Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 41 (1935)
key file to all volumes

Number 509 (15 January 1935)

Rolling stock for India. 1-2.
Usual tale of woe: how thankless Indian organisations order locomotives and rolling stock from non-British sources who are subsidized by their unscrupulous governments to unfairly capture markets in the British Empire

Chinese Railway officials' visit to the Vulcan Foundry. 2.  illustration
Photograph shows Yu Fei Peng Vice Minister of Communications, H. Chen, Mechanical Engineer to the Ministry of Railways and F.S. Whalley, Managing Director of Vulcan Foundry.

Mikado freight locomotives, South Indian Railway. 3-4. illustration
Class XD built at The Vulan Founddry: three locomitive supplied to inspection of Robert White & Partners

2-10-2 passenger tank locomotive, Polish State Rys. 4-6. 3 illustrations
Cegielski Locomotive Works of Posen. Fitted with Krauss trucks

London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 6
Tenses not changed: The 1935 rolling stock programme includes the provision of 287 locomotives and 175 locomotive boilers, 607 passenger coaches, 20 sleeping cars, 10,050 freight wagons, and two steamships. In addition, the company will renew 600 miles of permanent way, and over £1,500,000 will be spent on other miscellaneous works.
Of the 287 new locomotives, ten will be similar in type to the four-cylinder 4-6-2 express engine Princess Royal. The scheme also provides for an additional thirty three-cylinder 4-6-0 express locomotives, together with 155 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines and twenty Diesel-electric shunting locomotives. All the new locomotives will be of increased unit power compared with the units to be displaced. Since the grouping of the railways twelve years ago the number of different types of locornomotives on the L.M.S.R. has been reduced from 393 to 188, while the number superheated has been increased by 2,120, or nearly trebled.
One and a quarter million pounds is to be spent on providing over 600 passenger coaches of the latest design. Approximately one-third of the new freight wagons will be fitted with the automatic brake, in order that they may be used on express goods services and thus ensure rapid deliveries of merchandise.
The expenditure on permanent way renewal will amount to £2,000,000, and will include the renewal of 600 miles of track. This, together with smaller works requires no less than 90,000 tons of steel rails and 1,300,000 new sleepers, together with other material for use in connection with re-sleepering operations, e.g. ,1,210 tons of fish plates, 57,000 tons of chairs, 10,000,000 ferrules, and 6,000,000 wooden keys.
During the year, the L.M.S. fleet of steamships will be augmented by two new vessels, namely, the Marchioness of Lome and the Duke of York. The former will be placed in service on the Clyde and the latter on the company's Heysham-Belfast route. Provision has also been made for the modernisation of docks; at Fleetwood harbour an expenditure of over £85,000 will be incurred on an improvement scheme. Electric power stations, hotels and workshops are likewise embraced by the programme of development; and bridge reconstruction will include the rebuilding of the Burleigh Viaduct on the Midland line between Derby and Ambergate. A contract for a new station at Elm Park, between Dagenham and Hornchurch, on the Tilbury section, has been placed with a London firm.
Western Section The last of the present series of improved 3-cylinder Baby Scot type locos., No. 5654 has been completed at Crewe and will be followed by a series of 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, the first of which will shortly be put in hand. These have been allotted the Nos. 5000-19 inclusive. The fifty similar engines ordered from the Vulcan Foundry in connection with the 1934 building programme have now all been delivered and are allocated as follows:-Nos. 5020-9 Northern Division; I os. 5030-1 Midland Division; Nos. 5032-52 Western Division ; Nos. 5053-8 Midland Division ; No. 5059 Western Division; and Nos. 5060-9 Central Division. The latest Baby Scot ex N.B. Loco. Co. is No. 5592. A large number of Claughtons and Princes were withdrawn during 1934, and of the former only about six now remain, apart from those fitted with large boilers, which are to continue in service. The last of the Experiments is also due in for scrapping. Four 0-8-2 shunters of the L.N.W. design have recently been withdrawn, Nos. 7882, 7889, 7893 and 7895. In connection with the scrapping of the last of the 6 ft. 6 in. Jumbos, No. 25001 Snowdon, it is interesting to note that there are still two of the 6 ft. type in use as Engineer's engines, viz., Engineer Watford and Engineer Lancaster. 4-4-0 superheated Precursors Nos. 5187-8 have been re-numbered 25187-8 respectively.
Midland Section.-The series of three-cylinder Baby Scots Nos. 5655-64 were all completed at Derby by Dec. 31, but are not allocated as yet. Recent scrappings at Derby include two M.R. type 2-4-0's, viz., Nos. 211 and 213, both of which had been attached to the Western Division. New three-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tank engines Nos. 2505-36 are intended for the Tilbury section.

Harland & Wolfe diesel locomotive for L.M. & S. Railway. 7. illustration
Vulcan Sinclair hydraulic coupling transmissionn

Railway Club, 7
Kenneth Brown to give Presidential Address on The Eastern Counties Railway on 22 February.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Centre of gravity and weight distribution. 8-9. diagram.

L.N.E.R. 9
Owing to the heavy reduction in mineral traffic passing through Shildon marshalling yard, near Bishop Auckland, L.N.E.R., since WW1, it had been decided to close the yard as from January 7. The overhead electric method of traction at 1,500 volts d.c. on the 16 mile section between Shildon and Newport yards, on Tees-side, had been discontinued, and the traffic worked more advantageously from the collieries to the port of shipment by steam locomotives. The volume of traffic is barely one-seventh of that for 1913, and electric working, which has been in operation since 1916, is unremunerative.

New York Central Lines. 9
One of the standard 4-6-4 express locomotives had been covered with a stream-lined cowling, developed after a series of tests with models, with the object of determining the effect of reduced head-end resistance on locomotive capacity at high speeds. The engine had been named the Commodore Vanderbilt. Over the boiler and front end of the locomotive the cowling is supported on a frame of light construction attached to the boiler. The cowling is cut away over the coupled wheels to give access. to the running gear, and a door gives access to the srnokebox,

Narrow Gauge Locomotive for Brazil. 10. illustration
For service on a plantation railway in Brazil on the 66 cm gauge, Hudswell, Clarke &Co. Ltd., of Leeds, shipped to the order of T. Saville Whittle (Export) Ltd. of Manchester, the 2-8-2 type tender locomotive with bogie tender. It had coupled wheels 2 ft. 10 in. diameter and leading and trailing Bissel bogie wheels 2 ft. dia. The cylinders are 13½ in. diameter by 18 in. stroke with Walschaerts valve gear. The tender tank carries 1,200 gallons of water and has a fuel space of 270 cubic feet. The outside framing of the engine was arranged for conversion to suit the metre gauge if necessary.

L.N.E.R. engine name competition. 10
Boy Scouts were asked to suggest names for the new 2-8-2 engines which the L.N.E.R. intend building for their Scottish lines. Over two thousand entries were received and although the railway company does not bind itself to use the names submitted, there is a probability some may be finally chosen for the new engines. The prize-winners are 10 be given a free trip to the Doncaster Works, as well as a guinea pocket money. They are as follows: H. R. Watson, who suggested the name Earl Marischal which has been chosen for engine No. 2002; J. N. Wheatley, Gordon of Fochabers ; J, M. Laing, Maid of Glamis; R. Edminson, Mons Meg ; and D. E. Townley, Thane of Fife.

Commonwealth Railways of Australia. 10
The longest locomotive runs in Australia were on the Trans-Australian Rly. The 1,051 miles between Port Augusta and Kalgoorlie were divided into two runs, namely P,ort Augusta to Cook, 513 miles, and Cook to Kalgoorlie, 538 miles.

Lambton, Hetton & Joicey Collieries, Ltd. 10
S, Tulip, chief engineer, retired at the end of 1934, after 38 years of unbroken service. He was succeeded by his son, Winston L. Tulip, who has acted as assistant engineer since 1919. Mr. Tulip, Sen., will continue his connection with the company in a consultative capacity.

Early compounds of the P.L.M. Railway.  10-13. diagram (side elevation)
The most striking technical advance in locomotive design evident at the Paris Exhibition of 1889 was the extensive employment of compound expansion. This principle, first made a practical success by Anatole Mallet in 1876, was now found in general application, and many engineers (de Glehn in France, von Borries in Germany, Borodine in Russia, Webb and Worsdell in England, and Sandeford  [sic: Sandiford] in India are outstanding names. in this connection) had brought their ideas to fruition by this date. For the most part these compounds were of the two or three cylinder type, and were chiefly designed to promote thermal economy, for the possibility of simultaneously improving the mechanical working of the locomotive by using four cylinders driving two axles appears to have occurred only to de Glehn with his four-cylinder engine—the famous No. 701 of the C. de f. du Nord which was put into service in 1886. This machine however, remarkable as it was, did not quite realise the full potentialities of the four-cylinder system as the wheels remained uncoupled; and it was thus left to A. Henry, of the P.L.M., to construct in 1888 the first four-cylinder divided and balanced compound locomotives.
These engines, an express passenger and an eight-coupled freight locomotive, were shown at the Exhibition of the following year, and apart from compounding, included other progressive characteristics, the chief of which was the working pressure, then regarded as enormous, of 15 kgs/lcm2 . At a time when pressures were normally about 160 lb. and anything in excess of 180 lb. was almost unknown, this great increase might well have occasioned. Further part see page 81. See also letter from W.T. Hoecker on page 96

[Great Southern Rlys]. 14
Closures from 31 December 1934: Limerick (Patrickswell) & Charleville line and Westport & Achill line with exception of one weekly freight train,

Double blast pipe to Southern Ry. locomotive. 14.  illustration
Lord Nelson No. 862 Lord Collingwood fitted with KC (Kylchap) double chimney

Two Russian air brakes. 14-17. 4 diagrams
Kasantzeff two pipe system.

L.M.S.R. appointments. 17
Chief Operating Manager's Department: A.W.F. Rogerson District Locomotive Superintendent Hasland to similar position at Cricklewood: F.W. Slade District Locomotive Superintendent Rugby to similar position at Toton: R.T. Clews, District Locomotive Superintenden at Toton to similar position at Rugby: J.J.P. Sheridan, District Locomotive Superintendent at  Low Moor to similar position at Camden: G.H. Nelson, District Locomotive Superintenden at Patricroft to similar position at Accrington: J. Keyden, District Locomotive Superintendent at Polmadie to be Assistant to Divisional Superintendent of Motive Power in the Operating Manager's Office in Glasgow: D. Dobbie, Assistant Works Superintendent Glasgow St. Rollox to be District Locomotive Superintendent at Polmadie.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 18-22. 3 diagrams
Middelberg system of compounding introduced in 1888: two express engines Van der Neer and Uittenbogaerdt; two passenger engines Io an Walhalla and two goods engines Bliksem and Donder and were tested in service. Fuel economies of 17% were attained, but coupling rod faiures occorred on the low oressure side..

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: Combustion and boilers. 23-4. 3 diagrams
Continued from Volume 40 page 384. Firebox burning both coke and coal with combustion chambers designed to produce coke in situ.

Southern Ry. 24.
Extension of electric traction to Sevenoaks from Orpington and St. Mary Cray on Sunday 6 January: 23 route miles. Eleven 3-car and four 2-car built for these services.

Bogie for Michelin rail-car. 24-5. illustration
Eight pneumatic tyres required to increase the limited contact area available.

Diesel-engined rail car, Great Northern Rly. (Ireland). 25
In addition to the two Diesel railcars already in service a further one had been constructed by the G.N.R. (1.) at their Dundalk Works and was in service on the Enniskillen- Bundoran section of the company's system. The railcar was of the articulated type. The power bogie, supplied complete with driver's cab by Walker Bros., Wigan, fitted with the Gardner 6 L.W. type

Great Western Railway. 25
The programme of renewals and additions of rolling stock for 1935 included the building of two new ten-unit kitchen-car corridor trains for big parties, firms' outings, guaranteed excursions and tourist traffic, and ten Castle class express engines, 56 of which were already in service. Details of the programme are:
Locomotives.--Ten Castle class engines, 15 Hall class engines, 10 standard goods engines, and 60 tank engines.
Passenger Stock.--Sixteen first and third class non-corridor coaches, 48 third class non-corridor coaches, 26 third class non-corridor coaches with brake van, 20 first and third class corridor coaches with brake van, 55 third class corridor coaches, 13 third class corridor coaches with brake van, 3 third class sleeping coaches, 8 centre vestibule third class coaches, 4 centre vestibule third class coaches with brake van, 4 twin dining car units, 2 kitchen cars, 2 third class saloons, and 10 passenger brake vans. Total, 211.
Wagons.1,886 open 12-ton non-vacuum-fitted wagons, 100 open 12-ton vacuum-fitted wagons, 100 special wagons vacuum-firted fur container traffic, 200 covered 12-ton vacuum-fitted wagons, 100 convertible 12-ton vacuum-fitted wagons which can be used for motor traflic or as covered goods vans, 30 20-ton goods guards brake vans, 24 30-ton rail and timber wagons, 46 wagons for conveying motor car bodies. Total, 2,486.
Track.-390 miles of track renewals will be carried out, the permanent way materials required including the following items:--32,500 tons of steel rails, 17,000 tons of chairs, 4,300 tons of bolts, 950 tons of fish-plates, 5,000 loads of crossing timbers, 600,000 sleepers, 185,000 cubic yards of ballast, 2,500,000 wooden keys.
Stations and Works.--Two large reconstruction schemes will be completed during the year, namely, Bristol (Temple Meads) and Swansea (High Street) Stations. In addition, the station at Leamington Spa is to be entirely remodelled, and there will be extensive siding improvements at -Old Oak Common as well as the construction of a number of new halts in various parts of the system.

The "Goodall" Patent articulated draw-bar and coupling. 26-7. 2 diagrams
Mainly couplings between locomotives and tenders

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 27
At the meeting held on Jan. 3, G.L Murray read a paper on A system of limit gauging controlled by colours, with special reference to valve gear maintenance. After dealing with the development of limit gauging for the production of parts which have to be interchangeable, the author proceeded to explain his system of identifying and using such gauges by colour methods, particularly in countries where European letters and figures have no significance in workshops employing natives. He described at length the system in use in the shops of the Sudan Govt. Railways for analysing and investigating the condition of the valve gear on the locomo- tives in service. The routine for valve gear repairs and the manner in which the control of the gauges functioned was next described. After the valve gear details are laid out on a bench, an inspector using a coloured step gauge ascertains the sizes in terms of colour to which the various holes should be finished. As the correct colour size of each hole is ascertained a disc of the corresponding colour is attached la. each valve member adjacent to the hole, by means of a wire, which is lead sealed by the inspector. For a running hole a circular disc is used, and for a fixing hole an oval disc, and these shapes match the recesses in the ends of the plug gauges. When grinding any particular hole the operator uses the coloured plug gauge which corresponds with the coloured disc attached to the hole concerned. As the various members are completed they are returned to the bench with the coloured discs intact. When the holes and pins are passed for size a record for reference is made on the Motion Sheet, and last of all, the lead seal attaching the colour disc to the hole is broken and the disc handed back to the gaug·e room for future use. The system has been extended to other railway details, and has been applied to other fields of industry.

Major E. W. Slaughter. 27
M. I.Mech. E., late deputy chief mechanical engineer of the Egyptian State Railways, has been appointed deputy locomotive anci carriage superintendent, H.E.H. the Nizam's State Railways, India.

Bengal-Nagpur Railway. Roller bearings applied to locomotive leading bogie. 28. 3 illustrations
The bogie was built at the works of the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., Glasgow, and used on a 4-6-0 M class locomotive. !he accompanying illustrations show the complete bogie, the wheel set, and the axle with bearings before the wheels were pressed on. The bogie is standard except for the increased width between the horn plates. The box is of the sliding type fitted with an SKF self-aligning roller beanng designed to deal with radial and axial loads. The axle differs from standard in that, as the bearings and labyrinth rings are pressed on to the journal the wheel seat has, of necessity, to be slightly smaller than the . journal. The axle box is in two parts, and is of cast steel.

Great Western Ry. 28
New engines completed at Swindon were Nos. 5198-9, 2-6-2 tanks, and Nos. 6410-16 and 9720-1, 0-6-0 tanks, while the latest conversions of 2-8-0 tanks to 2-8-2 type, and re-numbered were: Nos. 5284 to 7209, 5285 to 7210, 5286 to 7211, and 5290 to 7215. During Novernber the following engines were condemned :-0-6-2 tanks Nos. 191 (Alex. Dock No. 30), 229 (Barry 29), 260 (B.R. No. 78), 486 (T.V.R. No. 107) ; 2-4-0 tanks, Nos. 457, 971, 1410, 1454; 0-4-2 tanks, Nos. 828, 1154, 1426 (Alex. Dock 14), 1444, 1472; 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 870, 1134, 1169, 1180, 1268, 1547, 1630, 1980, 1998, 717 (B.R. 71), 725 (B.R. 12,) ; 2-4-2 tanks, Nos. 3604, 3610, 3618, 3628; 2-6-2 tank, No. 3916; 0-6-0 tender engines, 2310, 2311, 2316, 2317, 2336, 2341. 2358 and 2373; 2-6-0 tender engines, 2615, 2616, 26:'3, 2658, 2671; 2-4-0 tender enginc, No.. 3211; 4-4-0 tender engine., Nos. 3304 River Tamar, 3314 Mersey, 3348, 3349 Lyonesse, 3351, 3357 Trelgwny. 3360, 3385, 3394 Albany, 3397 Toronto; 4-6-0 tender engines No. 4005 Polar Star, 4010 Western Star, and 4029 Spanish Monarch.

On page 390 of our last issue an illustration was shown of a locomotive connecting rod of high tensile Tormol steel. This particular example was made for a locomotive for the North Western Rv. of India and not for tlre L.M.S.R. as stated. Similar rods were supplied to the G.N Ry. (Ireland).

An old L.B. & S.C.R. tank locomotive. 29.  illustration
Craven 2-4-0T Bishopstone: Sharp Stewart WN 2242/1872; originally built for a railway in Jersey: photographed in Newhaven Harbour

Metro-Vickers 200 amp welding unit. 29-30. illustration

A.C. Croskell. A large welding machine. 30. illustration

Number 510 (15 February 1935)

Long runs. 31-2.
For locomotives: improved grates, mechanicakl stokers, mechanical lubricators 300 mile runs

2-8-2 type loco., No. 2002, "Earl Marischal", L. & N.E.R. 32. diagram (side elevation)

Southern Railway. 32
To improve the facilities for working trains into Southern Railway in and out of Waterloo it has been decided to put in hand a big scheme to eliminate the complicated system of cross-over roads between Vauxhall and Waterloo. A fly-over will be construoted near Durnsford Road, Wimbledon, to enable a transposition of lines to be made' between Wimbledon and Waterloo. The new arrangement will result in the following: The down local line will remain as at present; the present down through line will become the up local line; the up through line will become the down through line and the up local line will become the up through line. The effect will be that trains from Kingston, Hampton Court, etc., will be taken over from the present up line side to the present down side, giving direct access to their respective platforms at Waterloo, and thus avoiding the present cross-overs at present used and releasing the main track for the main line and other trains. The track and cross-overs between Waterloo and Vauxhall will require revision, and also the platforms at Vauxhall station. The scheme also includes the installation of three-aspect colour light signalling between Waterloo and Hampton Court Junction. This will involve the replacement of the present manual signal box at Waterloo by an electrically worked box similar to those at London Bridge, Cannon Street, and Charing Cross stations. It is anticipated that when these alterations are completed it will be possible to run trains at intervals of from 2 to 2½ minutes, as compared with the present margin on this section of 4 minutes. At present more than 1200 trains a day pass in and out of Waterloo Station.

4-8-2 tank locomotive, Jamaica Govt. Railways. 33-4. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Nasmyth Wilson & Co. Ltd. locomotive capable of working on 1 in b30 gradients with sharp curves built under supervision of Crown Agents for the Colonies to the specification of P.M. McKay, locomotive carriage & wagon superintendent

L.M.S.R. locomotive depots. 34
New scheme of numbering for motive power depots is being brought into operation. Hitherto, separate series of shed numbers to identify the depot to which the engine is allocated had been employed on the Western, Midland and Central divisions respectively, while there has been no special system in use on the Northern division. The latter is now included in the new series of shed numbers, which have been allotted to all depots throughout the system, without regard to the preservation of existing numbers in the cases of the Western, Midland and Central divisions. A number, from 1 to 29 mclusive is retained for the main, or parent, depot of each district, the individual depots employing that number in conjunction with an identifying letter.

Great Western Railway. 34
New engines completed at Swindon during December were 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 6417-19, and 9722-9. Two more 2-8-0 tank engines had been converted to 2-8-2 type, and re-numbered, viz., 5291 altered to 7216, and 5293 altered to 7218.

4-6-4 tank locomotive 3 ft, 6 in. gauge, New Kleinfontein Co. Ltd.  34-5. illustration
R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. of Newcastle-upon-Tyne supplied through Sturrock (South Africa) Ltd. the side tank locomotive illustrated to The New Kleinfontein Co. Ltd., for hauling hopper ore wagons on heavy grades. The locomotive is 'of the 4-6-4 type to enable it to operate equally well when running in either direction, and is to suit the standard South African gauge of 3 ft. 6 in. ; it was fitted with S.A.R. centre couplers and vacuum brake connections.

4-6-0 locomotives, Junagad State Railways, India. 35-6. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Three metre gauge locomtives supplied by W.G. Bagnall of Stafford to inspection of Robert White & Partners

W. G. Bagnall Ltd. 36
An order had been placed with Bagnall Ltd. for two 2-8-2 type metre gauge locomotives with bogie tenders for The Parana Plantations Ltd. (Sao Paulo-Parana Rly.) Brazil. These were powerful engines with cylinders 18½ in. dia. by 24 in. stroke and coupled wheels 3 ft. 10½ in. dia. and a working pressure of 180 lb. per sq. in. The tractive force at 85% of the boiler pressure is estimated at 27.027 lb. Weight of engine and tender in working order 93.91 tons, of which 45.3 tons was available for adhesion.

Assam Railways. 36
Further order secured by Bagnall for a diesel locomotive of 70/77 H.P. for the Assam Railways, a repeat order of one supplied in 1934 but of slightly larger power.

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 36
Placed an order with Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. Ltd. for a 4-8-0 tender locomotive for the Jamaica Government Railways suitable for mixed traffic on the main lines.

L.M. & S. Ry. 36
On Sunday, 13 January 1935, a trial run was made with a diesel-electric locomotive from Rutherglen to Glasgow Central (Low Level) with very satisfactory results. A Diesel shunting locomotive is being tried. out at Ayr.

Tank locomotives for industrial purposes. 36. illustration
Three powerful shunting tank locomotives (No. 22, illustrated) of the 0-4-0 type had been specially designed for the Steel, Peech & Tozer's branch of the United Steel Companies Ltd. and built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. Ltd. of Meadow Hall Works, Sheffield. They were put into service at the end of 1934. The weight in full working order was 43 tons 10 cwt., and the tractive effort at 85 per cent. of the working pressure of 180psi is estimated at 20,517 lb.

Closiing of the Cork & Muskerry Light Railway. 36
On Saturday 29 December 29 1934, at 6.15 p.m. the last passenger train on the narrow gauge Cork & Muskerry Railway left the Victoria Road station, Cork. Opened in 1887, and serving ithe Blarney, Donoughmore and Coachford districts, the line had not been a paying undertaking for several years, and the directors of the Great Southern Railways (Ireland) with which it had become amalgamated, decided to close it, and substitute a service of road motors.

L. N. E. R. (N.B. Section). 36
On Tuesday  5 February the passenger train service between Kilsyth (New) and Bonnybridge (Central) was withdrawn. Between Banknock and Bonnywater Junctton the line entirely closed.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Flexibility on curves. 37-8
Lateral movement of the coupled axles is possible:
(i) Between the tyre flange and the rail. thin flanged tyres should be employed only for intermediate coupled wheels, as otherwise the engine will "hunt" on its rigid wheelbase, this latter condition being emphasised should a bogie or truck be adjacent to coupled axles provided with thin flanged tyres.
(ii) Between the axlebox flanges and horn guides. This dimension is in some instances, where long rigid wheelbases are unavoidable and occur in conjunction with curves of small radius, increased beyond the normal fitting allowance. This necessitates the adoption of a spherical contour either for the crankpins or the coupling rod brasses of the axles concerned. (iii) Between the axlebox bearings and the axle journals.
(iv) By an increase of the rail gauge on curves. This device is commonly employed on the Continent, but not in this country.
The most obvious method of ascertaining whether an engine has sufficient flexibility to traverse the stipulated minimum curve is to superpose the wheelbase on a curve drawn to the same scale. The great disparity of the dimensions concerned, however, renders difficult the attainment of a satisfactory degree of accuracy, and the adoption of Roy's method may therefore be recommended.
Bogies. The wheelbase of bogies for standard gauge engines usually ranges from about 6 ft. 6 in. to 8 ft. 0 in. This dimension should be made as large as possible on account of the marked improvements effected, both in riding and in guiding qualities, as the wheelbase is lengthened. The permitted side play varies approximately from 2 in. to 5 in. each way, the lower limit representing British practice of some years ago, and the higher, modern American practice. A definite tendency to increase the side play may now be observed in this country, and displacements of from 3½ in. to 4½ in. on either side of' the central position are becoming common; this is not altogether influenced by the general increase occurnng in the length of the total engine wheelbase, and may be in part attributed to recognition of the fact that the provision of flexibility beyond the essential minimum is beneficial generally.
Swing link bogies were rarely adopted. The advantages and diisadvantages of the plate frame bogie were considered before considering pony trucks and radial axles.

Centenary of the Dubliin and Kingstown Railway. 39-40. 2 illustrations, diagram
Opened 17 December 1834: originally built to English standard gauge (4ft 8½in) an extension from Kingstown to Dalkey was worked on  the atmospheric system outwards and upwards and by gravity on return. Powere were obtained for an extension to Bray, but were not implemented until an alternative route in the form of the Dublin and Wicklow Railway from Harcourt Street in Dublin opemed and the the original line from Dublin to Kingstown was converted to 5 ft. 3 in., and the atmospheric section changed for for steam working. During the alteration of the latter, which was carried out by the Dublin and Wicklow Ry., a few deviations were made in order to ease the rather sharp curves on the original line. Atmospheric working ceased on 12 April 1854, and the line was reopened for steam working on 11 October 1855; the extension from Dalkey to Bray opened on 10 July 1854.
As reconstructed the line was single from Kingstown to Bray, but at a later date a second road was provided as far as Killiney; through working from Dublin, Westland Row to Bray started on July 1, 1856, from which date the Dublin and Wicklow Ry. obtained a lease of the Dublin and Kingstown Ry., from Dublin to Dalkey, at £36,000 per annum. The Dublin and Kingstown Ry. during its separate existence, had been very successful financially, and this sum was sufficient to pay 9½ per cent. on its capital. Here it may be stated that the lease also paid the Dublin and Wicklow Ry. extremely well up to the time of opening of an electric tramway between Dublin and Dalkey in 1897. The loss of traffic from this cause, and the reduction in the passen- ger fares necessary to meet the competition, made the lease no longer profitable, and in 1906 a reduction of the rent to £30,000 was obtained. The Dublin and Kingstown Ry. remained a separate company down to 1925, when in the grouping of the Irish railways, it was absorbed by the Great Southern Rys. after an existence of over ninety years.

London & North Eastern Railway. 40
At Darlington Works the following 0-6-0 tender engines of the J39 class had been completed, Nos. 1475 to 1479, 1488 and 1490. All of these were stationed at Newport, except 1490 which is at Ferryhill. Further Hunt class (049) completed were 363 The Grafton, 364 The Grove (both stationed at Gateshead), 365 The Morpeth, 366 The Oakley, and 368 The Puckeridge (at Leeds, Neville Hill). Robert Stephenson & Co. completed the order for K3 class 2-6-0 engines No's. 1307, 1322, 2738 and 2739, all of which were working in Scotland. Diesel rail-car Tyneside Venturer had been numbered 25 and painted and lettered in standard green rail-car colour. North Road Works, Darlington, were to build 39 J39 class goods engines and finish off five more Hunt class 4-4-0s, Nos. 370, and 374 to 377, and five Sandringham class 4-6-0 engines, Nos. 2843 to 2847, as well as complete the conversion of the remaining 24, 4-4-4 tank engines of the HI class to 4-6-2 type, class A8. It is possible a further five Hunt class and five more Sandringhams will follow.
The annual programme also states that 35 mixed traffic locomotives of the Mogul type and 14 engines specially intended for heavy long distance work were to be built. It is probable these will be of the 2-6-2 type. About 5,000 goods wagons and brake vans were to be constructed, including 1,580 open 12-ton wagons, and 2,200 covered U-ton type, all fitted with the vacuum brake. Special types of wagons include 75 20-ton wagons for conveying tubes, and 500 fish wagons. One hundred all-steel 20-ton wagons for conveying locomotive coal were included and these were to be of all-welded construction. Three hundred and fifteen carriages are to be buidt, including four sleeping cars, ten restaurant and buffet cars, two complete "tourist train" sets and four train sets for the Great Eastern suburban services, 300 small containers and 320 flat wagons were also to be built.
The North British Locomotive Co Ltd. have received an order for 20 three-cylinder 2-6-0 mixed traffic tender locomotives of the K3 class
.

London, Midland & Scottish Rly.  40
Fast run between Bletchley and Euston by The Royal Scot express from Glasgow and Edinburgh to London. Making a special stop at Bletchley to take water, the train. which consisted of 13 coaches weighing 443 tons, and was hauled by the 4-6-2 locomotive The Princess Royal, covered the 46¾ miles from Bletchley to Euston in 46 minutes, inclusive of two minutes delay by signals. An average speed of 78.9 m.p.h. was maintained over the 26¼ miles between Tring and WiIlesden, the driver being L.A. Earl of the Camden depot. As a result of further speeding-up of freight services between important centres, the L.M.S. Railway now operate 18 freight services whose average speeds, over distances from 155 to 541½ miles, range from 36 to 44 m.p.h. A total of 4,336~ miles daily is run at over 36 miles an hour. The fastest train is the 10.45 p.m. from Carlisle to London (Camden) which covers the 297¼ miles in 405 minutes, exclusive of stops, at an average speed of 44 m.p.h. The longest through journey is that of the 9.45 a.m. from Aberdeen to London (Broad Street), which covers the 541½ miles at an average speed of 42.7 m.p.h., while the longest run without stop is by the 7.45 p.m. from London (Camden) to Liverpool (Edge Hill), 191 miles at 39 m.p.h.

[British Tirnken Limited ]. 40
J. E. Spear, of British Tirnken Limited read a paper on the application of tapered roller bearings in railway service, before the Crewe Technical College Engineering Society on Saturday, February 9.

The Bessbrook and Newry Electric Tramway. 41-2. illustration
Narrrow gauge (3 feet) used electricity generated by hydroelectric plant which also served the flax mills at Bessbrook. The tramway carried workers to the mills and some freight

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: combustion and boilers. 42-4. 3 diagrams
Considers Patents Numbers 259 (1 February 1854) and 2129 (24 September 1855) which showed firebox furnaces designed to burn coal in what was in effect a retort

Locomotive for the Ford Motor Company. 44. illustration
For shunting at the Dagenham Works a new 0-6-0ST locomotive had been supplied by Peckett & Sons Ltd. of Bristol. It had outside cylinders 14 in. diameter by 22 in. stroke; coupled wheels 3 ft. 7 in. diameter spread over a wheelbase of 10 ft. It carried a working pressure of 180 psi and tractive force at 85% of the boiler pressure is estimated at 15,343 lb. A spark arrester was fitted in the smokebox, and rail cleansers provided.

The Pontop and Jarrow Railway. 44
Colliery line, now known as the Bowes Railway, purchased two pannier tanks from the Great Western Railway, Nos. 717 and 725, originally Nos. 71 and 127 Barry Ry. They were renumbered 9 and 10 in the Bowes list.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. "Brakes for stream-lined vehicles." 44-5
At the meeting on Thursday, 31 January when the President, H.N. Gresley, took the chair, some interesting problems were raised by W.F. McDermid in his paper on the "Braking of stream-lined vehicles." He drew attention to the miscellaneous resistances to the progress of a train which assisted in making a stop. See also letter from C. Branston on page 96.

Largest bridge in the world — Zambesi Bridge. 45
The first passenger train passed over the new bridge crossing the Lower Zambesi on 14 January. The completion of this great work enables trains to run through from Blantyre in Nyasaland to Beira, the important port in Portuguese East Africa, a distance of 349 miles. The aggregate total overall length of the bridge is 11,650 ft. 9 in. and consists of thirty-three main spans and six approach spans. The site of the bridge is between Mutarara, on the left bank of the river, and Sena, on the right bank, about 25 miles upstream from Murraca, the erstwhile terminus of the Trans-Zambesia Railway. Under normal conditions the width of the river at this point is about 5,000 ft. but at high flood the total width from bank to bank is a little over 11,000 ft., or about two miles. The railway connection to the north with the Central Africa Railway is at Bawe, 37#188; miles from the bridge. The existing railway on the north bank between Bawe and Chindio, 24 miles in length will now become derelict. On the south bank the rail connection to the Trans-Zambesia Railway terminus at Murraca is about 28 miles in length. The total length of the new line from Murraca to Bawe is about 33½ miles.
The joint consulting engineers for the bridge are Livesey & Henderson and Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. The main spans are of the through type with an open deck floor, and supported by concrete piers built on concrete wells sunk in the bed of the river, or on mass concrete bases founded on the rock at the river bank. The centres of the piers for each main span are 262 ft. 6 in. apart.
The Nyasaland, Central Africa, and Trans-Zambesi Rlys. are under one management, although they are separate companies. The headquarters are at Limbs in Nyasaland. An extension of 174 miles links Blantyre with Domira Bay on Lake Nyasa. The gauge is 3 ft. 6 in. throughout. A small portion of the through line, 18 miles, from Dondo to Beira is owned by the Beira Railway, and the Tr ans-Zarnbesi Ry. has running powers over this section.

Locos. for the Calcutta Suburban Services, Eastern Bengal Rly. 46. illustration
Surplus steam locomotives released by the electrification of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway are being transferred from that railway to the East Indian, North Western and Eastern Bengal Railways. The photograph reproduced shows a group of seven locomotives used on the Eastern Bengal Railway for its heavy suburban service in the Calcutta environs, including five of the transferred engines. The leading engine, as well as the third, fifth, sixth and seventh were transferred from the G.LP.R. to the Eastern Bengal on the electrification of the Bombay suburban service, the last three engines having been fitted with bell- mouthed chimneys.
The second engine is one of the standard 2-6-4 tank engines of the E.B.R., whilst the fourth engine is a 2-6-2 tank, similar to the G.I.P type, but built in Germany in 1924 for the Eastern Bengal Railway.
Since 1 April 1934, the Eastern Bengal Rly. have increased their suburban train mileage by 54% and by better and more economic utilisa- tion of locomotive power working it with the same number of engines that were utilised previously. The train service has also been speeded up and the E.B.R. is now working one of the finest and most intensive steam suburban services in India. We are indebted to D. Macaulay, district locomotive superintendent of the Calcutta division, for the photograph reproduced.

