The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 42 (1936)

Key page

Number 521 (15 January 1936)

Diesel engines for rail traction. 1-2.
Editorial summary of paper presented to the Institute of Transport by C.E. Fairburn and comment thereat by E.J.H. Lemon on the high cost of diesel power. The railcar was condemned for being non-flexible. The advantages of mechanical drive were stated to be lightness, small space required  and small transmission losses. Electric drive was simpler to control and was equivalent to automatic continuously variable gear, possible to drive all axles and performed better on steep gradients. Shunting locomotives were an important application.

Two-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tank engines, L.M. & S. Rly.. 2-4. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)

The "Union Limited" express, South African Railways, and new Pacific type locomotives. 4-5.  illustration.
Train ran between Cape Town and Johannesberg. The 4-6-2 were designed by A.G. Watson, Chief Mechanical Engineer and built by Henschel & Son. The 16E class was fitted with rotary cam valve gear. No. 854 is illustrated.

0-8-0 shunting locomotives, Yueh-Han Railway, China. 6. illustration
Four locomotives supplied by W.G. Armstrong Whitworth under the supervision of Sandberg. They had 16½ x 23½in cylinders, Walschaerts valve gear and 3ft 11¼in coupled wheels. The boiler had a total heating surface of 1120ft2, a grate area of 32.3ft2 and operated at 220 psi.

New German railcar. 7-8. illustration, diagram
Rhine-Sieg Railway (near Bonn): 2ft 3in gauge. Supplied by Waggonfabrik Wismar.

An early mechanical lubricated axlebox. 8-9. diagram.
Discovered when Agenoria moved within Science Museum.

P.C. Dewhurst. Locomotives of the Trinidad Government Rlys. 9-10. 3 illustrations
Outside cylinders 0-6-0ST supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. WN 1168/1914 and WN 1169/1915 became D and E. Three 0-6-0ST were supplied by the Montreal Locomotive Works WN 61527-9/1919. Montreal Locomotive Works also supplied 4-6-0 locomitives with bogie tenders, Walschaerts valve gear, piston valves and superheaters: 61527-9/1919 and 63088-93/1921

Czecho-Slovakian Rlys three-cylinder tank locomotive. 10
Cylinder dimensions

London & North Eastern Railway. 10
No. 2512 Silver Fox fitted with stainless steel fox and other decorative fittings.
Withdrawn: Ivatt 4-4-0 type Nos. 4072 and 4078 and small Atlantic No. 3988.
Roding Valley Halt (Fairlop loop) to be opened on 8 February 1936..

Londonderry & Lough Swilly Rly. 10
Section from Buncrana to Cardonagh closed to all traffic from 2 December 1935.

[Oldland Common]. 10
Oldland Common station opened between Bitten and Warmsley on Bath to Bristol line of LMS from 2 December 1935.

[Cwmtwrch Well Halt]. 10
Opened on GWR Swansea to Brynamman line on 14 December 1935.

William T. Hoecker. Static weight and weighing of American locomotives. 11-14. diagram
Discussion by railway mechanical engineers. Cites Locomotive Mag., 1935, 41, 303 and  T.H. Sanders Locomotive Mag., 1922, 28, 175 and Locomotive Mag., 1934, 40, 392 which was an abstract of ILocoE Paper 334. Three point suspension had been the norm in North America, but 60 very heavy 2-10-2 built in 1918/19 were fitted with five point suspension and this became the norm for the Mallet type. Wedges were needed to accommodate wear in the spring rigging. Appropriate weighing apparatus was installed at the Eddystone Shops at the Baldwin Locomotive Works. The Association of American Railroad Mechanical Division brought the three largest American locomotive builders together on this topic.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 14
Additional three-cylinder 4-6-0's of the Baby Scot type recently completed and turned out at Crewe bore Nos. 5670-8 [KPJ: these were Stanier Jubilee class!]. The first two engines of this series, Nos. 5665-6, werre fitted with 3,500 gallon tenders, all others which have so far appeared being provided with the latest standard 4,000 gallon type. The last of the order for 100 4-6-0 2-cylinder mixed traffic engines which was placed with Armstrong, Whitworth and Co. early in 1935, had been delivered; this series numbered from 5125 to 5224 inclusive. Class G 0-8-0 No. 9148 had been converted to Class G1 (superheater) and provided with a standard Belpaire boiler. Engines rebuilt at Crewe with Belpaire boilers included the following: Class G1 Nos. 9059, 9095, 9114, 9258, 9276, 9341, 9373; Class G2 Nos. 9399 and 9443. Two of the large-boilered Claughtons had been scrapped, Xos, 5906 and 6029. When rebuilt the former retained the original Walschaerts gear, while 6029 was fitted with Caprotti gear. Other recent withdrawals included 4-4-0 George the Fifth class Nos. 5243 Lapwing, 5375 Partridge, 5312 Velocipede, 5397 Planet, and 5403 Leamington Spa; also 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 25720 and 25740. No. 6129 Comet of the Royal Scot class  renamed The Scottish Horse.

Kent & East Sussex Rly. 14
Normal work on this line was performed by locomotives Nos. 3, 4 and 8. No. 3 was an ex. L.B.S.C. Terrier, originally No. 70 Poplar, built in 1870: it had. borne the name Bodiam; but it had been rebuilt, certain parts of other Terriers (K.E.S.R. Rolvenden and Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Daphne) being incorporated. Locomotive No. 4 was originally on the L.S.W.R., and was one of the Beyer, Peacock 0-6-0 saddle tanks. This engine was exchanged by the Southern Railway for the K.E.S.R. 0-8-0 tank Hecate in 1932, which was too heavy for the Rother Valley line. The present No. 4 was built in 1876, and spent most of its life shunting in Nine Elms yard until it was sent to Rolvenden. No. 8 was also a saddle tank of the 0-6-0 type, and was also built in 1876. It belonged to the North Pernbroke & Fishauard Railway, on which it bore the name Ringing Rock; bought from the GWR. in 1914, it was named Hesperus, The name had now heen removed. All three engines were painted light green The two original 2-4-0 tanks Nos. 1 Tenterden and No. 2 Northiam were undergoing overhaul: it is possible that one may be rebuilt at the expense of the other.

Centenary of the German Rlys. 15
As this item is of considerable historical importance it is quoted verbatim: "On Saturday and Sunday, December 7 and 8 last, the Centenary of the German Railways was celebrated in Nuremberg. The British delegation, which .was welcomed by Herr HItler, included SIr Josiah Stamp Brigadier-General Sir Osborne Mance and Mr. R. Holland-Martin, Mr. Frank Pick, Mr. C.E.R. Sherrington and Mr. Kenneth Brown. Sir Josiah Stamp placed a wreath on the memorial to railway workers, among the names on which is that of William Wilson, the British engineer who drove the first German railway engine. The ceremony was followed by a parade depicting railway equipment as it has developed during the past 100 years,. from the historic Ludwig's train tu modern Diesel trams, and special trains like the "Rheingold," and the "Strength through Joy" tram, which carrres thousands of German workers on their annual holiday at a fractional cost of ordinary railway fares.
It was on December 7, 1835, that the first rail- way was put into operation in Germany between Nuremberg and Furth (about six miles). Two years later the Leipzig and Dresden line was opened and in 1838 the Berlin to Potsdam section was made. At this time the German Railways were constructed by private oompanies, and a good c'eal of the rollmg stock and other materials were imported from England. The Prussian and Hessian Railways were nationalised after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, being about three- fourths of the whole at that period. In 1920 the entire system of German Railways was taken over by the Reich, and in 1924 under the recommendation of the Dawes' plan a company was formed to manage the entire system; this is known as the Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesellschaft".

Super high-pressure locomotives. Northern Railway of France. 15
Chemins de Fer du Nord decided to order a very high pressure locomotive for trial against existmg machines. ThIS type of locomotive is, of course, not new, and tests have been made along these lines previously, but they have revealed cer- tain practical difficulties. The locomotive to be built was a  Pacinc with a boiler carrying 855  psi and usmg direct evaporatIon. Each driving axle would be operated individually by two high speed steam engmes, of 500 h.p. each, giving a total of 1,000 h.p. per driving axle. The engines to have three cylinders each. The two engines connected to each axle will be arranged horizontally above the wheels, on either side of the boiler. They will be connected to the axle by reduction gears and universal transrmssion to permit movements in all directions of the axles and the engines. These universal transmissions are of similar type to those used trequently on electrically-driven trains on which they have been very satis factory. In fact the whole design has been much influenced by electric locomotive practice.

Great Western Ry. 15
The following new engines were completed at Swindon during Nov.: 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 5420-3 and 6425-9; 2-6-2 tanks Nos. 6168-9. Engines converted from 2-8-0 tank type to 2-8-2 tank type and re-numbered: original numbers 5259, 5261 and 5262 now numbered 7224, 7226 and 7227. Engines condemned were as follows:-0-4-0 tank No. 96; 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 722 (Barry No. 102), 1545, 1816, 1877 and 1959; 0-4-2 tank No. 115; 4-4-2 tank No. 2246; 4-4-0 tender Nos. 1122 (M.S.W.J.R. No. 4) and 3381; 0-6-0 tender goods No. 2337; 2-6-0 mixed traffic Nos. 2634, 2661, and 2672.
The names of the 25 Castle" class engines which are to be built in 1936 would be as follows:
Barbury Castle
Beverston Castle
Bridgewater Castle
Compton Castle
Cranbrook Castle
Clifford Castle
Denbigh Castle
Devizes Castle
Drysllwyn. Castle
Eastnor Castle
Hatherop Castle
Lamphey Castle
Lydford Castle
Ogmore Castle
Picton Castle
Penrice Castle
Powis Castle
Sarum Castle
Sudeley Castle
Tenby Castle
Thornbury Castle
Tretower Castle
Upton Castle
Wardour Castle
Wilton Castle

Locomotives of the South Hetton Coal Co. Ltd. 16-18. 7 illustrations
The South Hetton Coal Company was registered on 18 July 1874; its chaiman being W. Bailey Hawkins who also chaired the Colne Valley & Halstead Railway. CVHR No. 2 was sent to the South Hetton in 1894, but was scrapped in about 1902: it had originated as a Beyer Peacock product of 1860 for the North London Railway (its No. 42), was sold  to the Whitehaven Colliery in 1883 (see  also Locomotive Mag., 1911, 17, 220). In 1936 the stock consisted of:
No. 1 0-6-0ST built Black, Hawthorn & Co. WN 355/1875
No. 2 Haverhill 0-6-0T built Sharp Stewart WN 2358/1873 for Cornwall Minerals Railway (see  also Locomotive Mag., 1911, 17, 198)
No. 3 Glamorgan 0-6-0T built by Hunslet Engine Co. WN 396/1886 for Manchester Ship Canal contractor: reconditioned by P. Baker of Cardiff in 1907
No. 4 Manning Wardle of 1873: builders plate lost; rebuilt 1913
No. 5 Manning Wardle of 1875; rebuilt att South Hetton in 1910
No. 6 0-6-0T Assembled at South Hetton from boiler, tanks, frames and cylinders of Metropolitan Railway 4-4-0T
No. 7 0-6-0ST G. & J. Joicey of Newcastle WN 305/1883 rebuilt at South Hetton in 1908
No. 8 0-6-0T formerly ADR No. 2  (see Locomotive Mag., 1927, 33, 120) which originated as R. Stephenson WN 625/1848 for Southern Division of LNWR 
No. 9 0-6-0ST Sir George formerly ADR No. 1 which originated as R. Stephenson WN 624/1848 for Southern Division of LNWR 
No. 10 0-6-0ST Whitefield Sharp Stewart WN 1677/1866 for West Somerset Minerals Railway: in 1898 it was moved to the Ebbw Vale Works and rebuilt there in 1904: sold to South Hetton in 1914.
Locomotive foreman was called Coulthard; photographs by P.W. Robinson (except Glamorgan by A.W. Croughton)

The P.L.M. streamlined locomotive and its work. 19-21. 4 illustrations
4-cylinder compound 4-4-2 fitted with a trefoil blastpipe working high speed services (four streamlined cars) between Paris and Lyons. Further locomotives to be modified and rolling stock to be built

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Metals and alloys in locomotive construction. 22.
At the meeting held on 2 January, when W.A. Stanier took the chair, a paper was read by V. Harbord on " Metals and Alloys in Locomotive Construction." To meet the present day demand for greater power and higher speeds, the locomotive engineer has to meet many and varied difficulties owing to the limitations under which he has to work. It seems to be that in the reduction of weight that further advances must be sought; it is that aspect of the case that the author took for his paper. The weight of a modern locomotive of British design may be regarded as approximately 90 per cent. steel and 10 per cent. non-ferrous metals. Of the non-ferrous weight the copper firebox is the principal item, and here we meet with our first insuperable difficulty. It is one of the immutable laws of Nature that pure metals, while possessing a minimum of strength, possess the maximum conductivity, both electrical and thermal, and any attempt to increase the strength of the metal by alloying it is accompanied by a reduction in conductivity out of all proportion to the increase in strength. Of the pure metals only one possesses a better conductivity than copper, namely, silver, but even in the construction of a Silver Jubilee locomotive this must be ruled out, not only on economic grounds but also on technical grounds, for silver has a melting point no less than 223°F. lower than copper. The remaining non-ferrous metals in a locomotive form so small a proportion of the total weight that they offer little scope for any reduction. We are therefore forced to turn our attention to the ferrous alloys, and here the locomotive engineer may look for, and expect, some help from the metallurgist in view of all that has been done recently in the way of special alloy steels. A word of warning is however necessary at the outset. The special steels are the thoroughbreds of the metallurgical stable and cannot be treated with the casual disrespect which the com- mon steels have always received. It is perhaps a pity that they were ever described as alloy steels as the name has given rise to an erroneous impres- sion that their properties are due entirely to their special composition and have been brought about by the mysterious addition of small amounts of other metals such as chromium, molybdenum and vanadium. It must be pointed out that the properties of the special steels are not due entirely to their composition, but to the fact that the addition of small quantities of other elements enables them to receive special heat treatment which confers upon them their exceptional properties. The correct heat treatment for any particular steel has been determined after long experience and is an operation requiring care and skill. It follows, therefore, that any subsequent heating of the steel in the shops will not only destroy its useful properties, but is likely to result in cracking and ultimate fracture. There is another characteristic of the special steels which is sometimes apt to be overlooked. In the early days of steel it was generally accepted that the yield point was approximately half that of the breaking stress. With improved technique in steel manufacture the ratio was gradually increased to 60, and in some cases 70 per cent. In many of the special steels, however, the gap between yield and ultimate fracture is so small that engineers should take steps to ensure that the yield point of the steel is never approached as closely as when using the more common steels.
The special steels must be treated with every care and respect, and this applies not only to their treatment in the shops but must begin with the designer and the drawing office. The designer must be on the alert to see that wherever there is a change of section it shall be gradual and not abrupt, and anything in the nature of a sharp angle must be avoided like a plague. Where hitherto he has been content with, say, a 1/16 in. radius he must contrive to make it not only more, but as much more as he possibly can. At such places local skin stresses of a very high order may be reached, and a small hair crack once started will spread rapidly through the metal. Similarly, no part of the surface should be left in a rough machined condition. All operations should be finished with a very fine cut and important places should be finished by grinding.
One of the most frequent causes of fractures in service is the failure to realise sufficiently how important it is that all machined parts be well finished. Sharp angles, insufficient radii left on machined parts, and any form of sharp break on the surface, especially those subjected to alternating stresses are liable to be the starting point of failure, more especially when the highest class of material is used.
Improvements and advances are only made at the expense of new difficulties which have to be met and the materials necessary to obtain higher duty for the same weight can only be used with safety when proper care and correct treatment is given to them.
In opening the discussion following the paper Mr. Stanier stated that when they started using these alloys they thought they had got out of their difficultes but found they were not so in many unlocked for directions. Others taking part in the discussion were Messrs. J. Clayton, M. Lewis, B. R. Byrne, S. King, J. G. B. Sams, H. Chambers, T. H. Turner, and W. F. McDermid.
A pleasant interlude in the proceedings was the presentation of the Gold Medal of the Institution to Dr. R. P. Wagner of the German National Rys. for his paper on "High Speed and the Steam Locomotive " read last session.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 23-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
0-6-0 type built at Werkspoor with superheaters and lower boiler pressures. Fitted with Knorr feedwater heaters

Great Western Railway. 24
Appointments at Assistant Divisional Locomotive Superintendent level: H.S. Kerry, formerly of Cardiff moved to Old Oak Common; H. Rendell, formerly of Old Oak Common moved to Neath; W.H. Bodman, formerly at Neath moved to Cardiff.

Recent Continental developments of the Lentz poppet valve gear. 24-6. 4 diagrams
Pacific locomotives German National Railways and Austrain locomotives

L.M.S.R. 26
P. McCallum district locomotive superintendent Crewe to be Assistant Superintendent Motive Power Euston; W.E. Blakesley district locomotive superintendent at Bescot moved to similar position at Crewer; H. Hughes district locomotive superintendent at Carnforth moved to Bescot and J. Briggs assistant district locomotive superintendent at Edge Hill moved to district locomotive superintendent at Carnforth; R.J. Spencer assistant office of Motive Power Euston to be assistant district locomotive superintendent at Edge Hill. G. Phillips running shed foreman at Corkerhill to be district locomotive foreman Ayr

Monsieur Nasse. 27
Retired from the possition of L'Ingenieur en Chef du Material et de la Traction of the French State Railways on 30 November 1935. Born in 1875, and after a brilliant academical career as student at the Ecole National des Ponts, et Chaussées he entercd the service of the State Railways in 1901. After passing through successive grades was finally appointed head of the Department of Material and Traction in 1920, and his directorship had been conspiculously identified with the many advances which had taken place on the railway with which he has for so long been connected, Nasse was the author of several important technical papers and contributions to the engineering press.

Southern Railway. 27
Another Brighton Baltic tank converted to 4-6-0 had been put into service: No. 2332 Stroudley. Construction has been started at Easrlcigh on a series of 4-6-0 goods engines of the H15 class.
J.E. Elliott, district locomotive superintendent, Bournemouth, retired at the end of December [1935], and was succeeded by Hoare, former district loco. supt. at Fratton.

Canadian Pacific Railway. 27
We are informed by Mr. H. B Bowen, chief of motive power and rolling stock of the C.P.R., that a new design of light weight 4-4-4 type express locomotive has been prepared, and it is expected that the first of these will be put into service in May next. We understand five of these engines are to be built for an accele- rated service between Montreal and Ouebec with trains of new light-weight rolling stock. The engines will have roller bearings, boilers of nickel steel carrying a working pressure of 300 lb. per square inch, and will be provided with mechanical stokers.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 27
At the general meeting held on 2 January, the following candidates were elected: Associate members: John Percy Archibald Drewry, C.M.E. Dept., Southern Railway, Stewart's Lane, Battersea; David Patrick, Diesel Traction Dept., Sir W. G. Armstrong-Whitworth & Co. {Engineers} Ltd., Scotswood Works, Newcastle on Tyne; Derrick Gower Ritson, C.M.E. Dept., L.M. & S.Rly., Derby; Frederick William Sinclair, The Crown Agents for the Colonies, 4, Millbank, S.W.1; Associates: Robert Alfred Dearden, Technical Representative to Messrs. A.B,M.T.M., Ltd., Temple Chambers, 6, Old Post Office Street, Calcutta; William Erie Frost, Works Manager and Director, John Spencer and Sons {1928} Ltd., Newburn, Northumberland , Graduates: Alfred Bernard Lake, Junior Draughtsman, L.N. E.R. Works, Doncaster ; David Gladstone Balfour Reekie, L.M. & S.Rly., St. Rollox Works, Glasgow. Transfer from Graduate to Associate Member: John Cleveland Graeme, District Loco. Superintendent, F.C.A.B., Uyuni, Bolivia.
The Council of the Institution have awarded the "Alfred Rosling Bennett" prize to Mr. T. H. Sanders for his paper entitled "The Evolution of Railway Suspension," which he read before the members on 29th November, 1934.

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. Feed water heating and condensing. 28-9. 5 diagrams
GB 259/1854. 1 February 1854.

Death of Mrs M. Jones. 29
Lived in Caversham; died at 83. Her husband, Edward Jones, died in 1926 aged 78 and is buried in Malmesbury. He was a GWR engineman who drove the branch train to Dauntsey: his tombstone featured an 0-4-2T

Notes. 30

How the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway kept the Eastbourne traffic. 30
R.B. Fellows Railway Club presentation given at the Royal Scottish Corporation Hall on 6 December 1935

Jubilee performance. 30
A Manchester to Glasgow express parcels train hauled by a Jubilee class locomotive ran the 31½ miles from Cranforth to Shap Summit in 30 minutes at an average speed of 63 mile/h thereby reducing the lateness of the train from 20 minutes to 7 minutes. Patricroft driver T.N. Banks and fireman J.J.H. Blakemoor.

GWR steam rail motor. 30
Last service performed by this type was from Neath (Canal Side) to Court Sart on 11 September 1935.

Number 522 (15 February 1936)

His Late Majesty King George V. 31

Punctuality. 31-2.
Only one of the Four Main Line companies encouraged staff to regain time lost. Mechanical signalling was prone to delays in fog and frost.

New 4-6-2+2-6-4 Beyer-Garratt locomotives for the Nigerian Railway. 32-5. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Built to the requirements of M.P. Sells, Chief Mechanical Enngineer; built by Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd under the inspection of the Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Diesel railcars, Buenos Ayres Western Railway. 35-6. illustration
Two streamlined vehicles built by Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. with Gardner 6L3 140 b.h.p. engines, asbestos insulation, Spencer Moulton rubbeer auxikiary springs. Inspected by Livesey & Henderson.

0-6-2 metre gauge locomotives, Bengal North Western and Rohilkund-Kumaon Railways. 36. illustration
25 YF class locomotives: order placed by India Office with A.E.G. Company of Berlin to ins-pection of Rebndel, Palmer & Tritton

The Railway Club. 36
Kenneth Brown;s Presidential Address on British railways in 1845 to be given at Royal Scottish Corporation Hall on 20 February.

Centenary of the first railway in London. 37-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation).
The London & Greenwhich Railway opened as far as Deptford on 8 February 1836. No. 1 Royal William built by Tayleur & Co. at the Vulcan Foundry. The other locomotives are listed and reference is made to A. Rosling Bennett's history

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 38-40. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Werkspoor 4-4-4T built in 1914-15. They had 500 x 600 mm cylinders, 2016 mm coupled wheels and operated at 10.5 kg boiler pressure.

London & North Eastern Railway. 40
The directors decided to put in hand the work on a further 22 locomotives, to be constructed under the Government Assisted Loan, together with 225 coaching vehicles. In addition 593 carriages were to be converted from gas to electnc lighting. These orders represented a total value in excess of £800,000 and additional to the order for ten K3 class mixed traffic locomotives placed with Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. The locomotives to be constructed under the present orders included 17 Paoific engines generally Similar to the Silver Link class used for the Silver Jubilee train. It is understood that it is the intention to streamline these locomotives as the result of the success which has attended the working of the existing streamlined locomotives. Besides saving a great deal of power streamlining solved the problem of lifting smoke and. steam so that it did not obstruct the driver's view. For high speed running at rates in excess of 60 m.p.h. it has also been found that the reduction of wind resistance effected by streamlining an engine had been advantageous as regards fuel consumption.
In addition to the above, four sister engines of the famous Cock o' the North were under construction for servlce between Edinburgh and Aberdeen. The:se engines tol be partially streamlined, as it was felt that this would have a beneficlal effect on their working, as they are so frequently subject to strong easterly and north-easterly winds on this section of the L.N.E.R. We understand that one of these engines will be provided with independent valve gear to each of the three cylinders. The coaching vehicles to be contructed under the present orders include a number of first class restaurant and sleeping cars, together with 214 first and third class vestibuled coaches. The majority of these vehicles to be built by contractors.

Great Southern Railways. 40
Intended to build at Inchicore Works during year 12 suburban coaches of similar design to those used on the Dublin-Cork Mall train, and these to run between Amiens Street and Harcourlt Street and Bray. The 1936 programme also included five new 4-4-0 tender locos. on the lines of the 333 class, but with lengthened frame:, superheaters and piston valves. Single driver tank engine No. 483 Waterford and Tramore Ry. No. 1) to be scrapped and replaced by another engine.

An unusual colliery locomotive. 41-2. illustration, diagram (side elevatiion)
4-4-0T at the colliery of the Micklefield Coal and Lime Co. near Leeds: No. 2 Emlyn: built by R. Stephenson & Co. WN 1959/1870 for the Snibson Colliery in Leicestershire. Other locomotoves at Micklefield Colliery: No. 1 Micklefield Kitson 0-4-0ST WN 2251/1879 rebuilt by Hudswell Clarke in 1921; No. 3 Preston Yorkshire Engine Co. WN 581/1899 reconditioned at the Colliery. No. 4 Ledston had been a Manning Wardle 0-4-0ST (WN 243) acquired from South Wales but scrapped in 1935. See also letter from W.E.C. on page 132

LNER appointments. 42
C. Carslake moved from being Assistant Signal & Telegraph Engineer Southern Area to being Signal & Telegraph Engineer North Eastern Area. A.E. Tattersall Signal & Telegraph Engineer North Eastern Area to Signal & Telegraph Engineer Southern Area

Workings of Royal Special Trains in connection with the Funeral of the late King. 42-3. 2 illutrations
On Thursday 23 January the 12.05 Special left Wolferton for King's Lynn worked by B12 No. 8520 driven by W. Thurston and fired by A. Tobell. From King's Lynn to London (King's Cross other information) B17 No. 2847 Helmingham Hall was used crewed by Driven F. Collis and Fireman E. Foiser. On Tuesday 28 January No. 4082 Windsor Castle left Paddington at about mid-day for W indor with Drivetr W.H. Sparrow and Fireman Miles. This train was  preceded by six special trains  at ten minute intervals, all hauled by Castle class locomotives, to convey official mourners.

Bogie tipping wagons with continuous brakes, German Railways. 43-4. 2 illutrations

Great Western Railway. 44
In December new 4-6·0 passenger engines completed at Swindon were Nos. 5951 Clyffe Hall, 5952 Cogan Hall, 5953 Dunley Hall, 5954 Faendre Hall, 5955 Garth Hall, 5956 Horsley Hall, 5957 Hutton. Hall; also 0-6-0 tank No. 5424. Three 2-8-0 tank engines converted to the 2-8-2 type were Nos. 7228, 7230, and 7231 formerly Nos. 5263, 5265 and 5266 respectively. Engines condemned were 0-4-2 tank No. 831; 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 1142, 1181, 1234, 1546, 1844, 1983, 2359; 0-8-2 tank No. 1359 (Port Talbot Railway No. 18); 2-6-0 tender engines 2614, 2629 and 2645.

The 0-4-4 tanks of the Great Eastern Railway. 45-8. 3 illutrations
S.W. Johnson introduced No. 186 in 1872 and thirty had been built by the end of 1873. They had 5ft 3in coupled wheels and 17 x 24 in cylinders. They may be regarded as the prototypes for the Johnson Midland Railway class. They worked the Enfield and Walthamstow branches and were capable of hauling the Newmarket Race specials. No, 189 was painted royal blue for working Queen Victoria's train to Chingford in 188 when she opened Epping Forest to the public. A 30 mile/h speed limit was imposed on the class when they were working forward and this nuisance in the Norwich district when they had to be turned between jiourneys. Fifty of the Adams type were built between 1875 and 1878. These shared uties with the Johnson locomotives. They had different dimensions: 4ft 10in coupled wheels and 17½ x 24 in cylinders. In 1883 during a locomotive shortage they were used to work coal trains to and from Peterborough, but had to stop frequently for water and were not popoular with the Peterborough enginemen. The Bromley type, built 1878-1883 shared the 4ft 10in coupled wheels , but had smaller (16 x 22 in) cylinders and carried less water. Holden returned to the type in 1898 and forty wetre built by 1901. They had 17 x 24 in cylinders and 160 psi boilers, but were slow starting.

Costing of carriage and wagon construction. 48-9. diagram
Der Neuzeitliche Waggonbau by Franz Lehner Franz Lehner, of the H.ungarian Wagon and Engine Works,. and publIshed by Laubsch and Everth, of Berlin, From the various diagrams dealing with the routmg, etc., of the constructional side, we have thought the one here given worthy of reproduction, with the a.uthor's explanation, rendered  into reasonable EnglIsh. This is a rough illustration of the fundamentals of the costing apparatus for a passenger vehicle, in which the individual costs are each shown as becoming cumulative into a contmually increasing stream line. (Editor: It would appear as if the diagram included the repair of stock in addition to the construction of new stock, the cumulative cost of dismantling an existing vehicle into its component parts of metal, wood, upholstery, and special stores equipment, being shown by the four small end views, with the total dismantling cost passing the main circle at No. 1 point). One can see therefrom the aggregate costs of the "raw" material, in the four groups indicated, as they arrive for the construction of the vehicle, and they can then be traced until the finished vehicle is completely assembled. The iron and steel,. for instance (A) passes through shears, cupolas (iron and steel castings), machine shops, erectlon, etc., until the body is mounted on the frame (15). Painting the whole is shown at (16), varnishing the body at (17), and the final control and delIvery at (18). The drawing shows the entire progress of the vehicle from the arrival of the matenal until the delivery of the car, in such a form that the separate workshops are indicated in the order of the progress, and appear round the costmg disc, which is of course, not comparative, but only diagrammatic [KPG: book is currently on sale online at great expense: it is hoped that thisd not may be helpful]..

The Knighton Railway. 49-50. illustration
Act for a rrailway from Craven Arms to Knighton was passed on 21 May 1851. This formed the first part of what was to become the Central Wales Railway and part of the LNWR route to Swansea and was worked by the LNWR from 1 July 1862. It appears that at no time was the Knighton Railway worked entirely independently, but in order to be prepared for such working on the termination of Brassey 's contract, the directors ordered from Beyer, Peacock & Co. a locomotive which was named Knighton and delivered in 1861 (WN 203). It was a 0-4-2 saddle tank of a type of which a number were supplied by the builders to various railways and collieries both in this oountry and abroad. Engines of this type had coupled wheels 4 ft. diameter, trailing wheels 3 ft., and cylinders 14 in. by 20 in. The wheelbase was 13 ft., of which 7 ft. 4 in. was between the coupled wheels. The boiler had a pressure of 120 psi, the tank a water capacity of 600 gals., and the working weight was about 22t tons.
When the L. & N.W.R. began to work the line, the Knighton wa:s used for this purpose, its ownership remaining with the local company as the arrangement was only provisional.· On 22 June 1863, however, the amalgamation of the Knighton Railway with the Central Wales was authorised and approved by the shareholders of both companies on 4 July 1864. Although the actual amalgamation was not to take place until the completion of the railway to Llandovery, the L. & N.W.R. thereupon purchased the Knighton and included it in their stock as No. 1328. In 1865 it was transferred to the duplicate list as 1115. Under this number it was sold to Partridge and Jones of Pontypool for colliery work. By a further Act of 25 June 1868, the three companies, Knighton, Central Wales, and Central Wales Extension, were authorised to be absorbed by the L. & N.W.R., and from 1 July that year formed an integral part of the latter company's system.

Watt Bicentenary Exhibition. 50
A special Memorial Exhibition was held at the Science Museum, South Kensington, to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth at Greenock on 19 January 1736, of James Watt, the engineer and inventor. Many objects of particular interest are shown, including three original beam engines, two of which were erected in Soho Manufactory in 1777 and 1788 respectively, and the third in London in 1797, and various original experimental models, including the separate condensers of 1765 which led to his most important contribution to the development of the steam engine. The garret workshop, where Watt frequently worked from 1790 till his death in 1819 and which was removed with its contents from Heathfield Hall near Birmingham to the Science Museum in 1924 for permanent preservation, is on view. A large number of drawings, some by Watt himself, have been lent by the Birmingham Public Libraries Committee and form a detailed survey of the progress in steam engine design from 1775 to 1800, the period of Watt's partnership with Boulton.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers, The railways of South Africa. 50-2
E.C. Poultney, O.B.E., at the meeting held on 30 J nuary at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, read an interesting paper on the "Railways of the Union of South Africa," with special reference to recent locomotive practice. Lieut.-Col. F. R. Collins, D.S.O., formerly C.M.E. of the South African Railways, occupied the chair.
As a preface to his review the author gave the leading particulars of the Union railway system. At the end of March 1934 the mileage worked amounted to 13,810; the total number of locomo- tives was 2,039, representing an aggregate tractive force of 58,661,053 lb., equal to an average of 28,770 lb. each. Passenger stock totalled 3,862 vehicles, including electric motor coaches and trailers, and the number of freight cars in service amounted to 35,301. The system is one of the largest in the world under one general manager, and is the world's most extensive narrow gauge line (3 ft. 6 in.).
When it is realised that the" Union Limited Express" operating between Cape Town and Johannesburg, replete with dining cars and the usual amenities found in modern travel, over a road practically all single line for a distance of 956 miles, maintains a mean running speed of 35 miles per hour, and at the same time negotiates grades of 1 in 50, it will be appreciated that the standard of organisation and technical skill is at a high level. The newest "Pacific" type locomo- tives can and have attained a speed of 70 miles per hour, believed to be the highest ever made on a less than standard gauge railway.
Dividing his lecture into sections, the author, in making reference to development in the permanent way, said that up to about 1929 the standard rail section was 80 lb., first put down in 1903-4. Since then the increase in traffic, and the demand for more powerful and heavier locomotives, has necessitated the introduction of a new rail of 96 lb. section of steel, with a standard length of 40 ft. Steel sleepers are largely used except in districts within 20 miles of the coast. The new rails are designed for 22 tons axle loads. Modern rolling stock was next considered. In running clearances the S.A. Railways are very fortunate, so that although limited by a 3 ft. 6 in. rail gauge it is possible to provide adequate passenger accommodation for the coaching stock, freight cars of considerable capacity and power- fullooomotives, thanks to the liberal overhang per- mitting the use of large cylinders. The maximum width is 10 ft., and at a height of 3 ft. 4 in., 8 ft. 4 in. The allowable height is 13 ft. Bogie vheicles are standard for passenger trains,and to a large extent also for freight; further, for the latter, all steel construction is the rule, whilst for passenger equipment steel underframing in combination with wood bodies is employed. All vehicles have a central coupler, the latest be- ing automatic; the automatic vacuum brake is standard for all stock. Passenger cars have open platforms at each end, with means to pass from one car to the next, and the compartment type side corridors predominate. Carriages are steam heated and electrically lighted. Some new cars for the more important trains have closed-in end platforms, with vestibuled connections. Some of the freight cars are of exceptional size, as an instance of which may be cited twelve-wheeled hopper wagons having a carrying capacity of 60 tons. There are numerous eight-wheeled cars of the hopper type of 66,000 and 112,000 lb. capacities. Cars for handling grain in bulk carry 80,000 lb.
Remarking on train speeds, these are not high. The main trains make 30 to 35 m.p.h. an average, and the maximum about 45 or 50 m.p.h. The distances between Johannesburg and Cape Town, Durban and East London are 956, 494, and 665 miles respectively, and the journey time speeds are 33.5, 27.3 and 23.6 m.p.h., comparing with 26.8,22.1 and 19.75 m.p.h. in 1910. Considerable attention is being given to electri- fication, especially in the vicinity of Johannesburg and in Natal, where the first section of the line between Pietermaritzburg and Glencoe, 170 miles, was electrically operated in 1925. This was followed by the electrification of the line between Cape Town and Simonstown, 22'~ miles in 1928. The overhead system is used, and trains of eight bogie cars of the multiple-unit type. Similar trains are used on the main line which has been electrified from Cape Town to Belleville, a distance of 12 miles. The voltage is 1,500 D.C. The more important sections electrified are in Natal where 305 route miles are so worked with a line voltage of 3,000 D.e. The locomotives are equipped with four 300 h.p. motors, and have a tractive effort of 21,200 lb. The maximum work- ing speed is 45 m.p.h. These locomotives weigh 66.7 tons and run on two 4-wheeled trucks having 4 ft. wheels; two and sometimes three are required on a train. The electrification of the Rand lines in the vicinity of Johannesburg will involve the conversion of 74 route miles of track, and a total of 223 track miles; this will be ready about the end of 1936.
The third section of the paper was devoted to a review of the remarkable increase both in size and capacity of the locomotives since 1911, the average gain in tractive effort being practically 40 per cent. The author went back a little farther to refer to a Pacific type engine built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. in 1904 to the designs of P.A. Hyde, then loco- motive superintendent of the Central South African Railways. It was then stated that it "almost appeared impossible that much further "progress could be made in increased size and "power, hampered as the locomotive superintendents have been by the narrow standard gauge." To show what has actually taken place a tabulated summary of the dimensions of representative 4-6-2 engines was shown, from which it appears that the latest Class 16E of 1935 have 1,724 sq. ft. more heating surface and 27 sq. ft. more grate area, representing gains of 95 and 72 per cent. respectively, while with a tractive effort of 35,572, the new engines show an increase of 12,392 lb. or 53 per cent. The weight is more by 28 tons, or 41 per cent.
Examples of recent passenger engines selected for description included the "Pacific" Class 16C placed in traffic in 1919 and 1922, which still do a lot of work on the main lines. They have cylinders 22 in. by 26 in.; coupled wheels 5 ft. which with a working pressure of 190 lb. give them a tractive effort of 29,890 lb. The boiler has a diameter of 64~ in. and provides 1,998 sq. ft. of heating surface, including the superheater. Piston valves and Walschaert motion with steam reversing gear are fitted. The engine stands on a wheel base of 29 ft. 9·~ in. of which 10 ft. 9 in. is rigid and the main drivers are flangeless. In common with all engines on the Union system, a powerful electric headlight is provided. The next examples noticed, introduced in 1925, were built by Baldwins. They have many features common in American practice, such as bar frames with cylinders cast with half saddles for the smokebox support and a larger boiler with steel firebox, and a large grate. The boiler is 70t in. diameter inside at the front end with its centre 8 ft. 6 in. above rails. The tender is very capacious, holding 6,000 gallons of water and 12 tons of coal.
In 1928 a further lot of similar design were placed on the line. They are known as Class 16 D.A. and some had their cylinders increased to 23 in. diameter, raising the tractive effort to 33,530 lb. During 1930 the design was repeated but the cylinders were all of the enlarged size, 23 in. by 26 in., and to meet this the grate was enlarged, also the firebox-a-the grate area being 60 sq. ft. and the firebox heating surface increased from 164 to 172 sq. ft. Generally speaking all these Pacifics are very much alike and can safely be said to have established the type and principles of design upon which recent locomotives are constructed. The six coupled wheels have a diameter of 5 ft. and the diameters of the leading and trailing truck wheels are 2 ft. 6 in. and 2 ft. 9 in. (2 ft. 10 in. for the 16 D.A. of 1930). The coupled wheelbase is 11 ft. and the main drivers are without flanges. In each case the working pressure is 195 lb. per sq. in. Coincident with the introduction of the 1925 "Pacifics." a new class of 4-8-2 was also built by the Baldwin Works representing as great an advance for this type as was the case for the 4-6-2 engines, compared with those previously employed. These engines, Class 15 C.B., had cyl- inders 23 in. by 28 in., and with 4 ft. 9 in. wheels and steam at 200 lb. per sq. in., the tractive effort is 39,980 lb. The coupled wheel- base is 15 ft. 9 in. and the tyres for the leading wheels are without flanges. The total engine wheelbase is 35 ft. 8 in. Before discussing the most recent locomotives, mention was made of certain experimental and articulated locomotives on the S.A.R. Before the introduction of superheated steam, compounding received attention. In 1903 two tandem com- pounds were built by the American Loco. Co. for the Cape Govt. Rys. A "Pacific" three-cyl. com- pound also was built by Neilson, Reid and Co. Ltd. It had one inside H.P. cylinder and two L.P. outside. The tandem compounds were converted to two-cylinder simples and the three-cylinder has long ceased its labours. In more recent times three- and four-cylinder simple engines have been tried.
As might be expected, with such heavy grades, and in the past light tracks and a considerable amount of curvature, many designs of articulated locomotives have been used. These comprise Mallet compounds, Garratt and modified Fairlie engines of different wheel arrangements. The largest Beyer-Garratt locomotives used in South Africa are working over the heavy grades in Natal, where they handle loads of 1,000 tons on 1 in 66 grades. These engines (Class G. L. ) weigh 211 tons, 1451 tons or 69 per cent. of which is available for adhesion. The tractive effort is 78,650 lb. obtained by four cylinders, 22 in. by 26 in. and steam at a pressure of 200 lb. in conjunction with 4 ft. driving wheels. Firing is by means of a mechanical stoker. They conform to an axle loading of 18.5 tons for operation origin- ally on an 80 lb. rail.
Mr. Poultney concluded his outline of modern practice by referring to three designs by the present chief mechanical engineer, Mr. A. G. Watson. The first is a light type of 4-8-2 engine for branch line working on a 60 lb. rail. The author dealt with this design rather fully. They have bar frames, each side being continuous from the front to the rear under the footplate. The firebox is supported at the two front corners on a cross stay, and at the hind end by a vertical plate. Steam to the cylinders is taken through an internal copper pipe of special design, fitted with a number of short small diameter pipes : through which the steam is collected. The super- heater header is equipped with the Superheater Co.'s multiple throttle regulator, but is placed on the saturated steam side, instead of between the superheater and the cylinders, as is usual. Steam distribution is by means of the "R.C." poppet valve gear, each cam box having an independent drive obtained through gears mounted on returr cranks, carried by the main crank pins. Of the 50 engines built, 25 were fitted with copper anc 25 with sleel fireboxes. The main particular: are:-cylinders, 21 in. by 26 in.; coupled wheels, 4 ft. 6 in. dia.; leading bogie wheels, 281 in. diameter; trailing truck, 2 ft. 10 in. diameter coupled wheelbase, 14 ft. 5 in.; total engine wheel- base 32 ft. 3 in. ; total wheelbase 61 ft. 8 in. work- ing pressure, 200 lb. per sq. in.; boiler diameter, first ring, inside 5 ft.; heating surface tubes and flues, 1,700 sq. ft.; firebox, 130 sq. ft.; superheater, 390 sq. ft.; combined total, 2,220 sq. ft.; grate area, 36 sq. ft. Weight on drivers, 51.70 tons; total engine, 79.25 tons; tender, 67 tons; water capacity, 6,000 gallons; coal, 12 tons. Rated tractive force, 31,849 lb. For main line services Mr. Watson has designed a new "Pacific" and a "Mountain" type of very considerable proportions, and while one hesitates to assert that these represent the limit of possibilities for the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge it certainly seems that any further considerable increase in size and power will be no easy attainment, that is, of course, while maintaining a non-articulated design.
In the general principles these two locomotives are very similar; for instance, the cylinder castings are interchangeable and in many respects the boilers are alike. Six of the "Pacifics" have been built by Henschel and Sohn and were illustrated and described in our January issue. The 16 D.A. class of 1930 has formed the basis of the "Pacific" . design with a larger firebox, but the driving wheels are 6 ft. diameter as against 5 ft. or 5 ft. 2 in., the largest used previously. To obtain the required increment in tractive effort with the larger wheels, the cylinder capacity has been considerably augmented, and at the same time also the working pressure. So far as the cylinders are concerned the size adopted for the later 4-8-2 engines, Class 15 C.A., is used, viz., 24 in. by 28 in.; these with steam at 210 lb. per sq. in. gives a tractive effort at 75 per cent. of 35,572 lb. The new 4-8-2 engines follow very closely in their main characteristics the 4-6-2 design. The boilers are very similar, but, due to the different wheel arrangement, the barrel is longer, the length between tube sheets being 22 ft. 6 in. The firebox is similar, and the grate area is 62.5 sq. ft. The total combined heating sur- face amounts to the high figure of 4,075.5 sq. ft. The coupled wheel diameter has been increased to 5 ft. as against 4 ft. 9 in. for the other large " Mountain" type locomotives. An interesting point concerning the cylinders is the provision of a semi-circular liner between the smoke box and saddle to preserve interchangeable cylinder castings, on account of the distance between the cylinder centres and the boiler centre being greater than in the case of the "Pacifics.". See ILocoE Paper No, 349a

