Locomotive Magazine Volume 2 (1897)
key file

Number 13 (January1897)

Railway notes. 1

New locomotives. 1
GNR 4-4-0 No. 400 probably to be used on Manchester services. 5ft 0-6-0 type Nos. 1081-90 (Doncaster WN 702-11). These had injectors under the footplate. Nos. 1081-3 allocated to Peterborough; 1084-5 to Lincoln; 1086-8 to Doncaster and 1089-90 to Bradford
Midland Railway 7ft 9in single No. 115. Neilson supplied 0-6-0 Nos. 2284-2311
Great Eastern Railway 999 claass Nos. 959-68.  All fitted with Westinghouse brake: Nos. 959-63 also fitted with vacuum brake.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 2-4. 2 diagrs.
Figures 35-6.

The colours of locomotives, carriages, and wagons. 4-5.
Taff Vale Railway locomotives: black; coaches dark chocolate lower with cream uppers. Mersey Railway locomotive: dark green; frames and cylinders brown, wheels green; carriages drak lake or medium brown.

Metropolitan locomotives: the later types.. 5-7. 2 illus.
0-4-4T No. 70 and 2-4-0T No. 76

The East Coast vestibule car train. 8. illustration
2-2-2 with seven coach Scotch service consisting of 66ft long vehicles with Gould couplers, Gold system storage heaters and six-wheel bogies. First class coaches fitted with Laycock patent folding tables. The train weighed 270 tons and carried 300 passengers,

After an escapade with an elephant. 10 (plate)

Our picture plate. 11
Paragraph describing "After an escapade with an elephant" which showed Madras Railway locomotive No. 11 after it had a collision with an elephant.

Passenger tank engine for the Waterford, Limerick & Western Railway. 11. illustration.
No. 16 Rocklands illustrated: 4-4-2T supplied by Kitson to J.G. Robinson design: crimson lake livery

Locomotives of the Chemin de Fer du Nord, France. 12. diagram (side elevation)
Petiet 0-4-2 of 1862

Mernoc. Emgerth locomotives (passenger). 12
Refers back to Volume 1 page 150.  These were built by Cavé Kessler of Essingen and were introduced in 1856, not 1862. The four wheels coupled type was derived from the eighty-wheels coupled freight design. They had underhung springs.

Across the U.S.A. by rail. 12-13.
New Jersey to Philadelphia was four-tracked using 100lb rail with water troughs. Some pneumatic signals were employed. The Pennsylvania Limited was an all-Pullman service with electric lighting and fans

[Boiler policy on GER]. 13
All new Great Eastern Railway boilers would accommodate 160 psi pressure.

Four-coupled bogie express engines for the Highland Railway. 14. illustration
Loch Tay illustrated. Fiffteen supplied by Dübs in 1896: all names tabulated

The locomotive of to-day. Chapter I. The boiler. 15-17. diagram
Injectors including exhaust steam type.

The carriage department. 17
At this time the journal did not use headers for its paragraphs in this section

[Midland Railway dining cars]. 17
60ft long with lattice girder underframes; six-wheel bogies, steam heating and gas lighting.

[Manchester, Sheffied & Lincolnshire Ry.]. 17
Lavatory flooring made from mosaic tiles attached to floor cloth.

[Gas tail lamps]. 17
Being used on Great Northern and Great Eastern Railways.

[Composite roof sticks]. 17
Iron and wood used in London, Brighton & South Coast stock

[Midfland Railway door handles]. 17
Complained that carriage door handles were still of stage coach type.

[Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Railway]. 17
Purchase of former Great Eastern Railway coaches: repainted in lake livery.

[Great Eastern Railway coaches]. 17
Square corners to windows

The locomotive erecting shop. 18

[Buzzers on locomotives]. 18
The Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway were using buzzers in place of the second whistle on its locomotives.

[LNWR tenders]. 18.
Comment on wooden frames still in use.

[Positioning internal firebox in USA]. 18
Direct staying assisted

[Compressed air in workshops]. 18
Increasing usage

Bygone locomotive. I. "Mac's mangle". 18. diagram (side elevation)
McConnell 2-2-2 No. 227 built in April 1840.

Reviews. 19.

Our express trains. J. Foster Stackhouse. Stackhouse & Co.
Ottley 3874: collection of 12 illustrations of English trains operated by 12 diferent companies

Correspondence. 19
Pseudonyms were used for enquirers (and most correspondence was in form of questions about locomotives

Stafford, pseud. 19
Glasgow & South Western Railwaay Nos. 304 and 305 were acquired with Ayrshire & Wigtownshire Railway and were built by the Clyde Locomotive Co.

Number 14 (February 1897)

Railway notes. 21

East Coast Route. 21
The partners forming this service will have to pull together more harmoniously if they wish to retain their hold on the Scotch traffic for the ensuing summer. Owing to a dispute between two of them, the North Eastern engines have ceased running north of Berwick since 14 January, and in consequence all trains now how have to stop at the frontier station to change engines. This will, no doubt, divert a good deal of traffic to the West Coast route, by which considerable efforts have lately been made to reduce the number of stops to a minimum, especially with the night trains.

Electric locomotives. 21
The Western Railway of France have just had a trial of the first one of the two new Heilmann electric locomotives they have had built. The engine is similar in its arrangements to the one experimented with three years ago, but is larger and more powerful. The machinery consists of a large locomotive type boiler, a set of high speed vertical engines, driving direct on to two dynamos, one placed at either end of the engine shaft; the current thus generated is taken to the motors arranged on the trucks carrying the locomotive, these have eight wheels each. The total length of the framing is nearly 60-ft., and the covering of the  machinery or ''house'' has a taper front to it, with a clerestory roof; the whole affair has a big and powerful appearance. It is expected to commence running between Paris and Rouen on the fast through trains shortly.

Station indicators. 21
On the Ceinture Ry. in Paris, a train has been fitted up in a similar manner to those running on the District Ry. in London, with a station indicator, the name of the next station being exhibited in each compartment by mechanical means. On the Electric Ry., in London, a simple method of doing this was in use, a sliding plate having the names of the stations on it is passed in front of an aperture in the door at the end of the car, by the conductor, immediately after each stop. It would be better if he had also instructions to shout out the name of the approaching station as is done on the elevateds in New York and Chicago, "Next stop, Borough," and so on.

Highland engines. 21
A modification had been introduced in the painting of these engines by the new locomotive superintendent. Nos. 37 and 93 had appeared with a narrow white line in place of the red one, whilst the initials H.R. appear on the tender, and also in conjunction with the number on the buffer beam.

Caledonian engines. 21
Ten more of the six. coupled engines fitted with the Westinghouse brake, alluded to in our December issue, have been put to work and are numbered 740 to 749. We understand there are to be thirty of them in all.

The Central Railway. 21
Application  was being made to Parliament by the M.S. & L.R. for permission to change the name to that of "The Central Railway."

Furness Ry. locomotives. 21
This company had been advertising for sale some old engines too light for the current traffic. These were the small single tanks built for the company by Sharp, Stewart & Co.  more than thirty years before. Their numbers, 21, 22, 34, 35, 36 and 37, had been filled up by some new four-coupled expresses, built also by Sharp, Stewart & Co., which were put to work in 1896.