Castlederg & Victoria Bridge Tramway. 46
The track of this line was sold in July last to a Glasgow firm and has since been removed. The three locomotives have been sold to the Great Southern Rys. for use on their Cavan and Leitrim line, and some of the cattle wagons have been acquired by the Clogher Valley Railway.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 46.
New construction at Crewe comprises a series of twenty 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, the first of which, No. 5000, was already completed. The tenders were of 4,000 gallons capacity with sloping side sheets, as ,in the case of the new Vulcan series. No. 5654, which was in service, completed the order for thirty-eight three-cylinder passenger engines of the improved Baby Scot type: several of these engines had been allocated to the Midland Division and a similar number fitted with parallel boilers had been transferred from that division to the Western Division (L. & N.W. Section) in exchange. The highest new Baby Scot ex North British Loco. Co. was No. 5599. No. 6100 Royal Scot, was running with one of the standard 3,500 gallon tenders attached. For its recent tour in America this engine was fitted with a new 4,000 gallon tender, which was to be adapted for one of the Crewe-built two-cylinder mixed traffic engines. Considerable scrapping of Claughtons, Princes, and 19-in. goods was taking place at Crewe and among other types recently placed an the condemned list were the two Leek & Manifold narrow gauge 2-6-4 tank engines, both of which were built by Kitsons in 1904. 4-4-0 George V olass, No. 5372 and 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 8966, 9025 and 9358, had been turned out at Crewe fitted with standard Belpaire boilers. At Derby work was well in hand on a new series of 2-6-2 passenger tank engines; these bearing Nos. 71-90. Then follows the 1935 programme, which comprises eight 2-6-4 passenger tanks, Nos. 2537-44, and fifty-four additional 2-6-2 tanks, Nos. 91-144. The carriage building programme for this year included 166 vestibule, 315 corridor, 20 sleeping cars and 14 restaurant cars, 100 luggage vans, 100 covered combination vans and 26 other coaches. Also 10,050 wagons, one third of which to be fitted with the vacuum brake.

Railway Club. 46
At a meeting held at headquarters, 57 Fetter Lane, E.C.4, on Friday, 18 January, E.B. Woodruffe-Peacock read an interesting paper an the Eastern Section of the Great Central Railway.The lecturer explained that the former Great Central Railway divided itself into three geographical divisions, and he proposed to deal with that section east of the Woodhead Tunnel and north of Leicester. The interesting features of each line were dealt with, and photographs were passed round to illustrate the descriptions. The various train services were detailed, and some excellent photographs of the locomotives were shown. A discussion followed, and the meeting closed with a hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Woodruffe-Peacock.
A paper entitled An Introduction to Railway Heraldry will be read by Mr. G.W.J. Potter at the meeting to be held on March 15 at 7.30 p.m. at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall, Fetter Lane, E.C.4.

Two Russian air brakes. 47-51. 5 diagrams
Matrosoff single pipe system for freight trains

Eric A. Robinson. 51
Appointed Managing Director Superheater Co.: short biography

R.E.L. Maunsell. 51
Elected Chairman of the Railway Clearing House Chief Mechanical Engineers Committee for 1935

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and is locomotives. 51-4. 3 illustration, diagram (side elevation), table
Concludes section on light 2-4-0 considered in previous part.  Considers Middleberg's contribution to tram locomotives used on rural light railways. These were known as ezeltjes (little asses) by the staff and were named after small creatures, e.g. kapel (butterfly). They were fitted with a strong steam brake and the Le Chatelier counter pressure brake. Fitted with Belpaire valve gear. Some were fitted with condensin gear and Gondrona couuplings.

Obituary, 54
The death occurred an Tuesday, 15 January 1935, of William Frederic Lawrence, at Whiteparish, near Salisbury, just after celebrating his 90th birthday. He was grandson of Charles Lawrence, the first chairman of the first railway company to be formed in England, the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. His father was the Rev. C.W. Lawrence, a Liverpool clergyman well known in his day. Although he had been blind for many years Mr. Lawrence took an active interest in lacal and county affairs. In ]930 he attended the L. & M. Ry. centenary celebrations at Liverpool.

G. Alfred Woodhead. 54
Deccase an the 29 January of G. Alfred Woodhead, managing director of Jonas Woodhead & Sons, Ltd. of Leeds. The firm was founded by Woodhead's grandfather, and specialised aver many decades in the manufacture of ironwcrk , etc., for road vehicles. During the regime af G.A. Woodhead, who was appointed managing director in 1920, a new policy was adapted, and specialisation was limited to laminated springs only, all other branches of manufacture being abandoned. During these years the company attained a high reputation as designers and manufacturers of all classes of laminated springs for locomotives, and other railway rolling stack, tramcars, as well as light and heavy road vehicles far the home and export markets. Woodhead was a very clever business man, of strong personality, and we, who were privileged to know him, realise the depth of the loss to British industry in the passing of one of its outstanding figures.

P.L.M. Railway. 54
Twa diesel-electric locomotives ordered for the Paris-Nice run without re-fuelling, to be the most powerful in France, each having engines of 4,000 h.p. The locomotives will each comprise two units, permanently coupled .togethcr , and will be- of the 2-C-2+2-C-2 type and with one driver's compartment an each unit, situated at the opposite end fram the coupling. The Compagnie de Fives-Lille to build one of the locomotives, which will be provided with four 925 h.p. M.A.N. Diesel motors and two auxiliary Diesels of 130 h. p.; the electric transmission to be of the Secheron system. The Forges et Acieries de la Marine and Hornacourt to build the other locornotive. This will have two Sulzer Diesel engines of 2,000 h.p. each an two shafts connected by gears, and electric equipment provided by the Ateliers de Jeumont. It is expected that a speed of 130 km. per hour will be attained.

Chichester & Selsey Light Railway. 54.
On Saturday 19 January 1935, the West Sussex Light Railway closed down for all traffic.

E.C. Poultney. Some notes on the New York Central "Hudsons". 55-9. 5 illustrations, 4 tables
First supplied by the American Locomotive Co. in 1927: No. 5200. At time 205 were at work on the New York Central and Boston & Albany lines hauling 1000 ton passenger trains withb the aid of a booster on the trailing truck. Large grate area. Bakeer valve gear. Coffin feedwater heater. Performance tests of No. 5200 between Syracuse and Albany on some of which boiler pressure raised to 250 psi.

Travelling power stations. 59-61. 2 illustrations
Four part classification: locomotives (steam or diesel) capable of generating electricity and able to haul trains; as previous but also supplying power to motors on train;  as previous but capable of acting as stationary power supply to power supply for train on electrified system; and stationary source for transforming electricity supply. Notes George Cawley's patenting activity, some with B.H. Thwaite (on electric traction for canals) and Cawley's association withb the Japan Imperial Railways.  Mainly concerned with the Heilmann steam electric locomotives and their asociation with Willans and Robinson of Thames Ditton for the high speed reciprocating engines: their special crank shape is illustrated. The caption to the photograph of the Heilmann locomotive notes that Templer was on the fooiplate. See also letter from M.H. Solomon on page 96

J.L. Koffman. Wood gas railcar for the Lithuanian State Railways. 61-3. 2 illustrations
Powered by wood gas produced on board from charcoal: the gas consisted of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane and nitrogen.

Reviews. 63

The book of speed. London. B.T. Batsford Ltd.
Contains about 150 photogravure illustrations. Introductory chapter by Commander King-Hall emphasises that by aircraft. High speed by rail contributed by C.J. Allen and F. Peachy wrote about driving the non-stop Flying Scotsman.

Mechanical World Year Book, 1935. Manchester: Emmott & Co.

Correspondence. 64

First-class carriages.. A.P. Le M. Sinkinson.
With reference to the letters of R. B. Hunt and of Ashley Brown in your issues of 15 October and 15 December respectively, it seems odd that anyone can seriously suggest that modern English first-class carriages are not only not better than their pre-war predecessors, but actually worse. The only possible conclusion is that neither of your correspondents has ever travelled in any of the first-class corridor carriages built by the L.M.S. in the last three or four years, or, if, they have, they took the precaution to be blindfolded and anaesthetised beforehand.
Apart from the improvements, common to both classes, such as electric light, steam heating, and hot water to wash in, it appears to me that the latest L.M.S. first-class carriages beat the admittedly high standard set by the old  L.N.W.R. in every respect—height, width, spaciousness, firtings, comfort, and lavatory accommodation. Further, their decoration is carried out with reference to an artistic standard undreamt of years ago, when heavy gilding, "picking out" in contrasting hues, and padded doors seemed to be the ideal of railway coach builders. Further, the L.M.S. provides, at no extra cost, the choice of open vestibule. or compartment carriages; some trains (e.g. the Merseyside and Ulster expresses) have in addition first-class open "lounge cars." Again, On the S.R., the comfort and general excellence of the latest ordinary first-class corridor carriages is a revelation to anyone familiar with the hard seats of the old L.B.&S.C.R., the artistic solecisms of the old S. E. & C. R., and the comfortless dowdiness of the old L.S.W.R. stock. The springing of the seats in the latest  S.R. corridor carriages is enough to excite the jealousy of confirmed Pullmanites. Even on the G.W.R. and L.N.E.R., which have perhaps been somewhat less ambitious in this respect, the improvement is obvious enough. The reason why passengers forsake first-class for third-class carriages is not that the first-class have become worse, but that the modern third-class, with their comfortable seats,  arm-rests, and general luxury, have become so much better. See also Hamilton Ellis response.

Chicago. Milwaukee St. P. & P. Ry. record run. W.H.T.
Re leading article on page 363 of the December Issue reference is made to a record run on the C.M. St. P. & P. Ry. I should like to point out that the distance between Chicago and Milwaukee is 85 miles, not as stated in your article. The load hauled on the run mentioned. was composed of five cars and weighed 347 English tons behind the tender. The combined weight of engine and tender, in full running order, was 292 English tons. Over an intermediate distance of 66.6 miles, the average speed was 93 miles per hour. A remarkable feature of this record is that it was attained safely by a locomotive with axle-loads of 28¼ English tons, running over a type of permanent way which English engineers consider greatly inferior to their own.

Locomotives of the Holland Railway Co. W.S. Upton
I should like to draw attention to a feature in the design of the boilers of the passenger engines for the Holland Railway that are described in the December number. The raising of the top of the outer firebox above the top of the boiler barrel must have resulted in a smallness of the steam space in the latter. As the level of the water in the gauge glass has to be kept at a height to give a reasonable depth of water over the inner firebox, allowing also for changes of gradient in the road, it occurs to me that, in spite of the considerable height of the dome, there must have been a great tendency to excessive priming, especially with a full regulator opening.
It is fair to presume that the extra steam pipe would not have been provided but for this reason, and even that cannot have been very effective as its cross sectional area would amount to, say 12 to 15 sq. in., while that of the dome open to the steam space of the barrel would be about 400 sq. in. For this reason, and even allowing for the proximity of the mouth of the pipe in question to the regulator valve, the greater part of the steam entering the valve must have come direct from the barrel of the boiler and not from the firebox.
Have any of your readers, or the author of the articles, any information about the practical working of these engines in this respect?
Might I add that a slight discrepancy seems to have crept into the heating surface figures on p. 374. If the engines, J. P. Koen, etc., had larger tubes, they must have had it larger ·tube heating surface, but this .is given as l00.17 m2 against 104.03 m2 of the others: perhaps these figures have become reversed. The firebox figures seem to be correct. .

Mr. Derens' comments on Mr. Upton's remarks are as follows;-
It is hardly correct reasoning to say that the raising of the outer firebox above the boiler barrel would result in a decrease of the steam space in the latter; it is of course just the reverse. There is nothing abnormal in the rela- tive position of barrel and the firebox top-plate on these 0ngines; the distance between the latter and the top of the barrel is 340 mm. or almost exactly the same as in one of the best known English designs of that period, i.e.. the 4-4-0 express locomotives built by Beyer, Peacock & Co . for the Dutch State Railways with praotically the same barrel diameter. From this it will be seen that the raising of the outer firebox above the barrel is an additional advantage of the Borsig engines, resulting in a considerable augmentation of the steam space, and the manner of connecting this steam space with that of the dome by the dry steam pipe was also a considerable advantage. I cannot agree with Mr. Upton that the sectional area of this pipe was too small to have any beneficial effect. It was surely large enough to cause a considerable rush of steam from the firebox to the dome. To compare its sectional area with that of the dome is' not a suitable measure to judge its effects, since the velocity ·of the steam is plainly proportionate to the sectional areas, and not a measure for the quantity of steam extracted. Only it should not be so small as to cause excessive wire-drawing; which it certainly was not.
The height of the water level above the firebox top plate which was 200 mm., with the water half way in the gauge-glass, may be considered ample, even in the event of changes of gradient, which on the lines of this company were negligible. The engines have never given any special trouble in regard to primi.ng. t.o which no doubt the dry steam pipe contributed as it lessened the draught of steam directly from the water level underneath the dome. But even the previous series of passenger engines, Eos to [ordaens, which did not have the dry steam pipe, did not give any trouble in this respect.
As to the discrepancy of the heating surfaces, this has been a printer's error, with regard to the number of tubes. which I had already noticed but through lack of space, could not be corrected in the January issue.

Number 511 (15 March 1935)

Suburban passenger-train services. 65-6
Editorial arguing that electrification due to its high capital cost was not essential for successful suburban services: eliminating flat junctions and improved signalling were far more important. The locomotives used needed higher boiler pressures, compounding, multiple coupled axles, geared drives, and condensing to produce high acceleration. The Great Eastern Section employed train sets with 828 to 872 seats per train. See also letters from J.C. Cosgrove on page 132 and from B. Richardson on page 233.

Oil-burning consolidations, Central Rly. of Peru. 66-7
Three Beyer Peacock standard gauge 2-8-0 locomotives supplied for this highly demanding railway which rose to altitudes of 15693 feet at the Galera Tunnel and 15806 feet (the world record). There were 1 in 22 gradients and sharp curvature. Flangeless coupled wheels had to be used. Nicholson thermic syphons were employed and the inner firebox used Colville's double crown steel. The Chatelier counter pressure brake was employed. Tom Jefferson was the chief mechanical engineer and Livesey & Henderson were the consultants. See also letter from Basil Bazley on p. 200

Southern Railway. 67
Annual Report noted the new branch line to Chessington with the intension of extension to Leatherhead. The locations for stations were identified, but only Tolworth received its projected name. Old Malden became Malden Manor. and the stations at Moor Lane and Garrison Lane became Chessington North and South respectively. A goods station wasto be located beyond Chessington South on the Kingston to Leatherhead Road. the redundant engine shed at Battersea Park was to be used for road vehicle maintenance.

4-6-0 locomotives, Bhavnagar State Railway. 68; 69. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & frnot elevations)
Two supplied by Nasmyth Wilson & Co, for metre gauge lines; had wide Belpaire fitreboxes which extended beyond the frames and oscillating cam valve gear. Robert White & Partners consulting engineers.

L.M.S. Railway locomotive depots. 68
Fourteen in England and Wales to be modernised with mechanical coaling plants, and with the exception of three (Holyhead, Tilbury and Hasland) ash handling plants, these were: Accrinton, Agecroft, Bank Hall (Liverpool), Bedford, Bolton, Hasland (near Chesterfield), Holyhead, Lostock Hall (Lancs.), Low Moor (Bradford), Lower Darwen, Mold Junction, Preston, Rose Grove (Lancs.)  and Tilbury.

Diesel railcars, Madras & Southern Mahratta Railway. 69-70.
Six chassis supplied by Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co.. The had Armstrong Saurer six-cylinder engines and drum brakes. Bodies would be constructed in India under the direction of R. Lean, chief mechanical engineer.

Coal watering on tender of P.L.M. Ry. locomotives. 70. illustration

West Sussex Railway. 70
Locomotives: Siidlesham had been scrapped; Morous (ex Shropshire & Montgomeryshire) and 2-4-2T Selsey had been condemned, but 0-6-0T Ringing Rock looked sound

Trial run of pneumatic tyred petrol driven railcar on the L.M.S. Railway. 71.
Michelin vehicle with conning tower passing over Bushey water troughs whilst running between Euston and Leighton Buzzard and back.

4-8-4 type locos, Northern Pacific Railway. 72-3. 4 illustrations
Designed to burn low grade coal and had a 115ft2 grate area and a huge tender and two 28 by 31 inch cylinders. Fitted with cast frame and cylinders, Boxpok wheels and Timken roller bearings.

High speed and the steam locomotive.  73-5 
At the meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers on the 28 February last, a paper with the above title was read by Dr. Ing eh R. P. Wagner, of the German State Railways, the chair being occupied by the President, Mr. H. N. Gresley.
Dr. Wagner opened his discourse with a reference to the old British single wheelers and then continued with a survey of the main require- ments in designing a locomotive to be able to run on trains on a 100 miles per hour schedule. A driving wheel diameter of 7 ft. 6 in. seems adequate and the number of drivers depends on the number of coaches to be hauled, and on the wheel load. Figuring on a train of 200 to 220 tons and a load on the driving axles of 18 tons, two pairs of drivers would seem sufficient; but, placed between non-coupled leading and rear wheels there is a tendency to slip. Apart from this, when accelerating, and speeding up to 100 m.p.h. it seems wise to have a third pair of drivers. A calculation of boiler capacity and weight shows that at least six pairs of wheels are necessary to carry the superstructure, and the weight certainly justifies a third pair of drivers.
In a very fast running locomotive a leading . four-wheeled truck with the very best spring sus- pension imaginable is agreed to by most locomotive experts; a point where designers disagree has always been the trailing pair of wheels. Apart from the boiler and frame weight requiring rr.ore wheels, It would, m locomotives of this size be impossible to leave out a rear support, because the grate required could never be squeezed between the drivers. So, when the designer has decided to ar- range a wide firebox behind the drivers he is practically bound hand and foot as to the weight to be assigned to the trailing wheels. Calculation shows that usually the weight of the firebox of a 1,600 to 1,800 h.p. boiler loads a single pair of trailers fully up to the weight allotted to the drivers; in many cases the load on the trailing axle even exceeds that on the drivers. Consequently the designer arranges the trailing wheels more and more to the rear until the load on the drivers and the length of the engine will set him a limit. At 20 tons wheel load the firebox still to be carried by a single pair of wheels is that of a 3,000 h.p. boiler. Many a designer, who has to put more h.p. into his boiler, has found that out and sought help, though not very effective, in a combustion chamber. The logical help is really another pair of trailers.
It is no great matter whether these trailing axles are independent or combined in a bogie truck. Two independent axles allow a better layout of the ashpan, but when the boiler centre is high a bogie truck will give greater steadiness in running at high speed. Thus the wheel arrangement of a powerful express locomotive for light trains and high speed is a product of almost compulsory conclusions.
But another item of grave consideration in designing a locomotive for 100 m.p.h. or more is the air resistance. This can be overcome by employing more power, but the burden upon the coal budget can be eased by covering the entire locomotive and tender to eliminate the influence of protruding parts, including wheels, rods and brake parts. It is hopeless to "streamline" a locomotive, including the tender, correctly, just as the correct streamlining of railcars is bound to be imperfect. But a good effect can be obtained by comparing the merits of various possibilities of covering up a locomotive. The German State Railways, and before them the Borsig Locomotive Works, had some wooden models tested in wind channels. These tests were preceded by a number of air resistance tests run by the German State Railways. They were carried out on test trains with the object of finding a new formula for the several factors of train resistance. The result, summed up roughly, was that the air resistance of passenger coaches could be represented by the formula
0.0048 . (n + 2.7) . f . V/r2,
in which n means the number of coaches; 2.7 a factor representing the air suction behind the last coach;
f the cross section part of each coach not shielded by its forerunner (equal to 1.5 sq. metres);
Vr the speed relative to the existing motion of the air (wind factor).
The tests were made with an uncovered 4-6-0 type locomotive and a train of standard corridor ooaches.
The wind tests made with small scale models of locomotives show that the head air resistance could be overcome by retaining the customary designing practice, but they also showed that power and fuel saving can be attained by covering. The question of sufficient outlook from a rear cab raised doubts as serious as the wheel arrangement had. Therefore, it was decided to build two locomotives, fully covered with cab behind, and later on, one locomotive with the cab in front, and con- sequently with reversed boiler, which will be fed with pulverised coal owing to the difficulties of otherwise transporting coal from the tender to the front end of the locomotive.
The two new type locomotives are laid out as 4-6-4 engines with 7 ft. 6 in. drivers and rear cab. They are being built at the Borsig Works at Berlin, and the first has left the shop and will undergo thorough tests at the Grunewald Testing Dept. The front cabin type cannot be dealt with as the designs are not complete. The wheels of the front bogie, those of the rear truck and of the tender are 3 ft. 73/8 in. in diameter in order to keep the number of revolutions within customary limits. The front truck has an inside frame almost identical with the truck of German standard engines, except that one of the two locomotives is fitted with spherical roller bearings on all trailing wheels. Two helical springs have been added to the longitudinal laminated spring so that the leading wheels may follow unevennesses of the rail without overcoming any spring friction. The rear truck has an outside frame to make room for the ashpan, and has also double spring suspension. The wheel sets are interchangeable with those of the tender.
The boiler has been laid out for a grate area of 51 sq. ft., for a heating surface of 2,938 sq. ft. for evaporation and for a superheater surface of 969 sq. ft. The boiler pressure was set at 284.5 lb. per sq. in. This pressure still allowed for a copper firebox. The diameter of the boiler of the heavy German Pacific, 6 ft. 3 in., could be retained considering the fact that the test locomotive requires very slightly more power than the Pacific. The number of smoke tubes (24) of 6¾ in./6 in. diameter is retained, and the three-loop superheater of pipes of 1¼/7/8 in. The number of fire tubes is 106 and their diameter 2¾ in./2ft 9/16in. The length of tubes has, for the first time in Germany, been made 23 ft. or 8 in. more than the heavy Pacific. The smokebox is rather long so that the feed-water heater found room behind the funnel; this enabled the front part ahead of the funnel to be given a sloping top to deflect smoke and steam from the cab windows. All fittings are of the standard type except that some have been put closer against the boiler shell, so that the covering will not interfere with the driver' s outlook.
The centre part of the ashpan, which, due to the bogie truck, is not quite as spacious as might be desired. contains the main air inlet port and the hopper bottom; as this air inlet would be in- sufficient for the grate, 68 in. wide, the ashpan has to have more air inlet ports on both sides outside the frame.
The locomotive frame is of the bar type and 3ft in. in thickness. The smokebox rests upon it by means of a welded saddle-like structure. To ensure smooth running at highest speed the locomotive has three cylinders of 18 in. diameter each and 26 in. stroke, working at angles of 120 deg.; all cylinders are horizontal. Those outside, drive the second pair of coupled wheels, the inside cylinder the first pair. All cylinders have independent Walschaerts gear; the inside link motion has been taken off the second coupled axle by an inside crank instead of an eccentric. The characteristics of the Walschaerts gear have been altered to a certain extent to attain wider steam passages at short cut-off and earlier admission so as to utilise live steam pressure for cushioning the inertia forces of the rods at high speed. For this purpose the eccentricity and the link have remained practically the same as usual, whereas the influence of the crosshead upon the valve motion has been considerably enlarged. Thus the valve travel is enlarged more than 50 per cent. and the steam passages, especially during the exhaust period, are fully opened even at short cut-off. Dr. Wagner then gave details of the braking arrangements and also of a number of unusual features in the tender. A water supply of 8,000 gallons and 10 tons 0 f coal was considered necessary to run 200 miles without stop for water and 400 miles without refuelling. These 45 tons of stores with the requisite framing, tank and bunker, require five pairs of wheels; the first two pairs are arranged in a bogie frame and the other three pairs are grouped closely together in the main framing at the rear.
The discussion following the paper was opened by Mr. Gresley, and continued by Mr. W. A. Stanier, Mr. J. Clayton, Lord Monkswell, and Messrs. Cyril Williams, H. Holcroft, J. E. Spear, A. C. Carr, J. S. Tritton, W. Redpath, D. W. Sanford and others .

A replica of the famous Rocket and its tender 75
has been constructed at the works of Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd., Darlington, for the Science Museum, South Kensington. This replica is just as the Rocket was, even as to colour. and made of the same materials as was used in the original engine. The original engine at the Museum is not quite what it was when Stephenson made it, the cylinders having been altered.

New 2-6-2 passenger tank locomotives, L.M.& S. Railway. 75-6. illustration, diagram (side & front elevvations)
No. 71 illustrated

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 76
Of the series of twenty-five 4-6-0 two-cylinder mixed traffic engines under construction at Crewe, the first five, Nos. 5000-4, had been completed. The 4,000 gallon tender with roller bearings had been attached to No. 5000. The North British Loco. Co. delivered new Baby Scots up to No. 5602, thus leaving five others to follow to complete the order for fifty. No. 9068 was the latest G class 0-8-0 mineral engine to be converted to G1. class (superheater). As running it  was provided with a standard Belpaire boiler. Engines turned out at Crewe rebuilt with Belpaire boilers included George V class Nos. 5310 and 5408; G1 class Nos. 8922 and 9235; and G2 class No. 9444. Withdrawals included ex North Staffs. 0-6-4T No. 2050 (class F); also the following L.N.W. classes: Claughton Nos. 5917, 5934, 6028; Prince of Wales Nos. 5715, 5738, 5i814. At the beginning of 1935 the number of N.S.R. locomotives of each type left in service was as follows:- 0-4-4T class M (7); 0-6-0T class D (8); 0-6-4T class C (5) ; 0-6-4T class I (5); 4-4-2T class K (1); 0-6-2T class L (4) 0-6-2T class New L (21) ; 0-6-0 class 159 (3). All other classes are now extinct. The first of the new Derby 2-6-2 tanks, series 71-90, in service; to be followed in due course by a new series of 2-6-4 three-cyl. passenger tank engines, numbered from 2537 upwards. Few of the Kirtley goods engines remained in service, and the present year may see the end of this once-numerous type of locomotive.
The L.M.S. Railway have placed an order with the Metropolitan Cammell Carriage & Wagon Company for 100 hopper wagons of 20-ton capacity, for the conveyance of coke traffic. An order has also been placed with Leyland Motors Ltd. for one 0-6-0 Diesel shunting locomotive for the L.M.S. Northern Counties Committee.

Moscow Underground Railway. 76
The first section of the M oscow Underground had been completed and the first test runs made on 4 February. The line is more than seven miles in length and extends from the Sokolniky Park to Crimea Square, connecting the heart of the city with two of the most populous suburbs, with eleven stations. The tunnels are 18 ft. in diameter permitting the use of wide rolling stock. The cars are 59 ft. 3 in. long built entirely of steel, and each provided with double doors which open and close automatically. A second line connecting the four main line stations with Izmailova Park is almost half finished.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Tanks, bunkers and tenders. 77-8.
Pannier tanks rather than saddle tanks, which suffered from raising the  centre of gravity, raising the water temperature beyond the capability of the injectors and restricted visibility. Side tanks needed to be located to enable assess to firebox side stays.. Waterv scoops should be power operated. Coaln doors and firing steps, self-trimming tenders

C.H. Ellis. The Glasgow Subway. 79-80. illustration, diagram
Authorised in 1890; opened on 14 December 1896. 4ft gauge with small bore tube tunnels. Cable haulage used single cables, each weighing 60 tons. At time system was being electrified, but retaing both the original car bodies and original lighting system were being retained, but new underframes were being supplied by Hurst Nelson. Tram type motors were being used and electricity supplied from Pinkston power station. Lachlan MacKinnon General Manager.

Belgian National Railways. 80
The Follsain Penetral Process was applied to tubes operating at high temperatures. Locomotive No. 736 based at Herbeshal had run 40000 km with its superheater since this treatment. Process available at firm in lutterworth,

Early compounds of the P.L.M. Railway.  81-2.. diagram (side elevation)
0-8-0 shown at the Paris Exhibition in 1889. Nos. 4301-2. Le Chatelier counter pressure and Westinghouse-Henry brakes fitted.

Two Russian air brakes. 82-4.
Mainly Matrosoff type

American railway notes. 84
Two three-car articulated trains to be manufactured by the Budd Manufacturing Corporation for the Burlington service between Chicago and Minneapolis: 420 miles in 6½ hours. The Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railwaywas responding with two steam-powered light weight trains.

Spark arresters on New Zealand Govt. Rly. locomotives. 84-6. 2 illustrations, diagram
Developed to handle burning the soft coal available in the Waikato district of the North Island and known as Waikato arresters.

London Transport,  86
Consequent upon the retirement of W.A. Agnew. Chief Mechanical Engineer (Railways), certain changes in the organisation of the deparrrnent would be effective from 25 February. W.S. Graft-Baker had been appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer in succession. E.T. Brook, the Superintendent of Rolling Stock, will have under his control, in addition to his present responsibilities, the maintenance and running of lifts, escalators, ventilating plant and pumps. E. Graham , the Assistant Mechanical Engineer (Maintenance}, in addition to his present duties, will be responsible for the inspection of materials other than for new works, and also for the general organisation of the clerical, costing and records staff of the department.

W.L. Watson. 86
A.M,LC.E., M,LLoco,E., has been appointed Chief Engineer (Contracts) to the Crown Agents for the Colonies, in succession to W. Eraut, who retired at the beginning of March, Mr. Watson served his time at the Kittybrewster Works of the Great North of Scotland Railway and later at Inverur ie. He then went to the Great Western locomotive works at Swindon from 1905 to 1912, He then joined the Designing Dept. of the Crown Agents for the Colonies, and during the War served in the Raw Materials Dept. of the Ministry of Munitions. In 1919 he was appointed Deputy Head of the Crown Agents' Engineering Design Department. In 1928 he became Deputy Chief Engineer (Mechanical) which position he has held until his present appointment.

New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, 86
To put in service a three-car articulated train which is to be called the Rail Zeppelin. The train, which is being fitted with Timken tapered roller bearings and is of the latest streamlined design, is now under construction at the Ohio works of the Goodyear Zeppelin Corporation, and will embody many novel features,

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. 87-8. 6 diagrams.
GB Patent 2129/1855: tubeless or water space boilers

P.L.M. Railway. 88
Order had been placed with Forges & Aciéries de la Marine & D'Homécourt for a high power diesel locomotive to haul Pullman train from Paris to Mentone; consisting of 2-C-2 units with Sulzer diesel engines and carrying sufficient fuel for the 695 miles

Punctuality on the L.M.S.R. 88
Survey on Tuesday 5 March of the timekeeping of all passenger trains showed 98.9% punctuality. In the Scottish Division 100% of express passenger trains ran to time.. The 10.25 St. Pancras to Manchester departed 15 minutes late due to a broken draw-bar, but arrived in Derby 1 minute early. The 99 miles to Leicester were covered in 97 minutes. The locomotive was No. 5656,

Centenary of the Dubliin and Kingstown Railway. 89-91.
The original locomotives were designed by Richard Roberts and supplied by Sharp Roberts & Co in 1833: named Manchester, Britannia and Hibernia. They had vertical cylinders and drove via a system of bell cranks. There were also three Forrester engines: these had horizontal cylinders but no slide bars. They were also 2-2-0s: Dublin rebuilt as a tank locomotive in 1840, Kingstown rebuilt as a tank locomotive in 1839 and Vauxhall rebuilt as a 2-2-2T in 1840

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and is locomotives. 91-2. 2 illustration, diagram
Includes diagram of Grondona tram coupling

Errata. 92
Through a printer's error the engines illustrated in Figs. 55 and 56 of the February issue have been named "tram locomotives," which should have been "suburban locornotivcs " which is the nearest English equivalent to "Iocornotieven voor lokaalspoorwegen " as they are called in Holland. "Tramlocomotives" in Holland are as a rule of the totally enclosed type as will be seen when we illustrate these in due course.

Retired Railway Officers' Society. 92.
Willlam Frank Pettigrew, M.Inst.C.E., M.Inst.M.E., had been elected president for this year and is the flrst chief mechanical engineer to be elected to' occupy the chair. Pettigrew entered the service of the Great Eastern Railway at Stratford as a pupil under William Adams, Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent, subsequently serving under Massey Brornley, T.W. Worsdell and James Holden. In 1882 he was appointed Assistant Manager of the Stratford Works, and four years later proceeded to the former London and South Western Railway as Works Manager at Nine Elms under his original chief, Adarns, who had become Locomotive Superintendent of that railway. In 1897 he became the Chief Mechanical Engineer (Locomotive, Marine and Docks) of the Furness Railway, from which position he retired on March 31, 1918. During the War period he was a member of the Committee of Railways in the North West of England for assisting in munition production, and, in addition, was Chairman of the Area Board Transport Committee for that district. Pettigrew is the author of several papers read before the Institution of Civil Engineers, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and the Iron and Steel Institute, and he obtained the "George Stephenson" medal and Telford Premium for one of them on "Trials of an Express Locometive." He was also reporter on "Automatic Couplers" at the International Railway Congress held at Washington, U.S.A. in 1905, and is author of "A Manual of Locomotive Engineering." Pettigrew is a past president of the Association of Railway Locomotive Engineers of Great Britain and Ireland, and was the first President of the Barrow Association of Engineers. The following officers have been re-elected for the current year :-Hon. Treasurer, Mr. J. Procter Smith; Hon. Auditors, A. E. Dolden and F.B. Mortimore; Hon. Secretary, Mr. W. A. Thomas, 306, Bristol Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham 5.
The annual luncheon of the Retired Railway Officers' Society held on 11 March at the Liverpool Street Hotel brought together a large attendance of members and guests. The President, Mr. W. F. Pettigrew, M.LC.E., M.I.M.E., occupied the chair, and Mr. William Whitelaw, Chairman of the L.N.E.R., was present as the Society's principal guest. The President proposed the toast of "Our Guests," to which :\1r. W'hitelaw responded. Sir Herbert Walker, K.C.B.. proposed "Success to the Retired Railway Officers Society," seconded by . E. J. H. Lemon, O.B.E., and responded te by Mr. T. H. Shipley. The toast of "The President" was given by S. L. Murgatroyd, O B.E., and seconded by . J Pike, O.B.E.