P.C. Dewhurst. Locomotives of the Trinidad Government Rlys. 53-5. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Two 4-4-0 tender-tank engines were built in the Port-of-Spain workshops from spare parts assosiated with 4-4-0 supplied by Kitson. No. 20 is illustrated. The side tanks carried oil fuel. Subsequently one of the Kitson 4-4-0s (No. 18) was modified to the tank-tender configuration. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. supplied two 4-6-0 WN 1003-4/1928 in 1929. These had Belpaire boilers and Walschaerts valve gear. In about 1908-12 two steam railcars were acquired secondhand from the LBSCR in England. It did very little work and one of the coach parts was converted into the Govenor's saloon and the other into a second class carriage. A Sentinel-Cammell railcar was acquired in 1931 and put into service on the Gangre Grande line. 

[Mersey Railway]. 55
On 31 January 1936 the railway completed 50 years of service. The opening ceremony took place on 20 January 1886 when the Prince of Wales traveeled from Chester to James Street.

Portable sub-station Swedish State Railways. 55-6. 3 illustrations
Transformer for converting 3-phase 6300V 162/3 p/s to 3000V single phase.

Aerodynamical train experiments, P.L.M. Railway. 57-9. illustration, 4 diagrams
A. Parmentier published in Revue Generale Chemins fe Fer for December 1935: experiments with a streamlined 4-6-0

Russian fourteen-coupled locomotives. 60
Correction: in converting the total weight from pounds to tons, an inadvertent error of almost exactly 100,000 lb. had been made in our article, since 249 tons 6 cwt. equals 558,432 lb., whereas the actual total weight is 458,435 lb. Our correspondent is inclined to think this engine will remain the solitary example of its type. Nowhere but in Russia would such a form of construction ,be considered. The amount of power absorbed by internal friction in a fourteen-coupled locomotive must be tremendous. While the Union Pacific has 88 three-cylinder 4-12-2 type locomotives with 5 ft. 7 in. wheels, built between 1926 and 1930, there is no disposition to introduce the type on other lines. General opinion seems to prefer the four-cylinder simple articulated locomotive with Mallet running gear; this type is more flexible, has no cranked axle, and can be built with larger wheels for higher speeds, and a deeper firebox for better combustion.

L.N.E.R. 60.
At the locomotive depot at Colwick, Nottingham, a coahng plant of 500 tons capacity waa to be installed. A power operated turn table of 70 ft. diameter was to take the place of one of the existing turn tables. New water columns,. a new wet ash pit, 260 ft. in length, together with ten travelling cages and a three-ton steam operated grab crane for clearing the pit as well as a modern oil store with seven issuing pumps would also be provided; and a new mess room and foreman's office.

Electrification of the Wirral Section, L.M.S. Railway. 60
As part of the works covered by the Railways (Agreement) Act, 1935, the L.M.S. and Mersey Railway Companies announced that arrangements had been made to put in hand forthwith the necessary work for establishing a service of through electric trains between the Wirral Peninsula and Liverpool (Central station). The L.M.S. lines from West Kirby and New Brighton to Birkenhead Park-where the Mersey Railway is joined-will be electrified on the third rail system at 650 volts. Some alterations will be required on the Mersey Railway to permit of the running of through electric trains between the Wirral Section of the L.M.S. Rly. and Liverpool (Central). It is proposed to speed up the arrangements for dealing with passengers at the Mersey Rly. James Street Station by replacing two of the present hydraulic lifts by four high speed electric lifts. There will be a ten minutes service for both the West Kirby and New Brighton sections at the morning and evening business periods and for a short period at mid-day; during other parts of the day a 15 minutes service will be run for each section and this will be increased as necessary at holiday times. The improved service at mid-day will enable Liverpool business men to get home to lunch.
Arrangements have been made by the two railway companies to utilise the existing Mersey Railway stock for certain of the through services, the other trains being worked by new stock of the vestibule type to be provided by the L.M.S.R.; this will consist of three-car articulated units, with accommodation for first and third class passengers, and during the morning and evening busy periods and also at holiday times, six-car trains will be run. The scheme also provides for many improvements in the Mersey Company's existing stock including the provision of heating and upholstered seats throughout.
At the present time through passengers for Liverpool from the West Kirby and New Brighton sections have to change trains at Birkenhead Park; this great inconvenience of changing trains will be avoided under the new arrangements and the electric services will enable the journey from West Kirby and New Brighton to Liverpool to be made more quickly. The average time saved on the throughout journeys will be several minutes; the time occupied from West Kirby to Liverpool Central will be 29 minutes and from New Brighton 20 minutes. Other stations on the two sections will also benefit by a shorter journey time.
In connection with the general improvement in the services the L.M.S. is making arrangements to modernise several of the stations on the Wirral Section.

Correspondence.

Superheaters on locomotives. Cyclops. 60
Referring to' the photogravure supplement of the Silver Jubilee of the Superheater Company, included with your issue of January 15, the title attached to the photograph of the L.B. & S.C.R. tank engine No. 22, gave this as "the first passenger locomotive fitted with a superheater in Great Britain. " Although it was the first fitted with the Superheater Company's apparatus, and came out in March, 1908, the Great Western Railway fitted their express engine Lady Superior in May, 1906, with the Schmidt superheater and apparently it was so successful that Mr. Churchward designed his own superheater. The Lady Superior was therefore originally fitted with the same apparatus as L.B.S.C. 22 and was not only the first engine in this country with a superheater, but also the first with the Schmidt apparatus. I believe the first engine fitted with the" Swindon" superheater was the Great Bear, and several of the Knight class were fitted also before the Brighton engine. Therefore the Great Western must have the credit of introducing superheating into this country, the Lancashire and Yorkshire were second, and the L.B. & S.C.R. only third.

A roller-skate locomotive. 61. illustration
Photograph reproduced was sent by Ira N. Morrill of Minneapolis, Minnesota, who gave the following brief history from memory, of this extraordinary freak locomotive. The idea was to have the driving wheels multiply the speed of the small wheels on the track. The bogies were known as Holman trucks and it is said the inventor sold quite a lot of stock in the company formed to exploit the device. The engine shown was No. 6 of the Minneapolis, St. Paul and Sault St. Marie R.R. —the Soo line, and it was on exhibition at the Shoreham shops at Minneapolis during one summer in the early 1890's. The railway company would not allow it to run on the main line, and it was demonstrated on about half a mile of straight track in the yard just to show prospective stock buyers that it would run. Later on it was said to have been tried on the Northern Pacific and attained a speed of 60 miles per hour with three or four cars. Later it was dismantled and the trucks despatched to the East, where they were tried under an engine on the South Jersey R.R. It was stabled at Hammonton, N.J., and ran to Cape May, but of course did no useful work. One trouble was the engine not clearing the overbridges on account of being too high.

R. Vallantin. 61
Chief mechanical engineer of the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Ry., retired on 1 January and was succeded by Japiot, Assistant C.M.E.

L.N.E.R. 61.
Applied a modified form of streamlining to the quintiple restaurant car set (i.e., five coaches on six bogies) which is included in the express train leaving King's Cross for Leeds at 10.10 every morning. The space between the coaches is now covered in with rubber sheeting similar to that used on the Silver Jubilee train.

British Industries Fair Castle Bromwich. 61
One of the most interesting exhibits in the electrical section is that staged by the General Electric Co. Ltd. The display of engineering apparatus includes the new air-cooled steel clad rectifier, a.c. and d.c. arc welding sets, an electro-magnetic fatigue tester, lightning trips, high voltage multi-gap lightning arresters, and typical industrial motor starters. The a.c. arc welding set is specially designed for stability and easy current control. The d.c. set consists of a motor generator, with a common shaft carrying the rotor and arma- ture, the whole being balanced to minimise vibration. There are many cases in which it is found that electric welding saves time and expense and improves the quality of the product.
I.C.I. (Metals) Ltd. show a number of products in sheet, strip, rods, tubes, plates, and wire. A copper-manganese- silicon alloy, known as "Everdur," is shown for the first time. It is non-corrosive and almost as strong as steel. Massive copper firebox plates as supplied for the Silver Link and Royal Scat locomotives form another exhibit and a display of "Kunial" copper and brass alloys in various forms include interesting tools in "Kunial" brass, possessing non- sparking qualities and harder than those usually made in non-ferrous alloys.
The exhibit of Tecalemit Ltd. in the Industrial section is chiefly concerned with the mechanical lubrication systems for use wi th grease and oil.
The stand of Messrs. Greenwood and Batley Limited of Leeds is double the size of their stand at the last British Industries Fair. They have an interesting work- ing exhibit showing three of their "Greenbat" machines in operation producing components. Also a gas fired heat treatment furnace and a gas fired steel forging furnace both by Lucas Furnaces, Ltd., and shown in operation.

[Southern Railway multiple unit]. 61
One of the standard multiple unit electric trains used on the Southern Railway express service between London and Eastbourne has been painted bright green.

L. & N.E.R. 62
On the 12 mile single track branch between Knaresborough and Pilmoor Junc. a new system of signalling is being put into operation. In place of ordinary semaphore signals, with their mechanical equipment, "signal boards" will serve to give the indications to the driver of the train. In place of the usual distant signal, there will be a "loca- tion board" rectangular in shape, and painted black and yellow in diagonal stripes; after dark this will be illumina- ted by a zigzag row of lenses which will be picked up by the engine head lamp. The home signal is replaced by an even larger board, painted red and white in diagonal stripes, with white reflex lenses and three red clusters down the centre, which will also be illuminated by the engine lamp. At the stations, of which there are three, with passing places at each, a board 4 ft. square has been set up on the plat- form. If it is permissible for the train to enter the station. the person in charge lifts a flap on this board exhibiting a green centre, or, after dark, a green light will be shown. The present "staff and ticket" method of working the line is retained, as well as telephonic connections. The powerful headlamps to be fitted to the locomotives similar to those used on American rail roads, represent a marked change for a British railway.

Reviews. 62

James Watt, craftsman and engineer. H.W. Dickinson. London: Cambridge University Press.
Although James Watt was not the inventor of the steam engine, it was he who made it a commercial success, and the story of his life is one of the romances of engineering. He was born in Greenock on January 19, 1736, and the bi-centenary of that event has been chosen for this new review of the life and work of the great inventor and engineer written by one of his admirers, who has made a study of his subject for the past twenty-five years, and who collaborated with Rhys Jenkins in "James Watt and the Steam Engine" eight years ago.
Watt's interest in the steam engine is the usual aspect from which his work is considered, but there were many other sides to his active nature. As a very clever crafts- man his practical knowledge of tools and materials helped him in his work, and when he retired it was to his workshop to find in it the solace of his old age. Dickinson's work is a study of the practical craftsman written mainly for technical readers.
Watt did not take up the idea of the separate condenser for the steam engine until 1765, and even then lack of funds prevented him putting it into use. At that time there was more money in canal-making and for some years he turned to civil engineering and did a lot of survey work on the Forth and Clyde, Crinan and Caledonian Canals. and also on port developments at Glasgow, Greenock and Ayr. As the author remarks he was an indefatigable worker but very lacking in enterprise and had he not met John Roebuck, founder of the Carron Ironworks, and Mathew Boulton, of Birmingham, he might never have mastered the problem of the steam engine.
The book is an intensely interesting record of the famous engineer, who, Dickinson affirms. made a greater indi- vidual contribution to the changes in the world's history with his steam engine than anyone.

Railway modeli.ing in miniature. E. Beal. Percival Marshall and Co. Ltd. .
This book has been prepared with the object of assisting the small railway enthusiast in the planning, building, and operation of small ·tracks. The subject matter covers the layout designs, buildings and equipment as well as roIling stock and motive power, and finally gives advice on the subject of suitable scenery as a finish to the model railway. The hundreds of drawings and sketches from the author's own pen, as well as the numerous half tone photographs of his own realistic railway, should prove an incentive to the beginners in this fascinating hobby, and to owners of existing systems. The book is specially intended to apply to railways of the "five-eighths-inch" track gauge, known as H.O. and O.O gauges (4 mm. to 1 ft. and 3½ mm. to 1ft. respectively).

One hundred years of German Railwavy—Eighty-three years Schwartzkopff. Berlin: Louis Schwartzkopff. 62
This interesting and well produced booklet of 68 pages is dedicated by the Berliner Maschinenbau A.G., to the German State Railway Company on the occasion of the Centenary of the German railways. The firm was founded in 1852 by Louis Schwartzkopff who was formerly rolling stock manager of the Magdeburg-Wittenberg Railway. They built their first locomotive in 1867, a 2-4-0 goods engine for the Niederschlesisch-Markische Railway. The normal capacity of their works is now 600 locomotives per annum. Their latest production is the standard 4-6-2 express locomotive of the Deutsche Reichsbahn, Type 03, which has a maximum working speed of 130 km. per hour. Its design is dealt with in this profusely illustrated booklet, along with other steam locomotives built during recent years for use in Germany and other countries. Besides recording the part taken by the firm in development to date, designs are shown for super-pressure locomotives, one to develop 3,400 H.P. and another equipped with a special form of boiler known as the Velox, developed by Brown, Bover i and Co. The main dimensions of the engines illustrated are given in a 4-page folder, in a pocket at the end of the book. The whole is printed in English.

L.M.S. Magazine reprints. edited  W.W. Sharp. 62
A number of papers on locomotive practice suitable for Mutual Improvement Classes appeared monthly during the past year in the L.M.S. Magazine. These have now been collected and published in handy form in a 16 p.p. booklet, price 4d. post free, by W.W. Sharp, L.M.S. Magazine, Labour and Establishment Office, Euston Station, London, N.W.l. It should be mentioned there is also an article on "Diesel Engines," by D.C. Urie, which should convey to those who are likely to be associated with the operation and maintenance of these units, the principles under which they work.

Obituary. 63

A. Morton Bell.  63. illustration (portrait)
It is with sincere regret that we have to record the death of A. Morton Bell, which took place on 10th February, age 72.  Bell commenced his railway career at the G.E.R. Stratford Works, under Bromley, in 1881. He took a leading part in the installation and working of J. Holden's apparatus for burning oil-fuel on locomotives, and in 1897 was appointed manager of the then new wagon shops at Temple Mills. He was granted leave by the directors of the railway to carry out trials of oil-burning locomotives on the Koursk, Kharkoff and Sebastopol Rly., Austrian State Railways (on the Arlberg Tunnel Section), and on the Railways of Sicily. He also carried out trials in the United States on the Pennsylvania R.R. and on the Southern California R.R. and Los Angeles Terminal Line. In 1900 he left the Great Eastern service to join the Shell Transport Company, under Sir Marcus Samuel, for whom he made visits to Russia, Turkey, Egypt and Italy in connection with oil fuel storage and burning. Due to his keen interest in railway work he resigned from the Shell Company at the end of 1903, to accept the appointment of the newly created office of Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. During his tenure of office he was responsible for the erection and equipment of the Carriage and Wagon Works at Matunga, near Bombay, and designed the modern carriage stock for both steam and electric traction for that system. During the War period the Matunga Works were employed solely on the manufacture of munitions, and in recognition of his services in connection therewith, Bell was awarded the O.B.E. On his retirement in 1924 he was elected a Member of the Council of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. He had been a Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers since the nineties. He was a frequent contributor to the pages of this Journal from its inception in 1896, and was always keenly interested in locomotive development.

W.G. Hooley.  63. illustration (portrait)
Record the death of W.G. Hooley, chief draughtsman in the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department of the Southern Railway at Waterloo. Hooley was born in Manchester in 1887, and obtained his early experience in the Works and Drawing Office of Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., and Nasmyth, Wilson and Co. Ltd. In 1913 he joined the S.E. & C.R. Loco. Drawing Office staff at Ashford, and in 1924 was transferred to Waterloo where he became senior draughtsman in the C.M.E. 's office until his untimely death.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (Western Section). 63
No. 5683 was latest 4-6-0 Jubilee class passenger engine to be turned out at Crewe. The withdrawals during 1935 included 26 Claughtons (this type now becoming obsolete}, two rebuilt Claughtons (Nos. 5962 and 6029), 61 Princes, 9 Experiments (all that remained of the class), and 24 George the Fifths. The total Western Section withdrawals was 208, which included engine Engineer Lancaster. Class G1 0-8-0 mineral engines Nos. 9246 and 9367 had been rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers. Amongst recent withdrawals of interest were the following: four-cylinder rebuilt Claughton No. 5970; 4-6-2 superheater tank No. 6951 (the first of its type to be scrapped) ; N.S. 159 class 0-6-0 No. 8675; and N.S. M class 0-4-4T No. 1431. The Derby Works had completed the series of eight 2-6-4 two-cylinder passenger tank engines described in the January issue, Nos. 2537-44. These will be followed by a series of seventy of the same type. Nearly all of the 71 engines of the Royal Scot class carried names associated with the British Army. Last month we mentioned the re-naming of No. 6129 Comet, as The Scottish Horse, and now No. 6126 Sanspareil, is named Royal Army Service Corps, and No. 6145 The Duke of Wellington's Regiment (West Riding).
It has been decided to give Empire names to all the Jubilee class. The earlier engines to bear names as under:
5552 Silver Jubilee
5553 Canada
5554 Ontario
5555 Quebec
5556 Nova Scotia
5557 New Brunswick
5558 Manitoba
5559 British Columbia
5560 Prince Edward Island
5561 Saskatchewan
5562 Alberta
5563 Australia
5564 New South Wales
5565 Victoria
5566 Queensland
5567 South Australia
5568 Western Australia
5569 Tasmania
5570 New Zealand
5571 South Africa
5572 Irish Free State
5573 Newfoundland
5574 India
5575 Madras
5576 Bombay
5577 Bengal
5578 United Provinces
5579 Punjaub
5580 Burma
5581 Bihar and Orissa
5582 Central Provinces
5583 Assam
5584 North West Frontier
5585 Hyderabad
5586 Mysore
5587 Baroda
5588 Kashmir
5589 Gwalior
5590 Travancore
5591 Udaipur
5592 Indore
5593 Kolhapur
Purple crepe was draped during the days of mourning for 'Our late King' on the engine Silver Jubilee.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 63
The Council awarded the Trevithick prize to P. Sedgefield for his paper entitled Machine Tooling Methods and Machine Shop Re-organisation. At the general meeting held on 30 Jan. the following candidates were elected: Members: F. B. Illston, Asst. to Chief Mechanical Engineer, Southern Ry.j Waterloo Station; Colin Silvester, Works Manager, Eastern Bengal Railway, Kanchrapara; H. Sparrow, Asst. Works Manager, North Western Railway, Moghulpura, India. Associate Members: W. W. R. Berry, Inspecting Engineer, Glasgow ; W. A. Gates, Loco. Running Dept., F.C. Central Argentine, Rosario ; A. G. Minty, Locomotive Running Dept., L.N.E.R., Hartlepool. Associates: J. H. A. Spaink, Diesel Traction Dept., W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., Newcastle on Tyne; M. W. Tutt, Managing Director, Hulburd Patents, Ltd., Acton, Graduates: R. H. Frankland, Improver, L.M.S. Ry., Newton Heath; A. Rintoul, T. A. Spalding, R. C. Tyrrell, apprentices, F.C. Central Argentine, Perez. The annual dinner of the Institution will be held at the Trocadero Restaurant, London, on Friday, 28 February.

John Fowler and Co. (Leeds) Ltd. 63
Booked order for a 0-4-0 Diesel locomotive of 42 b.h.p. for service on the Mumbles Railway, Swansea, which is now operated by the South Wales Transport Co. Ltd.

Welding in the construction and repair of locomotives and rolling stock. 64
In the proceedings of the Symposium on the Welding of Iron and Steel recently published by the Iron and Steel Institute, there are interesting papers dealing with the welding practice in locomotive, carriage and wagon workshops. The paper presented by W.A. Stanier, C.M.E. of the L.M.S.R., is of considerable importance as it outlines the present position of welding developments in British railways. The paper deals mainly in the application of fusion welding processes in the locomotive carriage and wagon workshops. The other discusses the importance of training draughtsmen, when welding is being adopted, to think and design in terms of fabrication of welding. It is necessary to include on plans of structures intended to be welded all essential welding details. It is undesirable to leave such important factors entirely to the workshop personnel. The all-welded boiler, as far as British practice is concerned, has not yet arrived. The author attributes this partly to the fact that the British railways adhere to the copper firebox, but as an instance of the development which has taken place in the welding of locomotives, he mentions a pair of fabricated cylinders which have been in service for over twelve months with satisfactory results. In the construction of carriages and wagons welding has been mainly confined to the underframes and running gear, since the majority of carriages and wagon bodies are of wood. At the end of the paper there appears an appendix setting out in detail particulars of the various parts and components of locomotives, carriages and wagons to which welding processes have been successfully applied. M. Moe deals with the development of welding both for repair work and for the new construction of rolling stock for the Norwegian State Railways. He states that the welding of copper fire boxes for locomotives was first undertaken eight years ago and no defects have since occurred. Norwegian State Railways are using butt-welded joints when replacing defective boiler plates. In Norway during the last two years numerous wagons have been fab- ricated by welding and a small number of passenger coaches have been constructed by the same means. It is claimed that in building coaches by welding, the weight may be reduced from 50 tons to about 35 or 40 tons, using ordinary mild steel.
A further paper describes the application of arc welding to the construction and maintenance of rolling stock on the Victorian Railways. The substance of this paper undoubted- ly shows that considerable progress has been made in welding construction in that country.
In addition to the papers relating to railway work there are other papers dealing with both the practical and theoretical side of each of the welding processes. These two volumes comprise a unique work on welding and should be of practioal assistance to engineers interested in new methods of construction.

Trade Notes and Publications. 64

Egyptian State Railways
Placed an order with Hurst, Nelson and Co. Ltd. for 12 bogie passenger coach underframes, to be fitted with Skefko roller bearing axle-boxes.

Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd.
Received an order from the Crown Agents for the Colonies for four six-coupled Beyer-Garratt locomotives of a special design for the Sudan Govt. Railways, 3 It, £; in. gauge, as well as one from the San Paulo Railway for a metre-gauge Beyer-Garratt locomotive for service on the Bragantina section of that system.

The Drewry Car Co. Ltd. have Jn hand repeat orders for Diesel shunting locomotives for the Eagle Oil and Shipping Co. Ltd. Two of these are of the 0-4-0 type with 4-L-2 Gardner engines and two of the 0-6-0 type with 6-L-2 Gardner engines with the Drewry arrangement of rigid traction type hydraulic coupling in conjunction with the Wilson-Drewry 4-speed epicyclic gear box, while the final drive and reverse unit is of the enveloping worm type, the drive been taken through the jack shaft and side rods to the coupled wheels. Six similar locomotives of the 0-4-0 type are on order from the New Zealand Government; these however will be fitted with Parsons' petrol engines of the 4-cylinder type, develop- ing 75 h.p. at 1,600 r.p.m. The Drewry Co. have also in hand a light Diesel locomotive for service in Assam and are just completing a Diesel passenger rail coach for service at the War Department's Railway Training Centre at Long- moor Camp.

Messrs. Peckett and Sons Ltd. have received a repeat order from Messrs. Ford Motor Co. Ltd., Dagenham, for one of their standard 0-6-0 saddle tank locomotives, whilst they have just despatched a 4-wheel locomotive to Messrs. Vaux- hall Motors Ltd., Luton.

Walker Bro. (Wigan) Ltd. have an order for one Diesel rail-car to seat 61 passengers, from the Peruvian Corpora- tion. It will be fitted with a Gardner 6 LW engine of 102 b.h.p. at ],700 r.p.m. The car will be 50 ft. overall and weigh about 15~ tons.

To their series of attractive pamphlets dealing with auto- matic regulators controlling electric, gas and oil-fired furn- aces, the Cambridge Instrument Co. Ltd. of 45 Grosvenor Place, S. W.l, have added a further puhlication-c-Folder No. 51-which draws attention in an interesting way to a number of installations b~leading furnace builders. Photographic reproductions show the arrangements of the regulators in the various works.

"Brasses and other Copper Alloy Wire and Wire Products." Issued by the Copper Development Association, Thames House, Millbank, S.W.1. The latest publication of the C.D.A. deals with products that are familiar to engineers, but which possibly they may fail to realise are made from brass 'or copper alloy wire. Used on account of their duc- tility and strength, with freedom from rusting, these materials for many applications have many advantages. The notes given include technical information relating to the composition and physical and mechanical properties of copper alloy wires. Useful as the data given is to all who require faots to deal with their production problems, the section on the history of wire making will also claim the reader's atten- tion.

L.M.S. " TURBOMOTlVR " FILM.-By courtesy of the British Timken Co. we recently attended an exhibition of a film taken at the Crewe Works of the L.M.S. showing the assem- bly of the axleboxes and the wheeling of engine No. 6202. Mr. Spear in his opening address •. eferred to the numerous applications of roller bearings and especially to their exten- sive use in the United States where there are some forty locomotives fitted.

Three 4-6-0 metre-gauge tender locomotives have been ordered for the J unagad State Ry. from Nasmyth, Wilson and Co. Ltd. to the inspection of Messrs. Rober t 'White and Partners.

Orders have been placed by the L.N.E.R. with Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd. for eleven Class B17, 4-6-0 express passenger locomotives, and with Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. for 28 Class J39, 0-6-0 tender locomotives, of which 19 are to have 3,500 gallon tenders and nine will have 4,200 gallon tenders.

Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. are building six light railcars for the Western Australia Govt. Rys., 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. They will be similar to those supplied to the Madras and Southern Mahratta Ry. with 160 B.H.P. .Armstrong- Saurer oil engines.

Number 523 (14 March 1936)

Possible effects of electrification on steam traction. 65
Displacement of locomotives and rolling stock to provincial services. Need for colour light signalling for increased traffic. Retraining of firemen

Our supplement. 65 + plate
Caption: B12 4-6-0 leaving Audley End Tunnel with up express from Cambridge. Sepia plate: photograph by E.R. Wethersett

2-6-0 locomotives, Egyptian State Railways. 66-7,  2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
North British Locomotive Co. supplied fifty locomotives to the design opf C.E. Spurgeon, chief mechanical engineer. Twenty were with Caprotti poppet valves, the remainder with piston valves and Walschaerts valve gear. Five fitted with Kylchap blstpipes, ten with Clyde soot blowers and ten with Ajax grease lubrication.

Great Western Rly. 67
Engines completed at Swindon were Nos, 2281-90, 0-6-0 type and Nos. 5958, Knolton. Hall, 5959, Mawley Hall, and 5960, St. Edmund. Hall, 4-6-0 type. Three tank engines of the 2-8-0 type, Nos. 5270 to 5272 had been converted to the 2-8-2 type and re-numbered 7235 to 7237. Engines condemned included Nos. 830, 1465, 1486 of the 0-4-2 tank type; 1464, 2-4-0 tank; 1256, 1511, 1982, 0-6-0 tanks; 2654, 2664, 2-6-0 tender engines. 3300, 3336 Titan, 3345 Smeaton, and 3356 Sir Stafford, of the 4-4-0 type.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 67
New 4-6-0 passenger engines of the Silver Jubilee class ex Crewe were in traffic up to No. 5688. Of this series Nos. 5666-79 were thent un-narncd ; the others came out with names as follows: No. 5665 Lord Rutherford of Nelson, No. 5680 Camperdown, No. 5681 Aboukir, No. 5682 Trafalgar, No. 5683 Hogue, No. 5684 Jutland , No. 5685 Barfleur, No. 5686 St. Vincent, No. 5687 Neptune, and No. 5688 Polvphemus, The following earlier engines of the same type have also been named as shown: No. 5552 Silver Jubilee, No. 5562 Alberta, No. 5563 Australia, No. 5564 New South Wales, No. 5565 Victoria, No. 5570 New Zealand, No. 5589 Gwalior, No. 5592 Indore, No. 5595 Southern Rhodesia, No. 5603 Solomon Islands, No. 5610 Gold Coast, No. 5622 Nyasaland, No. 5624 St. Helena, No. 5631 Tanganyika, No. 5632 Tonga, No. 5651 Shovell, No. 5657 Tyrwhitt, No. 5658 Keyes, No. 5659 Drake, No. 5661 Vernon, and No. 5662 Kempenfelt:
Two further class G 0-8-0 mineral engines had been converted to class G1 (superheater), Nos. 9090 and 9147, both of which were provided with standard Belpaire boilers.
Engines rebuilt recently with Belpaire boilers included 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 25752, 25756 and 25833; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9021 and 9228; and 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9429.
The Royal Scots were being fitted with 4,000 gallon tenders as they passed through the shops in exchange with the recent series of 4-6-0's built by the North British Loco. Co. Those already so fitted included Nos. 6111, 6137 and 6143. Three additional superheater 4-6-2 tanks had been withdrawn from service, Nos. 6967, 6991 and 6994; also the first Bowen Cooke superheated 4-4-0s, viz., No, 5320 George the Fifth.
A new station was opened on 17 February at Old Roan, between Aintree and Maghull.

Streamlined locomotive, Netherlands Railways. 68-9. 2 illustrations, table
3700 class 4-6-0 was streamlined and tested between Tilburg and Flushing which showed that the streamlined locomotive used 120 hp than the unstreamlined one: a greater reduction than the wind tunnel tests indicated. Under the direction of P. Labrijn, Locomotive Superintendene.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Impact of railway vehicles in relation to buffer resistance. 69-70.
The increase of the general scope of buffing arrangements of the present day and the apparent discrepancy between buffers in general use and the duty to be performed formed the basis of ILocoE Paper 350 read by R.T. Glascodine at the general meeting on 27 February, when O. Bulleid took the chair. The author compared the British wagon of forty years ago, with a capacity of 8 to 10 tons, with that of 1936 which has a capacity of 12 tons; a large number of 20-ton wagons were in use, also a few bogie wagons having a capacity of 30 to 40 tons. The speed of shunting with the earlier vehicles which then met requirements was slower than it is now, and the buffer in general use was fitted with a laminated steel spring, placed in position with 3 tons initial load, after which a 7-inch stroke raised the resisting pressure to 7 tons. This gave a mean pressure of 5 tons or 2½ tons per buffer, so that the total capacity of the two buffers was 35 inch-tons. To- day the weights alone have greatly increased the conditions of buffing, but in addition the velocity at which shunting takes place,owing to the general speed-up of railway working, and especially where rail-brakes are used, has increased very greatly the blow that occurs on impact. The capacity of buffers has been increased, the working stroke being 4½ in., whilst the mean pressure may be as high as 5 tons with some steel springs, giving a total capacity of, say, 45 inch-tons on the head- stock. This increase is, however, negligible in comparison with the in- creased duty. In considering the methods of measuring the force of impact the author gave a detailed account of a test plant in the U.S.A. on which wagons are run and the action at impact recorded. By the side of the track, on the level, a long paper-covered drum is arranged to rotate at a known speed, while pencils, actuated by tappets on the car bogies, record the actual movement of the cars. The result is that each car marks on the drum its own actual movement, which, recorded against the time element of the constant movement of the paper gives the varying speed of each car. Some very accurate records have been obtained by this apparatus.
Inasmuch as no body can take up impact without yielding, the author emphasized the neces- sity of ascertaining the best means of moderating the effect of the blow. Apart from yielding it is also desirable there should be some means of moderating the effect of the intense force producing rapid acceleration. Dealing with this problem he mentioned four methods: (1) Steel springs, (2) Friction buffers, (3) Hydraulic or oil dash pots, and (4) Rubber.
With steel springs after the final pressure is reached, there is metal-to-metal contact between the buffer head and casing, which causes rapid acceleration with the heavy stresses it is desired to avoid. Friction buffers of many types have been used in the U.S.A. to improve on the behaviour of steel Springs. Friction draught gear used on passenger stock is often productive of severe and uncomfortable shocks to the passengers when starting and stopping. It is generally ad- mitted that the gear is not satisfactory, and much trouble is being taken to improve the situation. Hydraulic or oil dashpot systems are used as station end stops where it is possible to arrange buffers with a stroke, not of four or five mches, but of many feet in length.
Rubber buffers of modern type are not subject to the same objections as steel springs. In the so-called "collision buffer" in general use on British coaching stock, the final blow does not come home solid metal-to-metal, but is taken by rubber springs which are specially arranged to cushion the blows above such pressures as usually dnve the ordinary running prings home. After many passenger train collisions that have occurred during recent years the Government mspecto.rs m their reports have made remarks on the efficiency of this type of buffer in minimising damage to the vehicles and in preventing telescoping.
In view of these records as to the effectiveness of this type of buffer in preventing damage to the vehicles, the reason for this was next carefully considered. They have not an abnormally high capacity-35 to 40 inch-tons up to 50 tons pressure is all that can be reasonably claimed. The chief advantage m the use of rubber lies in the moderation of the intensity of the stress producing acceleration and in the effect of the blow. It is suggested that the efficiency of rubber is due to its non-rigid, non-metallic, semi-fluid nature. When rubber springs are oom- pressed they expand radially, so that there is a dispersal of lateral effort, or cross-component, which in a rigid train of metal work would produce vibration. It has been noticed that rubber- fitted wagons are much quieter than others during shunting operations. ThIS can only be by elimination of vibration which in the long run spells economy. The slow recoil and low restitution make rubber preferable to steel for duties of ab- sorbing shock, such as for buffing and draw gear. The life of the rubber springs also came under discussion. Locomotive draw springs are expected to give a life of about ten years. Locomotive auxiliary bearing springs should last fifteen to twenty years, and carriage auxiliary bearing springs should give a similar life.
The life of a rubber spring, in service, depends on the amount of work it has to do. When properly applied, it has been noted that both in Britain and abroad, the general life was 15 to 17 years.

Preservation of historic locomotives, L.M.S. Railway. 70-1. 2 illustrations
Caledonian Railway 4-2-2 No. 123 repainted in blue and Jones Goods 4-6-0 of Highland Railway repainted in "respective" Highland livery (clearly not yellow in photograph. Stanier credited with this act.

Southern Railway. 71
A . Cobb appointed Locomotive Running Superintendent in succession to A.D. Jones who had retired. A.B. MacLeod appointed Assistant Locomotive Running Superintendent.