New G.W.R. locomotives. 21
More engines of the Pendennis Castle class had been turned out from the Swindon Works. Those now running were: 3272 Amyas, 3273 Armoriel, 3274 Cornishman, 3275 Chough,' 3276 Dartmoor, 3277 Earl of Devon, and 3278 Eddystone.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Raulway. 22-4
Continued from page 4. In May, 1860, there was constructed at the Brighton Works a four-wheels coupled tender engine, which was numbered 59, and is illustrated by Fig. 40. This engine had inside bearings to the driving and trailing wheels, outside bearings to the leading wheels, and a flush-backed firebox. The driving and trailing splashers were open, with double brass bands running round them. The cylinders were 15-in. diameter, and were placed horizontally, the stroke of pistons being 22-in., and the centres placed 2-ft. 5-in. apart. The travel of the valves was 4½-in., lap 1-in., and lead 3/16-in. ; steam ports 1-in, by 12-in., and exhaust ports 3½-in. by 12-in, The leading wheels were 3-ft. 6-in. diameter, and the driving and trailing wheels 3-ft. 6-in. The wheel base was 13-ft. 7-in., being from the leading to the driving centres 6-ft. 5-in., and 7-ft. 2-in. from the driving to the trailing. The external diameter of the boiler was 3-ft. 9¾-in., and its length 10-ft. It contained 137 tubes 2-in. diameter and 10-ft. 5½-in. long, and its centre line was 6-ft. from the rail level. The length of the outside firebox was 4-ft. 5-in., the breadth 3-ft. 11-in., and the height inside 4-ft. 8½-in. As above mentioned, the firebox casing was made flush with the barrel of, the boiler, one spring balance safety valve being fixed on the dome, and two over the firebox. The regulator was in the smokebox, and the boiler was fed by pumps.
The framings were of iron, but where the leading bearings were, sandwich framing was adopted. The weight of this engine was 26 tons 16 cwt., the leading wheels carrying 9 tons 16 cwt., the driving 11 tons 4 cwt., and the trailing 5 tons 16 cwt. This engine was afterwards converted into a tank erigine by Mr. Stroudley, who put in his standard type of boiler, side tanks and cab. After this alteration it was named Leatherhead, and in October, 1875, was renumbered 276; in December, 1879, it was again renumbered 410, and was scrapped in May, 1880.
In October, 1860, two six-wheels coupled good engines were built, Nos. 141 and 142. The were rather old-fashioned for that date, their appearance suggesting that they had been built from ten to fifteen years earlier. They had inside framings and two steam domes, one of which was fluted, with a bright copper top, on which was placed a spring balance safety valve; this dome was on the barrel of the boiler, and the other dome, which was not fluted, but of a rather fancy design, was over the firebox, and: on it also was a spring balance safety valve.
These engines are illustrated by, Fig. 41, some of their leading dimensions being—diameter of cylinders 16-in., stroke 24-in.; diameter of wheels 4-ft. 9-in.; boiler 3-ft. 6-in. diameter and 10-ft. 6-in. tong, containing 152 tubes 2-in diameter. The average weight of these two engines was 27 tons 16 cwt. each, the leading wheels carrying 10 tons 8 cwt., the driving wheels 11 tons 2 cwt., and the trailing wheels 6 tons 6 cwt. No. 141 was scrapped in March 1878, and No. 142 in November, 1878. Unfotunately no further records have been retained of these two interesting locomotives. .
The next locomotive which was built at Brighton was a four-wheels coupled leading bogie tank engine, having outside cylinders, and numbered 144; it was constructed in June, 1861, and illustrated by Fig. 42. This engine had horizontal cylinders 15-in. diameter, stroke of pistons 22-in., centres of cylinders apart 6-ft. 2in.. diameter of bogie wheels 3-ft., diameter of driving and trailing 5-ft.; wheel base of bogie 5-ft 11-in., centre of bogie to centre of driving axle. 9-ft. 9¾-in., driving to trailing centres 6-ft. 5½, total wheel base 19-ft. 2¾-in. This engine instead of taking its bearing in the centre of the bogie, was supported on angle iron brackets fixed on the four corners of the engine and bogie  framings. The bogie had no lateral movernent, moving only around the bogie centre pin. The framings were of plate iron, and had inside bearings. for all the wheels. The boiler was built in three rings, and was of 3-ft. 95/8-in. diameter outside, with a Iength of 10-ft, 6-in., and containing 135 tubes of 2-in. diameter, its centre line being 5ft. 11-In , above the rails. The length of the outside firehox was 3-ft. 11½-in., and the height jnside 4-ft. 8½-in. The tubes contained 758 sq. ft. of heating surface, and the firebox 65 sq. ft.,  giving a total of 823 sq. ft. The regulator was in the smokebox; one spring balance was fixed on the dome, and two over the firebox. The pumps for feeding the boiler were placed outside the motion plate; the connecting rods were forked or about half their length, and, as will be seen from the illustration, the smokebox had .an inclined front. A water tank was placed under the barrel of the boiler in front of the driving wheels, and another behind the trailing axle, under the footplate. The weight of this engine was 30 tons 4 cwt., distributed as follows—on the leading wheels 10 tons, on the driving 10 tons 8 cwt., and on the trailing wheels 9 tons 16 cwt. In July, 1868, No.144 was converted by Mr. Craven into an inside cylinder tank engine, having new outside framing's .and side tanks. Larger wheels were also adopted, and outside bearings. This engine is illustrated in its altered condition by Fig. 43. As a matter of fact, about the only thing which remained of the original engine was the boiler, so great an ateration hardly allowing of anything else to fit in. The cylinders were now 16-in. diameter, stroke 20-in., distance apart of centres 2-ft. 5-in. ; diameter of leading wheels 4-ft., diameter of driving and trailing 5-ft. 6-in. The wheel base was made 15-ft.; the leading to driving centres being 7-ft. 9-in., and the driving to trailing centres 7-ft. 3-in: The boiler centre was lifted up 3-in., making its height from the rails 6-ft. 2-in. The side tanks and the tank under the footplate were together capable of carrying 715 gallons of water. The hand brake of this engine actuated blocks on the leading wheels as well as on the driving and trailing wheels, this being rather unusual on the old Brighton engines . After these alterations this locomotive weighed a few tons heavier, it having 9 tons 12 cwt. on the leading wheels, 13 tons 12 cwt. on the driving wheels, and 11 tons 11 cwt. on the trailing wheels, making a total of 34 tons 15 cwt. It was scrapped in March; 1878.
During the same month that No. 144 was built, namely, June, 1861, engine No. 145 left the shops. It was intended for mixed traffic work, and as will be noticed in the illustration, Fig. 44, , all the wheels were placed in front of the firebox; it had a large fluted dome, with a polished copper top, on which was mounted a safety valve, and over the firebox was a fluted safety valve funnel. The dimensions of this locomotive were—cylinders (horizontal) 15-in. diameter, stroke 22-in., centres, 2-ft. 7-in. apart; diameter of leading wheels 4-ft., diameter of driving and trailing wheels 5-ft.; leading to driving centres 5-ft. 1½-in., driving to trailing 5-ft. 4-in., total wheel base 10-ft. 5½-in.; from the front of the buffer beam to centre of leading wheels 'was 6-ft. 7-in, and from the centre of trailing wheels, to back of trailing beam 5-ft. 63/8-in. The boiler was made in three rings, the diameter inside the largest ring being 3-ft. 6-in.; the length of the barrel was 12-ft. 8¼-in., and it contained 125 tubes 2-in, diameter and 13-ft. 1-in, long, the regulator being in the smokebox, and the height of the centre line from rail level 5-ft. 7-in. The length of the outside firebox was 3-ft. 8½~in., and its width 4-ft., whilst the length of the inside firebox was 3-ft. 2½-in.; its height 4-ft. 0-in., and its width 3-ft. 4-in. The heating surface of the tubes was 850 sq. ft., and that of the firebox 65 sq. ft., giving a total of 9 15 sq. ft. This engine had outside sandwich framings and bearings, and inside bearings also to the driving and trailing wheels; the inside frames, were of iron, commencing at the back of the cylinders, and finishing at the side of the firebox about on its centre line. The motion plate, like that. of a good many other engines, only extended about half way across the engine, there being .in fact two, one for each cylinder, and connected together by a stay. The weight of No. 145 was 27 tons, the leading wheels carrying 8 tons, the driving 10 tons, and the trailing 9 tons. In October, 1880, this engine was re-numbered 503, and was scrapped in June, 1882.
Another engine was also built in June, 1861, but not much information has been retained concerning it; however, what we have we lay at the disposal of our readers. It was numbered 97, and had cylinders 15-in. diameter, stroke 24-in.; diameter of leading wheels 3-ft. 9-in., diameter of driving and trailing 5-ft. 6-in., total wheel base 13-ft. 6-in.; diameter of boiler 3-ft. 6-in., length 10-ft.; number of tubes 145, diameter 2-iri., length 10-ft. 8-in. This engine also had a fluted dome like No. 145 .

