Railway World Volume 34 (1973)
Key Volume

No. 392 (January 1973)

Edward W. May. New Year's Eve. 6-7.
31 December 1966 marked the closure of Clay Cross station: a station that the writer had got to know during WW2; had watched the trains go by and had travelled to from Leicester and to Leeds on slow through trains. Noted the demise of thhe Midland 2P 4-4-0s,  the Beyer Garratts and the brief passage of the V2 class and the slow progress of 4F hauled holiday train from Yarmouth (all stations from Nottingham to Chesterfield)

Cecil J. Allen. Performance can still sparkle. Locomotive running past annd present— No. 244. 8-11.
Logs of Class 47 on down Saturday Cornish Riviera on the non-stop section to Exeter amd Class 46 No.139 between Newcastle and Berwick

P.W.B. Semmens. Golden Hind journey— Chapman style. 12-15
Written in the style iof W.G. Chapman: imaginery journey from Paddington to Plymouth, non-stop to Exeter, behind a Western diesel hydraulic non-stop to Exeter with lunch in the dining car

Derek Cross. Electric to Crewe— a laymans's impressions. 16-20
Cab ride on Class 86 No. E8158 on 08.00 from Euston to Glasgow as far as Crewe where motive power was changed.

From a railway album— 2. Samuel Worthington. 22-3
Caption states "Worthington's picture" may imply that was taken by him: Great Central Pollitt 4-4-0 No. 868 of 268 class on a stopping train; print from the collection of North Eastern Railway Class J 4-2-2 No. 1519 at York; Wilson Worsdell Class S 4-6-0 No. 2009 with short train of clerestory stock and "13" on headboard;  Caledonian Railway Brittain 4-4-0 No. 184 in yard at Oban; Peter Drummond Highland Railway Small Ben 4-4-0 No. 373 Ben Armin; Dugald Drummond 4-2-2-0 No. 373 with watertube firebox

White backgrounds. 24-5
Photo-feature of snow scenes: DMU on Keswick to Penrith service approaching Troutbeck in March 1972 (colour: M. Mullins); semi-fast from Victoria to Bognor Regis leaving Ifield station on 29 December 1962 (Brian Haresnape); SECR Class D 4-4-0 No.  731 passing Shortlands on an express c1909 (W.S. Gray); snow and track at Sapperton (T.G. Flinders)

R.W. Thomson. Sentimental journey: return to a former Lancashire & Yorkshire main line. 26-7.
Journey behind Class 50 No. 445 from Liverpool Lime Street to Preston on 1 October 1972 on train diverted via Bootle, freight only link to Aintree and Ormskirk where the former main line had been split and the line singled to Midge Hall and eventually Preston [KPJ travelled on this route from Exchange station to Glasgow after disembarking from the Empire Clyde at Liverpool Pierhead in November 1955]

Via Preston. 28-9
Black & White photo-feature: class 5 No. 44713 passing Farington Curve Junction with 09.50 Sunday Liverpool Exchange to Preston on 5 May 1968 (A.G. Cattle); Jubilee No. 45705 Seahorse backs empty stock out of Blackpool Central on 27 August 1964 (P.F. Claxton); No. 45574 India on 17.10 Blackpool North to Preston on 23 June 1964 (D.Ian Wood); 8F passing Accrington en route for Blackpool on 1 August 1968 (M. Dunnett); 8F No. 48727 exits tunnel at Blackburn on/by as previous.

No. 393 (February 1973)

C.P. Atkins. The eleventh hour of steam—1. 56-60.
The ultimate stream locomotive designs of various countries were by no means necessarily the largest, for a definite post-war trend, linked with the changing pattern of rail transport economics, resulted in the production of moderately-proportioned general-purpose designs intended to combine high versatility with high route availability. (Walschaerts valve gear in association with piston valves was all but universal in new construction and outside Great Britain Belpaire boilers were very much in the minority). It is thus interesting to note that although the 4-8-4 made a brief appearance in Germany, France and Australia, the ultimate designs in these countries were considerably smaller six-coupled engines of either 4-6-2 or 4-6-4 type. What was probably the most notable of these, the solitary French de Caso/Chapelon four-cylinder compound 4-6-4 232U1, has been amply documented elsewhere and lies outside the scope of the present article.
Latter day development in Great Britain and West Germany was closely parallel, each country almost simultaneously initiating a range of standard designs culminating in both cases in an advanced 22-ton axleload three-cylinder 4-6-2 intended for heavy express passenger service.
In May 1954 the solitary British Railways standard Class 8 4-6-2 No 71000 Duke of Gloucester emerged from Crewe Works. It closely resembled the BR standard Class 7 from which it was directly derived, differing only in incorporating an additional inside cylinder, British-Caprotti valve gear, a double blastpipe and double chimney, a larger firebox, plus a high capacity tender, and cost £33,919 to build. It was thoroughly tested both on the road and on the Swindon Test Plant and this swiftly revealed two characteristics. Despite its larger firegrate (48.6sq ft as compared to 42sq ft) the remainder of the boiler being almost identical, its maximum steaming capacity was hardly any greater than the Class 7, but what steam it did produce it utilised with unprecedented efficiency in a simple expansion locomotive, due to the sophisticated poppet valve gear. Minimum indicated steam consumption was 12.2lb/ihp hr as compared to a corresponding figure of 13.2Ib for a variety of ultimate British, American and European simple expansion designs, and 11.21b for the most advanced French compounds.
No 71000 was allocated to Crewe North shed for most of its short and rather obscure working life. It was not greatly liked by the enginemen on account of its inferior steaming capacity compared to the LMSR 4-6-2s with which it operated, and the entirely different driving techniques required. Having no regular crew to master its idiosyncrasies, it suffered the fate of all solitary locomotives. Consideration was given to building more in 1956 at a time when the diesel was yet to appear on the scene in quantity, and doubtless had these extra 4-6-2s materialised a number of modifications would have been made. As it was, the success of the British-Caprotti gear led to its being fitted to 30 standard Class 5 4-6-0s built at Derby in 1956-7 and the gear would almost certainly have been extended more widely still had steam continued. Similarly the success of the double exhaust resulted in its subsequent application to certain other BR standard classes, to WR four-cylinder 4-6-0s, and to ER/NER 2-6-2s and 4-6-2s with outstanding success in their last years. No 71000 was withdrawn at the end of 1962, initially to be preserved in entirety, but latterly only its outstanding cylinders were sectioned and exhibited in the Science Museum, whilst the remaining cylinderless hulk was still in existence at Barry at the end of 1972.
The corresponding German design appeared to the extent of two prototypes in 1957, five years after the original design was prepared, by which time there was no possibility of any additional units being built. Designated DB Class 10, these two magnificent machines were built by Krupp and constituted the world's last new design of high speed steam locomotive. They were semi-streamlined, partly to save horsepower at high speeds and partly to protect the running gear from deterioration, and routine maintenance was not impeded in any way. Post-war Bundesbahn practice under the direction of Herr Witte differed considerably from that of the pre-war Reichsbahn of R. P. Wagner. The latter's boilers had parallel barrels lacking combustion chambers, whereas the new DB boilers were tapered on the underside of the rear ring of the barrel, incorporated combustion chambers, and operated at more moderate pressures. Welding was utilised extensively in their construction as it was in the frames, which were now of girder section in place of the former bar variety. Roller bearings were extensively employed on both axles and big ends, whilst superficially the external appearance of the engines was considerably tidied up; handsome flared chimneys were fitted and a highly distinctive " bat's wing" pattern of smoke deflector added. The Class 10 incorporated all these features to the full, on top of which it possessed such refinements as nautical-style clear vision screens in the cab, a steam-heated cab floor, and a chime whistle. No expense was spared and the engines cost about £73,000 each te build.
In fundamental design the engines were quite straight-forward with divided cylinder drive, three independent sets of Walschaerts valve gear and large-diameter (11.8in) piston valves. The large 44-element superheater was arranged to give a very high degree of superheat of around 410 deg C (770 deg F) in conjunction with 256lb pressure. At the design stage the drawings were submitted to Chapelon for scrutiny and it was at his instigation that the double exhaust (unique in German practice) was incorporated although this was of the simple bifurcated variety and not the Kylchap type. Whereas No 10.002 was entirely an oil burner, No 10.001 was originally a coal burner with steam operated coal pusher and supplementary oil-firing to the extent of 30 per cent to cover peak needs. However this idea was not entirely successful and it was altered to conform with 10.002 in 1959.
The 22.4 tonne axleload of the Class 10 was the highest of any German main line steam locomotive built and thus largely restricted it to the main lines between North and South Germany, whence they mainly operated between Hamburg, Frankfurt and Stuttgart. Originally allocated to Bebra, the two engines were transferred to Kassel in 1962 after which they tended to be used on fairly heavy short-distance trains until rendered redundant by electrification four years later. They were retired in 1967-8; No 10.002 was scrapped but No 10.001 was at first offered for sale at a very meagre sum (£1,690) but was subsequently retained by the DB for preservation in its museum
Soon after the war the Victorian Railways in Australia commenced design work on a new general purpose locomotive at first envisaged as a light 4-6-2, but subsequently amended to 4-6-4. An order for fifty was placed with the North British Locomotive Co in Glasgow, but on the unfortunate advice of a consultant the number was later increased to seventy, and these were all delivered in 1951-2. Dimensionally the new engines were very closely comparable with the contemporary British Railways Class 7 Britannia 4-6-2, and although the grate area was identical at 42sq ft a mechanical stoker was installed in view of the long sustained power outputs envisaged. Provision was made for speedy conversion from the VR 5ft 3in gauge to 4ft 8½tin in the event of a standard gauge track being laid throughout between Melbourne and Sydney. Built on to 5in thick bar frames, these impressive engines typified latter-day VR practice with their wide Belpaire fireboxes having noticeably long combustion chambers, stovepipe chimneys, and German-style smoke deflectors which, like the valences, were painted scarlet to relieve the black livery.
Used in pairs, the engines operated the Victorian Railways' principal passenger working, the Overland Limited, for one brief year before supercession by diesels. All had relatively short lives, though 50 remained at work in 1964. Such had been the difficulties recently experienced with diesels (whose rated performance was in many respects inferior) that it is believed that the edict went forth at about this time that the surviving 4-6-4s should be made good for a further fifteen years service to the extent of re-boilering where necessary. There must very soon have been a marked improvement on the diesel side, however, for the VR 4-6-4s were effectively extinct by the end of 1966, although at least one is preserved in working order. Two of the class were equipped for oil firing and one for burning pulverised brown coal in the mid-1950s.
On account of the physical nature of the country, eight-coupled motive power was built almost to the exclusion of all else in twentieth-century Spain. The 4-8-0 began to appear in increasing numbers from 1912, and the first 4-8-2 in Europe appeared there in 1925. On the 5ft 6in gauge in Spain alone in Europe, at the very end of the steam era the 4-8-4 became established in regular service as a class, after somewhat fleeting appearances in Germany and France some years earlier. Despite a policy of main line electrification in Spain there was still a need in the early 1950s for a high capacity steam locomotive to handle the heaviest passenger services over the non-electrified sections of the main line between Madrid and Irun, which latterly lay principally between Avila and Miranda de Ebro.
A 4-8-4 type was decided upon and ordered in 1952, although the design was not entirely new, being based on the Norte heavy two-cylinder 4-8-2 then still in production. The boiler was the same, the driving wheel diameter was increased from 5ft 9in to 6ft 3 in and by incorporation of a trailing four-wheel truck the axleload was reduced from 21 to 20 tonnes. The cylinder design was greatly improved, although retaining the Lentz valves actuated by Walschaerts gear, and a double KyJchap exhaust was provided in association with German-style" bat's wing" smoke deflectors. The engines were of magnificent appearance, being accorded the unique accolade (on the RENFE) of a green livery, but were somewhat marred by the attachment of disproportionately small standard tenders. They were oil-burners and always kept beautifully clean.
The prototype was delivered in 1955 by la Maquinista of Barcelona, whence nine more followed the next year. By this time the Spanish National Railways (RENFE) had already placed their last steam orders and so the non-appearance of any further 4-8-4s was assured. During the 1960s ever advancing electrification and dieselisation increasingly curtailed the 4-8-4s' activities with the result that they were often only to be seen at night. By 1970 some were already in storage although the future of some, at least, was assured for a while and an example will almost certainly be preserved.
Just like the 4-8-4, the 2-10-2 seemed doomed to failure and comparatively early demise on the standard gauge in Europe, limited examples having appeared in France, Germany and Rumania, although again it fared somewhat better on the 5ft 6in gauge in Spain. The most powerful standard gauge locomotives in Europe appeared in Greece at the end of the steam era yet had few equals at so enlightened and late a date as downright failures. These were twenty 2-10-2s, built in Italy by Breda and Ansaldo during 1953-5 for heavy passenger service between Athens and Salonika, a line upon which gradients as severe as 1 in 40 are encountered.
Endowed with double Kylchap exhaust and delivered as handfired coal burners with 60sq ft of grate area, provision was made for the installation of mechanical stokers if deemed necessary, although all were soon converted to oil firing. The axleload was no less than 20 tonnes and in order to keep this down Australian-style SCOAP wheel centres (as also applied to the VR 4-6-4s) were used and rather light welded plate frames specified. Herein lay the trouble, for much of the weight was concentrated in the large boiler. Following the rigours of first international and then civil war, the permanent way was in an appalling state and despite the provision of a Krauss-Helmholtz leading truck the long wheelbase set up tremendous stresses. These were transmitted to the boilers, causing severe cracking of the firebox throat plates, to the extent that the entire class had to be temporarily withdrawn in 1958 and the boilers shipped to Henschel for modification. By the time the engines resumed service, diesels were taking over the principal duties. When brand new, one of the class was tested in Italy on the Brenner line, and as built they were of very handsome appearance if nothing else, but the later provision of German-style smoke deflectors detracted from this greatly. It is possible that some are still in service.
Following the experimental import about 1930 of a number of large American 2-10-2s and 2-10-4s, locomotive development in the USSR subsequently became very Americanised with the appearance of long series of 2-8-4s and 2-10-2s in the 1930s. The process continued after the war in the 1950s with the construction of 4-8-4s and last of all in 1954 of a pair of huge 2-8-8-4 Mallets. These all still fell short of American proportions as axleloads were on a European scale at only 18-20 tonnes but nevertheless the two Mallets built at Kolomna were the largest steam locomotives ever built outside North America on several counts, excepting the almost mythical Russian 4-14-4 of 1935. Classified P38, very little is known about the performance of these monsters except that it is believed they were not entirely successful. In any case steam construction abruptly ceased behind the Iron Curtain shortly afterwards.
This review would be incomplete without reference to Czechoslovakia. Although several fine series of 4-8-2s and 2-10-0s were built there after the war it was actually a tank engine that combined all the ultimate features and was in many ways the most remarkable. Czech locomotives were fundamentally of Germanic origin but collaboration with Chapelon immediately after the war had resulted in a series of elegant designs which combined the best of French and German practice whilst excluding the more extreme aspects of either. Thus Kylchap exhaust, roller bearings, extensive welding and mechanical stokers were included in successive batches of engines so that all these features were standard by the early 1950s. Owing to the nature of the country tank engines featured prominently in Czechoslovakia and before the war 2-8-4, 4-8-4, and 2-10-2 tank engines had become well established. After the war it was the 4-8-4T in enlarged three-cylinder form that came in for particular attention and reached its culmination in the 22 engines of the 477.0 class built by CKD of Prague in 1955-6. Although by no means the world's largest tank engines, these were quite unique as a class in being equipped with mechanical stokers. These locomotives were finished in attractive blue or green liveries, having skyline boiler casings and double chimneys, the latter an unusual feature in a tank engine.
In 1949 an order was placed by the Czechoslovak State Railways for five three-cylinder 2-10-4s of which the first unit was to be delivered in 1952 with the other four following in 1953. Regrettably this fascinating order for what would have been appreciably larger than anything ever actually seen in Europe was rescinded the following year. Basically inspired by the Class 45 three-cylinder 2-10-2s of the Deutsche Reichsbahn, the gross deficiencies of the latter's boiler with inadequate grate area and excessive tube length (24tft) were fully recognised. The Czech proposal was to have had 75sq ft of mechanically fired grate, far in excess of anything else in Europe, and in this respect was inspired by the contemporary Russian FD20 2-10-2. To have attached a ten-wheeled tender as applied to the 556.0 2-10-0 would have made for excessive length and so a disproportionately short double-bogie tender was to have been fitted, none the less giving an overall length of 88ft. (Rigid wheelbase would have been 24ft 3in, and engine wheelbase 45ft 6in, a Krauss-Helmholtz truck being provided.)
This majestic design, which was to have had a skyline boiler casing, was not proceeded with as it was considered that there would not be an increase in power and efficiency commensurate with the corresponding dramatic increase in size. The smaller and simpler two-cylinder 556.0 class 2-10-0 subsequently appeared in large numbers and very ably handled the freight traffic; 80 hefty two-cylinder 2-8-2s having several parts in common with the 2-10-4 and ordered at the same time were similarly cancelled.
The last Czech designs developed high power in relation to their weight without resort to the complexities of compounding, and thus formed an interesting compromise between French practice and the more straightforward approach of most other countries in the last years of steam when fundamentally American philosophy predominated. Concluded page 146