Pacific type locomotives, Kiangnan Railway, China. 71-2. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built by H. Cegielski Locomotive Works at Poznan in Poland under supervision of C.P. Sandberg

Austrian Federal Railways. 72
Order from Florisdorf Locomotive Works for six series 314 2-8-4 express locomotives and six series 729 4-6-4T with all-welded bogie frames.

Southern Railway. 72
E1 0-6-0T No/ 2143 (former LBSCR No. 143 Nuremberg) sold to Cowper Coal Co. in Northumberland.
Sentinel railcar which had been working Dyke branch to be sent to work Dunton Greem to Westerham branch.

[Great Western Railway]. 72
New halts at Ingra Tor (Princton branch) and Ketley Town near Wellington opened 8 March 1936; All Stretton (on joint line with LMS) on 20 February.

2-4-2 tank locomotivee for the German National Rlys. 73-4. diagram (side elevation)
Berliner Maschinenbau AG series 71. Light weight achieved by welding. High boiler pressure. 1500 mm coupled wheels, but further engines would be fitted with 1600 mm wheels to achieve higher speeds

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. Feed water heating and condensing. 74-5. 2 diagrams
GB 259/1854. 1 February 1854.

The Railway Club. 75
Kenneth Brown spoke on British railways in 1845: a year in which Norwich was connected to Bishops Stortford and thence to London; the clash between the broad gauge and the standard gauge deepened; Stephenson introduced the long boiler type; the atmospheric railway failed on the South Devon Railway; George Hudson pushed the Railway Mania and W.E. Gladstone brought order. Ottley 428 .

Recent Continental developments of the Lentz poppet valve gear. 76-7. 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
The side elevation is of a 2-2-2T fitted with Lentz valve gear belonging to the Jugoslavian [Yugoslavian] State Railways

Arthur Phillips. Moscow Metropolitan Railway. 77-9. 2 illustrations, diagram
Assistance provided by London Transport engineers E.T. Brook, Evan Evans and J.C. Marrtin. First section of 7½ miles opened. Notes spacious stations, lavish use of marble and shortage of steel.

London and North Eastern Railway. 79
Darlington-built B17 class 4-6-0 No. 2848 was named Arsenal. It was fitted with a standard straight-sided tender and brass replica footballs on the central splashers flanked by panels in the club's colours.The Earl of Lonsdale, the chairman of the club unveiled the nameplate at King's Cross station on Thursday 5 March.
H1 4-4-4 T rebuilds to A8 4-6-2T were No. 2161 (Leeds) and No. 1503v (Darlington). New V1 2-6 -2T built at Doncaster for North Eastern Area Nos. 416, 418 and 419. Hull & Barnsley 0-6-0 withdrawn Nos. 2453 and 2472.

Belfast & County Down Railway. 79
For service on Ardglass branch Harland & Wolff had supplied a 500 H.P. 2-stroke diesel electric locomotive

C.F. Dendy Marsdhall. Notes on some London and Greenwich Railway relics. 79-81. 3 illustrations
A zincograph showing viaduct wher it crossed Corbett's Lane is shown and there are photographs of ditrectors' passes amde of silver and a policeman's truncheon and an inspector's tipstaff. Described, but not shown, were coloured etchings and lithographs. Wording of invitatiions for opening reproduced.  

L.N.E.R. 81
Improvements for Doncaster station, especially the track layout with extra lines, a subway at the statiion and colour light signalling

Sydney Smith's cut-off control gauge, 82. diagram
Sydney Smith and Son (Nottingham) of Basford Works

"Mogul" locomotive, Turkish State Railways. 83. illustration
Supplied by Henschel & Sohn of Cassel with 500 x 660mjm cylinders, 1400mm coupled wheels and 101m2 total evapourative heating surface

Great Northern Railway of Ireland. 83
Three-cylinder compound express locomotives No. 84 Kestrel and 87 Falcon had been painted in bright blue enamel with red framing: used on Belfast to Dublin expresses.

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 83
Order for two locomotive boilers from Nasmyth Wilson & Co. for Ceylonn Government Railways; also two boilers for metre gauge Morvi Railway in India.

Locomotive cleaning apparatus. 84-5. 2 diagrams
Manufactured by Davies & Metcalfe of Romiley: portable device exploiting the steam supply available in most locomotive depots to power an injector to spray water at high pressure to clean locomotives. This efficient and economical apparatus is now bemg supplied to different railways, and giving most satisfactory results, it being possible for one man to effectively clean a 2-6-2 tank locomotive in 45 minutes.

Great Western Railway. 85
The 1936 constructional programme included 124 third class corridor carriages of a new design. Each of the new coaches was 61 ft. long, 9 ft. wide, had eight compartments and seated 64 passengers; in the case of those fitted with a guard's van the seating was reduced to l2 passengers. Entrance was by doors at each end. They were built with a steel underframe to which was attached the body entircly encased with steel on a timber framework and fitted vith a steel roof. Large windows stretched practically across :he whole side of each compartment. The corridor partition had been altered and, by means of enlarged side windows and a wider sliding glass-panelled compartment door, an uninterrupted "window seat" view either side was given to every passenger in the compartment. The new windows are so broad that suitcases can be passed through them in a manner familiar to travellers on the Continent.
The interior scheme of decoration was in pleasing shades of cream and brown. The light polished birch wood panels and white enamelled ceiling contrasted pleasantly with the dark walnut of the other woodwork and the brown figured moquette with which the seats were upholstered. An unusual effect is introduced by the seat backs which were fluted and fashioned to fit the back. This, with the loose spring-filled cushions, provided an extremely comfortable and restful seat.
Even the communication cord has a new setting and is now recessed into the woodwork above the large windows instead of being carried in tubing.
The top part of the observation windows was fitted with a glass sliding ventilator to which were fitted hinged vanes which automatically deflected wind and smoke from the opening thus giving fresh air without draughts and making for a more equable temperature in the compartments. Each of the compartments was centrally heated by two steam radiators placed beneath each seat. The coaches were electrically lighted and fitted with spacious lavatories. The general impression of the coaches was one of lightness, bnghtness, spaciousness and homeliness which was accentuated by the gold and brown rayon curtains, held in position by silk cords, with which the outside compartment windows are furnished .

The South African Railways and Harbours Board. 85
Placed orders in Germany for 24 heavy passenger and freight locomotives of the Class 15E, 4-8-2 type, generally similar to those recently delivered to the South African Railways by Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd. of Darlington. These engines, 16 of which to be built by Henschel & Sohn of Cassel, and the remaining eight by the Berliner Maschinenbau A.G. of Berlin, weigh each, complete with tender, in working order, approximately 174 tons, and develop a maximum tractive effort at 75 per cent. of the boiler pressure (210 psi) of 42,336 lbf.

[Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd.]. 85
Order for 84 bogie hopper wagons of 40 tons capacity placed by with Chas. Roberts & Co. Ltd., Horbury, near Wakefield.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 86-9.  illustration. 4 diagrams, table
Includes general arrangement drawings of 4-4-0 No. 501 and photograph of No. 516. The Chief Mechanical Engineer was W. Hupkes. The locomotives were built by Werspoor and by Schwartzkopff. Statistics of their haulage capacity.

Locomotives of the Merstam Lime Co. Ltd. 89-90. 3 illustrations
One illustration shows a length of edge rail from the Croydon, Merstham & Godstone Railway preserved in the garden of Joseph F. Peters. Two locomotives are described and illustrated: No. 1 Gervase which originated as a Manning Wardle 0-4-0ST (WN 1472/1900), but was rebuilt with a Sentinel engine. No. 2 Dom originated as a narrow gauge Sentinel railcar supplied to the Jersey Eastern Railway and the engine unit was bought from George Cohen & Sons. The involvement of E. Taylerson is mentioned. Continued page 125'

New trains for Bombay – Pooona service, G.I.P. Rly. 90-1.
Electric traction had reduced the journey time to 2 hours 45 minutes. Calorex glass was employed to reduce Solar input.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Annual Dinner. 92-3. illustration
Held at the Trocadero Restaurant on 28 February 1936. It was chaired by W.A. Agnew. The Toast for the Guests was proposed by H.P.M. beames and H.N. Gresley responded. There is a list of those present and the award presentations.

Retired Railway Officers' Society. 93
At a meeting held on Feb. 18 at the Great Eastern Hotel, Liverpool St., London, George G. Senior, O.B.E., J.P., and Ex-Mayor of Eccles, Manchester, was elected President for the current year. The half-yearly luncheon was held on Tuesday, 3 March at the Great Eastern Hotel, when Senior took the chair, and the chief guest was Col. Sir Joseph Nall, D.S.O., T.D., D.L., M.P. After proposing the toast "Our Guests" by the chairman, to which Sir Joseph Nall replied, Sir George Etherton, O.B.E., D.L., proposed "Success to the Society." He referred to an interview many years ago at Portsmouth with the late Sir Wm. Forbes in regard to developing Langston Harbour, and mentioned his foresight in the policy of electrification. Mr. Gilbert Szlumper in seconding the toast said that Langston Harbour was to be the new base of Imperial Airways, whilst the electrification of the Southern Rly. to Portsmouth is. a continuation of Sir Wm. Forbes' initiative.

Great Western Railway. 93
As a compliment to LIoyd's Underwriters, the G.W.R. have re-named one of their rebuilt "Castle" class engines Lloyds and numbered it "100 A.1" The naming ceremony took place at Paddington on Monday, 17 Feb. and was performed by Sir Robert Horne, chairman of the G.W.R., in the presence of Mr. Neville Dixey, chairman of LIoyd's, the Committee of LIoyd's, Sir James Milne, general manager of the G.W.R., and chief officers. The nameplate of the engine is surmounted by LIoyd's Coat of Arms, and flew the official House Flag. An unusual feature of the ceremony was the display of a string of flags of the International Code between the chimney and the cab of the engine, reading "A.1 at Lloyd's." The engine was formerly No. 4009 Shooting Star.

The Schleizer Railway, Germany. 94-5. 4 illustrations, map
Electrified at 1200V: used mercury arc rectifiers

A miniature railway in India. 96-7. 2 illustrations
Owned by R. Horsefield at Jhansi

Correspondence. 98

Railway museums. R.S. Guinness.
On my return from Vienna I am greatly interested to find two photographs of the Ajax (Vol. XV. p. 117: KPJ exactly as in printed version!) and, in case you are unaware of the fact, write to tell you that this engine is preserved in the Technical Museum. Other locomotives in this Museum are;-
(1) 4-4-0 with tender built by John Haswell at Vienna in 1848 and used on the Austrian Southern Railway.
(2) 4-4-0 Tank (narrow gauge) used on the Lambach- Gmunden Railway and built in Vienna in 1854.
(3) 4-4-0 Austrian express locomotive 1883.
(4) 0-10-0 Goldsdorf of circa 1900.
Items (1) and (2) are great curiosities with their small driving wheels, very low build and wide chimneys, but unfortunately no photographs were obtainable.
An original coach of the Linz-Budweis (horse) Railway is also preserved (1832).
Other exhibits include several model locomotives, among them an Engerth of 1853, numerous railway prints and a magnificent collection of railway medals.
I was informed by the Director that other fine railway collections are to be found at Nuremberg and Budapest, besides of course Munich, and that commencements have been made both at Milan and Prague.
All this goes to show the growing interest in railways on the Continent and makes one sad to read on p. 40 of your current issue that yet another ancient Irish locomotive is to be scrapped.
(It has been decided to preserve the Waterford and Tramore Rly. engine No' 1 for the present.-Ed.)

Trinidad Government Railways. W.G. Tilling.
In the February issue (page 54) Dewhurst is a little uncertain as to the dates when the L.B. & S.C.R. sold their two railcars. The facts are that they were withdrawn from service before the War, and remained in store for some years, being finally sold and despatched from Brighton to Trinidad on 14 October, 1919.

Reviews. 98

The British Railways.. Alex. Newlands, London; Longmans, Green and Co.
First the inception, growth and development of inland transportation is reviewed. Next it proceeds to analyse the cost of working the railways for one year and to correlate such cost with the amount of work done and the revenue earned. As a basis the Ministry of Transport Railway Returns for 1933 are taken. Consequently the book is full of figures to enable comparisons to be made, but the author is critical of the methods employed by accountants in allocating the figures for various services, and contends they fail to make a fair distribution of costs. To doubt his conclusions on engineering considerations are sound, but probably accountants would hardly be in agreement on some points, although they will find much of interest in this book. His comments on the position of the railways to-day, and the changes since 1913, as well as on their future are entertaining. As former chief engineer of the L.M. & S.R. his summary of recent developments on railways in this country and his suggestions for further improvement are to the point. The high ratio of dead weight to paying load on rolling stock is one of the disturbing features. He contends standardisation is the negation of progress; it is a form of standing still! Of the railway wagon he is particularly critical. Having regard also to the vast amount of transportation entrusted to the railway and the safety assured in ,its movement, it is unthinkable that the Government should persistently conninue to develop a competitive, free and dangerous traffic on the roads, and at the same time restrain and curb the railway through its exercise of the parliamentary authority it has over it.

Boiler feed water treatment. F.J. Matthews, London: Hutchinson's Scientific and Technical Publications.
The subject of boiler feed water treatment has received much attention in the last ten years, and the extensive research work carried out has been rendered imperative by the need for efficient steam generation and the changes in boiler design. Many new methods of treatment have also altered the design of the plants. These apply more particularly and have proved beneficial to operators of large boiler houses with high working pressures attached to establishments which are able to have their own chemists or experts to solve their problems. But in the case of a small plant the engineer is likely to be confused with the wide variety of treatments available and it is in such applications where advice is often needed. The aim of this book is to correct this situation by collating all available information and deal- ing with the whole subject in a form for easy reference. By dividing the book into sections the principal operating problems are dealt with separately. Each particular treatment or procedure can thus be conveniently studied. The unsuitability of various natural waters for boiler feed are described, and the final section on analysis includes the usual routine methods of testing required for the operation of softeners, etc. These should be of value to students and chemists and will assist in the interpretation of analytical reports.

Holiday Haunts, 1936.
This wonderful G.W.R. publication, is beautifully illustrated as usual, is now a book of 1,032 pages. Its collection of pictures is the finest yet produced, and they are so arranged as to effectively show the variety of scenery to be found in the distriots served by the Great Western Railway. River scenery, views on our Western Coast, the mountains of Wales, and the historic cities as well as quiet retreats are depicteJ and described. A new feature is a list of monthly return ticket fare. Over eight thousand addresses of hotels and other accommodation are included in this comprehensive guide to the Holiday Line. Published at the nominal price of sixpence, it is obtainable at all G.\V.R. offices or at Paddington Station.

Trade Notes and Publications

Bridge and Constructional Engineering, and Railway Wagon Building. Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. Ltd. Chepstow,
This 44 page catalogue illustrates the activities of this well known Clyde firm of shipbuilders and engineers at the Chepstow branch works and covers the whole field of constructional engineering as well as the building of all-metal railway wagons, dock gates, caissons, gas-holders, etc. Among the large jobs illustrated mention may be made of the River Roding Crossing towers for main electric power cables, Fladbury bridge across the river Avon, Wolvercote bridge over the G.W.R. at Oxford, and the L.M.S. Rly. bridge between Bath and Mangotsfield.

Hadfields Ltd.
For their latest folder of "Hecla" and "Era" steels for use in Diesel engine construction Hadfields Ltd. of Sheffield have enumerated a representative range of the steels best adapted for this purpose. The information given is intended to be of a general character, but additional technical data is available on request. In many instances the best steel can only be determined when full details of the conditions of service are known, when expert knowledge is placed at a customer's disposal in solving the problem.

Number 524 (15 April 1936)

Railway personalities. 99-100.
An archaic examination of humanity

L.N.E.R. 100
Opened new halt at Garrowhill between Easterhouse and Shettleston on 16 March 1936

G.H. Soole. Locomotives of the Mountain Section, Canadian Pacific Ry. 100-3 + plate. 3 illustrations
An Englishman's view of a journey from Quebec westward, concentrating on the section through the Kicking Horse Pass. See stern letter from H.B. Bowen in response to comments on No. 8000

A Spanish veteran locomotive. 103. illustration
Photograph taken at Barcelona station of a Madrid, Zaragoza & Alicante Railway 0-6-0 built by Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson in Leeds in 1857-8.

Developments in boiler feeding. 104-5. illustration
Anderson compression condensing: Steam Heat Conservation Company. Southern Railway not mentioned in this item.

Rebuilt six-coupled goods locomotive, L.N.E.R. (G.E. Section). 105-6. illustration.
GER Class F48 (LNER class J19) rebuilt with round-top boilers. The Belpaire type was originally fitted.

Diesel-electric shunting locomotives, L.M.S,R. 106. illustration.
English Electric Preston Works: 350 hp diesel engine 230 kw generator. Frames and superstructure supplied by Hawthorn Leslie & Co. Ltd. of Newcastle. Also supplied to Sudan Government Railways and New Consolidated Goldfields

[First British Atlantic type withdrawn]. 106
No. 3990 Henry Oakley had been withdrawn from service, latterly at Mexborough. It was hoped it would be preserved at the Railway Museum

2-8-2 locomotives for the Huinan Railway, China. 107-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Supplied by Skoda Works, Plzen in Czechoslovakia and inspected by C.P. Sandberg.

Railcar operating on producer gas, French State Rlys. 108. diagram
V-type 12-cylinder engine: worked Paris to Le Mans.

New Beyer Garratt locomotive, Algeria Railways. 109-12.
Société Franco Belge de Matérial de Chemins de fer at Raismes under licence from Beyer Peacock. 4-6-2+2-6-4 partially streamlined with Cossart valve gear for working between Algiers and Oran.

2-8-2 narrow gauge locomotives, Newfoundland Railway. 112-13. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
North British Locomotive Co. to requirements of J.E. Pike, Superintendent of Motive Power under inspection of Crown Agents.

North East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders. The modern locomotive. 113-14.
Benjamin Irving, Member of the Council gave a talk on 20 March at Newcastle where he contrasted the locomotive with the marine steam engine beginning with a historical inttroduction to the locomotive. Rocket and the engines Northumbria and Planet which followed, the lecturer said that these engines were the prototypes of the modern locomotive, which still embodies their essential mechanical characteristics. Showing the cross-section of a British locomotive of 2,000 h.p. framed by the clearance gauge, to illustrate the want of room left over, he pointed out that the demand for increased power continues and the problem is to compress this into the available space, while observing such other limitations as weight per axle, etc., imposed by permanent way and bridge engineers. Is the marine engineer troubled with annoyances like these?
Examples were shown of locomotives and boilers with wide fireboxes and grate areas of 40 sq. ft. and upwards. It is grate area that matters and it is rare for a locomotive to have too big a grate area, although thousands have too little.
Dealing with boilers the firebox stay arrangements and details of solid and flexible stays were given. High-pressure and large boilers with heavy water content have combined to make the boiler very heavy and some study has been given to the use of nickel steel for boiler plates. One of the boilers shown had plates 2 per cent. nickel 34/38 tons tensile, 50 per cent. yield, and the weight of the shell was thus reduced by about 1 ton compared with mild steel plates.
To illustrate good cylinder design, examples with very direct steam and exhaust passages were given and forms of piston valves illustrated. The Walschaerts valve gear which has displaced the once universal Stephenson gear, was next dealt with. Its characteristics are an invariable lap and lead component derived from and in phase with the piston crosshead (the lead being thus con- stant) and superposed at 90° phase difference, a component derived from the eccentric crank and variable through the expansion link. At high speeds with piston valves it is as difficult to get steam out of a cylinder as it is to get it in, and this has led of recent years to a substantial increase in valve travel which is now about 6½ in. in full gear; steam lap 1½ in. to 1¾'1 in., lead 3/16 in. to ¼ in. The Walschaerts is a good reliable gear, light and cheap, subject to fairly heavy upkeep charges, and, it is feared, not a little leakage. Mr. Gresley is using roller bearings on the motion joints of his engines.
Absolute thermal efficiency of the cylinders is about 12 per cent., or, of engine and boiler combined, about 8 per cent. at the mean horse-power rate, which equals 2¼ lb. of coal per i.h.p. hour varying, however, with the rate of working of both engine and boiler. The merits of poppet valves are well known in the locomotive world; but the piston valve with its link gear predominates and the poppet valve has had a hard fight to win recognition on any scale, although its use is extending. The poppet valve with- its rotary drive gives increased steam opening at the early cut-off, enabling the engine to work with a full throttle and cut-off as early as 10 per cent. on heavy duty. The steam saving from the use of the poppet valve is in the region of 10 per cent. The gear is low on maintenance and requires little power to drive, but is rather costly.
Some account was given of the Diesel locomotives and railcars built on the North-East Coast and elsewhere. The progress made in the use of Diesel shunting locomotives and light weight passenger units was referred to, and indication given of the choice of transmission systems available to-day.

London & North Eastern Railway. 114
New 2-6-2 tank engines of the V1 class completed at Doncaster for the Newcastle district were Nos. 428 and 440, At Darlington three more of the 4-4-4 tanks had been rebuilt as 4-6-2 type, Nos. 2145, 2148 and 2152. There were only three of the 4-4-4 type in traffic, Nos. 1499, 1517 and 2160. No. 1499 was fitted with a radial rear bogie, to stabilise the engine at speed, but no more were so treated. New B17 class 4-6-0 engines Nos. 2849 Sheffield, 2850 and 2851 Derby County.
To accelerate handling traffic the L.N.E.R. has decided to remodel King's Cross Goods Depot. The section of the warehouse used for dealing with traffic from King's Cross is to be re-equipped and wil form the unloading depot for goods traffic arriving at the terminus. This portion of the goods station was on two levels and when the scheme is completed it will be possible to unload simultaneously from 214 wagons without interruption of operation. Traffic to be despatched will be loaded in the shed now devoted to in-coming traffic and it will be necessary to adapt this shed for the purpose by relaying practically the whole of the sidings and providing adequate platform accomrnodation to deal with 200 wagons at the same time. Automatic cart weighbridges are to be installed together with separate mess room accommodation for the large staff employed at this depot on cartage work. During a twelve- months approximately 850,000 tons of traffic are turned over together with about 50,000 head of livestock.

The 46th annual dinner of Past and Present Crewe Pupils and Premiums. 114
To be held on Friday, 1 May at the Trocadero Restaurant, Piccadilly, London. The chair to be taken by H.N. Gresley, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the LN.E.R_ and the guest of honour will be the Member of Pnrliament for Crewe, Sir Donald Somervell, Attorney General.

The Metropolitan and G.C Joint Railway Committee. 114
Announced that from 6 July the passenger train service between Quainton Road and Verney Junction would be withdrawn and Granborough Road and Winslow Road Stations would be closed to all traffic. At the same time Waddesdon Station, situated on the main line would also be closed to all traffic. The line between Quainton Road and V erney Junction would continue to be used for the exchange of goods and perishabie traffic between the Metropolitan and G.C. Joint Committee and the LMS. Railway. As from 4 May first class carriages will be abolished on the Hammersmith and City and Addison Road branches of the Metropolitan line. A service of through trains between Hammersmith and Barking would begin on 4 May; meantime the London Transport Board were running an experimental train of Harnmrrsrnith and City stock, distinguished by large yellow panels between Hammersmith .and East Ham in the morning and evening.

Heavy tank locomotive for South Africa. 115. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
4-8-2T for Northern Lime Co. built by North British Locomotive Co.

Locomotive stock returns 1935. 116-17. table

Great Western Railway. 117
New locomotives: 0-4-2T Nos. 4860-4869. Conversions: 2-8-0T to 2-8-2T Nos 5273-4 became 7238-9. Withdrawals: 0-6-2T No. 171 (RSB No. 1); 0-4-2T Nos. 571 and 1155; 2-4-0T No. 1446; 0-6-0T Nos. 1278, 1528, 1876 and 1978; 2-6-0 Nos. 2600, 4309, 4313, 4331, 4332 and 4364. In the list of Castle class names Hatherop Castle had been replaced by Bishops Castle

A mineral railway in Sierra Leone. 118-19. 2 illustrations
Iron ore was located in the British Crown Colony and in September 8000 tons were forwarded to William Baird & Co. of Coatbridge with the assistance of finance from the Colonial Development Fund in 1930 via the Sierra Leone Development Co. A port 15 miles upstream from Freetown at Pepel was established with a 3ft 6in gauge railway from there to Marampa. Brigadier General F.D. Hammond directed this work. Couper & Kea were the Consulting Engineers. Beyer Peacock suppliied 2-8-2+2-8-2 Beyer Garratt locomotives. Avonside supplied two 0-6-0ST engines. The Garratts had 18 x 24 in. cylinders, 51.5ft2 grate area and 2934ft2 total heating surface. MCB couplers were fitted. Discharge was via tippler, belt conveyor and hopper storage.

Great Western Railway. 119
Bulldog class No. 3345 Smeaton had been broken up: it originated as No. 3357 Exeter, but during the visit of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra to the West of England in 1902 it was named Royal Sovereign. It had run 1,170, 839 miles.

Diesel-electric railcars, Czechoslovakian State Railways. 120-1. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & front/re4ar elevations & plan)
Manufactured at the Skoda Works.

The Berlin-Cologne "Flyer". 121-2. illustration
Personal observation of the high speed service: critical of the cramped conditions and limited refreshments: how would he have responded to current British expresses?

Early compounds of the P.L.M. Railway. 123-5. 2 diagrams (incuding side elevation and plan)
Semi-streamlined four-cylinder compounds introduce by Charles Baudry from 1893.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 125-8. 4 diagrams, table
See page 86 for overall account of 4-4-0, Hochwald piston valves and Knorr feedwater heaters

London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 128,
The following new engines of the 4-6-0 Silver Jubilee class had been turned out at Crewe :-Nos. 5689 Ajax, 5690 Leander, 5691 Orion, 5692 Cyclops, 5693 Agamemnon, 5694 Bellerophon, and 5695 Minotaur. The nameplates attached to No. 5689 had been transferred from Royal Scot class engine No. 6139, to be renamed The Welch Regiment. Of the above new engines. No. 5695 (which was the first of a series of forty-eight) was fitted with a 3,500 gallon tender, all the others being provided with 4,000 gallon tenders. Further Jubilee class engines have been named as follows:--Nos. 5554 Ontario, 5567 South Australia, 5569 Tasmania, 5572 Irish Free State, 5573 Newfoundland, 5586 Mysore, 5594 Bhopal, 5597 Barbados, 5608 Gibraltar, 5613 Kenya, 5618 New Hebrides, 5622 Nyassaland, 5628 Somaliland, 5630 Swaziland, 5633 Trans-Jordan, 5637 Windward Islands, 5640 Frobisher, 5642 Boscawen, and 5656 Cochrane. Royal Scot class engines Nos. 6148 and 6158 were running fitted with 4,000 gallon tenders in place of the 3,500 gallon type transferred to engines of the Silver Jubilee type.
Recent withdrawals included 4-4-0 Precursor class superheater Nos. 5283 and 5285; also 4-4-0 George the Fifth class Nos. 5341 and 5391. One other withdrawal of interest was 0-4-0 shunter No. 7208, the last apart from one or two others kept in the Works for departmental use. L.M.S. locomotives were to have a new style of numbering and lettering whereby the engine numbers, classification numbers on cab-sides, initials "L.M.S." and the numbers on the smokebox would all be executed in plain block style instead of in Roman characters. The letters and numbers would be in gilt, with black shading for red-painted passenger engines, and with red shading for black-painted passenger engines. On freight engines painted black, the characters would be plain block in gilt, without shading.

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. Feed water heating and condensing. 128-30. 3 diagrams
Feed water heater

Air-cooled coach for the French Colonial Railways. 130
Originally published in Chemins de Fer et les Tramways

Reviews. 131.

The horse-power of locomotives—its calculation and measurement. E.L. Diamond. Railway Gazette.
The text, which has recently appeared in the pages of our contemporary, "The Railway Gazette," has now been reprinted in the form of a brochure in response to numerous requests. As Mr. Diamond states in his introductory remarks, the problem is to relate the indicated horse-power and drawbar horse-power recorded at any given instant to the dimensions and design of the locomotive and the nature of the resistance it is overcoming.
This problem, which is complicated by the presence of many variables, of design and otherwise, in the cylinders and valve gears, the action of the blast pipe and limitations of the boiler, may be approached by two avenues. In the first instance there is the empirical method, i.e., the determination of formulae, graphs or tables of figures, based on available test data, for universal application, and secondly, the experimental method whereby a standard is established to which the results of tests on individual types of locomotives may be truly compared.
The earlier pages, then, are devoted to a critical essay on the work of recognised investigators, commencing with D.K. Clark, who is pertinently described as the "pioneer in the systematic study of locomotive performance," and one whose work "can still be read with profit." Exhaustive attention is then given in chronological order to other experimentalists, including such well known names as Desdouits, Goss, von Borries, Dalby, Strahl, Cole, Kiesel and Lipetz.
The latter part of the brochure reviews current methods of road testing. Mention is made of the Russian method, developed by Professor Lomonossoff, in which tests are made under constant conditions on selected portions of track with a dynamometer car, the Polish method, in which an auxiliary engine is used, and the German system, an elaboration of the Polish, in which the brake locomotives are capable of finely graduated braking by compression when run in reverse gear.
No one will quarrel with Mr. Diamond's expressed opinion that there is a defined field for each of the two methods of locomotive testing: the road test for the determination of performance characteristics which will ensure the most efficient utilisation of the locomotive in daily traffic; and the stationary testing plant to determine the value, in terms of thermo-dynamic efficiency, of special devices. Where the latter are concerned, we cannot resist the temptation to remark that thermo-dynamic efficiency and operating, or commercial, efficiency are usually two very different quantities. In many instances substantial economies effected in, say, fuel consumption by the adoption of a special fitting have been more than counterbalanced by additional costs of maintenance; in all cases such as these the results obtained from tests over extended periods in ordinary service must remain the only, ultimate criterion.
The subject is very completely covered, but in its treatment a slightly academic bias may be observed. When discussing drawbar horse-power, for instance, it is stated that it is "scientifically almost valueless"; this, although perhaps rather dogmatic, is undeniable, and any reduction effected in the internal, rolling or air resistance of the engine and tender will have an immediate effect on the extent of the power available at the drawbar, but after all, this latter quantity, in the author's own words, "represents the power ultimately available for drawing carriages and wagons." Again, it is generally accepted scientific practice in attacking any problem where more than one variable is present that successive experiments shall be made in each of which all variables except one shall be excluded. But, having thus segregated and finally evaluated the effects of each variable, it must not then be disregarded, as appears to be the author's attitude when comparing the various methods of testing locomotives and discussing the effects of air resistance, oscillation, centrifugal action on curves and the behaviour of the spring suspension gear. These small phenomena which, where testing is concerned, have a nuisance value only, but for which allowances must be made and are made when designing a locomotive to meet normal running conditions.
The practical locomotive man who thinks he will find here some simple formula, which will enable him to calculate with a slide rule the maximum load a given class of engine will haul, will be disappointed; in the first place it is out- side the specified scope of the work, and secondly, "there ain't no such animal." Mr. Diamond has, however, effectively assailed many of the apprehensions which have resulted from muddled thinking on this matter. He is, too, the master of a particularly pleasing, lucid style, somewhat reminiscent of that of the late Professor Ewing, and we recommend this contribution on locomotive performance, which we hope will not be by any means his last, to the consideration of all those who are interested in this fascinating subject.

De Compressorlooze Dieselmotor voor Wegverkeer en Railtractic.W.F.H.J. Tabernal. Middelburg: G.W. den Boer. 211pp.
Dutch: deals in an exhaustive manner with different types of compressorless Diesel engines as used for road and rail traffic. Chapter I. explains the principles of working of different types of internal combustion engines by means of diagrams. Chapter' II deals with the injection and distribution of the fuel in the- combustion chamber and different systems such as Beardmore, Deutz, Ganz and others are clearly illustrated by sectional drawings. Chapter III deals in detail with different types of fuel atomisers. Chapter IV with fuel pumps. Chapter V explains the difference of the combustion process in Diesel engines with and without air compressor. In Chapter VI indicator diagrams and the way in which they are taken is explained. Although the writer explains the principle of electrical and optical indicators, this interesting experimental subject would have justified a sketch of these instruments. Chapter VII gives calculations and methods. for determining the power output and fuel consumption. The· next three chapters give constructional details and instructions for care and management with different causes of trouble and their remedy. The different types of Diesel engines in use are illustrated by nine folding plates, showing sectional drawings with list of numbers and names of every detail. The book is profusely illustrated and written in a lucid style. It can be recommended to all who are interested in this subject.

Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. E.A. Phillipson. 443 pp. London: Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.,
The text originally appeared in serial form in these pages. The text has now been carefully revised in its entirety, modified and brought up to date where necessary, and an appendix, tabulating the most important features of the various specifications for locomotive materials drawn up by the British Standards Institution, has been added. A very adequate index is also included.
The original illustrations have been reinforced by nearly thirty plates, which include general arrangements of an L.N.E.R. Pacific engine and the S.R. "Schools" Class, arrangements of the boilers for Pacific engines on the L.M.S.R. and L.N.E.R. respectively, and of the outside motion for a recent Indian engine and inside motion for the L.M.S.R. Pacifies, together with a number of drawings of the more important locomotive details. These latter have evidently been selected with care  and discrimination, and are truly representative of modern design as exemplified, not only on the home railways, but also on diverse foreign and colonial systems in addition. The plates of these details are fully dimensioned, and all further particulars essential to the study of their design are given in pertinent accompanying letterpress; the arrangements of the valve gears, for instance are furnished with tables of the valve events. Nearly all the plates are folding and so bound with a margin of page width that, when opened out flat, the plate is clear of the printed pages, and thus may be studied in conjunction with the text without that irritating, incessant turning of pages which is so inimical to concentration and damaging to the book.
This work was written with two objects in view: in the first instance as a book of reference for the use of those who are concerned professionally with the construction, maintenance and operation of the steam locomotive, and also as a text book on design, for the senior apprentice or pupil and the more advanced student, which would deal with the subject in the light of recent research and current application. As all mention of innovations which have not been sufficiently long in service to justify themselves has been rigidly excluded, the result is that, although the work is abreast of modern developments and wide in its scope, only sound, established practice is considered, and the author has achieved his dual objects with a considerable degree of success. The district officer, his theoretical knowledge perhaps a little blunted by protracted attention to administrative matters, who is wondering whether the buckling of a coupling rod was due to overstressing; the apprentice who, letting together a pair of big end brasses, is curious to know what the bearing pressure on them would be; the draughtsman, called upon to strengthen the design of some frames; each of them will find the information he requires, on these and innumerable other points, in the pages of this book. Commencing with a detailed enumeration of the various external factors affecting design, consideration is then given to the tractive force and power developed under the varying conditions of operation, and to the adhesion of the engine, the chapter concluding with an exhaustive treatment of the several resistances to be overcome. Next, in logical order, the various methods of determining the other leading dimen- sions are discussed, followed by a short chapter on some of the pitfalls which beset the designer. Thereafter each of the various items which together comprise the modern steam locomotive receives individual attention, commencing with the boiler, boiler mountings and steam using auxiliaries, superheaters and feed water heaters, the srnokebox, blast pipe and chimney. A long chapter is then devoted to the engine, which is defined for this purpose as the mechanism between, and inclusive of, the cylinders and coupled wheels, and an- other to valves, ports and valve gears, particular attention being invariably given to the most recent methods of stress calculation and the various factors which, arising from modern operating conditions, dictate to varying extents the forms and proportions which components shall take. A complete chapter is also devoted to compounding, and in the last of the twelve chapters attention is given to frames, bearing springs, brakes, flexibility on curves, tanks and bunkers, tenders, and superstructures. Although British practice is predominant, the needs of the engineer abroad have not been by any means overlooked, and he wiII find, equally with his brethren in the Mother country, a mine of valuable information which has been compiled and compressed within the covers of this interesting book on a very important subject.

The Lynton & Barnstaple Railway, S.L. Catchpole. Sidcup: Oakwood Press, 62pp. 132
This attractive little book provides an interesting historical record of the narrow gauge railway which from May 1898 to Sept. 29, 1935, connected Barnstaple with Lynton, with a service of very slow trains, although the line was a great favourite with holiday makers, who provided the bulk of its revenue. A chapter is devoted to locomotive work on the line with tables giving details of a number of runs. The book will serve as a souvenir of the quaint little line, which in spite of its disadvantages had a fascination for many railway enthusiasts. The large number of illustrations are well reproduced, whilst the coloured frontispiece by J. E. Hoyland showing a train in typical scenic surroundings is decidedly effective.

Correspondence. 132

An unusual colliery locomotive. W.E.C.
Referring to the illustration and drawing in your February issue, there is a rather interesting fact about this engine of which no mention is made in your notes. For 40 years or more this locomotive was used with its wheels as shown clearly in the diagram, i.e., with no flange on the driving wheels, and in which state was quite free on the very sharp curves usually found in colliery yard lay-outs. At some time, however, within the past ten years, the railway com- pany's examiner insisted that the Aanges should be fitted to the driving wheels as the engine "was not safe without them." This was done, and the result is that whilst the old Emlyn can now run on Hnes serving the railway company's track, it cannot run at all on the general colliery sidings. After being derailed a number of times on these lines, some attempt was made to give the bogie some side play by lifting it up at the front end, but all to no purpose. To see a L.N.E.R. "Pacific" passing this old engine is to witness a pageant of locomotive history.

Personal. 132
W.A.J. Day has been appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the South African Railways and Harbours in succession to A.G. Watson, who has retired from that position. Day was formerly on the London & North Western Railway, and went to South Africa as an assistant on the Transvaal Railways in 1902. In 1918' he became assistant mechanical engineer at Durban, and became mechanical engineer at Maritzburg in 1927. In the fol1owing year he took up a similar position at Uitenhage, and in 1930 was appointed Advisory Engineer to the High Commissioner in London. At the end of 1932 Day returned to Pretoria as Mechanical Engineer on the staff of the Chief Mechanical Engineer, and in 1935 became Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer.

Eastern Railway of France. 132
Monsieur Poncet, Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer, succeeds Monsieur Loizillon as Chief Mechanical Engineer, and Monsieur Bigot, Chief Locomotive Running Supt., becomes Assistant C.M.E.

Obituary. 132
Death of F.S. Hennell at Kensington on March 16 in his 90th year. Hennell would hardly be known to the present generation of railwaymen, but he was formerly Assistant Locomotive Supt. of the Metropolitan Dis. Rly. at Lillie Bridge Works under George Estall. He commenced his railway career on the Great Western Railway and went with Martley to the London, Chatham and Dover Railway where one of his first duties at Longhedge Works was the conversion of the Crampton engines to normal types. He left the L.C. & D.R. to act as Locomotive Superintendent of the Thetford and Watton Railway. When this line was taken over by the Great Eastern Railway. Hennell was appointed assistant to Lord Eustace Cecil, then locomotive superintendent of the District. He retired from the service on the change over to electric traction in 1905.