Record locomotive run on the L.&N.E.R. — 108 miles an hour. 93. illustration
No. 2450 Papyrus: King's Cross to Newcastle and back: outward left at 09.08 and arrived at 13.04½ (having been delayed by a derailment of a coal train): locomotive driven by H. Gutteridge and fired by A. Wightman. Return with Sparshatt at the regulator and R. Webster on the shovel. An average of 100 mile/h between Stoke Summit and Tallington and 108 mile/h attained at Little Bytham. Return time 3 houres 51 minutes.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Annual Dinner. 94 + plate.
About 290 members and friends were present at the annual dinner held at the Trocadero Restaurant on Friday 1 March. H.N. Gresley, C.B.E., the president, was in the chair and was supported by Major Chas. Williams, C.B.E., Lt.-Col. J. G. Fleming, C.B.E., D.S.O., Mr. Wm. Whitelaw, Mr. W. A. Stanier, Mr. W. A. Agnew, Brig.-Gen. Sir H. O. Mance, K.B.E., C.B., C.M.G., D.S.O., A. C. Carr, V.D., Col. H. A. Stenning, O.B.E., T.D., Major Bruce White, Sir Brodie H. Henderson, K.C.M.G., C.B., Mr. J. S. Tritton, Capt. H. W. Crosthwaite, and Major H. A. Harrison (secretary of the Institution). Among the guests from the Continent were Messieurs Renevey, in charge of the O.C.E.M. in Paris; Lancrenon, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Nord Railway of France; Bachellery, C.M.E. of the Paris-Orleans and Midi Rlys.; Nasse, of the French State Rlys., Ghilain, of the Belgian State Rlys., and Dr. Paul Wagner of the German National Railways.
Mr. W.A. Stanier proposed the toast of "The Guests" and referred to Dr. Wagner's paper of the previous night and his locomotive with 6 ft. 6 in. driving wheels, which recalled a story of his old chief, Mr. Churchward. When visiting a country house, a small boy there thought it a golden opportunity to learn something about locomotives. So he said, "Mr. Churchward, what size do you think the driving wheel of a locomotive ought to be?" Mr. Churchward replied, "20 ft., my son." The boy said, "But, Mr. Churchward, you cannot have a driving wheel 20 ft. in diameter." "No," he replied, "but I would have, if I could."
The toast was replied to by Mons. Bachellery, who spoke of the cordial reception offered to the Continental delegates at the International Railway Congress in London in 1925, 'and the centen- ary of the first public railway in the world, which meant that this country had been the pioneer, and he added, the world's master in the matter of railways. Marc Seguin built the first French railway a few years later, and bought from George Stephenson two locomotives to serve as models. As these locomotives were not fast enough he invented a tubular boiler to increase their power, and when Stephenson designed his "Rocket" he put in the boiler which Seguin had designed. He recalled this story as one of the best instances of the international co-operation of a scientific and industrial craft. The elements of the story are still going on for when Mr. Gresley brought over to France his Cock O' the North to be tested on the French experimental sta- tion, it was noticed that this station contained some important mechanical parts which were British made, and it was also noticed' that the engine itself contained some features which were inspired by the recent improvements brought about on the locomotive by French engineers. If Frenchmen were very much interested in being able to look over in detail Mr. Gresley's beautiful engine, he daresay that Mr. Gresley himself was able to learn something from the results of the tests which were made in the French station. He proposed the toast of constant friendship and co- operation between all railway engineers.
Mr. William Whitelaw, in proposing the toast of "The Institution," spoke of its prosperity and said he should like to see some of the railway companies prospering at the same rate. He spoke of what we have learned about the efficiency of the steam locomotive and about the organisation of the running sheds from our friends in France and Germany. Speaking of traction problems, he put electrification of main lines out of consideration, on account of the impossible expense, and left the question as to what is best-steam or Diesel-coal 'or oil. Every nation that has any railway service at all is more and more tending to confine itself to its native fuel. Our native fuel is coal. Consequently, our chief problem is the further development of the steam locomotive fired with coal. It is not a question so much -of more power as of gettmg that power more economically produced-which means we want to abolish the heating of axle boxes, and to reduce the coal consumption. We want to solve the problem of getting absolute steadiness of our locomotive at high speeds, because that means so much importance to the permanent way.
The President (Mr. Gresley) in replying to the toast recalled the fact that the Institution was founded in 1911, the year he was appointed C.M.E. of the late Great Northern Railway. He spoke of the continued growth of membership, and if the Institution continues to expand the Trocadero will soon be too small for the annual dinners. Dr. Wagner's paper had shown that railway engineers in Germany are doing all they can to develop the steam engine and to show it can give as good results as the Diesel engine. He was unable to say what they had definitely learned from the recent French visit, but they had learned a great deal. He did not mind saying one thing, namely, that the first Cock O' the North is the last Cock O' the North, and that the next engine of the same type will be modified in the light of what he had learned from the experiments and tests in France.

Great Western Railway.  94
New engines completed at Swindon during January were 0-6-0 tanks Nos, 9730 to 9744. Engines condemned were 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 50 (Rhymney No. 109) and 172 (R.S.B. No. 12), 0-6-0 tender engines Nos. 882 (Cambrian No. 79), and 1009 (M.S.W.J.R. No. 25) . 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 1045, 1226, 1704, 1708, 1723, 1791, 1946; 4-4-2 tank No. 2235 and 2-4-0 tender engine No. 3219. One of the 4-6-0 express engines No. 6014 King Henry VII, was being altered at Swindon to have a streamline effect.

Wagons for the conveyance of grain in bulk, Great Southern Railways. 95.  illustration
Twelve hopper grain wagons, similar to that shown in the reproduced photograph, have been recently constructed at the Inchicore Works for the conveyance of grain in bulk. They each have a capacity of 12 tons and will be loaded by gravity through two filling holes on the roof, these filling holes being fitted with watertight hinged covers. The design of the body is such that the load is self-trimming and discharge is effected through a six inch square outlet at the bottom, operated by a screw and lever from the side, suitable hoppers being placed between the rails to receive the grain. The body and underframe is constructed of rust-resisting steel: all joints, etc., in the body were electrically welded, rivets being used only in the gussets and stays. Vehicles built to the design of A. W. Harty, chief mechanical engineer of the Great Southern Railways.

Alterations at Old Oak Common Depot, G.W.R. 95
A big scheme to facilitate the formation of passenger trains is to be carried out by the Great Western Railway at Old Oak Common, the Engine and Carriage Depot for Paddington Station. The depot handles some 2,000 passenger coaches daily, empty stock from incoming expresses from the West of England, South Wales and the North being re-formed to provide the outgoing trains from Paddington. The time allowed for this is sometimes as short as two and a half hours during which the coaches and restaurant cars have to make a three-mile journey each way, be examined, cleaned, equipped, stocked and re-formed into their outgoing order. Considerable shunting operations are therefore involved throughout the 24 hours hours, and an average of five cuts is made to every empty stock train arriving at the depot. At present, there are some ten and a half miles of sidings at Old Oak including five roads for the reception of empty trains coming in from Paddington Station. Not more than nine to twelve coaches can be accommodated in each of these roads, whereas many of the longer trains to-day run from 14 to 17 coaches, and much additional shunting in such cases is necessary.
In addition, the incoming and outgoing lines to the depot cross each other at both the east and the west ends of the yard, and this retards shunting operations, particularly at holiday times or during foggy weather.
The new scheme involves relaying seven miles of sidings and the construction of three and a half miles of new sidings. There will be seven reception roads, each of 20- coach capacity, instead of the five shorter roads as at present.
Separate in and out lines to and from Paddington at both the east and the west ends of the yard will be provided, and, in addition, the twenty 1,000-feet long sidings in the covered carriage shed, itself as big as Paddington station, are to be re-arranged to simplify shunting. This shed will be equipped with an electrical charging plant for train lighting batteries. Steam heating arrangements are to be extended so that any, or all, of the trains standing on the forty sidings can be heated simultaneously.
New offices and mess-rooms are to be built for the staff which numbers between five and six hundred. An automatic telephone exchange is to be installed and telephones will be provided at more than seventy selected points throughout the depot and sidings. This will considerably expedite the work of forming the trains, particularly during fog, as shunters will be able to communicate with each other, the depot and any of the seven signal-boxes, or receive instructions without crossing the railway lines. Water columns are to be erected where engines can take water without stopping their shunting work, as is the case to-day.
The goods marshalling sidings are to be concentrated on the south of the main line, and space will be given to the extension of reception roads. A 70-ft. turntable is to re- place the existing one of 50 ft., and will permit the largest locomotives being turned.

Railway Club. 96
The annual general meeting was held on Friday 22 February 1935 at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall. The adoption of the annual report and financial statement was carried unanimously, and was followed by the election of officers and executive committee for the ensuing year. At the conclusion of the formal business Mr. Kenneth Brown gave his Presidential Address, taking for his subject "The Eastern Counties Railway." In the course of a witty and instructive address the President referred to the Eastern Counties Railway as the "cow" that was "milched" by all it came in contact with. The appalling financial position, the failure of King Hudson to rescue the shareholders, and many other features Of this unfortunate line were described in a masterly manner. The address was illustrated by an excellent series of lantern slides taken from contemporary illustrations. At a meeting to be held .on Friday April 5, at 7.30 p.m., R.M. Robbins will read a paper entitled Railway Stations and Architecture.

Correspondence. 96

Heilmann locomotive. M.H. Solomon. 96.
With regard to the Heilmann locomotive referred to in the March number of the Locomotive. In the years before the war I was acquainted with a man who was sent to France to take charge of some of the machinery. I remember he told me that the engine with which he was concerned was stationed at the Batignolles depot of the Western railway and that many trials and experiments were carried out on a short line that connected with the main line in St. Cloud station and ran to the site of the former palace in the park of St. Cloud. I well recollect the line in the station on the side nearest the river, but this has now been removed with the reconstruction that has been made by the Chemin de Fer de I 'Etat.

Brakes. C.A. Branston. 96
McDermid in his recent paper before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, though professedly dealing only with brakes for streamlined railway vehicles, in fact raises a number of points of quite as much interest and importance in connection with freight and passenger trains. There is a point in connection with wheel sliding to which it may be not uninteresting to refer here, viz., the influence of slack action on wheel sliding. The English railways are now beginning to equip some of their freight trains with continuous brakes and screw couplings, so that it may be expected that the conditions which cause this sliding will "rise there. more particularly so as on certain lines the brakes of not more than some 30 of the cars in a train are allowed to be connected up.
When an application' of the brake is being made, the for- ward cars of a train will be retarded before those further back, with the result that the slack will run in with a force depending on the rate of propagation of the retarda- tion and the amount of slack present. The impact between the rear cars and the already (or more) retarded forward ones will tend to accelerate the latter and increase correspondingly the angular velocity of their wheels. If at this moment the retardation due to the brake shoes should hap- pen to be in the neighbourhood of that which will cause sliding in the ordinary way, the impressed accelerative effort together with the retardation of the brake may well exceed the adhesion between wheel and rail; as the coefficient of friction between tyre and rail thereupon drops from static to kinetic, while that between brake shoe and tyre rises from kinetic to static, the wheels, once locked, will accordingly continue to slide till the brakes are released or the train comes to a stop.

Compound locomotives. William T. Hoecker. 96
In connection wi th your article on page 10 of the January Locomotive, may I be permitted to mention that the construction of compound locomotives with coupled axles, one being worked by a pair of high pressure cylinders and the other by a pair of low pressure cylinders. was first suggested by Anatole Mallet in a paper which he read before the Societe des Ingenieurs Civils de France in 1877, some ten years before the idea was put to a praotical test by others. M. Mallet always claimed the distinction of being the first to point out the essential features of the four-cylinder divided and balanced compound locomotive, a claim which was conceded by Prof. Van Borries at Chicago in 1893.
According to the tables accompanying Prof. Sauvages paper on Recent Locomotive Practice in France, in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers for 28th June, 1900, the boiler of engine No. C.1 had 185 tubes of 50 mm. external diameter, as described in your article, but No. C.2 had 224 tubes of 45 mm. external diameter. The total heating surface of No. C.2 was stated to be 129.29 m2 measured on the fire side. Similar variations in number and diameter of tubes, probably for comparative purposes, were. incorporated in the four 0-8-0 compound engines built about the same time. In all the succeeding compounds, Serve tubes of 65 mm. external diameter were fitted.

Reviews. 96-7

Red Road Through Asia. Bosworth Goldman, London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.
This most interesting book is the record of a journey made by the author starting from North Shields on the Llanelly steamer Sarastone, by way of the Arctic Ocean and Kara Sea to the new timber exporting town of Igarka in Siberia. five hundred miles from the Gulf of Yenisei. After a stay of some days he joined a flat-bottomed river steamer, the Spartak, for the journey up the great Yenisei to the town of Krasnoyarsk on the main line of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The railway east of the Urals is double-track, and trains are frequent; their freight in general is wood, oil, coal and agricultural machinery, and occasional guns and army material. The track is bad, and the train swayed like a ship in a gale. At Krasnoyarsk station the Manchurian express came in labelled "Moscow- Vladivostok," the passengers looking as dirty and worn as the train itself. The author travelled over the main line to the City of Novo-Sibirsk, the capital of Western Siberia, with a quarter of a million inhabitants, which he describes as an example of unplanned development with hideous new buildings already dilapidated. The Turk.-Sib. Rly., the Turkestan branch of the Trans. Siberian Ry. over which he next travelled, was opened in 1930. The journey from Novo-Sibirsk to Tashkent is supposed to occupy four days and nights, but though a time-table exists it is not possible, under present conditions, to adhere to it. His train was eight hours late in arriving at the Central Asian city. The Turk.-Sib. Rly. may be divided into three sections. The first is from Novo-Sibirsk to Semipalatinsk, 410 miles; this is of old construction, with plenty of rolling stock but all in bad condition. The central portion from Semipalatinsk to Lougovia is another 490 miles. As far as Alrna-Ata, 625 miles from Semipalatinsk, the line was in hand before the complete Turk.-Sib. project was fixed. On this section is the Toyasesk Pass with a tunnel in the climb, the only engineering difficulty, The last section from Lougovia to Arys, where the main line from Moscow to Tashkent via Orenburg is joined, is only some fifty miles long, and is part of an older branch line to Frunze. The new line from Alma-Alta is a great improvement on the older section. Powerful oil-burning locomotives haul the trains in both directions, most of them from the new works at Kharkoff. Further north the locomotives have to be of the old lightest type on account of the weak track. At Tashkent Mr. Goldman was arrested and his camera and films confiscated. The photograph he took of a lady station-mistress had a background of trains and rails, and no one would believe that she had been the object of the picture. We are able to reproduce this photograph by courtesy of the publishers. In the light of what was considered espionage, both camera and films were taken into custody. Thanks to our Foreign Office and the British officials in Moscow both camera and films were returned to Mr. Goldman in England and numerous illustrations "re reproduced of the journey as far as the end of the Turk.-Sib. Ry. After visiting the historic Central Asian cities of Sarnarkand and Bukhara the journey was continued to Krasnovodsk over the Trans-Caspian Rly. by steamer to Baku across the Caspian Sea, then to Tiflis and Batoum over the Vladikavkaz line where he joined an Italian steamer and returned to civilisation at Constantinople. The book is full of odd bits and out-of-the-way information with the author's opinions on all kinds of subjects at intervals. The narrative is well written and the comments are quite impartial. The journeys over the different railways will be of great interest to all travellers and rai lway men.

Electrical Year Book, 1935. London: Emmott & Co. Ltd., 97
The new edition of this pocket book is as useful as ever. An important new section, covering many pages, is devoted to Rectifiers. These appliances have been extensively developed for the conversion of alternating into direct current over a wide range of powers and voltages. Current is now supplied almost exclusively as A.C., and the range of rectifying apparatus at present ava ilable is indicative of the need for limited supplies of direct current in all branches of industry.

A manual of' foundry practice. J. Laing, and R.T. Rolfe, London: Chapman & Hall.
To many who wish to keep informed of the modern development of foundry practice, this book should be extrernely useful. It will fill a need that has been obvious during recent years, now that foundry practice has been transformed from a basis of rule and thumb methods to one of scientific and systematic control. As a book of reference it is intended for all connected with the foundry industry, for not only are the main principles dealt with fully, but the very comprehensive treatment of the advanced technique will appeal to the student as well as the foundry manager. The book is well illustrated by numerous drawings and photographs. The many design problems the engineer and foundryman have to face, and which modern production methods seem to make more complicated than ever, are systematically discussed. It is well known that trial and methods are often expensive experiments, and are often due to ignorance of the scientific aspects of the subject . After discussing the principles of moulding and core-making, the manufacture of all kinds of cores and their drying is dealt with. Design of moulding boxes and tackle and the intricacies of moulding, both plate and machine, are followed by chapters on moulding in relation to design and loam moulding. A long sec- tion on the metallurgy of cast iron and its melting is followed by one on chilled cast iron and special methods of production. Non-ferrous moulding is dealt with in the final chapter , and a table of contraction allowances as an appendix.

Boiler feed water. P.G. Jackson, Third edition. London: Charles Griffin & Co. Ltd.
The damage caused by unsuitable feed water by corrosion, grooving, bulging, leakage, etc., is well known to all who have anything to do with steam boilers. As chemist to a boiler insurance company, the author has had many oppor- tunities of investigating cases of feed water trouble, and this book gives the result of the experience he has gained. In this third and enlarged edition considerable revision has been made owing to the amount of research which has been carried out in recent years. A new chapter has been added to deal with modern views of scale formation, etc. For the convenience of chemists engaged in other branches of the profession a description of the methods of analysis used by the author and proved to be satisfactory, will be useful.

Locomotives of the L.N.E.R. past and present. London: Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.  97
This 50-page booklet is full of interesting information and facts concerning the notable locomotives of the constituent lines forming the L.N.E.R. group. The historical account i; followed by detailed descriptions of the present-day standard designs introduced since the amalgamation. These of course include the Super Pacifies; Sandringhams, Shires, Hunts, and the various mixed traffic, goods nnd tank engines. There are 36 illustrations, mostly reproduced for the first time. For those interested in such matters, there is a complete list of named engines, with their numbers, on the whole of the L. N. E. system. brought right up to date, including the series of  Sandringhams" under construction at Darlington, as well as the whole of the Hunt class. The cover has an excellent reproduction in colour of the Cock o' the North.

Facts about British Railways, 1935. 97
Issued by the British Railways Press Bureau, 35, this 30-page booklet is a mine of inforrnation, with an excellent map showing the routes of the famous main line expresses of the four companies. Copies ran be obtained free on application to the Press Office as above.

Trade notes and publications. 98

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 98
Contract to supply Assam Bengal Ry with six metre gauge YK class 2-6-0s

D. Wickham & Co. Ltd. 98
Orders from LNER for three inspection trolleys with trailers and from Argentine Central Ry. for 60 inspection trolley cars

Egyptian State Rys. 98
Order placed with Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. for 250 steel 10-ton box wagons and 54 animal wagons

Combined signal winch and gate stop lever. 98
To control level crossing gates supplied by Westinghouse Brake & Saxby Signal Co.

Number 512 (15 April 1935)

Locomotive running. 99
Wheel drops, hot water washing out, mechanical coaling and ash disposaland elevating platforsm

Stream-lined 3-cyl. 4-6-4 locomotive, German National Railways. 100-2. illustration, sectionalised side elevation diagram
Based on Wagner's ILocoE Paper 336. Essence aim was to produce comparable journey times to those attained by the Flying Hamburger.

High speed locomotives, Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.. 102-3. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Chief of Motive Power Baltimore & Ohio RR: G.H. Emerson instigated very neat Class J1 4-4-4 Lady Baltimore and 4-6-4 Class V2 Lord Baltimore illustrated on page 137

Railway Exhibition Stratford. 103
Scheduled for 4 and 5 May to raise funds for local hospitals: Works open to public; exhibits to include Pacific Papyrus, Sandringham Class locomotive, No. 8579 "which is being specially prepared" [not yet traced in which way]; Sentinel locomotive, instruction car, breakdown crane, dining car, sleeping car and Pullman car

Streamlined locomotive, G.W.R.. 104. illustration
No. 6014 King Henry VII streamlined for tests at high speeds

Side tank locomotive for the Mexican oil fields. 104. illustration
Hudswell, Clarke & Co. 2-6-2T with 17 x 24in cylinders and 3ft 9in coupled wheels and Holden liquid fuel firing.

Société Franco-Belge de Materiel de Chemins de Fer. 104
4-6-2+2-6-4 Beyer Garratt for Algiers to Oran and Algiers to Constantine passenger services. Fitted with Cossart valve gear and 290 psi boilers

Egyptian State Railways. 104
Fifty 2-6-0 locomotives ordered from North British Locomotive Co.: 20 to be fitted with Caprotti poppet valve gear

Hunslet Engine Co. 104
Six 2-6-0 being supplied to Assam-Bengal Railway with 14 x 22 in. cylinders: three to be fitted with RC poppet valve gear and three with Caprotti valve gear

W.G. Bagnall Ltd. 104.
Three 4-8-0 tender locomotives supplied to Gaekwar's Baroda State Rlys metre gauge lines

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Superstructures. 105-6.
External footplates or platforms, cabs, supports for pipes, footsteps, splashers, sandboxes and handrails.

Locomotive stock returns, 1930. 106-7. table

London & North Eastern Railway. 107
New Pacific No. 2508 named Brown Jack. North British Atlants withdrawn: No. 9871 Thane of Fife and No. 9873 St. Mungo. New D49 Hunt class Nos. 370 The Rufford, No. 374 The Sinnington, No. 375 The South Durham, No. 376 The Staintondale. GNR D3 class 4-4-0 had been fitted with a side window cab rather like those fitted to K2 class for service in Scotland [examination of RCTS Locomotives of the LNER shows something rather horrid, not much like K2 modification]

London Midland & Scottish Railway. 107.
Royal approval had been received to name 4-6-2 No. 5552 Silver Jubilee. No. 5348 Coronation was still in service: it had celebrated King Geore V'c Coronation in 1911

An unusual French railcar. 108-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation section & plan)
Built for Ardennes Departement by Deutsche Getriche GmbH in Berlin to operate on metre gauge lines from Charleville

F.W. Brewer. Old G.W.R. goods engines. 109-10. illustration
Double-frame No. 358 illustrated

Oil-fired steam railcars. Central Railway of Peru. 110-11. illustration
Sentinel-Cammell vehicle with automatic control. Livesey & Henderson, Consulting Engineers. T. Jefferson, Chief Mechanical Engineer

Streamlined locomotive, New York Central Lines, 111. illustration

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 111-13. 3 diagrams

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Speeding up of train sservices. 114
In his paper read before the Institution at the meeting held on March 28, when O. Bulleid occupied the chair, E.W. Selby discussed the existing services of road transport, the post-war slowness of the railwavs and the recent accelerations, and then touched on the difficulties of operating at high speeds over railways having frequent reverse curves such as occur on many parts of the former Midland Railway. He contended, however, that there is much scope for speeding up cross-country and secondary services. If more powerful engines were provided speeds could be increased on the more heavily graded lines. The second section of his paper gave attention to preliminary considerations in speeding up train services and particularly the locomotive problem. Since improvements in carriage and wagon construction, in the permanent way, signalling, station layouts and operating methods all contribute their quota towards speeding up services, they were referred to.
The insertion of ultra-fast expresses between the slower trains is a difficult problem on the already crowded sections. The author's solution is to speed up the whole service—all classes of traffic—by gradual curtailment of the running times. If th is can be done the whole of the travelling public will benefit, whereas the acceleration of some famous train benefits an infinitesimal portion of the daily passengers. In answer to the argument that such a speeding up would be very costly, it is the engineer's business to minimise that by making Improved and more economical locomotives and rolling stock. The accelerated service has one definite commercial advantage—quicker turn-over of rolling stock and personnel with attendant economies.
To obtain the maximum use out of locomotive stock the recent types of general-utility locomotives can be utilised on different kinds of trains and kept moving, and much greater mileages obtamed than when each class of locomotive must be kept to the class of work for which it was primarily intended.
It is suggested experimental services should be instituted to test the public demand for very fast travel, and as they are bound to be costly to work It will be necessary to charge an extra fare and take more than usual care to see that only suffi- cient coaches are run to carry the passengers. It may be an advantage to run one class only on these trains, with a few reservable compartments for business men, parties, ctc.
Improved efficiency of the French locomotive stock has been attained by (1) Increased steam generation, due to special apparatus for improving circulation, e.g., thermic syphons; (2) Feed water heating; (3) Increased boiler pressure; (4) Improved or larger superheaters; (5) Larger steam pipes and passages to reduce loss between boiler and h.p. cylinders, and between h.p. and lp. cylinders; (6) Extra large piston or poppet valves on the h.p. cylinders; (7) Double-ported piston or poppet valves on the l.p. cylinders; (8) Reduction in back pressure and improved draught by special blast pipe arrangements: (a) large diameter blast pipe and chimney, (b) double blast pipe and two chimneys.
Considering the conditions in this country, Selby suggested in designing locomotives for high speed services the driving wheel diameter should preferably be large, but in our restricted loading gauge it is difficult to arrange a boiler of any size above wheels more than 6 ft. 9 in. or 7 ft. diameter. In discussing piston speeds he advocated a 24 in. stroke if the railway is a very level one; if, on the other hand, there are many gradients a 26 in. or 28 in. stroke would be preferable, to improve the climbing speeds. To reduce the weight of reciprocating parts he suggested providing three or four cylinders because the parts were smaller and lighter than with two, and to make the pistons of aluminium alloy and the cross heads of special material. It is also proposed to split the drive between two axles so as to distribute the stresses. An additional advantage of this arrangement is that it enables the outside cylinders to be set back where they cause less "nosing" than if all cylinders drove the leading axle. The connecting rods are sufficiently long without having the excessive weight of, say, an 11-ft. rod.
The author then described two proposed high-speed designs—one for trains of 100 tons in weight and the other for handling 150 to 200 tons. The scheduled speed would be between 65 and 80 m.p.h. according to the nature of the route, with a maximum in ordinary service of 110 m.p.h. and the possibility of 120 m.p.h. being reached very occasionally. Among their special features were mechanical devices to aid the fireman, high steam pressure, a rocking grate to minimise "clinkering," very large stream-lined exhaust passages, and a stream-lined covering to the engine and tender, while brake power would have to be increased.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers.  114
Annual General Meeting on 28 March 28th. the following were elected to fill the vacancies occurring on 31 May. President, A.C. Carr; vice-presidents, H.P.M. Bearncs nnd J. Clayton ; members of council, 'I' S. Edwards, V. P. Gamon, H. E. Geer, C. D. Hanna, H. Holcrort, L.J. Le Clair, J. F. B. Vidall, W.L. Watson, F S. Whalley and Bruce White.

The "Schaku" automatic coupler for rail cars and other rolling stock. 115-16. 2 illustrations
One can see why name never took off in Britain where too like something from Trump Tower and rather difficult German Scharfenberg coupling became ubiquitous. As used by Netherlands Railways

Early compounds of the P.L.M. Railway. 116-17. diagram (side elevation)
Henry

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: combustion and boiler. 118-19.  10 illustrations

Locomotives of the Bengal and North Western Railway. 120-3. 9 illustrations
Illustrations: 2-4-0T No. A1 built by Dubs in 1874 preserved at Gorakhpur Works; Pacific No. 370; P class 4-6-0 No. 372;  P class 4-6-0 No. 417 with ACFI feed water heater

Banshee 1144, Oberon 1126, Kelpie, Ariel, Tit- ania, and Elfin, the makers' numbers of the last four not being known with certainty. The dimen- sions were as follows: cylinde s, 14 in. diameter by 20 in. stroke, leading and trailing wheels, 3 ft. 6! in., and driving wheels 5 ft. 6t in. diameter, wheelbase 13 ft., heating surface 612 sq. ft., pres- sure 120 lb., tank capacity 400 gallons, weight 26 tons. Banshee was exhibited at the Dublin Ex- hibition of 1865. These engines were found to be too light for the work intended, and do not appear to have been reboilercd ; they were w.th- drawn between 1887 and 1895, Ariel and Banshee being the last to go. With their disappearance no further engines seem to have been allotted to the separate "Kingstown" stock. In conclusion it will be seen that the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, though only a short line, presented features of considerable interest, and deserves a notable place in the history of the Irish railway system. For the greater part of the in- formation in this account we are indebted to Messrs. A. C. W. Lowe and K. A. Murray, to whom we tender our best thanks.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 125
Nos. 5005-11 are the latest 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines to be completed at Crewe. Of this series, it is understood that the first two engines, Nos. 5000-1, were for service on the Midland Division. Delivery had commenced from the Vulcan Foundry of an order for fifty similar engines, the first of which, No. 5075, was now undergoing tests. The North 'British Loco. Co. had completed delivery of the order for fifty 4-6-0 three-cylinder passenger engines, Nos. 5557- 5606 inclusive. Apart from Nos. 5586, 5594 and 5595, which had been allocated to the Midland Division, these engines  were attached to the Western Division. Engines recently turned out at Crewe rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers included 4-4-0 George V class, Nos. 5321, 5357 and 5365; 0-6-0 18-in. goods class No. 8518; and 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9124 and 9202. Leek and Manifold Valley Rly. 2-6-4T No. 2, which since the closing of the line had been stored at Crewe, was to be broken up. Other recent withdrawals comprised Claughton class Nos. 5909, 5912, 5947, 5991; also Prince of Wales class Nos. 25608, 25661, 25554, 5714, 5814. 0-4-0 Dock Shunter No. 1542 (Western Division) had been re-numbered 7002. It is presumed that the five engines in this series, Nos. 1540-4, are to be re-numbered 7000-4.
Midland Section. Five of the improved 2-6-2 passenger tank engines had been completed at the Derby Works, Nos. 71-5. Engines recently withdrawn included 4-4-0 No. 389; also 0·6-0  No. 22828. New 4-6-0 two-cylinder mixed traffic engines ex Vu1can Foundry now allocated to the Midland Division  were Nos. 5031-42 and 5053-8. The new three-cylinder 2-6-4 tank engines were working into Fenchurch Street Station.

Obituary. 125
F.C. Coleman, founder-editor and managing director of weekly Modern Transport died in Cape Town on 11 March. At the time of his death Coleman was acting as a delegate representing the British technical press at the Imperial Press Conference which has been touring South Africa. He was 56 years of age. Born in Norfolk and educated at Queen Elizabeth Grammar School, Darlington, Coleman served in the Traffic Dept. of the North Eastern Railway from 1894 to 1906. He then entered journalism and for some time was a regular contributor to The Times. During WW1 he joined the Artists' Rifles, serving as Assistant Adjutant at the Railway Troops Depot at Longmoor. Later, at the War Office he acted in a liaison capacity with the Railway Executive Committee in connection with the recruitment ancl allocation of men drawn from the railways for military service. Subsequently, he was responsible for the organisation on a "War Establishment" basis of the personnel at the Transportation Depot and Train Ferry Terminal at Richborough. Demobilised in 1918 with the rank of Major, he was mainly instrumental in March 1919 in founding Modern Transport, and it was largely due to his enterprise and ability that that journal owes the position it has attained in the world of transport and technical journalism.

must occur through leakage, etc., are recuperated from an evaporator on the tender, so that only pure condensed water is admitted to the circuit, which has of course a most favourable influence on the boiler maintenance and greatly prolongs the intervals between washing-out.

The locomotive to which this apparatus has been applied is one of a numerous and useful class on the Russian railways. It is designed for opera- ting heavy freight trains at' a maximum speed of EO km.jhr. and has a theoretical tractive effort of 20,160 kgs. (44,445 lb.) at 75 per cent. boiler pressure. The axle load is limited to 16.9 metric tons, and the engine can traverse curves of 180 m. (590 ft.) radius, the total wheelbase of 5.780 m. (18 ft. 11.5 in.) being reduced to a rigid base of 4.320 m. (14 ft. 2 in.) by the allowance of side-play. Other leading dimensions are as follows:- Cylinders (2): diameter, 650 mm. (25.5 in.);

Replica of the "Rocket" at the Science Museum. 126-7. illustration
L. Hore-Belisha unveiled replica at Science Museum on 11 April. Replica built by Robert Stephenson & Sons. Article summaries histort of original locomotive and how the remains of it were obtained for conservation via Messrs. Thompson of Kirkhouse.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway.  127
Introduction of further high-speed passenger schedules commencing with the Spring Time Table which went into force on Monday, 29 April, announced. Three new timings at average speeds of over 60 m.p.h. start-to-stop to be brought into operation, raising the total daily mileage in this category to the record figure of 1,235 miles per day. The new schedules:
The 08.30 express from Manchester (London Road) to Euston to cover the 62.8 miles from Blisworth to Euston in 61 minutes, average speed 61.7 m.p.h. The 09.00 Perth to Euston to cover the same section of tile journey in 62 minutes, average 60.8 m.p.h. The 09.18 Birkenhead to Euston to run from Crewe to Euston, 158 miles, in 155 minutes, average speed 61.2 m.p.h.
In addition, The Fylde Coast Express (08.25 Saturdays excepted, Blackpool Central to Euston) which already had a 60 m.p.h. schedule, was being made faster still. to run from Crewe to Euston at an average of 61.6 m.p.h., covering the 158 miles in 154 minutes. All other L.M.S. schedules at average speeds of 60 m.p.h. or over were being retained, having proved satisfactory in practice, and with the new high-speed runs now being added, the company will have ten trains daily booked at 00 m.p.h. or over. Other features of the new time table, which will operate until the introduction of the full summer service on 8 July, include: Speeding-up of cross-country services, including extended and improved express services between Liverpool, Manchester, Huddersfield, Leeds, Newcastle and the North East; through carriages-for the first time on record-between Glasgow and Llandudno. These will be conveyed by a new Saturdays only restaurant car express leaving Glasgow Central at 10.25 for Blackpool; the 09.39 express Wolverhampton to London will be accelerated to arrive at Euston 12.31 p.rn, instead of 12.35 p.m., performing the 67¼ miles journey from Northampton non-stop at an average speed of 57.6 m.p.h.

Clogiier Valley Railway. 127
One of the Castledearg and Victoria Bridge Railway locomotives, No. 4, a 2-6-0 tank, had been taken over by the C.V.R. and is being rebuilt at the Aughnacloy Works and converted to the 2-6-2 type. The bunker accommodation will be increased, necessitating lengthening the engine, and the provision of an additional radial truck to take extra weight.

L. & N.E.R. London-Newcastle high-speed run. 127
On Tuesday 5 March, it is stated that on the double journey of 536 miles .the coal consumption of engine 2750, Papyrvs, amounted to 10¾ tons, equivalent to about 45 lb. per mile. Excluding the coal used dn lighting up, the consumption was about 43 lb. per mile. South Yorkshire coal was supplied to the engine. This is a very low figure, as the average consumption for the "Pacifics" on the main line between King's Cross and Doncaster is between 50 and 55 lb. per mile, but of course with much heavier loads.

Diesel engined railcar, Italian State Railways. 128. illustration
Competition between the railway and road motors and the decreasing traffic on secondary lines had drawn the attention of Italian builders of railway rolling stock to the necessity of building new transport units for economical operation, and with this in view it will be of interest to note that the Societa Anonima Italiana Ernesto Breda of Milan has recently completed a new type of Diesel railcar. On a trial run from Milan to Domodossola a speed of 135 km. per hour was attained. The first of the Diesel engined railcars had been employed on the Massalombarda-Irnola railway in the district of Bologna, the service being inaugurated early in December last. It is anticipated, as the Italian State Rlys. ordered another 20 Diesel railcars from the Breda Co. and the Fiat Works of Turin were also starting to build Diesel engined railcars, that their use will be extended on other private railways on which traffic has been decreasing.

Stream-lined train for the L & N.E.R. 128
Named the Silver Jubilee, the London & North Eastern Railway decided to introduce a fast train between Newcastle-on-Tyne and London, timed to do the run of 268 miles, with one intermediate stop at Darlington, in four hours. The train will come into operation on 1 October, as it is not possible to introduce it during the summer months, owing to the fact that specially designed rolling stock is to be constructed. The train will leave Newcasnle-on-Tyne daily (except on Saturdays and Sundays) at 10 a.m. and arrive at King's Cross at 2 p.m. On the return trip the departure will be at 5.30 p.m. and Newcastle-on-Tyne reached at 9.30 p.m. At Darlington connections will be made with Middlesbrough, Stockton and Hartlepool. The first and third class corridor coaches and restaurant cars will seat 194 passengers, and will be built on the articulated principle. The whole train, including the locomotive, will be streamlined. Owing to the limited accommodation a small supplementary charge will be made. The introduction of this train will necessitate modification in the timings of existing services.

Great Western Railway. 130
New engines completed at Swindon during February were 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 9745-9 and 4-6-0 passenger engines Nas-. 5941-2. Engines condemned were 0-6-2 tank No. 187 (P.T.R. No. 12) ; 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 753, 854, 1136, 1936; 0-4-2 tank No. 835; 2-4-0 tank No. 1492; 4-6-0 tender engines Nos. 2918, 2977 and 4024.

The Meigs Railway.  130.  illustration
R. Lloyd L. Reise of Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A., sends us the accompanying photograph of an American railway freak which was demonstrated in June 1886. The unit comprised a locomotive, tender and coach operated on a single wooden rail by flangeless wheels set at an acute angle, the proposal being to use it on an elevated iron track in cities. The vehicles had cylindrical bodies with stream lined extremities, mounted on girder underframes and supported by four-wheeled bogies. The driver's cabin was elevated above the body of the locomotive. The photograph shows this extraordinary train on a half circle track with a radius of 30 ft. and on a 1 in 120 ft. grade. It is said to have been capable of mounting grades of 350 ft. per mile.