M.D. Crew. The preservation bubble. 61-4.
Written by the Secretary of the Association of Railway Preservation Societies. Indicates the high costs of moving locomotives and of major repairs, and that it may not be possible to raise the necessary finance for the latter. 

John A. Lines. First of the SDJR 2-8-0s. Locomotive portraits—7. 65.
The locomotives differed markedly from Derby practice in having outside cylinders and valve gear. The Midlnd and LMS attempted to use them more wdely, but they were too wide for many routes. The tender cabs were removed because they tended to trap smoke.

Christopher Bakalarski and Christopher Magner. Cornwall to Caithness: Wirral Railway Circle's 1972 excursions reach Britain's extremities. 66-7.
Railtours to Penzance from Chester in May and to Wick and Thurso in October under the title Orcadian. Both tours included sleeping cars and dining cars and made full use of the haulage capacity of diesel traction. A Western hydraulic  was sought for the stretch from Bristol to Penzance and on the return journey the train was worked over the Dart Valley behind two 45XX

Railway club photographic competition. 68-9.

East European journey. 70-1

J.M. Tolson. To Switzerland—for steam  (and so much else). 72-5.

T.L. Evans. The Carmarthen & Cardigan Railway. 76-7.

Liverpool University photographic prizewinners. 78

Michael H.C. Baker. The railways of Bord na Mona. 79-80.

Annual report on railway accidents. 81-2

New books. 82.

Railway bridge construction. F.A.W. Mann Hutchinson Education, 158pp. Reviewed by JTG
Electrification, motorways, and the reshaping of the railway system have all influenced the design of bridges in recent years. Constructional methods, also, have been radically affected by the use of prestressed concrete and welded steel. The author follows his discussion of these influences by a review of notable bridges in the UK, both steel and concrete and including flyovers. There are short chapters on footbridges and subways. Footbridge design is moving away from the standard article concept towards the bridge built to suit its environment, and subway construction has been revolutionised by the pipe jacking technique which enables the bore to be excavated without interrupting traffic above it. Mr Mann concludes his book with a chapter on some notable bridges overseas. He succeeds in making bridges both interesting and comprehensible to the non- specialist reader, supporting his text with many illustrations and diagrams. Here is a new subject for the enthusiast to study, both on his rail journeys and whenever he finds himself in the vicinity of a railway line.

Clockwork, steam and electric. Gustav Reder; translated by C. Hamilton Ellis. Ian Allan Ltd. 216pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
Quite early in his book the author puts his finger a basic fascination of the model railway: "running on rails furnishes one of the peculiar charms of the railway in miniature". The earliest models described and illustrated simply ran on the floor, or sometimes the customer could buy rails but had to provide his own sleepers. Track became an inseparable part of the model train set in the late 1880s and the full tide of development was then under way. There are nearly 500 pictures in this book, among which readers of all ages are likely to find something to tug at the strings of memory. Forgotten details are brought back to mind. The oscillating cylinder in primitive steam models was sometimes in the cab and drove the rear axle by gearing. These little engines were called dribblers from their habit of dropping water on the carpet. When the refinement of the automatic lubricator was introduced they dropped oil as well, to the distress of even the most indulgent parents.
The book reviews and illustrates the contributions of all the well-known firms of model railway suppliers and conc1udes with an appendix giving the trademarks and short biographies of manufacturers up to 1939. It covers not only locomotives and rolling stock, but accessories. The tinplate overbridge with approach ramps (often fatal to the trains) took many forms, sometimes with elaborate towers and a tubular structure. Tunnels ranged from U-shaped pieces of stamped tinplate to miniature mountains crowned by watchtowers and other strategic paraphernalia. Some oddities of modelling are recalled as well, like the Hornby 4-4-2 which was supposed to represent a Nord Super-Pacific (but three coupled axles were inconvenient for small-radius curves). Worse still, the same locomotive was produced in different colour schemes to represent Flyine Scotsman, Royal Scot, Caerphilly Castle and Lord Nelson. This is an absorbing book, to which the translator has contributed some characteristic footnotes. The absence of captions is inconvenient to the man in a hurry, because pictures are sometimes a considerable distance from their descriptions. But the reader ought not to be in a hurry, otherwise in leafing through from picture to relevant text he will miss much of interest and charm on the way.

The Chester & Holyhead Railway. Vol 1. Peter E. Baughan, Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 324 pp. Reviewed by KHS
This first volume of a history of the Chester & Holyhead Railway takes the story of the main line up to 1880. It begins in pre-railway days with an account of early postal services and sailing packets on the route to Ireland via Holyhead, this crossing having replaced Liverpool for the mails as early as 1576. Chester was linked with Crewe by railway in 1840, and construction of the Chester & Holyhead began five years later. Many problems, not only of civil engineering, were involved in extending railway communication westwards from Chester along the North Wales coast culminating in the bridging of the Menai Straits by the Britannia tubular bridge.
The Chester & Holyhead had financial difficulties from its early days and although it had ordered its own locomotives it did not operate them but had to ask the London & North Western to take over the working of the line. In doing so, the LNWR acquired the C&H engines, somewhat opportunely as it happened because the LNW was in the throes of a locomotive shortage at the time. There is much interesting and little known information for the locomotive enthusiast in this part of Baughan's history. He also relates in full the problems of locomotive water supply, becoming acute with the need for speed to counter GWR competition for Irish traffic, which led to the installation of the first water troughs at Mochdre in 1860. Their removal to Aber, often quoted in the past as the pioneer site, did not take place until 1872, after protracted negotiations over water supply. The development of Holyhead as a port, its shipping services, and a wealth of information on the operation of the line are the subjects of later chapters. The book embodies the results of an exhaustive study which gives new depth and perspective to the history of the railway and its personalities, among whom harmony did not always prevail..

The Hull & Barnsley Railway, VoI 1; Edited by K. Hoole. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 331 pp Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
Such extraordinary enthusiasm greeted the formal commencement of work on building the Hull & Barnsley Railway that a writer in the Hull Daily Mail in later years recalled the impression that the railway was going to carry people to heaven. Local feeling against a railway monopoly in Hull had been strong, however, particularly when in 1872 the existing line and dock became saturated with traffic. The Hull & Barnsley company was formed to build a new dock (Alexandra Dock) in Hull and to connect it with the West Riding coalfield by a new railway. At its western end the line made connections with the Midland near Monk Bretton and Cudworth. The present history is the work of a panel of six authors under the editorship of K. Hoole. All being specialists in particular aspects of the story, a broad spread of interest is achieved, although the reader in search of a particular date or fact not disclosed in the index is sometimes in doubt where to look for it. However, the various narratives are interesting enough to make a little spadework rewarding, and the maps are comprehensive. Gradient profiles are included in the Appendices. Outside its own area the H&B was something of an unknown quantity, and many a railway student would have been hard put to it to draw even an inadequate map of its system. The railway is well worth discovering by those who have previously ignored it, and Volume 1 of its history gives a thorough grounding in its background, sources of traffic and construction.

Letters . 83

Publicising diversions. Alan Clarke  
In Motive Power Miscellany—October issue—correspondents commented on alleged "poor publicity" about the diversion on the East Coast Main Line during the weekend of July 22-24 when the placing of a new bridge to carry the railway over a realigned road west of Dunbar caused re-routing of train services via Carlisle. It seems to me that your contributors collectively do not read newspapers, consult travel agents or station staff, reserve seats or sleepers or read leaflets and posters. This can be the only logical explanation of how they missed the excellent, widespread publicity which was given. Eye- catching advertisments, mostly 8in deep across three columns, were placed in 20 morning evening and weekly newspapers ranging from Aberdeen to Bristol and South Wales with a combined circulation of more than six million. An advance information leaflet running to 93,000 copies was distributed on all five Regions of British Rail with 1,600 bright yellow posters for display at stations. In Scotland alone 46,000 special timetables giving diversion details were issued. A direct mail letter was sent to 1,800 railway customers whose addresses were known and who were considered likely to be travelling that weekend. All this was additional to arrangements made as early as May for passengers booking seats and sleepers to be advised of the diversions by travel agents or station staff. We also issued, in conjunction with the Eastern Region, press releases at the end of June and again in mid-July to newspapers, television and radio. Special bulletins were issued to local radio stations warning people of the diversion. And just in case anybody still had not received the message after all that we distributed 50,000 explanatory leaflets to passengers during the weekend travelling from Scottish, Eastern, Western and London Midland Regions. "Poor" indeed! As to the running of Edinburgh/London trains on Monday  24 July, The Flying Scotsman was retimed to leave Edinburgh at 09.00 and arrive in London at 16.04. The train due Kings Cross 17.43 was the 11.00 from Edinburgh, retimed to leave at 10.00. Clarke was Head of Information Services British Railways (Scotland).  