Number 525  (15 May 1936)

Engines stopped waiting details. 133
Balancing stocks of spare parts to ensure ready supply,  but not excessive

4-8-2 heavy goods engines, South African Railways. 133-6. 2 illustrations, diagram (side and front/rear elevations).
To design of A.G. Watson, Chief Mechanical Engineer, and constructed by Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd. of Darlington. 15E class with rotary cam poppet valves. 62.5ft2 grate area but no mention of mechanical stoker. Rotary cam poppet valve gear.

Waterford and Tramore Railw3ay. 136.
The General Manager of the Great Southern Railways had intended to preserve No, 1, a 2-2-2T, but the locomotive had been scrapped already following a derailment on 24 August 1935.

[Crewe Annual Dinner]. 136
Held at the Trocadero Restaurant on 1 May 1936. Chaired by H.N. Gresley. Guest of Honour Sir Donald Somervell, Attorney General. Proposer of Toast to oresent and past Crewe pupils Sir Charles Craven to which Riddles and R.C.S. Low responded..

4-8-0 locomotivbes, Hangchow-Kiangshan Rly., China. 136-7. illuatration
Four supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. Icorporated Ajax patent automatic hard grease lubricators, and bogie axleboxes with automatic soft grease lubricators. The coupling and connecting rods and valve motion were lubricated by Tecalemit grease nipples, and the crossheads and slide bars by Tecalemit spring feed lubricators. WakefIeld's mechanical lubricators and anti-carbonisers were fitted to the cylinders. At 75 per cent. of the boiler pressure the tractive effort is 19,500 lbf. The tenders were carried on diamond framed bogies fitted with the Isotherrnos patent axlebox made by the British Isothermos Co. Ltd. The English Steel Corporation's Visco automatic couplers fitted. The same builders supplied six similar 4-8-0 engines to this railway in 1934.

Great Western Railway. 137
New engines completed at 'Swindon were: 4-6-0 express type, Nos. 5043 Barbury Castle, 5044 Beverston. Castle, and 5045 Bridgwater Castle. 0-6-0 goods tanks, Nos. 9770-7. It is understood that the 4-4-0 Duke class engines were to be rebuilt using the main frames of the Bulldog class, which was being withdrawn. The first of these rebuilt engines bore the No. 3201. Engine No. 3265 Tre Pol and Pen, was similarly converted in 1930. Engine No. 6029 King Stephen to have its name changed to King Edward. VIII. Engines reoently condemned included: 4-4-0 tender cngines Nos. 1121 (M.S.W.]. No. 3), 3422, 3263 St. Michael, 3288 Mendip, 3327 Marco Polo, 3412 John G. Griffiths; 2-4-0 tanks Nos.. 1459 and 3569; 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 1393, 4350, 4383, 4387 and 4397. No. 722 ex Barry Rly. had been sold to a colliery in Northumberland.

L.N.E.R. Appointments. 137
R. A. Smeddle, Works Manager, Cowlairs, to be Locomotive Works Manager, Darlington. L. Farr, Locomotive Works Manager, Darlington, to be Works Manager, Cowlairs, in succession to Smeddle.

London Transport. 137
Farrtngdon and High Holborn station to known as Farringdon Station.

Diesel electric shunting locomotives London, Midland & Scottish Railway., Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway. 137-40. illustration, diagram (side & rear elevations & plan).
Ten 350/400 B.B.P. 50-ton locomotives being delivered to the London, Midland & Scottish Railway were of the same type as the 250 B.B.P. 40-ton loco- motive built for the same railway in 1933-34, No. 7058, and tried out successfully at Willesden and Crewe: this locomotive was identical with the Armstrong-Whitworth demonstration vehicle in service at Preston Docks. During trials, both these locomotives of 24,000 lb. tractive effort proved that a 144 hour per week service was practicable and that marshalling work was performed with rather greater rapidity than by steam locomotives of equal adhesive weight. Fuller advantage of diesel shunting could, however, be obtained by a design of heavier weight and correspondingly greater power, while the provision made in the earlier locomotives of speeds up to 30 m.p.h. was found to be unnecessary and that the advantages at low speeds of a double-reduction gear drive with 30,000 lb. tractive effort and a minimum of 22 m.p.h. could be incorporated. The ten new locomotives differ, therefore, from their prototype in these two respects. The design and manufacture of these locos. had been carried out to the specifications and approval of W.A. Stanier, chief mechanical engineer.

Fifty years of faithful service. 140
An interesting cercmony took place on Monday 27 April, at Oceanic House, Cockspur St., S.W.1., the London office of J. Stone & Co. Ltd .. of Deplford & Charlton. The occasion was the presentation, on behalf of the Directors of the Company, of a gold watch and chain, to each of the following members of the office staff: Messrs. H. Lack, H. S. Lock, D. McLarcn, D.M. Paton, C. Petter , and C. Shave, "in recognition of 50 ycars ' faithful service." The presentation was made by the chairman of thc company, Sir Frederick Preston, KB.E., who was supported by the deputy chairman , Sir John Prestige, and the managing director, Henry W. Lee. Sir Frederick , after congratulating the recipients upon the attainment of such a long period of service, expressed his pleasure at being able to personally make the presentation, and said he was gratified to know that among the large staff employed by the company, there are also many other members approaching 50 years' service to their credit, and he hoped they would all eventually qualify for a similar recognition of a long period of service.

Irish railway notes. 140
On Monday 20 April thc passenger train service on the Westport and Achill branch was restored temporarily. Two trains each way daily are run. The bus ser- vice is discontinued while the train is in operation. Extensive alterations are in hand at Westland Row station, Dublin, in connection with the scheme whereby all M.G.W. section trains will start from there for the West owing to the closing of Broadstone. Between Westland Row and Grand Canal Street shed additional sidings are being laid for stabling the trains. The down platform at Westland Row has been lengthened. Colour light signals have been introduced between Amiens Street and Westland Row stations.
On the Great Northcrn line the first of the buffet cars is running on the 10.30 Belfast to Dublin, returning on the 15.15. It seats 40 passengers, and the bar and counter are separated from thc rest of the car by a partition and door. Two new Dicsel trains for the Belfast and Lisburn service are well advanced. These consist of two saloons at either end with the power unit in the centre.

4·6·4 stream-lined express tank loco. German National Rys. 140-1. illustration
Designed and built by Henschel & Son of Cassel, for the German National Railways. To keep the axle load down to the limit of 18.5 ton the six-coupled type was adopted and as the main routes of Northern Germany are fairly easily graded a driving wheel diameter of 7 ft. 6½ was chosen. The 4-6-4 wheel arrangement ensured an easy riding machine. As speeds up to 100 miles per hour have to be obtained, the minimum wind resistance was called for in either direction the engine may be travel ling and it was therefore provided with a sheet metal casing which completely enveloped it. Th. working pressure was 284 psi To reduce weight the streamlined cowling was welded construction as much as possible.

Mixed traffic loco. No. 5157, L.M. & S.R. 141. illustration
Sir W.G. Armstrong built locomotive named The Glasgow Highlander (illustrated) and No. 5158 The Glasgow Yeomany. Both allocated to St. Rollox and one illustyrated with tablet exchange appartus for working on Highland main line.

0-8-0 tank locomotive for the South African Mines. 142. illustration
Two outside-cylinder locomotives supplied by W.G. Bagnall for 3ft 6in gauge railway serving Rand gold mines

Southern Railway. 142
Four W class 2-6-4T goods engines had left Ashford: Nos. 1922-5. Withdrawn locomotives: No. 80 (0-4-4T); No. 685 (4-4-0); No. 2020 (4-4-2T) and No. 2282 (0-4-2T).

4-8-4 passenger locomotives, Chesapeake & Ohio R.R. 142-3. illustration
Built at Lima Locomotive Works to requirements of T.F. Barton, superintendent of Motive Power.  Built to haul the George Washington, The Sportsman and the F.E.V. passenger trains which had to cross the Allegheny Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains. The locomotives Nos. 600-604 were named: The Jefferson, Patrick Henry, Benj. Harrison, James Madison and El. Randolph. They had 100ft2 grate area and 27½ x 30in cylinders

L.M.S.R. 143.
Further new engines of the 4-6-0 Silver Jubilee class turned out at Crewe bore Nos. 5696 Arethusa, 5697 Achilles, 5698 Mars, 5699 Galatea, 5700 Britannia and 5701 Conqueror. Names had also been given to the following earlier engines of the same type as shown: Nos. 5566 Queensland, 5591 Udaipur, 5598 Basutoland, 5619 Nigeria, 5627 Sierra Leone, 5636 Uganda, 5638 Zanzibar, No. 5653 Barham, and 5664 Nelson. The above new ones were all provided with 3,500 gallon tenders.
The 300 h.p. Diesel-electric shunting locomotive ex English Electric Co. Ltd., which was recently overhauled at Crewe Works, was now in service as L.M.S.R. No. 7079.
Regimental names had been given to four of the Royal Scots which hitherto bore historical names, as follows: Nos. 6131 The Royal Warwickshire Regiment, 6132 The King's Regiment (Liverpool), 6139 The Welch Regiment, and 6141 The North Staffordshire Regiment. Recent withdrawals included the large-boilered 4-cylinder Claughton No. 6013; this was one of the series fitted with Caprotti valve gear, of which three in all had been condemned.
Engines rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers included class G1 Nos. 9029 and 9092; also class G2 No. 9433.
New 4,000 gallon tenders had been attached to the following engines of the Royal Scot class in place of the former 3,500 gallon type which had been transferred to new engines of the Silver Jubilee class:- Nos. 6109, 6118, 6166 and 6169.
New two-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tanks ex Derby in traffic up to No. 2441.

Narrow gauge Beyer-Garratt locomotive, for Victoria. 144
3ft 6in gauge 2-6-6-2 for Australian Portland Cement Propriteary Ltd supplied by Beyer Peacock for use at the Fyansford Works at Geelang where there were 1 in 37 gradients

Personal. 144
J.H. Moffat, Locomotive Superintendent of the Tao Ching Rly for the previous fifteen years had retired. He had joined the North British Railway in March 1877 and left for China in 1893. He intended to remain in China at Shan-Han Kwan.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Mr. W.A. Stanier, President 1936-7. 145. illustration (portrait)
Brief biography

[L.M.S. appointments]. 145
G.N. Shawcross had retired on 1 May. He had joined the L. & Y.R. as an apprentice in 1890; had acted as Works Manager at Horwich during WW1 and was Mechanical Engineer thereat when he retired. He was a Vice President of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers between 1925 and 1931.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 145-9. 2 illustrations, 4 diagrams
The 4-4-0 was fitted with a Zara regulator, a new means of fixing the boiler to the frames, a new type of cab, a new coupling to the tender (a shipstender) designed by W. Kloos, the former Technical Director of Werkspoor, Deuta speed indicators (in place of the Stroudley type formerly used) and the Leonard system of wheel centres.

London & North Eastern Rly. 149.
Further engines of the 4-6-0, B17 class, completed at Darlington 'Works were Nos. 2852 Darlington; 2853 Hudderslield Town, 2854 Sunderland, and 2855 Middlesbrough. A naming ceremony of No. 2854 was carried out at Sunderland, by the chairman of the football club on 18 April, the engine being decorated in the club colours for the event. Regarding earlier engines No. 2849 was Sheffield United and not as given previously, and No. 2850 was Grimsby Town. No. 2848 Arsenal was stationed at Leicester. No. 1502, H1 tank had been rebuilt as class A8 4-6-2 tank at North Road Works. New V1 2-6-2 tanks built at Doncaster were Nos. 2898, allocated to North Berwick, 454 at Gateshead, and 455 to the Newcastle area. No. 8123, one of the last four 0-4-4 tanks of the G.E.R., had been overhauled at Stratford and was working from March shed. The L.N.E.R. announce that 11 express locomotives of the Sandringham type under construction at the Darlington Works of Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd. were to bear the names of the undermentioned Association football teams: Manchester City, Everton, Liverpool, Leicester City, Nottingham Forest, Bradford, Bradford City, Barnsley, Manchester United, Tottenham. Hotspur; West Ham United.

Neasden Rly. depot of the London Passenger Transport Board. 149
To be rearranged and reconstructed. It accommodated 550 passenger cars, but the new depot would accommodate about 650 vehicles and cover 44 acres. Modern plant for maintenance, cleaning and washing of rolling stock to be installed.

G.W.R. railcar parcels service. 149
On 4 May an experimental parcels service operated by a streamlined railcar was brought into operation between Paddington, Kensington (Addison Road) and Reading and Oxford. It left Addison Road with a load of cakes and confectionery at 04.50, reached Reading at 05.45 and Oxford at 06.35. It left for Paddington at 06.45 with parcels traffic. In the afternoon it conveyed traffic from Paddington at 13.05. for local stations to Reading, returning at 15.56.

Axlebox boring, facing and radiusing machine. 150-2. 5 illustrations
George Richards & Co. of Broadheath, Manchester, for the LMS

L.&N.E.R. 152
Sidestrand Halt between Overstrand and Mundesley opened on 20 May 1936.
From 10 May Sunday services operated between Victoria Park and Woolwich

[Souhern Railway]. 152
Work on Chessington branch had started. Sir Robert McAlpine was contractor and line was expected to open in late 1937

Armoured railcars. 152-4. diagram (side & front elevations)
History: early use at Vienna  in 1846 near Vienna. Used in American Civil War, the South Aftrican War, the German offebnsive against Belgium, the Russo Polish and Russo-Japanese wars and Russian and Chinese Civil Wars. The design of the slats is important.  

W.E. Carlisle. Jigs, fixtures and notes on production, 154-7. 4 diagrams.
The use of jigs depends upon the number of parts required, the class of labour and the cost.

Tyneside electrified lines. 157
During the weekend of 22-5 May the conductor rail was moved 3¼ inch to conform to the Ministry of Transport standard and to enable the South Tyneside line to be elctrified. Steam trains would replace the electric trains. 500 men were involved in moving 50,000 insulators and more men were employed at the Gosforth car sheds in moving the pick up shoes on the rolling stock.

[New Continental train]. 157
The service from Liverpool Street to Parkeston Quay  from Sunday 3 May was equipped with new rolling stock (such behaviour was "normal" in pre-franchise days) and the first class dining cars were equipped with separate chairss and large side windows

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. Feed water heating and condensing. 158-9. 2 diagrams
Beattie's standard feed water heater was first applied to Nos. 157 Clyde and 158 Lacy and possibly 159 Castleman and R.H. Dutton and then to the Beyer Peacock Nos. 231-6

Railway Club. 159
On 2 April C.N. Anderson presented London to Southampton and beyond; noting that Bournemouth was not reached until 1870

Institution of Locomotive Engineers Some suggestions on steam locomotive design.  159-61.
Following is an abstract of Paper 355 read before the Institution by J. W. Beaumont at the General Meeting held on 23 April, when the President, Mr. A. C. Carr, took the chair.
If performance were the only criterion by which a locomotive is to be judged, a more or less complete satisfaction with the modern machines and with their possibilities of further improvement on similar lines might be justified, but there is another equally important consideration. The railway is a commercial undertalcing , and the engineer has not only to provide for the performance required, but also to ensure that it is carried out at the least possible cost. It is not enough to say that the modern machine shows, even in this respect, great advantage over its predecessors, it would be poor testimony to the designers if it aid not, the real question in these days of intensive competition is the reduction of running costs to the minimum. A typical modern locomotive may be taken having three driven axles, each carrying a weight approximately twenty tons, or sixty tons in all, and this being sufficient weight for effective adhesion for the loads and speeds required, is the total useful weight of the locomotive. The total weight, however, including the tender, coal, and water may be as much as 160 tons, giving an extra load of 100 tons which has to be hauled by the engine and must be added to the gross weight of the train. It is suggested that the reduction of this extra load is the problem of to-day.
The first suggestion for consideration is a more extended use of the articulated principle of construction. The Garratt locomotive has now had some thirty years of development and has reached a high pitch of perfection. It has been adopted in this and many other countries throughout the world, but it may be doubted whether its advantages have even yet met with the full recognition they deserve.
The arguments in its favour are generally well known, but two of them may be particularly referred to, as further suggestions depend upon them.
If sixty tons be taken as the useful weight of a locomotive, and that weight can conveniently be distributed over four or six axles instead of three, there will obviously be a large saving not only in first cost but in maintenance costs of way and works, the locomotive being the only vehicle on the railway at the present time that necessitates anything like a hundred-pound rail.
The other advantage is the greater latitude this method of construction gives to the design of the boiler or steam generator. Great advances have been made in recent years in apparatus, both electrical and mechanical, for the distant control of machinery, and there seems no reason why a locomotive should not be controlled entirely from a footplate or cab placed at either end, when the full profile of the generator in its casing could be the same as that of a coach or to the full limits the structural gauge will allow.
The ordinary locomotive boiler, with its fire tubes and blast pipe, is, with its modem improvements, still a highly efficient apparatus for its purpose, but seems to be getting very near to its limits as regards steam pressures, and higher pressures may well be one of the most important factors in future progress.
The most likely substitutes appear to be either the water tube boiler or the unitubular steam generator.
The water tube boiler is now commonly constructed for pressures of seven or eight hundred pounds and, particularly for marine work, has been made of very compact design, though perhaps its fullest efficiency is reached where size and shape are not of so much importance. It is capable of producing steam on a lower rate of fuel consumption than the locomotive boiler, and has a good storage capacity. It has already been successfully adapted for use on locomotives in various forms, both in this and other countries, and, especially with a little more lattitude as regards dimensions, offers a very promising field for the designer's consideration.
The steam generator of the unitubular type, although it is now a good many years since it was first used, has not as yet been built to a capacity which would be required for a full-sized locomotive, but in small units, generally for road vehicles, In its earlier days, Serpollet in France, White in America, and others, designed generators of this type which, so far as their steam-producing capacity was concerned, were very satisfactory, the many troubles experienced with them being almost entirely due to the controlling apparatus. Experimental work has gone on continuously ever since, notably by Doble, at first m America and for the last few years in this country; by the Siemens and Henschel companies in Germany, and others; with the result that generators of this type are now at work, both on road and railway, still of comparatively small power, but producing steam at very high pressures, fired either with solid or liquid fuel, and on a fuel consumption considerably lower than on any ordinary type of boiler.
Railcars fitted with this generator, built by Henschel, are running in Germany; a shunting locomotive, built by Sentinel Works, is at work on the L.M.S., and there seems no reason why the principle should not now be extended to much larger generators, used either singly or in multiple units. Their advantages would be very substantial; it is not, of course, possible to give actual figures regarding the saving of weight with large units, but judging by the smaller ones constructed they would weigh less than half that of an ordinary boiler. Pressures may be raised to any desirable limit, 1,200 lb. is being used in some cases, but as steam is only generated as required and there is no storage, there is no risk in using still higher pressures.
Up to recently these generators had only been fitted for firing with oil or other liquid fuel, but now both Siemens in Germany and Doble in England have successfully overcome the solid fuel difficulty and the coal or coke fired generator is now equally available. There is scope for much ingenuity in the adaptation of this method of steam generation to the most powerful of modern locomotives, but its success would in itself go far to solve the weight problem. Not only would the apparatus itself be considerably lighter than either the ordinary locomotive or the water tube boiler, but owing to its high productive capacity the weight of the fuel to be carried would be largely reduced, and, with the condensation equipment suggested later on, the weight also of the water. Firing with either liquid or solid fuel is mechanical and automatically controlled.
The next consideration is the engine, and the possibility of increasing its ratio of power to weight as has been so successfully done in the case of the internal combustion engine.
We are most of us familiar with the empirical formula for the calculation of the horse-power of motor cars for taxation purposes, and know that the actual horse-power of our engines is very much in excess of that on which we are rated. When that formula was first introduced, however, it was not very far out, as it was calculated on an engine speed of some 1,200 revs. per minute, quite an ordinary speed in those days. Petrol-driven engines have since been improved by their designers to such an extent that three or four times that speed is easily attained, and the power output is increased accordingly so that an engine, for example, rated under the formula at 12 to 14 h.p. will actually give at least 45 to 50 h.p. on the dynamometer. Diesel engine designers are now working on the same lines and increasing their power weight ratio in the same way. Can we not do the same with steam? A six- foot driving wheel running at 70 miles per hour is only making 328 revolutions per minute, and that is probably about the maximum economic speed of the type of engine used, but it is now possible to design light, high-pressure steam engines to run at three times that speed. This would, of course, involve the use of gearing even with the smallest practicable driving wheels, and not many years ago this might have been considered a serious obstacle, but with modern materials and methods of gear cutting it presents no difficulties. Each axle would be driven by a separate engine, which, in view of the high pressures to be used, would probably be of the compound or triple expansion type. It would be suspended at about its centre of gravity from the frame, and carrying on its crank shaft a gear wheel engaging directly with another on the axle of the driving wheels, a suitable ratio being provided between the two. An oil-tight casing would surround this gearing and extend over the crankshaft, guides, etc., right up to the cylinders, so that all moving parts were working in an oil bath.
Engines of this type have been fi.t:ted by several manufacturers during the last ten or twelve years into light locomotives, in combination with vari- ous kinds of gearing, and the results have been such as to encourage the idea of a much larger application of the principles involved. In fact three locomotives built by the Sentinel Co. and supplied to a metre gauge railway in Colombia are much on the lines indicated, having two bogies, each of three axles, and carrying a water tube boiler on a cradle between them. Each axle is driven by a separate engine of about 100 horse-power. Being of metre gauge, it was not possible to try them out in this country and one of them was given a short trial in Belgium, but under such circumstances it may be hardly surprising that a good deal of trouble and unforeseen difficulties were experienced when first they were put to work. These difficulties have, however, been gradually surmounted and the latest reports show that they are now fully capable of the performance for which they were designed. Another possibility which has been tried with a considerable measure of success is the application of the turbine engine to the steam locomotive. It is essentially an engine which can take full advantage of the higher pressures suggested and of the high velocity with which steam issues from the uni-tubular type of generator. In view of recent developmerrts, particularly on the L.M.S. Railway, further knowledge of its possibilities will no doubt be available and the turbine may eventually find as great a place in locomotive practice as it has already earned in the fields of marine and power station engineering. To get the fullest advantage from the use of these higher pressures and high-speed engines, whether reciprocating or turbine, the question of condensing must be considered. Either type can be worked successfully without it, but it will probably be generally ad- mitted that the efficiency of both can be materially increased by its use. It is a problem of considerable difficulty, both on account of space and weight, but the difficulties should not be insuperable. A paper was read some time ago in our South American Centre describing a condensing apparatus fi.tted to a locomotive of an ordinary type which was claimed to be entirely successful, and it was evident that a very considerable area of condensing tube could be distributed over the outer surfaces without taking up a great deal of extra room. With regard to extra weight, this would probably be more than balanced by the greatly diminished amount of water that would have to be carried, while the efficiency of the engines would be considerably improved. Another suggestion for the economical use of  steam concerns the use of superheat. Many years ago the author made some rather crude experiments with a steam generator of the unitubular type by heating the coil at the output end to a red heat and getting steam from it at 1,000°F. With steam at that temperature the engine could of course only be run for cl. few moments at a time, and, though no instruments were available for actual measurement, the power output was quite extraordinary. No doubt the steam was converted with a more perfect gas and the engine, which was a compound one, took the advantage of better exparrsion, but even that did not appear fully to account for the increase in power. There are practical diffi-culties in the use of steam at such a temperature, but, after all, it is no higher than the temperature of the gases inside the cylinders of a petrol engine, and although the alternate in- duction strokes bring a charge of cool mixture in, they would soon be getting red hot in the absence of any external means of cooling. It may seem rather strange to suggest water-cooled cylinders for a steam engine, but somethmg of the kind would be needed for the use of such a highly- heated gas. Possibly, too, it would be advisable to use single acting cylinders to ensure proper lubrication. Passing the feed water through the jackets naturally suggests itself so that the heat would not be lost, as it is in the cooling system of the internal combustion engine. Some further experiment and investigation into this matter might have very interesting results
.

More reminiscences of Stratford. 162-3.
During the last year of M. Bromley 's regime, as I was working m the machine shop (being a very poor turner I had been transferred to Harry Bishop's mill-wright gang), one hot .afternoon in the summer of 1881, when things seemed comfortably quiet, Bromley suddenly appeared in the shop. with two lady friends. In those days the machinery was driven by a vertical steam engine, made up of. a pair of locomotive cylinders fixed m substantial uprights and dnvmg a crank axle connected direct to the shafting. Workers m the shop. were startled by this unexpected appearance of visitors; and, further, much more astonished when Bromley, anxious to show the effect of stoppmg the engine to his lady friends, without any hesitation, quickly shut the stop-valve. The result was instantaneous—the machinery stopped, most of the machines with a cut-on, and with the crank axle of the shafting on its dead centre—a position the driver of the engine always most cautiously avoided when stopping. ML Bromley next proceeded to attempt to demonstrate the effect of re-starting the machinery, and he re-opened the stop-valve, but, to his chagrin, nothing moved. The driver, thinking an accident had taken place rushed into the shop from the boiler shed through the trap door behind the engine. He at once had the hand-wheel handed over to him but alas his manoeuvres produced no better result. Bromley and his visitors immediately departed, and no more work was done that afternoon, as it was necessary to call our gang to attach pulley blocks to the spokes of different wheels on the shaftmg, etc. I well recollect that we did not leave the shop until some time after the other men had gone. The machine shop in which I worked had been an engine paint shop and I understand the cylinders of the old Enfield rail car built at Fairfield Works, Bow, by Bridges Adams were used for the engme.
On another occasion, whilst working with the same gang, in the following year, after T.W. Worsdell had assumed office, we were employed in endeavouring to convert an old wheel lathe into a cylinder-boring machine, which was to have one long boring bar on which two cylinders could be threaded and which was to be supported on a removable back-rest. T.W. Worsdell—as many who met him will confirm—was an imposing man, and when he first came to Stratford he developed a rather nasty habit of going into the shops at about 5 o'clock p.m. The machine on which we were working was just inside the north door and tools had been put away soon after 5.15 p.m.; some of us saw the great man enter and immediately hammers, spanners, and any loose articles were picked up to commence a noisy belabouring of the bed-plate and face-plate of the machine. So violently was this attack developed that Worsdell stopped in astonishment to see what really was being done. At this moment the works manager — G. Macallan—appeared, and I distinctly heard Worsdell say to him, "Whatever are they doing Mac?" That gentleman, in his falsetto voice, said "Well sir we are convertmg a surplus wheel-lathe into a cylinder-boring machine," proceeding to give an outline as to how it was to work. Worsdell stood in a somewhat bewildered attitude, and called out, "Stop the work!" turning on his heels and walking away with Macallan following him. The heavy hlows and rattling of tools soon ceased after their departure, and we stood, more or less, dumb-founded as to what the next move would be .. Just as the bell rang the foreman came up hurr iedly to say that no more work was to. be done on the conversion, as Worsdell considered the result would never be a good one.
Soon afterwards I was transferred to the erecting shop, and Worsdell meantime had oommenced his out-turn of new locomotives, and—as will be remembered—his first express engmes built at Stratford were the 562 class, known as the G 14 from the number of the works order.
As the work of building the first progressed, so the fame of G 14 increased, until on Friday nights (pay nights), immediately preceding the advent of the famous engine, the neighbourhood of the New Town, adjacent to the works, where various hawkers and purveyors of cheap provisions, fancy goods, etc., gathered, there were G 14 books, G 14 toffee, as well as a very popular G 14 rock, wherein a very elementary represention of a locomotive was incorporated in cross-section.
When at last 562 was ready, much to our admiration, it had bright brass mountings—an embellishment Stratford had lost sight of for many years; in fact, during Adams' time hands were put on to remove any brass fittings wherever they appeared. The engine was hauled out on tp the weigh-bridge, attached to its tender, steam raised, and early the following morning it went to Snaresbrook to fetch Worsdell to Stratford. The engine had been the subject of much discussion among the younger staff, who freely predicted trouble and misfortune to the new fangled ideas introduced, the chief among them being Joy's valve-gear-familiarly known as "Joyce's" ; and, sure enough, this was eventually the cause of a lot of trouble. The transverse shaft carrying the slipper blocks was a very clumsy iron casting; various forms were advised, different materials were used, but they frequently broke. The first to break was on No. 564 engine, and as a temporary solution a distance piece was fitted and bolted through the quadrant until they were replaced by cast steel and no more trouble occurred. Another failing was the connecting rod, at the point where motion was taken for the valve gear. However, 562, after a few years service, lost its " Joyce's" gear [sic] and was refitted with Stephenson's link motion.
The splashers over the driving wheels (made in one piece, with a door between, on one side, to get to the Westinghouse pump) were never popu- lar, and when the engine had the valve gear changed it re-appeared with separate splashers and the pump visible, which was much more to our satisfaction.
Another novelty on 'Some of the engines was a feed-water heater, which was arranged round the blast pipe, the water being delivered into a space provided round the casting; hence it was conveyed to the boiler. This arrangement was, however, soon proved unsuitable. The water deposited its impurities inside the annular space and this became a solid mass inside, necessitating frequent cleaning, etc. The fireboxes were over deep and the grates were raised about 10 in. from the foundation ring. Having rigid spring hangers they were rough riders for the men on the footplate, and spring boards were provided to stand on.
The G. 14 class were short-lived. Twenty were built in 1882-3, and the first was scrapped in 1895, the last in 1901. Not a long life for such important looking machines. I attribute much of their ill success to the valve gear, which was not only troublesome in its details but extravagant in fuel.
The screw reversing gear took 32 turns of the wheel from fore to back gear.
While making these notes I may also remark on the interregnum period of 1881, between the resignation of Bromley and the advent of Worsdell, matters were, for a time, in charge of Ghillies, the chief stores-keeper. Whatever his instructions may have been, the shortage of stores and material was assigned by the staff to the fact that he was a Scotsman. I believe there was not more than a few pounds of copper in the stores when Worsdell arrived.
It is only fair to the memory of Worsdell to say that he was a most progressive and far-seeing man, although what benefits the old G.E.R. reaped from his projects I am unable to say. At a meeting at the Mechanic's Institute he once said that Stratford was "under a cloud" when he came there. He outlined a vast scheme for new shops, taking up the whole of the then vacant land, now covered with carriage sidings, engine sheds, etc., on the New Shed, or "Spike Island" side.
A second-hand rolling plant for bar iron had been laid down in the forge, and an old 0-6-0 1?"oods engine, No. 227, rigged up to drive it, but he soon 'scrapped this 'Outfit and laid down gas furnaces and hydraulic presses for flanging, etc., and these were a great success. When James Holden came as Locomotive Superintendent, the urgent need for extension was acted on, and rebuilding and refurnishing of existing shops proceeded with until the satisfactory position he brought them to matured. It was at this time that we " Stratfordians" learned the possibility in many ways of "making something out of nothing." Scrap was used up, re-modelled and returned to service, whilst many discarded machines were re-conditioned for further use.
The scrap-heap was located in the space now occupied by the coffee-room facing the main sta- tion approach. Much to our delight, we young- sters, when looking over this heap of old material, details, etc., found many interesting bits, such as number plates, etc., from bygone engines. I well remember one in particular which had belonged to one of the old Blackwall Ry. engines, a piece of the splasher which, after cleaning, revealed the original royal blue these engines had been painted.

G.V.O. Bulkeley. 163
Appointed Director of Transport in Nigeria, and under the new organisation would assume executive control of the Government Rly., Ports and Marine services.

T.F. Mitchell. 163
Assistant district loco. supt. L.M.S.R., Bank Hall, has been appointed assistant, office of supt. of motive power, Euston, and is succeeded at Bank Hall by . G.W, Miller, running shed foreman at Preston.

Tandem-compound goods locomotive, Cape Govt. Rlys. 164. illustration
2-8-0 built by American Locomoticve Co. at Schenectady in October 1902

An old ballast engine, L. & S.W. Rly. 164.  diagram
Drawing based on photograph of G. England & Co. 2-4-0 bult in 1865.

Spring passenger services. 165
From 4 May "The Roynl Scat" (10.00 from Euston) accelerated ten minutes to both Glasgow and Edinburgh, the new arrival times being 17.45. at Glasgow (Central) and 17.50 at Edinburgh (Princes Street): The Flying Scotsman" (10.00. from King s Cross) was five minutes faster to both Edinburgh and Aberdeen, and two minutes faster to Dundee.
The largest individual acceleration was of the "Mid-day Scot" which leaves Euston at its old timing of 14.00. instead of 13.30 and arrived at Glasgow (Central) at 21.35 and Edinburgh (Princes Street) at 21.55, the whole of the 30 minutes later start being made up by faster runrung throughout. On the inaugural run of the new schedule the engine employed throughout was 4-6-2, No. 6212 Duchess of Kent with a train of 14 vehicles (440 tons). In spite of five separate permanent wav slacks Crewe was reached. two minutes early—158 miles in 161 mins. At Crewe two vehicles were added, the train taring 493 tons, and the next stage to Lancaster, 72 miles, was run in 77 min. (56.1 m.p.h.). From Lancaster to Penrith, 51¼ miles, the start to stop speed was 5l.3 m.p.h., the minimum speed at Shap Summit being 27.5 m.p.h. The 17¾ miles Pcnrith to Carlisle were run in 18½ mins. with a maximum speed of 85 m.p.h. The first stage of 102½ miles from Carlisle to Glasgow, with the Glasgow portion of the train of 277 tons only, was covered in 114½ min. (11 mins. less than schedule) notwithstanding a signal stop at Lamington and slows for permanent way operations. On Beattock bank the minimum speed was 34.5 m.p.h., the 10 miles to the summit being covered in 15 min. 8 secs.
A new express leaves Euston at 13.30 for Warrington , Preston, Blackpool and Lake District stations, saving between 13 and 47 minutes.

The Great Western Railway introduced new expresses on weekdays and Saturdays during May and June. The daylight service with the Channel Islands which commenced on 30 May included a boat express leaving Paddington at 08.30 each weekday for Weymouth Quay, and in the reverse direction passengers reach Paddington at 19.30 instead of at 20.10

Obituary. 165

Death on 1 May 1936 of Sir Philip Nash,
K.C.M.G., C.B., M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., in his 61st year. Starting as an apprentice at the Grantham Works of Richard Hornsby & Sons, he later joined the locomotive department of the Great Northern Railway at Doncaster. His next appointment was in the locomotive dept. of the East Indian Railway, later being transferred to the General Manager's Office. He was at home on leave when war broke out and obtained a position as a Director of National Filling Factories under the Ministry of Munitions in 1915. Sir Philip became Director General of Transportation of the B.E.F. in 1916 and Inspector General of Transportation to the British Armies on the Western Front in 1918.

Death on the 17 April 1936. H. Raynar Wilson in his 74th year.  165
Raynar Wilson started his railway career on the Midland Railway in the office of the superintendent of the line. In 1881 he was transferred to the Signal Dept. and became Indoor Assistant to the Signal Supt. In 1889 he was appointed Signal Supt. of the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway and in 1901 took up the British agency of the Hall Signal Co. of the U.S.A. This system of automatic signalling was installed between Alne and Thirsk on the N.E.R. main line. He also introduced the long-burning oil lamps for signals in 1903. As the business was not a success Wilson took up journalism and though a special contributor on signalling and other railway matters he was recognised as an authority on various subjects. His books include Railway Signalling (1900), Mechanical Signalling and Power Railway Signalling, The Safety of British Railways (1909), and Railway Accidents from 1825 to 1924.

[R.G.E. Vallantin retirement]. 165.
In January 1936 relinquished his position of Engineer in Chief of Material and Traction of the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway, from which he retired with the title of Ingenieur in Chef Honoraire, entered this railway in 1907 after a professional training at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole d'application du Genie Maritime followed by a period of service with the State as a marine engineer. His first appointment was in the Central Rolling Stock Dept., Locomotive and Tender Division, of which he became the Principal Engineer in 1912, and so remained until 1916 when he was appointed with the same official rank to the Department of Material and Traction, becoming Engineer in Chief in succession to Monsieur Marechal in 1919. Vallantin's tenure of office thus coincided with an epoch of important technical development on this railway; and it also fell to his lot to be- directly concerned with the vast reconstruction arising from the war and it aftermath, in which he exhibited a talent for organisation not less remarkable than his scientific and technical achievements. Ever receptive of new ideas, he was always ready to test devices of a promising nature, and the trials and experiments conducted under his auspices are classics of their kind in locomotive engineering; as an example of which we may recall his paper on Compound Locomotives presented at the February 1931 meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, of which he is an honoured member. We have on numerous occasions been indebted to M. Vallantin for information published in "The Locomotive," and it is therefore fitting that we now offer him our cordial good wishes on his retirement from the onerous labours of a great office held so long and so worthily.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 165
At the general mceting, on 23 April, the following candidates were elected. Members: Frederick Wm. Abraham, Asst. Divl. Supt. of Operation, L.M.S. Rly., Hunt's Bank, Manchester; Donald Fraser, Representative in China and Siam of the Metropolitan-Camrnell Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd., Vickers House, Broadway, S.W.1; Alex. Henderson Carnpbell Page, Chief Works Metallurgist, L.M.S. Rly., Derby; Herbert Raby Riley, Chief Mechanical Engineer, United Railways of Havana, Havana, Cuba; Wm. Sharrock Eccles, Asst. Workshop Supt. Mechanical Dept., Nigerian Rly., Ebute Metta, Nigeria. Transfer from Associate Member to Member: Alan Oswald Chalmers, Mechanical Engineer and Loco. Supt., Salvador Rly. Co., Ltd., Sonsonate, Rep. of El Salvador, C.A.; William Arrol Millar, Managing Director, The Clyde- Rubber Works Co. Ltd., Renfrew. Associates: Cecil Cyprian Higgens, Overseas Railway Specialist, The Eyre Smelting Co. Ltd., Tandem Works, Merton Abbey, S.W.19; John Whittle Holden, Engineer Controller, Quasi-Arc Co., Ltd., 15 Grosvenor Gardens, S.W.1.; Albert Henry Sornmer , Director (Works}, Messrs. D. Wickharn and Co. Ltd., Ware, Herts.; Arthur Frederick Webber, Engineer to British Iron and Steel Federation, Caxton House (East), Tothill Street, S.W.l. Associate Members: I. Hydari, Asst. Loco. and Carriage Supt., Nizam's State Rly., Hyderabad, Deccan; Thomas Reed, Loco. Shed Foreman, Sierra Leone Govt. Rlys., Sierra Leone; Hemendra Nath Mukerjee, Works Inspector (Carr. and ·Wagon Shop), Messrs. Burn and Co. Lrd., Howrah, Calcutta ; Denis Wm. Peacock, Draughtsman, Research Dept. (Engineering Section), L.M.S. Rly., Derby. Re-instatement of Graduate to Associate Member: Ross McLean Currie, Loco. Dept. S. African Rlys. and Harbours, Pretoria. Graduatcs: Mahmood Hassan, Special Class .vpprcru icc of the Indian State Rly" .. Jamalpur Works, East Indian Rlv.; Duvur Venkatrama Reddy, Probationer of the Indian State Rlys., Loco. Works, Southern Rly., Eastleigh, Hants; Alexander Marshall Postlethwaitc. Premium Apprentice, Loco. Works, L.:M.S. Rly., Horwich. Lancs.; Ko-Ming Tsui, Draughtsman, . Sir W. G .. Arrnstrong-Whittworth and Co. (Engineers), Ltd., Scotswocd Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne : Sudhindra Narayan Biswas, Pupil, G.W.Rly, Swindon; Frank Baldwin Clark, Supernumerary Running Shed Foreman, L.N.E.Rly., Loco. Dept., Neasden, ; John Norman Cox, Irnprover , L.M.S. Rly., Loco. Works, Derby; Arthur Harold Sinclair Marley, Pupil, LNER,. Doncaster : Jack Lillico Smith, Premium Apprentice, LNER, Cowlairs Works, Glasgow.

