Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers
See also Journal
Steamindex home page

Note the compiler was indebted to the staff at the British Library who brought vast quantities of these voluminous minutes to find a relatively small number of highly significant papers. Now an electronic version is available. Volume 1 extends to more than one year. Several misleading errors have been noted in the low grade OCR transfer (certainly not worthy of any engineering institution let alone one which seeks an exalted position): values instead of valves and Van Borries, Eluish for Huish for instance. There is only a moderately sophisticated system for searching the archive. Cost of access to the pdf files: (excessively expensive unless business activity).

Volume 1 (1837)

Perkins, J.
On locomotive engines and the means of supplying them with steam.. 20-1.
1837 paper

Reynolds, J.
On the construction of railways of continuous bearing. 22-3. Discussion: 23-4.
Andrew Dow The railway p. 124 gives an excellent resume and diagram from this paper as compared with mumbo jumbo offered online. The railway was evaluated by the Liverpool & Manchester Railway on Chat Moss

Edwards, G, and Taylor J.A.
Steam expansion table. 24.

Koehler, H.
On a peculiar form of rail, and the construction of railways in America and Germany. 25-6.

Discussion. [The vibrations produced in the soil by the passage of locomotives and coaches]. 31.
Royal Observatory, Greenwich.

Macneill J [Projections of railways]. 36.

Harrison, T.E.
[The fuel and fire-boxes of the locomotive engines on the Stanhope and Tyne railway].  38.

Volume 1 (1838)

Woods, E.
On locomotive engines. 3-4.
1.57 Ibs. per horse power per hour; whereas in anexperiment at Oldford, the quantity was 4.82 lbs. not withstanding the additional friction in the former case of the mining engine. The consumption is stated by Mr. Farey in his Treatise on the Steam Engine, for a double engine (Boulton and Watt) at 10+ Ibs. per horse power per hour. At the end of the paper are two Tables, the one shewing the gradual improvement of the steam engineduring 66 years, andthe other the average duty of engines in Cornwall for 1S35 and 1836. This paper would seem to have little to do with locomotives per se aand is presumably very poor value for the pdf version..

Mushet, D.
On iron for railways.  17.

Carpmael, W.
[Description of Worsdale's apparatus for exchanging letter-bags on railways, when the train is in motion].  32.
Presumably "Worsdale" is a misinterpretation of Worsdell.

Edwards, G.
Steam expansion table. 42

Volume 1 ((1839)

Buck, G.
On tubing the boilers of locomotive engines. 32; also 1838 volume page 51.
An attempt to determine the diameter of the tubes of the boiler of a locomotive engine, to effect maximum generation of steam.

Whishaw, F.
Manchester and Leeds Railway section. 43.

On the comparison between the power of locomotive engines and the effect produced by that power at different velocities. 46-8
Experiments and calculations to establish friction and resistance.

Parkes, J.
On steam boilers and steam engines. 54-9.
Had great difficulties, particularly with respect to the locomotive boiler and the thinness of the heat-absorbing surface.

Volume 1 (1840)

Bury, Edward
An account of the performances of the locomotive engines of the London & Birmingham Railway during the year 1839. 33-4.
Ref. obtained from Harry Jack: Locomotives of the LNWR Southern Division, but since corrected at the British Library [title was incorrect and lacked pagination: electronic archive states Volume 1.. Bury reported that the locomotives were derived from Liverpool of 1830 as supplied to the LMR. The weight of the passenger engine in working order was 9 tons 13 cwt, and of the merchandise engines 11 tons 13 cwt. Claimed that axle breakages were very rare. In ICE electronic archive..

Cowper, E.
Description of a running gauge for ascertaining the parallelism of a railway. 30-1.

Moorsom, W.S., Bury, E, Donkin, B, and Walker, J.
Account of a series of experiments on locomotive engines, more particularly on the 'England', the 'Columbia' and the 'Atlantic' manufacturing by Norris of Philadelphia. 45-7. Discussion: 47-9.
1840 paper: Trials on the Grand Junction Railway in April and May 1839 between Birmingham and Liverpool (and return). Noted that travels with apparent ease at 30 mile/h. Seven journeys to Birmingham (596 miles): 177 sacks of coke (1½ cwt each); 12705 gallons of water. Seven journeys to Liverpool resulted in the combustion of 177 sacks of cole and 12379 gallons of water. He considered that they were good serviceable engines and were easy and faster on curves. Bury (page 48) conceded that the Norris locomotives would curve well, but argued that the Bury type was not thrown off at pointers as Bury entitled points. Donkin was quoted on the curving behaviour of the Bury type. Bury noted that on the Leeds & Manchester Railway considerable allowance was made in the axle journals  for movement.

Carr, H.
Description of a dynamometer, or an instrument for measuring the friction on roads, railways, canals, & c.. 52.

Bourns, Charles
On setting out railway curves. 56.
Taff Vale

Volume 1 (1841)

Gregory, C.H.
Practical observations on the management of a locomotive engine. 73-4.
Included accidents: online "abstract" gobbledygook.

May, C.
On a new form of railway chairs and improved fastenings. 83-5. Discussion: 85-7.
South Eastern Railway. Participants in discussion: W. Cubitt, J. Pim, C. Vignoles, G. Mills, S. Seaward and J.J. Hawkins.

May, R.C.
On setting out curves for railways. 96-7.

Woods, J.
A machine for bending and setting the tire of railway carriage wheels. 99-100.

Smith, T.M.
An account of the repairs done to the Beechwood Tunnel, upon the London and Birmingham Railway, September 1840. 142-3.

Grantham, J.
On the stationary engines at the new tunnel on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway.  146-8. Discussion: 148.
P. Fairbairn contributed to the discussion.

Volume 2 (1843)

Rankine, W.J.M.
Description of a method of laying down railway curves on the ground. 108-9. Discussion: 109-11.
Participants in discussion: W. Gravatt and W. Froude

Rankine, W.J.M.
On the causes of the unexpected breakage of the journals of railway axles; and on the means of preventing such accidents by observing the law of continuity in their construction. 105-7. Discussion: 107-8
Participants in discussion: J.O. York,  J. Parkes and W. Greener.

Woods, Edward
On certain forms of locomotive engines. 137–55
Contains some of earliest accurate details of the working of locomotives: awarded a Telford medal. Not found in electronic archive

Volume 3 (1840/1)

Barlow, Peter
An investigation into the power of locomotive engines, and the effect produced by that power at different velocities. 46-8.

Hemans, G.W.
Description of a wrought-iron lattice bridge, lately erected on the line of the Dublin and Drogheda Railway. 63-5

Bury, E.
On the locomotive engines of the London & Birmingham Railway. 305-42.
Based on four half-yearly returns of the locomotive department, between .January 1839 and December 1840 [absurd date error in online "abstract"]. These returns are accompanied by a drawing of the locomotive engines to which they refer, with details of the principal parts; and as the quantity of coke consumed, as well as the cost of repairs, is much less than usual (which may, I conceive,be attributed to the system followed in the construction of the engines), I would make some observations upon those parts in which they more essentially differ from other locomotives...

Volume 4 (1845)

Storey, J.
Description of an oblique bridge over the River Gaunless, on the Hagger Leases Branch Railway, Durham. 59-60.
Stockton & Darlington Railway.

Barlow, P.W.
On the comparative advantages of the atmospheric railway system. 114-42 Discussion: 143-50.
Participants in the discussion included J. Samuda, J. Pim, C.H. Gregory, I.K. Brunel. W. Cubitt, J. Scott Russell and J.S. Russell.

Berkeley, G.
The peculiar features of the atmospheric railway system. 251-61.

Stirling, John.
Description of Stirlings improved air engine. 348-55. Discussion: 355-61.
Participants in the discussion included J. Walker, G. Cottam, A. Gordon, S.C. Homersham, J. Field, R. Stephenson, J. Smith, J. Leslie, Sir George Cayley and J. Jeffreys.

Volume 5 (1846)

West, W.
On water for locomotive engines and its chemical analysis. 182-95,
Incrustation of fur (calcium carbonate) on locomotive boiler shells and tubes.

Harding, Wyndham
On the resistances of railway trains at different velocities. 369-411. Discussion: 411-32. 1848, 7, 294-326 417
Much of the discussion sessions was centred on the effect of gauge. Participants in the first discussion included J. Scott Russell, J.S. Russell, E. Woods, J. Samuda, Sir J. Rennie, G.P. Bidder, R. Stephenson, S.C. Homersham, F. Braithwaite, T. Hawkesley, T.R. Crampton and G. Rennie; and in the second many of those who participated previously plus I.K.Brunel, J. Locke, D. Gooch, W.S. Stephenson, C. Fox, W.S. Moorsom, J. Hawkshaw and J. Thomson. .   

Volume 7 (1848)

Rennie, Sir John
Presidential Address. 27-31.
Given on 18 January 1848.

Gooch, Daniel
Observations on the resistances of railway trains at different speeds. 292-4. Discussion:
Described Gooch's dynamometer car constructed at Swindon, and the results of tests on the Wootton Bassertt and Box inclines of the Great Western Railway. Paper also mentions the times achieved by ordinary express trains between Paddington and Didcot. This further information was brought forth in response to observations made by Locke on 16 May 1848.

Volume 8 (1849)

Dockray, R.B.
Description of the Camden Station of the London and North Western Railway. 164-73.