Asbestos health hazard. A.G. Wilkie
HM Chemical Inspector of Factories. The ARPS Newsletter of October 1972 drew the attention of its members to a possible health risk from asbestos dust, and I should like to give further emphasis to this so as to ensure that the maximum number of persons are aware of the hazard.
The risk arises when carrying out repairs and renovations which entail removal or disturbance of asbestos-based thermal insulation. If precautions are not taken, the persons involved inevitably inhale asbestos dust and the concentrations could be very heavy. All asbestos dust is potentially dangerous to health, dependent upon concentra- tions and duration of exposure, but the maximum risk is associated with crocidolite (blue asbestos).
It is now known that exposure to fine particles of blue asbestos dust, even for short periods of time, can predispose persons to a specific form of lung cancer and this is particu- larly the case where young persons are involved. Unfortunately many locomotives were in fact lagged with this blue form of asbestos—usually recognisable on inspection by its dark lavender-blue colour, and it is therefore essential to be alerted to this possibility when carrying out any repairs. Advisable precautions would usually involve thoroughly soaking the lagging with water and then careful bagging-off for disposal, As complete soaking is not easy it will also be necessary to wear a dust respirator approved for this type of work by HM Chief Inspector of Factories under the Asbestos Regulations 1969, and also suitable protective clothing. Local HM District Inspectors of Factories will give advice if approached on matters of detail.

The 5X locomotives of the LMS. Pegasus
The above article in the October issue is a masterpiece of carefully compiled facts, excellently set out, with fine photographs. May I please, be permitted to comment on the statement on page 434 that the "first five of the new 5X(5552-6) were drafted to the Euston-Wolverhampton service .... " I recall that 5553-6 went direct to Preston Shed (W27), later being joined by 5552, which went new to Camden Shed (Wl). One used to arrive at Euston at 17.20 on a named train (either The Fylde Coast or the Lakes Express, I think it was the former; but memory does play tricks at times!) This was about August 1934. Within the next few months most (if not all) of the 5552-6 series were transferred to Camden (for the Euston-Birmingham services). Incidentally, one of the Holbeck 5Xs (which used to work through to Bristol Temple Meads) provided me with my first opportunity of seeing two locomotives in a station, each bearing the same number; for while LMS 5538 was waiting to work through to Leeds, GWR 2-6-2T No 5538 was shunting in Temple Meads Station. My second (and last) opportunity was at Paddington, when GWR 7027 Thornbury Castle and BR Hymek 7027 were both at the head of departures from Paddington.

The 5X locomotives of the LMS. R.E. Goodman
Contributors who write such excellent features as The 5X Locomotives of the LMS must get very irritated by over-pedantic enthusiasts who hasten to find fault with dates quoted and generally seem to want to challenge a high proportion of the facts presented! I hope that the locomotive enthusiast's traditional insistence on pin-point accuracy will not deter other writers from delighting us with similar enjoyable articles in future editions of Railway World— a thick skin is certainly a necessary condition for bursting into print! Having said this, may I apologise for having to point out that Jubilee class locomotive 45742 Connaught did not take its double chimney with it to the scrapyard in 1965 but was relieved of it in November 1955, reverting to the normal type of single chimney. I believe that the double chimney was first fitted to 45742 at the end of 1939 although it did not run continuously with the same double chimney and I have a substitution recorded in August 1940.

The 5X locomotives of the LMS. John L. Nixon.
I would like to thank Harry Russell for his most interesting article on the 5X locomotives of the LMS. However there was one small point which does need clarifying. No 5528, which Mr Russell describes as not being named until rebuilt in 1947, was in fact rebuilt in.1947 but not named until as late as 1959, when it was named R.E.M.E.

Take the chair! M. Swain
With reference to Mr L. Belk's article Take the chair in the September issue we would like to inform you that in sidings at the rear of Lincoln mpd track chairs of the GWR, GNR and LNE origin can be found. The GWR chairs are marked 1881 and the GNR were marked 1894.

Take the chair! David Howell
Many thanks to L. Belk for his article on rail chairs in the September issue. I have been noting and photographing examples of pre- and post-grouping chairs for some years, and can substantiate his statement that many examples from old company days are extant. The best place to find these is in sidings and bays. Usually the last half-dozen or so before the buffer-stops will prove to be old, these having escaped replacement. In such places I have found many chairs marked GNR, GER, LNWR, MR, NER, NSR, SECR, in addition to LCDR which is going back still further. Chairs of the 'Big Four' are still plentiful. Rail chairs certainly travel around. I wonder how LNWR types came to be laid in sidings at Stone (Staffs), and how LSWR examples found their way to the Middleton Railway! I have noticed such types in these places.

French steam in retirement. David R. Webb
The photograph in your October number on page 144, showing the exhibits at the Canadian Railway Museum at Delson, Montreal, actually illustrates the products of three European countries. The tender of 030 C 841 is from Germany and dates from 1908, but was not matched with the French locomotive until after the Second World War, in 1946. The engine was built by the Societe Alsacienne in 1883 and was withdrawn in 1964. Furthermore, the tender on the track next to 030 C 841 is almost certainly that of 4-6-0 No 5 of the Maritime Railway built at Pittsburgh in 1895.

Midland Compound No 1008
In the 47 years I have been reading railway matters never have I seen in print the names of the driver and fireman of Compound No 1008 who made history in the famous trials over the Settle and Carlisle line in December/January 1923/4, and despite my endeavours to obtain this information the LMR authorities were unable to trace records. However at long last I have been lucky enough to find the answer from Mr Charley Keighley, Carlisle, and no doubt the following will be of great interest to Midland fans and others. He writes as follows.
" . . . I am pleased to inform you that the driver was Edward (Teddy) Fearn and the fireman was Joseph Faddon, both of Durran Hill Midland Loco. My information is authentic as I checked up with a younger retired ex-driver Durran Hill, who as a cleaner helped to clean No. 1008 on the day of the trial. I noticed you mention 'Mad' Jack Hesseltine of Holbeck, Leeds, and you may be misled by the fact that No 1008 Midland Compound was his engine stationed at Holbeck for a number of years and was converted to superheating during the period he was driver of it.
He was a bit of a character, noted for making a noise with both voice and locomotive ... and was doubtless the best-known driver on the Carlisle-London line."
Mr Keighley adds that he worked on locomotives for nearly 48 years and has been retired 9½ years; and also that for a short time he worked at Derby Loco during the First World War when the Zepps bombed Derby. No doubt you will agree that this fills in a piece of im- portant history and places Messrs Fearn and Faddon among the immortals of steam

Croydon power station. Peter Moore
Rw position regarding the industrial locomotives at Croydon power station, the situation is as follows. Firstly, with respect to the Peckett 0-4-0 saddle tanks, there are in fact three such locomotives, Nos 2103, 2104 and 2105, one of which (No 2103) is being retained on standby by the CEGB. The other two, however, have been sold for preservation. That is the situation at Croydon B power station. On the other side of the West Croydon-Wimbledon line, at Croydon A, which is a separate power station, there is an overhead electric locomotive built by English Electric in 1925 which, contrary to Mr Baker's impression, is still used for shunting. Until recently there was also Bagnall 0-4-0ST, No 2842 of 1946 vintage, on standby, which has now been purchased by the Bagnall 2842 Preservation Society. This locomotive has now been moved at the owners' request to Croydon B power station. Incidentally, as Secretary of the Society, might I request the return of the worksplates of 2842, which were "removed" while the locomotive was lying out of use in Croydon A. These are irreplaceable, and the Society is prepared to pay for their return.

Steam the irresistible. Derek Cross
"Steam my lord is dead ... it should have died hereafter". I may parody Macbeth but despite all Shakespeare could say about him he was one of Scotland's more successful kings, just as steam traction was one of the better forms of mass transportation evolved by this or another country. Alas both Lady Macbeth and steam traction are dead and persons such as Mr Creer (Letters, December) will have to realise and face this fact, sad as it may be. The implication of my original letter, to which he takes such exception, was that people will not realise this fact. I keep a pony for my daughter to ride and it costs me to do so but this does not mean that I would consider this animal a suitable means of getting to London. All railway enthusiasts, including myself, sooner or later will have to come to terms with the fact that" Steam my Lord is dead" and that any attempt to revive it is a wholly pointless exercise. People genuinely interested in railways as part of our historical and current social structure must face up to this: what is past is past. We may regret it but we cannot alter it. Moreover the new forms of motive power need new techniques and it so happens that the December Railway World shows that some photographers have got them. A real photographer to me is one who shows whatever form of motive power is used doing a normal job in average surroundings and gets it sharp, without too much grain or distortion. Some of us did this for steam, others will for diesels, as it is a matter of taste. The point of my letter was to make railway enthusiasts face facts. I am always uncharitable, seldom unnecessary and never inaccurate.

No. 394 (March 1973)

News of the month. 92

Mr Cecil J. Allen. 92.
As we go to press, the sad news of the sudden death of Mr Cecil J. Alien on February 5 reaches us. He was one of the original Directors of lan AlIan Ltd when the Company was formed in 1945 and had been in constant touch with the firm's affairs ever since; indeed, he had been visiting the Company's hotel at Broadway, Worcestershire, when he collapsed on the return journey. Although in his 87th year he was still contributing regularly to Modern Railways, Railway World and History of Railways and, at the same time, adding to his last of some forty books. Surely no one could have produced more words on railway matters or promoted railway interest as much as he.
"CJ" was a dedicated railway enthusiast almost from birth; he joined the Engineer's Department of the Great Eastern Railway in 1903 and remained in its service and that of the LNER until his retirement in 1946. But during that time he had recorded nearly every rail journey he made and his regular articles on British Locomotive Practice and Performance in the Railway Magazine were approaching 500 in unbroken series.
By the time he wrote his memoirs in 1965 he reckoned to have travelled over two million miles by train, much of it on the footplate. But railways were not his only interest; he was a lifelong Christian and had devoted much of his time to the Crusaders Union, having been honorary editor of its magazine for some years. He played an active part in his local Methodist Church at Epsom and was an accomplished organist as he demonstrated at one of our Railway Film Shows at the Royal Festival Hall—the only occasion I ever perceived him to be nervous before facing an audience, for he was a superb lecturer and broadcaster and his sermons, always given without a note, were inspiring.
Switzerland was another of his interests and loves; he made his way there each year, always by train; latterly on his own and even at the age of 86 managed to cope with long and tedious journeys even to the tops of is mountains.
As a Director of lan AlIan Ltd for twenty years, he was famed for his expression Festina lente (make haste slowly), advice which often prevailed.
British Railways and their Swiss counterparts had both acknowledged CJ's contribution to their PR by awarding him "all stations" passes and CJ would often take a ride for the fun of it and use the time writing a book or article. On arriving one day at Glasgow Central, with his hotel reservation at the North Bristol at Glasgow (Queen Street), he decided the cheapest way of making the ¾ mile cross-city journey   was to take the train from Central to Edinburgh Waverly via Shotts and return direct by the NB route to Queen Street, which he did! Indeed, ClA was the doyen of railway ir writers and a grand old man who will ir be sadly missed by many all over the world—not least by his friends and colleagues at Terminal House, Shepperrton. I.A. [Ian Allan]

R.S. Greenwood. Preserved locomotive maintenance. 106-8
This relatively short article generated a considerable correspondence. It  was based on a paper presented at the Standard Gauge Convention in 1972.

National Railway Museum at York. 109
Included a photograph of a model of the new buildings and noting that Margaret Weston, Director of the Science Museum was in overall responsiblity.