Correspondence. 166

Probable effects of electrification on steam traction. N.T.
In an enumeration of the anticipated effects of the State-aided railway electrification schemes under the above heading you omit two important benefits which the layman does not apparently anticipate, viz" the tendency for interruption of electrical train services through current failing as exemplified by the great "black-out" on the Southern a short time ago and the inadequate heating of electric trains in cold weather. In the latter connection it may be asked whether the LN,E,R, have considered the question of heating the through express trains on the Manchester-Sheffield route.
The benefits to be derived from the electrification of this line appear to be entirely problematical and, in the views of many railway officials with whom the writer has discussed the subject, are practically non-existent. It is very curious that after reverting to steam working on the Shildon-Newport line in Durham, the L.N.E.R. should again be found risking large capital expenditure upon electrification of the Manchester-Sheffield section.

Reviews. 166

Oil engines for road, rail and air transport. 3rd edition. London: Temple Press Ltd.
This 240 page manual of reference, published at a reasonable price, gives a comprehensive view of oil engines for road, rail or air use and should prove user ul to a very wide circle. The early chapters record the developments of the oil engine, followed by descriptions giving the principles of operation and constructional details of successful makes in various countries, suitable for road vehicles and railway rolling stock. Then there is a section on the types exclusively used for railways. The various auxiliaries, fittings, fuels and lubricants for such units are dealt with,

Famous British trains. R. Barnard Way. London: Ivor Nicholson & Watson
Books on railways are multiplying fast, but this one is something new, as although it is bound to please the railway enthusiast, it will also interest all who are fond of travel, as the style of the text is informative and entertaining and not at all technical. The author describes each of the famous named trains at present running in this country, giving their make-up and their speeds, and is up-to-date enough to include the L.N.E.R. Silver Jubilee and the G.W.R. Bristolian. Not only does he give particulars of the engines but explains in an attractive style the route over which the tourist is travelling with the gradients and speeds en route. He deals with all the main lines from Thurso to Penzance and also some interesting cross-country runs, like that of the Pines express from Liverpool to Bournemouth, the Devonian from Bradford to Kingswear, and of course the Sunny South from Liverpool and Manchester to Brighton, Hastings, Eastbourne and Ramsgate. The book is profusely illustrated with 60 photo. reproductions of the trains referred to, as well as several views of the beauty spots which they serve.

Questions, answers and descriptive diagrams of the locomotive. A.E. Jennings. Shrewsbury: Wilding and Son, Ltd.
This little book has been written with the object of providing students In the Enginemen's Mutual Improvement Classes with a guide to the practical operation of the steam locomotive. Although it does not profess to cover the whole field of the subject it will be found a great help as a preliminary treatise, It deals with the general description of the mechanism, and the best methods of quickly dealing failures, in easily understood language. The author describes the Westinghouse brake, the hot water combination injector, hot water and exhaust injectors, steam brake vacuum ejector and various lubricators. It should be a useful guide to those for whom it is written, and it evident much trouble has been taken to make the be reliable for reference.

The British Railways Press Office, 35 Parliament Street S.W.1,  166
Issued on behalf of the four main Iine railways, the 1936 edition of the booklet Facts about British Railways, The 32 pages of this booklet, which can be obtained free of charge, are a mine of information and contain, almongst many other interesting facts, column diagrams of railway receipts and railway expenditure and a map of the British railways showing the routes of the famous main line expresses.

Trade notes and publications. 166

The Crown Agents for the Colonies
Placed an order with the Drewry Car Co. Ltd. for one of their semi-enclosed rail inspection cars, together with two inspection trollies for service in the Federated Malay States.

Number 526 (15 June 1936)

The locomotive from vaious angles. 167
Editorial: the locomotive, as is the case with every other object which in any way lends itself to debate, acquires a different complexion in the mental vision of the several individuals considering it; the variations may be great, even to the extent of contradiction, and depend not only on the occupation and temperament of the individual, but also on the many complex factors influencing his mentality, such as, for instance, the degree of tolerance he possesses.
Irrespective of whether steam, fuel oil or petrol, electricity, or any other form of prime mover be employed, the basic function of the locomotive in railwav service is to haul the maximum load over the greatest possible distance, in a given period of time, in what is ultimately the most economical manner. This, very properly, is the light in which the locomotive is regarded in managerial circles, but it is only natural that other views should be held by those whose opinions are influenced by purely departmental considerations. The true assessment and welding into a homogeneous whole of these frequently divergent views is one of the functions, not always enviable, of management; unless insular views are corrected by some such process of co-ordination, inefficiency of working is certain to ensure with all promptitude.
The departmental view of the traffic man with regard to locomotive power approximates more closely to that of the management than that of any other. He is accustomed to measuring the efficiency of the locomotive, in so far as he himself is directly affected, in terms of either train miles or ton-miles worked per engine hour, accordmg to whether passenger or freight traffic is under consideration, and usually regards failures WIthout either sympathy or understanding. Failures are equally anathema, but in a more personal sense, to the locomotive man, but he, on the other hand, does understand at any rate the great majority of them; he realises that, as long as the human element influences the matter they, like the poor, will always be with us, and therefore seeks to increase the mileage run between failures, not only technically as regards design, methods of manufacture and maintenance, but also by improving the efficiency of the staff responsible for the handling and repair of the engines. The running man has more than one standard by which he judges locomotive efficiency; these include, individually, consumptions of fuel and lubricants and costs of maintenance and his broad, or ultimate criterion is the number of hours in steam per engine per annum. Comparison of this latter with the units beloved of the traffic man at once shows that these views may be, and are valuable when studied in conjunction, but separately of limited used and, by their very narrowness, almost dangerous.
The works man is primarily concerned with the minimisation of costs as regards bath construction and heavy repairs; unchecked pursuit of this trend of thought results in high maintenance costs and the possibility of a degenerating standard of workmanship for. heavy repairs, quality being sacrificed to quantity m the event of the question of high output from works being allowed to dominate all else. To the youthful amateur railway enthusiast the colour scheme and style of lining adopted, the re1ative cleanliness of the paint work and the occa- sional breaking of a peak speed record, perhaps over a length of mute of a fraction of a mile only, are matters of the gravest importance. Other than a passim; interest in the number of wagons constituting the load of a mineral train, his usu- ally trivial and misguided interests are almost entirely confined to the engines engaged in the working of those trains which, in certain journalistic and literary circles, are inevitably designated "crack." Time, however, is a wonderful healer, and in due course he develops into a respectable, law abiding citizen.

London & North Eastern Ry. 167
The first V2 class, 2-6-2 type tender engines No, 4771 (Doncaster No. 1837) had been named Green Arrow. Doncaster Works had also completed the first two of the further series of P2 class, 2-8-2 express engines, Nos. 2003 Lord President, and 2004 Mons Meg. These would be followed by Nos. 2005 Thane of Fife and 2006 Wolf of Badenoch. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. commenced delivery of ten K3 class, 2-6-0 engines. No. 2417 was the first and stationed at Gorton. North Road, Darlington, had completed three more Bl7 4-6-0 class, Nos. 2856 Leeds United, 2857 Doncaster Rovers, and 2858 The Essex Regiment. The naming ceremony of No. 2858 was performed at the Exhibition of Rolling Stock at Romford on Saturday 6 June. Nos. 2848 to 2855 were allocated to Leicester and 2856 and 2857 to Neasden. Nos. 1526 and 1527 had been rebuilt as Class A8 and 1517 was being altered; this would make the class Hl, 4-4-4 tanks obsolete. Nos. 465-6 completed the order for 2-6-2 tanks for the N.E. area (Class V1).

2-6-4 type P.T. class broad gauge tank engines, South Indian Rly. 168-9. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Seven broad gauge locomotives supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd under inspection of Robert White & Partners.

Basingstoke & Alton Light Rly. 169
Since the passenger service on this line was withdrawn on 12 September 1932, a regular freight service had been worked from the Basingstoke end, as the junction at Alton was taken out. But from Monday 1 June all services were withdrawn and the intermediate stations closed at Cliddesden, Herriard and Bentworth and Lasham. All traffic would now be dealt with by road.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 169
The following engines of the 4-6-0 Silver Jubilee class had been completed and turned out at Crewe: Nos. 5702 Colossus; 5703 Thunderer, 5704 Leviathan, 5705 Seahorse, and 5706 Express. Two others are also nearing completion, Nos. 5707 Valiant and 5708 Resolution. The engines thus noted were all fitted with 3,500 gallon tenders, which had been transferred in exchange for new 4,000 gallon type from engines of the 4-6-0 Royal Scot class. In addition to those already noted, names had been given to the following earlier engines of the Silver Jubilee class, as shown: Nos. 5553 Canada, 5571 South Africa, 5574 India, 5587 Baroda, 5593 Kolhapur , 5596 Bahamas, 5602 British Honduras, 5604 Ceylon, 5607 Fiji, 5634 Trinidad, 5647 Sturdee, 5654 Hood and 5663 Jervis, Further Royal Scots re-named after British regiments were 6135 The East Lancashire Regiment, 6136 The Border Regiment, 6140 The King's Royal Rifle Corps, and 6146 The Rifle Brigade. The 6 ft. 2-4-0 straight link class engine Engineer Watford, which was condemned in the latter part of 1935, had been finally broken up at Crewe. Other withdrawals included large-boilered 4-6-0 Claughton No. 5993; 4-4-0 Precursor class superheater Nos. 5270, 5296 and 25187; also 4-4-2 Precursor tank No. 6797. The following 0-8-0 class G1 mineral engines had been rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers:-Nos. 9078, 9158, 9173, and 9282. The latest 2-6-4 passenger tank ex Derby was 2447.
On May 4 dynamometer car trials were commenced between Euston and Glasgow and vice versa of the experimental turbomotive engine No. 6202. For these trials, which were expected to afford valuable comparative data as to the relative performances of the turbine-driven and the orthodox Pacific engines of similar boiler capacity, the 10.0 a.rn . up and down Royal Scot trains were utilised in both directions, with loads of between 475 and 560 tons over different stages of the through journey.
On the second day of the trials No. 6202 took a load of 500 tons tare from Symington to Carlisle (66.9 miles) in 68¼ minutes (58.3 m.p.h.). Southwards over Beattock Summit (in which direction the ascent is considerably easier than when travelling north) the minimum speed was 39 m.p.h. on the final two miles rising at 1 in 99, the maximum subsequently attained being 77½ m.p.h.; the 49¾ miles from Beattock Summit into Carlisle were run in slightly less than 46 minutes.

Lynton & Barnstaple Railway.  169
The last of the locomotives of this line, No. 188 Lew, was still at work removing the track. When the dismantling is completed the engine will be re-conditioned and shipped to Brazil, for service on a private narrow gauge line.

4-8-0 locomotive, Jamaica Govt. Railway. 170-1. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Built by Nasmyth Wilson & Co, to the requirements of P.M. MacKay, Locomotive Superintendent under the inspection of the Crown Agents. Built with bar frames, 3ft 10in coupled wheels and 19 x 26in cylinders, 190 psi boiler pressure, 33ft2 grate area and 2378ft2 total heating surface.

Passenger tank locomotives, North Western Rly., India. 171-3. 2 illustrations, diagram
Class XT 0-4-2T with outside cylinders activated by Caprotti valve ghear and poppet valves. All components sought minimum weight.. Weight in working order was 41.43 tons with a maximum axle limit of 13.5 tons. Belpaire firebox; working pressure 210 psi, total evaporative heating surface 578.5ft2 plus 144ft2 superheat. 5ft 6in coupled wheels. Built by Friedrich Krupp AG to the inspection of Rendel, Tritton & Palmer.

A French steam railcar. 173. diagram (side elevation & plan)
ANF Les Mureaux vvehicle capable of 72 mile/h or 68 mile/h with a trailer. Four two-cylinder compound engines acted on each of the four axles (thus all axles powered). The cylinders had a stroke of six inches and four or seven inch diameter depending on pressure. There were two oil-fired Doble boilers operating at 1010 psi. The Sentinel-type vehicle weighed 48 tons.

2-10-2 locomotive South African Railways. 174 + folding supplement
The Supplement provided detailed working drawings of the locomotives designed by A.G. Watson and built by the North British Locomotive Co. with 21 x 24in cylinders activated by rotary cam poppet valves

An old East & West Junction Railway engine. 174. illustration
Beyer Peacock 0-6-0ST WN 1830/1870? with 4ft 3in coupled wheels and 16 x 22in cylinders. It had running number 1 and retained this when sold to the Rother Valley Colliery Co. in 1891, but subsequently was renumbered 0 in 1925. It received a new firebox and tubes when overhauled by the Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1910

Streamlined 4-6-2 type loco., Pennsylvania Railroad. 175-6. 2 illustrations
K4S class with 27 x 30in cylinders, 250 psi boiler pressure, 69.9ft2 grate area and 5919ft2  total heating surface. Wind tunnel tests had been conducted at New York University on models. The liery was dark bronze with gold letters and numerals

Bishops Castle Railway. 176
State of dismantling: rails had been removed between Bishops Castle and Eaton, No. 1 tamk engine was at Plowden and Carlisle was at Eaton on demolition work.

New name-boards for L.M.S. signal boxes. 176
Boards to be pllaced at each end of signal box painted with white letters on a black background

Diesel-electric railcars Provincial Railways of Buenos Aires. 176-7. 2 illustrations, diagram (elevation & plan)
Sulzer Brothers of Winterthur, Switzerland supplied four metre gauge vehicle capable of running at up to 50 mile/h and seating 43 second class and 20 first class passengers. It was tested on the Brunig Railway before being exported

Whitby & Pickering Railway Centenary. 177.
Opened to passenger traffic on 26 May 1836 with horse-drawn carriages between Whitby and Grosmont. Talk to be given by R. Underwood, son of one of the founders on British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) on 25 May.

Shropshire & Mongomeryshire Railway. 177
Site of course of connecting line from Abbey Foregate station to LMS and GWR Joint line sold to Shrewsbury Town Council.

[LNER]. 177
Colour light signalling to be extended from Shenfield to Chelmsford.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Silver Jubilee Summer Meeting in Germany. 178-81. 10 illustrations, map
Over one hundred members of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers left London by the Hook of Holland service on Fnday, May 22, for a visit to Germany. An excellent crossing from Harwich to the Hook was made by the S.S. Amsterdam. The party left the Hook at 6.40 a.m. in a special train consisting of three cars with a restaurant car hauled as far as Utrecht by No. 1828, a standard 4-4-0 built by the Werkspoor in 1906 for the former State Railway Compapy. At Utrecht the special train was attached to the regular Amsterdam-Basle express. Entering Germany at Cranenberg, the members were met at Cleves by Dr. R. P. Wagner, Herr Fritz Rohrs, of the Locomotive Department of the German National Railways, and Herr M. Gercke, formerly of the M.A.N. Co. A special stop was made at Ehrenbreitstein, opposite Coblentz, where the party detrained and crossed the Rhine by ferry, where they joined the steamer Vaterland for a seven-hour journey up the river to Mainz. Here the night was spent and on Sunday morning two special cars and a Mitropa restaurant car conveyed the party through beautiful country via Frankfort to Munich. The train was made up of 16 cars, about 650 tons, from Treuchtlingen, where the change from steam to electric traction is made, two locomotives being necessary. Monday morning, May 25, was spent at the Reichsbahn Locomotive Repair Shops at Munich-Freimann. The dismantling, repairing and re-erecting of all types of steam and electric locomotives were being carried out here. The symbol of the " German Workers' Front" (Deutsche Arbeiterfront), a Swastika in a gear wheel with "100%" below was mounted on the end of the .boiler shop. During the 'visit' a hooter sounded and all the employees ceased· work for about twenty minutes. Whilst partaking of their food loud speakers broadcast classical music. Another hooter sounded and work was immediately resumed.
The turbine "Pacific" No. T18.1002 built by Maffei several years ago was seen undergoing minor modifications. In matters of general interest mention should be made of the erecting shop traverser, rated at 200 tons load and travel- ling at 10 m.p.h., also of the welding of copper stays in the copper fireboxes, some being welded throughout, thus providing entirely flush surfaces inside. Copper wire is used with an oxygen and gas flame, and when the local firebox surface had been made red hot for about 3 in. around the stay position, the wire was melted over the stayhead, and the latter then solidly hammered down; three men work together on this. Following a visit to two of the famous Munich breweries in groups, the whole party joined a special train hauled by a M.A.N. 1,500 h.p. Diesel-engined motor locomotive No. 16.101 of the 2-6-2 type, built by the Krauss-Maffei Co., which left Munich at 1.20 p.m. for Augsburg. The 38 miles journey was covered in as many minutes. This locomotive is fitted with the Voith turbo-drive, and is in normal service. Most of the party had an opportunity of riding in the cab and engine room.
At the M.A.N. works the visitors were received by Herr Becker, who gave an address in English and reminded them that they were at the birth- place of the Diesel engine and gave an outline of the activities of his company. In the works there are no less than 40 test beds and engines can be built up to 25,000 h.p. The party were entertained to tea, and Mr. W. A. Agnew, late chief mechanical engineer of the London Transport Board, expressed the thanks of the Institution for the cordial reception they had received. After the visit the party travelled to the Town Hall, where in the Golden Room, Herr Mayer, the Burgomaster, welcomed the visitors and Dr. Hellmann, President of the Augsburg division of the Reichsbahn, also spoke. The speeches were replied to by Mr. Agnew.
After a tour of the city, and dinner at the " Restaurant 3 Mohren," the party returned to Munich in the special Diesel-engined train. Tuesday was devoted to an excursion to the Bavarian Alps. A glass observation electric rail- car went ahead with the first party followed by the ordinary electric train. At Weilheim the second party changed over from the train to the railcar, which was timed up to 100 km. in places. The driver and guard both had front seats. The' train locomotive of the 1-Do-l type was fitted with hot and cold water supply for the engine- men. At Garmisch-Partenkirchen a stop was made for an excursion to the Partnachklamm waterfall. At Garmisch the party transferred to the privately owned Zugspitzbahn. As far as Grainau the train of four coaches was worked by adhesion, but at the latter place it was divided and each half pushed by a four- wheeled rack locomotive to the Schneefernerhaus (8,692 feet). The last 2¾ miles are in a tunnel and from the terminus one walks out into the open well above the snowline. After lunch, the ascent to the Zugspitz summit was made in a funicular suspension car. The views from this—the highest peak in Germany (9,730 feet)—were indeed superb, fitful glimpses being obtained amidst breaks in the fleeting clouds of adjacent Austrian valleys bathed in sunshine, and the beautiful Eibsee below, encircled by pine forests. On Wednesday morning the party left Munich for Nuremberg, where another of the M.A.N. works was inspected. This visit was of special interest as this was the first rolling stock works in Germany, and was started as the direct result of the opening of the Nuremberg-Fiirth Rly. with Stephenson's locomotive Der Adler. The use of welding in carriage frame and body constructionwas fully in evidence, with ingenious jigs for bringing the constructions into correct welding position. From here the party went in two groups, one section touring the city and the other visiting the Railway Museum. The collection here was started by the Administration of the Royal Bavarian State Railways, which is now incorporated in the Deutsche Reichsbahn. The visitors were much impressed by the array of models made in the railway shops, and showing every important type of locomotive, carriage and wagon which had been used on the Bavarian lines. These were supplemented by models of the latest locomotives and stock of the German National Railways. Many historical locomotives and carriages are preserved, as well as the complete replica of the original train which was built for last year's cen- tenary celebrations. The collection of loco. details, signalling equipment, old and new, and other matters, especially old railway 'uniforms—all had their share of attention. Some members travelled to Nuremberg on one of the new high-speed electric trains, consisting of two close connected bodies, similar in general design to the "Flying Hamburger" type, but larger in dimensions. On this occasion a trailer was attached, and long stretches of line were covered at 80 miles per hour.
On Thursday a special 300 H.P. Diesel-electric railcar and trailer was used for the sight-seeing excursion from Nuremberg via Ansbach Dombuhl to Dinkelsbuhl, thence to Rothenburg and back to Nuremberg. Both Dinkelsbuhl and Rothenburg are regarded as unspoilt gems of mediaeval architecture. At Dinkelsbuhl the members were surprised and delighted at being received on the platform by the historical « Kinderkapelle " (Children's band) of the town, who played the visitors to the Town Hall, where an address of welcome was given. After walking through the old streets here, and lunching, the car went on to Rothenburg, where an interesting afternoon was spent. The return journey was made via Steinach, the usual speed being about 95 km. per hour. The Jubilee dinner of the Institution was held at the Grand Hotel, Nuremberg, when the President, Mr. W. A. Stanier, C.M.E. of the L.M.S. Rly., took the chair. The Burgomaster of Nuremberg was among the guests and made a felicitous speech.
On Friday two special cars and a restaurant car were placed at the disposal of the party for the journey from Nuremberg to Berlin.
Outside Berlin the new high-speed 4-6-4 streamlined tank engine described in our last issue was observed; the upper part of the cowling is painted yellow.
Arriving in the capital, the visitors were taken to the Grunewald Testing Plant. After inspecting the locomotive and train prepared for their journey to Hamburg on the following day, various testing cars of great interest were shown, particular atten tion being directed to one for testing oscillations. This was provided with some very ingenious fittings which could be attached to any point of a locomotive or other vehicle to record movement on to the oscillatograph. Two new heavy tank engines for 60 m.p.h. speeds were seen. One was a definite 2-10-2 (or l-E-l) tank engine by the Berliner Maschinenfabrik, with a new form of Krauss-Helmholtz truck, but the other was not so easy to define, as the coupling rods only cover three driving axles, the end ones being connected by internal gearing; it could therefore be defined as a l-ACA-I.
The banquet given by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in honour of the visitors was held on Thursday evening at the Central Office in the Voss Strasse when Dr. J ulius Dorpmuller, Director General of the German National Railways, was present. A most enjoyable evening was spent. A telegram from Chancellor Adolph Hitler was read, cordially acknowledging one which had been sent him from Nuremberg.
The tour culminated in a most interesting test run from Berlin to Hamburg and back, made specially for the occasion by an experimental high-speed steam train. Engine No. 05.002, a streamlined 4-6-4 tender locomotive painted dark red and built by Maffei (Makers' No. 14553) last year with a dynamometer car and two of the latest 1st and 2nd class composite cars formed the train-a total weight of 137 tons. In both directions intermediate stops were made to enable certain members to ride on the engine footplate. The running throughout was excellent the maximum speed attained being 188 kilometers per hour (117.5 m.p.h.). For many miles the speed was between 160 and 180 km.p.h. and the perfect riding of the coaches and the locomotive caused universal comment. The drawbar pull at this speed was about 2,000 lb. The driver's time-table was shown on passing points in decimals of a minute. The track is extremely good, the alignment being excellent, and curves most carefully arranged with transitions and super-elevations so as to be nearly equivalent to the straight track; the depth of ballast is 30 to 40 inches.
At Hamburg, the party were entertained to lunch by the Reichsbahn.
On Sunday, May 31, the members journeyed by road to Potsdam, viewing on the way the elaborate arrangements being made for the Olympic Sports to be held at Berlin this summer.
Returning to Berlin at midday the party immediately left by the Hook boat train, to which two special coaches and a restaurant car were attached. Crossing again by the Amsterdam from the Hook to Harwich, the members returned to England.
The visit was in every way a success, for which tribute must be paid to the secretary, Major H. A. Harrison, and the committee, Messrs. H. E. Geer, L. J. LeClair, and J. F. B. Vidal, and to the help and assistance so generously given by Dr. R. P. Wagner and his colleague, Herr Rohrs, as well as Herr M. Gercke; the members, one and all, appreciated, however, that but for the generous hospitality and facilities accorded by the Administration of the German National Railways, it would have been quite impossible to have seen so much in so little time and in such comfort.

Narrow gauge articulated locomotive, National; Rys of Mexico. 181-2. illustration
2-6-6-2 supplied by the American Locomotive Co. in Schenectady: four 15 x 22in cylinders activated by Baker valve gear: 52.5ft2 grate area and 3129ft2 total heating surface (including superheater). Built in 1930 for the Mexico City-Toluca section, where there are long grades averaging 1 in 28.5, combined with curves. See also crrection p. 221.

Three-cylinder 2-6-2 express locomotive, L. & N.E. Rly. 182. illustration
V2 class No. 4771 Green Arrow illustrated

A recent "heavy" bogie design. 183-5. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Double truss type with coil elliptic spring arrangement: used on tenders supplied by Beyeer Peacock for export to Central Railway of Peru

Early compounds of the P.L.M. Railway. 185-8. 3 diagrams (incuding side elevation)
Design evolved under Henry and mainly Vallencien in the rebuilding of Bourbonnaise 0-6-0 goods engines as 0-8-0s by the addition of an extra axle, larger boilers and four-cylinder compounding. The article states that was a highly satisfactory modernization. It is based on an article written by Vallencien which appeared in Revue Générale des Chemins de Fer in September 1898.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 188-90. illustration, diagram, table
Coal consumption of the 421-460 and 501-505 series of 4-4-0 on non-sstop runs between Amsterdam and Bentheim. 2-4-0T designed by Werkspoor for the Haarlemmermeer local railways. Light weight inside cylinder design.

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. 191-2. 4 diagrams
Patent GB 315/1858 for axleboxes dated 19 February 1858.

Electric traction activities at the Witton Works of the G.E.C. 192-4. 2 illustrations
Visit during the Institute of Transport Congress in Birmingham to the General Electric Co. Ltd Works at Witton. Output included switchgear, traction motors including their testind especially for temperature rise. Resent sales included those to the LMS for Stonebridge Park Power Station and for motor coachers for the Watford service, London Transport dc motors, 1500V dc equipment for the Manchester Siouth Junction & Altringham electrification and locomotives for the Indian State Railways.

Great Western Railway. 194
New engines completed at Swindon were 4-6-0 express engines Nos. 5046 Clifford Castle, 5047 Compton Castle, 5048 Cranbrook Castle, 5049 Denbigh Castle; 0-4-2 tanks, Nos. 4870-4; 4-4-0 tender engine No. 3201; 0-6-0 goods tanks, Nos. 9778-9 and also Diesel shunter 0-6-0, No. 2, built by the English Electric Co. and R. and W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. for Acton goods yard. Two new classes of engines were under construction to take the place of the 2-6-0 type engines which were being withdrawn. Ten of the new 4-6-0 engines known as the Manor class will bear the following names: Nos. 7800 Anthony Manor, 7801 Ashley Manor, 7802 Bradley Manor, 7803 Boston Manor, 7804 Baydon. Manor, 7805 Broome Manor, 7806 Cockingion. Manor, 7807 Compton Manor, 7808 Cookham Manor, and 7809 Childrey Manor. The ten engines of the Grange class will be named: Nos. 6800 Arlington Grange, 6801 Aylburton Grange, 6802 Bampton Grange, 6803 Bucklebury Grange, 6804 Brockington. Grange, 6805 Brougton Grange, 6806 Blachwell Grange, 6807 Birchwood Grange, 6808 Beenham Grange, and 6809 Burghclere Grange. Engines condemned included 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 987, 989, 1755, 1892, 1922; 2-4-0 tank, No. 1420; 0-4-2 tank No. 1433; 2-6-0 tender engines, Nos. 2604 and 4356; 4-4-0 tender engines, Nos. 3286 Meteor and 3339 Sedgemoor.

The "P.R." universal grinding machine. 195-6. illustration
Churchill Machine Tool Co. machine for British Timken Ltd for manufacture of roller bearings

W.E. Carlisle. Jigs, fixtures and notes on production, 196-8. 5 diagrams.

The first Trans-Continental Railway, U.S.A. 198-9. illustration
On Monday 10 May 1869 a large number gathered at Promontory Point in Utah to celebrate driving the last spike joining the Union Pacific Railroad with the Central Pacific Railroad. The photograph shows Leland Stanford's special train: he was President of the Central Pacific Railroad.

Southern Railway. 199.
S15 class 4-6-0 Nos. 838 and 839, the first of a btach of ten had been completed at Eastleigh. Former Brighton engines capable of working on meeting Eastern Section loading gauge had a small yellow triangle painted on front buffer beam. Four Terrier tank engines Nos. W9, 10, 12 and 14 had been transferred from Isle of Wight back to the mainland and before summer season would be replaced by four O2 tank engines  to be numbered W14, 15, 16 and 33.
The following had been withdrawn: 0-4-2 No. 655; 4-4-0 Nos. 1017 and 1132; 0-4-2T No. 2290; 0-6-0 No. 3531 and 0-6-2T No. 2569: the last is the first Brighton radial tank to be condemned (being of the big-wheeled variety was presumably less suitable for goods work on which most of the radial tanks were employed).

Reviews. 200

Mechanical tests for engineering materials, A.E. Roberts, London: The Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd.
This 89-page book has been written to meet the need of the designer or draughtsman for a brief treanise giving concisely the methods and apparatus of the more usual forms of test. To the engineer who is unfamiliar with testing methods it will solve the problem of deciding what tests it is necessary to apply to the machine or structural part which he has designed and for which he wishes to ensure a satisfactory performance under the service conditions with which he is acquainted. The more frequently used tests and testing equipment are fully described, while some of the less frequently used forms of test, which may be important for particular applications are referred to briefly. The usual tensile bend, hardness and impact tests are described in some detail.

The outline of steel and iron Archibald Allison. London: H. F. and G. Witherby, Ltd.,
This is a book of 185 pages, which gives a brief outline of the manipulation of the whole of the iron and steel industry as it is to-day, and should be of great interest to the non-technical reader as well as the student. Mr. Allison .cornrnences his survey by dealing somewhat fully with the early production of iron, right up to the beginning of modern steel manufacture. He follows on with good accounts of the manufacture of wrought iron and the various branches .of the cast iron industry. Before considering the numerous inventions of the Victorian era for the production of steel, a chapter is devoted to the development of the blast furnace. Modern processes dating from the beginning of the present century, the "alloy age" it may almost be termed, deal with the electric furnace for melting steel, producing a very pure and high grade metal, as well as the new stainless materials. in which low carbon content is necessary. The book is well illustrated by photographs, and is to be recommended as a very interesting story of what are basic industries, upon which are founded not merely the enjoyment of the amenities, but even the means of life itself, in the sense of the trans- port of footstuffs and the means of clothing and housing, together with machinery, and its construction for every use in daily life. References are given to sources from which full details may be obtained of the matters mentioned.

Rambles around the Cambrian Coast, H.E. Page. London: Great Western Railway Co., Paddington Station.
The twenty rambles selected embrace some of the finest scenery to be found through the valleys and over the hills near the West Coast of Wales. The rambles are so arranged that they can be used for walking tours as shown on a diagram, the connecting points being indicated on the sketch maps by the number of the adjoining ramble in a circle. The routes described cover the coastal district between Pen- rhyndeudraeth and Aberystwyth. As usual with other G.W.R .. holiday publications there are plenty of excellent Illustratlions of the beauty spots, for which Mid-Wales is almost unsurpassed. The book is a handy size for the pocket.

Societe nationale des Chemins de Fer Vicinaux. Cinquantiieme Anniversaire 1884—1934.
Although only recently published this work is issued in commemoration of the Jubilee of the above system, of whose inception the 50th anniversary took place on May 28, 1934. It contains an historical notice of the development of the Society during that period together with the orations delivered at a special assembly at the Palais des Academies and at the inauguration of a memorial at the Society's headquarters in celebration of the event, The first line in the system, from Ostend to Nieuport (20 km.) was opened on 15 July 1885, followed by that from Antwerp to Hoogstraeten (38.5 km.) on 15 August of the same year. At the end of 1889, 35 lines totalling 704.2 km. had been put into service. These early lines were, of course, steam operated, but in October 1894 a short line of 11.1 km. was opened which was worked electrically, and henceforth both systems were simultaneously developed. By the end of 1913, 3,826.5 km. of steam lines and 409.8 km. of electric were in operation. Naturally the Society's lines suffered very severely during the war and at the end of 1918 only 1,865 km. remained in use, but so vigorously was reconstruction undertaken that nearly all the lines had been restored by the end of 1921, and by 1934 the extent of the system had reached 4743 km. A large number of motor 'bus services were also operated by the Society. The book contains many excellent illustrations of both rolling stock and personnel.

How the locomotive works and why M.P. Sells, Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
This practical little book will be of the greatest assistance to locomotive drivers and firemen, as well as running shed foremen and workshops fitters and erectors to improve their knowledge of the machines they have to operate and main- tain in repair. The text was written originally for the enginemen and drivers-in-training of the Nigerian Govern- ment Rly., of which system the author is chief mechanical engineer, but in its revised and amplified form it provides an excellent text book suitable for the use of members of improvement classes, to form the basis of lectures and discussion on the many practical points in locomotive maintenance and running, which actual experience has fount! desirable. Written in simple and clear language and profusely illustrated by drawings and diagrams, the book de- scribes the combustion of coal, discusses the duties of firemen and then deals with the boiler. Expansive working of steam, tractive effort, distribution of steam, valves and valve gear, brakes, lubrication, failures, and their prevention, are subjects for the remaining chapters.

Trade Notes. 200

Associated Locomotive Equipment, Ltd. 200
Associated Locomotive Equipment, Ltd. intersts identified with those of Caprotti Valve Gear, Ltd. F.J. Kuretschka was managing director of both companiues. The. offices of Associated Locomotive Equipment, Ltd. being transferred to 66, Victoria Street, bondon, S.W.l, the offices of Caprotti Valve Gears, Ltd.

Federated Malay States Railways. 200
Three articulated steam railcars for the Federated Malay States Railways (metre gauge) had been ordered by the Crown Agents for the Colonies from the Sentinel Waggon Works Ltd. The bodies, underframes and bogies to be supplied by the English Electric Co. Ltd.

Whitelegg & Rogers, Ltd. 200
In connection with the order placed by the South African Railways with Henschel & Son of Cassel for 24 Class 15E locomotives, these were to be fitted with Ajax patent steam operated firedoors supplied by Whitelegg & Rogers, Ltd. Similar firedoors were to be applied to the Beyer-Garratt locornotives under construction iby Beyer,Peacock & Co. Ltd. for the Nigerian Railways.

The Vulcan Foundry Ltd. 200
Supplying Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway with 24 se:ts of engine parts. Ajax grease Iubricating equipment was specified for 18 of these sets, made by Whitelegg & Rogers, Ltd.