Crampton, T.R.
Discussion on the construction of locomotive engines, especially with respect to those modifications which enable additional power to be gained, without materially increasing the weight, or unduly elevating the centre of gravity. 233-40. Discussion: 240-61. Paper No. 794
Participants: T.R. Crampton, R. Stephenson, I.K. Brunel, J.V. Gooch, G. Rennie, W.B. Adams, P.W. Barlow, G.P. Bidder, J. Locke, Sir C. Pasley (254-5) commented on Thetford accident and how White Horse of Kent had rolled over, S.C. Homersham, G. Berkley and H. Maudslay. According to Harry Jack: Locomotives of the LNWR Southern Division: includes descrption of Mac's Mangle

Hawkshaw, John
Description of the permanemn way on the Lancashire and Yorkshirde, Manchester and Southport. and the Sheffield, Barnsley and Wakefied Railways. 261-73. Discussion
Presented 8 May 1849. Joshua Field in the Chair

Volume 9 (1850/1).

Fairbairn, W.
On tubular girder bridges. 233-41. Discussion: 242-87.

Doyne, W.T.
Description of a wrought iron lattice bridge constructed over the line of the Rugby and Leamington railway. 353-9.

Volume 10 (1851)

Bruce, G.B.
Description of the Royal Border Bridge over the River Tweed, on the York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway. (includes plate and appendix). 219–33

Volume 11 (1851/2)

Doyne, W. T. and Blood, W, B.
An investigation of the strains upon the diagonals of lattice beams with the resulting formulae. 1-14.

Huish, Mark (Paper No. 854)
Railway accidents: their cause and means of prevention: detailing particularly the contrivances which are in use, and have been proposed. 434-50.
1000 locomotive failures on LNWR involving 587 locomotives were examined

Poole, Braithwaite (Paper No. 875)
The economy of railways as a means of transit, comprising the classification of traffic in relation to the most appropriate speeds for the conveyance of passengers and merchandise. 450-60. Disc. (both Papers) 461-77.
This brought out the perennial battle between the locomotive manufacturers and the railway companies. Robert Stephenson (468) noted that the LNWR was spending £15,000 on a rolling mill

Volume 12 (1853)

Clark, David Kinnear (Paper No. 887)
Experimental investigation of the principles of the boilers of locomotive engines. 382-413. Disc.: 414-31.
Coke had been the universal fuel except on the Stockton & Darlington Railway where coal had always been burned as in general the grates were too small and the firebox volume was too low to burn coal. T.R. Crampton (414-15) spoke about Liverpool; Robert Stephenson (415-16) concurred with the general sentiments in the paper, but did not share the views that the combustion of cokc was imperfect in the locomotive. He had discussed the subject fully with Professor Daniell, who considered, on the contrary, that the combustion in the locomotive was most complete. At a white heat it was found that nearly pure carbonic acid was generated. C. Wye Williams’ experiments in introducing the air near to the bridge, created additional visible combustion in the flues, so that although there were clouds of dense smoke whilst the apertures were closed, on opening the holes the flue became illuminated. Still there was no marked economy of fuel, and the iron of the boiler was destroyed. If it were true that the quantity of heat developed in consuming carbon was in proportion to the oxygen brought in contact with it, then the admission of oxygen, within certain limits, should cause economy. He had never known more than 5 or 6 per cent. to be saved by smoke-preventing apparatus. H e argued, therefore, that there was very little imperfect comnbustion. Unless the oxygen entered through the fire, in his opinion it did little good. He had tried the admission of air at various heights in the fire-box, without producing any good effect. As to the comparison between slow and quick combustion, the ultimate result in each case must be identical, if thc combuhtion in both was perfect. The result of burning a pound of coke perfectly, must be the same under all circumstances. Whatevcr might be the arrangement of tllc boiler, if the coal was consumed, the heat absorbed, and the chimney kept cool, all the useful effect was got out of the fuel that could be obtained. The Author’s deductions, as to the practical identity of fire-box and tube surface, for evaporating action, must be admitted ; and likewise the constancy of the evaporative efficiency of fuel, whether by radiant, or communicated heat, or both together, or whether the draught was mild, or strong. Heat was specific and certain in its effects, and could be dealt with like any ponderable body. Such expedients as midfeathers, etc, which were resorted t o for specially increasing the fire-box surface, must be condemned. They were inconvenient and costly, causing the space for fuel to be occupied by water whilst plates of 7/16, or ½ inch in thickness, were employed to do the work of the tubes, which were less. than 1/8 inch in thickness, and were equally serviceable as heating surface. In comparing the long with the short boiler experiments, it was important to know the rate of evaporation. For moderate speeds moderate firing might be practised, and short boilers might then be usefully employed. Long boilers might be better with heavy loads, and short boilers with light loads. In the gauge experiments, an engine with the smallest fire-box ever made, and having 80 tons attached to it, working to her highest power, evaporated from 150 cubic feet to 170 cubic feet, at the rate of 9.1 lbs. of water per pound of coke. That great economy was obtained under the best circumstances, and by utilizing the power of the engine to the utmost. If the load had been smaller the good qualities of the engine would have been less apparent. M but McConnell (417-20 and 426-9) disputed. Other participants listed on the electronic version included: J. Hawkshaw, J. Scott Russell, J. Field, G.P. Bidder, P.M. Parsons, C. May, L. Playfair and W.S. Moorsom..

Sewell, John (Paper No. 891)
On locomotive boilers and on fuels. 432-49.
Mainly on effect of coal type on LNWR Bloomer performance

Cubitt, J.
A description of the Newark Dyke Bridge, on the Great Northern Railway (including plate). 601-7.

Volume 14 (1855)

James Brunlees (Paper No.  909)
On the construction of the sea embankments across the estuaries Kent and Leven in Morecambe Bay, for the Ulverstone and Lancaster Railway. 239–45. Discussion: 246–50.

Joseph Phillips (Paper No. 925)
Description of the iron roof, in one span, over the Joint Railway Station, New Street, Birmingham. 251–62. Discussion: 264–72.

Benjamin Burleigh (Paper No. 927)
On the construction of railway switches and crossings. 419–30, Discussion: 431–42
Permanent way, including Fox's switches

James Barton (Paper No. 907)
On the economic distribution of material in the sides or vertical portion, of wrought-iron beams. (including plate). 443–58. Discussion: 459–90

Lavington Evans Fletcher (Paper No. 931)
Description of the Landore Viaduct on the line of the South Wales Railway. 492–503. Discussion: 504–6

Volume 15 (1856)

Joseph Baillie.  
The application of volute springs to the safety-valves of locomotive boilers. 28-33.
This is correct: had feared should have been Beattie! Mumbo jumbo on ICE disgraceful website occludes information

James Fenton.
Description of an improved form of safety-valve, for steam-boilers. 33-6. Discussion. 37-44
The safety-valves generally used on locomotives, are inefficient, even when they are in good order, and that they frequently tended to mislead those who, being unacquainted with the properties of steam, imagine that all is safe, as long as the valves are blowing off. The engine-drivers, also, believe themselves to be in security, not being at all aware of the fact, that whilst the valves are blowing off freely the pressure in the boiler may be two, three, and even four times as great as that for which the valves are loaded ; and indeed, it has been frequently proved, when locomotives have exploded, that both valves were blowing off and were not over-weighted. Participants in the discussion included S.C. Kreeft, D.K. Clark, J. Freeman, D. Thomson, J. Simpson and C. Manby.

Manby, C. and Haswell, J.
The "Wien-Raab" locomotive engine. 44-6. Disc.: 46.
Discussion: W.S. Moorsom on locomotives for steep gradients and sharp curves

Stephenson, R.
Presidential Address of Robert Stephenson, M.P., (Our British railways). January 8, 1856. 123-54.
The bulk of the Scotch traffic from the Midland line. Nevertheless, the Midland traffic cmtinued to increase. At a later period the Great Northern was opened, affording almost a direct route to Nottingham, to Leeds, to York, and to Edinburgh. The Scotch traffic of the Midland was thereby annihilated, and its trade to thelarge towns named almost entirely abstracted; yet, with all this, the Midland receipts continued to increase largely, chiefly in consequence of its local growth, and the development of its mineral traffic.

Stephenson, R.
Extracts from the Second Report of the Postmaster General on the Post-Office, and the President's Reply. 456-96.
Of travelling Post-Offices, i.e., carriages in which the corresqmding number of miles in the Report for 1854, was, by an error, much overstated. Mail bags are opened and made up, the letters being as sorted while the train is in progress ; an arrangement which obviates stoppages.

Volume 16 (1857)

Clark, D.K. (Papeer 949)
On the improvement of railway locomotive stock, and the reduction of the working expenses. 3-21 Discussion: 22-43.
Locomotives favourably adapted for the combustion of coke, are not in general favourably adapted for that of coal; and vice versa. Coke burns best in heaps, coal in layers. Coke being simple, is instantly burnt; coal being compound, requires time for its complete conversion, the hydrogen first, the carbon afterwards. The inference, then, is, that a restricted grate and concentrated combustion are most favourable for the conversion of coke; whilst a larger grate and plenty of fire-box room are the best for coal. Participatnts to the discussion: J. Kennedy, R. Stephenson, E. Woods, G.H. Phipps, F. Braithwaite, H. Robertson, A. Slate, T. Webster, G.P. Bidder, and W. Bridges Adams. Part of paper reproduced in Locomotive Mag., 1935, 41, 402-3..

