Chronology of locomotive history

The following originated in Rudgard's 1948 Presidential Address, Reed's 150 years of British steam locomotives and an examination of other literature, notably that with the Transactions of the Newcomen Society.and Michael Rutherford's long-running series of Railway Raflections in Backtrack. Much has since been learned and reported in the Early Railways conferences and elsewhere. The concept of a rail way preceded mechanical traction by at least two centuries: manpower, horse power and gravity came far earlier. From about 1900 electric traction provided an alternative wherein coal could at least be burned more efficiently. Diesel traction became reliable in the 1930s.

Inspection of Rudgard's chronology in assocation with Brian Reed's  150 years of British steam locomotives immediately demonstrates a problem, and this is not altogether due to a difference in approaches: Reed did not employ a rigid time-based structure, but tended to base some of the divisions on themes, such as Chapter 8 From iron to steel in which the topic of manufacturing techniques and materials is covered. This raises a further practical problem: Maudslay was far ahead of George Stephenson in his development of machine tools, but this work was unknown to George Stephenson. The signifiicance of the machine tool industry is covered many times by Rutherford (see for instance his Reflections No. 73). These show the liimitations of the chronological approach, yet it does provide a framework to show how things happened, rather than a Utopia of how things should have developed. This innovation lag was evident in locomotive management until almost the end of steam: Swindon had adopted optical frame alignment in the 1930s, this did not reach Doncaster until the 1950s. Rudgard was sufficiently unaware of the technique to place it his list.

Rudgard's 1948 Presidential Address chronology contained some typographical errors and these have been corrected. The date should also be noted. There also seem to be some errors of fact. The original absence of any development attributable to Collett should be noted. There is no mention of streamlining: external, or internal: the absence of Cock o' the North, the A4 class or the Duchess Pacifics is significant. Alexander Allan is given excessive prominance. Reed's 150 years of British steam locomotives shows in its internal structure a concise and clear division of locomotive history. As the initial period is one of considerable controversy, notably whether Timothy Hackworth has received too little, and George Stephenson has received too much, an attempt has been made to precis the first part of Reed's work. The significance of the McConnell Bloomer design and its antecedents in the Bury, Curtis & Kennedy 2-2-2 design of 1848 in turn derived from Wrekin for the Shrewsbury & Birmingham Railway is also missing (see Jack pp 183-8).. A further omission was that made by in 1849 when he allowed for expansion in the boiler by fixing it rigidly solely at the front of the frame. Clearly the two major trials: Rainhill and Newark should be included. The later railway races of 1888 and 1895 are more marginal, but it may now be appropriate to include the 1948 Locomotive Exchanges, the opening of the Rugby Testing Station (the one at Swindon was not mentioned by Rudgard) and the BR Standard locomotives. Another problem with Rudgard's listing is that fails to note the dates for American and Continental developments which somtimes took a decade or more to reach Britain (and in some cases like cast steel bed frames only arrived in transit for export).

A.J. Powell in Whitehouse and Thomas's Passion for steam also attempted to identify key figures, several of whom were American. The Americans were mainly concerned with extending American railways and are listed separately. The others are incorporated into the chronology as "Powell". Powell's last two entries relate to two engineers who were still active in steam locomotive development:David Wardale (mainly in South Africa) and Phil Girdlestone (mainly in Africa, following work on the revived Festiniog Railway): both can be found via Google... .

The Science Museum publication The British railway locomotive: a brief pictorial history of the first fifty years of the British steam railway locomotive, 1803-1853; compiled by G.W. Westcott is listed in the table as Westcott