The colours of carriages, locomotives, & wagons. 24
Continued from page 5. The Wirral Company's engines are black, with the tanks, bunkers, lined round with white, yellow and vermilion. The frames have a plain red line only, as also the outside of the cabs. These latter inside are painted bright green on some engines, and vermilion on others. The buffer beams are vermilion, with black border and buffer sockets, and gold numbers shaded with black. The coupling rods are either lake, with black edging and vermilion lines, or plain red. The number plate is brass, with scarlet ground.
The carriages are very similarly painted to those of the Mersey Company, coloured dark lake, even the name of the Company appearing in the same way on a garter, except in this case the garter .surrounds a bugle. The under-frames are black and ends of trains scarlet.
The goods stock is a light grey, with black ironwork and white lettering.
The locomotives of the Cambrian Railways are painted black with panelling formed on the cabs and tender tanks by a greyish blue stripe between two fine vermilion lines, the wheels and frames of most engines are plain black, but a few of the newer ones have fine red lines on both. The buffer beams are vermilion, having the numbers in gold with black' shading; a few engines still have name plates, but most of them now bear the numbers oh the side of the cab. passenger engines, and a few of the goods, have the Cambrian Company's coat-of-arms on . driving splasher, which also has a brass beading. Underneath the engines are painted a light grey.
The carriages have dark green for the. lower half, and white for the upper panels, with black edging and gold lines, the letters and numbers are in gold with blue edges, the horseboxes and other passenger train vehicles are green (rather brighter than the lower part of the carriages), with gilt.letters and numbers , the underframes are painted black.
The goods wagons are dark grey with black ironwork and white lettering; the ends of brake vans are usually red.

The origin of the L. & N. W. R. 24-6.

New express lcomotives for the Great North of Scotland Railway. 29-30. illustration, diagram
Fourteen William Pickersgill 4-4-0 supplied by Neilson & Co. 18 x 26 inch inside cylinders; 6 feet 1 inch coupled wheels; boiler total heating surface 1207 ft2; grate area 18 ft2; 165 psi boiler pressure. Westinghouse brake. Painted light green with black borders and bands lined with vermillion. Diagram shows speed attained and gradients on which worked with relatively light train of six-wheel coaches on 06.45 Aberdeen to Huntly (where last two vehicles dropped) and on to to Elgin  via Portsoy and Buckie.

Locomotives of the Chemin de Fer du Nord, France. 30. diagram (side elevation)
2-4-0 builtby Koechlin designed to be similar to Sturrock design for Great Northern Railway and built by J. Fowler & Co.

Across the U.S.A. by rail. 31.
From Philadelphia, through Harrisburg, crossing the Susquehanna River at Rockville and so to Altoona by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Note on the multitude of level crossing (grade crossings in city centres and length of vehicles (freight cars).

The locomotive of to-day. Chapter 1 — The boiler. 32-4. diagram
Mainly on coal, but some onsideration to oil and to briquettes used on Continental railways. Smokeless fuels for urban areas are mentioned

The locomotive erecting shop. 34.

Boiiler clothing. 34
"We are surprised" that no railway company has triedd blued steel plate used for covering cylinders on stationary engines. In the USA "it is widely used" on locomotives.

Rubber  pads. 34
Indiarubber cushions placed under adjusting nuts of spring hangers on GWR and GER locomotives help to prolong life as they accommodate the shocks when running on an uneven road. In turn they need protection from oil,  etc. by placing them in inverted cups or boxes.

Metropolitan Railway. 34
New engines on the Metropolitan Ry. were fitted with metallic packing for all the glands, Stone's sight-feed lubricators, valves and connections for steam heat, and doors to the cabs. The motion is balanced by a coiled spring on the weigh bar shaft in place of the old-fashioned cast iron weight.

Westinghouse and vacuum brakes. 34
A number of engines on several railways a now fitted with both Westinghouse and vacuum brakes, so as to be able to handle trains fitted with either system. To enable the two brakes to be operated simultaneously with one handle when the engine has a set of gear working on the air principle, and the carriages have vacuum apparatus, an ingenious valve has been introduced in the vacuum train pipe immediately below the injector on the footplate. The admission of air to the vacuum train pipe destroys the equilibrium of the valve, which in moving allows air to escape from the Westinghouse pipes, consequently applying the brakes both· on the engines and carriages at one and the same operation:.

North Eastern Railway cabs. 34
It would seem that the gentlemen who has lately been writing to some of our contemporaries [other engineering magazines] on the unsuitability of the N.E.R. cabs h had very little experience of riding on the footplate. The draughts in rough weather felt on board some of our "fliers" owing to the cut away character of the sides of the cab are anything but pleasant, and we emphatically affirm Mr. Worsdell''s cab is the best running in this country.

The carriage department. 35

North London Railway. 35
Now putting the destination boards of their carriages on the upper panels just under the roof as most other railways do, in. place of the centre line of the carriages as before. This is a distmct Improvement, as on a crowded platform it was quite impossible for a passenger in the rear to see the boards.

Oilcloth roof lining. 35
Decoration of second-class carriages. being lined with white oilcloth held and stretched by a narrow bead running the roof-sticks. Oilcloth is better than plain boarding, but "papier mache " would be smarter still. This latter never "sags," and when painted a flat white makes an ideal roof  to a compartment at a comparatively low cost.

Metropolitan Railway gas lighting. 35
In the early days of gas lighting, the Metropolitan trains carried a supply of ordinary low-pressure coal gas in a rubber gas bag placed along the roof on top of each carriage. This arrangement appears to have had one advantage over the present system in use on the N. L. R.; each vehicle was independent of its neighbour for lighting power, whereas on the North London the carriages rely on the guards' vans, where the supply is carried in similar receptacles to those mentioned above.

Brasses for axle boxes on American railroad cas. 35
Usually treated as follows. the bearing after being taken from the foundry are cleanned by revolving wire brushes and a tumble,r then dipped in a solution of sulphuric  acid and water to thoroughly clean it. When takrn from this bath a piece of thin sheet lead is soldered on the face for the journal, and the brass  is ready for use. This thin piece of lead is soon :worn way in the first few runs of the box, and the journnal gradually finds its seat on the true metal.

L. & Y. R. bogie carriages. 35
Putting into service some new carriages running on four-wheeled bogies; they are exceedingly well-furnished in all resppects, and are provided with a corridor on one side to give access to the lavatory accommodation. We may also mention the Club carriages of this railway, which have now been running for some time; each contains a complete suite of rooms luxuriously upholstered in crimson leather; light refreshments are provided and an attendant accompanies each carriage.

Correspondence. 35
[onlly three items were selected as the remainder related to information available in books, etc]

E J.W. McCausland.-
On the last day of the 1895 race the engines used on the L. & N. W. R. were Adriatic, from London to Crewe, and Hardwicke from Crewe to Carlisle, and on the Caledonian, No. 90, from Carlisle to Perth, and No. 17, from Perth to Aberdeen.

R. C.
We believe the 3001 and 3031 classes on the G. W. R. have identical slide valves. We take it the width of the ports is to some extent a matter of opinion, provided they are sufficiently large.

W. W. Roffey,
41 class S. E. R. were 4-coupled (L. &  D.) rear tanks with outside bearings, wheels 5-ft., cylinders 17-in. by 24-in. 152 class had 4-ft. 6-in. wheels. 353 was built by Manning, Wardle & Co.,in 1890., S. & D. J. R. 16 was a 6-ft. 4-coupled tender engine, and 17 a 6-ft. 4-coupled tender engine with outside bearings. Sorry we cannot give you any more particulars. .

Number 15 (March 1897)

Railway notes. 37

New tank engine of the L. & S. W. R. 37
The first engine of  Drummorid design for this Company had made its debut from the Nine Elms Works. It is a four-coupled side tank with a trailing bogie, numbered  242. The cylinders were inside and 18½-in. diam. by 26 in. stroke, and the diam. of the coupled wheels was 5-ft. 7-in. Among its most noticeable features are the large diameter of the boiler, the cast iron bell-topped chimney, safety valves on top of dome, and two buzzers over the firebox in place of whistles. The tank capacity is 1,250 gallons, and the cab was of similar design to that introduced by Drummond on the C. R. and N. B. R. engines. The firebox front was lagged similar to the L. B. & S. C. R. engines.