William Bridges Adams. Paper 947
The varieties of permanent way, practically used, or tried, on railways, up to the present period. 226-59.

Parsons, P.M.
On some recent improvements in the permanent way of railways. 259-65, Discussion: 266-97

Conder,  F.R.
On the laying of the permanent way of the Bordeaux and Bayonne Railway, through the Grandes Landes. 371-9. Discussion: 380-5
Timber was scarce, neverthelesss the longitudinal system of permanent way was adopted

Volume 17 (1858)

Locke, Joseph
Presidential Address. 128-53
Included criticism of English locomotives supplied to France

Guerin, E.
On braking systems. 153-60. Discussion: 161-72.
French author: includes Guerin's self-acting and Miles' hydraulic brake systems. The use of Guerin's brake on the London and Windsor line, where there were thirteen stations, had reduced the journey time by fifteen minutes. With one guard to work the brake, the train could be stopped in a distance of 60 or 70 yards; whereas, formerly, the steam had to be shut off about 300 yards from the station where it was required to stop. Participants in the discussion: J.S. Perring, William Bridges Adams, J. Newall, G.W. Hemans, T.E. Harrison and J. Locke.

Volume 19 (1860)

Webb. E.B.
On the means of communication in the Empire of Brazil; chiefly in reference to the works of the Mangatiba Serra road, and to those of the Maua, the first Brazilian railway. 240-54 .

Clark, D.K. (Paper 1024)
On coal-burning and feedwater heating in locomotive engines. 546-63. Discussion: 564-85.
Air should be in sufficient quantity, and suitably distributed amongst the solid and gaseous portions of the fuel in the furnace, altogether, or partially through the grate, and partially above the fuel. Participants in the discussion: W.H. Barlow, J.A. Longridge, Z. Colburn, E.A. Cowper and C. Greaves.

Heppel, J.M.
On a method of computing the strains and deflections of continuous beams under various conditions of load.. 625-43.

Volume 20 (1861)

Francis Fox. (Paper No. 1032)
On the results of trials of varieties of iron permanent way.  259-74. Discussion 275-91.

Volume 21 (1861/62)

Galton, D.
Railway accidents showing the bearing which existing legislation has upon them. 363-82. Discussion: 383-424.

Volume 22 (1863)

Makinson, A.W.
On some of the internal disturbing forces of locomotive engines. 65-82. (includes plates and appendix).
Notably those associated with piston movement within the cylinders and its effect on crank axles.

Volume 23 (1864)

Lloyd, W. Paper 1116
Description of the Santiago and Valparaiso Railway, Chile, South America; with remarks upon resistances from curves on railways, and upon coal-burning locomotives. 378-98. Discussion: 399-405

Cross, J. (Paper 1113)
On the structure of locomotive engines for ascending steep inclines in conjunction with sharp curves. 406-10. Discussion: 428-42.
2-4-2T: White Raven. Participants to the discussion included C.H. Gregory, C.B. Vignoles, G.H. Phipps, J. Scott Russell, J.S. Russell, G.W. Hemans, W.H. Barlow, G. Berkley, E. Woods, T.E. Harrison, J.M. Heppel, J. Hawkshaw, W. Adams, W.B. Adams, and G.P. Bidder.

Adams, William Bridges (Paper 1117) 
On the impedimental friction between wheel tire and rails.
According to Ahrons includes description of 2-4-2T White Raven for St Helens Railway with patented spring tyres.

Volume 24 (1865)

Tyler, H.W. (Paper 1130
On the Festiniog Railway for passengers: as a 2-feet gauge, with sharp curves, and worked by locomotive engines. 359-66. Disc.: 367-90.
Discussion participants included: H.W. Tyler, G.W. Hemans, Sir C. Fox, P. Bruff, G.W. Phipps, R. Mallet, G.P. Bidder, E. Woods, W. Bridges Adams, T.E. Harrison, A. Giles, J.J. Allport, Z. Colburn and J. Brunlees.

Volume 26 (1867)

Tyler, H.W. (Paper 1160
On the working of steep gradients and sharp curves on railways. 310-24.

Fox, C.D. (Paper 1166) 
On light railways in Norway, India and Queensland.

Volume 28 (1869)

Colburn, Z.
American locomotives and rolling stock. 69-75 . Disc.: 385-439.
Swing beam used exclusively under all American passenger carriages, and for the last eight or nine years more or less extensively adopted directly for engine bogies. Instead of the weight being taken upon the bogie frame, it rests upon a series of springs, steel or rubber, placed upon a transverse beam which is suspended by links from the cross timbers of the bogie frame-passenger carriage bogies being always made with timber frames. The transverse beam is thus free to swing endvise, or across the line. Discussion contributions from W. Bridges Adams, G. Berkley, W.B. Lewis, R.P. Brereton, W.A. Adams, P.R. Hodge, W. Atkinson, E.A. Cowper, W. Pole, Sir C. Fox , W. Lloyd, and G.K. Radford.

Volume: 31 (1871)

Bridges Adams, W.
Train resistance on railways. 358-77. Disc.:  378-414.
Douglas Fox, J.A. Longridge, W. Naylor, G.H. Phipps, J.B. Fell, J. Clark, G.J. Morrison, W. Atkinson, A.H. Macnair, and C.B.Vignoles contributed to the discussion. Topics covered included central buffers of type used in Norway and North America. friction on curves, radial axles and derailments.

Volume 35 (1873)

Thornton, W.T. (Paper 1365) 
The relative advantages of the 5ft 6in gauge and of the metre gauge for the State Railways of India, and particularly for those of the Punjab. 214-28  (including plate).

Volume 37 (1873)

Robinson, J. (Paper 1369)
On modern locomotives, designed with a view to economy, durability, and facility of repair; together with some particulars of the duty performed, and of the cost of repairs. 1-14. (includes plate). Discussion: 15-38
Includes observations on GNR, LNWR and GS&WR locomotives. Participnts included E. Reynolds, F.W. Webb (17-) regarding the Le Chatelier brake, they had been abandoned altogether, as they were found to cut the cylinders, although provided with water injection. Mr. Ramsbottom put them on twenty of the engine s working in the South Wales District, but the result was unsatisfactory, and they had not been used since. , R. Price Williams,  P. R. Williams, W. Adams (31) said, the differences in the designs of the various engines referred to were sufficiently accounted for by the nature of the traffic to be served in each case, the gradients, curves, and the like. He should not care to run a six-wheeled coupled engine with a North London Richmond express train. No doubt such an engine would work the local traffic, but it would not traverse curves in the same easy way as an engine provided with a bogie. He was glad that experiments were being tried with a view to reduce the weight of engines, since the saving of a few tons was a matter of considerable importance. The engines working the Enfield traffic on the Great Eastern line only burned 22 lbs. of coal per mile. They weighed 42 tons, and had four wheels coupled, with a bogie behind. He did not see the advantage of coupling six wheels, as the increased friction would lessen the advantage derived from the diminished weight., E. Slaughter, T. Hawksley, E. Woods, J. Tomlinson and H. Appleby. It is probable that James Stirling noted how he had been able to build single locomotives with 15-ton axle loads because of the high quaility steel rails used on the GNR (requires verification at a "library").

. .

Volume 38 (1874 )

Rapier, R.C.
On the fixed signals of railways. 142-89. Discussion: 190-247
Topics discussed included interlocking and fog signalling. Participants included D.A. Carr, A.R. Poole, W.L. Owen, C.H. Gregory, J. Dixon, R. Burn, R. Johnson, A. Chambers, F. Fox, W.H. Preece, W.H. Barlow and R. Price Williams

Volume 39 (1875)

Fox, C.D and Fox, F. .
The Pennsylvania Railroad; with remarks on American railway construction and management. 62-88. Discussion: 89-123.
Participants in the discussion included F.W. Webb, T.W. Wordsell, M. Longridge, P. Williams, W. Stanley, W.B. Lewis, J. Fernie and E.A. Cowper.