No. 395 (April 1973)

Cecil J. Alien. Southern to the West Country. 142-5 
Posthumous contribution

C.P. Atkins. The eleventh hour of steam—2. 146-9 .
Began page 56. One of the most notable aspects of the final phase of world-wide steam locomotive development was the production of a number of designs of exceptional size and power for the sub-standard gauge. Thus it was that with the demise of the last remaining steam giants in North America the most powerful locomotives in the world were to be found on the metre gauge in East Africa! This process had already begun in the early years of the twentieth century with the introduction of the 4-8-2 type on the 3ft 6in gauge in South Africa and New Zealand, a few years before its first appearance in the USA, and really got under way with the rapid adoption of the Beyer-Garratt articulated type on many colonial railways from about 1920 onwards. Another factor was that outside North America the standard gauge was largely associated with Europe, which was endowed with a fairly dense rail network upon which operated fairly frequent services with consequently only moderate individual train weights. The sub-standard gauge was to be found particularly in developing countries whose railways were comparatively sparse yet vital, and whose main lines were very often composed of single track, as in Africa. Only moderate axleloadings were permissible, demanding a multiplicity of coupled wheels in order to develop the required power, whilst only low grade coal was available, which demanded large fireboxes, so that wheel arrangements usually associated with North America could result, eg 2-10-2 and 2-8-4. On such railways the traffic was forever on the increase and could only be met by continual resort to more and more powerful locomotives to the end of the steam era. This was often neatly solved by the adoption of the Beyer Garratt, which although latterly attaining very large proportions, was nevertheless capable of growing to still far greater size.
Although, as already noted, the very divergent practices of North America and France effectively ended within these two countries in 1949, elsewhere in the shape of Baldwin- designed prototypes, American practice persisted in India for another twenty years or so with prolonged new construc- tion, whilst at the time of writing, with the active participa- tion of M Chapelon, French-style development is still proceeding in South America, particularly in Argentina. The last instance of Chapelon's influence in regard to entirely new construction, however, was with some particularly outstanding metre gauge locomotives built in France for Brazil in the early 1950s. These to a certain extent emulated on a simplified and reduced scale what would otherwise have materialised in France itself but for electrification.
At the end of November 1949 the French locomotive export consortium GELSA was awarded a contract by the Brazilian National Railways (DNEF) for 90 metre gauge steam locomotives of entirely new and advanced design. A low population density, a poor economy, and the availability of indigenous low grade coal, dictated the purchase of steam locomotives. These comprised 66 2-8-4 freight engines having an axleload of 10 metric tonnes, and 24 4-8-4 heavy passenger and freight locomotives with a 13 tonne loading, the latter having a maximum speed of 50 mph. Chapelon was put in overaJl charge of the design, and construction was divided between four French locomotive builders (the tenders were supplied by French private engineering concerns). The first locomotive, a 4-8-4, was completed in July 1951 and full delivery was accomplished 18 months later.
Although there was a certain degree of standardisation between the two designs, it is with the 4-8-4s that we are here concerned. They were all built in Nantes by Ateliers de Nantes-St Joseph de Batignolles-Chatillon. These were straightforward two-cylinder simple expansion locomotives with Walschaerts valve gear and piston valves. The latter had a diameter of 7tin and a maximum travel of 7tin at 77t per cent cut-off, serving 17.1 in by 25.2in cylinders, the steam chests being exceptionally voluminous. The bar frames were 4in thick (lOOmm), thinned down to 3in (75mm) at the firebox end. The desire to utilise indigenous Brazilian low grade coal (8,000 BThU per lb) demanded an unusually large firegrate area in relation to the general size of the locomotive. At 57.4sq ft this was very rarely equalled, let alone exceeded, in European practice and was mechanically fired. The firebox was of the wide Belpaire type (compara- tively rare in France but to have become standard in the projected post-war range of high-powered three-cylinder compounds) incorporating a combustion chamber and containing two thermic syphons. The boiler barrel, pressed to 2851b, was relatively small in relation to the large grate, extending 16ft 9in between tubeplates and tapering from a maximum diameter of 6ft at the firebox down to 5ft 4in at the smokebox. On this account the free gas area through the boiler was very low at only 7.9 per cent of the grate area- only about half of the generally acknowledged optimum. This was reflected in the rather high smokebox vacuum of l3in of water (only lOin in the absence of the smokebox self-cleaning screens) required for maximum evaporation, yet the corresponding back pressure in the cylinders was only 7lb on account of the highly efficient double Kylchap exhaust. The tender was very large and ran on two six- wheel trucks, and had the capacity for 18 tons of coal. Desirable although it would have been, it was not possible to put an engine on the famous locomotive testing station at Vitry. A practical solution was found by thoroughly road testing a representative 2-8-4 and 4-8-4 on the metre gauge Reseau Breton in France itself prior to shipment. This was carried out with characteristic thoroughness under Chapelon's personal supervision with every conceivable parameter relating to locomotive performance being measured. A dynamometer car was specially improvised for the occasion and resistance to traction was provided by " dead" Mallet tank engines belonging to the railway. The 4-8-4 developed a maximum ihp of 1,965 compared with a corresponding maximum of 1,610dbhp. The ceiling evaporation by the boiler was 28,600lb of cold water from the tender, or 31.900lb with the Worthington feedwater heater in operation. Tests conducted with Brazilian coal using the mechanical stoker, and alternatively hand-firing, produced almost identical results, contrary to usual French experience. Tests with higher grade French coal (14,000 BThU per lb) produced no increase in maximum evaporation whatever owing to a lower maximum firing rate of 821b per sq ft per hr compared to 144lb for the Brazilian fuel. This phenomenon was largely attributed by Chapelon to the "finger type" firebars used in place of the Hulson pattern of grate traditional in France. Although a most detailed account by Chapelon himself of the design and construction of these locomotives, the Brittany tests and their results, was published in France in 1953, little has been heard of these magnificent machines since. No doubt they made an interesting contrast with some American-built 4-8-4s of very comparable dimensions supplied to Brazil by Alco in 1946.
South Africa was undoubtedly the country of the 4-8-2. Constructed almost continuously over a period of forty years from 1908 to 1948, and progressively enlarged in both size and numbers, 1,350-0r rather more than half the post-war SAR steam stock of approximately 2,500-were 4-8-2s. The practical limit of size was attained during 1935-9 with the first appearance of the very similar l5E, 15F and 23 classes which had an 18-ton axleload and 62tsq ft of grate area. Any subsequent increase in boiler power demanded a four-wheel trailing truck, and thus a 4-8-4, of which no less than 140 were ordered early in 1951 from the North British Locomotive Company in Glasgow and Messrs Henschel & Sohn in Germany, to a total value of around £141- million. Delivery commenced in 1953 and was completed early in 1955.
Henschel had had considerable experience with condensing locomotives both before and during the war [WW2], and this was invoked in the present order. The SAR experienced tre- mendous water supply problems in the arid Karoo desert region, and so it was very boldly decided to equip 90 of the new 4-8-4s as condensing engines. This followed from preliminary experiments initiated in 1949 with the solitary SAR-assembled Class 20 light two-cylinder 2-10-2 which was converted on these lines and subsequently scrapped. Originally NBL was to build all 90 condensing 4-8-4s and 30 of the corresponding tenders, plus 10 conventional 4-8-4s and their tenders, the balance to come from Henschel. In the event the latter built the prototype condensing 4-8-4 (class 25C) for trial purposes and to compensate NBL produced an additional conventional 4-8-4 (25NC). The provision of condensing equipment nearly doubled the cost of the locomotives concerned, the "straight" 25NC 4-8-4 being priced at £67,500 apiece compared with £112,000 for a condensing 25C 4-8-4.
The stringent South African requirements laid down in the specifications presented design problems of considerable magnitude. Steam was to be generated at an average rate of 55,OOOlb per hour at 700 deg F and condensed to liquid water in an ambient temperature of 100 deg F at altitudes as great as 4,500ft above sea level, at which the diminution in weight of a given volume of air is 18 per cent. Smokebox draught was to be produced by an exhaust steam turbine- driven fan, whose rate of evacuation therefore fluctuated in tune with the steam flow through the cylinders and was thereby effectively equivalent to the mutual draught- producing characteristics of the conventional blastpipe. The exhaust steam was thence led via a 16in pipe on the left hand side through an oil separator to the tender. This consisted of very numerous peripheral condensing elements air-cooled by five horizontal turbine-driven fans. The condensate collected in the well of the tender which was appreciably longer than the locomotive it served. The 25 series of 4-8-4s, although obviously very closely developed from the preceding heavy 4-8-2s, incorporated two major advances over the latter. Firstly the 4-8-2 boiler lacked a combustion chamber (in the interests of reduced maintenance costs) at the expense of tubes no less than 22tft long. In the 4-8-4 firebox, a combustion chamber was incorporated thereby reducing tube length to a more reasonable 19ft and at the same time substantially increasing the valuable firebox heating surface and firebox volume. The tapered barrel was slightly increased in maximum diameter to 7ft but the total free gas area remained at only nt per cent of the grate area as before. The bar frames of the 4-8-2s were also superseded in the 4-8-4s by cast steel beds imported from the USA, which also supplied the intricate "herring bone" cast frames for both varieties of tender. In addition roller bearings were applied to all axles and crankpins.
It would have been surprising if no problems of any sort had been experienced with so large a fleet of locomotives of new design incorporating such a major deviation from the norm. Severe fan blade wear and fracture initially plagued the operators, the former through the accumulation of smokebox char, soon cured by modified internal smokebox arrangements, whilst improved constructional techniques overcame the latter difficulty. No straight comparative tests were ever made between a representative condensing and non-condensing 4-8-4, but considered in relation to the original 2-10-2 trials, water recovery for the former was of the order of 75-78 per cent, whilst water evaporated per pound of coal fired was around 7 per cent greater when condensing, the different mode of draughting making no apparent appreciable difference.
Ultimately the condensing 4-8-45 were a great success, operating at speeds of up to 55mph and capable of covering 600-700 miles between water stops as anticipated when they were designed but nevertheless decidedly expensive to run and latterly somewhat unpopular with engine crews. It was regrettable that such success came too late in the steam era to have any appreciable influence on subsequent events either on the SAR or elsewhere. It is known that at one stage it was seriously considered applying the apparatus to some of the light 24 Class 2-8-4s built by NBL in 1949-1950, whilst in 1954 Henschel produced a solitary light 4-8-2 on these lines for the Rhodesia Railways, though this was soon converted to conventional standard form. One of the non-condensing 4-8-4s was the subject in 1955 of the only SAR application of the Giesl ejector, a device which one would have thought would have been made great use of in South Africa.
Another contemporary 3ft 6in gauge design of note was the Western Australian Government Railways class V 2-8-2, of which 24 were delivered early in 1955—the last new main line stea.n locomotives in Australia. Designed by Beyer Peacock, construction was sub-contracted to Messrs Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns of Darlington as the former were still happily overwhelmed with steam orders at that period. A development of 60 lightweight 4-8-2s produced at Gorton in 1951, this 2-8-2 was essentially of standard gauge propor- tions developing a tractive effort of 33,6301b and capable of hauling 1,250 ton trains. Within an axleload of only 14t tons was accommodated a tapered round-topped boiler having a maximum diameter of 6ft and grate area 40sq ft being proportioned with a generous firebox volume, thermic syphons and short tube length (14ft) in order to consume the indigenous low grade Collie coal. This fuel had an ash content of 8 per cent and contained 25 per cent moisture. Roller bearings were applied throughout and plate frames were specified; attired in a smart lined green livery, these engines upheld to the end the excellence of British steam locomotive design and are probably all still in existence if not actually hard at work.
Probably the crowning glory of British locomotive achievement, however, was the Beyer-Garratt articulated locomotive still being produced in large numbers for export as late as 1955-6. Although produced for every continent except North America, it really came into its own in Africa where the most popular wheel arrangement by far was the 4-8-2+2-8-4. This attained its maximum expression in the mammoth 59 class for the East African Railways & Harhours in 1955, which had the highest Garratt axleload ever of 21 tons. Developing a tractive effort of 83,350lb, they were entirely conventional locomotives in every way, having bar frames and round-topped boilers, although roller bearings were applied to all axles and later to the big ends as well within the existing rod assembly. Operating on the metre gauge, they were readily convertible to the 3ft 6in gauge, and similarly, although built as oil burners, they could very readily be adapted to mechanised coal firing. Once initial teething troubles had been overcome they were outstanding performers and were further galvanised by being equipped with Giesl ejectors in the early 1960s. The latter were the largest such installations ever produced and by reducing back pressure in the cylinders greatly enhanced acceleration up the formidable banks of the Nairobi-Mom- basa main line and hence permitted a 33 per cent speed-up in operating schedules.
With the retirement from active service of the last giant American articulated Mallets in the late 1950s, the EAR 59 class now became the world's largest steam locomotives. Originally ordered in 1950, by the time they were delivered five years later it was already appreciated by the operators that no further purchases would be made of large steam power. This was regrettable, as a really colossal 372-ton 4-8-4+4-8-4 with 27-ton axleload was on the drawing board, varying between one third and one half as large again as the 59 class. So well proportioned would this have been that its appearance would have been every bit as well balanced as its predecessors, despite the endowment of an 8ft 6in diameter boiler. As things are, the magnificent 34 red 59 4-8-2+2-8-4s are doomed to replacement by main-line electrification by 1975, long before their time. The Beyer-Garratt was really the only locomotive type at the end of the steam era which was still capable of very considerably greater development in size than was actually realised in practice. The Garratt was remarkably adaptable in regard to its fundamental design and one can only speculate what magnificent machines could otherwise have resulted in the 1960s by combining the various latter day technological advances in steam locomotive design. The cast steel bed frame, roller bearings, British Caprotti valve gear, Giesl ejector, mechanical stoker, all-welded boiler; to go still further, turbine propulsion had a definite future as did condensing—South African style—under appropriate conditions.
Considering the immense sums actually invested in diesels instead, all this was not so unthinkable under the circumstances. Although the eventual demise of steam was probably inevitable, given another five years' grace, say until 1960, one cannot help but feel that the diesel would not have taken over with such alarming rapidity almost overnight. The improvement in the financial economy in the 1950s, which permitted the wholesale purchase of diesels, also coincided with a recovery of pre-war standards of permanent way which again allowed of high levels of  performance, further enhanced by considerable latter day enlightenment in regard to such aspects of steam locomotive thermodynamics as draughting and cylinder design. Far from having reached stagnation, steam development was certainly on the very threshold of a potentially fascinating period when it was abruptly cut off for ever in the late 1950s. The writer is indebted to numerous locomotive manufacturers, railways and individuals for invaluable technical assistance in the preparation of this article.