1604 wooden railway near Nottingham Huntingdon Beaumont Early Railways 3
1769 steam carriage Cugnot Reed
1784 steam carriage Murdoch Reed
1801 steam carriage Trevithick Reed
1801 Direct acting engine with slide bars W. Symington (1763-1831) Rudgard
1802 2-cylinder engine: cranks at right angles M. Murray (1763-1826) Rudgard
1802 steam engine on rails R.Trevithick (1771-1833) Rudgard/Westcott/Powell
1805 Newcastle locomotive Trevithick Westcott
1806 Short "D" slide valve M. Murray Rudgard
1811 Rack and pinion locomotive. Blenkinsop & Murray Rudgard/Westcott
1812 Spring loaded safety valve. Fenton Rudgard/Marshall
1812 Steam Horse. Butterley. Derby. W. Brunton Rudgard
1813 Chain driven bogie locomotive Chapman Reed
1814 Puffing Billy gear-drive locomotive. W. Hedley (1779-1843) Rudgard/Reed
1814 Blucher gear-drive locomotive G. Stephenson (1781-1848) Reed
1815 Direct coupled locomotive G. Stephenson Rudgard
1815 Steam Elephant Chapman & Buddle Early Railways 1
1816 Loose eccentric valve gear. G. Stephenson Rudgard
1816 0-6-0 for Kilmarnock & Troon Railway Reed
1818 Single fixed eccentric valve gear Carmichael Rudgard
1825 Locomotion No. 1  S & DR G. Stephenson Rudgard
1826 Multi-jet blast pipe. Fusible plug. Expansion valve gear. G. Gurney (1793-1875) Rudgard
1827 Royal George (spring equalising levers), 0-6-0 type T. Hackworth (1786-1849) Rudgard/Westcott
1827 blast pipe Hackworth Powell
1827 Gas vacuum engine experiments (London). Brown & Gordon Rudgard
1828 Lancashire Witch (expansion valve gear). R. Stephenson (1803-59) Rudgard/Westcott
1829 Rainhill Trials John Urpeth Rastrick Jones
1829 Rocket (multi-tubular boiler) R. Stephenson Rudgard/Westcott/Powell
1829 Novelty (inside crank shaft) Braithwaite & Ericsson Rudgard/Westcott
1830 Northumbrian & Planet Liverpool & Manchester Rly R. Stephenson Westcott
1830 Dome shaped firebox. Bar frames E. Bury (1794-1858) Rudgard/Westcott 28
1831 0-4-0 George Stephenson Glasgow & Garnkirk Rly R. Stephenson Westcott
1832 Steam brake. Piston valves. Petticoat blast pipe. R. Stephenson Rudgard
1833 Patentee inside cylinder locomotives R. Stephenson Rudgard/Reed/Westcott 6
1833 Bogie fitted to locomotive. DNR Carmichael's Rudgard
1834 Four eccentric.gab motion. Vauxhall (DKR) Forrester's Rudgard/Westcott
1837 North Star, broad gauge, GWR R. Stephenson's/ Sir D. Gooch (1816-89) Rudgard/Westcott
1839 Expansion valve motion. NMR J. Gray Rudgard
1839 Wedge valve motion. NMR Dodds & Owen?? Rudgard
1839 Variable blast pipe P. Rothwell Rudgard
1839 Steam superheating (Hackworth) Hawthorn's Rudgard
1840 4-2-0 Philadelphia (BGR) Norris (USA) Rudgard/Westcott
1840 Steel wearing surface on tyres D. Gooch Reed
1841 Long boiler locomotives. NER R. Stephenson's Rudgard/Reed
1841 Sanding gear, gridiron regulator R. Stephenson's Rudgard
1842 Howe-Stephenson link motion. NMR R. Stephenson's Rudgard/Powell
1842 Electric propulsion experiments. E & GR R. Davidson Rudgard
1843 Stationary link motion. GWR. LSWR D. & J. V. Gooch Rudgard
1844 Walschaerts' radial valve motion E. Walschaerts (1820-1901), (Belgium) Rudgard/Powell
1844 Pneumatic brake: vacuum type? Nasmyth & May Rudgard
1845 Higher boiler pressures (75 psi) at Crewe for Shap Hills
1846 Atmospheric system: Croydon, S. Devon, Dublin ... Clegg & Samuda Rudgard
1846 Three-cylinder locomotive. LNWR/N&BR. R. Stephenson's Rudgard
1846 Crampton's design. long low boilers T. Crampton (1816-88) Rudgard 19
1846 4-2-2 Locomotive. GWR Sir D. Gooch (1816-89) Rudgard
