers; all the springs of the coupled wheels were equalized and the second pair of coupled wheels, which were the main drivers, were flangeless.

[The Jamaica Government Railway and its locomotives: letter]. G.F. Starbuck
The Jamaica Government locomotive numbered 14, shown on page 155 was of Pennsylvania Railroad design. Your excellent description of the locomotives of this railroad contains the statement that neither the builder's name nor the date of its construction can be ascertained. Undoubtedly it was purchased from that railroad, and was probably built at its Altoona shops in the late 1870's or early 1880's.

North British Ry. 195
There were twenty of the goods engines returned from France at work: namely Nos. 176 French, 608 Foch, 611 Allenby, 612 Ypres, 620 Rawlinson, 621 Monro, 627 Petain, 628 Byng, 631 Aisne, 646 Marne, 647 Albert, 650 Haig, 657 Plumer, 659 Gough, 660 Horne, 661 Ole Bill, 662 Birdwoocl, 666 Somme, 673 Maude and 682 Joffre. Some small outside cylinder side tank shunting engines had been built at Cowlairs, the first two being Nos. 277 and 290. No. 878 Hazeldean was the latest Atlantic at work with a superheater.

Caledonian Ry. 195
Several R.O.D. 2-8-0 G.C. Ry. type goods engines, built by the N.B. Locomotive Co. had been taken over by the Caledonian Ry. Among the numbers noted are 2077, 2078 and 2080.

Obituary. 195
Death of William Kirtley, M.I.C.E. took place at Clapham on 7 October 1919. Mr. Kirtley was 79 years old. At one time in the carriage and wagon department of the Midland Ry., Kirtley was appointed Locomotive Superintendent of the London, Chatham and Dover Ry. in 1874, and held that position until 1898, when the amalgamation with the South Eastern Ry. took place.

The Empire Roller Beatings Co., Ltd. 195
Placed their services at the disposal of the Ministry of Munitions and suspended their ordinary business during the War, had resumed active operations at No. 13, Victoria Street, Westminster, and be closely associated with Ransomes &Rapier, of Ipswich and London, of which Sir Wilfred Stokes, K.B.E., is the chairman. Thomas W. How, M.I.Mech.E., who has conducted the Empire Roller Bearings Co.'s business as managing director since it was established in 1901 will continue in that position and will be assisted by former members of his staff now demobilized .

2-8-8-0 simple "Malllet" locomotive, Pennsylvania Railroad. 196-7. 3 diagrams
Cylinders and motion

London & North Western Ry, 197
Seventy 2-8-0 locootives built for Ministry of Munitions were to be acquired by LNWR.

G. Goddard. Smokebox construction and design. 197-200. 3 diagrams.
Shorter chimneys caused problems with steaming; diameter of the blast pipe nozzle. Influence of Professor Goss of Purdue University, USA. Petticoats. Jets.

Armstrong Whitworth hand pneumatic tools. 200. illustration

Electric train lighting.. 200
German publication assessed whether battery or dynamo was more economic

E.L. Ahrons. Pressing wheels on axles. 201-4.2 illustrations, 4 diagrams
Insstruments for recording pressure. Notes that Stoat's Nest accident on LBSCR in January 1910 was caused by the lateral shifting of a wheel on its seat on the axle.

Number 328 (15 December 1919)

Trial of the first locomotive built at Scotswood Works, Sir W.G. Armtrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. 205. illustration
Delivery of Raven 2-cylinder 0-8- (No. 2253 illustrated) on 12 November 1919; guest conveyed by special train from Newcastle Central to Scotswood Works where Raven drove the locomotive away breaking red, white and blue ribbons. 50 on order. R.B. McColl was manager of the new locomotive manufacturing department.

Mr. J.H. Smellie, D.S.O., O.B.E. 205
Appointed to officiate as locomomotive superintendent of the North Western State Ry of India

Three-cylinder eight-coupled mineral locomotive, North Eastern Ry. 206; 207. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Raven T3 class 0-8-0

Mr Ingham Sutcliffe. 207
Appointed Assistant Chieg Mechanical Enginner Royal Siamese State Railways

Six-coupled side tank engiune: North British Ry. 207. diagram (side & front elevations)
Compact 0-6-0T: treated as a new design

Consolidation for the French State Rys. 208-9. illustration
2-8-0 supplied by Vulcan Foundry.