Locomotive works at Orsk-Khalllovo, Russia. 130
Very large locomotive plant under construction in Russia as part of the industrial development of the Orsk-Khalilovo District in the Urals, where there are valuable mineral deposits. These include large quantities of iron ore, copper and other minerals. The plant will have an annual capacity of 540 powerful steam locomotives and 540 Diesel engines, and will be one of the biggest enterprises in the area,.It will be necessary to' build two-new railway lines, one fram Orsk to Akmolinsk and another from Aktyubinsk to Orsk, Magnitogorsk and Chelyabinsk.

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 130
Order fram the Crown Agents far the Colonies far three tank shunting locomotives af the 0-8-0 type, with 18 in. by 23 in. cylinders for the Gold Coast Government Railways, 3 ft. 6 in. gauge.

Bombay, Barada & Central India Ry.  130
Ordered 350/400 h.p. Diesel-electric shunting locomotive, 5 ft. 6 in. gauge, from Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. Ltd.

Australian locomotlve notes. 131
As in the grealer part of the globe, conditions here are so quiescent that little or no new important rolling stock has been added during last year. In several of the States, however, notable improvements in existing stock are continually being made and the conversion of the old chain or screw coupling to automatic couplers in Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia has now reached proportions allowing fairly general improvement in schedules and loads and handling. Another improvement on these lines is the introduction of electric headlights for the locomotives.
Victorian Railways During a considerable portion of the year, Harold Clapp, Chairman of the Commissioners, has been in Europe and America engaged in intensive study of the latest methods likely to be adaptable to colonial conditions, with particular attention to railcars. Both petrol electric and straight petrol driven cars arc covering a large and useful mileage, but the Diesel engine has not yet been tried in Australia.
The Victorian Railways differ from most of the Australian systems in having got rid of virtually all their "veteran" engines and there are only two classes of yard pilots over 30 years and a number of even "younger" engines have been scrapped. A number of the standard light line 4-6-0 engines of the DD class have been rebuilt with bigger boilers and these are proving as successful as might be expected. Another long series of interesting experiments has been taking place on the front ends of the big 2-8-0 C's and the bigger 2-8-2 X's, and with lower and larger blast pipes and amended funnel shafts and varied spark-arresting an immense improvement in drafting, steaming, smokebox ash clearing and actual running has been achieved and loads or speeds, or both, have been most appreciably improved. following this, similar front end drafting arrangements are being made on the 4-6-0 A2s, with the result of some splendid handling of passenger trains over the 2,000 feet or so main line summits, Non-stop runs of 100 miles with between 2'00 and 300 ton trains over such rises as these in just a few minutes over two hours indicate good design and good handling, especially with a maximum speed allowed of 60 miles an hour. It is unfortunately not possible to go into details here, but it is a wonderful example of "handling" that on two trips of which our correspondent has exact information, the fastest mile took 61 seconds on one trip and 62 on the other, In the endeavour to make "Unemployment Relief" of lasting value the Victorian Government have worked in with the Railway Commissioners and several important regrading improvements and a large mileage of re-sleepering have been carried out through this agency.
The fitting of automatic couplers of the M.C,B, type goes on steadily, a1l stock trucks are now so fitted and a 72 - wagon sheep train appeared in these pages some time ago, Unfortunately the side buff- ers have still to be retained ex- cept that a large number of the sheep trucks and some other types have been" paired" and run with automatic couplers between each two, With a large proportion of auto-coupled wagons next the engines it is now possible to haul loads double-headed over the grades where it was previously considered unsafe. Among other modern practices, that of building steel wagons and locomotive tenders "all welded" is now in operation.

Railway Club.  131
Friday, 3 May 3, scheduled at 7.30 p.rn. J.W.C. Logan will read a paper entitled "Railways in the Air" at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall.

English Electric Co. Ltd. 131
Received an order from tbe Great Western Railway for a 300/350 H.P. 50-ton diesel-electric shunting locomotive. This would be built in conjunction with R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. who would supply the mechanical structure, the English Electric Company supplying the Diesel engine, generator, driving motors and control equipment of their own design and manufacture. This locomotive to be identical with the ten under construction for the L. M & S.R., the contract for which was placcd with the English Electric Co. at the beginning of the year.

Reviews. 132

Modern heavy oil engines simply explained. R. Barnard Way, London: Percival Marshall & Co., Ltd.
This handy volume of 264 pages tells the story of the design and working of internal combustion engines using heavy-oil fuels, as applied to stationary power plants and to transport by land, sea and air. Written in lucid style and in non-technical language, the book is intended to appeal to a wide public; but it contains, in concise form, a large amount of information which should be eminently useful to the technical specialist in any branch of the subject. Especially to be commended are the excellent explanatory drawings, over one hundred of which, prepared by the author, constitute the majority of the illustrations. Two -chapter s are devoted to the application of heavy-oil engines to the needs of railway transport; and herein, as throughout the book, the author is careful not to dogmatise either for or against the heavy-oil engine, and remains perfectly fair to other forms of motive power now being tried on the railways. Descriptions of various methods of applying oil- engines to railway locomotive purposes cover a period from 1909 to the present day; the Kitson-Still locomotive, con- structed by Kitson's and tried on the L.N.E.R. a few years ago, receives extended notice in the text and illustrations, and some of the results of the trials of this interesting machine are given in tabular form. Elsewhere in this book many interesting facts are stated; for example, many readers will be surprised to learn that what is called a "Diesel" engine to-day is really nothing of the kind, but is due, in the main, to one Henry Akroyd Stuart, a Yorkshirernan. The Diesel engine proper differs from the compression-ignition type, and was originally designed to use pulverised solid fuel. This book is to be highly rceorn- mended to all who are interested in its subject.

G.W.R. Holiday Haunts, 1935. Paper cover. Office of the Superintendent of the Line, Paddington.
Excellent as have been previous additions of this attractive volume, the 1935 issue is even better. As this year is the centenary of the G.W.R. the opening chapter is devoted to a summary of the part played by the railway during its existence in developing the resorts it serves. It is accompanied by an appropriate pictorial supplement in which are many interesting and striking reproduction of features connected wirh the railway including Frith's famous painting of Paddington station, building the Saltash bridge, past and present rolling stock, etc. The publication retains its usual familiar features, with an entirely new series of beautiful views of the finest scenery in England and \Vales accompanied by descriptive notes. The book, which contains 1,024 pages, is arranged in seven sections, namely:-(1) London and Southern Countics; (2) Thc Cornish Riviera ; (3) Glorious Devon; (4) Somerset, Dorset and the Channel Islands; (5) North Wales; (6) South Wales and Monmouthshire ; and (7) Midland Counties and the Isle of Man. Mention should also be made of the large folding map of the G.W.R. A special supplement gives information about steamship services to all parts. Very full particulars are given of the holiday accommodation, and hotel services, as well as details regarding camping coaches, fares, etc.

Railway Correspondence and Travel Society
Complete list of the locomotive stock of the main line companies of Great Britain as at 31 December 1934, including alterations to stock during 1934. The locomotives of each company are grouped under the wheel arrangements', and sub-divided to convenient classifications. Special attention is drawn to classes which became extinct and as many as possible of these are illustrated.

Correspondence. 132

Suburban passenger train services. J.C. Cosgrave
In your admirable leading article upon "Suburban passenger train services," a point is conceded. in favour of electric traction which in fact does not exclusively apply to it. In France, for some years past heavy suburban trains have been operated at high speeds by steam locomotives with success and safety on the "push and pull" system; the last coach being provided with a compartment fitted with all necessary controls so that the train can be driven from the rear without need for detaching the locomotive.

First-class and other carriages. C.H. Ellis.
I do not travel first class, unless someone else pays; may I, however, presume to applaud Sinkinson's defence of British first class carriages? Present day first class carriages are certainly furnished with some idea of good taste, though the passing of gilding, picking out and padded doors have lost them their former impressive pomposity. You cannot cross a gorgeous throne room with a comfortable smo·king room. A pity that nobody ever went to' the length of producing a Rococo dining car, it would have been a good thing to look back at. Sinkinson calls the coaches of the old London and South Western dowdy and uncomfortable. Most pre-war carriages were dowdy, to' begin with, and those of the London and South Western were not uncomfortable at all. The general standard, in fact, was better than that of most railways. Nearly all their coaches were mounted on bogies at a time when six-wheelers still cropped up, now and then, on the East Coast expresses. What about the Lancashire and Yorkshire, with its villainously ugly dining cars, and its "thirds" lined in that beastly shiny horsehair? Or the North British coaches with their miserable drabness and their peculiar smell? Or the Great Eastern coaches with sinister stains on their red plush? Sinkinson does a grave injustice to myoid friend, the South Western.

Trade Notes and Publications. 132

Perfectol Car Cleaner
Used for the cleaning of railway and road transport vehicles and hitherto an American product was being manufactured in England by Henry W. Peabody & Co. Ltd. of London, who for the past 30 years have handled Perfectol for home and export trade. The new factory in London and manufacture had already commenced.

Number 513 (15 May 1935)

April, nineteen-hundred. 133-5.
London & North Western Railway passenger timetable for 1900. At that time Birmingham was very poorly served. Holyhead for Dublin was very important. Restaurant and sleeping car services

Loxdon, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 135
Further 4-6-0 two-cylinder mixed traffic engines completed recently at Crewe were Nos. 5012-19, completing a series of twenty. A new series or five similar engines numbered 5070-74 was in hand at Crewe. Of the fifty engines of that type ordered from the Vulcan Foundry those so far delivered bore Nos. 5075-96. Armstrong-Whitworths had also commenced delivery of an order for 100 engines of the same type, the first three at Crewe being Nos. 5125-7. The following engines were running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-4-0 George V class Nos. 5307 and 5358; 0-6-0 18 in. goods class No. 8401; 0-8-0 G2 class Nos. 9400 and 9413. 0-8-0 class GI No. 9357 had been converted from steam to vacuum brake throughout.
Withdrawals of note included 4-cylinder Claughtons Nos. 5900 Sir Gilbert Claughton, 5912 Lord Faber, and 5929 J.A.F. Aspinall; also 5ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tank No. 6709 and the last of the ordinary 4-4-0 Precursors, viz., No. 5235 Moonstone. This latter was the original L.N.W. engine No. 2583 Teutonic and was built in January 1906. During WW1 it was renamed The Tzar, this being changed later to Moonstone. There were still 65 superheated Precursors" in service, all rebuilt with extended smokeboxcs except one, No.. 5270 Marmion, which retained the original short smokebox and 19 in. cylinders. At Derby new 2-6-2 passenger tank engines were out up to No. 80, which was stationed at Heaton Mersey (Midland division). Of this series Nos. 71-5 were at work on the Central division; and Nos. 76-8 on the Western division. The present order was for twenty engines, Nos. 71-90; these to be followed by 54 others of the same type, Nos, 91-144 inclusive.
No. 5536, Baby Scot class. attached tn Longsight depot, now carried the name Private W. Wood, V.C.

Four-cyl. simple expansion loco. Type 1, Belgian National Rlys. 136-7. illustration,  diagram (side elevation)
Fifteen locomotives built by main Belgian locomotive manufacturers with a form of semi-streamlining, a type of conjugated valve gear driven by levers in front of outside cylinders, high (265 psi) boiler pressure, Delta trucks and double chimneys.

4-6-4 high speed passenger loco. Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 137. illustration
Lord Baltimore painted blue with combined fire and water tube boiler working at 350 psi and 7ft coupled wheels. See also p. 102

Six coupled goods locomotive, class 710, Gt. Southern Rlys..138. illustration,  diagram (side elevation)
A.W. Harty version of J15 0-6-0

Jubilee exhibition of locomotives and rolling stock at Euston Station. 139.
No. 5348 Coronation (LNWR.4-4-0) was also exhibited. Details of No.5552's chromium plating (Adey's Process) are included.

L.M.S. operating developments. 139
With the introduction on Monday, 29 April, of the Spring and Early Summer Time Table, the London, Midland and Scottish Railway successfully inaugurated new fast shedules whereby the total mileage scheduled at start-la-stop average speeds of 60 m.p. h. or over had been raised to the record ligure of 1,235 miles per day.
A feature of these accelerations was that of the six expresses which due to arrive at Euston between 12.31 and 13.30. on week-days, four were timed to make the final stages of their journey into London at speeds of over 60 m.p.h., the points whence these runs are made being Blisworth (62.8 m.), Crewe (158.1 m.}, two' runs, and Wilmslow (176.9 m.).
All these trains arrived at Euston on or before time on the first day of the new schedules, and while no attempt was made to run at exceptional speeds, some noteworthy performances were accomplished. Particularly was this the case with one of the mid-day group of trains into Eusron which is not scheduled at over 60 m.p.h., but has nevertheless been accelerated to a speed requiring excellent work under the conditions. This is the 09.39 express from Wolverhampton which, in order to keep clear of the 08.30 from Manchester via Stoke (itself accelerated to run up from Blisworth in 61 minutes) had been speeded-up to cover the 67.6 miles from Northampton to Euston (via Blisworth) in 70 minutes. This train, consisting of eight coaches, 240 tons, hauled by a 5X Class 4-6-0 engine, No. 5523, left Northampton two minutes late and ran the 67.6 miles to Euston in 63 minutes, at an average start-to-stop speed of 64.4 m.p.h., which included a severe slowing over the junction from the branch to the main line at Blisworth. The 54.5 miles from passing Roade to passing Willesden Junction were covered in 44 minutes, at an average speed of 74.4 m.p.h. The engine in charge of Driver W. Knapp and Fireman R.W. Speed of Camden shed.
The 09.18 express from Birkenhead to Euston (10 ex Chester) had been accelerated to arrive at 13.10, instead of 13.15., involving a non-stop run from Crewe to Euston in 155 minutes for the 158.1 miles (61.2 m.p.h.) and this train arrived at Euston one minute early. It consisted of 13 coaches (391 tons tare), hauled by a Royal Scot 4-6-0 engine Jenny Lind, Driver Georgc J. Deveraux and Fireman F. H. Willliams, of Bangor shed, and the maximum speed attained was 82 rn.p.h. at Nash Mills. From a locomotive standpoint the most noteworthy work of the day was performed by a train other than in the mid- day group of arrivals at Euston. This is the 09.00, express from Perth. which had been accelerated to run the 62.8 miles Blisworth to Euston in 62 minutes start-ta-stop, at an average speed of 60.8 m.p.h. On the inaugural occasion Royal Scot class engine No. 6116, Irish Guardsman, in charge of Driver L. A. Earl and Fireman 'W. Lapham of Camden shed, had a load behind the tender of 399 tons tare, or about 425 tons with passengers and luggage, yet the 62.8 miles were covered in 59· rnins. 46 secs. start-to-stop, 'It an average speed of 63.0 m.p.h. With this substantial load, the speed did not fall below 60 m.p.h. at the end of i he long climb to Tring Summit, while the 28.7 miles of favourable grades between Tring and Kilburn were run in under 23 minutes at an average of 75.2 m.p.h., the highest rccorded speed being 85.4 m.p.h , near Wembley.
The Saturdavs excepted Fylde Coast Express has now been accelerated to arrive at Euston at 12.50 instead of 12.52, making the run from Crewe in 154 minutes, nt 61.6 m.p.h. On April 29 it arrived two minutes early, nver aging 62.4 m.p.h. over the 158.1 miles, the load being seven coaches, 224 tons tare. Another new 60 m.p.h, schedule was that of the 08.30 express from Manchester to Euston via Stoke-on-Trent, booked to cover the 62.8 miles from Blisworth to Euston in, 61 minutes, at an average start-to-stop speed of 61.7 m.p.h. On the same day this train performed the final section of the journey in 59 minutes (63.9 m.p.h.}, the load being 251 tons. Both these latter trains were hauled by standard 4-6-0 engines of the 5X class the respective drivers being Crossthwaire (Preston) and Byford (Carnden}.

Locomotive conversions, Nigerian Railway. 140-3. 2 illustrations, 6 diagrams (side & front elevations)
Ambitious programme conducted at the Ebute Metta shops to bring two types of 4-8-0 up-to-date involved new frames, cylinders and motion, and in one series larger coupled wheels. A 4-6-0 design had ceased to be useful and was converted to 4-6-4T with new frames supplied from the United Kingdom. Work directed by M.P. Sells, chief mecanical engineer

L.M. & S.R. 143
Renovation of Sharnbrook Viaduct whichb crossed the River Ouse north of Bedford was nearly complete. Electric welding had been employed on the metal girders

T.H. Sanders. Lubrication of laminated springs. 143-7.  2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Quotes sections from the Report of the Bridge Stress Committee and notes two sources of relief: the Asspi system used on Swedish railways manufactured by Svenska Spiralfabriken, the Jonas Woodhead system and the Mohr and Federhaff AG system

Air-cooled diesel engines for railcar service. 147-9. 2 diagrams (including side elevation & plan)
Spanish design

New restaurant cars, L.N.E.R. 149-50. illustration
Two first class cars for King's Cross to Scotland services, furnished by White, Allom & Co. with independent chairs and electric cooking.

Model Railway Exhibition. 150
Held at Central Hall Westminster. Many model makers listed by name with their models. Driver Irvine of LNER drove some of the larger models as well as exhibiting his own model.

Relics uncovered. 150
During reconstruction of the Burleigh Bridge in Derbyshire stone blocks from the original permanent way of the North Midland Railway were found as part of the stonework for the abutments of the bridge over the River Derwent.

L.M. & S.R. mixed traffic engines built at Scotswood Works. 151. illustration
On Tuesday, 16 April the first three of the order for 100 4-6-0 type mixed traffic locomotives placed in October last by the L.M. & S.Rly. with Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. (Engineers) Ltd. were despatched from Scotswood Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne en route for Carlisle, where they were taken over by their owners. The engines were numbered 5125-6-7. These locomotives were being built to the designs and under the supervision of W.A. Stanier, chief mechanical engineer. Members of Staff, and officials present were, W.W. MacArthur, General Manager, G.H. Wood, L.M.S., Chief Inspector. Z.Z. Ing, Mechanical Engineer, Ministry of Railways, Xaukin, China, M. Blacklock, Chief Designer, H.E. Loney, L.M.S. Inspector, S.G. lrving,. C.R. Salmon, London Representative, J. Thom, Assistant Works Manager, Scotswood,. H.F. Evans, L.M.S. Inspector, R. McKean, Chief Loco. Draughtsman, Scotswood.

Turkish Government. 151
Agreed to purchase the British-owned Ottoman Railway from Smyrna to Aidin for £1,826,000. The railway to be taken oyer on June 1.

Chicago, Milwaukee and S. Paul R.R 151
To compete with the Diesel-electric trains of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy R.R. between Chicago and St. Paul, and the Chicago and North Western's high-speed steam train, the Chicago, Milwaukee and S. Paul R.R. has taken delivery 01 a stream-lined locomotive which is expected to draw a train at 100 m.p.h. and attain when necessary a speed of over 120 m.p.h. It is the first of two engines built by the American Locomotive Company at their Schenectady Works.

Tasmanian Government Railways. 151
Ordered from Sentinel" Waggon Works Ltd. two 250/300 steam rail cars for service on the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. Six-cylinder single acting Sentinel standard engines drive on each bogie. The bogie at the boiler end has three axles, and the other bogie hadtwo axles.

New loco. shops at Inchicore, Great Southern Railways. 152-3. 2 illustrations.
An erecting shop. Included two 40 ton overhead cranes supplied by the Vaughan Crane Co. of Manchester and a 75 ton traverser. Machinery powered by electricity

Maryport & Carlisle line. 153.
Bullsgill to Brigham via Dearham line closed to all traffic on 27 April 1935

Bishop's Castle Railway. 153
Closed to all traffic on 20 April 1935. T.R. Perkins describe line in 1930, 36 beginning page 345

Rebuilding of Fenchurch Street Station. 153-4.
Longer platforms for Southend trains. Subway to John Street entrance. Colour light signalling. Stanier three-cylinder 2-6-4Ts in service.

Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. Ltd. 154
Four standard 0-6-0 shunting locomotives ordered by Crown Agents for the Colonies for Palestine Railways.

Federated Malay States Railways. 154
Two first class coaches ordered from Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd to be fitted with J. Stone & Co. air-conditioning equipment

London Passenger Transport Board. 154
14 motor coaches and 14 trailer coaches ordered from Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd for service on the District lines. Motors to be supplied by General Electric and traction gear by British Thomson-Houston.

L.N.E.R. 154.
Order for 25 vestibuled open third class carriages plced with Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd

Vulcan Foundry. 154
Crown Agents for the Colonies order for 12 superheated boilers for 4-6-0 locomotives on Palestine Railways

Obituary. Mr. J.G.H. Warren. 154-5. illustration (portrait)
Material used to slightly augment existing entry

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. Combustion and boilers. 155-7. 9 diagrams
Flame passages or flues

Coned versus cylindrical wheel tyres. 156-7.
Relative merits being tested in France. Stroudley provided parallel tyre treads and driving wheels with thin flanges on the Gladstone's, as well as his other engines. The leading coupled wheels (these were 0-4-2) had a cone of 1: 32. It should be noted that the coned tread assists the rolling as regards flange and dimensional accuracies.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Locomotive Testing Plants. 157
A large and representative audience assembled at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on 17 April to hear the paper 338 contributed by M. Pierre Place, Chief Engineer of the O.C.E.M., Paris, on Locomotive Testing Plants with special reference to the very complete arrangements of the French railways at Vitry. The author described in detail the method of making tests and remarked that they ensured accuracy within 5 per cent.
The wheels of the locomotive to be tested rest on rollers which turn with them. The rollers are braked by suitable brakes. As a result the locomotive is supported on the rollers as it is usually on the rails, and can exert a tractive effort on a dynamometer to which it is connected by its drawbar and pin.
The speed of the locomotive is varied by braking the rollers more or less heavily.
The dynamometer measures the tractive effort corresponding to each speed.
The circumferential speed of the locomotive wheels is also measured, and by integrating the tractive effort to the distance travelled the work done at the tread is obtained.
Special instruments, such as pyrometers, pressure gauges, vacuum gauges, combustion gas analysers, etc., are available for use in connection with boiler tests and in preparing the heat balance sheets. Other instruments are provided in connection with the tests on the engine and of these the following general conditions may be noted.
A. Accuracy.-This depends upon-
The apparatus selected:
The way it is used;
Checking its accuracy and keeping it in good repair;
The method of making the tests; and
The operators.
B. Conoeniency
This depends upon-
The ease with which the instruments can be used;
The possibility of being able to record the results
The instr:uments standing rough usage, that is, upon their being strongly made and easily kept in repair.
C. Caoacity
The test plant must be capable of testing the largest and most powerful locomotives, not only at the present time but also in the rather distant future.
The Amsler instruments are to very rigid requirements as the following will confirm:
The maximum differences between the registered and the real values recorded, are:-
Speed and pull, well below 1 per cent.
Work done, below 2 per cent.
Power, below 3 per cent.
The Pyrometers are exact to within 1 per cent.
The automatic smokebox gas analysers are very accurate but are used as indicating instruments only. The heat balance sheets are based on analyses made with the Orsat instrument.
The coal and the ashes are weighed on a weigh- ing machine to within 1 per cent.
The ash is collected in the smoke duct in the roof; the velocity of the smoke is low in this duct and the ash drops into it. It is then removed and weighed.
The cold water fed into the boiler is measured by graduated tanks. Water lost at the injectors is collected and measured. The hot water actually injected into the boiler is measured by piston meters correct to the thousandth part, and this enables investigation of problems relating to injectors and feed pumps.
In the LOCOMOTIVE for December 1933' we gave a description of the plant at Vitry, and M. Place at his lecture after minutely explaining the details of gear, illustrated all the operations with a very fine collection of slides which further included an interesting series of cinematograph pictures and moving diagrams produced on the Disney system; these were most entertaining. At the close of the lecture Mr. Gresley, who occupied the chair, in proposing thanks to the lecturer, complimented ~1. Place on his interesting paper and remarked on the immense amount of research work undertaken at Vitry ,
Mr. Elphinston emphasised the precision of the recording instruments used, while Mr. Stanier in expressing his thanks to M. Place said he was much impressed with the way they set the wheels of the engine to be tested on the rollers of the plant.
Sir Clement Hindley commented on the lack of such a testing plant in this country, the original home of the steam locomotive. He thought the building firms would greatly benefit by havinv such a testing plant available. Sir Hugh Reid described how a testing plant had been hastily devised at the North British Locomotive Works for securing data required in the construction of a new turbine locomotive. Among other speakers were Messrs. Chambers, Sams and Borrett. M. Place, responding in French, assured the members of the pleasure it had given him to come over and give a lecture, and also his appreciation of the British locomotive engineers' efforts to improve the locomotive.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives: Fiftieth Anniversary of the Company. 158-60. 3 illustrations, 2 tables
Table shows locomotive stock in 1889; illustrations of Flushing Mail in 1889; Willemspoort station in Amsterdam and Amstrdam Central station in 1889.

Improved "Pacific" locomotives P.L.M. Railway. 161-3. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Tests had shown that the improved four-cylinder compound with double chimney could achieve 3000 ihp. Vallentin development. No. 231.H.141 illustrated

M.E. Jukes. The Central Railway of Peru. The highest railway in the world and its motive power. 163-5. 7 illustrations
Text describes journey fro Lima to Chosica. Illustrations show Verragas Viaduct, a Beyer Garratt, a Bagnall 0-6-0ST and Rogers 2-8-0 in a variety of locations. See also Part 2 (page 180) and letter from Basil Bazley on p. 200 and page 245.

Welding of boiler joints. 166
The welding up of the end lengths of the longitudinal barrel joints of the boilers of the new London, Midland and Scottish Railway locomotives recalls the practice introduced by M. Kirtley on the Midland Railway, at Derby, as long ago as 1860. Boilers were manufactured by Kitson & Co. from Low Moor iron plates rolled by Messrs. Hind, Dawson and Hardy on a patent taken out by a Mr. Geo. Alton, a boiler maker's foreman, at Derby, in conjunction with a Mr. Fernie, for producing plates with a thickened portion along the margin of the plates. The patent claims a method of "manufacturing steam boilers without the necessity of using angle irons in their construction, and in such manner that they shall be stronger at those parts where angle iron is now used than if constructed according to the ordinary method."
The 7/16 in. plates were rolled with an increased thickness of 5/8 in. towards the ends or sides, with a taper of about 4 in., so that they could be flanged, etc., without any tendency to crack in consequence of the bending.
Other patents taken out by Mr. Fernie—one in conjunction with Mr. George Taylor, of Leeds, were for improved rolling machines for the production of these plates.
The boiler barrels of the Midland engines were formed of three rings, each made up of two semi-circular segments, welded along the longitudinal joints to form single rings which were then "blocked" to the exact diameter required by means of an ordinary hydraulic wheel tyre blocking press, whereby the soundness of the weld was satisfactorily tested. The faces of these rings were then faced in a lathe to enable a good "butt" Joint to be formed which was, in turn, covered by a welded ring 10 in. wide and 5/8 in. thick, shrunk on and then double riveted. The dome was riveted on to the central barrel ring, and the thickened edge of the front ring was worked up to a flange to which the tube plate was riveted. All the longitudinal joints were kept above the water line, and the boilers were placed in the frames with a slight inclination of an inch, from the smokebox end.
For weldihg the longitudinal joints, a special furnace was built, over which the scarfed ends of the plates were heated, and then brought together over a mandril on which the hammering necessary for the welding could be performed; the results obtained were said to be quite satisfactory, the boiler plates being free from corrosion, were long lived and maintenance much reduced.

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 166
Received an order from the Peruvian Corporation for the Trujillo Railway for a 2-8-0 type tender locomotive fitted with a superheater for the 3 ft. gauge. Cylinders 18½ in. by 24 in.

Reviews. 166

Diesel locomotives & railcars. Brian Reed, London: Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
This book provides a comprehensive, accurate and interesting treatise on the development and present position of diesel traction in this country and overseas. The advantages and economies claimed are set forth in a fair comparison, taking into con ideration operating costs, on the various services such as shunting duties, local passenger and fast runs. Diesel-mechanical and diesel-electric units are treated separately. The copiously illustrated pages show completed locomotives and railcars for the Russian, Danish, Canadian, Hungarian, Argentine, Spanish and Irish railways as well as the examples in service on the British lines. Sectional drawings and details of the principal components are dimensioned and lettered and fully illustrate and make clear as well as easy to follow the assembly and features which characterise the many devices adopted by the different makers in the transmission of power. Mechanical, hydraulic and electric transmission systems receive special attention and are illustrated by drawings and reproduced photographs, and direct drive is also dealt with. Railway requirements call for a lengthy discourse. As this book is one of the first resumes of the costs and working of so many different types it should become most useful for reference for those anxious to have an unbiassed and comprehensive review. There are some 130 illustrations.

Trade Notes and Publications. 166

Hoffmann Manufacturing Co. Ltd. of Chelmsford
Issued a Needle Roller Bearing List. This list, not only gives particulars of a standard range of these bearings and of the rollers used therein, but describes their special features and uses.

A.G. Wild & Co. Ltd., of Sheffield.
Strengthened their organisation by the appointment of R.G. Maclver, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., as Technical Representative in London at 19 Old Queen Street, Westminster. A. G. Wild and Co. Ltd. are well known as manufacturers of high class equipment and fittings for rolling stock.

Tecalcmit Ltd., Lubricating Engineers of Brentford, Middlesex
Appointed C. H. B. Price to manage their Publicity Department. Price was previously in charge of the advertising of the Skefko Ball Bearing Co. Lrd., Luton, and before that with Buck & Hickman, Ltd. .

Borsig Locomotive Works
Moving their shops from Berlin-Tegel to works taken over from the A.E.G. Company at Hennigsdorf-Osthavalland, near Berlin, where all their orders for locomotives would be carried out. Their agent in London is J. Clubley Armstrong, A.M.I.M.E., M.LL.E., 131 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.1.

Petters, Ltd.
T. E. S. Bell, until recently of the Sales Dept. of British Tirnken, Ltd., Aston , Birmingham, appointed London Manager of Petters, Ltd. of Yeovi!. His offices at Bush House, Aldwych, London, W.C.2.

Number 514 (15 June 1935)

Pooling of locomotives. 167-8.
Editoriial: rules to regulate lubrication (valves and cylinders required very reguular, but roller bearings could greatly extend period for axles); boiler washings out;  bearing maintence; boiler repaair; periodicalo examinations; lifting and tyre turning.

New French streamlined trains. 168-9. illustration
Only the train (all steel coaches) and the streamlining were new. The locomotive was aa P.L.M. four-cylinder compound Atlantic shrouded in a smart casing. The rear coach was also shaped to avoid tail end drag. It was hoped that speeds of 100 mile/h might be attained on test. Vallantin also announced work on a Bugatti three car set which was to incorporate an 800 psi Velox boiler.

Passenger tank loco., Northern Railway of Portugal. 169-70. illustration
Henschel & Sohn of Cassel metre gauge 2-8-2T with Krauss Helmholtz trucks, Kylala blast opipe and steam tube cleaner.

Miniature diesel locomotive, Blackpool Pleasure Beach. 170. illustration
Princess Royal Pacific outline: 21 inch gauge, built by Hudswell Clarke & Co. with a Dorman dieselk engine

Streamlined Atlantic type loco., Chicago, Minneapolis, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad. 170-1. illustration
Built by American Locomotive Co.: 19 by 28in cylinders, 7ft diameter coupled wheels; 300 psi boiler pressure; 69ft2 grate area; 3245ft2 total evaporative surface including thermic syphons and 1029ft2 of superheater. Painted gambodge yellow with red bands.

The blast pipe, increased boiler efficiency. 171-2.
Historical development: Royal George, the Adams Vortex, Webb twin compartment smokebox and chimnneys, Gresley exploitation of Kylchap design, initially on No. 251 Derbyshire and No. 2002 Earl Marischal

Southern Railway. 172
Schools class Nos. 932 Blundells, 933 King's Canterbury and 934 St. Lawrence. N15X No. 2327 Trevithick had gone into service and three more Baltic were at Eastleigh in course of conversion. Two further W class 2-6-4T Nos. 1916 and 1917 had entered service.

High speed "Beyer-Garrett" locomotives on the San Paulo (Brazilian) Railway. 173. 2 illustrations,
Beyer Peacock & Co. supplied six 2-6-2+2-6-2 locomotives subsequently modified to 4-6-2+2-6-4 configuration for use on passenger trains between Jundiahy and San Paulo

4-8-2 type locomotives, South African Railways. 174-5. illustration
Fifty built North British Locomotive Co. at Hyde Park Works, Glasgow: improved version of 19B class designed A.G. Watson; all fitted with A.L.E. poppet valve gear.

Light loco, for railcar servicess Austrian Federal Railways. 175-8. 2 illustrations,  diagram (side elevation & plan)
2-4-2T Class D.T.1 built Wiener Locomotiv Fabriik A.G. of Florisdorf to desihn of A. Lehner. Locomotive included a compartment for the guard. Oil fired and intended for one-man operation but capable both of main line and branch line operation. Had been operating over Semmering line .

P.O. sorting vans, L.M.S.R. 178
L.M.S. Railway completed at the Wolverton Works three new Post Office Sorting Vans for the London-Aberdeen service. The vehicles were identical, 60 ft. long and 8 ft. 8 in. wide, the body being fitted with the usual letter racks, hinged flap tables, and net apparatus. The steel underframes were fitted with shock-absorbing buffers, steam warming 'pipes, as well as dynamo, batteries and regulator to supply current for lighting; the bogies and brake arrangements were standard.
The body had teak framing, whilst the sides, ends and roof were sheeted outside with steel panelling, giving a flush interior finish with recesses for the doorway and net apparatus. The floors. were of fireproof composition, laid on dovetailed corrugated steel sheeting, supported on Jarrah floor timbers. Standard post office type gangways were fitted at each end.
The interior was finished in deal casing; the sides painted green, with the ceiling in white enamel; the sets of pedestal drawers  were of polished teak. Heating is provided by Westinghouse vertical gilled heaters and a 2 in. diameter bore overhead steam pipe running the length of the vehicle suspended from the roof.
Lighting is effected by 15-watt lamps which are placed in convenient positions so as to give the maximum amount of illumination at the racks. Steps have been taken to eliminate draughts from the doorways and gangways, while ventilation is afforded by drop lights in the doors and extractor vents in the roof.
VIe are indebted for the foregoing and accompanying illustrations to Mr. W. A. Stanier, chief mechanical engineer, L.M.S. Railway.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 178
The first of the long-expected 2-8-0 mineral engine, of improved S. & D. type has now made its appearance at Crewe and will shortly be put into regular service. This engine, No. 8000, is fitted with a taper boiler and the latest pattern of tender having a water capacity of 4,000 gallons. A second engine, No. 8001, is also nearing completion at Crewe. Work on the 4-6-2 turbine engine is now being pushed forward and this it is expected will be the next new engine to be turned out. The series of five 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, Nos. 5070-4, have all been completed, but not allocated as yet. Further deliveries of the same type comprise Nos. 5097-5102 ex Vulcan Foundry and Nos. 5128·35 ex Armstrong-Whitworth & Co. Royal Scot class 4-6-0 No. 6130, formerly Liverpool, now bore the name The West Yorkshire Regiment.
Engines rebuilt recently with standard Belpaire boilers were: 4-4-0 George V class No. 5321; 0-6-0 18 in goods class Nos. 8521 and 8614; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9044, 9364 and 9389; and 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9447.
Apart from the large-boilered series (of which there were twenty) only eight Claughtons remained in service, while the number of Princes had been reduced to about one~half. The most recent Claughtons to be scrapped included Nos. 5909 Charles N. Lawrence, 5918 Frederick Baynes, and 5920 George Mucbherson, 0-8-2 side tank shunter No. 7871 and 5 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tanks Nos. 6709 and 6720 had also been cut up.
Engine No. 14010, originally No. 123 of the Caledonian Railway, the last single-driiver locomotive in public service in Great Britain has finished its working life and was to be preserved at the St. Rollox Works, Glasgow. Built in 1886 by Neilson & Co. for the Edinburgh Exhibition, the engine was afterwards acquired and modified by the Caledonian Rly. It is one of the few locomotives surviving of those which took part in the Race to Edinburgh in 1888. During its 49 years service, it covered 780,000 miles. Another interesting locomotive recently withdrawn for preservation as the first British locomotive of the 4-6-0 type (Jones Goods) was No. 17916, formerly Highland Railway No. 103. It had recently been painted green and fitted with one of the louvred chimneys of Jones' design and sent to Inverness for exhibition. Fifteen of these engines were built by Sharp, Stewart & Co. in 1894, H.R. Nos. 103 to 117 inclusive

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. New President. 179. illustration (portrait)
A.C. Carr

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 179
Order placed with Beyer Peacock & Co. for fiour Beyer-Garratt 4-6-2+2-6-4 mixed traffic locomotives for3ft 6in gauge: two to be fitted with Kylchap blast pipe. Skefko roller bearings onb bogie and carrying wheels.