1847 4-2-2 Locomotive Cornwall LNWR. R. Trevithick Rudgard
1847 Balance slide valve. Axlebox oil pads, LNWR A. Allan (1809-1891) Rudgard
1847 Jenny Lind, especially 100 psi boiler pressure E.B. Wilson/David Joy Hills/Westcott
1848 Steam rail coach. ECR W.B. Adams (1797-1872) Rudgard
1849 Shrewsbury & Birmingham Railway Wrekin Bury, Curtis Kennedy Tredgold
1849 allowance for boiler expansion rigid fixing solely at front of frame. Isaac Dodds
1849 4-4-0T Locomotive (Sledge Brake).GWR Sir D. Gooch Rudgard/Ahrons p.70
1850 Double beat regulator valve. LNWR J. Ramsbottom (1814-97) Rudgard
1852 Solid piston with narrow split rings. LNWR J. Ramsbottom Rudgard
1852 Superheating experiments. LNWR J. E. McConnell Rudgard
1852 Drop grate fitted Bury's Rudgard
1853 4-2-4T Locomotive. B & ER J. Pearson Rudgard
1854 Feed water heating experiments. LSWR J. Beattie (1804-71) Rudgard
1854 Straight link motion. SCR A. Allan Rudgard
1854 Engine plate frames Rudgard
1855 Back-to-back engines for Semmering R. Stephenson Ahrons p. 137
1856 Duplex Safety Valves: Screw reverser: LNWR J. Ramsbottom Rudgard
1856 Displacement lubricator J. Ramsbottom Rudgard
1858 Firehole deflector plate. BL & CJctR Douglas Rudgard
1859 Brick arch and firehole deflector plate. MR M. Kirtley/Markham Rudgard/Powell
1859 Locomotive steel tyres. LNWR Naylor & Vickers Rudgard
1859 Giffard's Injector (Sharp, Stewart & Co.) M. Giffard (1825-82) Rudgard
1860 Steel firebox tests. SCR A. Allan Rudgard
1860 Water pick-up apparatus. LNWR J. Ramshottom Rudgard
1862 Steam tender. GNR A. Sturrock (1816-89) Rudgard
1862 steam brake on Saltburn class William Bouch Maclean
1864 2-4-2T locomotive. GER R. Sinclair (1816-97) Rudgard
1864 Radial axlebox. NLR W. B. Adams Rudgard
1865 2-6-0 (Mogul) with Bissel truck Taunton Loco (US) Wikipedia
1867 Long travel slide valve. LSWR J. Beattie Rudgard
1868 Counter Pressure Brake. LNWR Le Chatelier Rudgard
1869 0-4-4T Locomotive. MR M. Kirtley Rudgard
1870 Eight foot single driving locomotives. GNR P. Stirling (1820-95) Rudgard
1871 Compressed air brake. CR Steel & Mclnnes Rudgard
1872 Flat top firebox (Belpaire) A. Belpaire (1820-93) Rudgard
1874 Non-automatic vacuum brake. NER Smith Rudgard
1874 Pop safety valves T. Adams Rudgard
1874 Speed indicators. LBSCR W. Stroudley (1833-89) Rudgard
1874 Oil fuel burning (Southern Russia) Urquhart 1
1875 Newark brake trials Galton Jones
1876 0-6-4T locomotive. GS & WR: comment1 A. McDonnell (1829-1904) Rudgard
1876 Hydraulic brake. LNWR F. W. Webb Rudgard
1876 Exhaust injector Davies & Metcalfe Rudgard
1878 Automatic vacuum brake Gresham Rudgard
1878 2-6-0 locomotive. GER W. Adams (1823-1903) Rudgard
1878 Compound locomotives Anatole Mallet Powell
1879 Compound locomotives. LNWR F.W.. Webb (1835-1906) Rudgard/Powell
1879 Joy's radial valve gear D. Joy (1825-1903) Rudgard
1882 Conjugated valve gear D. Joy (1825-1903) Rudgard
1882 Vortex blast pipe. LSWR W. Adams Rudgard
1882 0-4-2 "Gladstone" Type. LB & SCR W. Stroudley Rudgard
1884 Standard locomotive classes W. Stroudley, Min Proc Instn Civ. Engrs 1884, 81 Paper 2027
1884 Articulated locomotives A. Mallet Powell
1886 Steel frame plates. LNWR F.W. Webb Rudgard
1886 Steam sanding. MR Holt & Gresham Rudgard
1887 Extended smokbox. G & SWR H. Smellie Rudgard
1888 Compound locomotives. NER T. W. Worsdell (1838-1916) Rudgard
1889 Eight-wheeled tenders. GNSR . J. Manson (1846-1935) Rudgard
1889 0-8-0 locomotive. Barry R Sharp-Stewart Rudgard