M.S. & L. Co.'s new name. 37
On account of the confusion that might arise by the adoption of the name Central Railway, due to the Caledonian and Cambrian Railways already having the initials C.R., the directors of the M.S. & L. Co.. decided that their new name should be Great Central Railway.

L. & N.W.R.  permanent way. 37
Previous to 1885 the L. & N.W. R. standard rail, weighed 84 lbs. to the yard, and since then 90 lbs. rails have been adopted. It has now, however, been decided to relay the main line with rails weighing no less than I031/3 lbs. per yard.

The new Irish Mail trains. 37
The night mail to leave' Euston at 20,15, and arrive at Dublin at 06.14. English time 25 min. later and 40 min. earlier respectively, than at present. The up mail will leave Dublin 50 min. later than now, viz., 20.25, and reach Euston at 06.10, 5 min. earlier. The day mails will depart from and arrive at Euston as at present but were accelerated by 30 min. on the journey in each direction.

L. B. &. S, C. R. locos. 37
Another new four- coupled bogie express had been turned out, numbered and named 201 Rosebery. The former No. 201, named Belgravia, had been re-numbered 501

N. B. R. temders. 37
Some N.B.R. four coupled bogie engines had been provided with larger tenders to enable them to run from Perth to Berwick without taking water. Nos. 633 and 634 were already fitted.

S. & D. J. R. locomotive. 37
A new engine or the standard express type on this railway was. built at the Midland Ry. works at Derby last year [1896] and numbered 45. It had cylinders 18-in. diam. by 20-in. stroke and four-coupled drivers 5-ft. 9-in. diam. The steam pressure was 140 psi., and the tender carried 2,200 gallons of water.

Signals on the L. B. & S. C. R. 37
The semaphores on this railway were being painted red with a black stripe across their faces instead of the black stripe as heretofore. Whilst mentioning signals we can never understand why a semaphore arm is employed on such underground railways as the City and South London. Here, owing to the perpetual darkness, it simply acts as a training device for the signalman's arms. Why couldn't they have the same arrangement as on the Paris underground, where they employ two incandescent electnc lamps, a red and a green one, the operator simply switching into circuit the lamp he wishes to exhibit.

Our picture plate. 37
This month the picture plate depicted l.ewes, Junction on the L.B. & S.C.R. On .the right may be seen an express from Victorra to Eastbourne, at the centre platform road the Seaford branch train was waiting, and on the extreme left is shown a Brighton local. This  is a characteristic view of an English  railway junction.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Raulway. 38-40
Fig 45: single express locomotive No. 146; Fig. 46 four-coupled tank No, 4

Meeting of the trains. 44
Phototographic illustration of Lewes Junction: see page 37

Four-coupled bogie express engine for the Great Northern Railway. 45. illustration
No. 400

Number 16 (April 1897)

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Raulway. 54-6.
Figure 8; Figures 49-52. Mainly Craven 2-2-2 designs

The colours of locomotives, carriages, and wagons. 56
Barry Ry: locomotives: dark lake with black borders with vermillion lines; buffer beams vermillion. Carriages: dark lake with black borders and gold lines; underframes black. Goods brakes and vans: dark red. Ends of brake vans painted vermillion.

The Southern Division engines of the L. & N.W.R. 56-8. 6 diagrams (side elevations)
Forty passenger and thirty freight type Bury engines acquired to open services

The "Pennsylvania Limited" at full speed. 60. illustration (plate)
4-4-0 hauling seven Pullman cars

New single bogie engine for the Midland Railway. 61. illustration.
4-2-2 No. 116 illustrated

[Steam heating on Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway]. 61

Locomotives of the Chemin de Fer du Nord, France. 62. diagram (side elevation)
2-4-0 Nos. 2834-60.

New L.C. & D. Ry. carriages. 62.
Twelve new six-wheel third class coaches built at Longhedge Works. A new corridor train was under construction and was to be fitted with electric lighting

Across the U.S.A. by rail. 62-3.
Cylinders were rebored in situ at Altoona. Rapid lighting up was achieved by adding oil to assist combustion in association with forced draught. Multiple manning of locomotives was normal, Large numbers employed at Altoona and Junita workshops.

The locomotive of to-day. Chapter I. The engine. 63-5. diagram
Cylinders, piston rings and packing

The locomotive erecting shop. 66

[All wheels should be braked]. 66
On some six-wheel passenger stock the centre wheels were not braked.

[Increase brake force by linking sanding to brake valve]. 66
Suggestion that brake valve control should automatically also apply sand.

[GWR 3232 class]. 66
"Several" of  class fitted with Westinghouse brake

The carriage department. 66

[Waterloo & City rolling stock]. 66
Anticipated designs of locomotives and rolling stock.

[Carriage design]. 66
Called for variety in lettering and numbering on coaches and central, rather than side, vestibules

Number 17 (May 1897)

Railway notes. 67

New engines for the l. T. & S. R. 67
Engines of a new type had. been constructed by Sharp, Stewart & Co. of Glasgow, four of which were at work. They are of the same general design as this Company's previous engines, but larger, the driving wheels being 6-ft. 6-in., and the cylinders 18-in. by 26-in. The tanks were larger, and the boilers higher pitched, causing the chimneys, which are of cast iron and bell-topped, to be somewhat short. Those now running were: No. 37 Woodgrange, No. 38 Westcliff, No. 39 Forest Gate, and No. 40 Black Horse Road.

New L. C. & D. R. engine. 67
Another four-coupled express engine of the standard design, had been turned out from this Company's shops at Longhedge and numbered 5.

G. E. R locomotives. 67
Ten 7-ft. four-coupled express engines had been constructed at this Company's Stratford works, and numbered 1030 to 1039. They were of the usual design, but the boilers pressed to 160 psi, and the tenders fitted with scoops for picking up water whilst running, for which purpose an additional trough is now being laid down on the London side of Ipswich. These engines are fitted for working both the Westinghouse and automatic vacuum brakes, and Nos. 1036 to 1039 provided with exhaust injectors.

G. N. R. locomotives. 67
Company were putting in service a batch of ten four-coupled tender engine of the type described in March issue, having 6-ft. 7-in. drivers, cylinders 17½-in by 26-in., and a single leading axle with outside bearings. They had been built at Doncaster and numbered 1061 to 1070.

Paddington statlon. 67
Although the alterations at this station were not yet complete the new platforms were brought into use at the beginning of April. They had been re-numbered 1 to 9, those for trains departing being 1 to 5, and those for trains arriving 6 to 9.

The new Irish Mail service. 67
Accelerated service to Ireland via Kingstown, as announced in March issue, was inaugurated on 1 April, when the Irish mail, consisting of 5 postal vans, 1 luggage van, 2 8-wheel composites, 2 sleeping saloons, and a brake van, and drawn by the 7-ft. compound 1391 Teutonic left the Euston terminus at 20.45 instead of the time-honoured 20.20. A new service was advertised to commence in May via North Wall, the down express leaving Euston at 22.15, stopping at Crewe only, and reaching Holyhead at 03.30, whilst the up train left Holyhead at 01.50 and arrived at Euston at 07.25. Those who have had experience of the miserable night service hitherto afforded by this route, will appreciate this alteration, whilst the day service would also be accelerated.

Caledonian engines. 67
Since April, 1896, the Caledonian Railway Co. had built at St. Rollox sixty six-coupled tender engines (720 class) having 5-ft. wheels and cylinders 18-in. by 26in. They were all fitted with the Westinghouse brake, and some of the later ones (750-3) had two Gresham and Craven's combination injectors on the foot-plate. Some of the tank engines working on the Glasgow Suburban Railway had been fitted with pumps to feed the boiler when the water, owing to condensing, gets very hot.

An all night service.67
We are glad to hear that with the appointment of a new Superintendent, the G. E. R. are about to introduce an important innovation in the shape of an all night service ot trains between Liverpool Street and Walthamstow, and we congratulate this go-ahead company on supplying a long felt want.