M.E. Jukes. The Central Railway of Peru. The highest railway in the world and its motive power. 180-3. 9 illustrations
Part 1 page 163. Text includes journey to Oroya where the copper smelting took place and where he met Tom Jefferson (a genial Yorkshireman and Chief Mechanical Engineer) was met. Locomotives illustrated include a Yorkshire Engine Co. 4-8-4, an American Locomotive Co. 2-8-2 and a Beyer Peacock 0-4-0WT

Henry T. Meiggs. 184
Short biography used to enhance entry on this significant engineer of railways in the Andes

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. Combustion and boilers. 184-5. 4 diagrams
Patent GB 2129/1855

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 189-92. illustration, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations),
First 4-4-0s built by North British Locomotive Co.. These were used on the International expresses to Oberhausen where they were taken over by the Prussian Railways which did not have bogie engines at that time, They were painted chocolate brown. See also errata on page 262

Klaar Achter? J.B. Uges (Nono) Amsterdam: Andries Blitz.
The fact that this is a Dutch publication may cause some to consider it unsuitable for English readers, but it is for that reason, in our opinion, to be recommended. The text being so closely connected with the illustrations is easy to understand, and anyone with an elementary knowledge of the language and a dictionary should have no difficulty in following it, and learn not only much about the railways of Holland, but also many Dutch names for things. The young people of this country are now provided with a great varietv of publications. calculated to assist their understanding of railway operation, and the present volume is intended to meet the needs for Dutch students and to give a good description of the working of their railway system. The book covers the whole story of Dutch railways from the opening of the first line from Amsterdam to Haarlem in Sept. 1839.

Correspondence. 200

[Central Railway of Peru]. Basil M. Bazley.
In article on "Consolidation" for the Central Railway of Peru in March Issue, it is stated that "at La Cima the line reaches an altitude of 15,806 ft., the highest point reached by any standard railway in the world." In May issue, M.F. Jukes says: "The Antofagasta-Bolivia Rly. has a short branch to Collahausi which exceeds by a few feet the altitude of the Peruvian Central." I would refer your readers to the lists of summits in my article, "The Railways of South America," in your issue for August 1930 (p. 277). Here it will be seen that the Peruvian Central at La Cima on the Morococh a branch reaches an altitude of 15,865 It ., the highest summit of any railway in the world. The Antofagasta-Bolivia Railway attains a height of 15,814 ft. at Condor on the Potosi branch, and of 15,809 ft. on the Collahausi branch. My statement is, of course, open to correction, but I obtained the first figures from a gradient profile at the offices of the Peruvian Corporation (owners of the F.C.C.) ; the Antofagasta-Bolivia summits were given in an official handbook issued by that company. The really marvellous thing, to my mind, is that the Peruvian Central is a 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, non-rack line, worked by English-built adhesion locomotives. Response from Jukes on page 267

Railway Club. 200
At the meeting on Friday 3 May held at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall, Fetter Lane, a paper by J.W.C. Logan was read entitled Railways and the Air. The lecturer described the growth of air services since the first regular London-Paris service in 1919, and the development of the aeroplanes used. The need for co-operation between railways and air services was stressed, and the interavailabilitv of first-class rail and air tickets was mentioned as a step in the direction of securing a degree of convenience which cannot fail to prove of benefit to business men and others desiring rapid means of transit.

Trade Notes and Publications. 200

Drewry Car Co. Ltd.
Publication issued principally concerns the advantages of the Wilson- Drury multiple speed epicyclic transmission standardised for all their larger vehicles. Illustrations and brief descriptions follow of vehicles actually in service, and serve to show the experience in design and construction in the railcar industry which this firm has accumulated over many years.

Laidlaw, Drew & Co. Ltd.
An illustrated descriptive catalogue gives useful information of the many typical installations which they have carried out with the automatic steam jet oil burners made by them. Applications to locomotive work include  a Sentinel locomotive for the Iraq Railways, Sentinel-Cammell steel rail coaches, and the Kitson-Still locomotive.

United Steel Companies Ltd.
Publication Railway Materials should be of interest to all railway engineers. Besides giving a list of useful data regarding tests of tyres, crank axles and springs, particulars are given of the special treatment to obtain the high tensile required. The processes are illustrated by very fine photographic reproductions.

Number 515 (15 July 1935)

Timing of trains. 201-2,

4-6-2 turbine express locomotive, L.M. & S.R. 202-4. illustration, diagram (side & feont elevaions).

Record running of the Hiawatha Express, C.M.St.P. & P.R.R. 204
New Lisbon to Portage scheduled at 73.9 mile/h: fastest in the world for steam.410 miles from Chicago to St. Paul took 6½ hours.

Articulated Locomotives for the Colombian National Railways. 205. illustration
Two articulated 2-8+8-2 type locomotives on the Kitson-Meyer system had been constructed by Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd., Darlington, for the 3 ft. gauge section of the Colombian National Railways, South America. They were an enlargement of the 2-6+6-2 engines illustrated in our issue of February 15, 1927, for the Girardot Railway of Colombia, and there is also a considerable difference in the disposition of the side tanks, which extend along the sides of the firebox. The use of bar framing and its arrangement outside the wheels, permits the space between the frames to be kept almost clear, the spring gear and brake apparatus being very accessible for adjustments, etc. The engines have the high tractive force of 58,564 lb. at 85% of the boiler pressure which is 205 lb. per square inch. The four cylinders are each 17¾ in. diameter by 20 in. stroke, and the coupled wheels are 3 ft. 1½ in. diameter; the pony truck wheels are 2 ft. 2 in. diameter. The rigid wheel base is 10 ft. 10½ in. and the total wheel base 53 ft. 11 in. The heating total evaporative heating surfaces was 2567ft2; grate area is 51 ft2.The engine was fired by oil, the storage tank holding 1,100 gallons, while the water tanks carried 4,000 gallons. The total working order weight was 130 tons 8 cwt. and the maximum axle load 14 tons 10 cwt.

London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 205
The new 4-6-2 turbine locomotive, No. 6202, has made several successful' trips, including one to London, during which a speed of 65 m.p.h. was attained. No. 6203, the first of a new series of locomotives of The Princess Royal type, had been turned out at Crewe: bearing the name Princess Margaret Rose, while No. 6204 will probably be Princess Louise. The large-boilered Claughton No. 6004 previously bore this name. Further 2-8-0 mineral locomotives of improved S. & D. type had also been turned out at Crewe, Nos. 8002-4. The Vulcan Foundry Ltd. had completed the order for fifty 4-6-0 two-cylinder mixed traffic engines, these being numbered from 5075-5124 inclusive. Of the same type, Armstrong-Whitworths had delivered up to No. 5149.
Western Section.-Recent withdrawals included Engineer Lancaster, the last but one of the well known 6 ft. Jumbos. This engine, originally No. 737 Roberts, was built in 1894 and became Engineer Lancaster in 1924. It is survived by Engineer Watford, which was formerly No. 793 Martin. Other recent withdrawals include dL.N.W. 0-8-2 shunters Nos. 7871 and 7874.
The following engines were running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers:--0-6-0 18 in. goods class No. 8333;. 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9192 and 9387; 0-8-0 G2 class, No. 9401.
Midland Section.
New 2-6-2 passenger engines ex Derby were in traffic up to No. 109.
Northern Counties Committee.
The two 2-6-0 tender engines completed at Belfast weare Nos. 96 Silver Jubilee, and 97 Earl of Ulster.

2-8-0 freight locomotives, L.M. & S.R.  206-7. illustration, diagram (side & front elevaions).
No. 8000 illustrated

Locomotive Details, Bengal- Nagpur Railway. 214; 215. 3 diagrams
Drawings show the arrangement adopted on the Beyer-Garratt freight engines of the Bengal-Nagpur Rly., for securing and locking the bolts which hold the slide bars to the cylinder cover. The lateral key- plate which is housed in a transverse hole is tapped and receives the screwed set bolt, which in turn- is locked and pinned to the lugs. . A further detail we take the opportunity of illustrating is connected with the internal main steam pipe which has its. flange .secured by l?ro- viding ridges on the pipe, which expand into grooves, in the flange. Another item of considerable interest were the short girder bars which take the direct stays of the firebox crown adjacent to the tube-plate shown on page 215. These ensure flexibility at a point where it is much needed, and, we understand, give much satisfactory service; further, there is- no difficulty in keeping the plate and stay ends. and heads clean and free from scale.

L.N.E.R. 214
The following appointments announced: J. E. Sharpe, Chief Clerk, Office of Superintendent (Eastern Section) Southern Area, to be Assistant to the- Superintendent (Eastern Section) Southern Area. Mr. J. A. Frampton, District Locomotive Supt., Norwich, to be Distriet Locomotive Supt., Lincoln, in succession to Mr. S. Gearing, who died reoently. Mr. H. G. Fish, Assistant District Locomotive Supt., Doncaster, to be District Loco. Supt. Norwich, in succession to Mr. Frampton.
New engines completed at Darlington Works are Nos. 2843, 2844 and 2845 of the Sandringham class, 3-cylinder 4-6-0 B17 type, also Nos. 2941, 2942, 2943 of the J39 0-6-0 class. These have been allocated to the Southern Area. Further 4-4-4 tanks converted to A8 class 4-6-2 tanks: Nos. 1326, 1520, 1523, 2144, 2146, 2150, 2158 and 1530. New 2-6-2 tanks, class VI, completed at Doncaster were Nos. 417 and 446, stationed at Heaton, Newcastle, and 477, 479 and 481 at Blaydon. The D23 class (the Waterburys) became extinct, No. 1120 the last of the type being withdrawn. There was only one D22 4-4-0, running, No. 1537; No. 777 for many years at Waskerley withdrawn. GN. 4-4-0 No. 4386 from the Southern Area had taken its place.

R.B. Fellows. The evolution of the slip coach, 215-18.
Acworth called this a "pecularly English contrivance for saving time". The London, Brighton & South Coast was first when in February 1858 a London to Brighton train dropped a portion for Lewes and Hastings whilst passng Haywards Heath. The South Eastern Railway was next in May 1858 when it served Canterbury without stopping between Ashford and Ramsgate. The Great Western Railway followed when Banbury was served by a slip coach off the 09.30 from Paddington.  Major J. Newton Ford, former Traffic Superintendent of the North London Railway doubted if it operated true slip coaches. but stopped at Acton Gatehouse box to detach or attach coaches. Guichard Pétrus [Petrus] patented a system for lifing off and loading carriage bodies on moving trains. Fellows comments that the initiaal slipping of coaches appeared to have raised any great interest possibly because the slipping of whole trains had been common. Pilot engines were slipped off trains at the top of Camden bank. The Hull & Selby Railway slipped the engine leaving the train to coast into the Hull station. The Pontop & South Shields Railway was also involved in slipping whole trains at Brockley Whins. Further patents mentioned include GB 7513/1837 by Edward Butler Rowley and by John Cooper in 1860 and John Ward in 1865 (not traced. The system was adapted to suit the vacuum and Westinghouse braking systems and staem heating. The zenith of such services was reached in 1914 and had declined to 29 in 1935 in Britain, including Ireland. See also illustration page 263

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: combustion and boilers. 218-19. 4 diagrams
GB 315/1858. 19 February 1858: cottugated firebox

Great Western Railway. 219
Ten Castle class 4-6-0 express engines were in hand at Swindon of which the first six were in service: numbers and names as follows: 5033 Broughton Castle, 5034 Corfe Castle, 5035 Coity Castle, 5036 Lyonshall Castle, 5031 Monmouth Castle 5038 Morlais Castle, 5039 Rhuddlan Castle, 5040 Stokesay Castle, 5041 Tiverton Castle, 5042 Winchester Castle.
New 0-6-0 goods tanks built at Swindon  were Nos. 9750-3. Engines condemned included 0-6-0 (Cambrian 51) No. 910, 4-4-0 (M.S.W.R. 1) No. 1119, 0-6-0T, Nos. 1152, 1281, 1566, 1598, 1608, 1727, 1921 and 2-4-0T, No. 1493. The Associated Equipment Co. Ltd. received an order for a further ten oil-engined railcars. Delivery was expected to begin in October. One of the cars, intended for experimental service, would have a special parcels van body.

The "Houlet" Superheater Element. 219. illustration
An annular superheater element was receiving much attention m France. The object was to cause the steam bemg superheated to circulate in a thin layer between two surfaces exposed to the hot gases passmg through the flues, so securing the largest area possible for the conduction of heat. Although it has been recognised for some time past that such a procedure would tend to efficiency, the difficulty has been the satisfactory manufacture of a suitable element to obtain this.

The Vu1can Foundry Ltd.  219
Order from the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway for two broad gauge Pacific type locomotives, XB class, to the inspection of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

S.O Ell. . Locomotive axle side play. 220-2. 6 diagrams
Calculation to accommodate behaviour on curves

An improved driver's steam brake valve. 222. illustration, diagram
S. Dixon & Son Ltd, Leeds and Hunslet

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 223-7. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams (side elevations), 4 tables
Forty 4-4-0s were ordered from Sharp, Stewart & Co. (later North British Locomotive Co.): WN 3740-7/1891; 3748-59/1892; 3814-33/1892; 4814-33/1893; 4820-4/1900; 15898-9023/1903.
0-6-0s were also supplied by Sharp, Stewart & Co.: WN 4101-5/1895; 4199-205/1896; 4427-30/1898, and then by Werkspoor: WN 21-61/1900; 27-33/1901; 101-5/1903; 126-30/1904; 157-60/1906; 194-7/1907.

The Heinl hot water feed system for locomotives. 228-31, 3 diagrams
Next part see page 264
and final part (page 297) for British agents, etc

Sierra Leone Development Corporation. 231
Order placed with Beyer Peacock for 2-8-2+2-8-2 Beyer Garratt similar to two in service

Southern Railway. 231
New locomotive depot opened at Norwood Junction. J.P. Maitland, District Locomotive Superintendent at  New Cross Gate in charge. LBSCR D class 0-4-2T working at Tonbridge was running with a stove pipe chimney.

High-speed test runs of L.M.S. 4-6-2 locomotive. 231-2.
No. 6200 The Princess Royal: high speed run from Crewe to Willesden Junction performed as part of Liverpool Lime Street to Euston passenger service. Load was fifteen vehicles including dynamometer car. On the Crewe to Willesden Junction section an average spped of 70.7 mile/h was achieved with 80 mile/h or more being attained at eight locations: the maximum was 86.6 mile/h. Driver H.P. Smith, Fireman T.B. Pile (both from Camden), S.E. Miller (Inspector from Willesden and R.A. Riddles were on the footplate. On Sunday 30 June the same locomotive took twenty vehicles from Crewe to Glasgow and back, mainly to assess haulage capacity on Shap and Beattock.

Tecalemit annual outing. 233
On Saturday 29 June, in glorious weather, some 450 members of Tecalemit Limited, the lubrication specialists, Brentford, journeyed to Cliftonville for the firm's annual outing. Luncheon was served at the Queen's Highcliffe Hotel, presided over by R.A. Chalmers, Managing Director, supported by A.E. Leonard, Chairman of the Company, and . S. G. Gates, Director. The chief executives present included W. Parslow, General Manager, F.A. Dennison, Secretary, A. Sewell, Sales Manager, and . Bowman, Works Manager. All sections of the office and works staffs were well represented, and the whole of the organisation arrange- ments were carried out by Dennison.

Railway Club. 233
The Railway Club completed the series of monthly meetings for the 1934-35 season on Friday, 31 May, at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall, Fetter Lane, E.C.4, when Mr. H.A. Vallance read an interesting paper on How the Railways fight the Snow. Vallance emphasized the serious danger caused by snow, and although these islands were comparatively immune, some lines in Scotland, particularly the Highland division of the L.M.S. and the West Highland line of the L.N.E.R., were forced to take comprehensive precaution.s against snow. The methods used by these lines were described, and with the aid of a specially drawn map the lecturer was able to point out the localities where trouble with snow was generally encountered.

Correspondence. 233

Suburban passenger train services.  B. Richardson. 233
Three months ago, under the above heading, you published an excellent short article which is particularly pertinent at the present moment, in view of the decision of the Government to guarantee funds for railway electrification in the London suburban area.
It is clear from the outburst of enthusiasm by the daily newspapers when the scheme was announced, that these are under the general misapprehension that the shortcomings of the services included in the electrification programme, are due primarily to the fact that they are worked by steam locomotives and not because the lines concerned are carrying the heaviest passenger traffic in the world. It is difficult to see in what manner electrification will effect a cure. Congestion is not unknown at rush hours on the Southern, but this is conveniently overlooked. The present writer fully agrees with your statement that electrification benefits could be brought about under steam working by a rapid and "even-interval" service rendered possible by improving the signalling of the lines but it is apparently not thought worth while trying such an obvious procedure before embarking upon costly schemes which admittedly will yield a doubtful financial return.
It may be noted that the extensive "boosting" of the Southern electric services by newspapers and by the medium of "inspired" articles in semi-technical journals has done much to create the demand for electrification by the non- technical politician and economist, whilst it must be remembered that the Electrical Grid system is sponsored by the Government.
Accordingly whereas the performances of the Brighton electric trains have been duly lauded as the last word in transporting holiday crowds, not a word has been said concerning the efficient manner in which the heavier Blackpool Bank-Holiday traffic is efficiently handled under steam working. Presumably a modernised suburban steam service worked on the "push and pull" system by powerful and efficient locomotives would be similarly overlooked however well it might function.

Caledonian engine 123. W. B. Thompson 233
The L.M.S. Company announces the old Caledonian single 123 has been withdrawn from service and is to be preserved at St. Rollox. Those of us who saw this engine at the Edinburgh exhibition in 1886 and watched her subsequent career with admiration must hope that in retirement she will again have the original blue paint and the Drummond boiler mountings and fittings which gave her such a handsome and distinctive appearance. Indeed, it seems hardly worth while to preserve any engine which has done good, work in the past unless posterity is allowed to see her just as she was when that work was being done. In the railway rr~useum at York the North Eastern engine 910 is shown with a modern vacuum brake pipe at the back of the tender, whereas of course when the 910 class were in {heir prime rhey were fitted with the Smith simple vacuum brake and the' two-pipe coupling.
The paragraph which has gone the round of the newspapers saying that Caledonian 123 was to be withdrawn described' her as "one of the few which remain of the engines that took part in the race to Edinburgh in 1888." It would be interesting to know what exactly-if anything-the author of these words meant; they remind one of the schoolboy's. answer in examination that when Caesar invaded Britain in B.C. 55 he found "practically no" Christianity amongst the inhabitants. The Ramsbottom and Stirling singles which worked the Edinburgh racing trains from London disappeared before the present generation was even born; the Webb engines which worked between Crewe and Carlisle, and the Fletchers and Tennants which worked north of York, also went long ago; and the Worsdell compounds ceased to be Worsdell compounds only a few years after the race was run.

Reviews. 233

West Highland steamers. C.L.D. Duckworth and G.E. Langmuir. London: Richard Tilling.,
The firm of David MacBrayne—now closely allied to the L.M.S.R.—has during the century of its existence owned some of the most interesting steamers that have plied in British coastal waters and in this book we have for the first time the full history of every vessel the company has ever owned. The MacBrayne steamers are a household word with all Scotsmen and even those who may have only visited Scotland for their summer holidays will not have forgotten their trip on the Clyde or round to Oban. It is to such that this book will particularly appeal. A coloured frontispiece of the S.S. Columba and 28 half-tone illustrations interspersed in the text add to the interest, whilst an excellent fleet list giving the builders, leading dimensions, etc., in tabular form render the book useful as a work of reference.

Speed, space and time. Vernon Sommerfield. London and Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson & Sons, Ltd.
To review in an attractive narrative form the history of transport development by sea, road, rail and air even briefly in a book of 300 pages requires a large amount of compression, but the author has managed to give lucid treatment of the four subjects. He passes from sailing ships to the Queen Mary, from balloons, and da Vinci's flying apparatus, to 400 miles-an-hour aeroplanes, bullock carts to the Rocket and to the George V and the Cheltenham Flyer, tramcars, omnibuses, bicycles and motor cars, and finally makes forecasts of future developments of speed. We notice the first illustration of the book represents a railcar driven by a propeller, although the title erroneously states it is a picture of the Flying Hamburger. Again, a slip is made in part four when the author states that Locomotion of the Stockton and Darlington Railway was "such a sound "engineering job that it was able to haul a train under its "own steam in the Railway Centenary Celebration of 1925. to Our recollection of this event is that the motive power of Locomotion was provided by a petrol engine located in the tender, geared to the locomotive axle. Mr. Sommerfield touches on the controversies of oil versus coal fuel and of electrification. The chapters on the development of flying are very interesting and Sommerfield is an enthusiast for his subject and has a very attractive style. The book is profusely illustrated by half tone photo reproductions and small sketches and diagrams.

L'Autorail.—Special number of La Revue Petrolifere. Revue Generale du Petrole Paris. 234
This special issue of the above Revue is devoted exclusively to a study of present practice in all types of railcars, and thelr special detalls. Following a brief comparative and historical description, sections are devoted to the engine, lubrication, frame, transmission, bodies, etc., and these are followed by a description of the types manufactured by various constructors. Naturally, every French company is in evldence, and also are given particulars of this type of rolling stock on each of the great French railways. This section is followed by a review of the examples in most European countries and the U.S.A., although strangely enough, Sweden and Denmark, both conspicuous for considerable development on both the high-speed and the low-speed car, do .no:t find mention. This book should prove a valuable descriptive supplement to Mr. Brian Reed's work "Diesel Locomotives and Railcars," which was reviewed in our issue of May 15th.

The mechanics of a locomotive on curved track. S.R.M. Porter, London: The Railway Gazette. 32 pp. 60 diagrams. 234
Reprint of the original pa:per by the author, which commenced m The Railway Engineer and concluded in The Railway Gazette. The high standard of the research shown by this brilliant work is best indicated by mentioning that It was awarded the Stephenson Prize by The Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The paper itself is a finale to an earlier investigation by Ubelacker, who considered all forces acting on wheel treads-and the present study is based on a careful division of the locomotive into "trucks" linked together, with an analysis of all possible forces which are brought to bear during transit on a curved line, with very special reference to flange forces and potential derailment. The numerous line diagrams illuminate the various points so ably brought forward by the author, and the reprint is strongly recommended to interested engineers who desire the original series of articles in concise form. The lamented and premature decease of Porter has left a sad gap in the list of the few investigators of such subtle problems which it will not be easy to fill.

Locomotives, their construction, maintenance and operation, with notes on electric, internal combustion and o·ther forms of motive power. 2 vols., 224 pp. each 10! in. by 81 in.-A. Morton Bell, O.B.E., M.I. Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E. London: Virtue & Co. Ltd.,  234
In these volumes a general resume of locomotive practice at date is offered. Historical references are avoided, not withstanding the author 's well known interest in the history of the locomotive. The contents are largely confined to con- s ideration of the construction, maintenance and operation of the modern steam locomotive, with suitable references to the adoption of internal combustion and electric generators to locomotive requirements. In the early chapters the design and construction of modern engines are dealt with, and then their upkeep and treatment in service. Some important notes on superheating are included as also are descriptions of modern poppet valve gears. The second volume is largely devoted to the training of the staff and duties of the men engaged; further considerable space is given to shop and shed work, repairs, etc. Finally, there are numerous examples illustrated of the latest developments of articulated and high-speed units. The work is well illustrated by over 300 drawings, diagrams and photographs, and 7 coloured folding plates printed in superfine manner, whilst the binding is good. A foreword by Mr. A. C. Carr, President of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, sums up the purport of the work when he says the author "has used the practical experience gained over a period of fifty years in design, manufacture and operation of steam locomotives in compiling the notes and information given."

Trade Notes and Publications. 234

W. G. Bagnall Ltd.
Received an order for one 4-8-0 tender locomotive for 2ft. 6 in. gauge for the Bhavnagar State Rly. to the inspection of Robert White & Partners, and the Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. have an order for two boilers for saturated steam for F class locomotives for the same line.

Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd.
Received an order from the Briton Ferry Steel Co. Ltd. for one 0-4-0 saddle tank locomotive, with 16 in. x 24 in. cylinders and 3 ft. 10 in. wheels.

[Peiping-Hankow Railway]
Orders for a total of twenty 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge Prairie 2-6-2 type locos. and tenders divided equally between the Societé Belge de Chemin de Fer en Chine (acting for Belgian locomotive builders} and the Skoda Locomotive Works Limited, Prague.

[Newfoundland Govt. Rys.]
Two 2-8-2 tender locomotives were to be built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. for the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, to the order of the Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Skefko Ball Bearing Co. Ltd. of Luton
One of the best examples of railway catalogues has been Issued by the firm: an attractive brochure of 98 pages. Numerous sectional drawings and half-tone reproductions, accompanied by data and dimension tables for roller single and double bearing axleboxes,. form a useful book of reference when applymg or mamtairung roller bearings. A series of load curve diagrams indicates the theoretical life of the bearings; the mean or economical life based on practical experience has been determined as five times that of the theoretical life. The examples shown are for passenger coaches, wagons and rail cars, as well as leading and trailing bogies for locomotives and tender bogies and for the driving wheels of electric locomotives. A perusal of the chapters on self-aligning roller bearings and roller bearing axleboxes, and the reasons why they are preferred to other axlebox designs, will do much to convince the railway engineer of their merits. An exten- si ve collection of photographic reproductions demonstrate typical standard designs and also show a number of special axlebox designs and suspension devices.

David Brown & Sons Ltd. of Huddersfield
Leaflet describes methods employed in the manufacture of their double helical gears up to 20 ft. in diameter. Also practical hints are given on mounting mill pinions, etc., and the best methods of lubrication. The usefulness of these gears for transmitting power is now generally recognised in comparison with spur gears with straight teeth, as, size for size, they transmit heavier loads, with. less noise and vibration.

Flexo Plywood Industries Ltd. of South Chingford,
Progressive manufacturers of veneered and metal- faced plywood, have appointed  R.G. MacIver, M.l. Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., of 19, Old Queen Street, Westminster, to support their sales organisation as technical representative in regard to railways and rolling stock.

A. B. Svenska Kullagerfabriken. Sweden.
An order for 440 roller bearing boxes for coaches for the Belgian State Railways has been placed with The boxes contain two spherical roller beanings of S.K.F. standard type; over 150,000 boxes of this type have now been supplied. S.K.F. have supplied to the Polish State Railways 1,400 spherical roller bearings for electric motor coaches. The Metropolitain, Paris, have ordered 480 bearing boxes for electric motor and trailer coaches and for locomotives. S.K.F. have supplied 523 bear- ing boxes to the South Manchuria Railway, for stream line Diesel electric motor coaches and passenger coaches. The spherical roller bearings are mounted on the journal by means of withdrawal sleeves, which ensure quick mounting and dis- mantling.

Number 516 (15 August 1935)

The operation of high speed rail units by steam. 235
Trials, notably on the L.N.E.R., in France and in Germany, have demonstrated that steam locomotives of conventional type, although originally designed for the working of heavy trains at a cruising speed of about 65 miles per hour, are quite capable of working light trains at very high average speeds which have been maintained over long distances. These noteworthy performances have been achieved without modifying the design of the engine and, moreover, with a very moderate coal consumption.
These runs, so far of a more or less experimental nature, are now to be translated into everyday occurrences, and it appears highly probable that their number and scope will be considerably extended in the near future. Immediately the question arises as to whether a special form of power unit should be designed for the specific purpose. The orthodox engine has its limitations; consequently, although capable of working the service, it may not necessarily do in what is ultimately the most efficient manner. At very high speeds of revolution a large proportion of the total power developed is absorbed in overcoming the internal, or engine resistance; the air resistance and inertia forces in the recipro- cating masses also increase to a marked extent. Again, the engine is not an ideal vehicle as re- gards smooth riding qualities at speed, and this, In conjunction with a relatively high centre of gravity, although in no wise implying that any risks are taken, does involve the imposition of "high limit" permanent speed restrictions in certain localities. For instance, there may be no stipulated restriction in ordinary working over a given curve, because it is well known that, with the prevailing normal loads, no engine can exceed, say, 60 m.p.h. over that curve; when, however, with a strictly limited load it becomes possible to take the curve at, shall we say, 90 m.p.h., then the civil engineers may regard this as unsafe and stipulate a limit of perhaps 75 m.p.h.
Another item which must be considered is the boiler capacity: the acceleration other than down a gradient of an engine, already running at perhaps 85 miles per hour, to 95 per hour means that the engine is running at a very high rotational speed with the lever well down; the continuance of these conditions for any appreciable period of time will tax to the utmost the steaming capacity of the most generously proportioned boiler.
Much may be done, by modification of detail design rather than by radical alteration, to overcome these inherent disabilities. The use of short, direct steam ports of large area and poppet valves, or piston valves of relatively large diameter with generous lap: the minimisation of the reciprocart:ing masses by the ·extensive use of alloy steels: the application of high pressure steam with high degree superheaters, thermic syphons, feed water heaters and double blast pipes: the fairing of the external surfaces of the engine, or streamlining, as it is erroneously termed-these are all random examples of the many avenues along which research may be conducted with profit.
We think, however, that sooner or later the unique conditions obtaining will dictate the development of a special design to meet them, and we visualise a double bogie vehicle, driven through cardan shafts by totally enclosed engines, running at speeds of rotation comparable to those obtaining in internal combustion practice. The boiler will probably be of the semi-flash type with a mechanical stoker; drum brakes will be provided, and the whole locomotive so encased as to minimise air resistance. In order that the ad- hesion and height of centre of gravity may remain constant, the tender will form an independent vehicle, as in existing practice, but it will be, like the engine, totally enclosed with faired surfaces.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 235
No. 6204 was the latest 4-6-2 Pacific type locomotive to be turned out at Crewe; to be followed by two other engines of similar type, Nos. 6205-6. There were six of the new type 2-8-0 mineral locomotives in service, Nos. 8000-5. Of these, No. 8001 was stationed at Wellingboro' (Midland Division) and Nos. 8003-5 were working from Willesden shed (L.N.W.). The 4-6-0 high-pressure engine No. 6309 Fury, was being converted at Crewe into Royal Scot type, with taper boiler, and re-numbered No. 6170. No. 5163 was latest two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engine ex Armstrong,Whitworth & Co. The following engines were running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class, No. 25797; 0-8-0 G1 class, Nos. 8926, 8934, 9034, 9192, 9387; 0-8-0 G2 class, No. 9422. Withdrawals included one Claughton class, No. 6020; two Princes, Nos. 25668 and 25731; also another of the ex N.S.R. 0-4-4 class M tanks, No. 1437. The last of the N.S. class K 4-4-'2 tanks was broken up at Crewe in June.
Midland Section. 2-6-2 passenger tank engines completed at Derby bore Nos. 111-116, but only the first two hadr been turned out Engines cut up at Derby included two ex M.R. 700 class 4-4-0s, Nos. 717 and 771.

New 4-6-2 four-cylinder passenger locos., L.M.S.R. 236. illustration
Boiler modifications: increased firebox heating surface and larger superheater. No, 6203 Princess Margaret Rose illustrated

[Causey Arch]. 236
Scheduled as an Ancient Monument: built in 1727 at Stanley in County Durham

[Brill branch]. 236
From Quainton Road: to be closed 1 December.

Streamlined 4-6-2 locomotive, Boston & Maine R.R. 237. illustration
Built by Lima Locomotive Works,.

Cork and Macroom Railway. 237
Part of the Great Southern Railways system, and 24½ miles in length, was closed to passenger traffic on 30 July 30. The Tralee and Fenit branch of the G.S. Railways also closed.

Beardmore-diesel Railcars for Spain. 237. illustration
Northern Railway of Spain put into service at Oviedo two Diesel-mechanical railcars built by the Societa Espanola de Construccion Naval, of Madrid at their Nervion Works at Bilbao. These cars were fitted with Beardmore 90 H.P. high speed six-cylinder Diesel-engines, with Vulcan-Sinclair hydraulic coupling and Clarkson exhaust gas waste-heat boiler.
The total weight of each car, excluding passengers, was 13,675 kgs., and trials were carried out recently on the main line of the Northern Railway between Miranda and Burgos, with a total load of 16,000 kgs. Both cars successfully completed the acceptance tests, and during the trials reached speeds of 90 to 102 km.jhour. The cars were now in service at Oviedo.

Withdrawal of a notable L.N.E.R. locomotive. 237
On 11 December 1891 at the Stratford Works of the Great Eastern Railway, a six-coupled goods locomotive, No. 930, was erected in the record time of 9¾ hours. After a mileage of 1,127,750 this engine had been withdrawn from service and cut up. As built we illustrated and described the class in our issue of 15 October 1912, in the historical article on the G.E.R. locomotives. On the grouping of the railways the engine became No. 7930, L.N.E.R.

Diesel locomotives for the North Western Rly. of India. 238-40. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations & plan).
Supplied by Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. Ltd 1300hp 4-6-4 for crossing Sind Desert.

4-8-2 three-cylinder passenger locomotives, Czecho-Slovakian State Railways. 240-1. illustration, diagram (sectionalised side elevation)
Built by Skoda at Plzen. New livery: dar blue-green with dark red-brown fames.

The L.M.S. Ry. 241
Carried out a special 24-hours test, concluding at midnight on 10 July 1935 of the time-keeping of every passenger train throughout the system in England, Scotland and Wales. The test, which covered 14,000 trains, showed that 98.2 per cent. of punctuality was achieved for the whole line. The most punctual trains were the suburban electrics which averaged 99.3 per cent. punctuality; the long distance expresses averaged 98.6 per cent. and steam local passenger trains 97.9 per cent. This is the first test on this system to be carried out during the busy summer season.

L.M.S.R. Appointments. 241
R.,A, Riddles, Locomotive Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer, Euston, to be Principal Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer, Euston. H. Chambers. Technical Assistant and Chief Draughtsman, Derby (Headquarters), to be Locomotive and Personal Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer, Euston. T.F. Coleman, Assistant Chief Draughtsman (Headquarters), and Chief Draughtsman, Crewe (Loco.), to be Chief Draughtsman, Derby (Headquarters), E. Crossley, District Locomotive Superintendent's Assistant at Bletchley, was now District Loco, Supt. Edge HilL W. Hain, Chief Foreman, Chief Mechanical Engineer's Dept., Inverness, had been appointed District Locomotive Supt. and also has charge of the Lochgorm Works. E. Glendinning, Foreman Fitter, Polmadie, to be District Locomotive Foreman at Ardrossan.