DNEF 242N SAR 25NC SAR 25C WAGRV 59 EAR & H  59 Proposed
EAR& H 61






4-8-4 + 4-8-4



3ft 6in

3ft 6in

3ft 6in



Boiler pressure (psi)







Cylinders (2: 4 in Beyer Garretts) 17.lin x 25.2in 24in x 28in 24in x 28in 19in x 26in 20½in x 28in 23½in x 28in
Driving wheel diameter

4ft 11in

5ft 0in

5ft 0in

4ft  3in

4ft 6jn

4ft  9in

Evaporative heating surface (ft2)







Superheater (ft2)






Grate area (ft2)






Adhesion weight (tons)






Engine weight (tons)







Tender weight (tons)





Water capacity (gal0






Coal capacity (tons)





2700 gal (oil)
Total length (fractions eliminated)

80ft 11in

91ft 10in


69ft 8in

104ft 2in

122ft 7in

Tractive effort (lb)







Illustrations: South African Railways Class 25NC (non-condensing) 4-8-4 No 3406 and No 3468 of the condensing version (Class 25C) head south from Kimberley towards De Aar with a heavy coal train on 4 October 1971. (R.J. Carmen); Western Australian Government Railways V class 2-8-2. (3ft 6in gauge design of virtually standard gauge proportions: the 24 locomotives of this class delivered to the WAGR in 1955 were the last new main line steam locomotives in Australia. (Sir Peter Allen); East African Railways 59 class Garratt No 5910 Mount Hanang, tackles the 1 in 67 climb out of Voi with an up freight from Mombasa to Nairobi. (D.H. Ballantyne)

H.J. Scowcroft. Spanish railway museum opens. 150-1
At Villaneuva y Geltru situated in an old roundhouse  

M.T. Hedderly.  A West German steam survey. 152-7.
Pacific type locomotives on very short trains, predominantly stopping or semi-fast services. Trier to Bullay behind a Class 01 Pacific; Merzig to Saarbrucken behind a Class 23 2-6-2; Aulendiorf to Friedrichschafen behind a Class 03 Pacific Lichtenfels to Hof behind a Class 01 Pacific; Heide to Hamburg powered by a three-cylinder oil-fired Class 012 Pacific; Flensburg to Hamburg behind another three cylinder oil-fired Pacific on the Kattegat Express when 84 mile/h was achieved; Buchen to Hamburg with another oil-fired Pacific (but an East German two-cylinder oil-fired Pacific). Illustratiuons include colour photograph of Class 01 Pacific on single track line near Marktschor to Hof passenger train

Tram/railway crossings in Victoria. 158-9
In Melbourne trams at 650V and trains at 1500V had to have their traction currents separated from each other where they crossed and this was linked to the signalling on the railway. One of the illustrations  show a tram crossing the railway at Ballarat with signal box behind. Others show the complex wiring.

LCGB photographic competition, 1972. 160-1
Photo-feature: DB class 044 2-10-0 crossing River Mosel at Bullay with a freight for Trier in April 1971 (S.M. Hammond: first prize in black & white section); Brush type 4 Co-Co diesel electric approaching gas lit New Southgate on down express (P.A. Dobson: second prize in black & white section); OBB class 52 2-10-0s Nos. 52.7046 and 52.844 double head an iron ore train through snow-covered Gstatterboden in 1969 (J.B. Toy:  first prize in colour section); SAR Class 19B 4-8-2s leaving Middleburg with Mossel Bay Express on 25 August 1972  (A.J. Targett:  second prize in colour section);

V.R. Webster. The archaeology of a railway. 162-5
A study of the closed Border Counties line of the former North British Railway forms the basis for what is intended to be a methodology for research. 

David Williams. Towards the goal on the SVR. 166-70
Extension plans to Foley Park and decision not to progress towards Stourport. Involvement of Sir Gerald Nabarro.

New books. 171-2.

The steam locomotives of Eastern Europe. A.E. Durrant. , Newton Abbot, David & Charles: 160 pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.
Since the first edition of this book appeared in 1966 steam traction in Eastern Europe has been declining rapidly, and the author has had to renounce the updating of informa- tion of locomotive allocations and duties originally pub- lished because of the speed at which such information becomes out of date. The book has therefore become something of a memorial, and a very handsome one, to the steam locomotive in one of its last European retreats. The many excellent illustrations recall a period when the impressive, the homely and the slightly off-beat (such as a 2-6-0 with a carrying axle between the drivers) flourished in vigour in territories which always had the fascination of comparative remoteness and some of which were later made to seem even less accessible by the barrier of the Iron Curtain.
The author's "Eastern Europe" comprises countries behind the Iron Curtain plus Austria, Greece, Turkey and the non-conforming Jugoslavia. Many locomotives in the territory he covers were inherited from Austria and Prussia and so those countries are the subject of his first two chapters. These are followed by chapters on Hungary and the Balkan countries, the new states formed after 1919, and finally on miscellaneous and wartime engines. The author's research into building dates, quantities, numbering and other details has been meticulous and puts on record an area of steam locomotive history which presented peculiar difficulties to the inquirer. The enthusiast who penetrates eastwards in pursuit of the last of steam is in his debt.

The Metropolitan Line. Charles E. Lee. London Transport, 32pp.  Reviewed by K.H.S.
The Metropolitan Railway, opened to public traffic between Paddington (Bishop's Road) and Farringdon Street on 10 January 1863, was the first urban underground railway in the world. On 1 June 1910, it surprisingly became the first railway in Europe to operate electrically-hauled Pullman cars. This expansion towards main-line status is a fascinating aspect of Mr Lee's history, but so, too, is the background of conflicting personalities behind the development of the Inner Circle, eventually completed under an Act which contained a section obliging the Metropolitan and District companies to accommodate each other's trains on the circle route so that the public could benefit from "continuous working of the said Inner Circle" with the other portions of the two companies lines". There was another clash later over electrification, for after the two companies had set up a joint committee to recommend a system, and the Metropolitan had accepted the proposal to use 3,000V three-phase ac with overhead conductor wires, control of the District passed to Charles Tyson Yerkes of Chicago, who strongly opposed the idea and favoured low-voltage dc. Yerkes' views were upheld by arbitration and the Metropolitan began electrifying with dc in 1905.
The book includes maps of the Metropolitan "Extension" line into Buckinghamshire and of the Inner Circle, both with dates of opening. There are several pages of illustra- tions of construction, early stations, locomotives and rolling stock.

The electric multiple units of British Railways. P. Mallaband. Sutton Coldfield: Electric Railway Society, 80pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.
The apparent similarity of multiple-unit sets conceals a wealth of variety for the informed observer. This soon becomes apparent from the concise account of electric rolling stock on all Regions presented in this useful booklet. It does not deal with power equipment in depth but notes its essential characteristics. Here, for example, one is reminded of the Eastern Region motor coach which ran for some time with a continuously-variable transformer control system, based on equipment supplied for raising and lowering control rods in nuclear reactors. For newcomers to the Southern Region it must be regarded as required reading, enabling them to participate in discussion of VEPs, BEPs and CIGs without embarrassment. Useful appendices include the standard BR letter classification system and lists of car numbers showing the units to which they belong and their composition. The book is based on the position at December 31, 1971, but all additional available information has been included

The North Midland Railway Guide, 1842. Leeds: Turntable Enterprises, 32pp and folding map.. Reviewed by B.K.C.
In reproducing this traveller's companion of 1842, a selection of the lithographs by Samuel Russell has been included although they were not in the original. Thus the present-day reader can see how the work of Robert Stephenson and Francis Thompson, architect of the stations, appeared to comtemporary travellers when they ventured on the journey by train from Derby to Leeds. The publisher has also felt free to comment in the captions where appropriate, rather than simply reproducing the artist's own titles, which adds interest for the reader today. A foreword by O. Carter suggests that Thompson may have asked Russell to illustrate his work after seeing what J.C. Bourne had done for the London & Birmingham, and he seems to have paid for the lithographs himself, although making an unsuccesful attempt to secure a contribution from the railway. The guide contains historical and topographical descriptions of Derby and Leeds, with some details of Derby station, and notes of places of interest on the journey with their distances from Derby. Chesterfield is made the occasion for a eulogy of George Stephenson and "his skilful adaption of the locomotive engine"

Future railways and guided transport.  P.M. Kalla-Bishop. London:  I PC Transport Press Ltd, 123pp Reviewed by B.K.C
The pace of development in technology makes it hard to keep abreast with what is going on and to understand the new principles involved. Much current achievement, with its bias towards electronics and computing methods, is also somewhat outside the experience of the general reader. In fact, a large proportion of this book deals with what is already becoming common practice. The author provides a concise review of the latest developments in motive power, signalling and high-speed operation before discussing the less conventional modes of guided transport. In doing so he looks briefly at early origins before tracing the course of development under the many pressures of day-to-day operation and economics. An impressive volume of information is compressed into modest space. The chapter on motive power, in 25 pages, covers the main ac and dc electric traction systems, control by resistance, transformer, or thyristors, diesel transmissions and the gas turbine. Automatic train operation begins with the Never-Stop Railway at Wembley in 1924-5 and leads on to a hopeful look at a Southern Region with only 13 signal boxes, driverless trains, and possibly lower fares because of the cut in operating expenses. All this information Mr Kalla- Bishop conveys lucidly and accurately with minimal use of diagrams. Apart from a drawing of an Italian locomotive bogie to illustrate a modern form of suspension, there are none until the final chapter on Other guided transport modes, which is unusual in an age when visual aids to learning are highly esteemed. The "other modes" of this chapter are mainly the air cushion hovertrain and the train which "hovers" by magnetic levitation, and in the author's view the levitation system will displace the air cushion type. The concluding chapter ends on the hopeful note that the techniques now at the railways' disposal, including computers to assist forward planning, put them in a position to make substantial contributions to cheaper and more reliable transport.

Letters. 172

Diesel shunter histories. W.G. Boyden
Referring to the letter from Mr Toms in the October issue, I write to say that WD882 was in Hamm (Westphalia) loco shed yard when, with a party, I visited that depot on October 8, 1972. This shunter is Armstrong Whitworth D57/1935 (one plate was still carried) and was originally LMS 7062 and later WD 70215 before receiving its present WD number.

Versatile Warships. B.F. Till
Re July, 1972, Photo Feature on the Warship diesel-hydraulic locomotives. These locomotives may have been very versatile, but I should say most drivers and second men will be glad to see them go to the scrap heap. My recollections as an ex-fireman and secondman on Warships are of dislike for them. When there was a shortage of Brush Type 4s in the Wolverhampton area to work the Londons the locos that replaced them were Warships from Newton Abbot. To be sure, we did not get the pick of the crop, but even so I consider the Warships as the most unhealthy and least reliable locos that I have ever been on.
We would leave Birmingham, and before Leamington the hydraulic transmission would begin to overheat and the cab would start to fill with blue smoke and fumes from the burning oil in the transmission under the floor, The noise level was sometimes unbearable and the cab was cold through having all the doors and windows open to let the fumes out. It was not unusual to travel miles on one engine while the other engine was cooling down after overheating. On booking on one morning my driver was told that the engine for our job had failed and he had to collect one from the shed that had come off the first London. Before we could leave we had to have 17 gallons of oil in the front transmission and 14 gallons in the rear, replacing what the locomotive had burned on the run down from London and back in the early morning. Even a steam engine was more healthy and a lot more reliable than the more expensive Warships.