Number 18 (June 1897)

Railway notes. 85.

London & North Western Railway locomotives. 85
Some striking novelties in the locomotive practice on this railway had recently appeared. One of the 6-ft. 6-in. four coupled, engines, No. 1532 Hampden had been fitted with an extended smokebox and a double chimney. Two engines of an, entirely new type were now in hand at Crewe. The utmost reticence, is observed regarding them, but it is understood that they will be four cylindered compound engines, with two pairs of drivers and a leading bogie. The boiler will be similar to the Teutonic class. Some new styles of painting had also been introduced. The Greater Britain had the boiler, firebox and cab painted vermilion, with fhe framing dark blue lined with gold, and the wheels blue with white tyres. There were brass bands round the boiler edged with blue, and the number plate was brass with a blue ground. The smokebox and chimney were also  blue. The L & N. W. R. coat of arms was on the high pressure driving splashers, and. the Royal arms on the low pressure driving splashers, this being the engine to take the Queen on her  journey north. The tender rivets had been countersunk, and the company's coat of arms appears on the sides. Queen Empress had been painted a cream color with blue and gold lines.

L.B. & S.C.R. engines. 85
Four more engines the standard  four-coupled bogie type [4-4-0] had been built at Brighton. Their names and numbers were: 203 Henry Fletcher, 204 Telford, 205 Hackworth, and 206 Smeaton. Nos. 203 and 204 were stationed at New Cross, and Nos. 205 and 206 at Battersea. The former Nos. 203 to 206 had been renumbered 503 to 506.

New L.T. & S.R. engines. 85
Two more [4-4-2T] had been delivered from the works of Sharp, Stewart & Co., making six in all, The names and numbers of the last two were No. 41 Leytonstone and No. 42 Commercial Road.

Shunting engrne for the Metropolitan Ry. 85
A six coupled saddle tank engine [0-6-0ST] had been constructed for this railway by Peckett and Sons, of Bristol, and numbered 101. It had 3-ft 10-in. drivers, and cylinders 16-in. by 22-in.

The Queen's journey. 85
On the the Queen's visit to Sheffield on her way north on 21 May the the Midland company ran the Royal special from Derby to Sheffield with engines Nos. 157 and 158, No. 197 being pilot in advance. From Sheffield to Manchester the the engines employed were Nos. 2208 and 2210, with No. 2205 as pilot. The engines were painted as usual, but carried the Royal arms at the foot of the chimney.

New locomotive on the G. & S.W.R. 85
Manson had built at Kilrnarnock a locomotive of a new type for this railway, numbered 11. It had two outside cylinders 12½-in., in diameter, and, two inside cylinders 14½ in. in diameter, all, having a stroke of 26-in, The valves for the inside cylinders were between them, whilst those for the outside, were oh the top and were actuated by a rocking shaft. In other respects it was precisely similar to Manson's. standard four coupled express engines with 6-£t. 9½-in. drivers.

New G. W. R. locomotives. 85
Three more engines, of the Pendennis Castle class had been turned out since those enumerated in our April number, viz., No. 3289 Trefusis, No. 3290 Torbay, and No. 3291 Trigenia. This completed the twenty engines comprised in this order, and we may add that their tenders were provided with scoops for picking up water whilst running.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Raulway. 86-8

Across the U.S.A. by rail.  88-9.

The late Mr. John Ramsbottom. 90. illustration (portrait)

Ballasting the ttrack. 92. illustration
Plate (verso blank) No. 753 on tender. Caption p. 95

The bogie goods engine for the G.W.R. 93. illustration
No. 36

The Southern Division engines of the L.&N.W.R. 94-5.

Our picture plate "Ballasting the track". 95
See page 92: Illinois Central Railway near Chicago

The locomotive of to-day. Chapter II. The engine. 95-7. diagram

Number 19 (July 1897)

Railway notes. 101

New L. & N. W. Ry. engine. 101
Named Iron Duke, numbered 1501, and with four drivers 7-ft. in diameter, and four leading wheels, 3-ft. 6-in. in diameter. It had four cylinders, two inside and two outside, each 15-in. diameter, with valves operated by an arrangement of Joy's gear. The driving centres were 9-ft. 8-in. apart, and the engine weighed 50 tons. It had a double chimney and an extended smokebox. The sister engine will be similar, but compound, with two h.p. cylinders 15-in, diameter, and two l.p. cylinders 19½-in. diameter. The boiler pressure in each case was 175 psi.

Western railway of France. 101
As the four-cylindeted four-coupled compound express engines of the Northern Railway have been so successful, the Western Company have now ordered 20 new engines of precisely the same type.

S. E. R. locomotives. 101
Four more engines ef this Company's standard 7-ft. type had been turned out from their Ashford Works, and numbered 88, 188, 195 and 230. Neilson & Co., of Glasgow, were also delivering to this Company some four-coupled tank ngines of the usual design, and the first five of ese, numbered 410 to 414, were now at work.

G. & S. W. R. locomotives. 101
Further Manson 6-ft. 9½-in. four-coupled bogie engines had been built at the Company's works at Kilmarnock, their numbers were 110, 111, 112, l15, 3, 4 and 187, the last three having been completed since No. 11 described in the last number. Four six-coupled shunting. tanks, having 4-ft 6-in. wheels, had been built at Kilmarnock lately, and numbered 14, 19, 32 and 114.

G.N.R. locomotives. 101
Five more Ivatt four-coupled engines with leading bogie and dome had been put im running; of these Nos. 1071 to 1074 were stationed at Doncaster, and No. 1075 at Leeds. The new four-coupled engines with single leading axles were stationed as under: Nos. 1061 to 1063 at Doncaster; Nos. 1064 to 1067 at King's Cross; Nos. 1068 and 1069 at Peterboro', and No. 1070 at Retford. The 8-ft. single, No. 544. was rebuilt with a new boiler, having a dome, and the reversing gear similar to the 1003 class. The shed numbers now affixed on the engine cabs were as under: 1, Doncaster; 2, Peterboro', 3, London; 4, Colwick; 5, Leeds; 6, Bradford; 7. Grantham; 8. Lincoln; 9, Retford; 10, York.

Raiiway accidents. 101
On Saturday, 5 June 1897, as the 13.55 express from Shoeburyness was entering Pitsea Station it dashed into an empty train which was standing on the same line of rails. The engine was one of the L. T. & S. Ry. Co.'s latest, No. 37, and fortunately, by the application of the quick-acting brake, any. very serious consequences were averted. A much more disastrous affair occurred on the night of 11 June. A return excursion from Barmouth to Royton, consisting of 15 vehicles, and drawn by the Cambrian Co.'s engines No. 75 (driver E. Jones) and No. 77 (driver J. Williams), had just passed Welshampton Station at about 10 p.m., when the tender of No. 77 engine, and the whole of the train ran off the rails, causing the death of 11 persons, and injuries to about 30 others.

Commencing July the G.E.R. will run their 1.30 p.m. express to Cromer from Liverpool Street to North Walsham without a stop, the distance being 130 miles, and the time allowed 160 minutes. The all-night service, between Liverpool Street and Walthamstow was inaugurated on the night of Sunday, 20 June, and will no doubt be much appreciated. Two small engines, similar,to the 209 class, had just been constructed at this Company's shops for shunting purposes, and numbered 226 and 227. They were the first saddle tank engines built at Stratford.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Raulway. 102-6

Cornish express. 106.
To run first portion non-stop to Exeter from 1 July

Double chimney engine, L. & N. W. R. 106-7.

Our coloured supplement. 107
Actual plate MISSING from copy in NRM {do other "copyright" copies retain their plate?}: Four-coupled bogie engine, M.S.& L.R. (presumably "by" F. Moore)

The Southern Division engines of the L.&N.W.R.  107-8

The Lewes explosion. 110. illustration

New four-coupled tank engine for the Londo, Tilbury & Southend Railway. 111. illustration

The Diamond Jubilee. 112. illustration
LTSR No. 40 decorated

Shunting engine for the Metropolitan Railway. 113. illustration
No. 100 at Neasden: WN 664

Special trains on the L.C.&D.R. 113
On 17 June 1897 Grand Duke Serge of Russia was driven by Driver Loveridge from Dover to Victoria leaving at 16.00 and arriving at 17.40. On 18 June Driver J. Dearden left Dover at 15.37 and ran to Victoria in 85 minutes with the French Ambassador aboard the train.