Insulated milk vans, L.M.S.R. 242. 2 illustrations
Six-wheel with cooling by ice and Drikold with Alfol insulation. Exterior and inteerior illustrated.

Early types of rolling stock, Eastern Railway of France. 243-5. 6 illustrations
2-2-2 built by Alfred Hallette of Arras in 1847 for Montreau to Troyes Railway.

Passenger tank locomotive for the Dutch East Indies. 245. illustration
Henschel & Sohn, A.G., 2-4-2 tank locomotive built at the Hanomag Works for the Deli tailway, a 3 ft. 6 in. line on Sumatra.

Locomotives of the Central Railway of Peru. 245
Referring lo the illustrated article in our May and June issues by Jukes, among the locomotives designed for the rugged re- quirements of this railway were several of the 2-8-0 type with t.\lree cylinders. Three of .these engines appear to have been built by the North British Loco. Co. Ltd. about 1909. Except for the third cylinder, they were practically duplicates of the class illustrated in May Issue 1935, page 165, and September Issue 1910, page 199. The latter illustration apparently depicts one of the three-cylinder engines, though it is not so stated in the accompanying table of dimensions. The discussion of these locomotives and their work was given by F.W. Bach in a paper entitled "Smooth rail working on heavy gradients," which was presented before the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1910. Though the honour has been proudly claimed for engines built by other makers at a later date, there seems to be no doubt that these were among the first three-cylinder simple locomotives exported from Great Britain, being preceded only by an Atlantic type engine shipped to Egypt in 1905.

L.N.E.R. 245
Pllaced orders for new electric railing stock for the Tyneside area. A total of 67 units had been ordered to be supplied by the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. These units consist of 61 twin-articulated sets, two bogie luggage motor coaches, and a bogie motor van.

South Indian Railway. 245
Order for seven broad gauge 2-6-4 type tank locomotives of the P.T. class placed with Robert Stephenson & Co., Ltd. of Darlington.

Fried. Krupp of Essen. 245
Secured order for 29 tank engines of the 0-4-2 type of standard design, XT class, for the North Western Railway of India, and 14 XT class, for the East Indian Railway, broad gauge. These engines will have Caprotti valve gear and equipment, similar to the engines built for India in 1933.

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: combustion and boilers.  246-7. 5 diagrams
Patent GB 315/1858 hollow says within furnace

Naming ceremony. 247
General Sir C.L. Deverell, Colonel of the Regiment presented  placques of the regimental crest to E.J.H. Lemon, Vice President of the LMS for Royal Scot class No. 6130 West Riding Regiment at Leeds station. Other Royal Scots named were No. 6148 The Manchester Regiment, No. 6128 3rd Carabinier and No. 6147 The Northamptonshire Regiment.

Kenneth Brown. Historic railway relics in Nova Scotia. 247-8. illustration
Samson is a Timothy Hackworth locomotive built at New Shildon in 1838 with the involvement of John Buddle and it was shipped out to Nova Scotia accompanied by George Davidson. It worked at the Albion (later Acadia) Coal Mining Co. to haul coal from Stellarton to Pictou Harbour. H.S. Poole, manager of the Albion Mine provided information about the locomotive. Samson appeared at the 1893 Chicago Exhibition, drivenm by Davidson, and at the Baltimore & Ohio Centenary in Baltimore in 1927. Hercules and John Buddle were also built at Shildon in 1838 and shipped to Nova Scotia. Albion also appeared in Chiacago and Baltimore and was falsely assocaited with Samson, but was not a Hackworth locomotive and came from Rayne and Burn of Newcastle, although Dendy Marshall questions this ancestry

Goods loco. with intermediate axle. Northern Rly. of France. 249. illustration
Heavy 0-6-0 built by Schneider & Co. with an extra axle inserted behind leading coupled wheels to relieve weight on leading coupled axles. L. Wiener noted that a Canadian 2-6-0 had a powered bogie inseerted between the coupled axles.

Locomotive boiler feeding. 249-50.
Location of clack valves and development of top feed by Churchward, Collett and Stanier and the domeless boiler

Glyn Valley Tramway. 250
Closed to all traffic on 6 July. 2ft 4½in gauge 6½ mile line from Chirk to Glyn Ceiriog with an extension to Hendre Quarry in the Berwyn Mountains.

Early compounds of the P.L.M. Railway. 251-3. 3 diagrams (including side elevation)
4-4-0 No. C11 as developed from 1892

Southern Railway. 253
Closure to passenger traffic of railway between Chichester and Midhurst on 7 July.

F.H. Small. The use of the equivalent uniformly distributed load curve for comparing the effects of locomotives on bridges. 254-60. 9 diagrams.
EUDL: considers 4-6-0 with two different wheel spacings and (briefly) 2-8-4T: presumably was an unemployed or retired civil engineer

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 260-2. illustration, diagram (side elevation), table
4-4-2T introduced in 1898. Sharp Stewart & Co. WN 4410-17/1898; 4512-22/1899; 4628-9/1900. Werkspoor WN 77-86/1903; 96-100/1904; 117-125/1904; 151-6/1908.

Errata. 262
In the description of the bogie express engines in the June issue, the exhaust pipe from the cylinders has been given as 165 mm. diameter. This should have been 165 x 114 mm. being the section of the branch pipe leading from each cylinder and combined into one at the base of the Adams blast pipe. The outside and inside diameters of the ring section at the top of the blast pipe are 168 and 131 mm.

Railcar for the Entre Rios Rly. with rubber tyres. 262-3
Light bogie railcar fitted with rubber tyres and guide wheels, instead of the usual flanged wheels was recently tried between Bletchley and Oxford on the L.M. & S. Rly: It had been built for the Entre Rios Railway, Argentine Republic by the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. under the supervision of Livesey and Henderson. Standard gauge the vehicle was driven by a Ford V8 petrol engine developing 77 b.h.p. at 3,000 r.p.m. A reverse box to give equal speeds m either direction was provided. The drive was to two axles of one bogie, coupled to the driving shaft by differentials with a third differential between them, in a similar manner to a road vehicle. The wheels were mounted with roller bearings on fixed axles. The tyres were of the N.A.P. Air- core type, with a carrying capacity of one ton per tyre at a speed of 50 m.p.h. Each bogie was provided with six guide wheels, the patent of E.C. Noble, late C.M.E. of the Entre Rios Rly. These were set at an angle and were fixed to the stationary axle. By their use the tyre was enabled to function without outside interference, and was relieved from all side strains, while a free passage is provided over the inside face of the tyre.

Great Western Rly. 262
Narnes allocated to 15 new Hall class engines being completed at Swindon Works: called after Clyffe, Cogan, Dunley, Faendra, Garth, Horsley, Hutton, Knolton, Mawley, St. Edmund, Toynbee, Wantage, Wimpole, Wolseley and Woollas Halls. New passenger 4-6-0 engines completed at Swindon were Nos. 5038 Morlais Castle, 5039 Rhuddlan Castle, 5040 Stokesay Castle, 5041 Tiverton Castle, and 5042 Winchester Castle, and 0-6-0 goods tanks Nos. 9754-9. Engines withdrawn recently included:: 0-6-2 tank No. 177 (R.S.B. 20), 2-4-0 tank No. 1455, 0-4-2 tanks Nos. 1466 and 1482, 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 1573, 1644 and 1848, 0-6-0 tender engine, No. 2305, 4-4-0 tender, No. 3324, and 4-6-0 tender engine No. 4008 Royal Star.

The evolution of the slip coach. 263. illustration
Since publication of the Rev. R. B. Fellow's article in our July issue (pp. 215- 218) we have received the photograph now reproduced. In this type of slip coupling the hinged shackle was kept closed by a catch held in position by a spnng. The guard by pulling a rope or chain released the locking catch thus allowing the hinged end of the shackle to fall away from the draw hook.

Southern Rly. 263
Four new engines completed at Eastleigh Works of the Schoals class Nos. 935 Sevenoaks, 936 Cranleigh; 937 Epsom, and 938 St. Olave's.

L.M. & S.R. through engine-working between Euston and Aberdeen. 263
With the inauguration of a locomotive schedule which calls for a return trip fram London to Aberdeen and back (539¾ miles each way) the L.M.S. established a new record for the longest through engine-working in Britain. Previously this record was held by the through journey from London to Glasgow and back, 401½ miles each way, of the Princess Royal class engines working The Royal Scot express. The new London-Aberdeen schedule forms part of a scheme undertaken by the L.M.S. to obtain a more economic use of its engines. The locomotive is of the Royal Scot type and leaves Euston at 19.30 with The Royal Highlander express; reaches Carlisle at 01.38 and re-fuels before proceeding at 05.16 with another express to Aberdeen. On arrival at Aberdeen the engine has 2½ hours before returning to Carlisle with the 13.55 fish train. At Carlisle the engine again takes on a fresh supply of coal, cantinuing to London with the 01.07 a.m. sleeping-car express from Carlisle, arriving at Euston at 07.25 — almost exactly 36 hours after first leaving the Metropolis, during which period it has covered 1079½ miles.

The Heinl hot water feed system for locomotives. 264-7. 5 diagrams
Previous part page 228: final part page 297

Correspondence.  267

Central Railway of Peru. M.F. Jukes. 267.
In reply to Mr. Bazley's correction re the respective elevations of summits on the Peruvian Central and Antofagasta-Bolivia Railways, I will say that probably both Mr. Bazley and the writer are a bit mistaken. On page 183, June LOCOMOTIVE, my article gave the altitude of the Central Morococha branch as 15,865 ft. This figure, which appears in the company's booklet, is apparently a typographical error and should be 15,805 ft.
Taking the company's diagram showing comparative profiles of the principal mountain railways of the world, the Central's highest point is 4,817 metres, while the Antofagasta-Bolivia's Collahuasi branch is 4,821 metres above sea level. The Central's main line summit at Galera tunnel reaches 4,783 metres (15,693 ft.). At the risk of raising the old question as to whether English or American locomotives are better it might be in order to state that the Central uses both. Rogers engines from Paterson, New Jersey, constituted the early motive power of the the road and many of their successors were still in service. The' latest power additions, though built at Manchester, are, if anything, American in type. Discussion on this point is therefore fruitless as the end sought is economical transportation. Nowadays. specifications and type of power adopted are governed by the conditions under which the said' power shall operate, regardless as to the country in which it is. built.

Reviews. 267

Train topics. W.G. Chapman. London: The Great Western Railway, Paddington Station. .
The sixth and latest volume of the G.W.R. popular "Boys. of all Ages" series, comprises twenty descriptive talks dealing with the civil engineering side of the railway. Covering the developments of a century concerning the permanent way, and the structural work involved, including bridges, viaducts, tunnels, cuttings, embankments, etc., Chapman's interesting and lucid explanations make a fascinating story of the evolution of this important phase of railway work, which will give many happy hours to boys, and to their fathers. also. The problems which BruneI had to solve as the first engineer of the G.W.R. are explained. The book is lavishly illustrated and is wonderful value for the low price charged,

Leitfaden fur den dampflokomotivdienst (Guide to the locomotive in service), Reichsbahnrat L. Niederstrasser. Verkehrswissenschaftliche Lelirmittelgesellschaft m.b.h. bei der Deutschen Reichsbahn, Potsdamer Platz, I, Berlin,
In some ways, this valuable addition to German railway literature resembles the Lectures on the Locomotive by Dugald Drummond, which were first published [inn the 1890s] though naturally there are many phases of modern locomotive practice which did not come into the picture in Drummond's day. In Germany, too, a straightforward general work of this kind has hitherto. been conspicuous by its absence. This was more the pity in view of the very advanced steps in locomotive design which have been taken in Germany since the war. All branches of practical steam locomotive engineering are dealt with, simply yet exhaustively, so as to appeal to every class of locomotive man or student. The book is divided into eleven "parts" or chapters, all fully illustrated and in- dexed. Part One, which is quite short, contains a brief historical sketch, illustrated with several interesting old photographs, ranging in subject from Puffing Billy to a Crampton built by Borsig in 1854, and including one of Henschel's pioneer 4-4-0 locomotives Drache (1848). Part Two deals with the numbering and classification of locomotives, as exemplified on the German State Railway. Part Three is devoted to fuel, feed water and lubricating oils, with an additional section on the merits of different building materials. Particular notice is deserved by Part Four, dealing with the "Theoretical Foundations" of locomotive engineering, subsections being devoted to detailed analyses of the boiler, cylinders and motion respectively, opening with a general survey of the modern locomotive. Still more detailed attention is given in Part Five to boiler design and fitting, feed water heating, the locomotive as an engine, compounding, the locomotive as a vehicle, and other particularised matters. Attention to tender and tank arrangements follows in Part Six. Part Seven deals with special locomotive types, the five sub-headings being "Fireless Locomotives," Rack Locomotives," Pulverised Fuel Locomotives," "High Pressure Locomot ives " (with special reference to the Schrnidt-Henschel and Schwartzkopff-Loffler experiments), and "Turbine Locomotives." Part Eight might be described, almost as an Encyclopedia of Braking. Part Nine deals with the "Shops, Shed and Road" side, augmented by further notes in Part Ten. Part Eleven describes "Experiments and Improvements." The whole. besides being fully illustrated in the text, supplemented by a series of tables and folding charts at the end, the latter including elevations of all the modern standard Iocomotives placed in service on the German State Railway during recent years. A further series of folding illustrations (loose) in the back consists of nurnbered and indexed sectioual charts, one showing a German 2-8-2 tank locomotive of Series 86, and the others devoted respectively to cylinders and motion (Heusinger gear), boiler details, springing and running gear. and cab fittings.

Die lokomotive feiert mlt das 100jahrige bestehen der Deutschen Eisenbahnen. (The Locomotive joins in celebrating the German Railway Centenary). E. Metzeltin VDI. 88 pages with 177 illustrations. Berlin, VDI-Verlag
Germans were celebrating the centenary of their railways, and as a topical record of the locomotive and its development for the occasion this book has been compiled by Dr. Metzeltin. It contains a large collection of contemporary drawings and reports illustrating the locomotive and railways generally, as well as many of the individuals concerned such as managers, locomotive builders, drivers, passengers, and even royal personages who have been interested in this development. Since its early days the locomotive has had a fascination for many people outside the engineering world; some have composed poems in its honour, others ridiculed it, while others have been mere enthusiastic admirers. Therefore, one finds jokes, ridicule, caricatures, poetic praise and disparagement, error and far-seeing wisdom in this book. There is a collection of opinions, expressed by notable persons, dating from 1802 to 1935, which is a mirror of the times although sometimes distorted in its reflection. Dr. Metzeltin is well known as an expert on historical matters relative to the locomotive.

Trade Notes and Publications. 268

London and North Eastern Railway. 268
Orders placed for a total of 52 semi-corridor coaches required for the Great Eastern section East Anglian services and divided as follows: R. Y. Pickering & Co. Ltd. 26 bogie first and third composite coaches with vacuum brake and Craven's Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd., 23 bogie first and third composite coaches with vacuum brake and three sirnilar coaches with vacuum and Westinghouse brake. Orders had been placed by the National Benzole Co. Ltd. for 14-ton tank wagons for the conveyance of class A inflammable liquids. R.Y. Pickering & Co. Ltd. were to supply twelve and Craven's Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. sixteen of these wagons.

W.G. Bagnall Ltd.
Secured order for two narrow-gauge tank engines for the Eastern Bengal Railway.

Copper Development Association of Thames House, Millbank, S.W.l,
Booklet of 64 pages entitled Copper Data. It is a selection in the form of an engineer's note-book, intended to act as a general guide to the ordinary user, in connection with applications of copper, Section 1 deals with the mechanical, electrical and other properties as well as resistance to corrosion; section 2 is devoted to the treatment and working, including tinning machining, and joining, and 3 with the commercial grades and applications. Weight tables, specifications, etc., are given as an appendix.

Nydquist & Holm of Trollhattan
Swedish firm received large orders for the supply of locomotives, as well as carriage and wagon stock in course of construction. for the Turkish Government.

Nigeria Government Railway
Order for 31 bogie covered goods wagons of 25-tons capacity placed by the Crown Agents for the Colonies with the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. These wagons are to be fitted with Sheffield-Twinberrow bogies complete with wheels and axles and Framwel axleboxes, all to be supplied by G. H. Sheffield & Co. (Engineers) Ltd.

Buckeye coupler. 268
The recent Welwyn disaster proved without doubt the value of the Automatic Coupler as fitted to railway rolling stock. The Buckeye Coupler was adopted on the East Coast Joint Stock of the North Eastern Railway as early as 1896, and on the amalgamation was adopted on all the main line stock of the London and North Eastern Railway. Speaking at the enquiry into this disaster, the Chief Mechanical Engineer stated the fact that some of the coaches being fitted with this coupler undoubtedly saved many lives. It is significant that the loss of life and injury occurred in the coaches fitted with the ordinary screw coupling. The firm of A. G. Wild & Co. Ltd. of Sheffield have had thirty years' experience in the manufacture of the Buckeye type of coupler and Pullman Vestibules, and are contractors to the L. & N.E.R. for this gear. Detailed particulars with drawings of these couplers are given in the Railway Carriage and Wagon Handbook

South African Railways Administration
Placed an order with Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. for four 2-6-2+2-6-2 Garratt locomotives for the 2 ft. gauge. These locomotives are to be manufactured at the works of the John Cockerill Co. of Liege, under the supervision of Beyer, Peacock & Co.

Caprotti Valve Gears Ltd.
Received an order from the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railways for 11 sets of Heinl feed-water heaters, and A.C.F.I. Ltd. for 10 sets of their feed water apparatus to be applied to 21 broad gauge locomotive boilers ordered from the VuJcan Foundry Ltd. to the inspection of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. Ltd.
To build two 4-8-2 locomotives and tenders for the Gold Coast Railways to the inspection of the Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Number 517 (14 September 1935)

Locomotive availability. 269-70
Increased productivity in the steam locomotive sought via design: larger grate areas, improved lubbrication (including larger reservoirs); enhanced servicing: mechanical coaling and hot water washing out of boilers.  See also letter from P.L. Spear on page 335

Shunting locomotives, Palestine Railways . 270 illustration
Nasmyth Wilson & Co.: three 0-6-0Ts with 17* x 24in outside cylinders, Walschaerts valve gear and 180 psi boiler pressure built under authority of Crown Agents and H.A. Cotching, CME in Haifa.

L.M.S. Railway Northern Counties Committee. 270
W Class 2-6-0 No. 96 Silver Jubilee tested on Belfast to Dublin trains during week beginning 26 August. GNR (I) 173 class 4-4-0 loaned to NCC as a replacement.

2-8-0 locomotives, Kiangnan Railway., China. 271-2. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Manufactured by Skoda: 4ft 5¼in coupled wheels; 19¾ x 24¾in cylinders; 1506ft2 total heating surface plus 452ft2 superheat and 33ft2 grate area.

Diesel railcars for Egypt. 272-3. illustration
Ten supplied to Egyptian State Railways from Ganz in Hungary. Exported via Bremen

"Sentinel" steam railcar, Northern Ry. of France. 273. illustration, plan.
Oil-fired Woolnough boiler with automatic controls to cut fuel supply if water level fell to low (fed by a Weir pump). Six-cylinder engine. Built in France.

Sulzer engines for the South Manchuria Railway. 274.illustration
Built at Winterthur in Swizerland: six-cylinder diesel for railcars.

H.C. Casserley. The Lynton  and Barnstaple Railway. 275-7. 4 illustrations
Opened in 1897. 1ft 11½in gauge, 19½ miles long. Manning Wardle supplied the three original 2-6-2T locomotives. In 1898 a Baldwin 2-4-2T was purchased and given the name Lyn. The Southern Railway purchased another 2-6-2T from Manning Wardle and this was named Lew. The slowness of the trains contributed to the failure of the service.

Turbine locomotives in Britain. 277-8
Written to amplify the introduction of the LMS Turbomotive: earlier efforts included that introduced in 1910 and built by the North British Locomotive Co. This featured electric drive and condensing and was designed by Sir Hugh Reid and Ramsay. It was tested on the Caledonian and North British Railways; in 1921/2 D.M. Ramsay co-operated with Armstrong Witworth on a further steam turbine electric condensing locomotive. At this time there was a Ramsay Condensing Locomotive Company in Glasgow. A Reid-Macleod geared staem turbine locomotive was exhibited at the Wembley Exhibition in 1924. Finally Beyer Peacock developed a Ljungström turbine condensing locomotive with a 300 psi boiler and 5ft 3in coupled wheels which ran is service on the LMS between 23 September 1926 and 5 May 1927 in which time it ran 5400 miles.

[LNER Newcastle to South Shields line to be electrified]. 278

New first class sleeping cars, L.M.S.R. 278-80. 3 illustrations
Six-wheel bogies. Thermotank heating and ventilation. Rexine used in finish.

"Sinuflo" superheater and elements. 280-1. 2 illustrations

Sligo, Leitrim & Northern Counties Ry. 281
Four-wheel railcar A for Sligo to Enniskillen service. Painted light green lower panels and white upper panels

German State Railways. 281.
Second streamlined high speed locomotive supplied from Borsig which attained 120 mil/h between Berlin and Hamburg

Starting resistance. 281
Tests on bogie wagons with plain and withroller bearings with loads of 90 tons: the tests showed that about a tenth of the power was required to start the roller bearing fitted wagon

The German Railways Centenary. 282-5. 6 illustrations
First railway in Germany opened on 7 December 1835, when a tram of five small coaches, pulled by Der Adler from the Newcastle Works of Robert Stephenson and Co.-and driven by the Englishman sent out by the builders, William Wilson ran from a small station in Nuremberg to the adjacent town of Furth. This year, therefore, is the centenary year of the German railway system, and it js being appropriately recognised by an extremely interesting display of rolling stock, permanent way, etc., in the railway birth-city of Nuremberg. The city of Nuremberg has a very elaborate permanent display of railway exhibits in the Museum of Transport, a fine building specially constructed to house the enormous collection of models and equipment which has been gradually: acquired, and a visit to this museum was implied m conjunction with the visit to the Centenary Exhibition. The latter is held in the new Freight Transfer Shed, and consists almost entirely of the most modern equipment. The decorated tower is shown in Fig. 1..,
The official guide states that 2½ hours is necessary to make a tour of the exhibits, and our contributor, who personally made the tour, considers that this should have been amplified by stating that it would take 2½ days to study the exhibits. The routing of the tour was firstly through numerous rooms of well-displayed pictures, statistics, and models—from whence one passes through the. great Transfer Shed, which has five tracks replete with assorted rolling stock. The permanent way, signalling, and road vehicle sections were outside the shed, as were the moving exhibits, namely, a standard Pacific. express locomotive which was working over a distance of about three-quarters of a mile, passenger-carrying in the cab; a small Diesel car, fitted for displaying brake operation by optical signalling, and the exact replica of Der Adler with its train, which runs a long circular trip completely round the exhibition grounds.
This latter train was very interesting, as it is running under steam, with its train crew dressed as in 1835, and it provided a very popular ride. The Stephenson nameplate can be seen. in the photo. (Fig. 2) attached to. the frame side. A detail worthy of note on this engme was the prOvision of open-leaf springs, the credit of which has been generally given to G.W.R. practice. As, however, the G.W.R. was not opened until 1838, it would seem that this invention was entirely due to the Stephenson Works. Several details of interest appear on the coaches, namely, the fitting of automatic spring locks on the doors, and the provision of combined buffing and draw-gear, with a single laminated spring, at one end only of each coach. This is of very ingenious design, as the spring is fixed, and the traction effort transmitted by levers.
From this 1835 memory, one passes direct to 1935. For any intermediate history, a visit must be made to the Museum of Transport, which includes models of nearly every class of locomotive carriage and wagon stock, which has ever run on the f~rmer Royal Bavarian Railway System.
This present exhibition. was unique in the sense that it includes the following traction mstances:-
A whole series of modern standardized steam locos. for normal train working, of all types.
A high-speed (100 m.p.h.) steam loco. streamlined for working normal trams.
A high-speed (100 m.p.h.) steam loco. and special train, all streamlined.
A high-speed (90 m.p.h.) 2-car electric tram, overhead equipment.
The original Flying Hamburger, Diesel- electric, 100 m.p.h.
A high-speed (90 m.p.h.) 3-car Diesel- hydraulic train. ..
A 1,400 h.p. Diesel locomotive, Voith-Fottinger (hydraulic) drive.
An electric loco. for hauling 700 tons at 80 m.p.h. .
Amongst all this collection of traction methods the only item missing appears to be the accumulator cars which are largely used on the Reichsbahn, but presumably these are omitted as the method is now regarded as obsolete. . ..,
The new steam locomotive types, for normal working, Fig. 3, are conspicuous by the large amount of fabricated (welded) work on the frames and the provision of numerous domes, three or four being the rule, two for sand and one, or two, for steam. The use of brake-blocks in half-lengths is one detail of note. Perhaps the most interesting is the 2-4-2 tank loco. shown by Fig. 5, which has been made by the Berliner Maschinenbau. The steam pressure is 300 lb. and the maximum speed 60 m.p.h.
The Henschel 4-6-4 tank loco. rated for 175 km! hour is coupled to a four-car train, painted mauve and cream throughout, and attached to the Berlin Division.' Such a train is ideal for working over some of the relatively straight and flat lines north, east, and west of Berlin, and will doubtless be studied in conjunction with the perform- ances of the new Flying Kolner and Flying Frankfurter which are DIesel-electric trains of the Hamburger type.

East Kent Railway locomotives. 285-6. 2 illustrations
Description of the overhaul of Nos. 4 (a Kerr Stuart 0-6-0T) and 6 (a Stirling S.E.R. 0-6-0) at Ashford Works.

New passenger rolling stock. 286.
Elimination of mouldings and projections from outside panels and the abolition of the waist on LMS and GWR carriages.

[Leek and Waterhouses to close to passenger traffic at end of September]. 286

Steam tender locomotive, M.S. & L. Rly. 286-7. illustration (drawuing: side elevation)
Charles Sacré applied Sturrock's Patent 1135/1863 for twelve engines supplied by Neilson & Co. in 1865 WN 1132-1143. The condensing arrangements were modified.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 287.
New 4-6-2 Pacific type locomotives completed at Crewe were Nos. 6203 Princess Margaret Rose, 6204 Princess Louise, 6205 Princess Victoria, 6206 Princess Marie Louise, 6207 Princess Arthur of Connaught, 6208 Princess Helena Victoria, and 6209 Princess Beatrice. The remainder of the series, Nos. 6210-2, were also in hand. These will be followed by a further six 2-8-0 mineral engines, and finally by 30 more Baby Scots, which would complete that year's programme. No. 5175 was the latest two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engine ex Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. The following class "G1" 0-8-0 mineral engines were running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: Nos. 9006, 9037, 9188, 9236, 9350, and 9370. Of the same class No. 9350 had been converted from steam to vacuum brake. Only four engines of the 4-6-0 Experiment class remained in service, Nos. 5456 City of Chester, 25743 Scottish Chief, 25508 Buckland, and 25528 Bellona. Recent withdrawals included 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 25659, 25716 and 25766; also ex N.S.R. New L class Nos. 2256 and 2272.
Midland Division.-No. 119 was latest 2-6-2 passenger tank to be completed at Derby. The three-cylinder 2-6-4 tank engines, Nos. 2505-36, some of which had been in service on the Western Division and elsewhere, were allocated to the Tilbury section, for which they were originally built.

Petrol railcar, Northern Railway. of Spain. 288. 2 illustrations
Would be termed a railbus: four-wheel vehicle with Maybach engine and Mylius four-speed transmission

Great Western Ry. 288.
New 4-6-0 locomotives completed at Swindon: Nos. 5041 Tiverton Castle and 5042 Winchester Castle and 0-4-2T Nos. 4850-6. Condemned locomotives included 0-6-0 tank engines 1047, 1223, 1502, 1519, 1525, 1549 and 1929; 0-6-0 tender engine No. 2357 and 4-4-0 No. 3350.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 289-90. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Werkspoor WN 181-2/1907 and 328-31/1913 were 4-4-2T with Schmidt piston valves.(possibly USP 816607)

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: combustion and boilers. 291-2. 5 diagrams
Patent GB 315/1858

London & North Eastern Ry. 292
First of new Pacifics with 250 psi boilers for working the Silver Jubilee is painted black with chromium plated fittings, etc. No. 2846 Gilwell Park latest B17 completed at Darlington; also J39 Nos. 2950-3 and 2981.

Southern Ry.292
Electric traction introduced between Woodside and South Norwood and Sanderstead, and between Lewisham Junction and Nunhead

One hundred years of the G.W.R. 292-5. illustration
Celebration lunch on Saturday 31 August in the great hall of Bristol University hosted by Sir Robert Horne, Chairman. Amongst guests J.H. Thomas, Secretary for the Dominions, the Marquis of Bath, Lord Dulverton and the Mayor of Bristol, H.J. Maggs. Annoucement of high speed Bristolian. The London guests were conveyed to and from London by a spcial train. The main features of the railway in terms of routes, freight carried, major strucures etc are summarised.

The Franco-Ethiopian Railway, Djibouti to Addis Ababa. 296-7. illustration
Metre gauge and l;ightly constructed but with two major viaducts. Majority of locomotives were 2-8-0 type.

The Heinl hot water feed system for locomotives. 297-9. 3 diagrams
Previous parts see pages 228 and 264: this concluding part shows appication to an Indian Standards Classification Class XT 0-4-2T and to a Great Indian Peninsula Railway H4 2-8-0. The system waas marketed in Britain by the Caprotti Co. See also entry for Franz Heinl

First locomotives built in Russia. 299-300. 2 illustrations (drawings)
Czar Nicholas sent Melinkoff and Krofft to the United Kingdom and to the United States in 1840 to assess locomotives suitable for the St Petersburg to Moscow Railway and this led to Harrison of Philadelphia and Thomas Winans of Baltimore going to Russia. See also letter from Valentine Rippon on page 335

Cleaning the superheater flues and boiler tubes. 300-1
Superheater Co.

Correspondence, 301

Loco Historian
In a history of the parish of Darlington published in 1854 the following occurs on page 359:
"In 1813 things took a turn, Mr. Blackett by a series of experiments on the Wylam waggon way found that wheels and rails required neither racking nor roughing and George Stephenson made his first locomotive at Killingworth Colliery. 'Yes, Lord Ravensworth & Co. were the first parties that entrusted me with money to make a locomotive engine, which engine was made thirty-two years ago and was called My Lord. '* It would carry about thirty tons at the rate of four miles per hour. Up to the time of the Stockton and Darlington Railway steam progress non obstante the confirmed superiority of the 1814 engine was still for general purposes a dead ietter."
*From a speech by George Stephenson in 1844. The progressive improvements effected by this gentleman are very sufficiently detailed iri Ritchie's little book on railways.
Can any reader interested refer to any drawing existant of the My Lord, or to Ritchie's book mentioned? [KPJ: Ritchie is presumably Ottley 11: no little book as has 444pp]

Slipping mineral trains. WTH.
In his most interesting article in your July number, Rev. R. B. Fellows discusses several instances of slipping entire trains. This calls to mind a most extraordinary practice indulged in during the early days of the Stockton and Darlington Railway, and mentioned in the late Mr. Joseph Tomlinson's Presidential Address to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1890. Unfortunately I am unable to refer directly to this paper at present. However, so far as I remember, it seems to have been customory for certain mineral trains to run from Shildon to Middlesbrough "non-stop," and also to lake water twice en route, without benefit of water troughs. This was done by the simple process of uncoupling the engine and tender from the train, while still running, a mile or two before reaching the water column. The engine and tender were then run ahead to the water column as rapidly as possible, and the coal wagons were left to follow leisurely by their own momentum. By the time the tender was filled, the wagons would come rolling along, coupling would be effected, and away the train would go! One is almost forced to conclude that even in those rough and ready days, such a mode of working was entirely " unofficial."

Reviews. 301

Descriptive diagrams of the locomotive, by A.F. Hunt. Shrewsbury: Wilding & Sons Ltd.
This little handbook has been prepared to assist members of mutual improvement classes in understanding the difficult and intricate problems of locomotive management from the running side and how to deal with mechanical failures. As instructor of the classes at Oxford and Oswestry the author's experience is based on Great Western practice. The rather rough sketches show how valves take steam, how the various rods and levers are connected with their names attached, and also diagrams of the G.W. brake arrangements. Useful descriptions refer to the lubricating gear, answers to questions on notching-up, and how to get the best out of an engine. He has used the practical experience he has gained in driving for the benefit of the new hands at the job and explains things in language that can easily be understood. [NOT IN OTTLEY]

How, why and when?-Railway engines, their history, growth and development: written and illustrated by R. Barnard Way. London: Cassell & Co. Ltd.
This book consists largely of a collection of 200 well executed pen and ink sketches of railway trains, locomotives and diagrams and details of mechanism. After dealing with the mechanical principles of the steam locomotive, sketches follow of the development of design in the early days leading up to the most recent examples of modern construction. The narrative is given in simple language that will be easy to understand by all youngsters to whom the fascination of railways appeals. We can recommend. it as a gift book that will be much appreciated by the recipient.

The locomotives of the Southern Railway (Central Section) by W. G. Tilling. London: R. Tilling.
This completes a trilogy of the Southern Railway's locomotives, that had already dealt with the Western and Eastern sections in previous volunies. It is written in a style uniform with the writer's previous books' and contains 34 pages text, table of dimensions, ten illustrations and a collotype frontispiece; full details of the engines working on the Isle of Wight are included.

The Railway Handbook 1935-1936. London: The Railway Publishing Co. Ltd. 96 pp., paper covers.
This handbook provides brief particulars of the British and Irish railway systems, together with much statistical as well as other interesting information. Excepting for tables providing internatio~al. comparisons, the data are mainly conlined to Great Britain and !reland. An exception is provIded regarding the electnficatlon of steam railways, where it has seemed necessary to cover the whole world in order to present a complete record of this increasing development.

Locomotive Engineer's Pocket Book 1935, London: Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
The present edition of this useful book of reference of 400 pages, which. has been in existence for almost thirty years, requires no introduction to locomotive engineers. In it are included comprehensive descriptions of all the devices and methods adopted in the running and care of locomotives at repair depots and sheds. The conditions under which an ngine works and the nature of the work it has to do are dealt with and there are many useful and practical hints. The tables of data, directory of chief mechanical engineers of the home and overseas British railways, and of industrial works owning locomotives, have been revised and brought up to date. A useful list of mileages and gauges of the railways of the world forms a new feature.

Locomotwes a grande vitesse a bogie et 4 essieux accouples. A. Chapelon, Ingenieur de Materiel au P.O.-Midi. Paris: Dunod,
The design and performance of the famous 4-8-0 passenger locomotives of the Paris-Orleans-Midi Railway are dealt with in full detail by Chapelon in this reprint of his arttcles in the Revue Generale des. Chemins de Fer. As designer of these very efficient machines he gives his reasons for the adoption of certain devices and ratios, making a comprehensive treatise on these modern 4-cyl. compound locomotives, with very clear explanations of the reasons for their satisfactory performance on the road. .A full account of the experimental work with dynamometer charts is given, and these are incorporated with the six folding plates; also others regarding horse-power, draw-bar pull, speed and cut-off. For a very moderate outlay to all who are interested in this subject, this publication can be recommended as a valuable addition to the literature of the locomotive.