Volume 41 (1875)

Findlay, G. (Paper 1419)
The working of railways. 1-18.
Webb (43-5) maintained that additional lines between London and Rugby were necessary. Goods could not be delivered at midnight, and passengers would not travel just when the company chose to- take them. The company had to put on trains to suit the public; and taking into account the excursion trains in the summer, and the special trains, working as they did with the block system, he' did not see how many more could be run on two rails. If Mr. Rapier would observe the relief afforded by the third lines between Bletchley and London and Rugby and Nuneaton, he would, if he were traffic manager, be glad of the additional lines about to be made. With regard to the proposal to limit the trains to the power of one engine, those who made it could know but little of railway working. On arriving at the bottom of Shapfell, the alternative would be to divide the express into two parts, and put on two engines, and then at the top to reunite them. But the traffic could not be worked in that way. During twenty-five years he had not heard of a single accident to a passenger or a servant from the practice of putting' an engine behind the train . to 'help it up the incline, and he therefore thought it would be foolish to alter the system. The shunting sidings would relieve the vast number of engines on the London and North Western system that were doing nothing but shunting, for which no credit was given in the record of work done.' In comparing' the locomotive expenses on the North-Western with those of other lines, it became a moot question, what was a train mile? His chairman took good care that he should manufacture none. If he had to employ two engines for a train he was only allowed mileage for one. There were one hundred and seventy-one engines employed on the line in shunting, for which he had no credit in train mileage. The train miles were calculated on the actual distances run by the trains, pure and simple. When the proposed shunting sidings were formed he hoped there would be a marked difference in the locomotive expenses. The actual weight of the trains was not shown in the reports. A passenger carriage was calculated at 5 tons, its real weight being 10¼ tons without the passengers. The calculated weight of an empty wagon was 3 tons, of a full wagon 6 tons, and of a mineral wagon 8 tons: the weight of a mineral wagon, however, when full, was 13 tons, and the others in proportion. He had taken out the work done by the small type of wheel (5 feet 6 inches) employed on the line since May 1874 for the express trains between Crewe and Carlisle. Accepting the guard's statements as to the weight of the train, it seemed that he had made a powerful engine for very little' purpose. The average weight, according to the guard's statement, was 59.6 tons, the number of carriages 11.7, consumption of coal per mile 32.2 lbs.; but the actual weight was 140 tons, besides the engine and tender. Government had given a standard for railway accounts, and he thought there should also be a standard for train mileage and the weight of loads hauled; comparative statements would then be of some value. The first small-wheel engine took the royal train in May 1874, and had been' in constant use ever since. When recently brought into the shop, after running 35,000 miles, no repairs were wanted, and to all appearance it· would run another 35,000 miles before requiring any. He should be glad to hear what could be said with regard to the opposite system, viz., a great weight upon one pair of wheels of very large diameter-a system he believed that did more harm to the permanent way than a greater weight for adhesion equally distributed between two pairs., From his own experience he was inclined to believe that an engine with four small wheels was best adapted to the working of heavy express traffic. 'I'he engine with wheels 5 feet 6 inches in diameter was made for the exceptional gradients between Crewe. and Carlisle. He found that to take the same train to London the engine with wheels 6 feet 6 inches in diameter did the work most efficiently. The first of those engines was now running; and before the 1st of May he hoped to have all the heavy express trains between Crewe and London worked with that class of locomotive. With reference to the question of break-power, about which railway oompanies were supposed to be indifferent, if they adopted any one system, and used it for ordinary stoppages, he felt certain that they would some day fail. The plan on the London and North-Western line was to have a break on the tender, under the control of the driver, another on the guard's van, under the control of the guard, and an extra break (Clark's) under the control of both guard and driver, but not to be used for ordinary stoppages .. In approaching a terminal station like Euston, King's Cross, or. St. Pancras, if the drivers were accustomed to the continuous breaks, capable of stopping the train in ¼ mile, what would be the consequence of the breaks on any occasion becoming inoperative? He thought the regulation of the London and North-Western railway a., wise one. A t the first stoppage of the down train a Willesden the extra break was ascertained to be in working order, and then, for all the usual stoppages, the ordinary break was relied upon: On the Metropolitan, where there were more stations than miles of line, the extraordinary working might require extraordinary means.

Volume 42 (1875)

Smith, J.T.
On Bessemer steel rails. 69-75.

Volume 46 (1876)

Cudworth, W. (Paper 1406)
On sorting trains by gravitation. 19-26.
Mehods used at Shildon, NER.

Harrison, J.T.  (Paper 1421)
On railway statistics. 27-33.

Browne, Walter Raleigh  (Paper 1476)
On the construction of railway wagons with special reference to economy in dead weight. 81-99.

Adams, William Alexander. (Paper 1472)
Railway rolling stock capacity, in relation to the dead weight of vehicles. 100-5.

Clark, D.K. (Paper 1486)
The evaporative performance of steam boilers. 242-73
paper cited by Longridge

Volume 47 (1877)

W.W. Beaumont. The fracture of railway tires. 43-60. Discussion: 61-9
British paper presumably on metallic tyres

Volume 48 (1877)

McDonnell, A.
The repairs and renewals of locomotives. 2-34 . Disc.: 35-73.
Participants in discussion included: R.P. Williams, W. Adams, J. Armstrong, H. Hughes, Stirling, Sir J. Hawkshaw, E. Woods, Kirtley, D. Drummond, J. Head, G.R. Stephenson

Wragge, E.
Canadian narrow gauge railways. 252-6.

Volume 50 (1877)

Robinson Souttar
Street tramways. 1-26. Discussion: 27-58
Longitudinal sleepers laid on a Portland cement foundation

H. Bell
The Rajpootana (State) Railway. 149-56
Metre gauge

Volume 52 (1878)

Longridge, James Atkinson (1534)
On the evaporative power of locomotive boilers. 101-28. Discussion 137-76.
Queried whether the air through the fire-door over the fuel, as in the case of coal-burning engines, or whether the whole of the air for the support of combustion came through the fire-bars : author favoured the latter. Participants in the discussion included: E. Woods, D.K. Clark, E. Reynolds, V.G. Bell, W.R. Browne and I. Olrick.

James Atkinson Longridge (1534A)
On the action of the blast-pipe on locomotive engines. 129-36.
Addendum to Paper 1534. Cited paper by himself: Trans. North England Inst. Mining Engrs., 1, 165. Argued that not impulsive as claimed by Gurney. Cited Nicholas Woods Trans. North England Inst. Mining Engrs., 1, 71 et seq. In the Discussion Crampton described experiments to establish firebox temperatures. E. Woods noted experiments with de Pambour on LNWR? in 1836 on boilers of Liverpool Tunnnel engines. In 1853 there were supplementary experiments on Stephenson long-boilers.

Volume 53 (1878)

David Kinnear Clark  (Paper 1585)
On the strength of flat plates and segmental ends of boilers and other cylinders. 170-92..

Volume 62 (1880)

Shaw, H.S. Hele
Small motive power. 290-333.
Student paper: steam and alternatives including compressed air, hydraulics, electricity and internal combustion.

Volume 63 (1881)

Joseph Prime Maxwell. (Paper 1696)
New Zealand Government Railways. 50-62.

Volume 72 (1883)

Fernie, J.
Mild steel for the fireboxes of locomotive engines in the USA.. 84-96. Disc.: 97-130;  Correspondence: 130-4.
Contributors to the discussion: A.B.W. Kennedy, E. Reynolds, J.N. Paxman, S.E. Howell, Sir F. Bramwell, J.L. Thornycroft, A. M'Connell, S. Fox, J.C. Park, T.W. Wordsell, Sir J. Hawkshaw, T.R. Crampton, D. Joy, and G. Berkley. Correspondents: D. Banderali, T.N. Ely, D.H.O. Neale, C.P. Sandberg, C. Weston Smith, and F.W. Webb.

Clark, D.K. (Paper 1910)
On the beahaviour of steam in cylinders of locomotives during expansion. 275-99.

Volume 80 (1885)

Smart, D.S.
The modern practice in the construction of steam boilers. 100-30.  Disc.: 131-77. Correspondence: 177-87.
Participants to the discussion included F.W. Webb (who discussed steel fireboxes), W.C. Unwin, J.N. Paxman, J.I. Thornycroft, L.E. Fletcher, A.B.W. Kennedy, J.F. Farquharson, R.C. Longridge, E.A. Cowper, E.B. Marten, and S. Fox. Correspondence from G.P. Culverwell, J. Hayes, C.H. Moberly, H. Olrich, R.H. Tweddell, and J.J. Webster.

Webb, F.W.
Standard engine shed of the London and North Western Railway Company. 258-9 + plate at back of volume.
Rugby was the exemplar.

Volume 81 (1885)

Baker, Benjamin (Paper 2054)
The Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways. 1-33.

Barry, John Wolfe (Paper No. 2069)
The City Lines and Extensions (Inner Circle completion) of the Metropolitan and Metropolitan District Railways. 34-51. Disc.: (both papers) 52-74.
H. Michell Whitley (72-5) suggested the use of oil fuel for the locomotives to reduce smoke problem.

Stroudley, William (Paper 2027)
The construction of locomotive engines, with some results of the working of those on the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 76-108. Disc.: 109-65.
See Stroudley: The paper includes a folding plate giving outline drawings of calsses A,B,C,D,E, and G classes, and another folding plate giving a detailed general arrangement drawing of a class B 0-4-2: information on tests are also included. The discussion included Webb (135) noting a Shareholders' Audit Committee had criticised his use of black for locomotives and his response that he would give them gold lining when a dividend of 10% was paid. McDonnell (138) noted the superiority of hydraulic riveting over hand riveting. He also commented on crank axles. Adams (142) noted the problems associated with feed water heating and also commented on radial axles. D. Joy (163) questionned blast pipe diameters and noted that the height of it above the level of the tubes had an influence on fuel consumption.

Webb, F.W.
Description of steel permanent way, as used on the London and North-Western Railway. 299-301. (Paper No. 2080.)
steel sleepers

Volume 82 (1885)

Thompson A.M.
The signalling of the London and North-Western Railway. 166-88.  Discussion: 189-219.
Participants in the discussion included F.W. Webb, J.S. Farmer, C.E. Spagnoletti, I.A, Timmis, T. Blackall, J.W. Fletcher, G. Edwards, C. Hodgson, J.C. Park, H.O. Fisher, and R.C. Rapier, Henry Johnson, W. Langdon, A. J. Hamilton-Smythe, and R. Price-Williams

Volume 83 (1886)

Reynolds, O.
On the theory of the indicator and the errors in indicator diagrams. 1-19.

Stroudley, William
Electric-lighting for railway-trains. 329-32.