The colours of locomotives, carriages, and wagons. 114
Hull & Barnsley Raiilway and Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Railway.

Across the U.S.A. by rail. 114-16. illustration
0-4-4T of the Manhattan Elevated Railway

The locomotive of to-day. Chapter II. The engine. 116-17. diagram

Number 20 (August 1897)

Great Northern Railway locomotives. 123
The whole of the ten four-coupled leading bogie engines (4-4-0) were .at work. Those out since our last were stationed as under: No. 1076 at Leeds, 1077 at Retford, 1078 and 1079 at King's Cross, and 1080 at Grantham. No. 40'0 was also stationed at Grantham. No. 1080, instead of having the usual brass safety, valve cover, had an iron one similar to that on the G.E.R. engines; Five new six- coupled saddle tanks (0-6-0ST) had beeri delivered from Neilson & Co.: numbers 121I to 1215 inclusive, but although stationed at the, London end they were not fitted with condensing apparatus. Two of the older ones were being rebuilt at Doncaster with domes to the boilers. ,

The Hundred of Manhood and Selsey Tramway.. 123
Company had purchased from the L. B., & S. C. Ry. six wagons and a brake van to work on their line. They were painted red, and had in large white letters H. M. & S. Ty., and numbered 1 to 6. This line will run from Chichester to Selsey Bill.

L. B. & S. C. R. locomotives. 123
Two more four-coupled bogie express engines (4-4-0) had been built at Brighton Works: numbers and names were: 207 Brunel and 171 Nevill. The tank engine No. 272, which had hitherto been named Nevill had been renamed Goring, and Freshwater, hitherto No. 207 became No. 507.

The painting of the G.E.R. engines. 123
An additional decoration had been introduced on this Company's engines by placing the Coat of Arms on the driving spl asher's of all passenger tender engines. This ornament· has, hitherto been confined to the single wheelers \and some of the oil-burners. Already Nos. 421, 455, 718, 725, and 750 had been so treated.,

A long run for a toy locomotive. 123
On Sunday, 25 July The Gazelle, a little single wheel tank engine belonging to Mr. Burkitt, of Lynn, made the trip from Lynn to Chesterfield and back. The route taken was via the Mid. & G.N. Joint line to Spalding, thence .over the G. N. & G. E. Joint line to Pyewipe Junction, Lincoln, and from there to Chesterfield over the new line of the Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Railway, a total distance of 105 miles in each direction.

G. W. Ry.locomotives. 123
A new lot of single driver bogie express engines of the Achilles class was under construction at Swindon, and the first of these, No. 3061 Alexandra, had been cou:pleted. It had been experimentally coated with a new hard-drying lacquer, which is claimed to set very hard. The ten-wheeled goods engine No. 36, has had the feed pumps removed, and an exhaust steam feed injector substituted.

The new L. & S. W. R. tank engines.123
Twelve of Drummond's new tank engines had been put into service, the numbers being from 242 to 253 inclusive. The majority of these engines were working in the London district, but No. 253 was stationed at Plymouth.

L. & N. W. R. 7-ft. 6-in. singles. 123
The first of these, No. 184 Problem, had been rebuilt as others of this class. and in addition, had been fitted with piston valves.

Notice. 123
The success of the July number far exceeded our most sanguine expectations, and is now out of print. The coloured plate, however, was still to be had as noted in our advertisement columns, but-as the number is strictly limited. we advise all of our readers who desire to secure additional copies to do so at once. We hope to issue a companion picture at a future date; arid will duly announce the issue in the Magazzne.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Raulway. 124-5

Six-coupled radial side tank engine for the Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Railway. 126-7. illustration
Kitson 0-6-2T

The Westinghouse high speed brake. 127

Fiour-cylinder bogie express engine for the G. & S.W.R. 131. illustration
No. 11 designed by James Manson and constructed at Kilmarnock

Across the U.S.A. by rail.  132-3. 2 illustrations
Sleeping and dining arrangements

The locomotive of to-day. Chapter II. The engine. 133-5. diagram
Valve gears: mentions Morton's, Joy's, Allan and Stephenson Compamy's

The locomotive erecting shop. 136

[Fitting boiler tubes]. 136
It was a common practice to braze a short length of brass on to the firebox end of steel tubes when used with copper fireboxes, so that the great difference between the two metals in expansion and contraction should not be so keenly felt and a tight joint maintained. With steel fireboxes (where such have been employed) and steel tubes the latter have been simply expanded into the tube plate and ferruled , a good plan adopted by some is to provide a very thin copper sleeve to fit between the outside of the tube end and the hole in the tube plate, when the tube is expanded on to this an excellent joint is secured, and if instead of "belling" out the tubes so much at the smokebox end, similar thimbles were introduced they would considerably facilitate the removal of the tubes when such is required for renewals.

[Coupling hooks]. 136
Manufacture of a coupling hooks: originally worked up by hand in wrought iron were then expeditiously made as follows: a suitably shaped bar of wrought iron was raised to a white heat and placed between dies under the steam hammer, at one blow it was stamped into the shape required, but with the "lip" of the hook laying out straight, to complete the hook, that end is reheated and put between vertical rollers and dies on. a small turntable which on being revolved gives the required curvature to the head.

[Exhaust pipe nozzles]. 136
The best way to clear exhaust pipe nozzles of the incrustation that collects there due to oil and soot is to take out the pipe and stand it upright over a wood fire allowing the flame to pass through it. It will clean in a few minutes. To save the expense of lining in the painting of the locomotives, an Indian Railway, The Midland, has adopted a novel method of decoration. Strips of zinc are rivetted to the cab and tank sides to form panels, and the figures and letters are also cut out of zinc and secured in the same manner.

[Slide bars]. 136
With the first few runs of engines fresh from the shops, the slide bars require careful attention, and a good precaution to take against them becoming heated is to paint on a little white lead and tallow mixed, in addition to plenty of lubricating oil.

The carriage department. 136

[Automatic couplers]. 136
The adoption of an automatic car coupler . on this side of the Atlantic is devoutly to be wished for, unfortunately great prejudice apparently exists agains'tsuch a reform in our methods, due a good deal, we think, to misunderstanding' ; for instance, one of our esteemed contemporaries in an able article criticising the possibilities ot such an alteration fell into the common error of supposing that our goods trains are provided with the barbarous slack link coupling for starting purposes, this is not the case, as any practical railway man well knows, the length of the coupling is determined by the fact that it is often necessary to couple adjacent wagons on a sharp curve when the inside buffers prevent the coupling hooks coming so near together as they do when the wagons stand on the straight. On the question too of expense our friend ignores the saving that could be effected by the abolition of the side buffers if a combined central coupler and buffing device were adopted. Where there's a will there's a way, and we undertake to say that if the various Railway companies once and for all decided on an improved coupler of the Gould or, similar type, the wagons could be easily and cheaply refitted; the saving on' new vehicles, with less repairs to the old ones, would soon compensate for the expenditure, leaving out of the question altogether the increased safety of their staff and the satisfaction of substituting a. mechanical device for the prehistoric contrivance in present service.

[Long bogie carriages on suburban services]. 136.
THE L. & N. W. R. are following the lead of the L. & S. W. R. and S. E. R., and are running long bogie carriages on their suburban services. One train working between Watford and Euston is entirely made up of these cars, which are fitted with a novel form of ventilator. There are two openings into the compartment, one on each side of a projecting blade which stands ou t vertically from the carriage side; as the train rushes along this blade creates a suction behind it and exhausts the air from the compartment through the opening provided. The reverse action takes place if the aperture in front of the blade is opened, but as dust is likely to be driven in as well, it is recommended to open the holes to the rear of the blade only, in the direction in which the train is travelling. A suitable regulating device is placed on the inside of the apparatus.