Snowplough, South Hetton Colliery. 209-10. illustration
Hackworth 0-6-0 used at Seaham Harbour

Electric battery locomotive for an Irish shipyard. 210. 2 illustrations
Tramcar type equipment supplied by British Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co. Photograph shows locomotive hauling a Dublin & South Eastern Railway wagon.

P.C. Dewhurst. The Jamaica Government Railway and its locomotives. 211-13. 5 illustrations
Baldwin 2-8-2 WN 36163-4/1913 RN 35-6 (No. 35 illustrated); Kitson 0-6-0T WN 4937/1913 RN 3 for Rio Minho Valley branch. Baldwin 2-8-2 WN 41059-61; 41298. RN 37-40. Locomotive stock renumbered. Baldwin 4-8-2 WN 43559-60 RN 40-1. Locomotive livery black with white lines. Kingston works employed 500.

Great Eastern Ry. 213
Twenty 1500 class 4-6-0 being suupllied by Beardmore to have Nos. 1541-60. Also five superheated goods Nos. 1250-4.

E.L. Ahrons. The Swindon Locomotive Works of the Great Western Railway. 214-25. 10 illustrations, 12 diagrams, plan

Modern machine tools made by Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. 226-7. 3 diagrams
Diagrams of driving chuck for locomotive wheel lathe, and of the wheel lathe; also mentions large vertical drilling machine for locomotive boiler shells and cylinder boring machines

North British Ry. 227
W.P. Reid to retire at end of 1919 and to be succeeded by Walter Chalmers, chief draughtsman at Cowlairs. John P. Grassick to be locomotive running superintendent.

Belfast and County Down Ry. 227
R.G. Miller, locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent. had retired after forty years service and been succeeded by J.L. Crosthwaite.

An improved grinding wheel. 227
Manufactured  by Bridgeport Safety Emery Wheel Co. in USA 

Pneumatic tools. 228-9. illustration, diagram
Pneumatic hammers and drills: latter included Little David. Manufactured by Ingersoll-Rand Co.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section II: Mathematical design of spring. Sub-Section C. The design. 229-31. 2 diagrams

London & North-Western Ry. 231-2
Seventy of the 2-8-0 engines built for the Ministry of Munitions were to be taken over by the L. & N.W.R  Of these, thirty had been received and numbered in the stock, and several more were at work still bearing the RO.D. designation. The following are particulars of the thirty engines:

R.O.D No. L. & N.W.R  No.





R Stephenson & Co Darlington




N.B. Loco Co Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Queen's Park Works.


Queen's Park Works.


Queen's Park Works.


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Hyde'Park Works


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.


Atlas Works.

All the above engines were dated 1919, and were received direct from the builders.
Several more" Jubilee" class compounds had been converted into two-cylinder simples of the Renown class, including Nos. 1902, 1909 and 1939, while No. 1919 was being dealt with at that date.

Large magnetic chuck for face grinding machine. 232. illustration
Large Magnetic Chuck from USA..

Locomotive building at the Forth Banks Works, Newcastle. 232
Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., hadt completed the eighth of the new class of 4-6-0 goods engines with Walschaerts valve gear, for the Highland Ry. They also had a repeat order in hand for a further four engines of the Clan class 4-6-0 passenger engines, built to the designs of C. Cumrning, the loco. supt. of the Highland Ry. Other engines in hand  were several heavy tank locomotives for the Taff Vale Ry. of the 0-6-2 type, also several tank. engines for the Crown Agents for the Colonies and six large three-cylinder engines for the Argentine North Eastern Ry. The Forth Banks Works were established by Robert Hawthorn, in 1817, within a stone's throw of the present establishment. The marine section was transferred to new works at St. Peters in 1882, and since then the Forth Banks works have been used for locomotive work only. During the war the firm built a large number of petrol and steam locomotives for the War Office, as well as the manufacture of a large number of anti-aircraft shells and other munitions. During the last ten years the works have been largely extended and they are now equipped with the latest machinery and plant for turning out a large output expeditiously. One large shop is devoted entirely to repair work, and this had been kept busy lately on locomotives for the Highland, Hull and Barnsley and other railways.