Molybdenum steels, their manufacture and application, by J.L.F. Vogel, and W.F. Rowden, with foreword by Lord Riverdale of Sheffield. Widnes: High Speed Steel Alloys, Ltd.
The demand for safe rapid transit by land, sea and air has necessitated the production of alloy steel with high physical properties, so that weight may be decreased without loss of strength. It is most essential that the quality of the metal should be uniform and free from deleterious impurities to meet the severe service requirements. The use of molybdenum as an ,alloying element improves the mechanical properties of a 'wide range of steels at normal and high temperatures, and serves to remove brittleness. It also increases the effective tempering range, The beneficial effects of this element are brought about by careful heat treatment, and good alloy steel will, not function properly unless it has undergone the correct treatment. Owing to its low volatising temperature, it is necessary to use non-volatile compounds which are not harmful to' steel, and on reduction the molybdenum alloys with the steel, whilst the other elements enter the slag. High Speed Steel Alloys Ltd. recommend compounds of molybdenum with silica and lime. In this handbook details and analyses of these products are given, as well as particulars of materials recommended for use in' the different melting processes in manufacturing molybdenum steels. Co-operating with various British steel makers and users, the authors claim that this treatise can be regarded as a standard work on the production and application of molybdenum steels based on practical experience,

Trade Notes and Publications. 302

China. 302
For service on the Canton-Hankow Railway the Chinese Government Purchasing Commission, on behalf of the Ministry of Railways, China, and to the inspection of Messrs. Sandberg, has ordered eight two-cylinder 4 It. 8½ in, gauge 4-8-4 locomotives and double bogie tenders from the Vulcan Foundry Limited, similar to the sixteen placed with the same builders last year, and thirty-four 4 ft. 8½ in, gauge coaches from the Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd., made up as follows :-Five first class dining cars; five first class, five second class, and four third class sleeping cars; five second class day cars, five baggage and guard's vans , and five baggage and mail vans.

India. 302
The Great Indian Peninsula Railway has ordered from the Vulcan Foundry Limited two broad-gauge "XP" class experimental 4-6-2 locomotives embodying a number of interesting features. Both engines are to have Caprotti poppet valve gear and A.C.F.I feed-water heating equipment. One engine will have Skefko roller bearings for the engine and tender axle journals throughout, and the other will be equipped with Timken roller bearings. Roller bearings will also be used for the main and coupling rods on one engine. A boiler pressure of 210 lb. per square inch is planned for both engines and the maximum axlc-Ioad is to be 18½ tons. The tcnders will be of the double bogie type.
The Bhavnagar State Railway has placed an order with W.G. Bagnall Limited for one 4-8-0 locomotive and tender for the 2 ft. 6 in. gauge.
The Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Administration has placed orders to the inspection of Messrs. Rendel, Palmer & Tritton, with the Vulcan Foundry Co. Ltd. for two "XB" class broad gauge superheated 4-6-2 passenger locomotives and tenders.

Locomotive washing plants at L.N.E.R. sheds. 302.
At King's Cross and Hornsey Locornotive Depots and also at Parkhead, Glasgow, portable plants have recently been installed for washing locomotives. An injector, manufactured by Davies & Metcalf Ltd., supplies a mixture of steam and hot water at a pressure of 400 lb. per sq. inch and a temperature of about 195 deg, F. The steam supply is taken from an adjacent locomotive or other source, at a working pressure of 100 lb. per sq. inch by a flexible pipe.

[Drewry Car Co. Ltd]. 302
The Eagle Oil and Shipping Co. l.td. has placed a repeat order with the Drewry Car Co. Ltd. for a narrow gauge diesel-engined locomotive. This will be fitted with the Wilson-Drewry epicyclic transmission in conjunction with a Vulcan-Sinclair rigid traction-type hydraulic coupling. The power unit will be a Gardner L.2 type engine as fitted to the other Drewry locomotives in service in this company's oil-fields in Mexico.
A Diesel passenger rail coach is in hand for the War Office also equipped with a Gardner L.W. type engine and the Drewry epicyclic transmission, This is for service at the Royal Engineers' Training Centre at Longmoor Camp, near Borden.

The Crown Agents for the Colonies. 302
Placed an order with the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. for 13 bogie third-class coaches and three bogie brake-third coaches of all-steel construction and fitted with Sheffield-Twinberrow bogies for the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, Gold Coast Government Railway.

The Australian Portland Cement Proprietary Ltd.. 302
Placed with Beyer, Peacock & Co. an order for one Beyer-Garratt locomotive similar to the type supplied to the Western Australian Government Railways. The locomotive is therefore 3 ft. 6 in. gauge and will have a maximum axle-load of 9.5 tons, wheel arrangement being 2-6-0+0-6-2.

Messrs. Whitelegg & Rogers. 302
Order from the Chinese Government Purchasing Commission for three Ajax Power Operated Presses for use in connection with the "Ajax" System of Grease Lubrication, fitted to locomotives of the Chinese National Railways. They have also an order from the Buenos Ayres Great Southern Rly. for complete "Ajax" Grease Lubricating Equipment for converting six passenger locomotives from oil to grease lubrication.

Diesel locomotives for the North Western Ry. of India. 302
When describing the two 4-6-4 Diesel-electric locomotives in our August issue, we omitted to mention that ventilation of the engine compartments and drivers' cabs is effected by "Monarch" Air Extractor Ventilators.

A. B. Svenska Kullagerfabriken, Sweden,  302
Have obtained an order for 1,048 Skefko roller bearing boxes for passenger coaches. from the Swedish State Railways. This railway administration has now in use over 29,800 roller bearing boxes. An order has also been received from the Egyptian State Rlys. for 120 boxes for 20 loco. tenders. Other orders include the supply of 288 boxes for passenger coaches for the Paris, Orleans, Midi Rai'lways and 414 bearings for boxes for the New South Wales Government Railways. The Skefko Company have also equipped the two high speed streamline express locomotives for the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad with roller bearing ,boxes on the driving axles and leading bogie axles.

Messrs. Hadfields Ltd., East Hecla Works, Sheffield,  302
Sent us a copy of a temperature chart which has been prepared by their Research Department, showing the wide range of industrial temperatures for which suitable special steels and alloys are supplied by the firm. The temperature range covered extends from the lowest, approaching the absolute zero, to as high as 1,308°C. The characteristics of the alloys suited for use at various temperatures, and their compositions are briefly indicated, with the corresponding trade brands of the Hadfield products. In several cases a choice of suitable materials is provided.

 

Number 518 (15 October 1935)

"The Silver Jubilee" London & North Eastern Railway. E.R. Weathersett. Plate with 15 October Issue
Passing 13¼ mile post from King's Cross near Potter's Bar on Friday September 27th 1935 at 80 miles per hour (note large contingent of public watching from slopes of cutting)

Weighing of locomotives. 303
Weighed after construction as metal densities varied and after major repairs and on some systems following derailmenta

Great Western Railway. 303
The following new engines were completed at Swindon in August :-0-4-2 passenger tanks Nos. 4857-9; 2-6-2 goods tanks Nos. 4100-4; 0-6-0 goods tanks Nos. 6420-2. Two more 2-8-2 tanks have been converted to the 2-8-2 type, Nos. 7229 and 7232, formerly 5264 and 5267. Engines condemned include 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 1179, 1540, 1580, 1864, 1915, and 1974; 0-4-2 tank No. 1473 Fair Rosamund; 4-4-0 tender Nos. 1124 and 3323 Etona; and 2-6-0 tender Nos. 2610 and 2628.

[Egyptian State Railways]. 303
A. S. Bobby, mechanical engineer of the Ceylon Govt. Railways, appointed deputy chief mechanical engineer of the Egyptian State Railways. Other appointments to the E.S. Rlys. as follows:-. L. G. WaIters to be works manager; . A. R. Keen, assistant works manager; . F. Mack, chief jig and tool designer; and J. J. Hall, foundry foreman.

The "Silver Jubilee" train of the L.N.E.R. record trial run. 304-8 + plate. 3 illustrations, table, diagram (side & front elevations),
Includes a technical description of the A4 design.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Presidential Address. 308-9.
At the opening meeting of the 1935-6 session held at the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, on 21 September 1935, the retiring President, H.N. Gresley, C.B.E., introduced the new President, A.C. Carr V.D., to the members and formally handed over the chairmanship. A numerous company were present, and . Carr, after thanking the Institution for the honour they had given him, recalled the indebtedness to the retiring president and the council for the support the Institution had received from Gresley during his year of office. The thanks of the Institution were also expressed by Major C. E. Williams, C.B.E., and J. Clayton, M.B.E.
Mr. Carr then gave a very interesting and entertaining address on the Indian railways, their locomotives and rolling stock, with special reference to the Bengal-Nagpur Railway, with which he was so intimately connected.
There are 42,953 route miles of railway in India of which 21,132 miles are of 5 ft. 6 in. gauge, 17,644 of metre, and 4,177 of 2 ft. 6 in. or 2 ft. gauges, whilst only 3,684 miles of the total are double track or more, so that the bulk of the traffic is worked over single lines of railway. He rendered many excellent details of the large railway systems of British India, and emphasized the long distances separating the chief cities and the convenient connections made by the trunk railways to suit the travelling public, quoting .the distance between Bombay and Calcutta, via the B.N.R. route as 1,223 miles, whilst via the E.I.R. it is 1,349 miles. Other examples are Bombay to Madras, 794 miles; Calcutta to Madras, 1,032 miles; Bombay to Delhi, 957 miles; Calcutta to Delhi, 902 miles; and Madras to Delhi, 1,351 miles.
After mentioning that the number of locomotives operating the Indian railways comprises 9,248 steam engines, 75 electric locomotives, 40 rail motor cars, 31 steam coaches, 4 internal combustion engined cars, 117 electric motor coaches, 20,753 coaching vehicles, and 223,830 goods vehicles, while the staff employed numbers 701,362 of whom 3,906 are Europeans, Carr gave some figures regarding the consumption of coal, pointing out the difference in price per ton on various railways, ranging from 7s. to nearly 30s. per ton. On those railways favoured with cheaper coals, Carr very much doubted if oil engines or electric railways would supplant steam locomotion for many years to come—one telling figure he gave being the variation In price of oil fuel during the last eight years In India. It bad gone up by approximately 25% in cost, whereas steam coal had barely increased 11%.
With illimitable supplies of Indian coal available at comparatively cheap rates for those railways adjacent to the coal fields, any general use of Diesel locomotives he considered remote, but on railways where, water troubles 2Je acute and coal is expensive, and for shunting purposes, and where flexibility and interchangeability for main line work are not of great importance, perhaps a likely field might be found for their use.
The general adoption of superheat for locornotives was noted, and Carr recounted some of his experiences on later engines with poppet valve and rotary cam valve gear, both of which appeared to be promising. The provision of electric headlights on the mail trains, too, was commented on, and it was mentioned with some satisfaction that now British makers are supplying this plant.
An effective and continual improvement in the daily mileage of locomotives was also noted. The average figure for all the Indian broad-gauge railways for 1933-34 was 107 miles per day per engine in use, and 10.4 miles were run per engine per hour during the same period. These figures compared with those published for the L.M. & S. Railway, respectively, 110.5 miles per day, and 9 miles per engine per hour for 1934. A total engine mileage of the broad-gauge in India of 127,000,000 miles, approximately, would require, said Mr. Carr, 3,250 locomotives in use out of a total of 5,670- or, say, 58 per cent. On the L.M. & S. Railway the same figure would be 66 per cent.
Bogie coaching stock for all classes of passengers is now in general use on the broad-gauge railways, and 94.5 per cent. of the coaching stock is equipped either with electric light or gas. Gas is, however, gradually being displaced by electric light. A novel application of electric lighting on some railways is the provision of exterior lights on the coaches, controlled by the guard, which floodlight many of the dimly lighted roadside stations when the train is standing at the platforms. The fitting of vacuum brakes to the goods stock was also referred to.
In concluding his address the new President illustrated his interesting remarks by a number of excellent lantern slides, which showed not only fine views on the railway but typical items of locomotives, rolling stock and goods trains, including some heavy examples of the latter used for the coal traffic on the Bengal-Nagpur system.
A vote of thanks to Mr. Carr was proposed by Mr. W. J. Tomes, the late chief mechanical engineer of the East Indian Railway, and seconded by H. Kelway-Bamber, past President of the Institution.

An automatically operated steam locomotive. 309-10. illustration
Small 0-4-0ST locomotive of standard gauge built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for use at their Standard Steel Works at Burnham, U.S.A., represents an interesting development in design. It is controlled by one man, the firing by oil being automatically controlled by the steam pressure. The boiler never blows off steam, for when the pressure reaches a few pounds per square inch below the blow-off point, the fire is automatically reduced.. The makers claim that the points at which the fire subsides and again increases can be set within a comprehensive working range.

Restoration of two Scottish locomotives. 310
St Rollox Works had restored to their original condition (as far as practicable) Caledonia Railway 4-2-2 No. 123 built in 1886 which was painted in blue livery and Highland Railway No. 103, the first British 4-6-0 of 1894, in olive green livery. Both were preserved in running order.

Drewry railcars for the South African Railways and Holyhead breakwater. 310-11. 2 illustrations
At Holyhead the railcar was to be supplied to the Ministry of Transport to replace a vehicle operated by S. Pearson & Sons Ltd acquired in 1911.

Railway Club. 311
E. Wallis to speak on Power operated signals on 13 September.

Fast runs on the L.M.S. Railway. 310-11.
Daimler-Lanchester Special 27 September 1935: Euston to Coventry behind No. 5552 Silver Jubilee. The 94 miles were scheduled to be run in 92 minutes down (when time just kept) and 88 minutes up (86 minutes achieved with 88 milr/h at King's Lnngley). Driver F.E. Smith with Fireman A. Andres, both of Camden depot. Inspector S.E. Miller of Willesden was on the footplate on this and the following runs mentioned. On Moday 30 September No. 5552 Silver Jubilee was used on the 09.15 from Euston to Birmingham, non-stop from Willesden Junction driven by J. Cox and fired by W. Reynolds of Bushbury when time was kept. The locomotive worked back on the 18.20 with more stops but still within two hours. The Rugby to Willesden Junction was run in 59 minutrs 27 seconds. The Bushbury crew was Driver J.H. Green and Fireman D. James.

Southern Railway Pupils and Premium Apprentices Association. 312
Dinner at Charing Cross Hotel on 25 October

Articulated tank locomotive for the Colombian National Rys. 312. illustration
Baldwin 2-8-8-2T for 3ft gauge Giradot-Tolima-Huila section with 1 in 23 gradients

Petrol railcar, Sligo, Leitrim & Northern Counties Railway. 313-14. illustration, diagram (side elevation & plan)
Bus fitted with Howden-Merdith wheels constructed at GNR Works in Dundalk. G.F. Egan locomotive, carriage & wagon superintendent.

Light railcars for the P.L.M. 314
Frameless aluminium contruction: 280 h.p. , 84.5 ft long; 28½ tons total weight; seated 115 passengers.

A paper mills private railway (Messrs. Edward Lloyd Ltd.). 314-16, 7 illustrations
Located on River Swale at Ridham Dock to serve paper mills near Sittingbourne  and at Kemsley: 2ft 6in gauge.. Locomotive stock included 0-4-2ST supplied by Kerr Stuart from 1908: Leader, Premier and Excelsior. In 1920 an 0-6-2T was supplied by Kerr Stuart and named Superior. This was followed by an English Electric battery locomotive in 1921 and in 1922 a much larger 0-6-2T from W.G. Bagnall Ltd: Conqueror. A further 0-4-2ST was obtained from Kerr Stuar in 1924 and named Melior. A fireless 0-4-0 named Victor was obtained from W.G. Bagnall in 1929. A similar fireless engine Unique had been obtained earlier, but with a leading axle. In 1932 and 1934 further Bagnall 0-6-2T locomotives were purchased and named Alpa and Triumph. The steam locomotives were painted green. Five passenger carrying vehicles owned by the firm and used for conveying the staff between Sittingbourne and Ridham; there were 246 wagons, the majority of which are of the bogie flat type specially designed for the conveyance of wood pulp, etc..

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 316.
Nos. 6210 Lady Patricia, and 6211, Queen Muud, were latest Pacific type locomotives to be completed at Crewe. Two additional 2-8-0 mineral locomotives had also been turned out, Nos. 8006-7. New 4-6-0 2-cylinder mixed traffic engines ex Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. delivered up to No. 5189. No. 9105 was the latest class G 0-8-0 mineral engine to be converted to class G1 (superheater), and provided with a standard Belpaire boiler. Engines recently rebuilt at Crewe with standard Belpaire boilers included the following: 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class No. 25802; 0-6-0 18 in. goods class No. 8533; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9005, 9016, and 9172; 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9415. The last of Whale's 4-6-0 Experiment class had been withdrawn from service. This was No. 25473, Scottish Chief, which arrived on the works during the week ended 21 September. Two of this class were withdrawn at the same time, the other being No. 25508 Buckland. Other withdrawals included Claughton class No. 5989; two ex-N.S.R class "D" 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 1553 and 1589; and 5 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tank No. 6737. At Derby the latest 2-6-2 passenger tank engine to be completed and turned out was No. 132; the remainder of the series up to No. 144, are also in hand. No. 6126, of the Royal Scot class, had been renamed Royal Army Seruice Corps, and worked the Royal train from Crewe to Euston on 28 September, when the Court returned from Balmoral.

New "Cornish Riviera" trains G.W.R. 316-17. 5 illustrations
Two new trains were put into service on the Cornish Riviera Limited Express that summer, providing a daily service in both directions between Paddington and Penzance. On the summer service the train ran non-stop to Truro (279 miles) on weekdays, except Saturdays, when the down train made St. Erth (299´ miles) its first station stop.
The first class compartments were panelled in light quartered oak and walnut with oval mirrors and upholstered in a luxurious style, various colour schemes in blue, green and brown having been adopted. The third class compartments were panelled in Gaboon mahogany and walnut with oval mirrors, the upholstery being in brown moquette. The windows throughout the train were of extra large size of the drop type, fitted with rayon curtains. The floor covering of linoleum laid on felt with carpets and rugs to match the upholstery.
The first class restaurant car was finished in light quartered oak and walnut; the saloon seats are of the fixed pattern and upholstered in brown rep and had loose spring filled cushions. The kitchen which is separated from. the pantry by a serving vestibule was lined with stainless steel sheeting and it equipped with gas stove, plate warmer and hot water circulator for supplying hot water to the sinks in the kitchen and pantry. Two refrigerator cupboards are fitted, being cooled by an electrically operated refrigerating plant carried under the coach. The pantry contained accommodation for the storage of china, cutlery,etc. The third class dining saloon panelled in Gaboon mahogany and walnut, and had tip up seating arranged in groups of four on either of the centre corndor. . Each train had a seating capacity for 84 first and 324 third class passengers, and consisted of ten coaches.

New express locomotive: No. 6170. 317.
Built at Crewe and to be named The British Legion. The engine type of Royal Scot class. but with a taper type of boiler and differ from 70 existing engines. The boiler used would be generally. similar but llarger than those used for the Silver Jubilee class. We understand certain parts of the abandoned No. 6399 Fury would be incoporated. Royal Scot class No. 6148 had been named The Manchester Regiment.

F L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 317-22. 3 illustrations, 4 diagrams (including side elevation), 5 tables
In 1907 five superheated 4-4-0 express locomotives were ordered from Werkspoor; later this was extended to forty locomotives. They had a 2.04m2 grate area; 2.016m diameter coupled wheels; and 4.57 mm (later 500 mm) by 660 mm cylinders. Diagrams show the damper activating gear for the superheater and the Ritter mechanical lubricator for the piston valves. Tests to establish the fuel savings achieved through superheating were conducted between Haarlem and Den Helder

Advantages of dry steam. 322-3. 2 diagrams
Patent, but no details

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: feed water heating and condensing.. 324-6. 5 diagrams
Patent GB 13782 22 October 1851

London, Midland & Scottish Ry.—Improvements at loco. depots. 326
In connection with the modernisation of motive power depots which is being carried out by the L.M.S. Ry., improvements at a number of places, including the provision of larger engine turntables, have been sanctioned. To deal wi th the larger wheel-based engines now being constructed, nine turntables of increased diameter are to be installed as follows: Two of 70 ft. at Aintree and Camden (London), six of 60 ft. at Bletchley, Derby, Goole, Mold Junction, Windermere and Southport, and one of 55 ft. at Derby. These will all be of the articulated type and three tables of this type will be provided to displace three of the balanced type at Perth (70 ft.), Nottingham (60 ft.), Canklow (55 ft.), which require renewal.
In addition to the installation of the new and larger turn- tables, 70 existing turntables at various motive power depots are 10 be fitted with a vacuum operated turning gear to avoid engines having to be turned by hand.
Booster pumps to enable adequate water pressure to be available for the washing out of locomotive boilers are to be installed at a large number of engine sheds.
The Motive Power Depot at Wakefield is to have further improvements effected in the layout of the yard including increased ash pit accommodation, to facilitate the rapid dis- posal of engines after arrival at the shed.

The Autumn Luncheon of the Retired Railway Officers' Society. 326
Essex Room of the Great Eastern Hotel, Liverpool Street Station, on 5 November 5 at 12.45 for 1 p.m. Sir Follett Holt, K.B.E .. has promised to attend.

The erection of "930" at Stratford, G.E.R., in 9¾ hours, December 1891. 327.
Withdrawal of No. 7930 by LNER after running over one million miles. Earlier records were established at Crewe under Webb when a 4ft 3in Coal Engine was constructed in 25¾ hours in February 1888. In June 1888 the Pennsylvania Railroad built a 4-4-0 at Altoona in 16 hours 50 minutes. The Stratford effort depended upon manpower: 85 men building the engine and 58 on the tender.

Wagon tippler. 328-9. illustration, diagram
Installation at Takoradi in West Africa to export ore carried by the Gold Coast Railway. Built by Fraser & Chalmers Engineering Works and capable of handling 500 tons per hour

P.C. Dewhurst. Locomotives of the Trinidad Government Rlys. 329-31. map, diagram (gradient profiles)
Railway scheme in 1845, but no construction  until 1876 when standard gauge line from Port of Spain to Arouca opened. Two tunnels on quite extensive network.

Southern Railway. 331
Lynton & Barnstaple narrow gauge line closed to all traffic on 29 September 1935. The Christchurch to Ringwood line closed to passenger traffic at the end of September. Nine miles of electrified track were added to the system: Loop Line from Lewisham Junction to Nunhead and from Woodside to Sanderstead. The former gave the North Kent lines access to Victoria and St. Paul's. New stations were opened at Coombe Road and Bingham Road between Addiscombe and Selsdon. Schools class No, 939 Leatherhead had been completed.

G.E. Tyas and H.N. Dorling. Street tramways in the South Staffordshire and Birmingham Districts, 1882-1888. 331-3. diagrams (side & fron elevations)
South Staffordshire Tramways Co. started a 20 route miles system in 1883 using 3ft 6in gauge. It had sharp curves and started at New Inns in Handsworth and served West Bromwich, Wednesbury, Walsall and Dudley. It had 38 locomotives most of which were supplied by Beyer Peacock to Wilkinson's Patent design. Some were supplied by Thomas Green & Sons of Leeda and one from the Falcon Works in Loughborough. They had vertical boilers and cylinders. The system was electrified in 1893. The Birmingham & Aston Tramway Co. opened on 26 December 1882. Its city terminus was in Old Square. Its main route was to Witton, later extended to Gravelly Hill. It served Aston Hall which created heavy holiday traffic. Long bogie cars were used. Severe gradients as steep as 1 in 11 were encountered. Eades' Patent was used. 25 locomotives were supplied by Kitson and two from Wilkinson. Next part see page 366

Variable speed change-gear. 333-4. diagram
PIV (Positive Infinitely Variable Transmission) infinitely variable drive marketed by J. Stone of Deptford

Review.  335
La stabilite de route des locomotives, Y. Rocard. Paris: Hermann & Co.,
Booklet details experiments as to the motion (stability) of a pneumatic tyre and its movements without slipping, as a preliminary to a mathematical investigation of the progress of a 4-8-0 locomotive on a straight track, followed by the effects laterally on a curve when it ceases rolling and starts oscillating from side to side. Then follows suggestions for steadying rolling stock at high speeds on curves and lines irregularly laid. The whole of the data is arrived at theoretically, and little account appears to have been taken of the many small outside influences bearing on calculations of this character which a practical engineer knows only too well have to be considered.

Correspondence. 335

First locomotives built in Russia. Valentine Rippon, 335
On reading the article "The First Locomotives built in Russia," LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, XLI, pp. 299-300, I thought I had read somewhere that a Russian had built a locomotive about the time when Robert Stephenson & Co. supplied one for the St. Petersburg-Pavlovsky Line in 1837. I hunted around and found in " Model Railway News," XI, p. 234, an article entitled "Russia's Railway Centenary," in which is stated " In 1833, Cherepanov was sent to England On his return to Russia, Cherepanov and his father constructed a 'land steamer' on the lines of Stephenson's engine." This pre-dates the locomotives built by Harrison, Winans and Eastwick in St. Petersburg considerably.

Locomotive "My Lord." Reginald B. Fellows. 335
The title page of Ritchie's little book on railways concerning which "Loco. Historian" asks for information in your Sept. Issue runs as follows :- Railways: their' rise, progress, and construction, with remarks on railway accidents, and proposals for their prevention by Robert Ritchie," F.R.S.S.A., Civil .Engineer, Associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers, etc., Illustrated by numerous woodcuts. London: Printed for Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, Paternoster Row 1846." I have a 'copy of this book and can lend it to you; correspondent if he so desires. [Ottley 4980]
Reference to the engine built by George Stephenson for Sir Thomas Liddel afterwards Lord Ravensworth, will be found in J.G.H. Warren's A Century of Locomotive Building . . (1923), p. 21, and in C.F. Dendy Marshall's Two Essays in Early Locomotive History (1928), p. 40. There do not appear to be any contemporary drawings of a locomotive to be identified with that named My Lord.

We have also received a letter from J. S. Maclean on this subject pointing out that several of George Stephenson's plans for coupling the driving wheels are illustrated by diagrams. Also a description of the competing engines in the Rainhill trials, etc.

Locomotive availability. P.L. Spear. 335
No reference made to the growing application of roller bearings to, locomotives and the consequent improvement in availability. The application of roller bearings to all axles of steam locomotives has made more progress in America than elsewhere, although their application to the L.M.S. turbomotive is a development of great interest in this country., From the experience of tapered roller bearings on the Delaware. Lackawanna & Western Railroad, it would appear that almost their principal value is in the increase of availability in locomotives so fitted. This railroad purchased two, 4-8-4 fast freight locomotives in 1932, and these were fitted on all axles with tapered roller bearings. For some two years they were employed on fast freight service, hauling heavy trains 400 miles nightly from Buffalo to New Jersey and their performance was compared very favourably with that of similar locomotives running on plain bearings. It was found that the increase in availability due to the, elimination of hot boxes and other troubles common to the plain bearings was no less than 50%, and in consequence when a further 18 engines were ordered by this railroad last year, these were fitted throughout with tapered roller bearings. This experience is by no means exceptional and is in fact common to a number of railroads in America. The case for the roller bearing is fully proved by the fact that in 1934 no less than 75% of the locomotives, ordered in the United States were fitted throughout with tapered roller 'bearings. It is extremely doubtful whether with the high standard of maintenance in this country we could expect an increase of availability of anything like 50%, but there is no doubt that the plain bearing gives a great deal of trouble, some of which appears on the failure records and much of which does not, and this trouble can be overcome by fitting roller bearings.

Number 519 (15 November 1935)

Emission of smoke. 337
Editorial which cites articles about Beattie's inventions; the need for well arranged grates; large tubes, the possible mythical importance of fire doors , fuel quality, PLM avoidance of smoke inspite of poor coal and the problem of shunting with steam

Beyer Peacock. 337
Iranian State Railways order for oil-fired 4-8-2+2-8-4 type.

[Indian appointments]. 338
W.O. Chalk formerly superintendent mechanical workshops prommoted to chief mechanical engineer North Western Railway at Lahore; H.H. Cooper promoted from works manager to superintenddent mechanical worshops, North Western Railway, Lahore:; also retirement of C.I. Hutton fromn Burma Railways

Beyer-Garratt locomotive, Consolidated Main Reef Mines, Johannesburg. 338. illustration
2-6-2+2-6-2 with steel Belpaire firebox. Had to operate on 1 in 31 gradients

Corridor train for the Dublin and Cork Day Mail service, G.S. Rys. 338-40. 3 illustrations
Designed A.W. Harty. Built at Inchicore Works: 60ft long with teak frames: included two dining cars, one with kitchen and a travelling post office, Compartment stock. Painted crimson lake.

Industrial tank locomotive with auxiliary tender. 340-1. illustration
2ft gauge 0-8-0 for North Negros Sugar Company in the Phillipine Islands built by Henschel & Sohn of Cassel with large tender to carry fuel

The electric railway between Brussels and Antwerp. 341-2.
Entirely new tracks adjacent the existing line, but without level crossings and restricted to 3000V dc electic trains consiting of four car multiple units with centre doorways and air conditioning throughout the trains, the cars being warmed by passing a current of air over resistances, placed beneath the underframe. Withdrawal of the warm air from the cars is effected through ducts under the seats, whence the air passes through diffusers, and eventually to the atmosphere through slots in the roof. It is claimed that the air can be changed about every five minutes. In hot weather the current is reversed, the operation and frequency change being similar to that for the warmed air. The new trains were painted light blue with cream coloured upper panels and yellow lettering; the doors being blue. The motor coach and trailer illustrated were built by Les Ateliers de la Dyle of Louvain, to whom we are indebted for the photograph reproduced. The electric equipment was supplied by the Societe d'Electricite et de la Mecanique. The inauguration of the electric service by the King and Queen of the Belgians on 5 May last at the same time commemorated the centenary of the first railway in Belgium, from Brussels to Malines. See also page 379.

London & North Eastern Railway. 342
The rernauung two streamlined Pacific type engines for working the Silver Jubilee train had been completed at Doncaster. They were Nos 2511 Silver King and No.. 2512 Silvcr Fox. Fourteen Sandringham class 3-cylinder express locornotivvcs (B17 class) in hand at Darlington to be named after the following Association football teams which travel over the L.N.E.R. system :- Huddersfield Town, Derby County, Sunderland, Middlesbrough, Sheffield Wednesday, Arsenal, Manchester City, Leeds United, Grimsby Town ; Doncaster Rovers, Newcsstle United, Sheffield United, Norwich City, and Hull City. The first two of the Ivatt 4-4-0 tender engines to be withdrawn were Nos. 4308 and 4360.

Narrow Brussels Gauge Locomotive, Exhibition. 342. illustration
Courlesy of the Locomotive Department at Tubize of Les Ateliers Metallurgiques-Nivelles (Belgium) we are able to illustrate one of the miniature Pacific type tender locomotives built by them for the 600 mm gauge railway which formed an attraction at the Brussels Exhibition. The engine was photographed alongside one of the fifteen Pacific type four-cylinder express locomotives of Type 1 for the Belgian National Railways described and illustrated in our issue of May 15 last, with which it makes an effective contrast. Six of these little locomotives with 'bogie tenders were built, with 24 carriages. Each locomotive, empty, weighed 12 tonnes and hauled a train of four bogie carriages of 4 tonne. tare each, and carried 45 passengers, over severe inclines of 1 in 25; the speed was limited to 20 kilometres per hour. The engine and train were fitted with Westinghouse air brake, The locomotives were painted light grey with vermilion lines, and were named as follows:- l Adolphe; 2 Adrien; 3 —; 4 Edouard, 5 Raymond; and 6 Joseph:

Southern Railway. 342
At Eastleigh Works the fourth of the Baltic tanks, had, been converted to a 4-6-0 type tender engine, No. 2330 Cudworth, and was in service. This engine, as well as No. 2333 Remembrance, had cylinders 21 in. diameter. No. 2452 had been withdrawn from service and cut up at Ashford. This was the first of the Brighton C2 0-6-0 ·goods to be condemned; there were 55 of this class, all built by the Vulcan Foundry in 1893-1902. Four more 2-6-4 "W goods tank engines were in service, Nos. 1918-1921; the last two were working from Hither Green. The Lee on the Solent branch was closed for freight traffic as from 30 September 30 1935.

A new type diesel-electric car for Sweden. 343-4. 2 illustrations
Power unit mounted on the bogie. Malmo-Ystad Railway.

0-6-0 tank locomotive, German National Railways. 344-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Water carried in small side tanks which drop below the framing to form wells, all wheels could be sanded equally in either direction of running. A small turbo-dynamo furnished electricity for the head lights and cab. Welding extensively used in the construction.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 345
The last of the new series of Princess Royal 4-6-2 type locomotives built at Crewe was in service, bearing the No. 6212 Duchess of Kent. Work had been completed on the reconstructed 4-6-0 type locomotive, No. 6170, bearing the name The British Legion. The naming ceremony on this engine was performed by Earl Jellicoe on Tuesday Nov. 12. Further 2-8-0 mineral engines completing a series of twelve had been turned out at Crewe, Nos. 8008-11. These would be followed by an order for thirty three-cylinder 4-6-0s of the Baby Scot type, the first four of which, Nos. 5665-8, were already in hand. Latest 2-cylinder 4-6-0 ex Armstrong Whitworth & Co. was No. 5204. Of this series, Nos. 5125-58 had been allocated to the Western Division. New 4-6-2, No. 6203, Princess Margaret Rose, had been transferred to the Northern Division in place of No'. 6201, which was now attached to the Western Division. Engines recently rebuilt at Crewe with standard Belpaire boilers included the following: 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 25640 and 25763; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 8912, 9191, 9229 and 9237; 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9443. The last two Claughtons in service, Nos. 5951 and 5984, are understood to have been withdrawn for scrapping. Other withdrawals included N.S.R. class D No. 1553 and class L Nos. 2240 and 2242; also another of the Furness 4-6-4 passenger tanks, No. 11101. At Derby, the last of the new 2-6-2 passenger tanks had been completed, thus completing a series of 54 engines, Nos. 91-144 inclusive. A series of eight 3-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tanks  was now being put in hand, this being the last order in the 1935 programme. One of the Tilbury section 4-4-2 tank engines, No. 2103, was working on the Somerset and Dorset line between Templecombe and Bath; it also ran to Burnham.

Twin oil-engined railcar chassis for the Great Western Rly. 345-7. 2 illustration
At the Commercial Motor Show at Olympia a new twin oil-engined rail car chassis was exhibited by Hardy Motors Ltd. of Southall, an associated company of the Associated Equipment Co. Ltd. It has been built for service on the G.W.R. to the requirements of C.B. Collett, chief mechanical engineer.
Based on the experience gained in 250,000 miles runnmg of seven streamlined cars on the G.W.R. system, having similar chassis, although the first of these was fitted With only one 6-cylinder.engine, the new design embodies several improvements and modifications. Of the seven cars in operation, two were held as spares to allow for periodical inspection and mamtenance. Runnmg costs for these cars including interest, depreciation, wages (two shifts each of one dnver and one guard), fuel, lubrication and mamtenance average 6d. per mile for the smgle engme car, and 7½d. to 8d. per mile for twin engine cars. The higher figure for the latter IS of course due to higher interest and deprecia- tion resultmg from greater first cost and to in- creased maintenance charges. The new chassis is carried on two 4-wheel bogies of the swing link bolster type, each having a wheelbase of 8 ft. 6 m. and mounted at 43 ft. 6 in. centres, this being an increase on the earlier design to give easier riding; the overall length of the frame is 62 ft.