Alec Guinness wouldn't know it. Geoffrey Pharaoh Adams
The article by lan Siege was quite fascinating, the two photographs excellent. As one who worked on both bridges at Tha Makan (Tamarkan), the site of the bridge illustrated and the wooden one now dismantled, I can tell you of one or two slight errors in the articles-
The bridge is not over the River Khwae-Noi (or Kwai-Noi) but over the River Mae Khlaung. The Khwae flows into the Mae Khlaung a couple of kilometres South of the two bridges, very near to Kanchanaburi Town. After crossing the Mae Khlaung the railway follows quite closely the valley of the Khwae-Noi, almost to the Burma border at Three Pagoda Pass, some 220km NE of Kanchanaburi.
The wooden bridge mentioned was not dismantled until after the war. When the spans were blown out of the steel bridge, the wooden bridge was put into use as a by-pass.
Thai tourist literature has cashed in on the infamous Death Railway enough to call the steel bridge the one of the film (and book); both film and book were admitted to be fiction by the author, Pierre Bouille. It seems OK now to refer to that bit of the Mae Khlaung as the "River Kwai"- purely for tourism income!
The connection of the Death Railway to the Thai State Railway system was effected at Ban Pong (near Nong Pladuk). The Thai construction joined the Burma Group teams near Konkuita at the 263 kilometre point from Ban Pong.
Construction of the two Tha Makan bridges was organised and executed by a unit of the Japanese Railway Battalion under a Lieut Fuji. POW were merely the very hardworked labour force. It may also be of interest to your readers that after POW and native labourers had completed the railway late in 1943, they were used to cut wood for the locomotives, build water tanks, and construct or improve a nearby track for road transport

The 5X locomotives of the LMS . D.S.M. Barrie
Referring to Pegasus' letter in the February issue, the train with a late afternoon arrival at Euston would be The Lakes Express and not The Fylde Coast Express. The latter, which received its name with the introduction of the LMS Spring timetable in May, 1935 (yes, we had three issues of the timetables annually at that time!) left Blackpool (Central) at 08.25 am and was due Euston 12.50, non-stop from Crewe in 154min for the 158.1 miles. The normal load was only 8 vehicles, about 255 tons, the set returning from Euston to Blackpool about 17.10. I had two very good up runs that summer with Driver Tommy Crosthwaite of Preston, the engines being 5567 and 5639 respectively. Malton, Yorkshire

Motive power miscellany

No. 396 (May 1973)

J.N. Young. Centenary of the 'Ally Pally' branch. 182-5.
The Alexandra Park Estate purchased the building from the 1962 Kensington Exhibition and re-ercted it in a prominent position above Wood Green. The Edgware, Highgate & London Railway received its Act on 13 May 1864 and when opened provided access from Finsbury Park to Highgate from beyond which a branch to the Palace opened on the same day as the building itself  on 24 May 1873. Unfortunately, a fire led to the closure of the building on 9 June 1873 and it did not reopen until 1 May 1875. The Alexandra Palace Electric Railway provided competition from 1898 to 1899 and the Metropolitan Electric trams arrived in December 1905. The line featured in thre London Transport 1935-40 New Works Programme and conductor rail and cabling were installed over part of the branch, but like the extension to Aldenham and Bushey were thrown away in Postwar Austerity. The passenger service ceased on 5 July 1954. Illustrations: railway approach to Alexandra Palace station in 1954, map, station frontage in August 1972, Cranley Gardens station in 1954,Pollitt 2-4-2T No. 5785 on push & pull near Crouch End in 1946, GNR 0-4-4T No. 623 with Alexandra Palace headboard, C12 4-4-2T No. 7374 on push & pull set on branch with conductor rail.

Paul Cottterell. The railways of Israel. 186-9.
At that time the railways were in a poor state apart from that between Haifa and Tel Aviv. The line to Jerusalem was in poor condition. Belgian and General Motors diesel locomotives were in use (the Belgian ones being illustrated).

Charles Long. Scenes from Pullman life. 190-3
The diesel fixed formation Pullmans—Blue Pullmans had been introduced and there were problems when locomotive haulage and older cars had to be substituted, especially for the Midland Pullmans.
The Pullman offices at Victoria overlooked Platform 2. This gave us a grandstand view of the comings and goings of Princes, Presidents and other Important Persons who merited special trains. On the Southern, of course, VIP specials were traditionally formed of Pullman cars, although—from the late fifties—one of the splendid 1908-built Eastern Region Royal Saloons was generally included in trains for Heads of State. But my most vivid memory is of a slightly less exalted occasion. This was a visit by Dr Adenauer, West German Chancellor, for political talks with the British Government. A steam-hauled Pullman special was provided from Gatwick Airport, routed by devious means to Platform 2 at Victoria. While there was to be no elaborate red-carpet welcome, certain special arrangements were made, one of which was the erection of temporary barriers towards the end of the platform near the main station concourse to keep the curious at bay. The Prime Minister, Mr Macmillan, and the Foreign Secretary, Mr Selwyn Lloyd, duly arrived to greet their guest. The train pulled in, Dr Adenauer stepped out and a few formal words were exchanged. Then, as Mr Macmillan made to lead the way to the official cars waiting outside in Hudson's Place, Dr Adenauer turned on his heel and briskly strode off up the platform, pushing aside the barrier—behind which a small crowd had collected. Prime Minister and Foreign Secretary were plainly nonplussed. Had they already said the wrong thing? Perhaps Der Alte had gone in search of a ticket collector to give up his ticket? But no! Here he was again, picking his way back through the knot of spectators and past the barrier. What had happened was that Dr Adenauer had simply wanted to express his appreciation to the engine- driver and his mate by presenting each of them with a handsome tip—and the locomotive, a rebuilt West Country, had drawn up well beyond the line of the temporary barrier.
After the end of his second term as President of the United States, General Eisenhower returned to Europe to make a highly-publicised nostalgic Grand Tour. In Britain, the visit is probably best remembered by the use made of a white open Rolls-Royce for driving the General around London. But it is worth recalling another vehicle in which he travelled during his stay. This was Pullman car Joan, which had formed part of a mobile military headquarters in the war, before D-day. The original plan was to use Joan in the special train intended to convey General Eisenhower to London, after his arrival at Gatwick by air from Paris; but, because of fog, these arrangements were completely altered at short notice.
Col F.D.M. Harding, the Pullman Company's Managing Director, was not to be thwarted, however. He knew that, at a later stage of his visit, General Eisenhower was due to travel by rail to Ayrshire for a period of rest and relaxation out of the public eye. Thus it was that behind-the-scenes negotiations were conducted with the London Midland Region and, on the day that "Ike " was to travel, Joan duly appeared in the formation of the Thames-Clyde Express. This time everything went as planned. No union clashes were risked either. Joan was staffed by a London Midland restaurant car crew. When the idea of using  Joan during the Eisenhower visit was first mooted, that car was undergoing a major overhaul and, for a time, it was doubtful if work would be completed in time. As a safeguard, a second "Joan" was prepared. If memory serves me aright, this was car Loraine (from the same 1928-built series) temporarily running under an assumed name

R. Powell Hendry. Narrow gauge, 1920s style. 194-8.
Notes on how the Isle of Man Railway southern line  to Port Erin operated in the 1920s with most trains being mixed and delays were caused by shunting. Day described is 19 March 1928. Individual Beyer Peacock 2-4-0T locomotives and footplate crew's names are mentioned based on information provided by Robert Tate of Douglas. Coal consumption data are mentioned. Illustrations by author: No. 11 Maitland with Driver Joe Buttell at Douglas in November 1962; No. 12  Hutchinson arriving Douglas in August 1965; No. 13 Kissack shunting at Douglas shortly before 1965 closure; No. 12  Hutchinson taking on water at Castletown and picking up a van at Ballasalla; Port Soderick station; No. 14 Thornhill at Ramsey c1928

John McKenzie. Metre gauge to Corinth. 199
November 1972 travelled on Piraeus, Athens & Peloponnesus Railway behind ALCO Co.-Co. Steam locomotives were seen at Corinth: photograph of oil-burning 2-8-2 thereat

Southern steam in the 30s: photographs by G.J. Jefferson, FRPS, except where stated. 200-2.
Drummond Paddlebox 4-6-0 passing Byfleet with a Waterloo to Portsmouth express in August 1934; Schools class No. 928 Stowe on 11.50 Waterloo to Portsmouth Harbour non-stop passing Woking station in July 1936; Adams 0-4-2 No. 617 passing Byfleet on fast for Alton in July 1935; T9 No. 119 hauling down special formed of Stanier LMS stock in August 1938; Lord Nelson No. 857 Lord Howe with large taper boiler; Lord Nelson No. 852 Sir Walter Raleigh on down Sunday Bournemouth Belle passing Woking station on 4 October 1936; L12 No. 421 leaving Havant with an LBCS route train for London; Adams 4-4-0 No. 585 on up empty stock at Surbiton c1933 (G.B. Penny)

NSW steam museum. 203
Roundhouse at the Enfield yards in Sydney with working Class C36 4-6-0 No. 3642; working Vulcan Foundry 4-4-0 No. 381 and 13 class 4-4-2T No. 1301

B.K. Cooper. Shoreham for the Continent. 204-5

Flying Scotsman at home and in steam again. 205.

Brian Perrin. French Turbotrain impressions. 206-7.

C.P. Boocock. The mighty tanks at Maesteg. 208-10

John A. Lines. CR No. 50, Sir James Thomson. Locomotive portraits—8. 211-12
Caledonian Railway: McIntosh inside-cylinder 4-6-0: leading dimensions and biography of a pair of locomotives built in 1903 and which lasted until 1933

A North Eastern scene in Grouping days. 212

No. 397 (June 1973)

G. Scott-Lowe. Steam in the Valleys. 226-8
National Coal Board steam locomotives still at work. Tablee lists all locomotives then still liable in service at the following collieries: Brynlliw, Pontardulais, Maesteg, Tymawr, Mountain Ash, Merthyr Vale, Hafodyrynys, Talywain, Blaenavon and Kilmersden

W. Awdry. Five maps of Gloucester stations. 231-3.

Brian Bennion. Journey to the highest railway station in Europe. 234-9. 8 illustrations
Jungfraujoch from  Interlaken changing at Lautterbrunnen. These lines are metre gauge and rack equipped. Illustrations include an avalanche shelter beneath thhe Eiger and the cstation at the Eiger Glacier.

David R. Wright. The Ghana Railway today. 240-2.

From a railway album—3. 243
Mrs F. Moore Dutton owned a photograph album which had belonged to the photographer Samuel Worthington (1884-1917): two of the following were by him: LNWR Ramsbottom Lady of the Lake class 2-2-2 No. 723 Clive and Webb three-cylinder compound 0-8-0 No. 1862. The other is of GNR Stirling 4-2-2 No. 5. (with initials "P.W.P".)

Leonard J. Muir. A "2000" on Inter-City service. 250-2.
Footplate journey from Doncaster to King's Cross on No. 345 on 11.10 from Leeds and how the  mountains near Bawtry brought speed down to 50 mile/h and the bend at Hatfield was taken at 67 mile/h and arrival was about half an hour late

Portrush Flyer steam excursions. 253

What is this that roareth thus? 254-5
Black & white photo-feature of Crosti boiler 9F 2-10-0s

New books . 256

The train that ran away . Stewart Joy. lan Allan Ltd. 160pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.
Described as a business history, but when the business is an enterprise as much in the public eye as British Railways there is no need to fear that such a history will be dull. Here, in fact, are drama, some elements of tragedy, and perhaps a little discreet conspiracy.
The author, a former Chief Economist of the British Railways Board, goes back to 1948 in looking for the causes which decided the Government in 1968 to cancel £1,262 million of BRB's capital debt. An early error in his view was dilatoriness in deciding on a motive power policy in line with trends elsewhere, and he considers the building of the BR standard steam locomotive classes to have been unfortunate to say the least. Dr Joy is of the opinion that had steady development of diesels taken place from 1948, they would probably have been chosen as the permanent solution. The most costly effect of dilatoriness in this matter was to "defer for nearly ten years the most important single technological advance in railway history". When at length action was taken, too many designs were ordered and both capacity and (sometimes) experience were lacking to meet the demand.
Similarly, thinks Dr Joy, steady concentration on electrification from 1948 would have avoided over-spending during conversion of the LMR main line. It is surprising, in a book so thoroughly documented, that the author does not mention as a contributory cause the switch of policy from de to 50Hz ac which set the electrical industry by the ears, or contrast the decision to follow a Continental lead in this respect with the reluctance to purchase proven diesel locomotives from America.
The modernisation plan is criticised for ill-matched aims, and "the superficiality of the Beeching report was to cost BR and the country a lot in wasted resources in the coming years". After all this and much more, a chapter headed What went wrong? may well strike the reader as asking a superfluous question. Dr Joy concludes, however, with a look at the future in which he affirms that some BR services are offering higher quality service today than ever before in British railway history. But now the loss-makers on the freight side must be got rid of. Some degree of control has been regained over the runaway train; it could be lost all too easily and we might end up with something barely recognisable as the railway system we know today. Some enthusiasts will not be pleased with Dr Joy's opinions. Others may ask themselves if they have really been enthusiasts for the railway as such, or have simply enjoyed seeing trains running about. Dr Joy's book could then point the way to a more balanced appreciation of railways in the future.-

Rails to the setting sun. Charles S. Small. Kigei Publishing Co. 188pp Distributed by Robert Spark, Railway Literature, Evelyn Way, Cobham, Surrey. Reviewed by B.K.C..
Searching the world for little railways, as the author has done, can bring a familiarity with daily life in the countries in which they are situated unknown to the ordinary tourist. Mr Small's survey of narrow-gauge lines has taken him to Europe, Australasia, Africa and the Far East and he vividly recreates his experiences for the reader. The many admirable pictures, including an introductory colour section, support the author's narrative and can be enjoyed for themselves. Maps and layouts are numerous and adequate, and a valve gear curiosity is shown in an explanatory drawing. Clearly the specialist in lines of mainly less than 3ft gauge has a fascinating field before him. Some of the motive power may appear quaint on superficial acquaintance, but often much ingenuity underlies the designs and there is good reason for the oddities

Russian steam locomotives. H.M. Le Fleming and J. H. Price. David & Charles, Newton Abbot.140pp. Reviewed by K.H.S
In this revised edition of a book first published in 1960 the text has been up-dated to mid-1971 and a map of the Soviet railway system has been added showing lines worked by diesel, steam and electric power. Steam was due to have been eliminated by the end of 1970, but 2.7 per cent of the country's train-mileage was still being steam-worked in 1971. The book reviews locomotive development in Russia from the building of a 2-2-0 in the Urals in 1833 to the present time, showing the principal phases and illustrating them with details of individual classes. Russia, too, had its big engine period, which continued in the post-war years and culminated in two 2-8-8-4 Mallets built in 1954 to reduce double-heading on freight trains. Between that year and 1956, also, 250 P36 class 4-84s were built for main-line passenger traffic, being the last Russian steam locomotives for such duties. Most of them went to the extreme end of the Trans-Siberian Railway in 1970, whither only the most devoted enthusiast is likely to follow them, particularly as they may have gone by the time he gets there. Those who prefer to admire from a distance will find the class illustrated in the 28-page pictorial section with which the book concludes.