Twin-bogie composite tea car for Great Northern Ry. 233. illustration, diagram (side and end elevations and plan)
Gresley articulated vehicle with brake van and pantry in one unit and first and third class compartments in the other.

Hopper car, Pennsylvania Railroad. 234. diagram (side elevation and plan)
105 tons capacity

Floor plates for wagons. 234. diagram
Method for joggling adjacent plates where secured to the crib rail.

Spring hangers. 234. diagram
As manufactured on GER

Correspondence. 234

Air brake on Alsace Lorraine Railways. A.W. Rendell
Statement on dispute between Kunze Knorr brake as imposed on German railways from Berlin and Westinghouse Brake Company

International Railway Congress Association. 236
We are pleased to see that the International Railway Congress Association has been reconstituted under the fitle of International Railway Association. The Association is composed of administrations of State Railways and of railways of public interest which have applied for membership and have been admitted by the permanent Commission.
For qualification for membership it is necessary that the railway shall have a minimum extent of sixty-two miles, or thirty-one miles in case of rack railways or analogous Iines. Each railway joining the Association can appoint a number of delegates to a session, in proportion to the size of its system, but limited to a maximum of eight.
The governments of the countries to which the Association extends are invited by the Belgian Government, through the usual diplomatic channels to give their support. They themselves fix the amount of their annual contribution to the Association, and thus become patrons. Each government nominates, through diplomatic channels, a number of delegates in proportion to their subsidy when the sessions are about to be held. The Association is represented by a permanent Commission which it elects and which has its seat at Brussels. Its president is Mr. V. Tondelier,Presiding Director of the Executive Committee of the Belgian State Ry. and its Secretary, Mr. L. Weissenbruch, Chief Engineer and Managing Director of the same Railway. The sessions are now held at intervals of five years. At the closing meeting of the eighth session (Berne 1910) when the 25th anniversary of the foundation of the Association was celebrated, it was decided to hold the ninth Conference in Berlin in 1915. The outbreak of War resulted in the paralysis of activity on the part of the Association for nearly five years. After the return of the Belgian Government to Brussels the Association was placed under sequestration, as a portion of its assets belonged to the subjects of enemy nations. The sequestrator having ordered the dissolution and liquidation of the Society, the railway administrations, members of the Association belonging to thirty-five countries decided to transfer their property to an Association established upon exactly the same basis as before and entitled the International Railway Association. These countries are-Argentine Republic, Belgium and Colonies, Bolivia, Brazil, Chili, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Algeria, Tunis and Colonies, Great Britain and Ireland, India, Protectorates and Colonies, Greece, Haiti, Italy, Japan, Luxemburg, Mexico, Netherlands and Colonies, Nicaragua, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal and Colonies, Roumania, San Salvador, Serbia, Siam, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United States of America and Uruguay. The executive Committee will recommence shortly the publication of its monthly Bulletin in the French and English languages, and steps are to be taken at an early date to settle the place and date of the ninth Conference.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers,. October Meeting. 236
A meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, presided over by B. K. Field, member of council, was held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on the evening of the 29th October to discuss a paper by W. Roland {Rowland], member of the Manchester section entitled An Approximate Method of Estimating Superheat and Boiler Output and Evaporative Efficiency. The paper presented an exhaustive and valuable system of forrnulse with a view to the design of the superheater to produce a given working temperature, and its converse, the working temperature that any particular design of superheater may reasonably be expected to give together with the weight of steam at that temperature that the boiler in question will deliver per pound of fuel. The well-sustained discussion which took place dealt not only with the practical side of the question of superheating but also, in connection with the subject of the paper, light was thrown on the effect of the duty of the locomotive on the efficiency of the superheater, and it was suggested that the forrnulse put forward could be usefully extended to include this factor and thus make up a complete system which would be of the utmost assistance in desiguing operations. The following members took part in the discussion-Messrs. Sanderson, Collins, Dewhurst, Gairns and Head.
The chairman having to leave before the close of the evening, Walter Paterson, Loco. Dept., Low Moor, L. & Y. Ry., and secretary of the Leeds centre, took the chair.