Number 21 (September 1897)

Railway notes. 139

The Great Central Railway. 139.
On  1 August 1897 the M. S. & L Ry. assumed its new title of the Great Central Railway, and the first engines to have the new name painted on were Nos. 886 to 889, six-coupled outside cylinder saddle tank engines (0-6-0ST) , and No. 217. six-coupled double-framed goods engine (0-6-0); also the steam travelling crane of the break-down gang. The subject of our recent coloured plate, No. 694, now has the words "Great Central" in full on the tender.

G.E.R. tramway engines. 139
Two new tramway engines of the No. 125 class .hadt been finished at Stratford Works, numbered 133 and 134· They had four-coupled drivers 3-ft. diameter, and cylinders 11-in. by 15-in., and were fitted with the Westinghouse air brake, so arranged as to be automatically applied by the action of a speed governor when the velocity attained reaches 10 miles an hour. The engines formerly numbered 133 and 134  were now Nos. 200 and 201.

Collision at Newcastle Central Station. 139
On Saturday 31 July, when engine No, 1869 (driver,P. Gardner) was attached to the 12.20 p.m. ex-Edinburgh at Berwick, the cock in the main train pipe of the Westinghouse brake was apparently not opened, for when entering Newcastle Station the train over-ran the signals, and collided with an empty train of passenger carriages standing in the station. The fireman of 1869 and several persons travelling in the train were injured.

G.W.R. locomotives. 139.
Four more 7-ft.8-in. single bogie express engines had been turned out of the Swindon shops, and their numbers and names were: 3062 Albert Edward; 3063 Duke of York; 3064 Duke of Edinburgh,and 3065 Duke of Connaught. These engines, together with No. 3061 Alexandra, were all fitted with exhaust steam injectors instead of pumps, and had no brass beading round the splasher and cab edges, - The pumps were being removed from all engines of this class as they come into the shops, and exhaust steam injectors substituted. No. 3004 Black Prince was being fitted with a slightly extended smokebox. We understand that a new class of four wheels coupled engines having leading bogies will shortly make its appearance, and that the drivers will be 6-ft. 8½ in. in diameter and the cylinders 18-in: by 26-in.

M. &-S. W. J. R. locos. 139
This Company have had another Mogul engine  (2-6-0) built for them by Beyer, Peacock & Co.,s numbered 16, and they had also had delivered from Sharp, Stewart & Co. two. four wheels coupled tank engines with a bogie at each end. (4-4-4T) which are numbered 17 and 18.

The fastest tram in the world. 139
Since July this had been the Atlantic City Railroad's express, scheduled to cover the 55½ miles from Carnden (Philadelphia) to Atlantic City in 52 minutes, a booked average of 64 miles per hour. According to the Railroad Gazette, this train has invariably run within this time, the best record being on 14 July, wHen the journey was made in 46½ minutes, giving an average of 71.6 miles per hour.; on this occasion the 50.7 miles from West Collmgswood to Meadow Tower were covered in 40½ minutes, being at the rate of 75.1 miles per hour, whilst on 16 July the 22.9 miles from Hammonton to Pleasantville occupied only 17 minutes, equal to 80.8 miles per hour. The usual load of this train is 5 cars equal to about 143 English tons, and it is drawn by engine No. 1027, a Vauclain compound of the Atlanbc type, built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, and having two h.p. cylinders, 13-in. by 26-in., and two l.p. cylinders, 22-in. by 26-in., the diameter of the driving wheels being 7-ft. 0½-in. The boiler has a Wootten firebox, and a total heating surface of 1835.1 sq. ft., and the weight of the engine was about 64 English tons.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Raulway. 140-1
Figures 76-8

Four-coupled double-end tank locomotive for the Selsey Tramway. 142. illoustration
Peckett 2-4-2T

The colours of locomotives, carriages, and wagons. 142-3.
Maryport & Carlisle Railway: locomotives green with black bands; carriages varnished teak. Furness Railweay: locomotives dark red; carriages chocolate, but new carriages dark blue lower panels with light blue upper panels

The summer train services of 1897. 143

The Southern Division engines of the L. & N.W.R. 143-4
Figures 27-31

"Burned out". 146 (plate)

Across the U.S.A. by rail. 148-9. map
Signal systems

Our picture plate: "Burned out". 149
Eight wagons were destroyed near Newton-le-Willows when a spark from a locomotive set fire to wagons conveying sleepers. The heat was sufficient to buckle the track.

Four-cylinder compound bogie express engine, L.&N.W.R. 147.
No. 1502 Black Prince with double chimney.

Our oicture plate: "The Flying Scotsman". 150 (plate); 151
E.J. Bedford photograph of 4-2-2 with train

Number 22 (October 1897)

Railway notes. 155

London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 155.
New 4-4-0 Nos. 208 Abercorn and 209 Wolfe Barry. Former Nos. 208 to 213 had beeen renumbered 508-513.

G.N. of S. Ry engines. 155
Pickersgill design 4-4-0 Nos. 101-6 supplied by Neilson & Co.: these had H section side rods and sliding doors on the cab sides. Several Cowan types had been rebuilt: No. 52 had been fitted with a large cab of the type used on the NER.

Caledonian Railway. 155.
Twelve condensing 0-4-4T tank engines constructed at St. Rollox Works for the Glasgow Underground Railway. Some 0-6-0 fitted with condensing apparatus in their tender tanks for working on the Glasgow Underground. Dunalastair painted in style similar to Victoria and Jubilee

Duke of York's visit to Ireland. 155
On the Dublin, Wicklow & Wexford Railway 4-4-2T No. 54 , painted green, was used to haul the Royal person. On the Great Norther Railway No. 71 Bundoran was employed. The Belfast & County Down used a compound express engine. The Belfast & Northern Counties Railway used Malcolm compound No. 60 and its 52 ft long royal saloon.

The Mayfield accident, L.B. & S.C.R. 155
Occurred 1 September 1897: involved No. 297 Bonchurch: Driver James McKinley was killed.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 156-7.
Figs. 79-82

Improved hand brakes for wagons. 158. illustration
Operated from either side of wagon: shown applied to a Great Eastern Railway tank wagon

The colours of locomotives, carriages, and wagons. 158-9
Caledonian Railway: passenger engines and Westinghouse brake fitted freight engines: dark blue with black bands and white lines; framing and buffer beams painted chocolate colour, Goods engines black. Older passenger stock was painted dark purple. Newer passenger coaches painted with white upper panels and purple lower panels, Ends of passenger brake vans painted vermillion. Goods wagons were painted brick red.

Our picture plate. "A novel locomotive". 159.
Guiness Brewery locomotive shunting in Great Southern & Western Railway yard

Exhibition collisiion. 159.
Staged at Jamestown in New York State: mis-timed cheating 25,000 spectators

The Southern Division engines of the L. & N.W.R.  159-60. 4 diagrams (side elevations)
Crampton Liverpool included and No. 227 "Mac's Mangle" shown as Fig. 32 (McConnell outside cylinder design)

A novel locomotive with its train. 162
Guiness Brewery locomotive shunting in Great Southern & Western Railway yard

Four-coupled double-end tank engine, Barry Railway. 163. illustration
J.H. Hosgood 2-4-2T constructed by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. Ltd.

Across the U.S.A. by rail. 164. illustration, diagram
Union Pacific Railraod 4-6-0 used to cross the Sierra Nevada in the Rocky Mountains.

The locomotive of to-day. Chapter II. The engine. 165-7. diagram

Collision on the G.E.R. 167.
At Marks Tey on 29 September 1897: involved two freights: one hauled by No. 976

The locomotive erecting shop. 168

Chicago Rock Island & Pacific Ry.