Number 527 (15 July 1936)

The oil engine for rail transport. 201-3.
Paper read before the Royal Society of Arts by G. Mackenzie Junner, Editor of the Commercial Motor, discussed the Oil Engine and its influence on Road, Rail and Air Transport. Comparing it with the steam train, the oil engine cuts out an enormous bulk and weight of water and solid fuel; the rolling stock can be much lighter, thus reducing running costs and saving wear and tear on the track, and, to a certain extent, it means a saving in the cost of materials of construction, but this is counterbalanced by the need for a higher class of workmanship.
When the oil engine is at rest, there is no fuel cost, and it is always instantly available, not involving loss of time and wages while steam is being raised, whilst no stoking is required. The weekly boiler wash-out is abolished and refueling was, in many instances, carried out only once in seven days. In India and the United States, it is quite common to travel distances of 2,000 miles without a stop for re-fueling. From the maintenance point of view, a good oil engine can run 150,000 miles between major overhauls—equal to twice the distance achieved by a steam locomotive. A disadvantage is that the lack of flexibility which is a characteristic of the steam iocomotive has to be countered by the provision of electrical, hydraulic or purely mechanical transmissions. Electrical transmission is heavy and expensive. The hydraulic system is satisfactory, but proves proportionately dear for low powers, owing to the need for extra electrical equipment for starting, lighting, etc., the resulting cost being almost as much as for complete electrical transmission.
The less-powerful units perform satisfactorily with dry clutches and seven to eight speeds; clutches need not be excessively large, because wear is partly obviated by wheel slip. On a 17- ton railcar with a 12-cylindered oil engine, the wear of a clutch which would be normally em- ployed on a heavy lorry has proved negligible. For rail work, the limit of engine speed for normal running is about 1,500 Lp.m.; this may, however, soon be raised to between 1,700 and 1,800. Certain troubles may be caused by exces- sive cooling, and in one German railcar the cool- ing fan is connected through an automatically con- trolled clutch which cuts it out at low temperatures.
Shunting locomotives employing oil engines are being used to a fairly large extent, and here there would appear to be an important field for this power unit. It may be that large oil-engined locomotives will become popular, but owing to the present small demand and their more or less ex- perimental nature, they are excessively costly, while the questions of weight and wheel slip enter largely into the considerations.
France will, however, probably have the honour of launching the first oil-engined long-distance motor trains in Europe, when the new P.L.M. Paris-Mentone service comes into operation. Two locomotives, each developing 4,000 b.h.p., are being built. Each has two engines, in one case of French Sulzer make, and in the other of M.A.N. construction. It is expected that the journey, which at present takes 13t hours, will be reduced to a maximum of 12 hours.
Actually it was not until 1930 that the French railways took the oil engine really seriously. Since then, they have made up rapidly for lost time, and there are to-day probably more than 500 oil-driven railcars in service. A great diversity of opinion exists, however, as to the most suitable type for local or main line work. One type which is emerging as particularly useful is a 40-passenger car, having two 250 b.h.p. engines, and hauling a trailer for an equal number of people.
One of the important factors in the operation of oil-engined trains at high speeds will be the ability to stop them within reasonable distances. Such trains sometimes reach speeds of over 120 m.p.h., whilst rates in excess of 90 m.p.h. are common over long distances. Under railway- operating conditions, emergency stops from such speeds are quite likely to be required. As compared with the braking of a road coach, eight times as much energy may have to be dissipated through a single axle of a railcar, thus bringing to the front a difficult prohlem in the dissipation of the heat generated.
Oil engines were first considered for branch- line service and shunting, chiefly because of the potential saving from the engine being operated only as required, and having no stand-by losses, but the capital cost is usually higher than that of the steam unit. Therefore, to effect a real saving the mileage on oil must be considerable. Commencing with light single coaches, one development is towards articulated units of 700 h.p. or more, with several coaches to carry mails, a restaurant car, and accommodation for about 100 passengers. An example of this type is the Zephyr three-coach oil-electric unit operating on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Rly. This has an engine rated at 660 h.p., and carries 88 passengers and 22 tons of baggage and mails. The weight is 95 tons, and the average speed over 66 m.p.h. including stops. Similar units on other American lines carry less luggage and more passengers.
One of the best known European trains is the "Flying Hamburger." This has an engine of some 400 h.p. at each end. It carries 102 pas- sengers and runs non-stop between Berlin and Hamburg, a distance of 180 miles at an average speed of 77.4 m.p.h. Other fast oil trains are being used in Holland, Hungary, etc., and the main feature regarding all of them is their high average speed.
The employment of railcars will no doubt increase very rapidly as the railways gain experi- ence, but it is highly probable that two or three-car sets will be required rather than the single railcar, as in England, at any rate, the lines are so congested that it is difficult to work small units into existing timetables. One of the difficulties with branch-line services is sudden rushes of traffic, perhaps only on one or two days per week to suit markets, etc. Peak loads can fairly easily be met by adding coaches to a steam train, but with small oil units such additions are strictly limited, whilst duplication of the numbers of complete units for the sake of infrequent services would add considerably to the capital expendi- ture. A recent innovation is an arrangement whereby a separate engine can be used for each coach of a train, these being linked up to one or two control compartments. The system presents particularly interesting possibilities, and it would overcome the difficulty of adequate driving grip, but it is still in the development stage. Another move is to use bogie units, probably of the oil-electric type, resembling the completely electrically-driven sets employed on the Southern Railway. The generator could be installed in a compartment with a detachable roof-section to permit of its easy removal for overhaul. A train of, say, eight coaches, could then be made up with two units of three coaches and an additional two coaches between them, increased to three during peak hours. Such a development might compete with the third-rail system, which must involve huge electrical losses.
Railcars are now being built more on the principles adopted in motor vehicle construction than on what might be considered as normal railway practice. In this connection, one of the advan- tages of the two-stroke cycle engine is that, for the same power output, it weighs only 70 per cent. of the four-stroke type.
On branch lines, the importance of the railcar is its ability to provide far more frequent services than can be gIven by steam trains. Mr. T.S. Tritton, in a recent paper, quoted an example from Roumania, where a service, introduced in 1932, on a railway not running to capacity, was so successful that the cars paid for themselves in 14 months. The average daily revenue over one branch was doubled, although the fares had been halved. According to this authority, railcar costs per mile work out at about half those of the light steam train, the figures varying from 4d. per mile for the small cars of the County Donegal Railway to 1/- per mile for the several hundred cars on the French Railways.
It appears that the railcar engines will have to be made in powers up to at least 400 b.h.p., and with a weight of some 20 lb. per b.h.p. At present this is being achieved by four-stroke engines running at piston speeds of about 1,800 ft. per minute, but some makers consider that this is on the high side and that better results will be obtained from operating two-stroke engines with piston speeds below 1,500 ft. per minute. There is an additional feeling that the two- stroke unit for railcar work has been held up for so long on account of difficulties with the blower or air-scavenge pump, but much development work has been done recently in this direction, and a British maker has produced a rotary blower which, -it is believed, will stand up to its work satisfactorily. Whether it will continue to do so after, say, five years of service remains to be seen, but the signs are hopeful.
In Northern Ireland, it was found that local steam trains were handling an average of only one-third their useful passenger capacity, and it seemed that the introduction of railcars would prove beneficial. At first, petrol-driven units of small capacity were employed, but, of late years, much attention has been given to the oil engine, two cars of this type being put into service by the Great orthern Railway, the first in 1932, but the Gardner engine was introduced by the County Donegal and Clogher Valley Railways as early as 1931. Light trailer cars are now employed in many instances.
A further development here is the use of inter- changeable power bogies, which can be used for a variety of purposes, even including the haulage of light goods trains. The provision of such a bogie at each end obviates the need for turning the car, as the driver merely changes his seat. The G.N. Ry. of Ireland now employs articu- lated railcars carrying approximately 160 passen- gers, the total weight being 36 tons, a ratio of 4.45 seats per ton. In these cars the detachable power bogie employed is that made by Walker Bros. (Wigan) Ltd. The engine and drive are isolated from the passenger portion, although nearly half the weight of each passenger coach rests on the bogie. An advantage is that the units can be overhauled separately, whilst the excellent articulation permits sharp curves to be negotiated. In one type, also operated in Ireland, the power unit is placed between two coaches, pushing one and pulling the other, the transmission in this case being through a hydraulic coupling and an epicyclic gearbox. The unit carries 159 passengers, and the laden weight is less than 45 tons.
The number of railcars and shunting locomotives in England probably does not exceed forty, but the railways are now buying fairly rapidly, for railcars prove excellent in the case of shuttle services. One reason for the rapid development in France is that that country has a comparatively small coal industry, and much of the large trade with America is done per contra with oil. In the sphere of goods traffic, the initial cost of the very high-powered locomotives required will, until production becomes greater, to a large extent prevent steam locomotives from being discarded.

G.W.R. railcars. 203.
Two and a half years ago the Great Western Railway had one Diesel-engine railcar running 1,500 miles per week. To-day, this company has seventeen "streamliners" operating 132 daily services and travelling over 20,000 miles per week. All were built by the A.E.C. and, with the exception of the first single engined, experimental unit, all are propelled by twin engines developing 260 h.p., and capable of speeds up to 75 m.p.h. This year areas given new railcar facilities have included Weymouth, Salisbury and Bristol, Tenby, Carmarthen and Swansea, Monmouth, Pontypool Road and Newport, and Cheltenham, Swindon and Marlborough. The latest development has been the introduction of a Diesel-engined railcar parcels service between London, Reading and Oxford. Although all the A.E.C. "streamliners" are capable of speeds touching 75 m. p.h., in practice—with one exception—none is sched- uled to perform runs with speeds above 60 m.p.h. The exception is the 10.10 a.m. car from Weymouth to Bristol booked to run from Castle Cary to Westbury, a distance of 19.6 miles in 18 minutes, equivalent to a start to stop speed of 65.3 m.p.h. This is undoubtedly the fastest Diesel railcar run in Great Britain.
No. 1 with its single A.E.C. 130 h.p. engine, has for 2½ years travelled the Thames Valley route, with its average distance between stations of 3.45 miles, at an average speed of 34.9 m.p.h. including one run each day of 19¼ miles at 48.1 m.p.h. Its mileage to date is well over 130,000.

2-8-2 three-cylinder engine, L. & N.E.R.: "Lord President". 203-4. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
P2 with A4-type front end

2-6-2 three-cylinder locomotive, L.N.E.R. Railway; "Green Arrow". 204-6. diagram (side & front elevations)

2-8-2 type locomotuives, Kino-Tsi Railway, China. 206. illustration
Four locomotives built by Nasmyth Wilson & Co. Ltd. of Patricroft: see also page 238.

Northern Counties Committee, L.M. & S.R. 206
2-6-0 under construction at Belfast Works would be No. 98 King Edward VIII. No. 87, formerly No. 63 rebuilt as class V2 and named Queen Alexandra.

2-8-4 type locomotives. Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Railroad. 207. illustration
Four built by Lima Locomotive Works: Nos. 700 to 703. 25 x 30in cylinders; 5ft 3in coupled wheels, 250 psi boiler pressure

Summer train services. 207
From 6 July the Royal Scot would be scheduled for Euston to Gllasgow in 7½ hours: the fastest ever. Euston to Carlisle Kingmoor for change of enginemen; then stopped at Symington to detach Edinburgh portion

4-6-4 type express locomotives, Canadian Pacific Railway. 208. illustration
H1A class No. 2810 illustrated for Montreal to Toronto trains.

London Transport Board. 208
Had ordered [KPJ emphasis] from Associated Equipment Co. diesel engine railcars to run on Chesham branch; each to have two 130 h.p. six-cylinder engines; seat 70 passengers and have air-operated doors.

The Werry high speed locomotive. 208-9. diagram (side elevation), plan
From diagram not clear whether this proposed design was for a 4-6-2 as the coupled? wheels are obscured by the double acting cylinders over the centre coupled wheel which drive onto the leading and rear coupled? wheels

Edward G. Budd Manufaturing Co. 209
Atchison Topeka & Santa Fé Railway to purchase eight lightweight cars to perform Chicago to Los Angeles 2225 mile journey in 39 hours 45 minutes and being capable of a weekly round trip.

Doubling Trans Siberian Railway. 209
Section from Tarsk to Khabarovsk

Stainless steel car, A.T. & S. Fe Railway. 210. illustration
Atchison Topeka & Santa Fé Railway lightweight car manufactured by Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Co. Bogies included hydraulic shock absorbers and rubber insulation.

Railway Club. 210.
11 June E.C. Codd read Life in a bookin office described the Edmondson ticket system, the forms associated based on practice at Oxford station (GWR)

Southern Ry. 210
S15 No. 840  had entered service at Feltham. Nos. 838 and 839 were at Hither Green. Two Brighton I3 tanks Nos. 2088 and 2089 were at Salisbury for handling milk traffic.

Position of the locomotive engineer in railway organisation. 211-14. diagram
Designers and operators

Newry, Warrenpoint & Rostrevor Railway. 215-16. illustration
Very little information about the locomotives purchased by Dargan, but photograph and leading dimensions of Beyer Peacock 2-4-0T WN 2142/1882 Warrenpoint

[Closure of Piel branch by LMS]. 216
Barrow-in-Furness to Piel branch closed to all traffic on 6 July. Piel and Rampside stations closed

Lang Duplex surfacing & boring lathe for locomotive tyres. 216-17. illustration
Supplied to the Gorton Works of the LNER

London, Midland & Scottish Rly. 217
In view of changes recently observed in the allocation of tenders to "Royal Scot" and "Jubilee' 4-6-0 express engines, the following information provided by W.A. Stanier may be of interest. When the present tender exchanges and engine building programmes are complete, the types of tenders fitted to the 3-cylinder 4-6-0 Silver Jubilee class will be as follows: 5552, 3,500 galls. curved sided; 5553-56, 3,500 galls straight sided with coal rails; 5557-74, 3,500 galls. straight sided with coal rails (ex Royal Scot); 5575-84, 4,000 galls. curved sided; 5585-5606, 3,500 galls. straight sided with coal rails (ex Royal Scot) ; 5607-16, 3,500 galls. high straight sides in place of coal rails; 5617-41, 3,500 galls. curved sided; 5642, 3,500 galls. straight sided with coal rails; 5643-66, 3,500 galls. curved sided; 5667-94. 4,000 galls. curved sided; 5695-5725, 3,500 galls. straight sided with coal rails (ex Royal Scots); 5726-42, 4,000 galls. curved sided. Engines Nos. 5665 to 5742 were being built with steam domes on the boiler barrel and with the top feed fittings in a smaller separate casing a short distance in front. This arrangement will be incorporated in future engines of the 4-6-0 (5XP and 5P) and 2-8-0 classes.

L.N.E.R. "Silver Jubilee" train. 217
This train completed 100,000 miles on 2 July when it passed Hitchin on its northbound journey. Of this mileage 18,283 has been at the rate of over 80 miles per hour, and no time whatever has been booked against any of the locomotives employed.

Sheffield-Twinberrow Bogies, Gold Coast and Nigerian Rys. 217-18. 2 illustrations
Several metre gauge railways had adopted as their standard the Sheffield-Twinberrow diamond-framed passenger bogie, without headstocks. For the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge of the Gold Coast Railway the bogie illustrated by Fig. 1 had been built to the requirements of G.S. Simmons, chief mechanical engineer, and to the specification and inspection of the Crown Agents for the Colonies.

[Whitlock's End]. 218
New halt between Shirley and Grimes Hill opened by GWR on 6 July.

All-steel trains for Wirral electrification. 218
Electrification of the Wirral Section between Birkenhead Park, New Brighton and West Kirby: the L.M.S.R. placed contracts for 19 all-steel, three-car bogic electric trains, together with electric train equipment. It was hoped that the electrification scheme, undertaken as part of the programme of works covered by the Railways (Agreement) Act, 1935 would enable the running of through trains between the Wirral and Liverpool in conjunction with the Mersey Railway, would be cornpleted for the change-over from steam to electric traction by Easter, 1937. The new electric trains would be all-steel fireproof construction throughout. Contracts for the vehicles comprising the 19 trains had been placed by the L.M.S. with the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company, Limited, and the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company Ltd., while contracts for train equipment had been placed as follows:-
British Thomson Houston Company Ltd.: 19 sets of 4-motor equipment with roller bearings, 19 sets of control and heating equipment.
Westinghouse Brake and Saxby Signal Company: 19 sets of motor-driven air compressors and governors.
G.D. Peters and Co. Ltd.: 19 sets of equipment for the air-operated sliding doors.
The train sets would be of the fixed coupled type, each comprising a 3rd class motor car with 2 motor bogies, a composite trailer car, and a third class driving trailer car, a driver's compartment being provided at each end of the train. The trains could also run in 6-car sets. The seating capacity of each 3-car train would be 141 thirds and 40 firsts, in cars of the saloon type with wide gangways and large vestibules. The new stock would embodv the latest features and construoted of light high tensile steels, and aluminium alloys with steel body and roof panels, and fireproof floors. The underframes and bogies fabricated on the latest principles; to reduce traction resistance, roller bearing axle boxes to be fitted.
Two 3 ft. 9 in. wide doorways wil l be provided on each side of each car and air-operated sliding doors controlled by the guard will be fitted to ensure rapid loading and unloading of the trains. By this means, the time occupied at stations will be reduced to a minimum. Ample ventilation would be provided by sliding or hinged lights above the body side windows, while the electric heaters would be thermostatically controlled.
The major portion of the electrical gear will be carried on the motor car underframe, which would allow the maximum body-space to be used fer passenger seating. To save weight, the contour of the coaches had been reduced and will be somewhat after the style of the London Underground cars. Large side windows will be fitted, and the interior decoration below the waist will be carried aut in English brown oak in the third class portion and in Circassian walnut in the first class portion, with polished birch or sycamore veneered top
panels.

[Weed-killer train]. 218
A train fitted up for spraying the permanent way with weed-killer is being tested on .br anch lines of the L.:l1.S.R. Two old tenders have a combined capacity of 7,000 gallons of weed-killer solution, whilst another 2,700 gallons in con- centrated form are carried in reserve in tank waaons. The spraying apparatus is fitted in the brake van. The train is run at about 20 to 25 m.p.h. when the spraying is in operation. It is expected about three years' treatment will be necessary to reduce the growth of weeds.

Air-conditioning for the Commonwealth Railways. 219-20. 4 illustrations
J. Stone & Co. equipment for the Trans-Australian Railway service: initial installlation in lounge car; restaurant cars intended to follow.

Single-driver tank locomotive in Austria. 221
In the late 1890s more than 100 six-coupled tank locomotives were built for the Austrian State Railways for operation on secondary goods and passenger trains and formed a part of a series of over 250 engines built between the years l879 and 1905, during which time there was practically no change in design.One had been rebuily as a 2-2-2T capable of burning coal with an automatic stoker or oil and vwas intended for working light traijns in Carinthia. During trials over the 56- mile stretch from Vienna to Rekawinkel, with a ruling grade of 1 in 91, the rebuilt single-driver hauled a load of 50 tons at an end-to-end speed of 37 miles per hour, and up the famous Sem- mering incline, with a ruling grade of 1 in 40, it hauled 40 tons trailing at an average speed of 24 miles per hour.

[Pneumatic-tyred railcars]. 221
Two pneumatic-tyred railcars had been built by the Coventry Pneumatic Railcar Co. Ltd. for trial on the L.M.S.R. They were driven by 275 b.h.p. petrol engines, seat 56 persons, and had a maximum speed of over 60 m.p.h. The tare weight was 9.5 tons. A conning tower driving position was fitted at one end and was suitable for driving in both directions. The 12-cylinder Armstrong-Siddeley petrol engine developed 275 b.h. p. at 3,000 r.p.m. Three of the four axles of the driving bogies were driven, the engine torque being transmitted through a friction clutch, 4-speed epicyclic gearbox, cardan shaft, and reversing helical wheels to the first driving axle and thence by double roller chains to the second and third axles. The body was built up on a framing of aluminium sections, with panels and part of the roof plates of the same material.

Correction. 221
When describing the Mallet locomotive for the National Railways of Mexico on page 182, it was inadvertently mentioned in connection with the tractive effort, as "wcrlcing compound." This is obviously an error as the engine is a four-cylinder simple.

London & North Eastern Railway. 221
The order for B17 class, 4-6-0 locomotives, at the Darlington Works had been completed by the putting into service Nos. 2859 Norwich City, 2860 Hull City and 2861 Sheffield Wednesday. Engine No. 1499 had been rebuilt as a class A8 4-6-2 tank. Two of the next series of J39 (0-6-0) engines, Nos. 2995-6, were finished. Further K3 (2-6-0) engines from Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. were Nos. 2445, 2446, 2453, 2455, 2458 and 2465. One of the A2 class Pacifics, No. 2401, City of Kingston upon Hull, had been withdrawn from service.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 222-4. illustration., 3 diagrams (including side elevaion)
Heavy 0-6-0 with inside cylinders, piston valves and Stephenson link motion. Supplied from 19221. Fitted with Pintsch gas to illuminate cab and the tender.

English Electric Company. 224
Order from New Zealand Government Railways to supply six 2-car electric trains each accommodating 160 passengers and operating at 1500v DC to work between Wellington and Johnsonville.

Frichs diesel loco. for local services, Aalborg Ry., Denmark. 225-6.
Four-stroke 6-cylinder diesel engine with electric transmission

W.E. Carlisle. Jigs, fixtures and notes on production, 226-8. 8 diagrams.
Firebox sling and roof stays and safety valve seats

Canadian Pacific Railway. 228
Centenary of  arrival on Pacific Coast marked on 26 June when first train set out from Montreal Windsor station in 1886.

Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc., M.I.C.E., M.I.Mech.E. 229.
Knighthood

Electrification on the Netherlands Railways. 229
Further extensions to the National network

Diesel-electric rail coaches, Ceylon Govt. Railways. 229-30
English Electric to supply three four-coach trains mainly for the Colombo Fort-Galle-Matara section

Rail-inspection car with trailer with portable ladder. 230-1. illustration
Manufactured by Draisinenbau GmbH of Hamburg

A famous signal works. 231. illustration 
In view of the extensive additions and improvements made in recent years to the Chippenham Works of the Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co. Ltd., the accompanying aerial photograph is of interest.
This factory stands on thirteen acres of land close to Chippenham station of the G.W.R. The original. shops were built by Evans, O'Donnell ,&, Co., Railway Signal Engineers, in 1895. In 1903, Saxby & Farmer moved thereto their works from Kilburn. On amalgamation in 1920 of this firm with the Westinghouse Brake and Saxby Signal Co. Ltd., the works of McKenzie & Holland Ltd. were moved from Worcester to Chippenham. In 1933, the London works of the Westinghouse Brake Company were also moved to Chippenham.
Advantage was taken of these amalgamations and transfers to extend and re-equip the factory, keeping it up-to-date in. plant, equipment, and organisation. Here are produced power and mechanical signalling plant, compressed air, electro-pneumatic and vacuum brakes for railways, air compressors, steam heating, air and vacuum brakes for road vehicles, power decking and air lock control plant for collieries, and metal rectifiers in large numbers of all sizes.
Machinery in the various departments is motor driven, current being obtained from the National Grid, and transformed from 11,000 volts 50 cycles 3 phase, to 400 volts 50 cycles 3 phase in the factory sub-station. The total number of employees was approximately 2,150.

Great Western Railway. 231
New engines completed at Swindon Nos. 5050 Devizes Castle, 5051 Drysllwyn Castle, 5052 Eastnor Castle, 5053 Bishops Castle, and 0-6-0 goods tanks Nos. 9785 to 9792. Engines condemned included 0-6-2 tank No. 164 (R. & S.B. No. 25); 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 1284, 1770, 1809 and 1911; 0-4-2 tank No. 1478; 2-6-0 tender No. 2650; 2-4-0 tender Nos. 3216, 3223; 4-4-0 tender Nos. 3275, 3384, 3416 John W. Wilson, and 3424, also 2-4-0 tank, No. 359l.
The doubling of the 2¾ miles of line between Norton Fitzwarren and Bishops Lydeard on the Minehead branch had been completed.

Midland & Great Northern Ry. 231
The working of this line as from 1 October next would be taken over by officials of the L. & N.E. Rly. This railway is 183 miles in length, and extends from. Yarmouth, Cromer and Norwich on the east to Bourne and Peterborough on the west, with traffic headquarters at Kings Lynn, and works at Melton Constable.
The Norfolk and Suffolk Joint Rlys. extending from North Walsham to Crorner and from Yarmouth to Lowestoft would be included in the revised arrangements appertaining to the M. & G.N. line.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 231
Further engines of the 4-6-0 Silver Jubilee class turned out at Crewe were: Nos. 5707 Valiant, 5708 Resolution, 5709 Implacable, 5710 Irresistible, and: 5711 Courageous. As in the case of those previously turned out, these engines had been fitted with 3,500 gallon tenders ex Royal Scot class. The following additional Silver Jubilees had been named: Nos. 5561 Saskatchewan, 5585 Hyderabad, 5600 Bermuda, 5615 Malay States, 5621 Northern Rhodesia, 5635 Tobago; 5639 Raleigh and 5649 Hawkins. It is understood that the last four engiries of the above type to be built on this year's programme-Nos. 5739-42-are to be named Ulster, Mwnster, Leinsier and Connaught respectively. No. 5156 of the 4-6-0 two-cylinder mixed traffic type is to be named The Ayrshire Yeoman. Withdrawals included 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 25764 and 25842; 4-4-0 George the Fifth class No. 5353; and three 4-6-0 19-in. goods, Nos. 8713, 8775 and 8826. One of the ex N.S.R. class L 0-6-2 tanks-No. 2253 had been sold to the Woolmer Instructional Military Railway, Bordon. Of the same class Nos. 2246 and 2255 had been broken up at Crewe. New construction at Derby comprised further two-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tank engines, the latest built being No, 2451.

"Earl" class 4-4-0 locomotives, Great Western Railway. 232. illustration
New class of 4-4-0 tender engines for the Cambrian section of the G.W.R. is to be known as the "Earl" class. A number of the Bulldog class (34XX) and the Duke class (32XX) were being cut up, and to take their place the new engines had been built. The first ten of the class would be as follows: No. 3200 Earl of Mount Edgcumbe; No. 3201 Earl of Dunraven; No. 3202 Earl of Dudley; No. 3203 Earl Cawdor; No. 3204 Earl of Dartmouth, No. 3205 Earl of Devon, No. 3206 Earl of Plymouth; No. 3207 Earl of St. Germans, No. 3208 Earl Bathurst, and No. 3209 Earl of Radnor. The first three engines are already in service. They have 5 ft. 8 in. coupled wheels and 3 ft. 8 in. bogie wheels with inside cylinders 18 in. dia. by 26 in. stroke, and piston valves underneath. No. 3200 Earl of Mount Edgcumbe illustrated

Obituary. 232-3

Alexander Spencer
Death on 13 June 1936 of Alexander Spencer, Chairman of George Spencer, Moulton and Co., Ltd. Spencer served his apprenticeship on the Midland Railway at Derby and in 1880 joined the firm established by his father, George Spencer. For the past 17 years he has been chairman of the company, and he was also chairman of the General Railway Signal Co. Ltd. and of the Superheater Co. Ltd. He was a director of the Metropolitan-Cammell Carr.iage and Wagon Co, Ltd. and the Patent Shaft and Axletree Co. Ltd., and President of the Research Association of British Rubber Manufacturers. Spencer was a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society and a member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Many patents in connection with the use of rubber were taken out by him and he was also interested in the building of railway carriages and wagons.

Alfred George de Glehn.
The death occurred on 8 June 1936 at Mulhouse, Alsace, of Alfred George de Glehn, at the age of 88 years. de Glehn was born at Sydenham, the son of Robert von Glehn, who was a native of the Baltic Provinces and had settled in London. He went to France when his son was quite young and changed his name to de Glehn. Alfred de Glehn became technical head of the Societe Alsacienne at Belfort, and it was in this capacity that he was responsible 'for the design and construction of the first four-cylinder compound locomotive for the Northern Railway of France in 1886 (No. 701). This engine had two inside high pressure cylinders, driving the front crank axle, and two outside low pressure cylinders driving the rear driving wheels by outside cranks. The driving wheels in this case were not coupled. It will be remembered that the G.W.R. had three de Glehn Atlantics which were used on express services far over 20 years. Some large de Glehn compounds have been put into service on the Bengal Nagpur R. in recent years.

Kenneth Alfred Wolfe Barry
Death on  1 July 1936 of Kenneth Alfred Wolfe Barry, O.B.E., M.LC.E., senior partner in the firm of Sir John Wolfe Barry and Partners. Wolfe Barry was born in 1879 and educated at Winchester and Trinity College, Cambridge. When he joined his father's firm he was largely concerned in railway and dock works, notably the Bengal Nagpur and its harbour at Vizagapatam, and also the new Fish Docks at Grimsby. During WW1 he was assistant superintendent of the Munitions Factory at Gretna. .

William Ernest Dalby
Death of Professor William Ernest Dalby, F.R.S., on 26 June 1936 at the age of 73 The engineering profession loses an eminent and authoritative technical authority on the steam engiine. He was vice-president of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Emeritus Professor of Engineering at the University of London, and honorary vice-president of the Institute of Naval Architects. He had also been Dean of the City and Guilds (Engineering) College. Professor Dalby was trained in the shops of the Great Eastern and L. & N.W. Rys. and in the engineering department of Cambridge University. Among his writings the book on "The Balancing of Engines" considered the best yet compiled on the subject. During WW1 he did much confidential work for the Admiralty, War Office, and Air Board. He was also consulted by the railways on problems connected with locomotive balancing nd train resistances.

Correspondence. 233

H.B. Bowen, Chief of M.P. & Rolling Stock, Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
I wish to draw your attention to the article Locomotives of Mountain Section, Canadian Pacific Railway, by G. H. Soole, in LM 15 April issue.
In dealing with engine No. 8000, para. 3, page 102, the author was either ill-informed or he ignored the facts, with the result that the reader is given the false impression that the engine is "out of service" most of the time. This is not consistent with conditions as they really are, therefore, I feel urged to bring to your attention a few salient points, overlooked by the author or unknown to him, which should orrect any misunderstanding.
Built as an experimental project, construction of the engine was completed in May 1931, after which it was put through period of preliminary testing and observation on the comparatively level territory between Montreal and Smiths Falls, before being shipped to the Mountain Section for which it was designed. Because of its size and weight, it was necessary to ship the engine in a knock down state and re-ssembling was done in our Ogden shops at Calgary. In October of 1931, the engine entered its intended service of hauling (not pushing) heavy freight trains over the Selkirks between Field and Revelstoke, in which service it remained untiI the latter part of 1933. During this period of operation, extensive testing was carried on, many temporary experimental changes made and data collected. All changes were of such nature that they could be made by the engine maintenance staff at Revelstoke. The dynamometer car only accompanied the engine when special tests for fuel consumption, haulage capacity and indicating were in progress. With the information gathered during the various tests, a number of permanent changes, considered advantageous to both operation and fuel economies were decided upon, so the engine was moved into Ogden Shops to have this work done as this was an opportune time to make repairs to the firebox plate lining, which had warped considerably along the upper portion in the hottest zone of the firebox decision was nade to reconstruct the damaged portion using a special fireproof steel manufactured in England and not a German product as quoted by the author. Awaiting delivery of the special plates, etc., caused considerable delay to completion of the work and it was August 1934 before the engine was returned to service.
A few test runs were made, with the dynamometer car, to prove the efficiency of the changes which had been made and as results were fully up to expectations. the engine was placed in regular freight service, between Field and Reveltoke. It is pooled with engines of the 5900 series and is still in operation. manned bv an engine crew called for duty and maintained and serviced by the Revelstoke engine house staff.
After twenty-one months' service, the renewed firebox lining is stiII in excellent condition and no trouble is anticipated from this quarter. The regular general shopping for this engine will not fall due until the end of May 1937 when the engine will have competed thirty-three months' operation since August 1934, on what is considered to be the most gruelling service on Canadian Pacific Railway lines.

The First Trans-Continental Railway, U.S.A. C. Hamilton Ellis.
In connection with your article on the first American trans-continental railway, I am interested in your suggestion that the Silver Palace cars of the Central Pacific were more elaborate than the Pullmans of the Union Pacific. A decade or two later, the Central Pacific stilI had a reputation for superior rolling-stock, and even immigrants were allowed' the use of a kind of modified Pullman sleeper probably the genesis of the Canadian "colonist" car. For this I refer you to Robert Louis Stevenson's Across the Plains. Of the Union Pacific oars he wrote : "Those destined for emigrants on the Union Pacific are only remarkable for their extreme plainness, nothing but wood entering in any part of their constitution, and for the usual inefficiency of the lamps, which often went out and shed but a dying glimmer even while they burned. The benches are too short for anything ,but a young child. Where there is scarce elbow room to sit, there will not be space enough for one- to lie." Later in the essay he wrote: "The cars on the Central Paoific are nearly twice as high, and so proportionately airier; they were freshly varnished, which gave us all a sense of cleanliness as though we had bathed; the seats drew out and joined in the centre, so there was no more need for bed boards : and there was an upper tier of berths which could be closed by day and open at night."

Reviews. 233-4

Locos. of the Royal Road, W.G. Chapman, London: The Great Western Railway.
This is a companion book to the popular Cheltenham Flyer (1934) and Track Topics, which was published last year. It forms the seventh book of the "Boys of an Ages" series, sales of which are now over 170,000 copies. The present volume of 232 pages traces a century of G.W.R. locomotive development from the "North Star" to the 4-6-0 four-cylinder express locomotives of the "King" class. It also describes the component parts of the modern locomotive, and their various functions, the construction stage by stage of the engine and its motive mechanism. The text, which consists of a series of eighteen explanatory "talks," is lavishly illustrated by 142 photographs and line drawings. A new feature is the inclusion of a four-fold diagram in colour, of the interior of a "King" class locomotive in which various parts are numbered and named in an accompanying table.

North Pembrokeshire—a book for hikers. E. Roland Williams. London: Great Western Railway.
This little book for ramblers describes sixteen walks through. the interesting and delightful valleys and across the hills of North Pernbrokeshir e avoiding main roads when- ever possible. One section is devoted to routes in the Pre- selly Hills, whilst the other takes the walker down the valleys of the Gwaun, Teifi and Cleddau. There are two Pembrokeshires, with distinct geographical factors, language and tradition—the northern is the Welsh and hilly half, while "Little England beyond Wales," South Pembrokeshire, is English in speech and a country of foothiLLs, 'coastal plains, and park-like landscapes. In this book the author limits himself to the "Welsh North," a country very like Dartmoor.

Gradients of the British main line railways. London: The Railway Publishing Co. Ltd.
To those who are interested in train speeds and locomotive performances, this collection of gradient profiles covering nearly 9000 miles of the principal lines of the British railways, will be appreciated as a handy reference record in pocket book form. The gradients of each railway are on paper of a distinctive tint; and on each profile notes are given as to service slacks, single line sections, etc. A uniform scale of inclination has been adopted throughout, so that the relative difficulty of any particular route can be gauged at a glance.

Some notes on alloy steels. 234
During the past few years, the steel industry has presented a very interesting study, in development, not only' 'a's, "regards the produotion of new qualities, but also as regards the technique of manufacture. These facts are both rendered very impressive when .they appear before us in a brochure entitled "Some Notes on Alloy Steels" which we have just perused,, and which is issued by Samuel Fox and Co., Ltd. (United Steel Companies, Ltd.), of Stocksbridge near Sheffield. The opening part of this brochure shows, with line drawings, steel-making in the Bessemer converter; in the open-hearth furnace;' in the electric-arc furnace; in the crucible, and in the most recently developed electric high frequency, furnaoe; .with brief, text references to each. It is appropriate that the frontispiece shows the latter type of furnace 'as installed at Fox's Works, and the appearance of a modern melting-shop of this type as compared with that of the more usual open-hearth shop is a very striking indication' of the progress in the industry. These furnace drawings are followed by a brief review of various heat treatments,' as needed to take full advantage of the properties of the numerous "alloy steels" which are ,such a pronounced feature in to-day's steel production, and the effect of each of the "alloy" elements on the mechanical properties of the material is explained at sufficient length to be readily understood by the average engineer, whose know- ledge of these points of steel composition is not necessarily too elaborate, but who always appreciates having such facts put before him in the very readable form in which they are given in this brochure, which concludes with a detailed suinmary of steel to most of the standard specifications in use in this country, with some special descriptive matter relative to the range of stainless steels which are now being made at Stocksbridge in the high-frequency furnace. This brochure is one of the most excellent we have seen on this subject for sometime, and we congratulate The United Steel Companies in so effectively retaining the high standard of technical literature which has been associated with their name. Our railway friends who are interested in a short review of steel-making and steel qualities will add to their book oollection a very useful work on-the subject by making application for a copy of "Some Notes on Alloy Steels."

Trade Notes and Publications. 234

Hudswell, Clarke & Co. Ltd.
Received an order for 12 Diesel locomotives for New Zealand, also for all 88 H.P. Diesel locomotive for service in this country, as, well as two 20 H.P. Diesel locomotives for Lime Works.

Whitelegg & Rogers Ltd.
Orders for Ajax Grease Lubricating equipment for eleven locomotives of the 2-10-2 type for the Tientsin-Pukow Railway which Fried. Krupp A.G. are building, and for three locomotives for the Peruvian Corporation by Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. They are also to supply 108 Patent Ajax" axlebox lubricators for the Jodhpur Railway. For the South African Railways they are supplying Ajax Patent steam-operated firedoors for twenty locomotives of the 19-C class building by Fried. Krupp A.G. and a further lot for twenty similar engines by the Borsig Lokomotivwerke. Grease lubricating equipment is also to be supplied for four locomotives of the 15-E class being constructed by Henschel & Sohn.

Sulzer Bros. (London) Ltd.
Acquired business of Hathorn, Davey & Co. Ltd., Sun Foundry, Hunslet, Leeds, to enable it to manufacture in this country, with its own organisation and equipment, the products on which the Sulzer reputation has been built. This arrangement will not interfere with the manufacture by Hathorn, Davey &Co. Ltd. of their own products as they will continue to maintain their separate connections.

Heat resisting steels
Publication of particular interest to engineers who have problems requiring steel that will withstand very high temperatures, has been issued by Hadficlds Ltd., Sheffield. It is pointed out, when describing the Era heat resisting steels, that the composition of the alloy is by no means the only factor which will govern its behaviour in service. There are many other factors, particularly the question of design, which are pnincipally dependent on the maker's experience; which in Hadfield's case is very considerable, as they were the pioneers of heat-resisting steels in Britain. The five main types of "Era H.R." steel cover most heat-resisting requirements, and where toughness and strength at high temperatures are of importance, and where sulphurous gases up to 950°C. are met with the "Era H.R.I." should meet most conditions. The physical and mechanical properties of these metals are given in full detail.

Drewry Car Co. Ltd.  234
Repeat order from The Eagle Oil and Shipping Co. Ltd. for two Diesel locomotives fitted with Gardner engines, Vulcan-Sinclair fluid couplings and Wilson-Drewry pre-selective epicyclic gear box. When completed these will bring this company's total number of Drewry locomotives up to 23. The Drewry Co. have al.so received an order for a 20 h.p. locomotive from the War Office for the Small Arms School, Hythe.

South African Railways Administration
Order placed for twenty class 19C locomotives with Krupp of Essen, and another twenty of the same type with the Borsig Locomotive Co.

Number 528 (15 August 1936)

Locomotive testing. 235.
Editorial comment on the need for a locomotive testing station as proposed by Gresley

Express freight locomotives, Southern Railway. 236. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. S15 illustrated 

2-6-0 metre gauge locomotives, Assam Bengal Railway. 237-8. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
YX class supplied by Hunslet with Caprotti rotary cam valve gear.

Long engine runsin the U.S.S.R. 238
Through freight train from Skovoroidno on the Amur in Siberia to Moscow using the same 0-10-0 over the 4700 miles and taking 14 days.

Kiaw-Tsi Railway (China). 238
Whitelegg & Rogers Ltd Ajax lubricators and grease lubricating equipment fitted to 2-8-2 described on page 206

Southern Railway. 238
Dover to Dunkirkservice to open on 4 October for freight and 15 October for passenger traffic

Diesel engined railcar, Northern Counties Committee, L.M.&S.R. 238-9. illustration, diagr. (s. & f. els. & plan)
Fitted with two Leylan sic-cylinder 10 litre engines, Leyland hydraulic torque converter and Hardy-Spicer prop shafts  

Locomotive turning by power from the vacuum or air brake systems. 240-1. illustration, 2 diagrs.
Photograph of No. 2512 Silver Fox on turntable: diagrams of tractor arrangement: system patented by Cowans & Sheldon of Carlisle.

The first Vu1can-Frichs Diesel locomotive. 241
Six-wheeled 275/300 b.h.p. machine, with mechanical transmission, intended for shunting service. The engine is a Vu1can-Frichs standard railway traction type developing 275 b.h.p. normally and 300 h.p. at its maximum of 775 r.p.m.

Rebuilt tank locomotive, Clogher Valley Rly. 242. 2 illustrations.
No.4 a Castlederg and Victoria Bridge Tramway 2-6-0T (Hudswell, Clark, 1904), was acquired and rebuilt as a 2-6-2T at the C.V.R. work shops at Aughnacloy: illustrations of suspension on leading truck.

New composite sleeping cars, L.M.S. Railway. 243-5. 3 illustrations.
Photographs of exterior and interiors of both 1st class and 3rd class compartments. The vehicle ran on six-wheel bogies.

L.M.S. improvement schemes. 245
Modifying the signalling on the Goods Lines at Crewe to enable them to be used for busy Saturday passenger traffic. On the Crewe-Chester-Holyhead three new signal boxes had been installed to increase traffic capacity at Wardle, Brassey and Nant Hall and work had been completed at Rhyl to accommodate holiday traffic.

T.R. Perkins. The Saundersfoot Railway. 245.
Line had reopened as far as Broom Colliery. The state of the remainder of the line is also described

Armstrong-Siddeley pneumatic tyred railcar demonstration LMSR. 246-7. illustration.
Weight was reduced by the use of aluminium bodywork and tubular seats. The two eight wheel bogies were fitted with French Michelin tyres. A 12 cylinder V engine drove the car.

[Obituary]. 247.
J.B. Adamson, last Locomotive Superintendent of the Maryport & Carlisle Railway, who had retired in 1922, and had succeeded William Coulthard.

[Jaywick Railway]. 247.
Mr C.H. Newton, Divisional Manager LNER, opened miniature railway which used a Great Northern style 8-foot single [outline steam not mentioned].

Non-balanced locomotive turntable. 248. illustration
Photograph of patented Cowans Sheldon turntable with vacuum tractor with photograph of LMS No. 6202 turbine locomotive on it.

Repairs of superheater elements. 248
Repair system instigated by Alsace & Lorraine Railway at Bischheim workshops.