Southern Railway. 347
In connection with the re-arrangement of the lines between Wimbledon and Waterloo the down local platform at Vauxhall Station was closed from Nov. 3 for about 18 weeks, so that it may be replaced by a new island platform serving both up and down local trains, During the transition period passengers may travel to Waterloo to join their trains or down to Clapham Junction by Windsor line trains and change there, Work is progressing on the fly-over bridge at Wimbledon, a gradient of 1 in 45 being arranged for the approach and 1 in 40 down towards Earlsfield.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Paper on locomotive wheels, tyres and axles. 347-51
Meeting, held on Thursday, 31 October, at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers: paper entitled as above, by E. S. Cox. The extensive resume iis appended to Paper 346.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 351-3. 2 illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Fig. 89 a type of engine which in Holland are called tramlocomotieven (tram locomotive). This however is the only instance among Dutch locomotives that this type has been considered to be a main line engine. Whether their fairly high power and the provision of side buffers and screw couplings, in addition to the central buffers and tram couplings, which enabled them to run main line suburban trains suggested it to the H.S.M. authorities is not recorded, but the fact remains, that in the official lists they were classified as "locomotieven voor Iocaalspoorwegen" (suburban locomotives) and numbered 1061 to 1063. The numbering above 1,000 indicates that the engines originally belonged to another company, in this case to the Steam Tramway Schagen-Wognum, on which the traffic was worked by the H.S.M. The Netherlands Railways also incorporated them in their series of main line engines and renumbered them 6601 to 6603. They were then on loan to the Nederlandsche Tramwea Maatschappy chiefly working goods traffic. They were built in 1898 by Machine-Febriek Breda, formerly Backer &B Rueb of Breda. 0-4-0 with Joy valve gear; known as bedsteads. Also 2-4-2T from Lokaalspoorweg Maatschapp.

Retired Railway Officers' Society. 353
At the half-yearly luncheon on 5 November at the Liverpool Street Station Hotel, the President, W.F. Pettigrew, occupied the chair; a company of about 130 members and their friends attended. The toast of the Guests was given by the President, and responded by Sir Follet Holt, and "Success to Retired Railway Officers' Society" by Sir David Owen, Engineer to the Port of London Authority, seconded by H. N. Gresley, and responded to by E. A. Clear. The toast of the President was proposed by R.H. Nicholls and seconded by J.F. Bradford. Among the lunched were T.E. Argile, A.W. Arthurton, J. Ballantyne, F.G. Barriball, W. Bishop, W.E. Bradbury, H. Brady, A.J. Brickwell, J. Brittlebank, J. F. Brook, A.H. Bull, H.J. Burcham, A.L. Castleman, R.F. Castleman, T. Christopher, Major A. Clear, G. Clear, B.K. Cooper, G. Cope, C. T. Cox, W. O. Davies, G. Cole, H.W. Deacon, F.W. Dingley, A.E. Dolden, P.J. Dowsett, H.W.C. Drury, W.D. Duffield, A.F. Dymant, H.W. Ede, H. Ferguson, Major G.N. Ford, C.A.E.Greene, R.O. Griffiths, H.J. Guest, E.B. Hassall, E.L.Hawkins, G.T. Hedge, H.E. Horne, G. Hughes, W. Humphreys, W.H. Hyde, T.W. Jessop, W.E. James, W.A. Jepson, S.F. Jepson, D.R. Lamb, F.W. Lampitt, J. Lee, J. Lees, J.W. Lovejoy, T.F. Lovell, Dr. Macmahon, A. Maynard, D. McCullough, J. Miller, A.S. Mills, A. Morris, C.W. Neele, A. Newlands, C.H. Newton, Commander F.J. Paice, A.P. Parker, L.P. Parker, G.H. Pearson, C. Phizackerley, J. Pike,, E. Prebble, A. Puleston , H. Roberts, S. Roberts, J.B. Rogers, A.P. Ross, J. Roughton, L.F. Rowlandson, H.J. Rudgard, F. Ruffell, F.A. Sargent, O.B.E., F.A. Sargent, J. Sayers,  C.J. Selway, G.G. Senior, T.H. Shipley, Rev. Canon H. SkeIton, J. Proctor Smith (Hon. Treas.), S.V. Smith, T. Smith, D. Spooner, E. A. Stayzer, M.C. Tait, A. Tatlow, E. Taylor (Hon. Sec.), W. A. Thomas, L. Thornhill, W. E. Thornhill, G.F. Thurston, F.W. Tipton, A. Turot, F.W. Tyler, W.T. Venton, A. Walker, J. Wardle, E. Wharton, H. Wheeler, J. Williams, J. S. Wilson, W. Wood, W. Yates, H.R. Carnpfield, Lt.-Col. P.D. Michod, A. Wood-Hill, Mitchell. .

Built-up crank axle, P.L.M. Ry. 354. 2 illustrations
The question of whether it is better to make locomotive crank axles solid or built up is one that had been receiving attention in France. Considerable preference had been shown for the solid shaft, and therefore great interest was being evinced in the new 7 piece built up crankaxles of the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. The Mountain type locomotives of this company had low pressure cylinders of such a size that it was necessary to place them outside the frames leaving the high pressure cylinders inside. The crank axles of these locomotives transmit some 1,800 h.p. with a heavy train travelling at 50 m.p.h, It was found .that forged axles in one piece were unable to resist the strain and developed fissures after having run a distance of only some 30,000 miles. These fissures usually developed at the junction of the axle portion with the webs of the crank shaft, also to a lesser degree at the junction of the crank pin and web. ' Experiments were made with a shaft in which the axle portion had the webs' shrunk on instead of being forged solid; further, they were also balanced. when the crank axle was built up in five pieces which was found to be better than a single forging or a three piece shaft. In the first place heating of the bearings was found to be less frequent due to the good balance. Cracks however continued to develop at the joint between the crank pm and the cheeks' further the thickness of the web-3.94 in.-was found to be insufficient to secure a shrunk-on shaft and this became loose after a certain distance so that the life of these five piece shafts wa:s about 60,000 miles. This being considered insufficient, it was decided to see what could be done by replacing the solid forging with an axle built up with seven pieces shrunk together. This made it necessary to increase the thickness of the crankshaft arm to 4.93 in., which meant that the length of the crank pin had to be reduced. To avoid heating of the bearings the packing consisted of oil-soaked felt as frequently used on the Nord Railway and on some English lines. In this way it was found possible to reduce the length of the crank pin sufficiently and retain the balancing. It is not yet possible to say at what mileage the axle will need replacing, but there seems every probability that this system of assembly may solve a problem. A difficulty was to build up an axle in which the thickness of the webs was sufficient to hold the shrunk journals and crank pins. The assembling is done cold by hydraulic pressure with an allowance of 0.2 per cent. using very little grease and immersing the finished axle in a potash bath to cleanse it.

A new Underground map. 354
London Transport are publishing a new type of map of the Underground Railway system serving the Central area. The map is new in purpose as well as form. In place of the customary "dots" to indicate the position of the stations are small maps for each individual station in the form of circles some three inches in diameter, showing the adjacent streets and the position of the station entrances. The latter information has not been given on any previous maps so far as is known. Separate colours are used for the individual lines and the small station maps are coloured similarly. It is hoped that the novel appearance of the map will attract the attention of passengers and encourage them to make use of it.

Great Western Railway. 354
New engines completed at Swindon were 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 6423-4 and Nos. 9760-5, and 2-6-2 tanks Nos. 4105-9. Engines of the 2-8-0 tank type converted to 2-8-2 tanks were Nos. 7220, 7221, 7233 and 7234 formerly Nos. 5255, 5256, 5268 and 5269. Recent withdrawals were 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 759, 766, 768, 868, 1245, 1279, 1611, 1649 and 1975; 0-4-2 tanks No. 1440; 4-4-2 tank No. 2242: 2-6-0 tender engines Nos. 2632, 2633, 2674, and 2675 4-4-0 tender engines Nos. 3325, 3367 Evan Llewellyn and' 3398 Montreal

0-10-0 locomotive for the Lithuanian Railways. 354-7. illustration, diagrams (side elevation)
750 mm gauge built by Skoda with bar frame andboiler mounted high

Recent Continental developments of the Lentz poppet valve gear. 356; 357-9. 4 diagrams
Austrian Federal Railways including for three-cylinder locomotive

[LNER improvement programme]. 358
Electrification between Manchester and Sheffield; doubling of Clacton and Felixstowe branches and extra loops between Grantham and Doncaster and Edinburgh and Berwick.

J.L. Koffmann. Railcar transmissions. 359-60
Considered electric transmisswion which author considered a "necessary evil" and proposed using torque converter in association with electric motor

P.C. Dewhurst. Locomotives of the Trinidad Government Rlys. 361-3.
Hunslet WN 125/1874, 06-0T Arima was rebuilt in 1896/7

G.E. Tyas and H.N. Dorling. Street tramways in the South Staffordshire and Birmingham Districts, 1882-1888. 366-7. 2 illustrations.
Previous part see page 331. Line from Dudley to Stourbriadge had a steep climb (1 in 20) up Castle Hill and down into Round Oak. The company had 12 Kitson locomotives. The Birmingham Central Tranways Co. started a very extensive system in 1884. Some lines had very steep gradients: 1 in 18 at Kings Heath. It had a very extensive fleet of locomotives, mainly from Kitson and the Falcon Works and one from Burrell & Co. of Thetford.  In 1896 the system was taken over by the City of Birmingham Tramways Co. The Birmingham & Midland Tramways Co. was formed in 1885 and provided a direct Birmingham to Dudley route with very steep (1 inn 16) gradients and sharp curves. All these lines were 3ft 6in gauge, but the  Dudley, Sedgley & Wolverhampton was standard gauge. The locomotives were supplied by Kitson, but some Black, Hawthorn products were acquired from Hudddersfield.

Old Stratfordian. G.E.R. "Moguls" and "singles" of the 245 class. 367-9. 2 illustrations
Involvement of D.H. (O'Neal) Neale in design of Bromley/Adams 2-6-0 which reflected Bromley's visit to the USA. Another and more popular type of locomotive to arrive about the same time was the 245 class of bogie singles, (4-2-2) built by Dubs & Co., in 1879. They were fine looking machines and certainly were good for their work; their greatest drawback in running was their bad habit of rolling, due largely to the traverse bearing spring over the trailing wheels under the cab.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 369
At the general meeting, held on 31 October 1935, the following were elected :-Members: John Lawrie, Chief Draughtsman, Sudan Rlys., Atbara, Sudan. Henry Edward Morrison, Asst. Works Manager, Bengal-Nagpur Rly., Nagpur. Associate Members: Ngoh-ling Hsu, Asst. in Carr. and Wagon Repairing Shop, Nanking-Shanghai Rly., Nanking. Harold Lawrence Wm. Stevens, Dist. Controller of Stores (purchases), M. & S.M. Rly., Perarnbur, Madras. James William Dempster Wallis, Machine Shop Foreman, F.C.Sud, Remedios de Escalada, Prov, Buenos Aires. Wilfred George Woods, Foreman (1st Grade), Tanganyika Rlys., Dar-es-Salaam. Associates: Charles Reginald Schiller Harris, Director General, F.C. Sud &' F.C. Oeste, Gerencia, Plaza Constitucion, Buenos Aires. Graduates: Mahboob AIi Khan, Trainee, Clo The Vu1can Foundry Ltd., Newton-le-Willows, Lancs. B. Don Rampala,. Works Probationer, Ceylon Govt. Rlys., undergoing further training in Loco. Works, G.LP. Rly., Parel, Bombay.

Reviews. 369-70

The story of Telford. Sir Alexander Gibb, G.B.E., C.B. London: Alexander Maclehose & Co.
The author is particularly well qualified to write the story of Telford's life, as he is great-grandson of John Gibb, one of Telford's principal assistants and has had access to many original documents and plans that the famous engineer prepared. Moreover he himself is an engineer whose firm is. responsible for the Kincardine Bridge, now being built over the Forth.
The life work of Telford was almost entirely concerned' wit!'! the improvement of communications. Although he lived' to see 'the beginning of railways, it was with the construction of harbours, canals, roads and bridges that his name will always be associated. Although the book does not give a .technical description of the works he was responsible for, it presents a picture of the part Telford played as the pioneer of a great profession, .and shows ,the immense list of his acti vi ties: In 1793 Telford became engineer to the Ellesmere Canal, which was to connect the Severn with the Mersey. At this per iod there was a boom in canal undertakings, and' a little ,later he was also appointed engineer of the Shrewsbury Canal. It was on the Ellesmere Canal he built the famous Pont Cysylte aqueduct across the valley of the Dee, 1,007 ft. long with an approach embankment 1,500 ft. long; the piers 127 ft. high are of squared masonry, the arches and water way are of cast iron. Among other canal works. he was engineer for the Caledonian Canal and the Gotha Canal in Sweden,· between the Baltic and the North Sea. He built the Holyhead Road and probably his best known- work is the suspension bridge over the Menai Strait (1826) at the time the largest work of its kind. In 1822 he became first president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, and Sir Alexander devotes an interesting chapter. to .the early days of that body. Telford died in August 1834, in his 78th year, and ·with him an age of engineering ended. The story of this able and wise man and of his extraordinary 'energy will' appeal to all who are interested in locomotion and civil' engineering. The whole of his works were to beneficent ends, and ·the illustrations given in the book show that beauty was inherent in his designs .. In addition -there are maps to show the extent of his road and bridge work.

The modern book of railways. W.J. Bell, M.LL.E. London: A. & C. Black, Ltd.
Published opportunely at this season of 'the year, we have here an ideal Christmas 'present for. the· boy interested in railways. From Trevithick's engine of· 1801 we are led' through the various stages of evolution of the Iocornotive until we finally reach the "Cock 0' -the North." Special" men- tion has been made of the few old engines' still' preserved' in the York Museum and elsewhere. The 158 pages enumerate the salient features of railway dev.elopment and set out the dates and particulars' of the gradual growth of' the Great British railway systems of the present day, to- gether with many interesting facts of railways in other parts of the world. Rarely have we perused a book which GOn- tains so much information in such a small compass and in such a readable form. The information given is accurate withall, for Mr. Bell is well known for his knowledge on the subject. He makes a slip, however, when he says that the Southern Railway possesses 2,044 locomotives; the 1935 official report gives the number as 1919. Reference, too, is made (p. 55) to the record run of the L.N.E.R. on March 5th "last," a rather indefinite date in a 'book that we think will be treasured by boys and old boys for many years to. come. Another point is that the old Brighton Company's line ran via Oxted to Tunbridge Wells, not to Tonbridge. Mention should be made of the excellent reproduction of the illustrations; these are certainly much in advance of anything' we have seen in a book of this nature.

Die Verbesserung der Wirtschaftlichkeit der Dampflokomotive Durchi Konstruktlve Massnahmen zur Senkung des Brennstoffverbrauchs (Improving the efficiency of the steam locomotive by constructive measures for reducing fuel consumption). Wolfgang Lubsen, Berlin: Julius Springer. Illustrated. 370
Within the short compass of 104 pages, Lubsen has produced a most interesting and thorough survey of the whole question of fuel economy by means of constructive measures; modification of boiler design, the use of mechanical stoking, compounding and the application of the turbine to the railway locomotive. Following a brief retrospect, the author discusses improvement in general design and the use of the mechanical stoker, and gives full comparative details of the trials carried out on the Polish State Railways in 1931 with two similar locomotives, one of which was fired by hand and the other with a Duplex 0 4 mechanical stoker. In these trials, which lasted for the round twelve months, the mechanically fired engine showed a saving of 6,385 German marks, the fuel costs of the hand-fired engine being 47,545, and the mechanically fired engine 41,160 marks, It is not our business, however, to pick the plums out of Lubsen 's pie in advance. The principles and maintenance of the mechanical stoker are discussed, together with the use of pulverised fuel. following which comparative details are given of locomotive performance on the German State Railway burning pulverised fuel on .the Stug system. The boiler and firebox next come In for discussion, and details are given of the experiments carried out by the Urbana University on locomotive No. 1742 of the Illinois Central Railroad, fitted with two Nicholson water drums. Following a general survey of improvements la superheating elements, experiments with medium high- pressure boilers in Germany, France and the United States  are described and tabulated, with particular reference to the application of the Muhlfeld boiler to the Delaware and Hudson locomotives Horatio Allen, John. B. Jeruis, James Archiibald; and L. F. Loree, Coming to- super-high-pressure locomotives, the Schmidt design is fully described and followed by careful attention to the Loffler-Schwartzkopff and Gresley-Yarrow applications. A chapter on compounding follows, after which attention is given to improvements in the design of valve-gears, with particular reference to the Lentz system, and a criticism of poppet-valve gears in general. Coming to. the application of the turbine.to railway traction, the auxiliary turbine-tender locomotive of. Henschel and Son is first dealt wlth, .after-which the Zoelly, Krupp and Maffei experiments are compared. In dealing with the Ljungstrom system, details are given of the condensing locomotive tried out 6n the Swedish State Railways (two), the Argentine State Railways, and the L.M.S. Railway between 1921 and 1927, together with the non-condensing locomotive built for the Gi-angesberg-Oxelosund Railway - (Sweden) in 1929. Unfortunately, the non-condensing 4-6-2 turbine locomotive on the L.M'S.R. has come too late to be included among these comparisons. The trials between the earlier non-condensing locomotive of 1929 and a standard 0-8-0 three-cylinder engine on the Grangesberg-Oxelosund Riailway, both locomotives .carrylng the same standard boiler, are, however, fully dealt with, and provide interesting reading.

Steam turbines. C.S. Bradshaw,. London: The Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd. 370
After detailing the main principles of action of steam turbines of the impulse and reaction types, the author gives an interesting study on the flow of steam through nozzles and the methods of calculating the cross sections. Details and data are given for a 3,000 k.w. 3,000 r.p.m. impulse turbine, followed by a description of the extraction or pass-out type of steam turbine. Sections are devoted to "Re-heating" or intermediate superheating, losses in steam turbines due to friction in the nozzles and blading, to windage (rotation losses), leakage and mechanical losses. It forms a lucid and comprehensive treatise on this efficient form of prime mover,

League of Nations, 370
A publication of 160 pages received from the London Office of the League of Nations, entitled Juridicial and Administrative Systems in Force on the Frontier Sections of Railway Lines and at junction Stations was obtainable in Great Britain from Allen and Unwin Ltd. It comprises the report of the committee which has dealt with this question, and the study by the Secretariat at Geneva, to serve as a basis for the framng of agreements, where these do not as yet exist, and in general as solutions which best meet both the interests of the public and those of the railway administrations. It is desirable in the case of new constructions to adopt the principle of a single common station at the frontier,. as it affords every facility to the public and enables the railways to be operated as simply and economlcally as possible. General principles are given and the adoption recommended m .the event of new railway lines crossing a frontier. By exarmnation of the many convention dealing with existing junctions it is possible to draw conclusions and turn them to account when these cases have to be settled. Special aspects of the situation are also dealt with.

The Railway Club. 370
At the meeting to be held at 7.30 p.m. on Friday, 6 December at the Royal Scottish.Corporation Hall, Fetter Lane, the Rev. R.B. Fellows willl read a paper entitled  How the L.B. & S.C.R. kept the Eastbourne traffic.

Trade Notes and Publications. 370

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd.
Order from War Office for a 56/62 H.P. Hunslet diesel locomotive for Singapore. This is to be of the 0-6-0 type, suitable for the metre gauge, and fitted with McLaren Diesel engine with Hunslet patent friction clutch and automatic pre-selective gear change. This company also had under construction nine Diesel locomotives ranging from a new small 10/11 h.p. locomotive, one of which is being shown at the Public Works Exhibition, up to a 150/165 h.p. heavy shunting unit for Egypt.

English Electric Co. Ltd. of Stafford
Two new publications: first refers to the Diesel-Electric Shunting Locomotives which are the joint product of the English Electric Co. Ltd. who supply the Diesel engine, generating e quiprnent, auxiliaries and electric transmission, and R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co, Ltd. which supply the mechanical structure, comprising frame, superstructure, wheels and axles. Very full notes are given on the operation of a 47-ton 300/350 H.P. locomotive on the L.M.S.R. which has been working since April 1934 on a 24-hour service for 6t days a .week. A carefully kept log on actual duty gives figures for running and maintenance. The second deals with A.C. arc welding equipments for a large variety of industrial purposes, in a 12 page description. Both alternating or direct current can be satisfactorily used for welding, and both types of equipment are made. Each process has its merits discussed but the A.C. equipment is cheaper in initial cost. Other advantages are mentioned, and the plants recommended for various work are fully expained.

D.P. Battery Co. Ltd. of Bakewell
From the two new publications are to hand: Kathanode Traotion Cells D.P. 585a, and D_P. Dualode Batteries D.P. 724. The former deals with the Kathanode traction cells and is illustrated from photographs of Kathanode operated trucks, vehicles and locomotives, whilst on the last page are illustrations of deliyery vans. The Dualode list contains particulars and prices of batteries for commercial vehicle and bus lighting and starting.

R. and W. Hawthorn, Leslie and Co. Ltd.
The Admiralty has placed an order with for a 0-4-0 tank locomotive for H.M. Naval Base, Singapore.

Number 520 (14 December 1935)

The depreciation of motive power and rolling stock. 371-2.
Difficulties in accouting: residual values

4-8-4 type locomotives for the Chinese National Railways. 372-4. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Twenty four ordered from the Vulcan Foundry: six shipped from Birkenhead conveyed thence in two special trains in a dismantled state of boilers, frames and cabs. To be used on Canton to Hankow and Nanking to Shanghai services.

The Railway Club. 374
Paper to be presented on 9 January at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall by H.A. Vallance: The story of a railway waif (the Invergarry & Fort Augustus Railway).

Rebuilt "Royal Scot" locomotive with taper boiler, L.M. & S. Rly.. 374-5. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Parts of the former high pressure locomotive No. 6399 Fury used to construct tapered boiler locomotive No. 6170 British Legion: includes naming ceremony performed at Euton on 12 November by Earl Jellicoe.

4-8-4 three-cylinder tank locomotive for Czechoslovakia. 376-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built by Skoda Works at Plzen. The tank was fitted behind the cab. The grate area was 52ft2 and the total heating surface 3113.8ft2 including 693ft2 of superheater. The boiler operated at16 kg/cm2 (226 psi) and the axle load was 15 tons

London & North Eastern Railway. 377
The first of the small Atlantics G.N. to be withdrawn from service was No. 3982. Six of the ex-G.E. 2-4-0 mixed traffic engines then working between Darlington and Tebay and Penrith, their numbers being 7408 (at Penrith), 7411 (Kirkby Stephen), 7416 (Middleton in Teesdale) , 7463 (Barnard Castle) and 7478 and 7496 (Darlington). Most of the GNR 4-4-0s had been taken off the Tebay line and transferred to Hull (Botanical Gardens). Six-coupled tender engine No. 1509 (J21) had been sold to the Harton Coal Co. of South Shields. New engines of the J39, 0-6-0 class completed at Darlington were Nos. 1436, 1460 and 1464 (Leeds), 1465 and 1473 (Sunderland), 1474 and 1485 (Darlington) , and Nos. 1486, 1504, 1505 and 1584, and from the North British Locomotive Co. Nos, 2450/1/9/61/3/6. 2-6-0 of the K3 class. The last two 4-6-0 of the B17 class were Nos. 2846 Gilwell Park, and 2847 Helmingham Hall, ex Darlington Works. These would be followed by the 14 new engines named after football clubs, beginning with No. 2848 Huddersfield Town. No. 2212 Atlantic type, was being rebuilt with rotarv cam poppet gear like No. 732. The last 4-4-0 engine of the D22 class, No. 1537, had recently been withdrawn.

L.M.S.R. — Northern Counties Committee. 377
The two 2-6-0 tender engines recently built at Belfast Works, Nos. 91 and 92, had been named The Bush, and The Bann respectively. Another engine of this type was to be built at Belfast.

Recent French locomotive performance. 377-9. illustration
Andre Chapelon rebuils of 4-8-0 and 4-6-2 types on PO-Midi and their performance between Tours and Bordeaux and Brieve and Montauban when hauling 550 ton passenger trains and attaining 2800 dbhp. Locomotive No. 231.726 hauled the 612 ton Sud Express. The 215 miles from St. Pierre-des-Corps to Bordeaux were run at a 66 mile/h average speed. No. 3705 attained 98.8 mile/h between Paris and Orleans. No. 4707 hauled 635 tons between Paris and Calais

Great Western Railway. 379
Within the next five years various works and developments are to be carried out under an agreement recently concluded with the Government. A line, 7 miles long, is to be constructed from a junction near St. Germans station to Looe, with three intermediate stations at Hessenford, Seaton Beach and Millendreath, and a terminus station on the high ground at East Looe. The local service between Plymouth and Looe will be operated by diesel cars, and the time taken for the journey will be reduced by over half an hour.
To relieve the main line between Exeter and Newton Abbot during the busy season a loop line is to be built, 8¼ miles long, leaving the present line near Dawlish Warren, and rejoining it at Newton Abbot.
On the Barnstaple, Minehead, Newquay and Porthcawl branches certain sections are to be doubled, loops and platforms lengthened and the provision of 40 m.p.h. junctions where, at present, the speed of trains has to be reduced to 15 m.p.h.
The reconstruction and enlargement of Banbury, Exeter, Llanelly, Oxford, Paignton, Penzance and Plymouth (North Road) stations is to be taken in hand, and a number of small stations improved and some rebuilt. A new hump marshalling yard is to be provided at Severn Tunnel Junction and additional sidings at Brentford, Hockley, Old Oak Common and Wolverhampton (Cannock Road). It is hoped to make a start with most of the works during the next six months.
The Cheltenham Flyer made its thousandth run on Thursday, 6 December. The present timing of 65 minutes for the 77¼ miles run from Swindon to Paddington was introduced on 12 September 1932, and the journey has been done in 156 min. 47 secs. (81.6 m.p.h.).
New engines completed at Swindon are 2-6-2 tanks Nos. 6160-7 and 0-6·0 tanks Nos. 9766-9. Engines condemned in October included 0-4-2 tanks Nos. 522 and 528; 2-4-0 tank No. 1496; 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 1239, 1240, 1570, 1610, 1637, 1642; 2-4-0 tender engine No. 3217; 4-4-0 tender engines Nos. 1128 (M.S.W No. 31), and 3388; 2-6-0 tender engines, Nos. 2644, 2659 and 2663. Tank engines of the 2-8-0 type converted to 2-8-2 type and renumbered were Nos. 5257, 5258 and 5260, became Nos. 7222, 7223 and 7225.

Electric railway between Brussels and Antwerp. 379
Rolling stock for this line: we are informed the mechanical portions of the trains were built by Le, Ateliers Metallurgiques de Nivelles and Les Ateliers de la Dyle, of Louvain , the electrical equipment for the coaches built by the former being supplied by Les Ateliers de Constructions Electrioues de Charleroi, whilst that for the coaches constructed by the Louvain firm was supplied by the Societe d'Electricite et de Mecanique. The pantographs and traction motor equipment were built by the· A.C.E.C. and the control equipment by the S.E.M.

Fourteen coupled locomotive for Russian Railways. 380-2. diagram (side elevation)
Built at the Lugansk Locomotive Works and intended to produce 3000 HP. Cast steel frames. See also correction in Volume 42 page 60.

London Midland and Scottish Railway. 382
Last Whale Experiment Class 4-6-0 withdrawn: No. 25473 Scottish Chief. Class originated in 1905 and 105 were built mainly for use between Crewe and Carlisle, but later relegated to lesser duties.

The Felixstowe Railway and Dock. 382-3. illustration
Instigated by Colonel Tomline of Orwell Park: 12½ mile line fromn Westerfield to Felixstowe. Opended 1c May 1877. Three light 2-40T locomotives supplied by Yorkshire Engine Co.: No. 1 Felixstowe, No. 2 Orwell and No. 3 Tomline (WN 328-30).. They eventually became GER Nos. 808-810. J.E. Medley was the Locomotive Superintendent.

P.C. Dewhurst. Locomotives of the Trinidad Government Rlys. 383-5. 383-5. 5 illustrations
4-4-0T with extended tanks to increase water capacity from 494 to 620 gallons: Nos. 17 and 18 supplied by Kitson & Co. 0-4-0ST supplied by Hunslet: given letters instead of numbers: A, B, Y and Z. WN 216/1879; 233/1880 and 236-7/1880. Eventual disposal detailed.

[Brill branch]. 385
Closed to all traffic on Saturday 30 November 1935. Opened by Duke of Buckingham in 1872. States [KPJ incorrectrly?] that worked by Metropolitan Railway and LNER. London transport retained 4-4-0Ts Nos. 23 and 41 to work the line. All trains were mixed and train crews had to open and clse level crossing gates.

Netherlands Railways. 385
4-6-0 to be streamlined with a front like that used on electric trains

Recent Continental developments of the Lentz poppet valve gear. 385-7. 4 illustrations, 2 diagrams
2-10-2T for Czecho-Slovakian State Railways with Lentz valve gear: detailed description

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 388-90. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & front elevations), table
0-4-0ST shunting locomotives: built by Werkspoor: WN 52-61/1902; 111-115/1904; 198-200/1907 and Hanomag: WN 6286-8/1912; 7108-9/1913; 7477-9/1915,

J.L. Koffmann. Railcar transmissions. 390-4. 4 diagrams
Comparison of mechanical (which tended to be favoured by author), hydraulic and electrical

Stream-lined "Pacific" type loco. State Railways of France. 394. illustration
Result of studies at Aerotchnical Institute at Saint Cyr. Shield and vane fitted adjacent cab window ti imorove driver's forward visibility

Hungarian State Railways electrification.  395-6. illustration
Metropolitan Vickers supplied switchgear, transformers and traction motors

French railway notes. 396
PLM had placed second streamlined four-car train with Atlantic locomotive into service between Paris and Lyon. The PLM has also streamlinr Maoutain type No. 241.08. The Etat had placed a new 800 hp Bugatti railcar on the Paris St. Lazarre to Caen service

[LNER marshalling yard]. 396
Mottram gravity yard with 28 sidings with electric control for the pneumatic points/

2-8-2 locomotives for the San-Paulo-Parana Plantations Ltd. 396-8. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & front/rear elevations)
Supplied by W.G. Bagnall: metre gauge: two locomotive supplied

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 398
Five 3-cylinder 4-6-0s of the Baby Scot type had been turned out at Crewe, Nos. 5665-9. No. 5665 worked the special train from St. Pancras for the opening of the new Research Laboratories at Derby and had been named Lord Rutherford of Nelson. New 2-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines ex Arrnstrong- Whitworths were in service up to No. 5219. Only five others now remain for delivery to complete this order, Nos. 5220-4. Class G 0-8-0 mineral engine No. 9129, had been converted to superheater and provided with a standard Belpaire boiler; it was classified G1. Additional engines rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers included 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class, Nos. 25683 and 25732; 0-8-0 G1 class, Nos. 9043, 9321 and 9367; 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9446. The last of the ordinary Claughtons had been withdrawn and broken up, No. 5984; also the first of the large-boilered type, No. 5986. A large number of 4-4-0 George the Fifth type locomotives had recently been scrapped, including the following: No. 5276 Titan, 5280 Shooting Star, 5314 Alaric, 5338 Thomas Houghton, 5361 Challenger, 5400 Llandudno, and 5407 Blackpool. Nos. 5000-6, of the 2-cyl. 4-6-0 mixed traffic type, formerly attached to the Northern Division, had been transferred to the Western Division (L. & N.W. Section) . The last of the 6 ft. 2-4-0 Jumbos attached to the Engineering Department, viz., Engineer Watford, is understood to have been withdrawn from service. This engine was originally No. 793 Martin, and became Engineer Watford in May 1923. No. 1219, the Iast of the Kirtley 0-4-4 tanks of the M.R., had been broken up at Derby.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers: railcars in Northern Ireland. 399-401
Long precis of Paper No. 347 published by Institution in 1936: mainly County Donegal Jpint Railway experience and Great Northern Railway (Ireland) development.:

London Transport Board. 401
Among the extensions and improvements for which powers are being sought .in Parliament the most important proposals are the extension of the Central London line from Liverpool Street to Stratford station and build new lines in continuation between Stratford and Leyton and then use the L.N.E.R : tracks to Leytonstone: further new lines wiII be built between Leytonstone and Newbury Park via North Ilford. These lines with the electrification of the L.N.E. Loughton and Grange HIll branches will enable Central London trains to be run to and from these branches. Stations wiII be built at Bethnal Green, Mile End (where there wiII be an interchange with t.he District service), and Stratford. At Stratford the Tube will come to the surface to provide platform interchange with the L.N.E.R.

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. Feedwater heating and condensing. 402-3. diagram, table
As fitted to 2-2-2 Canute as reproduced in Proc. Instn Civil Engrs by D.K. Clark. Also mentions No. 167 Atalanda

Great Southern Railways. 403.
Nos. 403, 405 and 409 were rebuilt as 2-cylinder engines, but the changes did not involve the construction of new frames. The cylinders were shorter (26in stroke as against 28in).

A new road-rail unit. 403. illustration 
Loco-traulier, an industrial vehicle for road or rail transport built by Latil Industrial Vehicles Ltd. and mounted on wheels with normal pneumatic tyres, supplied by the Firestone Tyre and Rubber Co., Ltd., which carry the whole weight for road or rail use. At a recent demonstration of this machine at Brentford, after proceeding along the Great West Road, it .was driven into the Firestone Co.'s Works by climb- ing a flight of steps, and then to the railway sidings. Here, by the lowering of small steel flanged wheels, mounted on carriers at the front and rear of the vehicle, to guide the pneumatic-tyred wheels, it was transformed into a rail shunter, and hauled a couple of G.W.R. covered wagons with ease.

Great Southern Railways. 403
The oldest engine on this system, No. 483, a single driver tank built for the Waterford and Tramore Railway by Fairbairn of Manchester, was derailed on August 17 last when working the 12.15 p.m. ex Waterford at Carriglong cutting, about midway between the termini. The engine left the rails and heeled over against the bank; the driver and fireman were seriously injured. The coaches remained on the rails, and the passengers escaped with a severe shaking. The permament way was torn up for some 300 yards, the rails twisted; the engine came to rest in a ditch at the bottom of an embankment, with its right side buried in the earth; it lost its chimney, and the cab and dome were badly damaged. It is doubtful if the engine will run again.
Nos. 403, 405 and 409 of the 4-6-0 type have been converted from 4cylinder to 2- cyl., 19½ in. dia. by 26 in. stroke. The standard pattern cylinders have a stroke of 28 in. and this difference of 2 in. is made by using special cylinder covers, and has necessitated altering the motion. The original wheels, 6 ft. 7 in. dia. with 13 in. centres of crank pins are retained with alterations in the balance weights, etc. The frames have been extended, and the wheel base from bogie centre to leading coupled is increased from 8 ft. 8 in. to 9 ft. 2½ in. and the bogie centre to buffer beam reduced from 6 ft. to 5 ft. 9 in. as compared with the engines as built. Nos. 400, 404 and' 408 of this class had been scrapped.

Correspondence.  403

Recent Continental developments of the Lentz poppet valve gear. J. Rihosek. 403
Writer formerly Chief Engineer of the Locomotive Dept. of the Austrian Railway Ministry, Vienna, re description, on page 358 of our last issue, of the drifting device on the three-cylinder locomotive of the Austrian Federal Railways. In this article it is stated: "When drifting, the inlet valves can be held open . . . bear against the inlet levers U and so hold the valves open." This is not quite correct. The sleeve H bears on the narrow cam N on both sides, therefore when drifting, not only the inlet valves but also the exhaust valves are opened. This is the difference between the Lentz drifting device and the arrangement patented by Rihosek in Austria. Also, the arrangement, shown by Fig. 1, concerning equal steam-pressure and temperature in the neighbourhood of the valve chambers, was also introduced by Rihosek, for the purpose of avoiding an unequal extension of the walls of the valve chambers, and also to provide a direct passage for the steam. .

New Duff-Norton power jac. 404. illustration

Instituion of Locomotive Engineers. 404
Elections to various membership levels made on 28 November