Volume 84 (1886)

Harry Erleigh Footner. (Paper 2172)
On the wear of steel rails..436-8.
Ox the London and North-Western Railway in 1877 iron rails were credited to the district takenout of the line in relaying at 74 lbs. per lineal yard, an average loss of 10 lbs. on the original weight. At the present time 64-lb. steel rails are credited at 66 lbs. The stronger and purer metal retains form, and the rail its generally remains uniform on the head from end to end, until it is considered too light for a safe or easy running road...

Volume 92 (1888)

A.C. Hurtzig
The Alexandra Dock, Hull. 144–163. Discussion 164-76. Communications:  176-86.

W.S. Wilson
Covered way as constructed on the Glasgow City and District Railway. 288–91

D. Drummond
On the heating of carriages by exhaust steam on the Caledonian Railway. 294-8.

A.W. Metcalfe
Classification of continuous railway brakes. 315-35.
Student paper

Volume 93 (1888)

Willans, P.W.
Economy trials of a non-condensing steam-engine: simple, compound and triple. 128-88.

Volume 95 (1889)

Aspinall, J.A.F.
The friction of locomotive slide valves. 167-78. Correspondence 194.
Favoured cast iron valves, rather than brass which were difficult to operate at high pressures. Correspondence from J.C. Park: paper discussed later.

Volume 96 (1889)

Worthington, E.
The compound principle applied to locomotives. 2-49. Disc.: 50-101. Communications: 101-19.
Contributors to the discussion: R.H. Lapage, F.W. Webb, J.C. Park, W. Adams, W. Stroudley, J. Holden, T.W. Worsdell, T.G. Iveson, D. Joy, E. Reynolds, J.I. Thornycroft, Sir F. Bramwell, P.W. Willans, A.B.W. Kennedy, J.A.F. Aspinall and E. Cowper. Communications were received from W.H. Booth, A. Von Borries, D. Drummond, R. Edwards, S.W. Johnson, A. Mallet, J. Manson, W. Marriott, J. Stirling, and R. Wilson,

Carruthers, J. (Paper No. 2375)
The Trincheras Steep Incline on the Puerto Cabello and Valencia Railway, Venezuela. 120-30.
Discussion: 145-71. Communications: 172-9.
Wilson, R. Cost of working the Hartz Mountain Railway. 131-6.
Maxwell, J.P. Further information on the working of the Fell System of traction on the Rimutaka Incline, New Zealand. (Includes appendix; bibliography of papers relating to the working of steep inclines and to the construction and working of mountain railways.). 137-44.
Contributors to discussion: R. Wilson, C. Fairholme, J.W. Grover, W. Martineau, Sir G.B. Bruce, E. Woods, J.B. Fell, E.E. Sawyer, D.M. Fox, J.R. Mosse, E. Pritchard and J.W.M. Watson. Communications were received from: R. Abt, P.A. Fraser, A. McDonnell, T.M. Rymer Jones, A. Schneider, and W. Smith.

Volume 99 (1890)

Polonceau, E.
Compound locomotives. 292-6.
Paris Orleeans Railway: described locomotives fitted with Wassner exhaust system

Volume 103 (1891)

John Milne and John McDonald (Paper No. 2468)
On the vibratory movements of locomotives, and on timing trains and testing railway tracks. 47-67. Discussion 68-115. Correspondence 115-20.
Contributors to the discussion included W. Marriott, F. Bramwell, W.W. Beaumont and R.M. Moir. J.A.F. Aspinall, D.K. Clark and J.C. Park sent letters.

Frederick Ewart Robertson.(Paper No. 2475)
The Lansdowne Bridge over the Indus at Sukkur. 123-34.

Volume 106 (1891)

Langdon, W.
On railway-train lighting. 127-50. Discussion 150-65.
Author was Telegraph Engineer on Midland Railway. Discussion participants included: J.P. Rickman, F.W. Cooke, W.F. Pettigrew, W.H. Preece, E.R. Dolby, W.T. Lord, A. Rigg, Sir F. Bramwell, T.H. Riches, C. Hawksley, and W.M. Acworth.

Volume: 108 (1892)

Fox, F. (Paper 2565)
The Hawarden Bridge. 304-17.

Volume 109 (!892)

E.L. Hill. (Student Paper 307)
The speed and power of locomotives. 354-68.

Volume 114 (1893)

Willans, P.W.
Steam engine trials. 2-54.
Paper in which "Willans Lines" defined.

Volume 117 (1894)

Thomas Parker (Paper No. 2764)
The Electrical Equipment of the Liverpool Overhead Railway. 71-84

Volume 122 (1894/5)

Hill, A.J. (Paper No. 2820)
Repairs and renewal of railway rolling stock. 224-64.
Based on GER practice, but also includes data from other railways.

Stewart, Angus Matheson (Student Paper No. 357)
The Glasgow District Subway. 355-62.

Volume 123 (1895/6)

Greathead, James Henry (Paper 2873)
The City and South London Railway; with some remarks about subaqueous tunnelling by shield and compressed air. 39-72. Disc.: 74-123.
Participants to the discussion included both Barlow and Benjamin Baker. The costs of tunnelling for the Glasgow Subway, Waterloo & City Railway and the Blackwall Tunnel are also included.

Rowlandson, Charles Arthur (Paper 2839)
The Bold Street Extension Tunnel and Central Low-level Station of the Mersey Railway. 357-68.

Volume 124 (1895/6)

Szlumper, Alfred Weeks (Paper No. 2858)
The reconstruction and widening of Barnes Bridge, L & S W Ry. 309-22.

Volume 125 (1895/6)

Adams, William and William Frank Pettigrew (Paper 2755)
Trials of an express locomotive. 282-95.
Outside cylinder 4-4-0 with 175 psi was tseted on 9 July 1891 between Waterloo and Bournemouth (and back). On 10/11 it was tested from Waterloo to Exeter and back, and on 13 July from Waterloo to Salisbury. Notes that further information about the locomotive was give in Engineer, 1895, 129, 244. (the completeness of this citation is commendable).

Head, J.
Manufacturing steel plates and four American rolling mills. 132-55. Discussion:. 1896, 126, 166-79.
Participants in discussion included Sir B. Baker, F.W. Webb, J. Wolfe Barry, Sir W. White, T. Wrightson, A. Mcdonnell, and J.H.R. Whinfield.

Volume 127 (1896/97)

Drummond, Dugald (Paper No. 2497)
An investigation into the use of progressive high pressures in non-compound locomotive engines. 218-47.
"The design of the cylinders is a departure from the normal arrangement with a central valve-face. The steam ports were moved to the cylinder-ends, and the slide valve was divided, each having its own exhaust port. In this way the port-clearance was reduced to a minimum, and a reduction in back pressure was affected. The weight of the valve, however, was increased by 70 per cent. The exhaust passages were increased so that the belt from the lower and top valves extended along the whole length of the cylinder thus forming an exhaust steam jacketed cylinder. The blast pipe which was of the vortex-type, had likewise a large exhaust capacity with a nozzle equal to a 4 in opening.
Having noted that this led a free running engine Drummond went on:
"During part of the running of engine No. 76, five expansions were made, the efficiency increasing to the highest point. As the whole question of engine-economy resolves itself into the number of times steam can be expanded, and as in this case five expansions were within the economical limit in a single cylinder, compounding within this limit appears to be unnecessary.
If, however, the thermal and dynamical conditions of the non-compound are superior to the compound engine, how is it that those who favour the latter system have attained superior results? The reply must be that the two systems have been compared on a fair basis. In the first place, the boiler pressure of the compound locomotive has usually been higher. In the second place, the driver of the compound engine is obliged to keep up the boiler pressure, as there must be considerably less range of cylinder pressure than in the non-compound engines which can expand steam as low as one-and-a-quarter times, and all starting from stations is so done – whereas the compound locomotive cannot expand less than two-and-a-half times. This reduction of range in the power of the latter engine is undoubtedly the cause of reduced coal consumption over what is due to higher boiler pressure. Other things being equal, coal consumption is the measure of the work done by an engine, and if the compound engine cannot run so fast in express traffic, or has to be assisted on up-gradients, the result should not be credited to increased efficiency. The Author is of the opinion that that in a comparative trial of the simple and compound systems, the boiler pressure should be alike. The minimum number of expansions should be alike, and the low-pressure cylinder of the compound engine should be equal to the combined areas of the non-compound cylinders. On this common basis only should the trials be conducted.

Volume 129 (1896/97)

Dunn, Peter Livingstone  (Paper 2696)
The St Rollox Locomotive and Carriage Works of the Caledonian Railway. 286-308.

Aspinall, John Audley Frederick (Paper 3009)
The Horwich Locomotive Works of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 309-16.

Volume 130 (1897)

Thow, William (Paper 3016)
The security of some locomotive fire-boxes. 1-12. Disc.: 18-24.

Aspinall, John Audley Frederick (Paper 3052)
The friction of locomotive slide-valves. 13-17. Disc.: 18-24.
F.W. Webb (21-4)

Webb, F.W.
Permanent way. 178.
Engineering Conference, 25th May 1897, Railways: design of deep fishplates and fishplate chairs.

Aspinall, J.A.
Engineering Conference, 26th May 1897 Machinery and Transmission of Power. Petroleum as steam-engine fuel. (Abstract). 196
Advantages claimed were that it was easily turned on and off, and was smokeless and portable. With proper precautions fire-box plates were not injured.The theoretical evaporative values for different kinds of oil were compared with coal.