The Cavan and Leitrim Railway and its locomotives. 249-52. 6 illustrations.
One photograph shows coal loading system at Arigna. Locomotives built in 1887 by Robert Stephenson & Co. for opening the line WN 2612-19 were 4-4-0T: 1 Isabel, 2 Kathleen, 3 Lady Edith, 4 Violet, 5 Gertrude, 6 May, 7 Olive, 8 Queen Victoria (the last lost its name due to its politcal overtones). In 1904 a larger Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-4T was acquired and became No. 9 King Edward which did not lose its name but was scrapped when in 1934 four 2-4-2T from the Cork, Blackrock & Passage Railway were added to the stock

A German "Prarie" type locomotive. 252-4. 5 diagrams (side elevation and details)
Details of suspension of radial axlebox, Muller bye-pass valve and combined steam valve for blast and water pump

The Butler Axlebox Planer. 255-6.  4 illustrations.
Especailly designed for the rapid production of bronze and steel axleboxes. High output; ability to be operated by one man and simple tooling.  Installed at Horwich Works.

Great Western Railway. 256.
New 4.6-0 tender engines completed at Swindon during June comprised the following:-Nos. 5054 Lamphey Castle, 5055 Lydford Castle, 5056 Ogmore Castle, 5057 Penrice Castle, and 5961 Toynbee Hall; 4-4-0 tender engine, No. 3202 Earl of Dudley, and 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 9780-1 and 9793-4. Engines withdrawn included 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 963 and 1733; 0-6-2 tanks 178-9 (R.S.B. 21 and 22), 234 (B.Ry. 39); and 2-4-0 tank No. 3565; 2-6-0 tender engine No. 2678; 2-4-0, No. 3213; 4-4-0, No. 3255 Excalibur and 3271 Eddystone.

London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 256
New engines of the 4-6-0 Silver Jubilee class ex Crewe bore Nos. 5712 Victory, 5713 Renown, 5714 Revenge, 5715 Invincible, 5716 Swiftsure, and 5717 Dauntless. The tenders, which had been transferred from the Royal Scat class, were of the standard 3,500 gallons type with coal rails. Names had also been given to the following Silver Jubilees:-Nos. 5599 Bechuanaland, 5607 Fiji, 5612 Jamaica, 5616 Malta, 5648 Wemyss and 5660 Rooke. Four of the Jubilee class to be constructed at Crewe Works towards the end of 1936 were to be named after the four Irish Provinces: Ulster, Munster, Leinster and Connaught. The numbers will be 5739/42. "Royal Scots" recently fitted with 4,000 gallon curved sided tenders include Nos. 6106, 6129, 6144, 6149 and 6165. The following engines were running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: 0-6-0 18 in. goods class Nos. 8458, 8494, 8525 and 8561; 0-8-0 Gl class Nos. 8943, 9061, 9066, 9073, 9188 and 9379. Engines condemned included : 4-4-0 Precursor class superheater No. 5278; 4-4-0 George V class Nos. 5337, 5349, 5355 and 5402; 0-4-2 shunter No.7855; 4-6-0 19 in. goods class Nos. 8758, 8777, 8832 and 8837; 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 25697 and 25796.

Lubrication of locomotive cylinders, 257-8.
General comments

Oxygen cutting in locomotive shops. 258-9. illustration.
Hancock & Co. Ltd. of Croydon

Fast runs on the French railways. 259-60. table
Lists all railways, with their fastest run in excess of 70 mile/h. and form of traction: mostly by railcars or electric traction: only one steam — the Sud Express. The remainder were mainly by railcar iincluding Dijon to Laroche at 73.31 mile/h on the PLM and several on the Etat Paris to Havre line in both directions. See also correrction on p. 301.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 260-4. 4 illustrations., map, 7 diagrams, 2 tables
Mostly survey of tram locomotives. Photograph of Enkhuizen to Stavoren freight train ferry across South Sea.

New type of Underground train. 264.
Hammersmith & City Line: rolling stock with passenger operated sliding doors and improved seating.

Running the Cromer Express in the 'Nineties.  264-6. 2 illustrations.
C.H. Parkes, Chairman of the GER, encouraged the development of Cromer by developing non-stop services. A trial was run on 3 Nvember 1895 and regular summer services were run from 1896. Locomotives used included 2-2-2 No. 1000 and 4-2-2 No. 10. Oil burning assisted this activity. Driver Arthur Cage of Ipswich was one of the star performers Also refers to Issue 1 (Moore's Monthly Mag.) for Driver Herwin of Norwich's contribution on 3 November 1895 with locomotive No. 1006. .

W.E. Carlisle. Jigs, fixtures and notes on production, 266-7. 2 diagrams.

A. Jacquet. The Belpaire locomotives of the Belgian State Railways. 267-8. 3 diagrams.
The Type 30 0-6-0 was introduced in 1861 and built at the Malines Workshops. The Type 33 followed in 1862. Due to the disappearance of the locomotive records from the archives of the Minister of Railways, it is impossible to ascertain the number of locomotives built to types 30 and 33 between 1861 and 1864. Later both series were converted to type 28 of the Belgian State Railways by fitting the improved Belpaire firebox of square form. The whole of the two early series were eventually rebuilt with the square firebox, and incorporated in Class No. 28. From the documents in existence, it would appear that, in 1882, there were still running 16 engines of type 30 and 24 engines of type 33, not converted, while 21 had by then been rebuilt. A certain number had been scrapped previous to this. The type was no longer in use in 1936, the last having been withdrawn and broken up some years back.

Trade Notes and Publications. 268

Roller bearing axleboxes.
An attractively illustrated publication, issued by the Hoffmann Manufacturing Co., Ltd., records the growing use of roller bearing axleboxes on railways at home and abroad. The booklet sets out some of the more salient advantages attached to this form of axlebox, and gives descr iptive drawings of two different designs in actual use for parallel and taper axle ends respectively. Of course many variations are made to suit special requirements.

Coloured asbestos
Demonstrations were given at a recent exhibition arranged by Bell's Asbestos and Engineering Supplies Ltd. of the fire-proof and sound-proof qualities of coloured asbestos fabrics in the form of curtains, rugs, etc. These can now be dyed in a variety of colours, and there should be many suitable applications of such textile materials in railway carriage construction. By the new process, asbestos can not only be coloured but "finished" in a manner which enables it to rank as a textile material equally with linen, cotton and wool. A somewhat remarkable factor is that these asbestos fabrics can be washed.

The London and North Eastern Railway
Placed an order with Cowans, Sheldon and Co. Ltd., Carlisle, for a new turntable to be installed at Norwich Thorpe. This turntable will be of the latest design with a diameter of 70 ft. It will therefore be capable of turning the largest engines in service on the L.N.E.R. Two important contracts had also been placed in connection with the modernisation of the Locomotive Depot at Dundee. One is for a 300-ton engine coaling plant which had been secured by H. Lees and Co. Ltd. The other is for a locomotive wheel drop secured by Cowans, Sheldon and Co. Ltd. The L.N.E.R. placed a contract with H. Lees and Co. Ltd., for the electrification of the coaling plant to be installed at Colwick Locomotive Depot, Nottingham, which is in course of modernisation. The new coaling plant will be electrically operated and have a capacity of 500 tons.

L.M.S. Railway. 268
Placed an order for eight 50-ton bogie bolster trucks with the Fairfield Shipbuilding and engineering Co. Ltd., of Chepstow, Monmouthshire.

The best in asbestos. 268
Under this title the Asbestos Manufacturing Co. Ltd., issued a new  80  page catalogue of their specialities in packings, jointings and beltings. In addition to the general eng.ineering supplies described the fi rm have large contracting departments which specialise in the supply and application of asbestos cement roofing and building materials, and in the insulation of boilers, piping, vessels and refrigerating plant.

Number 529 (15 September 1936)

Painting. 269
Considered most liveries too sombre especially Great Western: "dull brown" lower panels and dark locomotive colour. Commended green and white of LNER Tourist sock and steam reailcars,

2-6-2 passenger locos., Pekin-Hankow Rly. China. 277-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Ten built by Skoda Works, Plzen in Czechoslovakia. The Skoda type reversing gear is air-operated. The bye-pass valves are automatically controlled. The air brake fitted is of the Westinghouse ET 6 pattern. air-operated firehole door.Locomotives built under the inspection of C. Sandberg & Co., of London, consulting engineers to the Chinese Government Railways. Additional information p. 363

Up Riviera Express passing Coryton's Cove, Dawlish Great Western Rly., Engine King William III No. 6007.
Photograph. T.F. Budden. 278

London, Midland & Scottish Rly. 278
The following new engines of the Silver Jubilee class completed and turned out at Crewe: Nos. 5718 Dreadnought, 5719 Glorious, 5720 Indomitable, 5721 Impregnable, and 5722 Defence: engines fitted with 3,500 gallon tenders with coal rails, transferred from Royal Scot class. Of the three standard types under construction by private firms, 227 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines by Armstrong, Whitworths, 69 2-8-0 mineral tender engines by the Vulcan Foundry, and 53 2-6-4 passenger tanks by the North British Loco. Co., the engines so far delivered were: 4-6-0 Nos. 5225-41, 2-8-0 Nos. 8027-32, and 2-6-4T Nos. 2545- 67. The first five 4-6-0s had been allocated to the Central Division and the remainder of that type to the Western Division. No. 9127 has been converted from class G to class G1 (superheater) and provided with a standard Belpaire boiler. Only a few odd engines of classes D and G remained for conversion. Engines of the 4-6-0 Royal Scot type recently fitted with standard 4,000 gallon tenders included the first of the series, No. 6100. Two further ex N.S.R. 0-6-0 class D shunting tank engines had been condemned, Nos. 1583 and 1597. Other engines recently placed on the condemned list included 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class Nos. 25675, 25708 and 25726.

Standardizing Central Section locos., Southern Rly. 279-80. 4 illustrations.
B4/x and E1/R: later parts of this series credited to O.J. Morris

Cavan & Leitrim Rly. 280
In 1903 an Ulster & Connaught Light Railways Bill emerged which might have led to a railway from Newry to the Clogher Valley Railway at Tynan, thence from Maguiresbridge on a new link to Bawnboy on the Cavan & Leitrim Rly thus providind a through route from Roscommon to Newry

A new British rail speed record. 280.
Silver Fox 113 mile/h at Essendine

Stream-lined electric trains, Italian State Railways. 281. illustration
Breda built three-car articulated units capable of 163 km/h average between Bologna and Florence; 150 km/h thence to Rome. From Rome to Formia the average fell to 133 km/h. The maximum speed was 170.35 km/h. They had six 200 hp electtric motors, operated at 3000v DC and were air-conditioned.

Cowpen Coal Co., Northumberland. 281
Had purchased GWR 0-6-0T No. 722 and Southern Railway 0-6-0T No. 2143 (ex-LBSCR Nuremburg): the latter becoming Cambois No, 11. Both operated between Cambois Colliery and the colliery's own staith at North Blyth.

Frazer & Co. 281
Of Hepburn-on-Tyne had a former GWR double-frame 0-6-0PT No. 2186 and a Southern Railway 0-6-0T No. B92 for sale.

The Jaywick Miniature Railway. 282. illustration
Connected Tudor Village Crossways station with Jaywick Sands, approximately one mile. 18 inch gauge. Motive power GNR 4-2-2 (steam). Opened by C.H. Newton with the assistance of M.F. Barnard.

All-welded steel wagon. 283. illustration
Charless Roberts & Co. 12 ton wagon for Denaby & Cadeby Main Collieries Ltd

L.M.S. rolling stock orders. 283
1937: 105 locomotives; 210 locomotive boilers; 75 carriages; 12105 wagons. Orders for 12-ton goods wagons were placed with Charles Roberts (800); Metropolitan Cammell Carriage & Wagon (650); Hurst Nelson (350); R.Y. Pickering (200). 20-ton hopper ore wagons Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon (150); 20-ton hopper grain wagons Hurst Nelson (25); 20-ton implement wagons P. & W. Maclellan Ltd (10); 12-ton glass wagons G.R. Turner Ltd (10). 20-ton double bolster trucks, 27 ft long Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon (100); Charles Roberts (200); Metropolitan Cammell Carriage & Wagon (200); 30 ton  double bolster trucks Hurst Nelson (25)

LNER orders for goodds and coal wagons. 283
For delivery within five to six months: 200 W. Rigby & Sons Ltd; 400 W.H. Davis & Co.; 400 S.J. Claye Ltd; 400 R.Y. Pickering; 200 Hurst Nelson; 100 T. Buirnett & Co.12-ton hoppered coal wagons:350 G.R. Turner Ltd, 350 R.Y. Pickering;; 350 Charles Roberts; 350 Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon. 20 ton hoppered coal wagons 500 Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon; 500 Metropolitan Cammell Carriage & Wagon.      

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 284-5.table
Locomotives owned: numbers, names, builders, years, types, cylinder and driving wheel dimensions, date scrapped

Centenary of Lime Street station, Liverpool. 285
15 August 1836

G.H.G. Crump and P.H. Howlett. Locomotives of the Port of Bristol Authority, Avonmouth. 285-6. 2 illustrations
Bristol Corporation took over the docks in 1884 and made extesions. 10% of grain. 30% of banana, 35% of tobacco United Kingdom imports came trough Avonmouth. There were 60 miles of track, 29 locomotives and 635 railway vehicles. Bristol was manufactured by Fox, Walker st the Atlas Works, an 0-6-0ST WN 180/1873. This was followed by WN 280/1875 Alexander. Fox Walker was taken over by Peckett & Sons which became the main supplier. Peckett WN 458/1887 was named Harold and this was followed by WN 466/1887 Lionel and WN 586/1894 Lawrence. and by Avonside WN 1371/1896 Leslie. Peckett WN 808/1900 Kenneth, Avonside WN 1431/1901 Francis, Peckett WN 1006/1904 Murray, WN 1093/1907 Ronald, WN 1243/1910 Strathcona and WN 1244/1910 Mackenzie latter illustrated (these last were fitted with the vacuum brake to enable passenger stock to be worked). WN 1264/1913 Henry and WN 1377/1914 Edward were like the earlier Peckett engines. Avonside WN 1679/1914 Alfred was similar to the earlier Avonside purchases in dimensions, but modernised. During WW1 five powerful Avonside 0-6-0STs were acquired: WN 1724/1915 Hudson, WN 1725/1915 William, WN 1764/1917 Portbury; WN 1799/1917 Brian and WN 1800/1918 Percy. In 1926 a further Peckett was acquired WN 1721 (presumably of 1915) and named Fyffe and in 1934 WN 1877-8 were bought and named Westbury and Ashton

Railway Club. 286
H.W. Bardsley read paper: Some Beitish railway accidents on 8 October

Agenoria. 286
Loan to Railway Museum York from the Sciencee Museum.

820 H.P. articulated diesel-train Belgian National Railways. 287.
Diesel-electric articulated train of three cars powered by two 410 h.p. engines. The mechanical portion of the cars was built by the Baume-Marpent Co. at their works at Morlanwelz, Belgium.

Ernest F. Smith. The Webb three-cylinder compounds their supposed automatic crank adjustment. 287-9.
The 3-cylinder compound express engines built by Mr. Webb for the late London & North Western Railway had, as is well known, two high-pressure cylinders placed out- side the frames and driving the rear wheels, and a single low-pressure cylinder between .the frames, which drove a crank axle situated m front of the firebox. These two driving axles were not coupled, and their respective cranks were therefore free to take up any relationship with respect to each other as a result of slipping, or by reason of unequal wear of the tyres modifying the diameters of the wheels.
When the performance of these engines is under discussion the theory is often put forward that there was a certain relation between the cranks of the H.P. and L.P. engines which gave the best results in working, and, furthermore, that these engines, when running, had an automatic tendency towards placing themselves in this position. Mr. Webb himself is reputed to have held this belief, although its soundness does not seem to have been properly established by obser- vation or experiment. E.L. Ahrons, in The British Steam Locomotive, 1825-1925, refers to it as "possible, but remains to be proved."
So far as the present writer is aware, no explanation has ever been given as to the way in which this corrective tendency is presumed to. operate, but it has been suggested that the steam pressure in the receiver between the H.P. and L.P. cylinders had something to do with it. It is, of course, a fact that the receiver pressure influences the behaviour of the two engines. For example, a rise in the pressure, by causing increased back pressure, means less work done in· the H.P. engine, and at the same time increases the effort on the L.P. piston, and vice versa for a drop in receiver pressure.
These effects were sometimes seen in the Webb compounds at starting. If the H.P. wheels slipped, the receiver pressure rose rapidly and soon stopped the slipping by choking the H.P. exhaust; the excessive pressure on the L. P. piston would then perhaps cause the L.P. wheels to slip, exhausting the receiver and setting the H.P. off again. These, however, are broad effects, brought about only by wide variation of the conditions in either engine. For any such tendency to correction of the crank disposition as is claimed there would be required something much narrower in its action and more instantaneous in its effects: it must, in the nature of the claim made for it, come into play with any displacement of the cranks from the supposed most favourable disposition.
In the first place it has to be considered that the H.P. cylinders will exhaust into the receiver four times, and the L.P. take steam twice, for every revolution of their driving wheels. These events will cause fluctuations in the receiver pressure, the incidence of the fluctuations differing according to the disposition of the H.P. and L.P. cranks. There can be no complete synchronisation of four events with two, so that whatever the crank disposition some fluctuation must always occur.
It was the usual practice to work these engines with the L.P. cylinder cutting off at 70 to 75 per cent. of the stroke: in fact, in the later engines the L.P. valve was controlled by a single eccentric, and no means were provided for altering the travel of the valve.
During this L.P. admission at least one H.P. exhaust would take place, and with many crank .dispositions two. Can it be claimed that there is .any particular incidence of H.P. exhaust and L.P. admission that gives so much better results than another, or even if there was, that the difference would be so great, and the effect produced be such, as to bring about a change in the crank disposition?
Mr. Ahrons says: "No diagrams taken from the L.P. steam-chest appear to have been pubhshed ; and the amount of fluctuation of receiver pressure in practice, when running at high speeds with a forty to fifty per cent. cut-off in the H.P. cylinders, is unknown."
We should expect, however, to find evidence of these fluctuations on diagrams taken from the cylmders, and in some of these which the writer has 'seen there are humps on the H.P. back pressure and L.P. admission lines which probably represent variations in the receiver pressure. Such as -they are, they are comparatively small in extent, and certainly do not give the impression of being capable of influencing the crank disposition effect- -jvely. It must be borne in mind that the only way in which the relationship of the cranks could be changed was by slipping of the wheels, and this fact in itself, to the mind of the writer, seems sufficient to demolish the whole theory.
In looking at the question of the relation of H.P. exhausts to L.P. admission another fact emerges. We may assume that the four H.P. ' exhausts, which are spaced apart by 90 degrees of revolution of the crank, are, for all practical purposes, equal: also, that the two L.P. admissions, occurring at intervals of 180 degrees, are equal to each other. It follows from this, then, that the incidence of events in the receiver will be exactly reproduced with the L.P. crank in each of the four different positions relative to the H.P. cranks.
For example, suppose admission to the front L.P. port to commence exactly with the beginning of exhaust from one of the H.P. cylinders. It will make no difference to the sequence of events in the receiver which H.P. cylinder, or which end, is involved. The same applies to every other position of the L.P. crank. In other words, taking the whole circle of possible L.P, crank displacements relative to the H.P., each combination of receiver events is repeated at four equi - distant points in this circle. The conclusion to be drawn from this is fairly obvious: considered from the point of view of the relation of H.P. to L.P. events in the receiver, if there is one most favourable crank disposition there must of necessity be four! To the writer this seems perilously near reducing the theory in question to an absurdity.
If it is objected that the assumption upon which this argument is based is unsound, that the exhausts or admissions will differ at front and back ends of the cylinders on account of the effects of angularity of the connecting rods, can it be claimed that the differences are great enough, and of such a nature as to produce the effects alleged? Mr. Ahrons, as already mentioned, refers to this belief in The British Steam Locomotive, where he gives a series of curves of H.P. and L.P. crank effort and their resultant, by means of which he seeks to show the most favourable crank disposition for these engines. This was, in his opinion, with the L.P. crank at an angle of approximately 135 degrees from each of the H. P. cranks, the resultant then showing the least irregularity. This, obviously, is the crank disposition with which the engine should run, from the point of view of uniformity of drawbar effort.
It is quite another thing, however, to claim that the engine will give a better performance when the cranks are thus disposed. True, he does not state specifically that the better performance is due to the greater uniformity of the combined crank effort as such, but neither does he suggest that the cause lies elsewhere in improved conditions consequent upon this particular crank disposition. His own words are: "It has always seemed to the. writer that the engine which when running could maintain the crank angles as in case C would give the best results . . .", case C in the dia- grams being the one quoted above, with the L.P. crank at an angle of 135 degrees from each of the H.P.
Later on Ahrons says: "It is possible, though it remains to be proved, that all these com- pound engines, when once under way, automatically tried to adjust themselves to run in the most favourable position, such as case C."
Unfortunately, no explanation is given, or even suggested, as to how this tendency operated, or to what cause it was due, neither is this apparent from the crank effort diagrams shown. Rather, if the particular diagram showing the alleged most favourable crank disposition is studied, does the case appear to be the reverse to that stated. In this, the maximum' effort of the L.P. coincides with one of the minima of the H.P. engine. At this instant the L. P. is doing much the larger share of the work, and the tendency will surely be, if anything, for the L.P. driving wheels to slip and so lose that relationship. Again, when the L.P. crank is on the dead centre, and its effort zero, the H.P. effort is at a maximum: will there not therefore be a tendency for the H.P. wheels to slip and so change the crank disposition? Thus, so far as can be seen from the curves of crank effort, the tendency appears to be for the cranks to get away from the disposition giving the most uniform drawbar pull.
Reverting once more to the events in the receiver, the above-mentioned crank disposition gives an H.P. exhaust at or near the beginning of each L.P. admission, and another towards the end of that period. It does not readily appear that any inference can be drawn from this in support of the theory under discussion, and in any case, the same incidence of receiver events is produced with the L.P. crank in three other positions relative to the H.P., as already pointed out. Furthermore, the relation between the H.P. crank and the exhaust is not constant, release occurring earlier as the engine is notched up, and thereby modifying the sequence of events in the receiver independently of the crank disposition.
The conclusion seems to be inevitable that, whether the events in the receiver and the crank disposition are considered separately or in combination, there can be no crank relationship which will give better results in working, apart from the question of uniformity of drawbar pull, which has nothing to do with the point at issue. This being so, there could be no tendency to the self-adjustment of the crank angles, and the belief that this mysterious property was possessed by the Webb 3-cylinder compounds must be relegated to the company of other myths which have arisen from time to time to obscure the vision of locomotive students. See correspondence from Viator, Derens and author in response

"Ben Loyal," L.M. & S. Rly. 289
In 1876, Dugald Drummond brought out the first of his famous express locomotives, on the North British Railway, and this engine was the prototype of various classes in Scotland and, latterly, England, right down to 1915. The North British, Caledonian, Highland, Glasgow and South Western, and London and South Western Railways all had typical Drummond 4-4-0 locomotives built at various times, and on the first- and second-named the Drummond influence remained long after the actual designer had departed elsewhere.
A number of P. Drummond's 4-4-0 engines, of exactly the same "family" as D. Drummond's, still survive on the Scottish lines of the L.M.S.R., and most of D. Drumrnond's South 'Western locomotives are yet at work on the Southern Railway. The vast majority have, however, been rebuilt; the 5 ft. 7 in. classes on the Southern, though they remain unsuperheated, all had their firebox water-tubes removed years ago, and only one of the famous Drummond 4-4-0 locomotives in England and Scotland remains structurally unaltered to this day. The engine in question is L.M.S. No. 14411 Ben Loyal, formerly H.R. No. 15, built at Inverness in 1900. No. 14411 has a double bogie tender, which originally belonged to one of the Highland 0-6-0 locomotives, but was transferred early in the century. It is also dual - fitted for working Great North of Scotland stock through to and from Aberdeen, but the pump has obviously not been used for a long time. A few years ago, this engine was sent down to Kilmarnock for scrapping, but managed to gain a respite, and worked G. & S.W. local trains from Hurlford shed. It  was now back at Inverness, and has been working stopping trains to and from Tain. It has all the usual Drummond characteristics, including lock- up safety-valves on the dome, and the side "wings" to the smokebox.

Duplex carriagte bogie, with free wheels, Swiss Federal Railways. 290-1. 2 illustrations
Designed by J. Buchli, and constructed at the Winterthur Works of the Swiss Locomotive and Machine Co. for the Swiss Federal Railways. Since the trial coach was put into service at the end of December 1934 it has covered about 187,500 miles, and the tyres have not yet been re-turned, the wear being exceedingly small. Trials were carried out last summer on the P.L.M. Railway between Dijon and Avignon -74.6 miles-and the result showed that the Swiss coach with the new bogies had greater stability than the rest of the train, which was made up of five main line bogie coaches from each of the principal French systems.

[York Station]. 291
The L.N.E.R. announced that York Station was to be remodelled and considerably extended; over 120 " through" trains are dealt with in the course of a day in addition to those terminating at and starting from the station. The number of platforms is to be increased from 14 to 16 by provision of a new "island" platform to the west side of the present station. The new platforms will be each 1,180 ft. in length and two existing platforms, Nos. 7 and 14, are to be lengthened to 915 and 1,500 feet respectively. Waiting and refreshment rooms of modern design are to be provided together with a rearrangement of the permanent way at the north and south ends of the station and complete resignalling with colour light signals. For dealing with luggage and parcels traffic six electric lifts are to be provided and new sidings are to be laid down with a 6 foot stage for dealing with fruit and perishable traffic.

Royal Scot acceleration. 291
The 10.0 a.m. "Royal Scat" express from Glasgow (Central) and Edinburgh (Princes Street) to arrive at. Euston at 5.25 p.m., the L.M.S. Railway will inaugurate th!s autumn the fastest journey time which has ever applied by rail from Glasgow to London. The change will come Into effect commencing with the winter train services on September 28, and represents an acceleration of 15 mins. over last winter's timing.

The Great Western Railway winter train service. 291
Came into operation on Monday, 28 September. Apart from the withdrawal of certain summer trains, the service was substantially the same as previous winter. The down Cornish Riviera Limited carried slip carriages for Weymouth, Taunton, Minehead and Ilfracombe, and called at Exeter to detach a coach for Kingsbridge. An improvement made in the service from the Channel Islands was the retention of the "Up" Boat Express on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays giving an arrival time at Paddington at 19.30. as compared with 20.10 previous winter. In the "Down" direction a buffet car was provided on the 22.15 . Channel Islands Boat Train from Paddington to Weymouth Quay. The outstanding feature of the winter service was the retention of practically the whole of the services operated by the seventeen streamlined rail cars which, including the parcels car, would daily cover 3,584 miles as against 1,235 in 1935. The service' between Bristol and South Wales via the Severn Tunnel, will be augmented by a streamlined rail car making four trips in each direction between Bristol and Cardiff, Mondays to Fridays inclusive:. the first regular streamlined car service through the Severn Tunnel.

Recent Japanese locomotives. 292-3. 4 illuistrations, 2 diagrasms (side elevations)
Streamlining was being investigated initially on one C53 class Pacific and then on 20 C55 class Pacifics; a further 20 of which remained unstreamlined. The D51 class 2-8-2 freight locomotives are also mentioned.

Victorian Railways notes. 294-5. 4 illuistrations
S class Pacific and A2 class 4-6-0; also air-conditioned dining car (both interior and exterior illustrated).

Drewry Car Co. 295
Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway ordered seven diesel railcars

W.E. Carlisle. Jigs, fixtures and notes on production, 295-6. 4 diagrams.
Palm stays.

Swedish steam locomotives. 296.
Electrification led to a surplus and saler to Norway, Poland, and the Baltic States

Three-cylinder locos. for the Sorocabana Railway. 297-8. 2 illustrations
American Locomotive Company 4-8-2 and 4-10-2 designs: metre gauge line in Brazil

An unusual shunting locomotive. 298
0-10-2 for Union Railraod to work in Pittsburg area build by Balwin. Booster fitted to tender. Trailing axle required for large grate.

New German tanks. 298
Reichsbahn Series 71 4-8-4T for mixed traffic

4-8-4 express locomotive, Chilean State Railways. 298. illustration
Henschel & Son of Cassel with air operated reversing gear: 5ft 6in gauge

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 298
War Office order for diesel mechanical locomotive with Gardner 8L3 204 bhp engine

A. Jacquet. The Belpaire locomotives of the Belgian State Railways. 299-300. 4 diagrams (side elevations)
Type 28 0-6-0 built between 1864 and 1884 by many companies in Belgium and also in Germany

Great Western Railway. 300
New engines completed at Swindon: 4-6-0 passenger, Nos. 5962 Wantage Hall, 5963 Wimpole Hall, 5964 Wolseley Hall; 4-4-0 passenger, No. 3203 Earl Cawdor; 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 9782-4 and 7400; 0-6-0 goods Nos. 293 and 307 [KPJ: what were these?]. Engines condemned recently included 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 713 (52 Barry), 1533, 1938; 4-4-0 tender, Nos. 3369 David Mac Iver, and 3439; 2-6-0 tender, Nos. 4344 and 4395.

George Perry. 300
Death of Mr. George Perry at Hereford on 17 August 1936 in his 82nd year. He was born at Stratford and joined the Great Eastern Railway at Liverpool Street in 1870. The following year he started in the shops at Stratford under S. W. J ohnson, locomotive supt., and remained there until his retirement as a foreman in the erecting fitting shop in 1918. His father was one of the original employees of the old Eastern Counties Railway when the locomotive shops were at Romford prior to their removal to Stratford. Although not so well known by the present generation he was always popular with those he came in contact with and many of the pupils and appren- tices under his charge who left the company to take up, positions at home or abroad will have pleasant memories. His interest in and knowledge of early locomotive history was very comprehensive and his wonderful memory was of great assistance when compiling the articles describing the early locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway which appeared in this journal. In his earlier days he devoted a. lot of time to music having a fine tenor voice and often appeared at concerts given at the G.E.R. Institute and at various functions throughout the Eastern Counties.

P.W. Robinson of Moseley, Birmingham. 300
Died 1 September 1936, at the early age of 46, will be missed by many railway and locomotive enthusiasts in the Midlands. He made a special study of private firms' locomotives and had! compiled a very complete record of these. He was an expert photographer and had won several certificates for views of Warwickshire, at exhibitions.

New type buffet car. 300
The L.M.S. Railway have completed at their Derby Carriage Works the first of four buffet cars of a new type, for the quick service of light meals and refreshments on trains on which there is insufficient demand' for a full restaurant service. These cars, which will shortly be placed in service between Euston and Manchester and' vice-versa, and between Worcester and York, York and Manchester and vice-versa, are a development of the experimental "Cafeteria Car" built by the L.M.S. in 1932. Each car is. 57 ft. long and has a kitchen and service at one end, with a quick service cafeteria-bar adjoining. The remainder of the interior is devoted to tables, of which there are four seating four passengers each on one side of the car, and four seating two passengers each on the other, giving total seating accommodation for 24 people. The chairs have chromium-steel tube frames with upholstery in Dunlopillo faced with red leather. Other features of the new cars include the use of Empire woods (Canadian white birch and Australian walnut) for the interior panelling, and the provision of deep, wide windows giving an unrestricted outlook.

[Drewry Car Co. Ltd]. 300
For service on the Palestine Rys. the Crown Agents for the Colonies placed an order with the Drewry Car Co. Ltd. for three broad gauge and two narrow gauge light rail cars, which will be fitted with Ford Vee-8 engines.

Railway noises. 301
One most disagreeable source of noise on a railway which is very much resented by residents in localities where :here are shunting yards. We refer to the clanging and banging of vehicles as they are shunted .n the "make-up" yards, noises which are con:inuous day and night; in fact, in some districts more by night than by day. We have not seen any reference to this by the .ommittee investigating noise problems, but pre- sume it will sooner or later come before them; as :0 how it will be dealt with will be interesting. We have heard comparisons made with other det:ails of operation, between road and rail; in the former, no such noises occur, as there are no similar shunting operations. It really seems that :he railway is at a disadvantage with this item unless something can be done to modify or revolutionise the methods used for marshalling railway vehicles. Why it should be necessary to bang railway wagons together to enable their operation to be efficiently secured, is difficult to substantiate. It would seem that it should be possible, provided that the machines or engines used for doing the work are quick enough in acceleration, movement and retardation, for trains to be made up without the necessity of the vehicles having to approach each other or be attached at speed. Of course in yards devoted to the movement of passenger vehicles the noise is comparatively small, but in large marshalling yards devoted to freight trains, the constant clanging of the buffers is most pronounced, and sometimes at night the noise reminds one of a battle field, rather than an area devoted to the ways of peace.

Power signalling at Edinburgh Waverley West. 301
The largest station power signalling plant so far undertaken by the London and North Eastern Railway Company was approaching completion at Waverley Station, Edinburgh. The installation would eliminate five signal boxes containing 415 mechanical levers for which would be substituted one new box containing a 227 lever power frame. The new signal box is erected on the south side of the line, in a recess 100 ft. long by 12 ft. wide and consisted of two floors. The ground floor accommodated the relay racks, relays and cable runs, with a gangway below the interlocking frame giving access to the internal wiring. A small workshop and store for the !inemen and also a central heating chamber were provided. The first floor contained the operating room, together with mess rooms for the signalmen and linemen, and also a small room for housing the train describing apparatus. The operating room had a bay window 70 ft. long, which permitted an unobstructed view of the station yard.
The whole of the signalling plant would be electrically operated, the existing semaphore signals being replaced by modern colour light signals of the multi-unit type, equipped with efficient side lights for close-up indications. The entrance to the station from each of the up main lines will be controlled by a single colour light signal, in conjunction with a route indicator which will intimate to trainmen the particular platform into which they are running. All subs idiary signals will be of the internally illuminated banner type, thus dispensing with coloured lights for the control of shunting movements. All points will be operated by electric motors, and the whole layout completely track circuited. Provision is made for a breakdown in the electric supply by the installation of an auxiliary standby plant. This plant consists of a petrol driven alternator set and will automatically come into operation upon the cessation of the normal supply.
The contractors for the work were the Siemens and General Electric Railway Signal Company Ltd., who are carrying out the work under the instructions of W.A. Fraser , L.N.E.R. Engineer (Scotland) and to the designs and immediate supervision of A. Moss, Signal and Telegraph Assistant to the Engineer, Scotland

Fast Runs on the French Railways. 301
In the article the time allowed to the Sud Express between Paris and Bordeaux was by a misprint shown as 4 hours 5 min. instead of 5 hours 44 min. The average speed 62.67 m.p.h. is correct.

Correspondence. 301

The Holland Railway Co. and its locomotives. V. Scholderer.
Re L. Derens on the engines of the Holland Railway, which have recalled to memory many friends of my youth, but he is surely in error when he states, as he appears to do on p. 260 of your August number, that the Queenboro'-Flushing steamer service was not started until 1887. I find in the Continental Bradshaw for July 1876, an advertisement that this route "is now apen." Trains leave London at 8.40 p.rn, and "run alongside the boat from (sic) the new Pier at Queenboro', and passengers land and embark under cover." Before this date there seems to have been a service from Sheerness. The day service, due to leave London at 7.15 a.m., first figures in the Bradshaw for June, 1887, and' both services continued to use Queenboro' (or, temporarily,. Port Victoria) until the night service was transferred to, Folkestone in, I think, 1911. In the 1880's, as a small boy" I was several times taken to the Continent by this route, and my recollection of those journeys is vivid: the excitement of being in a ship, the strangeness of the ear-shaped footboard beneath each door of the Dutch coaches at Flushing, the mystery of the words "Niet rook en " painted on the" non-smoking compartments, the relish of food from the horne-packed hamper eaten in a train innocent of corridor stock, . let alone a dining car, the patriotic pride of reading "Beyer, Peacock and Co., Manchester" on the splashers of passing engines, and lastly the supreme thrill of seeing the guard' clamber along the outside of the moving train, pull open the door and, half in and half out of the compartment, clip, the tickets. It is true that speeds were not high, 114 minutes being allowed for the 60¼ miles from Flushing to Breda, but that open-air progress of the unfortunate guard must nevertheless have been at all times very unpleasant and often extremely dangerous. The practice persisted until well into the present century, to my knowledge, on certain local lines in Germany. By the way, I wonder if any of the coaches in which we then travelled are still in service. It is not ten years since I noticed the date of construction, 1875, on a four-wheeled coach of a local train standing in a Dutch siding.

Reviews. 302

Universal Directory of Railway Officials & Railway Year Book, 1936-1937. London: The Directory Publishing Co. Ltd.
Since ifirst published in 1895, this reference book has justified its value by the complete and accurate information given. The new edition has been subjected to the usual thorough annual revision of the list of the personnel of the various railways all over the world. The same general .arrangement of the information for easy reference has been retained as in previous years, and incorporates a chronological list of outstanding historical railway events as well .as tables of facts and figures brought up to date. It will be most invaluable to all connected with the railway supply business in all countries and also a useful addition to the libraries of railway officials.

Locomotives of the Southern Railway (Western Section). London: W.G. Tilling.
Tilling's books dealing with the Southern Railway 'locomotives are well known, and a new edition of the Western Section engines has just been published, revised to J uly last. The fact that this is the third edition proves the .appeal of these little .books to those interested in this railway. The text is largely re-written and the ten illustrations are mearly all new. It is useful for reference and we recommend it for its accuracy and moderate price.

The Lynton and Barnstaple Railway.  L.T. Catchpole (2nd edition). Sidcup: Oakwood Press. 302
The fact that a second edition of this nicely produced and :profusely illustrated history of the Lynton and Barnstaple Railway has become necessary within four months of its publication, is proof of the interest taken by many in what was one of the most picturesque lines in England. The 'book has been completely revised, and new matter incor- porated, including an account of the dismantling of the railway, with several new illustrations. A drawing of one of the Manning, Wardle locomotives has been added.

Windsor. Mary Munton. London: Great Western Railway, Paddington Station. Gratis. 302
Bound in a coloured cover depicting the famous round tower, town and river, this beautifully illustrated booklet will guide the tourist to the best way to explore the favourite "sights" of Windsor Castle and Eton. Combined. with it is a history of what is probably the oldest Palace in the world although little if anything remains of William the Conqueror's work, but there are many parts dating back to the reign of Edward III. Details are included of summer tours of the River Thames, partly by rail and partly by river steamer,

Nasmyth, Wilson and Co. Ltd. 302
Order from the Bengal North Western Railway for four YB class 4-6-2 metre gauge locomotives and tenders to inspection of Rendel, Palmer and Tritton.

Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd. 302
Order from the Peruvian Corporation for one 2-8-0 locornotive and tender.

General Electric Co. Ltd. 302
Among recent contracts secured for Osram lamps were 12 months supplies for the Southern Railway and three years for the L.M. and S. Ry.

Trade Notes and Publications. 302

Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. 302
Order for Timken roller 'bearings and boxes to equip all driving axles of three 4-8-4 steam locos. which they were building. The Burlington equipped the driving axles of seven locomotives with these bearings, and the Illinois Central five-car stream-lined diesel train being built by the Pullman Co. to operate between Chicago and St. Louis was to be fitted.