1891 4-cylinder compounds Alfred de Glehn Powell
1893 Oil fuel locomotives. GER J. Holden (1837-1925) Rudgard
1894 4-6-0 locomotive. HR D. Jones (1834-1906) Rudgard
1894 Steam electric locomotive Heilmann 42
1897 Four cylinder (HP) locomotive G & SWR J. Manson Rudgard
1897 Smoketube superheating. Germany W. Schmidt (1858-1924) Rudgard/Powell
1897 Double chimney. LNWR F.W. Webb Rudgard
1897 Large diameter boilers. CR J.F. McIntosh (1846-1916) Rudgard
1898 Three cylinder compound. NER. W.M. Smith Rudgard/Powell
1899 Smokebox superheater. L & YR Sir J. Aspinall Rudgard
1901 Single driving locomotive. GNR. H.A. Ivatt Rudgard
1902 4-4-2 wide firebox locomotive. GNR H.A. Ivatt Rudgard
1902 0-10-0T Locomotive. GER J. Holden Rudgard
1903 Steel corrugated firebox, L & YR. H.A. Hoy Rudgard
1903 2-8-0 Locomotive, taper boiler. GWR   G.J. Churchward (1857-1933) Rudgard/Powell**
1903 4-4-2 De Glehn Compound. GWR G.J. Churchward (1857-1933) Rudgard
1904 Feed water heating. LSWR D. Drummond (1840-1912) Rudgard
1905 Mechanical stoker D.F. Crawford Powell
1906 Superheater fitted to LYR 0-6-0 Hughes Powell
1907 Deeley's valve gear. MR R.M. Deeley Rudgard
1908 4-6-2 locomotive, GWR G.J. Churchward Rudgard 15
1908 2-6-2 locomotive: 8-single acting cylinders and rotary valves. MR Sir C. Paget Rudgard
1908 Articulated locomotives Herbert M. Garratt/Beyer Peacock Powell
1911 Turbine-electric locomotive. trials. CR N.B. Loco. Co. Rudgard
1912 Mechanical Lubricator 'Crewe.' LNWR C. J. Bowen-Cooke Rudgard
1912 4-6-4 Baltic tank locomotive. MR (LT & SR) R.H. Whitelegg Rudgard
1913 Stumpf Uniflow locomotive. NER Sir V. Raven Rudgard
1919 0-10-0 Cross ported four cylinder locomotive. MR Sir H. Fowler (1870-1938) Rudgard
1919 Turbine-electric locomotive Armstrong-Whitworth's Rudgard
1921 Poppet valves Lentz & Caprotti Powell
1922 4-6-2 three cylinder (HP) Locomotive. GNR Sir N. Gresley (1876-1941) Rudgard
1923 Reid-McLeod Turbine Locomotive N.B. Loco. Co. Rudgard
1924 2-8-2 three cylinder (HP) locomotive. LNER Sir N. Gresley Rudgard
1924 Study of the locomotive boiler Lawford Fry Powell
1926 Ljungstrom Turbine Locomotive. Trials. LMSR Sir H. Fowler Rudgard
1926 Lentz Poppet Valve Gear. L & NER Sir N. Gresley Rudgard
1927 Beyer-Garrett Locomotive. LMSR ... Sir H. Fowler Rudgard
1928 Caprotti Poppet Valve Gear. LMSR Sir H. Fowler Rudgard
1929 Internal combustion and steam locomotive. Kitson-Still Rudgard 12
1929 4-6-4 high pressure compound locomotive. LNER. Sir N. Gresley Rudgard
1929 4-6-0 High pressure locomotive (Fury). LMSR. Sir H. Fowler Rudgard
1929 Advanced locomotive developemnt R.P. Wagner Powell
1930 Intrernal streamlining, etc A. Chapelon Powell
1932 Smoke deflector plates. SR R.E.L. Maunsell Rudgard
1933 Pacifics, etc Sir W. Stanier Powell
1934 Non-Condensing Turbine locomotive. LMSR Sir W. Stanier Rudgard
1934 Diesel Electric shunting locomotive. LMSR Sir W. Stanier Rudgard
1935 Streamlined Pacific Gresley Jones/Powell
1936 V2 2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotives Gresley Jones
1942 0-6-0 Austerity locomotive. SR O.V. Bulleid Rudgard
1943 Chain driven valve gear (enclosed). O.V. Bulleid Rudgard/Powell
1943 2-8-0 Austerity locomotive R.A. Riddles Rudgard
1947 0-6-6-0 Diesel Electric main line locomotive. LMSR H.G. Ivatt Rudgard
1947 Gas Turbine Electric Locomotive GWR F.W. Hawksworth Rudgard
Kylpor exhausy system & gas producer firebox L.D. Porta Powell
Red Devil David Wardale Powell
Lempor exhaust system Phil Girdlestone Powell