Volume 131 (1897/98) 

Callender, Hugh Longbourne and John Thomas Nicolson
On the law of condensation of steam, deduced from measurements of temperature-cycles of the walls and steam in the cylinder of a steam-engine. 147-206

Volume 132 (1897/98) 

Dalby, William Ernest (Paper 3030)
A new transmission dynamometer. 47-54, Disc.: 55-6.

Volume 133 (1897/98)

Thow, W.
The security of some locomotive fire boxes. 1-12. Discussion (see note below): 18-31; 31-45.  
The discussion and correspondence was considered with the Aspinall paper on the friction of slide valves and received the title: The friction of locomotive slide valves and the security of fire-boxes. Participants included both Aspinall and Webb and Sir D. Fox, C.S. Stromeyer, A. McDonnell, E. Worthington, W. Schonheyder, B. Blount B, A. Von Borries, P. Bright, D. Drummond, G. Du Bousquet, F. Grover, A. Mallet, J.F. Mcintosh, E. Polonceau, G.H. Sheffield, A. Theurer, J.D. Twinberrow

Marshall, William Prime
Evolution of the locomotive engine. 241-301.
Paper was awarded George Stephenson Medal (Marshall). Histoical survey: included continuous brakes and need for accuracy of adjustment in the brake-blocks. A steam brake has frequently been applied to the engine, giving the means of promptly applying the whole brake power of the engine by simply opening the cock of the steam-brake cylinder. This was at first found to act too suddenly, and has been modified by the application of a regulating valve that allows the brake to be applied gradually by a screw like an ordinary brake. The early engines had no shelter for the men except the fire-box. Some contributions to discussion by Webb, McIntosh and Dugald Drummond are listed as addenda
Webb, F.W.
Particulars of various parts of recent London and North Western locomotives. 302-05. Addendum.
McIntosh, J.F.
Particulars of various parts, and run, of a recent express passenger engine, built for the Caledonian Railway Company. 306-10.
Addendum. Groove is formed in the tyre, and a similar one in the rim of the wheel. A ring of U section is accurately fitted into these two grooves, and is held in position by laying over a lip formed on inside of tire. The coupling-rod is of I girder section. The coupling-rod cranks hare a throw of 10 inches as against 13 inches connecting-rod for crank. shortening The brake-blocks are suspended in front of the driving- and trailing-wheels.
Drummond, D.
Particulars of the most recent parts of the London and South Western Railway Company's engines. 311-15
Steam-chest valve. Release-valves with links passing through the spring axis, and screwed at the lower ends for adjustment. These were first introduced in 1875, and were coming into general use. For the steam-chest a displacement lubricator without sight feed, but with a regulating valve and index showing the number of drops passing per minute, is fixed inside the cab.

Volume 134 (1898)

Fowler, H.
Calcium carbide and acetylene. 1-33. Discussion: 24-65.
Paper awarded Telford Premium

Volume 136 (1899)

William George Kirkaldy.
The effects of wear upon steel rails, 141-73. Discussion: 177-231.

Volume 138 (1899)

Harry Erleigh Footner
The most expeditious method of relaying the railways of this country involving the least interuption of traffic, having regard to safety and economy. 380-2
Second Metropolitan Engineering Conference, 9 June 1899

Webb, F.W.
Compound locomotives. 406-11.
Second Metropolitan Engineering Conference, 7 June 1899. Notes Introducing Subjects for Discussion. Section III - Machinery.
For many years the weights and speeds of passenger trains had been continually on the increase with ehed inevitable result of a demand for more powerful and quicker running locomotives to haul them. In 1878 he converted one of the old engines into a compound on the Mallet system which he worked for about five years on the Ashby and Nuneaton branch. The resultsx were so satissfactory that he designed an entirely new mode of the compound principle which enabled him to dispense with coupling rods without losing the advantages of their use. He was also able bto increrase the size of the axle bearings and other wearing parts wwhilst retaining single frames. He used two high pressure pressures which were outside the frames and drove the back pair of wheels. The one low pressure cylinder was inside the frames and drove the front driving axle. The locomotive was built in 1881-82 and named Experiment. The high pressure cylinders were 11½in in diameter, and the low pressure on 26in: they shared a stroke of 24in. The driving wheels were 6ft 6in and Joy's valve gear was used. The results obtained were so satisfactory that 29 further engines were built, but with high pressure cylinders of 13in diameter. The total mileage for this class between April 1882 and the end of February 1899 was 15 million miles, or more than 33,000 miles per engine per annum. The coal consumption was slightly over 34 lbs per engine mile.
In 1884 the Dreadnought class was introduced for Euston to Carlisle traffic. These had two high pressure cylinders of 14in diameter and one low pressure cylinder of 30in diameter with a common stroke of 24in. The driving wheels were 6ft 3in diameter and the boiler pressure 175 psi. Joy's valve gear was used. Forty engines wsere in service with a total mileage to the end of February 1899 of 18.68 million miles, or over 37,000 miles per engine with an average coal consumption per engine of 39.4 lbs per mile.
To meet increasing speeds the Teutonic class was introduced in 1889. These were similar to the Dreadnought class, but with 7ft 1in driving wheels. The high pressure cylinders were actuated by Joy's valve gear, but the low pressure cylinder was actuated by a single loose eccentric and a rocking lever. The Jeannie Deans was shown at the Edinburgh Exhibition in 1890 and had since worked the 14.00 corridor dining car train from Euston to Crewe returning with the 19.32 corresponding up train. Until the end of February 1899 the locomotive had worked over 5 million miles with an average coal consumption of 37.9 lbs per mile.
In 1891 the Greater Britain class was introduced for the heavy and fast traffic between Euston and Carlisle, The high pressure cylinders were 15in in diameter, and the low pressure cylinder 30in with a common 24in stroke. Both pairs of the 7ft 1in driving wheels were placed in front of the firebox to obtain a more even distribution of the weight upon them. There were two high pressure cylinders of 15in diameter and one low pressure cylinder of 30in diameter with a common stroke of 24in. Once again a loose eccentric was used to actuate the low pressure cylinnder. The long boiler barrel of 18ft 6in was divided into sections with a combustion chamber in between. This was fitted with a steam blast device to clean the tubes. On 4 November 1891 Greater Britain hauled 25 empty coaches from Crewe to London at an average speed of 44½ mile/h. Nine further locomotives of this type were built including Queen Empress exhibted at the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893. By the end of February 1899 the class had accumulated 2.7 million miles: an average of 54,454 miles per locomotive and used an average of 38.7lbs of coal per mile.
TTo increase freight haulage capacity an eight coupled compound locomotive was introduced. All three cylinders drove the second coupled axle: the high pressure cylinders were outside the frames, but their valve chests and the low pressure cylinders were inside the frames. The high pressure crank pins were set at right angles to each other and thee low pressure cylinder was connected to a centre crank set at 135° to the high pressure crank pins. 81 of these locomotives were in service between Crewe and Leeds, Crewe and Carlisle, Liverpool and Carlisle and in South Wales. The average annual mileage was 28,331 and coal consumption 53.4lbs per mile
In 1894 the John Hick class was introduced for hauling heavy [passenger trains in the Northern Division. These were similar to the Greater Britain type except in having 6ft 3in driving wheels. Ten were built and averaged 48,868 miles per annum with a coal consumption of 44.8 lbs coal per mile.
The Black Prince class had two high pressure and two low pressure cylinders: the high pressure ones were 15in diameter and the low pressure 20½in diameter with a common 24in stroke. All drove onto one axle and employed two sets of Joy's valve gear with high pressure cylinders being actuated through levers. The boiler pressure was 200 psi and the rear wheels (behind the firebox) were coupled to the driving wheels. Black Prince entered service on 2 August 1897 and worked the 17.02 up dining saloon express non-stop to Willesden and returned on the 23.50 "Scotch" sleeper non-stop to Crewe.
On the 8 June 1899 a special train was run for the Institution's members from Euston (depart 09.50) non-stop to Crewe (arrive 13.10) hauled by Iron Duke, a four-cylinder compound with four couple wheels. The coupled wheels were 7ft 1in diameter. The high pressure cylinders were 15in diameter and the low pressure 20½ diameter with a common 24in. stroke. The total heating surface was 1379.6ft2 and the grate area 20.52. The boiler pressure was 200 psi.
William Dean and Aspinall contributed to the discussion.

Volume 142

Bidder, Frederick W.
The Great Central Railway extension: Northern Division. Proc. Instn Civ. Eng., 142 (4), 5-13 (Paper No. 3227)

Volume 143 (1901)

Hobson, G.A. and  Wragge, E.
The Metropolitan Terminus of the Great Central Railway. 84 –113, (Paper No. 3249),

Volume 144 (1901)

Cottrell, S.B.
Signalling on the Liverpool Overhead Railway. 16-22. Disc.: 23-40
Contributors to the discussion included: J. Mansergh, A.W. Szlumper, F.E. Robertson, A.M. Johnson, W.J. Griffiths, W.S. Boult, G.C. Allingham, R.E. Cooper, F.W. Webb, and Sir W. Preece.

Volume 145 (1901)

W.J. Weightman
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway. 1-19. Discussion 20-38
Horace Bell, consulatant to the railway showed photographs of it.