Firebox stayin. diagram

Number 23 (November 1897)

Railway notes. 171

West Lancashire locomotives. 171
This railway having become part of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, its locomotive stock, consisting of ten engines, had beem taken over by the latter company. Six of them being rebuilt at Horwich, where they were converted as far as possible to the standard practice. The Westinghouse brakes were removed and replaced by the vacuum, steam reversing apparatus substituted for the old screw gear, and locomotives arranged for driving on left hand instead of on the right-hand side.
Those being converted were Nos. 3 six-wheels-coupled radial side tanks by Kitson &Co., which will be renumbered 1364; Nos. 5 and 6, 5-ft. 6-in. four-coupled double end radial side tanks, by Kitson & Co., which will be renumbered 1366, and Nos. 8 and 9, 5-ft. six-wheels radial side tanks, with Belpaire fireboxes, Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1894, had been already completed, and were now 1368 and 1369. Of the remaining four locomotives, Nos. 1 and 2 were six-wheels- goods tender engines, No. 7 a front-coupled tender engine, and No. 10 a small four-wheel shunting tank; these have all been The West Lancashire engines were dark chocolate, with black border 1ined yellow, having the initials W. L. R. , and, the number on the sides and bunker in gold letters, shaded with

New locomotives. 171
Ten new six wheels saddle tanks had been built for the GNR at the Doncaster works: Nos.1201 to 1210, and differed from the standard saddle tanks in having domes on the boilers, and painted iron  covers for the safety valves; and no beading round the splashers. Another locomotive, No. 95, had been rebuilt with a dome and had a painted iron cover for the safety valves. No. 1078 bogie four coupled was stationed at Kings Cross, and not as previously stated.
Ten six wheels coupled goods engines of the No. 999 class have just left the Stratford works of the G.E.R. They were numbered 949 to 958, and fitted with the steam brake.
A new four coupled bogie express engine had been constructed for the Cambrian Rys. by R. Stephenson & Co., and was the first built by this firm for the C. R. It was numbered 32, replacing an old Mid Wales goods engine, and was of the same class as illustrated in our issue for April, 1896.
The new four cylinder engine of the L. & S. W. R. has at last been completed. The four driving wheels are 6-ft 7-in. in diameter, and the cylinders, two of which are inside and two outside, have each a diameter of 16½-in. with a stroke of 26-in.; its number is 720. The new goods engines recently built by  Dubs & Co. for this railway, had now all been delivered, and were numbered 687 to 716 (maker's Nos. 3510 to 3539).
The new S. E. R. tank engines have now all been received from Neilson & Co., and were numbered 410 to 424.
The M. & G. N. Jt. Rys. have constructed a six-wheels-coupled tank engine at Melton Constable for working between South Lynn and Kings Lynn (G.E.R.) It is numbered 3A, and has wheels 3-ft. 7½-in. in diameter, and cylinders 14-in. by 20-in.
Two more four-coupled bogie express engines have been built for the L. B. & S. C. Ry. at their Brighton Works. Their numbers and names are 210 Fairbairn and 211 Whitworth.
A new class of shunting tanks had appeared on the L. & Y. from their works at Horwich. These are six-wheels-coupled side tanks with outside cylinders. The boilers have Belpaire fireboxes, and the G. N. type of pull-out regulator. The valve gear is somewhat peculiar, being of the Allan type, but with curved links; it is fitted with steam reversing gear. Ten of these engines have been built, and are numbered 1351 to 1360, and we understand that ten more are to follow.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 172-4

The Jubilee of "Cornwall". 174-5. illustration, diagram
Diagram shows locomotive in its original state

The Southern Division engines of the L.&N.W.R.  175-6

[LNWR Queen Empress]. 176
Repainted in black livery: had been painted cream for Queen's Jubilee

Exchanging train tablets at 30 miles per hour. 178. illustration.
Plate: GER oil-fired 2-4-0 No. 1008 hauling down express through Worstead.

New express engines for the North Eastern Railway. 179. illustration.
4-4-0 No. 1902.

Across the U.S.A. by rail. 180-1. illustration
Three locomotives prepare to leave Truckee on Central Pacific Railway to battle snow

Our picture plate. 181.
See page 178.

The locomotive of to-day. Chapter II. 181-3
Joy valve gear

A model North London Ry engine. 185. illustration.
4-4-0T built by Messrs Martin of West Ham

Number 24 (December 1897)

Railway notes. 187

New Midland engines. 187
A new class of four-coupled bogie engines had been brought out on the M.R. Built at Derby with coupled wheels 7-ft. in diameter, and bogie wheels 3-ft. 3-in. The cylinders were 19-in. by 26-i n. and fitted with piston valves. Five of these engines were at work, Nos. 150, 153, 154, 155 and 204, and five more were under construction. Midland engines had the initials M.R. painted on the backs of the tenders or bunkers, and a round topped 3 is used in the brass figures in place of the old flat topped ones.

Highland Ry. locomotives.
The first of the four 5-ft. bogie engines now being built at Lochgorm Works had been put into service. It was similar to the No. 70 class, but the chimneys have no louvreing nor copper beading, and independent springs are provided for each of the coupled wheels instead of having a compensating lever as in Jones' engines. It was numbered 5 and stationed at Inverness, working between there and Kyle of Lochalsh.

G.N.R. locomotives. 187
Ten more bogie engines of the No. 400 class were being constructed at Doncaster. Those already out were Nos. 1301 and 1302 stationed at Bradford and No. 1303 at Grantham. Old No. 21 had been rebuilt with a dome, new style of cab, and leading springs above the footplate.

L.B. & S.C.R. engine. 187
No. 212 Armstrong was the number and name of the latest four-coupled bogie express engine turned out of Brighton shops.

L.C. & D.R. engine. 187
No.3 was a new four-coupled bogie express with 6-ft. 6-in. drivers, cylinders 18-in. by 26-in., built at Longhedge.

Western of France. 187
This Company had put into service a new type of 4 cylinder compound express engine with four-coupled drivers 2·04m. diameter and cylinders H.P. .340 m. L.P. .530 m. in diameter by .640 m. stroke. The boiler pressure was 200 psi, the grate area 2.40 m2 and the heating surface 133.70 m2. The front of the engine was carried on a four-wheeled bogie, the smoke box was of the extension type, and the cab was large with side windows; the tenders ran on two four-wheeled bogies and carry 20 tons of water. The Heilmann electric locomotive, of which so much had been written lately, continued to make experimental trips, but, so far, we have heard nothing of the extraordinary high speeds promised.

Great Central locomotive. 187
A new four-coupled' bogie express, No. 268, had appeared of the 694 class, but has piston valves and painted grey with a new crest on the driving splasher, and the word "Forward" below the crest. The old engine which bore this number, a leading and driving coupled passenger locomotive, built by Kitson & Co., in 1866, had been scrapped.

The Northern of France. 187
Put on a new corridor train, with all latest improvements, between, Paris and Calais and, further, they have just ordered of the various French car building firms a total of 144 long bogie vestibuled cars for running on express trains. It is to be hoped they will have centre automatic couplers and vestibules without side buffers.

L. & N. W. R. locomotives.. 187
The eight-coupled compound goods engines being built at Crewe were numbered from 1801 upwards. It was stated that a new type of goods tank engine will shortly make its appearance, which would be similar to the 18-in. cylinder goods engines but with side tanks and a trailing radial axle. The Black Prince now had a chimney with a plain beading round the top like Hampden, in place of the moulded top as shown in the illustration in our September number.

The locomotive history of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 188-9

A curious locomotive. 190. illustration.
2-2-0 traction engine type owned by J. & F. Howard of Bedford

Our picture plate: "A broad gauge L.&N.W. train". 190
Brief details of locomotives on Dundalk, Newry & Greenore section in Ireland

A long run on the U.P.R. ??
Took place on 3-4 August 1897 from Evanston in Wyoming to Omaha in Nebraska (955 miles). Locomotive was No. 890 and time 23 hours 55 minutes

"A broad gauge L.&N.W. train". F. Moore. 194 
Plate (verso is blank): 0-6-0ST at Dundalk

Mixed traffic tank engine for the Taff Vale Railway. 195
0-6-2T No. 197

[Roller bearings on Kemp Town branch]. 195
Branch train fitted with roller bearings had given satisfactory service fior two years.

The colours of locomotives, carriages, and wagons. 196
North British Railway: locomotive livery described as "dark brown"

Across the U.S.A. by rail.  196-7. 3 illustrations
Blue Canon [Canyon] on the Central Pacific Railway: photographs of summit and at Sacramento

The locomotive of today. 197-9
Walschaerts valve gear