Loco Profiles. Reviewed by B.K.C.. 256-7
No 30 GN large Atlantics
No 31 Lima super-power
No 32 The Brighton Gladstones
Profile Publications Ltd, Coburg House, Sheet Street, Windsor 24pp
Until the coming of the Pacifics, Ivatt's large-boiler Atlantics seemed to epitomise the East Coast Route. Ron Scott's detailed mechanical history of the class brings out many features of interest in these engines as originally built and subsequently developed in various ways. In the light of their performance, it is surprising to learn. of certain weaknesses from the crew's point of view, such as a jerky ride, an inadequate cab and a cumbersome reversing gear that sometimes had to be grappled with by both men on the footplate. None the less, the locomotives were well liked by those who drove them and did not ask for finesse in handling. Experiments were carried out with compounding, boosters, and four-cylinder simple propulsion but the longest survivors were those of the basic two-cylinder design, the last of which did not go until 1950.
In Lima super-power C. P. Atkins and Brian Reed com- bine in telling the story of the 2-8-4 and 2-10-4 designs from the Lima Locomotive Works between 1925 and almost the end of steam locomotive building for the US market. The series was launched to meet the railway requirements of the future as seen in the 1920s and for two decades the engines fulfilled their promise. Perhaps Lima clung to its successful formula too long. It merged with a diesel engine builder in 1947, but too late to meet demands for proven diesel locomotives of four-figure output.
Brian Reed tackles The Brighton Gladstones single-handed and rapidly demolishes Stroudley worship. One is reminded of Dr Johnson's " Sir, clear your mind of cant!" Reed's explanation of how Stroudley was ensured of a good press for his locomotives is ingenious. After concluding that a fulsome and unbalanced picture has been presented in the past, he gives a dispassionate account of the good and the not-so-good in Gladstone history which will earn appreciation even where there may still be some dissent.

The steam locomotives of Yugoslavia Tadej Brate. Slezak, Vienna. Available from lan Allan Ltd. 196pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.. 257
The complicated history of modern Jugoslavia endowed the country with steam locomotives from numerous sources, and reflecting a variety of technical backgrounds. Although .their numbers are now declining fast, there were still 31 classes at work in 1971 when this book was finished. These and their forerunners are reviewed in the opening chapters, together with the evolution of the numbering system, but the major part of the book consists of tabulated information, dimensioned and sectional drawings, and an exhaustive gallery of photographs spanning the decades from the thirties to the seventies. In tables and pictures, classes are arranged in numerical order instead of by date, enabling any locomotive observed to be quickly identified. Locomotives of the forestry railways and former private lines are covered as well as those of the State Railways proper, and in these categories there are some interesting mechanical varieties for providing a driving wheelbase able to adapt itself to sharp curvature. Four of the 263 illustrations are in colour and there is a double-page route map of the Yugoslav railway system, keyed to show gauges, industrial lines and electrification systems. Many readers, no doubt, will hope to use the book as a guide while in the country, but those who stay at home will find much pleasure in its ample picture of a little-known steam railway scene.

Forgotten railways: North-East England.   K. Hoole David & Charles, 212pp . Reviewed by K.H.S.
It is surprising how quickly railways become forgotten, and how difficult it is to be sure what is still open and what is not. Mr Hoole has compiled an exhaustive record of railways in the North East that are no more. To history he adds reminiscence of them in their working days and he notes what remains to be seen of them in the areas they served. There are numerous maps, and the illustrations are mainly vintage NER scenes. A gazetteer section at the end of the book gives the map references of buildings and civil engineering features which survive and are worth a visit.

The Severn & Wye Railway. H. W. Paar. David & Charles, 174pp. Reviewed by B.K.C.  257
Tramroad promotion began early in the Forest of Dean, where roads were poor but there was mineral wealth waiting for effective transport. An Act for a " single iron railway" from Lydbrook on the Wye to Lydney on the Severn received the Royal Assent in 1809, to be followed the next year by another which changed the name of the undertaking to the Severn and Wye Railway & Canal Company. The progress of the undertaking is followed from the years of operation as a tramroad charging tolls, to what the author calls" the long decline" from 1879 to 1962, sparked off by a dwindling iron industry in the 1870s. Earnings declined, and in 1894 came the sale of the undertaking to the GWR and the MR jointly. The first edition of Mr Paar's book was published in 1963. In the present one he continues the story to 1972 in an appendix. The future of what remains of this historic enterprise now rests with the Dean Forest Railway Preservation Society, which has its premises at Parkend, northern end of the of BR single track from Lydney Junction.

The miniature world of Henry Greenly . E.A. Steel and E H. Steel. Model & Allied Publications Ltd 251pp. Reviewed by A.B.M. 257
This book should have been called the Greenly Saga. It is much more than a description of the various activities engaged in by Henry Greenly during his lifetime. It gives the reader an insight into the family history and its influence, much from the railway point of view, on the young Greenly. Greenly developed into an engineer of many parts and carried out, frequently single handed, a great number of projects usually connected with locomotives in the model world. These took the form of publishing magazines, articles, and producing drawings for miniature locomotives and railways in a wide range from 15in gauge down to the smallest 00 gauge. His memorial will undoubtedly be his designing and construction of the Rornney, Hythe & Dymchurch Railway in Kent, which is still going strong 26 years after his passing. The book is a fascinating story and full of incident and can be thoroughly recommended.

Narrow gauge railways in South Caernarvonshire. J.I.C. Boyd . Oakwood Press, 381pp Reviewed by J.T.G. 257.
Quarrying in South Caernarvonshire led to the construction of many short narrow-gauge railways by local interests. The main line railways, with an eye to the slate traffic, often schemed for a foothold in this area and there were numerous alliances and feuds. Much of the history in Mr Boyd's book was hitherto unwritten, and many of the names of companies will be unknown to the reader without local affiliations. Chapters are prefaced with a chronology of the railways to which they refer, showing dates of the companies' Acts, opening, absorbtion where relevant, and closure, also financial, statistical and topographical details. But this is by no mean, only a board room history. Mr Boyd is no less thorough in dealing with locomotive, rolling stock and physical features. The numerous maps and diagrams include track layouts, with signalling, which he has drawn himself from information gathered on the spot, and reproductions of old photographs take the reader back on to the period the author ably recreates in words.

Railway bridge maintenance. Frank Turton. Hutchinson Educational L.td. 152pp. Reviewed by J.T.G.  
In a foreword, the Chief Civil Engineer of BRB recalls how interest in bridge maintenance stimulated by a BR works conference in 1966 led to many enquines from younger engineers for a book on the subject. The answer at that time had to be that there was none, but now Mr Frank Turton has very handsomely filled the gap and fulfilled one of the aims of that conference some seven years ago—namely to make available to relative newcomers to the business the experience gained by their predecessors. This is a practical book, well illustrated with drawings as well as photographs, which should do much in the years ahead to promote sound practice in work essential to the safety and reliability of rail transport. It has been the author's aim to write in a style understandable by those who have not had a technical training so that there can be a general appreciation in operating as well as engineering departments of what the work involves. The general reader, too, will find much of interest in following the various forms bridges have taken, why particular designs were chosen, and the evolution of materials.

Railway print. 258
The Britannia Locomotive Society has published a large (perhaps over-large) black and white photographic print measuring more than 25in by 17in showing No 70000 Britannia breasting Belstead Summit, near Ipswich, with an express for Norwich on 15 July 1959. All profits from sale of the print will be used in the restoration of Britannia. This is a graphic reminder of a sight once familiar on the main line to East Anglia.

Letters. 258-60

Preserved locomotive maintenance.  S.C. Allsop. 258
It is stated that, in event of a firebox stayhead becoming wasted, it is sometimes possible to remove the remaining material flush with the plate, drill and tap the stay end, and fit a false head. This kind of practice, whether with the Boiler Inspector's approval (unlikely) or not, cannot be classed as sound engineering practice, for although to do so is not actually dangerous, such a false head is not likely to provide a satisfactory seal for long (if at all), and the resultant leakage would promote further deterioration of the stay. A stay whose head has corroded to this extent should be renewed at the first opportunity even if this means taking the engine out of traffic for some time. My main point however, is that a false head of this kind could be used by the ignorant or irresponsible as a means of concealing the true condition of the stay from the Boiler Inspector and having been successful here, the practice might be applied to such items as rivet heads, with obviously much greater risks. There is a need for every society to ensure that the advice of a properly qualified engineer (as opposed to a self-trained amateur) is available within the group, or is sought from other societies if this is not possible, on all matters connected with boilers and their fittings. The ARPS could probably provide a useful service here, in forming a central consultative body of engineers with steam experience to whom societies without members in this category could apply for advice.

Preserved locomotive maintenance. S.F. Marcks. 258
Articles of this nature bring home to many rank-and-file preservationists the innumerable problems with which the faithful few who are both able and willing to take an active part in preservation have to grapple. Within the ranks of the preservation societies there must be hundreds of people such as plumbers, mechanics, welders, etc, whose potentially valuable skills could be an asset to any society. Yet such persons are often considerably daunted by the fact that they do not know a gudgeon-pin from a clack, and for this reason regard work on rolling-stock as the awesome province of trained locomotive fitters. Articles on the lines of Greenwood's may well provide the initial insight for many into ways in which they can render valuable help to the railway preservation movement, perhaps after an initial probationary period.

Preserved locomotive maintenance. David Gordon.  258
One item he mentioned was the wear on axle bearings, sometimes causing a hot box, especially on the smaller and less elaborate locomotives. A factor often overlooked by amateurs is that certain unspecialised oils may well prove too thin, thus showing up very minor faults in the bearing which would not normally matter, and causing considerable nuisance and worry. Use of a heavier oil will quite often solve this problem altogether, professional advice on the exact grade being recommended.

Preserved locomotive maintenance.  E.A. Lees. 258
No doubt Greenwood has wide experience of steam locomotives in private operators' hands and has good authority for saying "Despite a widely held misapprehension in enthusiast preservation circles, by and large all locomotives withdrawn by British Railways were in well-worn condition". Can this statement be reconciled with one made by such an authority as O.S. Nock in his book LMS steam in the last paragraph of the last chapter, where commenting on the withdrawal of steam he said, "Like everywhere else on the railways of Great Britain it was a premature end. The Duchesses, the Scots, the Black Fives and the many lesser lights had years of economic life left when their death warrant was signed. . .. Future historians , .. may well ponder upon the assets that were thrown away in the early 1960s". If Greenwood's statement is correct one might wonder how it is that—only with few exceptions—such locomotives have not been preserved!

Diesel-hydraulic preservation. G.G. Russum, 259
I fuIly endorse the views expressed by Mr BeIl (Railway World, March) and share his enthusiasm for WR hydraulics. I think it is a shame that so many fine locomotives should go for scrap after such a short time—some of the Hymeks are only about 10 years old-but I have my doubts whether one will get preserved as steam seems to be the be all and end all of preservation societies. Surely it is about time the mourning for the passing of steam came to an end. It has been going on now since the early 60s. A lot of diesel-hydraulics in virtually ex-works condition have been allowed to be cut up eg D600-2, D6319, D820, D821, to mention just a few. These would have been ideal to preserve as little work would have needed to be done on them.

A letter from the managing editor to readers and contributors. G.M. Kitchenside. 259
With this issue of Railway World I shall be relinquishing the post of Managing Editor and indeed leaving the Ian Allan Group for pastures new in the West Country where I shall be joining another publishing group, still in the railway field. Basil Cooper, who has edited the magazine for nearly two years, continues in that post under the overall direction of E.L. Cornwell, the Group's Magazine Director.
In the eighteen years I have been with the Ian Allan organisation I have made many friends among readers and contributors through this and other Ian Allan magazines for which I have been responsible and have welcomed their advice, comments and contributions. It is impossible to write individually to everyone and I would like to take this opportunity of thanking all who have helped me and my colleagues in the production of the magazines and I hope that my successors will have the same support.

Neck and neck. C. Praeger. 259
Re letter from J.B. Ritchie (March issue) on the subject of "two abreast" reminds me of a photograph published in a national newspaper some time in the thirties, showing three (or was it four?) locomotives neck-and-neck on the main line somewhere north of Kings Cross. As far as I remember, there was an Ivatt Atlantic between two Gresley Pacifics—and perhaps a Gresley 0-6-2T as well. They all appeared to be hauling trains in the same direction, though probably only the train nearest to the camera was visible. Whether there were any tell-tale vertical columns of smoke escapes my memory, but the caption gave no hint that the locos were posed and not even moving, or even that the parade had been arranged for any special occasion. I wonder if any readers remember this freak picture? Perhaps after the lapse of some forty years the secret of the hoax (if hoax it was) could be revealed.