Volume 147 (1901/2)

Aspinall, John. (Paper No. 3280.)
Train resistance. 155-93. Correspondence: 260-77.
Webb contributed to the discussion mentioning the LNWR four-wheel dynamometer car: he noted the effects of wind. Correspondents: P.H. Dudley, F.A. Lart, R. Price Williams, T.H. Riches, E. Sauvage, S. Smith.

Volume 148 (1902)

Volume 149 (1902)

Mordey, W.M. and Jenkins, B.M.
Electric traction on railways. 40-86. Discussion: 87-170. Correspondence: 170-99.

Discussion participants included: C. Hawksley, R.E.B. Crompton, A. Siemens, P. Dawson, H.A. Mavor, P. Cardew, W.H. Massey, W.H. Molesworth, A. Lupton, C.E. Webber, J.S. Raworth, R. Hammond, A.B.W. Kennedy and F.W. Webb. Correspondents included C.E.L. Brown, A.B. Chatwood, P.W. D'alton, D. Drummond (who remarked that it was not a question as between steam and electricity - neither excluded the other), E. Huber, G. Kapp, O. Lasche, J.N. Shoolbred, E.C. Thrupp, and B.H. Thwaite

Marchbanks, J.
Note on the use of 'Serve' steel tubes in a high pressure locomotive boiler, and their efficiency as compared with that of plain iron tubes. 245-9.

Volume 150 (1902)

Webb, F.W.  (Paper No. 3346)
Locomotive firebox stays. Disc. 87-112.114-46.
John A.F. Aspinall (115-16) mentioned Hoy's experiment with circular firebox which eliminated stays, steel stays were appropriate for low speeds, but copper was essential for higher speeds; J.M. Dobson (116-21) stressed the advantages of Belpaire fireboxes, and arsenic leveles in copper; W.C. Unwin (121-2) commented on indentation tests; Woodford Pilkington (122) advocated aluminium copper stays; S.B. Tritton (122-3) noted rivetting problems; Sir Frederick Bramwell (123) cited the boiler explosion on HMS Thunderer and the need to test models to destruction; Druitt Halpin (123) noted the difficulty of this. Webb (124-5) replied to these observations: copper stays on an 0-6-0 achieved 261,000 miles whilst copper zinc stays on a similar locomotive achieved 285,000 miles. Arsenic levels had to be limited. Webb noted that having been in charge of  3,000 boilers on the LNWR with 2.5 million stays the "position was not exactly a bed of roses. Ramsbottom observed the importance of keeping iron stays tight.
In Correspondence T. Andrews referred to copper aluminium rod, and the enlargement of crystal grains if the temperature was below redness. He cited papers on the effect of temperature on the strength of railway axles in Min. Proc. Instn Civ. Engrs., Volumes: 87 page 340; 104 page 180 and 105 page 161. du Bousquet (126-8) noted the number of failures for copper manganese stays at 185 compared with 986 for copper. This was over 3.5 million miles. The copper manganese stays achieved double the mileage and were fifty times more reliable. Copper manganese should b used where breakage was most probable. D. Drummond (128-9) commented on experiments with bronze stay bolts. Careless workmanship had led to leaks. There was need for a tapered drift. Soft copper was the most suitable. Samuel W. Johnson (129-36) commented on the analysis of stays. Higher pressures led to the need for a greater thickness of steel and copper plate. Poor water caused problems and imurities in the copper led to grooves. W. Leighton Jordan (136). David Joy (136-7) noted that corrosion of firebox stays was caused by magnesium sulphate in the water. F.A. Lart (137-41) was critical of the limitations of the paper. W.P. Marshall (141) commented on overheating: the boiler was projected 170 ft in the Knottingley accident of 11 March 1901. F.H. Trevithick (141-4) commented upon the problems experiences on the Egyptian State Railways.
Webb in reply (144-6) to the Correspondence, stated that, refered to Andrews's remarks on the enlargement of crystalline structure of the copper-aluminium rolled rod (Figs, 25. and 26, Plate 5) when submitted to a temperature below redness for a short time, he had found that a similar result was obtained if the alloy were subjected to a temperature of 350°F. to 400°F, a longer period. The crystal grains of the copper-aluminium stay (Fig. 12, Plate 4) used in the temperature experiments, after it had been in use 4½ months, had increased considerably in size, especially towards the furnace end of the stay. The good results obtained by the use of copper-manganese stays for high-pressure steam boilers on the Northern Railway of France were certainly instructive, and worthy of the consideration of locomotive engineers. He understood, however, that the heads of the stays of this alloy did not wear so well as copper ones in the immediate vicinity of, the fire, but in the upper part of the box, away from the fire heat of the burning coals, they wore satisfactorily1.t In regard to Drummond's experience of the temperature inside the fire-box the Author had occasionally found the surface of the copper pIates in the vicinity of the brick arch, melted by the intense heat of' furnace, and the copper run down in the form of tears, when coal high in fixed carbon was used, indicating a. temperature of fully 2,000°F. on the surface of the plates: and the actual temperature of the flame would be considerably higher. He had to thank Mr. Johnson for his valuable contribution to the discussion. The sample of pure copper tested by that gentleman was very similar in composition to the special copper rod tested by him, and he though Johnson also was giving it a practical trial. He anticipated that the result would be perfectly satisfactory. The copper-nickel alloy had not come under his notice, but the results of. Johnson's mechanical tests of this material were very good and it should, he thought, answer satisfactorily, provided a good joint and head were made. Although grooves undoubtedly added flexibility to a stay when it was clean, there existed a doubt in his mind as to whether the filling of the grooves with hard boiler scale would not considerably, if not entirely, reduce the flexibility gained by grooving. Consequently he had never considered grooved stays worthy of a trial. The hardness of the copper alloys referred to by Mr. Jordan necessitated heavy blows being struck- to form the head, consequently the threads were damaged or the holes distorted, as clearly shown in the riveting-tests. The analysis of the mild-steel stay and copper plate shown in Fig. 30, Plate 5, indicated that that stay was of the same composition as that given on p. 111. The copper plate had not been analyzed completely, but had been tested only for the hardening ingredient, arsenic, of which it contained 0.55 per cent. In fact, pieces from the same copper plate had been used in all the preliminary riveting-tests (Figs. 27-30). He light add that in all the riveting-tests (Figs. 27-37) hand-riveting had been resorted to, so that if there were any advantage in la forming a joint by this method over that of pneumatic riveting the specimens illustrated should show it. Mr. Marshall's  suggestion for delivering the feed-water into the water-space of the fire·box had been tried years ago by the Author's predecessor, John Ramsbottom, on the locomotive Lady of the Lake2 which had been shown at the Exhibition of 1862. It had been found, however, that the introduction of the water,  even warmed by the injector, into this part of the boiler caused the copper fire-box plates and stays to expand very unequally, givlng rise to considerable trouble, and, in consequence, the pactice had had to be abandoned. The correct place for delivery tI tho feed-water was certainly the barrel of' the boiler, whereby water was heated before reaching the intensely hot fire-box, part of the mineral constituents were deposited where they would do least harm. The freedom from leaky stays and wasted stay.heads in the locomotive fire-boxes on the Egyptian State Railways mentioned by Mr. Trevithick, was undoubtedly due to engines not having been heavily worked (although their mileage was fairly good) and at the same time to good boiler-water universally available--a condition highly favourable to the life of steel boilers and fire-boxes. The freedom from breakage of mild-steel fire-box stays was well known, but, as already mentioned, difficulty with them was the maintenance of a satisfactory joint when used in copper fire-boxes, Of course this defect would be expected when they were used in steel fire-boxes, especiaIIy when good boiler-water was available. Boilers constructed entireIy of one metal (mild steel) had, as at present designed, a much shorter life, and at the same time consumed a decidedly larger quantity of fuel as compared with boilers fitted with coper tubes and copper fire-boxes, and therefore could not, in his opinion be considered altogether satisfactory.
1 Le Blant, "Lea Entretoises de Foyers de Locomotives." Congres International des Methodes d'Essai des Materiaux de Construction, Paris, 1900.
2. Z. Colburn, Locomotive Engineering and the Mechanism of Railways. London., 1876.

The relative advantage of different kinds of power for tramways, light railways and motor-car traffic, both heavy and light. Thomas Parker. 411-13.
Quotes cost of electric traction on Liverpool Overhead Railway.

(Paper No. 2764.)

1902/03 Volume 151

Hopkinson, Charles, Bertram Hopkinson and Ernest Talbot (Paper No. 3364)
Electric tramways. 39-84. Disc.: 85-140.
In Leeds, but also mentions Central London Railway.

1902/03 (Volume 154)

Cowan, Percy John  (Paper 3398)
American locomotive practice. 38-79. Discussion: 80-134.
According to Rutherford Churchward contributed to the discussion (on piston valves)

1903/04 Volume 155

Webb, F.W. (Paper 3423)
Copper locomotive boiler tubes. 401-13.
A metallurgical paper: the first tube failed when the engine had completed 34,067 miles, and the second tube of the same make at the end of 40,612 miles. Had worn thin from the inside.

1903/04 Volume 156

Millar, Alexander (Paper No. 3428)
The electrical reconstruction of the South London tramways on the conduit system. 143-79. Discussion: 180-214.