Comment 1: 0-6-4T was hardly an earth-shattering innovation
Comment 2: Rudgard listed J. Smyllie: Ahrons suggested Hugh Smellie
Comment 3: Westcott included later long boiler locomotives: Kitson 0-6-0 Hector and Stephenson A type

Reed's division
The Stockton & Darlington Phase
The Liverpool & Manchester Stage
Five Great Types
Gray-Jenny Lind
Inside frame and outside cylinders
Inside frame and inside cylinders
Fixed Cut-off to Variable Expansion
From Coke to Coal
From Iron to Steel
The Infinite Variety
The Years 1896-1922
The Group Era
National Finale

Reed precis

There is no dispute that Trevithick designed the first locomotive to run on rails, having produced an experimental road locomotive. Reed claims that he was directly responsible for four locomotives: one at Coalbrookdale manufactured at the Coalbrookdale Ironworks in 1803; the Penydarren locomotive made at the Penydarren Works; the Gateshead locomotive manufactured by John Whinfield and the London locomotive manufactured by Hazeldine of Bridgnorth. These were all single-cylinder engines with the cylinder being within the boiler. The Blenkinsop rack system used locomotives manufactured by Matthew Murray. The first in Leeds dated to 1812. By 1816 at least six locomotives of this type had been manufatured and were in service at the Kenton & Coxlodge Colliery in Newcastle, at Willington on Tyneside; at Orrell near Wigan, and at Whitehaven (the last two being built locally). Two locomotives had also been sent to Germany.

In 1813 Chapman devised a bogie locomotive which dragged itself along on a chain. Part of this was probably built by the Butterley Iron Co. A further locomotive was built at the Ouseburn Foundry under Phineas Crwother for the Lambton waggonway.

Blackett had arranged for the supply of the initial Trevithick (Gateshead) locomotive, but this damaged the track, but in 1813, following the reconstruction of the Wylam line with cast iron tramplates, a further Trevithick type locomotive was supplied by John Waters of Gateshead. This was gear driven, incorporated a flywheel, a single cylinder, and a single tube boiler  In 1814 the two cylinder Puffing Billy was constructed at Wylam and this was followed by the Wylam Dilly and a third locomotive. These had wrought iron boilers, cylinders (two) external to the boiler and exhaust silencers. In 1815 these were rebuilt with eight wheels. The performance of these locomotives is recorded in Timothy Hackworth's Notebook.

George Stephenson's first locomotive, Blucher, was steamed at Killingworth in July 1814. reed succinctly claims: "Therefore he [Stephenson] could have had little of that help claimed by protagonists of Hedley and Hackworth." His pre-knowledge would have been limited to the Blenkinsop rack locomotives on the Kenton/Coxlodge and Willington lines. As built the locomotive did not exhaust into the blast-pipe. Blucher was the first flanged wheel adhesion locomotive to do any work. It accommodated Nicholas Wood's chain drive to connect the axles. A second locomotive of 1815 eliminated the gear drive. Four or five locomotives were manufactured by Stephenson for Killingworth between 1814 and 1821. The parts were manufactured at Killingworth and by Burrell of Newcastle. Nicholas Wood was responsible for building further locomotives of the Killingworth type.

Dendy Marshall page 83
What seems to have happened, so far as we can tell, is as follows:
October, 1812. Hedley's attention first called to the subject.
Adhesion trials with the test carriage.
13 March, 1813: Patent. Hedley at loggerheads with Chapman.
'early' 1813. (O.D.H.). The first engine, built by Waters.
Sept., 1813. George Stephenson started to build an engine. 2 ,
March, 1814? Puffing Billy' on four wheels; produced by the combined efforts of Hedley, Foster and Hackworth, possibly assisted by Chapman.
25 July, 1814. (Wood). Stephenson's first engine was finished.
21 Dec., 1814 Chapman's second engine; on eight wheels.
early in 1815? Wylam engines put on eight wheels.

If the above chronology is approximately correct, two facts appear to emerge:-
1. Chapman copied the Hedley design in his Lambton engine, except the wheel arrangemen~; the quarrel having been made up.
2. The Wylam people used Chapman's design of the bogies.

Where ODH=Hedley, Oswald D. Who invented the locomotive engine (Ottley 2812) and
Wood=Wood, Nicholas  Practical treatise on rail-roads. (Ottley 294)

**Powell stated Churchward's general design precepts

Powell's American pioneers:
John Stevens
Horatio Allen
E.L. Miller: credited (perhaps incorrectly) with Best Friend of Charleston (built in a New York foundry) and of the bogie as used in 4-2-0 and subsequently in 4-4-0
Henry C. Campbell