[The editorial memory murmurs faintly that this was a publicity picture taken either by a photographic agency (cf the Keystone picture of massed diesel shunters in Railway Wld, March 1972, p 122) or by the LNER itself, It had wide currency, and is thought to have been used as a coloured frontispiece for a popular railway book. Editor]

Neck and neck. S. Lucas
In reply to J.B. Ritchie, the 12.55 ex-Charing Cross almost invariably suffered signal checks, and the 13.00 ex-Cannon Street drew well ahead so as to reach Chislehurst long before the Folkestone train came in sight. When the Bulleid Pacifies first came to the Eastern Section, I travelled regularly on the Cannon Street-Sevenoaks electric leaving London Bridge at 13.06 and running thence fast to Petts Wood almost on the heels of the Ramsgate express as far as Chislehurst. Almost invariably we drew ahead of the Folkestone train before passing this point, and so the contest between the two Pacifies was normally very uneven. At a later date, the 12.55 was retimed so as to leave Charing Cross at 12.53, thus putting an end to anything suggesting a "race" out of London. Incidentally, the Folkestone train actually ran on as a stopping service via Dover and Sandwich, reaching Ramsgate about an hour after the other had arrived.

Return to steam, David R. Houghton, 259.
I entirely agree with your February editorial in expressing appreciation of the generosity of BR in opening up a considerably greater amount of its network to steam-hauled specials. You describe the original sensation of riding behind steam locomotives very aptly, and for those of us who feel unable to recapture that atmosphere lineside photography is more enjoyable. What we as enthusiasts must recognise is that in some way we ought to pay for the immense pleasure we receive from watching or photographing steam locomotives at work. We ought to feel strongly enough about it, when tours are advertised which we would rather watch than join, to send the operators the price of a ticket, which could then be given to somebody who would benefit from a ride. If enthusiasts feel that the cost of a whole ticket is prohibitive, they could at least send a donation.

Versatile Warships. S. Graham Stott
If Till's experiences of the Warships (April issue) are to be regarded as typical, then it would seem remarkable that the design lasted for 15 years in BR service. Furthermore, articles in past issues of railway periodicals since the class was introduced in 1958 would show that the Warships were capable of some very fine performances on the road when well maintained. Also, the Germans seem quite satisfied with the performance of their Class 221 (ex V200) units from which the D800s were derived, and have since introduced further diesel-hydraulic units. Till seems to base his wholesale condemnation of a reasonably efficient class of locomotives on limited experience of the worst members of the class as regards maintenance. My own recollection of the Warships on the Birmingham runs is of their poor external appearance, which would seem to indicate an attitiude on the part of the shed staff which probably accounted for the poor reliability.

A West German steam survey. W. L. Mcallister. 259-60 
Two notable areas were not referred to in M. T. Hedderly's article in the April issue, namely Aschaffenburg and Weiden. On the Aschaffenburg-Miltenberg line, one may travel behind locomotives of classes 64 (2-6-2T), 65 (2-8-4T) and 50 (2-10-0), the latter locomotives from Schweinfurt shed. Around Weiden, one may travel behind locomotives of classes 64 and 50 from Weiden shed and 50s from Nurnberg, Schwandorf, Kirchenlaibach and, of course, Hof. The 64s from Heilbronn also work passenger trains, mainly around Lauda. Hedderley himself admitted the dangers of comparison between the locomotive practice of different countries, and yet he rushes into a comparison between 012.077's performance on the 08.18 ex-Altona and a French Pacific, on the evidence of one run on the former. Worse still, he suggests that the train fell off to a minimum of 44mph on the climb to the Kiel Canal Bridge, when, in fact, this "minimum" was caused by the pws on the bridge, which prevailed for a long period during 1971!
In 1970, I recorded six runs on the (then) 08.17 ex-Altona with 14/15 coach loads. The minima recorded on an unimpeded climb varied from 53 to 58mph, while speed on the subsequent descent often reached 80mph. In 1971 the slack disrupted performance over this section. However, performance was, on average, better than the article suggested.

A West German steam survey. G.A.M. Wood. 260
In his enjoyable and evocative article, "A West German steam survey", (April), Mr M. T. Hedderly does less than justice to current DB steam performance. If, as he suggests, the 01 Pacifies are "officially limited to 120kmph" on the Barnberg-Lichtenfels route, this restriction is regularly ignored in day-to-day performance. For example, on my most recent visit to the area, in January of this year, of 40 steam runs Bamberg-Lichtenfels, or vice versa all but one exceeded 120kmph (74.5mph), and no less than 13 runs reached or exceeded 80mph.
Train E1863, 1 I .28 Bamberg-Hof, generally produced an energetic unbanked ascent of the Schiefe Ebene, with a six- vehicle load. Although speed usually tailed off to just above 20mph, on January 9, 001 111-4 (yet again), hauling 200 tons gross, blasted out of Neuenrnarkt-Wirsberg to attain 40mph on the initial 1 in 57 and, with a memorably ear-splitting exhaust, stormed past Marktschorgast (4.65 miles) in 8min 103ec, with a sustained minimum of 33mph on the 1.40.
Performance of the 012 Pacifies on the Rheine-Emden line can also be considerably brisker than Mr Hedderly suggests. I suspect that the route maximum is 120kmph, and speeds around 75mph are relatively common, while some of the heavy summer expresses run very speedily indeed. On August 13 last year I timed D735, hauled by 012084-0 with a load of JO vehicles, 363 tonnes t, 375 tons gross to run Rheine-Emden non stop, 88.2 miles in 79min 26 sec or 78min net. Speed was held above 75mph most of the way, and there were three widely separated maxima of 80-82mph.

Steam the irresistible . J. E. Berry. 260
I would like to comment on recent correspondence from Derek Cross under the heading Steam the irresistible. While agreeing entirely that no amount of preservation or running of steam specials can ever adequately recapture the atmos- phere of railways in this country prior to the non-steam era, I can hardly accept his dogmatic statement that "steam is dead". That steam is dying is undeniably true but there is much life in it yet as the increasing numbers of enthusiasts venturing abroad will testify.
Since the demise of steam on BR, I and many others have sampled such delights as German Pacifies at full thrash out of Hamburg at 80mph plus, rack tanks in Austria climbing slowly but spectacularly to Prabichl, a RENFE 4-8-2 storming 1 in 50 grades between Palazuelo and Salamanca, and South African Garratts attacking the hills around Donnybrook, to name but a few examples which hardly lend support to Mr Cross's premature obituary notice for steam. I would suggest that the "real" photographers are those who are still operating and taking the trouble to seek out and record for the benefit of us all that fascinating and far-from-extinct animal the steam locomotive in all corners of the world, and not those who apparently put away their cameras on August 4, 1968.
Finally, Mr Cross's statement that "Steam ... is dead and that any attempt to revive it is a wholly pointless exercise" is a most unwarranted slur on the tremendous efforts of the preservation movement in this country who I am sure do not regard their many achievements as a pointless exercise.

Railway building in 1873. Simeon C. Harris. 260 
Corrections to some of the statements made by Charles Walker in his article Railway Building in 1873 (March). The first passenger service to Newquay commenced on June 20, 1876 (not 1874, although the goods service to the main line commenced then) and the opposing station at first was Fowey, not Falmouth. It was possible to go to Falmouth by train from Truro as early as 1863. Through services between Newquay and Falmouth did not commence until the present century, and then via Perranporth and Chacewater.
Finally, in spite of Walker's comment "These lines ... were among the first to be axed ... ", in fact both Newquay and Falmourh are still part of the Western Region. Indeed, providing one chooses a summer Saturday, it is still possible to journey to Newquay from London by through train!

The archaeology of a railway. Philip Elsdon. 260
I was very interested to read the article on the North Tyne line by V. R. Webster in the April issue. The last portion of the line between Reedsmouth and Bellingham, which was worked via the Wansbeck Valley line, closed to freight on November 11, 1963. The Rothbury branch closed at the same time.
The service, in its last years was usually worked by a J27 0-6-0 and in its last year of life two specials were run. The first, a dmu, was run in September 1963 for Bellingham Show, almost certainly the only dmu ever to appear on the line. The other train, the Wansbeck Wanderer—the last train of any sort to traverse this last part of the line-was hauled by Ivatt Class 4MT 4-6-0 No 43129 on November 9, 1963.

Manchester local lines Tom S. Birch
I am attempting research into the Manchester South District line of the Midland Railway, from Manchester Central (CLC) via Cheadle Heath and Throstle Nest to New Mills South Junction and on to Chinley. I would be grateful to any of your readers for any infor- mation about this line, and also the Great Central and Midland Committee Line from Hayfield (via New Mills Central) to Manchester Piccadilly (ex-London Road) and Manchester Victoria; and to Heaton Mersey via the CLC Line through Tiviot Dale Station.
Any information about any aspect of these lines (operating timetables, typical locomotives, photographs, operating instructions and old tales) would be gratefully received and postage incurred would be refunded, good care being taken of all articles loaned.

No. 398 (July 1973)

K. Taylorson. Last bite at the orange. 272-6.
Steam operated by RENFE in Spain as result of large orange harvest in 1972. 241F and 240F classes of 4-8-2 and 4-8-0 at work in Mora, Zaragoza, Portillo (the place not the him). Departure for Englannd from Barcelona. Illlustrations: 4-8-4 No. 242.2009 leaves Miranda de Ebro for Madrid on passenger train in September 1967 (M. Dunnett); No. 241F.2216 leaves San Felices with Bilbao to Zaragoza Correo passenger train in  1968 (Brian Stephenson); 2-8-2 No. 2362 near Haro with a Miranda to Logrono freight in 1968 (L.A. Nixon);  No. 241F.2238 comes off Mora shed to take over a Castejon-bound freight on 28 February 1973 (Author); No. 141F.2246 leaves Castejon with freight for Miranda on 1 March 1973 (Author); 4-8-0 No. 240F.2689 at Mora in 1969 (R.W. Courtney); RENFE 4-6-0 No. 230F.2075 climbs towards Venta Mina in 1968 (Paul Riley)

Michael H.C. Baker. A look at CIE in 1972. 278-82.
It may come as a shock that refugees were arriving at Dublin from Belfast to be met by the Red Cross due to the "troubles" in the North of Ireland and that holiday traffic was down due to the fear that homes left might be seized (it is sobering that some politicians are willing to return to such May-hem in 2018). The CIE was intrtoucing air-conditioned carriages manufactured by British Rail Engineering at Derby, but at the time had not decided on a livery for the vehicles.

Peterborough realigned. 283.
Diagrams of former and "new" layouts and illustrations of Deltics: one on up Flying Scotsman passing on new layout and No. 9000 Royal Scots Grey passes slowly through old layout with express for Leeds.

P.W.B. Semmens. Two American preserved lines. 284-6.
Wilmington & Western Railroad and Rattlesnake Line at the Mid-Continent Railway Museum at North Freedom in Wisconsin

R, Barton. The West Highland today. 296-7.

J.T. Howard Turner. Solving an LCDR picture puzzle. 298-9.
Photograph originally published in Volume 33 page 19,

W.J. Dugman. Deptford Wharf in the early twenties [1920s]. 300-1.
LBSCR E6 class 0-6-2T in Grove Street, Deptford on short freight passing a motor car. D1 0-4-2T used to work traffic to Royal Victoria Victualling Yard

D. Trevor Rowe. Capitulation on the Somme. 301
Metre gauge remnant based on Noyelles to St. Valery-Morlay and worked by a diesel locomotive (illustrated) and by steam (passenger trains). Preservation group.

A.T. Barfield. A Worcestershire industrial locomotive. 302-3.
Andrew Barclay 0-4-0ST Sir Thomas Roydon

Alan Turner. Railway relics. No. 6 — A Midland Railway boundary marker. 303.

Trevor Bailey. A Hall at Bourne End. 305
No. 4959 Purley Hall with LMS Stanier corridor stock on a Thames Salter's Steamers excursion on Thames from Marlow to Windsor on 15 July 1939. Empty stock being worked from Marlow to Windsor.

New books. 306-7.

The "Brighton Baltics". A.C. Perryman. Oakwood Press. Locomotion Papers No. 64. Reviewed by C.S.E.L. 307

No. 400 (September 1973)

H.A.V. Bulleid. The Manchester bank. 372-7.
Footplate work on the difficult Peak main line from Derby to Manchester with its heavy gradients (as steep as 1 in 90) and sharp curvature.

No. 403 (December 1973)

R.E. Goodman. Jubilees at Burton-on-Trent. 500-3.

K. Groundwater. Crewe Basford Hall disappears—2. 504-7.

M.L. Hooper-Immins. Main line steam at Loughborough. 508-9.

B.Y. Williams. Lady Margaret. 511
2-4-0T No. 1308 Lady Margaret: built by  Andrew Barclay for th e Liskeard & Looe Railway in 1902