Hardington, Arthur Bartlett (Student paper No. 497)
Notes on the construction and setting-out of tunnels in the London clay. 376-91.
Of what is now the Bakerloo Line

1903/04 Volume 157

Twinberow, James Denis  (Paper 3412)
The construction of railway wagons in steel. 92-107.

Shackleford, Arthur Lewis (Paper 3454) 
The construction of iron and steel railway wagons. 108-25.

Jepson, James Thomas (Paper 3437) 
Iron and steel railway-wagons of high capacity. 126-49. Joint discussion 150-211.

Volume 158 (1904)

Graham, J, (Paper No. 3442)
Axle-loads on railway bridges. 323-54.

Aspinall, John. (Paper No.3468)
Experiments on tractive resistance of loaded wagons. 369-73.

Volume 171 (1908)

Carus Wilson, C.A.
The predetermination of train-resistance. 227-65. Disc.: 266-82.
Application of roller bearings to railway bogie freight rolling stock, and its effect upon friction (rolling resistance). Discussed by Sir W. Matthews, R.E.B. Crompton, F. Shelford, F.E. Robertson, F. Hudleston, H. Fowler, B.M. Jenkin, J.S. Warner, H.K. Bamber and C.H. Gadsby.

Volume: 175 (1909)

Matheson, D.A.
Glasgow Central Station extension. 30-68. Disc.: 69-137. Correspondence: 138-84.
Included Westinghouse power signalling, and the cost of its installation.. J.C. Inglis, Sir J.W. Barry, A. Ross, J.W. Jacomb, B. Hall Blyth, C.L. Morgan C L, W.W. Grierson, W.B. Worthington, G.A. Hobson, Francis Fox, H. Ward, Sir A. Binnie, R. Elliott Cooper, and A.T. Walmisley contributed to the discussion and A. Ames, J. Bell, T. Binnie, Guy Calthrop, W.J. Cudworth, E. De Rudder, D. Drummond, G.B. Francis, C.P. Hogg, W.C. Kerr, W. Melville, J. Miller, W.H. Mills, W.B. Parsons, H.H.A. Rambusch and J. Sayers were correspondents.

Volume 179 (1910)

Shaw, J.
The equipment and working-results of the Mersey Railway under steam and under electric traction. 19-46.
The online entry offering the paper for sale at £18 has plate at Bach [sic] of volume

Dalziel, J. and Sayers, J.
The single-phase electrification of the Heysham, Morecambe and Lancaster branch of the Midland Railway. 47-98.

Harrison, C.A.
The effect of electrical operation on the permanent-way maintenance of railways as illustrated on the Tynemouth Branches of the North Eastern Railway. 99-112.

Electric traction on railways. Discussion: 113-94. Correspondence 194-29.

Volume 180 (1909/10)

Bach, F.W. (Paper No. 3787.)
Design of rolling stock for smooth-rail working on heavy gradients. 74-87 . Disc.: 88-115. Correspondence: 115-32.
Contributors to the discussion: F.J. Waring, S.B. Tritton, G. Hughes, D. Simson, C.O. Burge, H.K. Bamber, J.D. Twinberrow, D. Halpin and R. Burnett. Correspondents included R. Abt, J. Harding, W.F. Pettigrew, J.G. Robinson, A. Schucan, R. Stirling, C. Watson and J. Weber.

Volume 186 (1910/11)

Dawson, P. (Paper No. 3929)
The electrification of a portion of the suburban system of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 1-57. Disc.: 58-123. Correspondence: 124-72.
Contributors to the discussion: A. Siemens, C.L. Morgan, J.A.F. Aspinall, A. Lupton, C.F. Jenkin, G. Hughes, W. Forbes, F. Eichberg, J. Dalziel, H.E. Wimperis, H.W. Firth, R.E. Crompton, B.M. Jenkin, G. Rosenbusch. Correspondence from: A.H. Babcock, F.W. Carter, W.G. Dalby, H.M. Hobart, G.L. Hoest, R.H. Houghton, E. Huber, F. Lydall, W.S. Murray, P. Pforr, J. Sayers, A. Schmit, C.F. Scott and J.D. Twinberrow.

Volume 191 (1913)

Cooke, C.J.B.
Mechanical handling of coal for British locomotives. 178-90. Discussion: 191-206.
Participants in discussion included R. Elliott Cooper, G.J. Churchward (whom one suspects was antagonistic to the concept), D.E. Marsh, T.H. Dailey, H.N. Gresley, E. Hull, J.A.F. Aspinall, H. Fowler, R.E. Crompton, A. Musker, J.H. Rosenthal, M. Fitzmaurice, and A.D. Jones.

Volume 196 (1913/14)

Fowler, Henry (Paper 4084)
Superheating steam in locomotives. 77-107. Disc.: 108-220.
C.J. Bowen Cooke (109-15) quoted LNWR experience with Claughton Ralph Brocklebank; W.A. Lelean (115-21) gave Indian experience; A.J. Hill (122-4) noted experience gained on the GER; Aspinall (128-9) gave experience on the L&YR noting that smokebox type "did not give anything like sufficient superheat" — see also letter from F.G. Brewer in Loco. Mag., 1927, 33, 33.; Churchward (129-32) objected to the inference that only a low degree of superheating was employed at Swindon; Gresley (139-41) refuted Churchward quite strongly; Vincent L. Raven (133-6) noted that the NER had abandoned dampers for superheaters and had suffered no problems in piston packing. J.W. Smith spoke on behalf of J.G. Robinson (137-9); F.H. Trevithick (147); A.D. Jones (156-7) noted the excellent performance which had been obtained on the road.

Volume 207 (1919)

Aspinall, Sir John Audley Frederick
Presidential Address 1918-1919 (5 November 1918). 2-27
Work on all the larger railways to reduce costs by the standardization of parts, has not been appreciated at its true value: rolling stock, port facilities; wagons; coal tipping; ownership; permanent way; sleepers; electrification; and electric traction.

Volume 208 (1919)

Gobey, F.E.  
All-metal passenger cars for British railways. 230-71.

Volume 210 (1920)

Robertson, J.K.
Richborough Military Transportation Depot. 156-207.

Volume 213 (1922)

Rendell, A.W.
Control of trains in relation to increased weight and speed combind with reduced headway. 208-22.

Fowler, H. and Gresley, H.N. (Paper No. 4404)
Trials in connection with the application of the vacuum-brake for long freight-trains. 223-48. Disc.: 249-82. Correspondence: 283-93.
Discussion participants: J. Aspinall, J.W. Cross, S. Tritton, W.E. Dalby, V.L. Raven, R.W. Reid, W.E. Hardy, R.E.L. Maunsell, H.W.H. Richards, A.J. Hill and F.J. Hookham. Correspondents: T. Barty, C.S. Churchill, A.C. Clear, C.B. Collett, and J.D. Twinberrow.

Volume 214 (1922)

Willox, W. (Paper No. 4406)
All-electric automatic power signalling on the Metropolitan Railway. 55-76.

Aspinall, J.A.F.
The James Forrest Lecture, 1922. Some post-war problems of transport. 235-71.
Larger wagons would eliminate a large proportion of shunting expenditure. The constant sorting and arrangement of the tradcrs' wagons, which have daily to be sent back to destinations ordered by thc 6,450 separate people who own them, is like the perpetual piecing together of a jigsaw puzzle with all the disadvantages of wasted work.

Volume 228 (1929)

Gribble, C. (Paper No. 4701).
Impact in railway-bridges, with particular reference to the report of the Bridge Stress Committee. 46-79. Dic. 80-127. Correspondence: 127-53.

Volume 229 (1930)

Grierson, W.W.
Presidential Address. 1-28.

Volume 234 (1932)

White, B.G.
The electrification of the Madras suburban section of the South Indian Railway. (includes appendices and plates at back of volume). 225-59. Discussion: 260-75. Communication: 275-6.

Inglis, C.E. (Paper No. 4870).
Impact in railway-bridges. 358-403. Disc.: 404-44. 22 diagrs., 13 tables.

Volume: 236 (1933)

Unwin, C.B.
Electric trains for services with frequent stops. 1-22.

Richards, H.W.H. (Paper No. 4908)
Primary considerations relating to steam, electric, and diesel-electric traction. 23-81.

Graff Baker, W.S.
Some features of design in electric rolling stock for intense service. 82-92.

Discussion on railway electrification. 93-150. Correspondence: 150-65.
The three papers were discussed together, and some interesting people participated: Sir John Aspinall, Sir Ralph Wedgwood, B.G. White, J.S. Tritton, T.H. Webster, A.R. Cooper, R.T. Smith, C.C. Garrard, J.M. Kennedy, Sir B. Henderson and Sir Philip Dawson. Correspondents: H.D. Bush, E.H. Croft, C.E. Fairburn, F.A. Harper, F.M. Jackson, R.I. Minchom, E. O'Brien, C.P. Sandberg, plus the original contributors.

Volume 237 (1934)

Foxlee, R.W. and Greet, E.H. (Paper No. 4896).
Hammer-blow impact on the main girders of railway bridges. 239-313. Disc.: 356-418 + 5 folding plates. 24 diagrs., 5 tables.
(Includes plates and appendices).

1941/2 (Volume 17/18?)

Colam, H.N. and  Watson, J.D. (Paper No. 5243)
Hammer-blow in locomotives: can it be abolished altogether? 197-220. Disc.: 359-82: 18, 429-33; 464-97.
Abridged:version appeared in J. Instn Loco. Engrs..