All-steel railway wagons. 302
Publication issued by the Butterley Co. Ltd. of Codnor Park, Ironville, Nottingham, describes their method of constructing all-steel pit tubs for collieries and railway wagons. The corner joints are so formed that the plates slide together, and a tub can be completely assembled in a few minutes. For repair it is just as easily dismantled after removing the bolts. The Butterley Patent Railway Wagon is based on the same construction. The weight is less than the corresponding wooden wagon with greatly improved strength, and maintenance costs are reduced to a minimum. The makers contend that cost of annual repairs between wooden wagons and their patent steel wagons is of the order of 50 per cent.

Distance thermometers. 302
To their series of attractive pamphlets the Cambridge Instrument Co. Ltd. added a further publication, bearing the title "Cambridge Distance Thermometers for Temperatures from -330° to +1000°F."

Portable electric blowers. 302
It is necessary to keep machinery free from dust and grit and in the case of electrical plant, it is particularly important to keep the brush gear and windings as clear as possible. As far as machinery is concerned, the most convenient method of removing dust is undoubtedly by means of compressed air. On the other hand where it is undesirable that dust should be blown about the room and for cleaning the insides of store bins, and the upholstery of railway carriages, motor cars, etc., suction cleaning is preferable. A portable electric blower introduced by the General Electric Co. Ltd., was designed to serve both purposes, a few simple accessories enabling it to be converted from blowing to suction cleaning when required.

Diesel traction. 302
Eight page illustrated pamphlet issued by the Hunslet Engine Company, Ltd., of Leeds, sets out some of the many advantages of the diesel locomotive. Although in the larger sizes, say over 75 H.P., the capital expenditure is considerably more than for an equivalent steam locomotive, this additional cost is more than compensated for by economy in operation, and where coal is expensive and oil is cheap these savings are very considerable and easily repay the additional capital cost in a corn- partively short period. Speed and haulage capacities are detailed and special features of the Hunslet design, including particulars of the Hunslet pre-selective gear change.

Locomotive measuring instruments. 302
Two new catalogues issued by the General Electric Co. Ltd. deal with Miniature Measuring Instruments and Industrial Measuring Instruments respectively. A very wide range of products is dealt with from standard voltmeters and ammeters to valve oscillators, laboratory testing equipment, testing sets, tachometers, and recording instruments. Some of the most delicate types of instruments used in the electric industry are manufactured at the Salford Works to guaranteed standards of accuracy as specified by the Post Office and other Government departments.

South African Railways. 302
Orders placed with the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage and Wagon Co. for 35 second class carriages, and with the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. for 18 first class carriages, and 35 first and second class composites .

Number 530 (15 October 1936)

Locomotive costs. 303; 305
Running costs and maintenance costs: prolonging life may not be economic — quotes Baldwin Locomotive Works arguing for scrap and build, but they would!

4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives, "Grange" class, Great Western Railway. 304-5. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
The first series of these engines to be numbered and named as follows:-6800 Arlington Grange, 6801 Aylburton Grange, 6802 Bampton Grange, 6803 Bucklebury Grange, 6804 Brockingham Grange, 6805 Broughton Grange, 6806 Blackwell Grange, 6807 Birchwood Grange, 6808 Beenham Grange, 6809 Burghclere Grange.

London, Midland & Scottish Rly. 305
Further new engines of the 4-6-0 Silver Jubilee class turned out at Crewe: Nos. 5723 Fearless, 5724 Warspite, 5725 Repulse, and 5726 Vindictive. The tenders fitted to these engines were of the standard 3,500 gallon type, previously attached to the Royal Scot class. The highest 2-cylinder 4-6-0 ex Arrnstrong-Whitworth was No. 5250. Of this series the first five engines, Nos. 5225-5229, were in service on the Central Division, and the remainder on the Western Division. New two-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tank engines ex North British Loco. Co. had been delivered as follows: Nos. 2545-2559, Midland Division; Nos. 2560-2564,- Northern Division; Nos. 2565-2576, Western Division. The 69 2-8-0 mineral engines in course of delivery from the Vulcan Foundry were all for service on the Midland Division, and of these Nos. 8027-8037 were at work. The following additional Silver Jubilee class 4-6-0s had been named: Nos. 5560 Prince Edward Island, 5606 Falkland Islands, and 5609 Gilbert and Ellice Islands. Regimental names had been given to four additional Royal Scots: Nos. 6133 The Green Howards, 6134 The Cheshire Regiment, 6137 The Prince of Wales's Volunteers (South Lancashire), and 6149 The Middlesex Regiment. Withdrawals included 4-4-0 George the Fifth class No. 5330, 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class No. 25844, and 4-4-2 Precursor tank No. 6827. One of the new Princess Royal class express engines is to be named Coronation in honour of the Coronation of H.M. King Edward next May. The company is thus following the precedent established in 1911, when one of the L.N.W.R. engines then building at Crewe—it was the 5000th engine built there—was so named in honour of the Coronation of King George V and Queen Mary. The original Coronation, No. 25348, was still working and stationed at Chester, but would shortly be withdrawn as the type was becoming obsolete.

"Pacific" locomotive with poppet valves, P.L.M. Railway. 308-10. illustration, diagram (side elevation), table
2-3-1 C-17 class fitted with Lentz Poppet valves and double chimneys under Japiot See also page 351

Railway Club. 310
10 September meeting: Charles E, Lee. Railway owned omnibus services (a history back to 1831 when the Liverpool & Manchester Railway operated them).

Baddesley Colliery, Atherstone. 310
Beyer Peacocck to supply 0-4-0+0-4-0 Beyer Garratt similar to one supplied to Sneyd Colliery at Stoke-on-Trent

Diesel railcar operation on the Buenos Ayres Western Railway. 311-13. illustration, 3 tables
Armstrong Whitworth & Co. articulated locomotive and trailer withv Sulzer engine and electric drive. Seated 48 passengers and had a maximum speed of 60 mile/h. Started cwork in September 1934 being used on special services between Buenos Ayres and Lujan during the Eucharistic Congress when it ran 4760 miles in a fortnight. Sir Follett Holt gave details of their operating costs at the AGM of the railwa. Livesey & Henderson were the consulating engineers.

The development and testing of locomotives. 313-16.
At the Conference of the British Association for the Advancement of Science held last month at Blackpool, W.A. Stanier, chief mechanical engineer of the L.M.S. Rly., read a paper on "The Development and Testing of Locomotives," and the following abstract will be read with considerable interest by engineers m this country and abroad.
Until comparatively recently the facilities for testing locomotives in service have been of a very simple form, and it has been difficult to get reliable data on the working of the engine and the boiler, as well as the numerous accessories which are developed and offered for trial.
It is, moreover, somewhat difficult to arrange a series of tests on the running lines without causing inconvenience to the working. Such work is usually carried out on. an ordinary booked train, but occasionally it is possible to arrange a special trial on a Sunday when the line is less occupied. As a result of this, it has not been possible until recent years for the locomotive engineer to set out a predetermined programme of trials which would have possibly in the infancy of locomotive design, led to a much more rapid development, such as has been the case with the internal combustion engine and which has resulted in rapid development and its general application to motor cars and aeroplanes.
Probably the first vehicle used for experimental work on the English railways was a broad gauge 4-wheeled van which about 1879 was converted to narrow gauge, and fitted up as a measuring van on the Great Western Railway. It was fitted with a fifth wheel, which could be raised and lowered, with suitable mechanism and which worked a series of counters indicating the distance travelled in miles and fractions of a mile. The introduction of this car is generally attributed to Sir Daniel Gooch.
The dynamometer spring and a recording mechanism with paper drive were added. In 1900 a new 8-wheeled car was built by the G.W.R. and fitted with the extra wheel and the mileage dials, and clock from the old car with mechanism to provide a recording apparatus. The extra wheel is fitted with a hardened tyre accurately ground to a diameter so that it makes exactly 440 revs. per mile, and as it is only in use when a test is being made it maintams its accuracy for long periods.. It drives through suitable mechanism, the mileage indications and the paper drums for the recording table. The paper travels at 1 ft. or 2 ft. per car mile depending on which gear is engaged.
A new spring was fitted to which the drawbar at the live end of the car was connected. This spring consists of a number of plates about 7 ft. 6 in. long separated from each other. !hey are held in the centre with a buckle to which  is attached the drawbar, and the ends are in bearers which bear against brackets on the under frame of the car. All contact points are carried on rollers so that friction is reduced to the smallest factor.
The drawbar itself is also carried on rollers. An arm from the spring buckle extends to the recording table and carries a pen which draws a curve on the paper as it passes across the table.
Another instrument fitted is an integrator which consists of a disc which is revolved by suitable gearing connected to the ninth wheel and makes a number of revolutions proportional to the speed of the train. A small vertical roller is in contact with this disc, and it can be moved across the disc by means of an arm connected to the spring buckle, and is so adjusted that when there is no pull on the drawbar, the roller is in the centre of the disc and does not revolve. With the slightest pull from the centre the roller revolves, and as it has an armature on its spindle with an electric contact, it can be used to operate a pen and an electric counter on the recording table, and since the revolutions of the disc are proportional to the distance run by the train and the distance of the roller from the centre of the disc depends on the drawbar pull, the revolutions of the roller will be a measure of the product of the distance run and the average drawbar pull, that is, of the work done. The gearing is so arranged that each revolution of the roller represents 330,000 ft. lb. of work so that by multiplying the record on the counter for one minute by 10 the mean drawbar horsepower at any minute can be directly obtained.
The horsepower can also be obtained at any point on the record since it is equal to the pull in tons multiplied by the speed in miles per hour and by 5.97, as per example:-
The table is equipped with pens operated electro-magnetically for the following records:-
1. Datum line.
2. Drawbar pull direct through spring.
3. Work done from Integrator.
4. Speed from clock recording 2 sec. marks.
5. Engine working from observer on footplate.
6. Point at which indicator cards are taken from staff at front of engine.
7. Location from observer of mile posts.
Then when brake tests are being made:-
8. Movement of brake handle on engine to apply brake.
9. Moment at which the brake is fully applied on any vehicle in train.
Some cars are fitted with additional instrurnents such as an ergometer, which is a combination of the inertia dynamometer (pendulum and the integrating roller). The tangent of the angle which the pendulum makes with its central position is proportional to the algebraic sum of the force of gravity (plus or minus) and the force producing change of velocity. .The integratmg roller multiplies this force by distance, and the result is shown on the paper as .an inclined plane. The change in ordinate of this time represents the change in the algebraic sum of potential and kinetic energy per ton of the train.
When coasting free, the loss of energy recorded is due to train resistance, and is, therefore, a direct indication of it.
A dynamometer car will be of little use unless some reliance can be placed on the records obtained, and it is necessary to provide means to check readily the accuracy of the drawbar spnng. On the L.M.S. a simple weighing machine has been devised by which the .spring can be calibrated in position. The machine consists of a frame which can be bolted to the headstock of the dynamometer car with its outer extremity carried on a trestle, the frame being packed up so as to be truly level.
The frame carries bearings for accommodating the knife edges which form the fixed fulcrum of a long lever. This lever is also provided wiIth another pair of knife edges, which are connected through suitable links to the drawgear. On the top of the lever a portion is machined flat on which a spirit level is placed! and when level both pairs of knife edges are m the same vertical plane. The ratio. of the lever arm to the distance between the knife edges  is exactly 40 to 1, so that 56 lb. placed on the scale pan produces a load of 1 ton on the drawbar
To eliminate the weight of the lever arm and scale pan the further extremity is carried in a spring balance suspended from a hook overhead; this is so adjusted that when there is no pull on the drawbar the spring balance hol ds the lever truly horizontal. Whatever load is appIied, provided the lever is in the honzontal position, the upward force due to the spring balance will remain constant and equal to the downward force due to the weight of the lever and scale pan,. hence no deduction need be made for the weight. An actual test shows that the drawgear can be maintained within 1 per cent. of accuracy. The gear is always checked in this way before a test is to be made.
In this country before the grouping of the railways the L.N.W., the L. & Y., and the G.N. all built similar dynamometer cars. On the Continent there are a number of cars which make similar records but which have modification in detail. Some of the most complete are the cars attached to the Vitry Testing Station in France. These are fitted with Amsler tables and hydraulic cylinders for absorbing the drawbar reactions. Means are also provided so that an examination of the flue gases can be made. An inspirator is fitted in the car so that the flue gases can be drawn through suitable piping back to the car, where an analysis can be made of the gases to determine the CO2, CO., etc.
The L.M.S. car is fitted with an indicator for checking the amount of water fed into the boiler and also the quantity of water replaced in the tender; this permitting the evaporation of the boiler to be obtained.
The coal is weighed on the tender and at the end of a trip the amount left is weighed. The old method of quoting coal consumption for locomotive performance was on the basis of "pounds of coal consumed per ton mile" and due to varying climatic conditions, loading, etc., it was necessary for extensive tests to be carried out to obtain a representative average figure. Since the advent of the dynamometer car, it is now possible to obtain quite accurate coal con- sumption figures, but on the basis of actual work performed, i.e., "pounds of coal per drawbar horse-power hour," and due to the fact that this coal consumption is based on the actual output performance of the locomotive, it is only neces- sary to make a comparatively few runs to obtain the information required.
With the high pressure boilers now in service, a large number of which are working at 225 and others at 250 lb. pressure, it is very necessary to have the most efficient steam distribution to ensure economical working and by fitting the locomotive with suitable gear, indicator cards can be obtained which provide a clear analysis of the steam distribution and a thorough investigation can be quickly carried out to determine whether the engine motion is actually functioning to give the most economical results.
The method followed when indicating the steam distribution is to take out a train up to the maximum load suitable for the locomotive, the dynamometer car being marshalled between the engine and train, and the train worked at varying speeds and at each speed varying cut offs with full regulator opening. Under such conditions a complete range of indicator cards are taken. These indicator cards provide a thorough check of the steam distribution for all positions of valve gear and speeds and adjustments to the valve gear may be made if desirable. An interesting investigation was carried out with an express 4-6-0 locomotive comprising a series of dynamometer car tests at different periods of the life of the engine, i.e., just before and just after piston and valve examinations and service repairs. From results obtained during these tests, the erliciency of the engine and boiler deteriorated at a very slow rate, and it was found that the maximum increase in coal consumption per drawbar horse-power was about 8 per cent. higher than when new. The boiler efficiency showed very little depreciation although the steaming properties were not so good when getting towards the next general repair. A very important item in connection with the operation of railways is to determine the best position for placing the signals controlling the working of trains, so that the enginemen will have sufficient time to have complete control of the train and be able to stop within the home signal, and it is necessary to ascertain the stopping distance of trains of varying weights at different speeds. With the gradual increase in the weights and lengths of trains, this factor is of utmost importance, and various combinations of locomotives and passenger trains and the stopping distances for these trains over a range of gradually increasing speeds up to 95 m.p.h, were shown and a comparison of the standard vacuum brake gear, as compared with the standard vacuum brake gear with the addition of a direct admission valve, which is fitted to each vacuum cylinder so that the slightest admission of air in the train pipe automatically opens each D.A. valve to air. When the tests for these brake trials were in hand, in addition to the dynamometer car, each train was provided with vacuum recorders at the front, middle and rear of the train so that the rate of propagation of the brake down the train could be analysed, and an observer noted the con- dition of the stop, i.e., whether rough or smooth, as it is obviously not a commercial undertaking to produce stops which would result in damage to the track and discomfort to the passengers. The tests themselves were carried out during the week-end when a clear line for running purposes could be obtained over certain sections, and to permit of a straight comparison being made, all the stopping distances obtained were carefully equated to the stopping distances on the level, i.e., the effect of either a rising or falling gradient was eliminated. All the stops in question were what are known as emergency stops, the enginemen closing the regulator at a predetermined speed and immediately applying the brake fully so that the maximum brake power was available as soon as possible throughout the
train. Probably one of the most important decisions that had to be made on the amalgamation of the constituent railways of the L.M.S. in January 1923 was to decide on the types of locomotives which should be adopted as standard and conversely the older and less economical types which should be scrapped. Investigations were put in hand and various classes of engines thoroughly tried out with the dynamometer car, and as a result certain locomotives were adopted as standard types and were built as a type replacing obsolete classes. At the same time, to meet the requirements of the operating department, other more modern types were built as and when neces- sary, and at the end of 1937 as a result of the continuation of this policy the reduction in total steam locomotive stock, it is estimated, will be 27 per cent. and the reduction of the types 63 per cent.
Another sphere of investigation in which the dynamometer car has been of great value is in the carrying out of coal consumption tests on the basis of pounds burned per unit of work performed when using different qualities of coal for exactly similar loads and timings. The results obtained show that a variation occurs of about 38 per cent. between the best quality of coal compared with the worst. In addition, observations taken clearly identify the coals which produced bad clinkering on the fire-bars resulting in indifferent steaming. Constant Speed "Method of Testing Locomotives." A method of testing locomotives has been devised on the Continent, which consists of haul- ing trains of known weights at predetermined speeds, regulator opening valve gear, cut-off, etc., which enables the constant rate of combustion and steam consumption to be achieved and thereby a comparative figure of actual consumption per drawbar horse power hour can be obtained.
Such data when obtained from various types of locomotives enables a very close comparison to be made of the efficiencies and engine performance. To enable the foregoing conditions to be worked to, the train usually consists of the engine under test, the dynamometer car, and an auxiliary locomotive. The function of the auxiliary locomotive is to maintain the constant speed of the train, and the driver of this locomotive is responsible for this and if the train exceeds the set speed he must apply the brakes which are usually of the counter pressure brake type, in addition to the train brakes, or on the other hand if the engine tends to reduce speed due to climbing a rising gradient the auxiliary locomo- tive must be immediately opened out to maintain the predetermined speed. The driver of the auxiliary locomotive is provided with a speed re- corder which enables him to check carefully the actual speed of the train.
It will be recognised from the foregoing that this method of testing is practically identical with a stationary test plant in so far as the engine working is maintained under constant conditions, but it also has the practical advantage of includ- ing in the test the effect of wind resistance and radiation losses so far as the locomotive is con- cerned.
The tests carried out on the L.M.S.R. will form the basis of a more intensive research into causes that prevent a higher efficiency from being obtained, but it must be borne in mind that railway research, as a rule, is very slow on account of the great variety of conditions that arise in the operation of a train service. It can seldom be reproduced on a small scale in a laboratory and not always as a full scale test on a locomotive stationary testing plant, but must generally be tried out in actual service, which takes time and necessitates the consideration of many variables, and how they may affect the results.
As an instance of the importance of the application of engine performance data to assist in solving problems for the Operating Department such as the possibility of running express trains at higher average speeds, a trial run between Euston and Crewe gave varying average speeds of 60 to 76 m.p.h., and from Euston to Liverpool at average speeds varying from 60 to 74 m.p.h. The following speed restrictions are imposed:- Rugby, 35 m.p.h.; Polesworth, 45 m.p.h. ; Stafford, 30 m.p.h. ; Crewe, 20 m.p.h. The effect of these speed restrictions is very pronounced in that, to maintain the higher average speeds quoted, maximum running speeds for short periods of 100 m.p.h. on the Euston-Rugby Section, and 98 m.p.h. on the Rugby-Liverpool Section must be attained. The possibility of running a passenger train at such high speeds calls for careful investigation with regard to the capacity of the locomotive, and would probably mean a severe reduction in the weight of the train hauled.
This particular problem illustrates the value of the very close co-ordination which exists between the Operating- and Engineering Departments of the railways of this country.

Consolidation locomotives for the Chinese Government Rly., Lung-Hai Line. 316-18. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Fifteen 2-8-0 locomotives built or under construction by Societe Alsacienne with lare grates (45 ft2) to burn poor quality coal.

Streamlined Pacific type loco. and Centenary Train, South Australian Railways. 318. illustration
Centenary of the State of South Australia. Locomotive named Sir Winston Dugan and designed by F.J. Shea, chief mechanical engineer. Locomotive and lower panels on passenger cars painted leaf green.

The Dover-Dunkirk train-ferry. 319. illustration
Southern Railway: Twickenham Ferry, Hampton Ferry and Shepperton Ferry for overnight sleeping car service between London Victoria and Paris Gare du Nord' Ferries built by Swan, Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd on the Tyne. Riolling stock owned International Sleeping Car Co.

Development in steam locomotive design Presidential Address of Mr. W. A. Stanier to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 320-3. table
On 30 September W. A. Stanier, chief mechanical engineer of the London, Midland & Scottish Railway, gave his presidential address to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, taking as his subject the progress of locomotive design during recent years. Whilst Stanier's paper at Blackpool, which is dealt with elsewhere in this issue, is devoted to the testing of locomotives, the presidential address was a review of recent developments. The improvement in trade and the rivalry of other means of transport had resulted in a general speeding up on the railways and he pointed to the ability of the steam locomotive not only to haul heavy trains at good average speeds, but to rival the internal combustion engined units. In addition there had been a general increase in the average speed of trains, with the need for a greater number of fast goods trains. He paid a generous tribute to what had been done on the London & North Eastern Railway by the Pacific locomotives of Sir Nigel Gresley when given a suitable path and load. This achievement was made possible because of the care taken and the experience shown in the boiler and engine design, and the skill and experience of those who built the locomotive to ensure reliability in service. Up to the present the general practice was to design locomotives on conventional lines. The boilers have usually been designed for a working pressure of 300 lb. per sq. in. or under, but there had been a marked increase in firebox volume, grate area, and an improvement in tube ratios. The engines have had cylinders designed with better steam passages and larger steam pipes and the valve gear has been arranged with longer valve travel.
On the Delaware & Hudson Railroad in the U.S.A. four progressive locomotives have been .introduced, the latest of which have a working pressure of 500 lb. per sq. in. and it seemed from the way in which they have been put on the line, that some at least of them are not likely to be perpetuated. In Germany, France, America and England engines have been built with the Schrnidt-Henschel type of boiler having a closed circuit, with a pressure of 1,600 lb. to 1,800 lb. per sa. inch and producing steam from 850 lb. to 900 lb. per sq. in., but they have not progressed very far. The Winterthur high-pressure locomotive, which was tried on the Swiss Federal Railways, has a boiler of a special water-tube type. The engine is of the high-speed uniflow type with cam- operated poppet valves, a reduction gear drive of 1 :2.5 being provided, with a jack shaft and connecting rods transmitting power to the coupled wheels. The boiler pressure is 850 lb. per sq. in. Reference was made to the L.M. & S.R. turbine locomotive. A number of engines had been developed embodying the turbine as a power unit and most of these had been fitted with condensers, and in his opinion these auxiliaries had been the principal stumbling block to successful results. In collaboration with the Metropolitan-Vickers Co. the L.M. & S. had built their locomotive fitted with the Ljungstrom non-condensing turbine, similar to one which was running on the Grangesberg-Oxelosund Railway in Sweden. The Swedish engine was a 2-8-0 working heavy ore trains, whereas the L.M. & S. is a 4-6-2 for heavy and fast passenger trains. The turbine engine had been working regularly between Euston and Liverpool and back for twelve months, and had worked to Glasgow and back." Apart from a little trouble with the reverse turbine which had been put right, it had worked most successfully. Whilst a turbine is ideal for continuous working, it has still to be proved that it will operate effici- ently under the variable conditions of ordinary train working, and this, as Mr. Stanier pointed out, can only be ascertained by actual test, and one or two station stops may easily upset all the economies obtained in running. This engine was the first in this country to be fitted with roller bearings to all axles.
The reciprocating engine was eminently suited to meet the varying conditions which occurred in ordinary train working. The simplicity and flexibility of the ordinary reciprocating locomotive, combined with the fact that its intrinsic characteristic, as represented by the tractive effort speed curve, is exactly what it should be for railway work. It has a high value for a wide range of slow speeds when it is required for starting trains, and falls away at high speeds, when a large tractive effort is not required. This characteristic is the result of the expansive properties of steam, and of direct drive, unobtainable without complication from any other form of power, and makes the reciprocating locomotive almost unassailable against the progress of time and its competitors.
On the question of valve gears, Stanier stated that in spite of all competitors the Walschaert gear, introduced in 1844, still holds its own. It has the inherent advantage that any lost motion in the parts is reduced at the valve itself. It is simple to maintain, and can be arranged on the outside of the engine so that it is very acces- sible. In the latest arrangement on the L.M.S. 4-6-2 engines all the motion pins have needle roller bearings, except the return crank which has a radial ball bearing. This arrangement is expected practically to eliminate wear in the joints of the gear, and only requires greasing once a month and so reduces attention by the engine crew.
Every effort should be made to reduce weight, but in the search for lightness the use of aluminium heads for piston valves were not altogether successful owing to the grooves in the head becoming wider. Poppet valves operated by cams either through Walschaerts gear or through a rotary gear drive have been developed and have the advantage of lightness of valves, and on some railways are found to have advantages over piston valves.
A table shows boiler ratios, including free surface areas and  their ratios for: LNER Silver Link (A4 Pacific);  LMS Turbomotive Engine No. 6202; GWR Castle class; Nord 3.1171-90;  German State Rly. 4-6·2; Canadian National 4-6-4 Class K.5.a and the Algerian Garratt 4-6-2 + 2-6-4
In England locomotive boilers are still of the conventional design, and the highest pressure is 250 psi. A great deal of investigation of the boiler proportions has been carried out, and there has been a great tendency to build boilers with larger grate areas and bigger fireboxes. Unfortunately the British load gauge restricts the size both of boiler and engine design, a width of 8 ft. 9 in. over cylinders and 13 ft. 3 in. high limits the proportions, and the weights on axles limit the weight of the various parts to much more modest dimensions than on many engines on the Continent and in America.
In America, many engines are running with water-tube fireboxes, and noteworthy examples are the Delaware & Hudson engines, already referred to, which have, in effect, a water-tube boiler joined to an ordinary boiler barrel. The Baltimore & Ohio R.R. have a number of engines fitted with a water-tube firebox, designed by the chief of motive power, Col. George Emerson, which has a water-tube wall on each side of the firebox. Both types are said to be free steaming boilers and are working at 350 psi or over. These fireboxes are made possible by the more generous dimensions of the U.S. load gauge.
These developments must be carefully watched, and all locomotive engineers are keenly following the boiler proportions ot engmes tnat are runnmg or contemplated. The following features deserve particular attention:-
(1) The grate area should be of sufficient size to ensure an average rate of combustion of about 50 lb. of coal per sq. ft. of grate per hour.
(2) There should be ample firebox volume to ensure combustion before the gases enter the tubes.
(3) Ample free area for both the superheater flue tubes and boiler tubes, and a suitable ratio for the superheated steam required without prejudicing the steaming properties of the boiler.
(4) A suitable evaporating heating surface and proportion of length to bore of tubes, so that the passage of gases is not unduly retarded through the tubes.
(5) Good air space through the grate; many modern grates have from 48 to 54 per cent. air space to grate area.
(6) Design of smoke box arrangement.
From a close examination of modern boiler design, particulars of the boiler proportions are very interesting. Fairly wide differences may be noted, which indicate that, within certain limits, the steaming and efficiency of a boiler will be quite satisfactory, and this fact is a great help, when it is realised that very often the design has to be modified to meet other important features. To enable boilers of the largest possible size to be built, it is necessary sometimes to use higher tensile steel plates than are normally used, and a number of railways have built boilers using a steel containing about 2 per cent. of nickel with the following analysis:-
Carbon 0.2% to 0.25%
Silicon 0.1% to 0.15%
Manganese 0.5% to 0.7%
Sulphur 0.04% t
Phosphorous 0.04 %
Nickel 1. 75% to 2.0%
Physical Tests:-
Tensile: 34 to 38 tons per sq. in.
Yield: 17 to 19 tons per sq. in.
Elongation: 22 per cent. to 24 per cent.
Reduction in area: 50 per cent.
This material enables a reduction to be made m the thickness of the plates used in the design of the boiler, which results in a net reduction in the weight of a boiler, having about 29-30 sq. ft. of grate area, of 20 cwt. and a further reduction of 6 cwt. is obtained by using high tensile longitudinal and roof stays, a total decrease of 1 ton 6 cwt. No difficulty is experienced in flanging this material, and no detriment can be discovered as a result of electric arc welding certain parts, provided suitable electrodes are used.
The practice of electric arc welding on boilers has not developed far in England, although steady progress is being made. Up to the present no chief mechanical engineer has had courage to weld all the seams on a locomotive boiler, although in America it is quite usual for the steel firebox plates to be welded and not riveted. There is a fruitful field for research, as by eliminating rivets and lapped seams, weight can be saved and sources of weakness removed.
On the Continent a great deal of experimental work has been carried out in connection with boilers of the Velox and La Mont type. The Velox boiler has been developed by the Brown, Boveri Company, and advantages are claimed for this steam generator on account of the small space required, its exceptionally light weight, rapidity in raising steam and general suitability for service requirements.
The P.L.M. Co. have under consideration the conversion of a 4-6-0 locomotive to this type of steam unit. The La Mont steam generator is also of the water-tube steam unit type, and, roughly speaking, it is claimed that to give the same out-put as a conventional type of locomotive boiler the La Mont type would be about half the weight. Both of these water-tube boilers have a very high rate of steam production, and one of the most im- portant auxiliaries is the provision of a pump to ensure that satisfactory circulation is maintained. It may be that the future high-speed locomotive will depart from the simple type originated by George Stephenson, and we shall have a super steam raising unit supplying high-pressure steam to a small totally enclosed multi-cylinder high- speed engine on the lines of the Doble or the Swiss Locomotive Co.'s engine, which was tried a few years ago. One of the factors necessary for the success of such a machine would probably be a good water supply.
On the L.M.S. in recent years an effort has been made to improve the quality of the water supplied to the locomotives. A large number of water softeners have been installed, and are now being brought into service. The introduction of water softening in bulk has its inherent troubles. Many of the waters to be dealt with have a con- siderable permanent hardness, and this necessitates the addition of soda to remove this very undesirable feature, resulting in a softened water of an alkaline character, which invariably sets up a condition in the boiler causing priming. To avoid the high concentration of priming salts, it is necessary to blow the boiler down frequently, or alternatively, to ut every boiler with a continu- ous blow-down so that the concentration of prim- ing salts in solution does not exceed 180 grains per gallon. This means continuously discharging about two gallons of water per minute all the time an engine is working. This system has been introduced very largely in America, and the L.M.S. are now engaged in fitting a continuous blow- down on all engines, so that the fullest advantage can be taken of water softened down to zero hardness. It has been proved that unless zero hardness is provided, most of the advantage of water softemng is lost, due to corrosion, priming and other troubles.
By careful design and suitable loading the problem of high speed is not insurmountable, but combined with it is the problem of stopping distance. A train of seven coaches with an engine havmg a total weight of about 365 tons, will require something like 1,700 yards before it will come to a stand from 90 miles an hour on the level, this with a full application of the brake, and as the distant signal is usually not more than 1,200 yards in the rear of the home signal, high speed postulates a new set of running conditions. In America many railroads are equipped with an elaborate system of automatic train control and cab signalling apparatus. In England the G.W.R. is equipped on all its main lines with automatic train control of a simple form, which depends on a plunger on the engine being raised by a ramp in the track to operate an audible signal, and if the distant is on, the brake is partially applied at the distant signal. The L.M.S. are experimenting with a signal of the Hudd type — that is, a magnet in the track operates an armature on the engine receiver unit which, through a relay, sounds a horn, and partially applies the brake. 'Whether any of these systems will help to speed up train working remains to be seen, but even with these devices functioning with the utmost reliability the problem of the distance required for making a stop still remains. The power brake as at present applied to the locomotive and coaching stock is of necessity limited to the amount that can be applied at slow speeds to avoid skidding the wheels, so that at high speeds it has very limited effect.
Streamlining has no material advantage at speeds under 60 m.p.h., but it does give increasing advantage above that speed. The important point with regard to wind resistance is that it increases in proportion to the square of the speed of the train. This means that the air resistance of a train running at 80 m.p.h. on a calm day is four times as great as it is at 40 m.p.h. or sixteen times as great as when the train is travelling at only 20 m.p.h. Streamlining may be something like that blessed word "Mesopotamia" to the old lady. At any rate, it has good publicity value. There is still much to be done and a wide margin to attack. The heat value of fuel and the efficiency of the locomotive as expressed by work done still leave  something for us to do. Therev is ample evidence that the field for steam locomotives, for long distance working so far as the UK is concerned has still possibilities for further investigation. See J. Instn Loco Engrs, 1936, 26, 553..

Ramsgate Tunnel Railway. 323. illustration
Operated at 400V dc fed by trolley wire: motors supplied by English Electric; 2 ft gauge; used former LCDR tunnel to connect Dumpton Park to site of former Harbour Station.

Railway Club. 323
5 November 1936 meeeting: Passenger services withdrawn since grouping presented by G.W.T Daniel

W.E. Carlisle. Jigs, fixtures and notes on production, 324. 3 diagrams.
Firedoor rings and smokebox door hinges

London & North Eastern  Railway. 324.
New P2 2-8-2 locomotives Nos. 20005 Thane of Fife and 2006 Wolf of Badenoch for service between Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen. Last of series of V1 2-6-2T built at Doncaster, No. 466 allocated to Gateshead. . V2 2-6-2 No. 4772 allocated to York. Final H1 4-4-4T to A8 4-6-2T conversion No. 1517 completed at Darlington.  New series of K3 2-6-0 built at Darlington beginning with No. 2470. Withdrawalss included NER A2 Pacifics Nos. 2401 and 2402 and Y8 0-4-0T No. 561. GER 2-4-0 Nos. 7463 and 7496 were working between Darlington and Hawes. On Saturday 26 September the Silver Jubilee set was worked to Edinburgh and back by Driver T. Dron of Gateshead: times 118 minutes outward and 114 on return.

New buffet cars, L.M.S.R. 325-6. 3 illustrations
Four cars built at Derby Works: illustrations show exterior, interior with bar and modernb decor including leather seats with Dunlopillo cushions and kitchen.

The Weimar-Berka-Blankenhain Railway, Germany. 327-30. 3 illustrations
Thuringen: railway lines with steep gradients and sharp curves: locomotives: Mallet compound 0-4-4-0 supplied by Arnold Jung and 0-8-0T supplied by Orenstein & Koppel and an articulated diesel railcar using articulation developed by H. Groseck and H. Ahrens, Technical Director of Bachsteain.

Great Western Railway. 330
New engines completed at Swindon: 4-6-0 passenger Nos. 5965 Woollas Hall, 6800 Arlington Grange, 6801 Aylburton Grange;; 4-4-0 No. 3204 Earl of Dartmouth, goods tanks, 0-6-0 type, Nos. 7401-9. Engines condemned included: 0-6-0 tanks, Nos. 738 and 1567; 0-4-2 tank No. 1487; 4-4-0 tender, No. 3413 James Mason and No. 3347; 2-6-0 tender, Nos. 4301, 4310, 4340, 4341, 4345, 4351, 4384 and 4398.

Northumberland Colliery locos. 330
No. 2186, G.W.Rly. six-coupled pannier tank sold to the Hazelrigg and Burradon Coal Co., Gosforth, Northumberland, and was running without any alterations to the painting, etc. No. B92, Southern Railway 6-coupled tank sold to the Hartley Main Collieries Co., and was No. 30 in their stock. The Cowpen Coal Co. of North Blyth, recently purchased from the L.N.E.R. 6-coupled tank, No. 304, class J71, built at Darlington Works in 1886, and was now No. 12, Cambois, in the colliery stock. A very interesting engine scrapped last month by the Hartley Main Collieries Co. was their No. 7. This engine was originally built by Lord Londonderry at his Seaham Harbour Works in 1889 for his Sunderland and Seaham Railway and was No. 20. Purchased by the N.E.R. about 1902 it was renumbered 1335. After working a few years it was sold to the Seaton Delaval Coal Co. and became their No. 10. On the amalgamation of the Seaton Delaval and Cramlington Coal Cos to form the Hartley Main Collieries Co. in 1929 it was renumbered 7. A still older engine and probably the oldest at present working in Northumberland is Hartley Main Collieries, No. 3, which was built by Robert Stephenson and Co. at Newcastle in 1867 to the design of  E. Fletcher, then Loco. Supt. of the N.E. Rly. as No. 658. It was a 6-coupled double framed tender engine with all wheels in front of thel fire box. After -running on the N.E. Rly. for 36 years it was sold to the Seaton Delaval Coal Co. and became their No. 5, until the amalgamation in 1929, when it became the Hartley Main Collieries Co.'s No. 3, and barring accident will run for a few more years.

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 331-4. 2 illustrations, 4 maps, 3 diagra,s (side elevations)
Beyer Peacock & Co. was the main supplier of lcomotives beginning with 2-2-2 WN 385-8/ 1863 followed by WN 688-93/ 1865. Four of the 2-2-2 were rebuilt as 0-4-2 locomtives for shunting and  at this stage there was switching of identities.  

G.W.R. 334
Passenger service between Swansea East Dock and Neath Riverside was withdrawn from 28 September: the stations at Swansea East Dock, Danygraig Halt, Britton Ferry Road, Cardonnel Halt and Neath Abbey were closed.

Obituary. 335
Brig.-General Sir Brodie Haldane Henderson, senior partner in the firm of Livesey and Henderson, consulting engineers, died on Sept. 28, at Branghing, Ware, at the age of 67. As consulting engineer for the principal railways in the Argentine and Uruguay he was well known in engineering circles. He served an apprenticeship with Beyer, Peacock & Co. and then spent some time on the construction of the Algeciras-Bobadilla Railway in the South of Spain. After joining the firm of Livesey & Son he was engaged on harbour, dock and railway works in South America, China, Africa and Japan. During the war he was for a time Deputy-Director of Transportation to the British Expeditionary Force in France. He was created K.C.M.G. in 1919. He was a Deputy-Lieutenant of Herts of which county he was High Sheriff in 1925. In 1929 he was elected president of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

Correspondence. 335.

The automatic crank adjustment of the Webb three-cylinder compounds. L. Derens.
The theory about these remarkable engines as set forth by Mr. Smith is to my opinion open to some comment. Although when the H.P. driving wheels are turned while the L.P. were kept standing, there would be four equidistant points in one revolution, giving changing relative H.P. and L.P. crank positions, at which the receiver pressure would be the same, there does not: follow from this there are of necessity also "four': most favourable relative positions of the H.P. and L.P . cranks, because this favourable condition only relates to drawbar pull, which would not be the same in the four different relative positions mentioned above.
Where he criticises Mr. Ahrons' claim as to the most favourable crank disposition and his supposed tendency of the engines to get "away" from this disposition, this to my opinion cannot be explained in the way Mr. Smith argues. Although with the 135 degrees angle the maximum effort of the L.P. coincides with one of the minima of the H.P. engine, there is no necessity for slipping of the L.P. driving wheels or vice versa of the H.P. Slipping will only be produced when the coefficient of adhesion is insufficient, for which there is no reason to assume, as this occurred only at starting with the abnormally high receiver pressure produced by slipping of the H.P. engine. There is thus no apparent reason why the H.P. and L.P. cranks should get away from the 135 degrees position if once assumed. On the other hand, with the cranks in other relative positions, irregular drawbar pull or "jerks" could produce slipping by the reaction of the carriages, which would stop as soon as the most favourable disposition giving the most uniform drawbar pull is attained. Thus to my opinion the theory of Mr. Ahrons that these compounds automatically tried to adjust themselves to run in the most favourable crank'disposition is not so inexplicable as it would seem. It even appears to me that this automatic adjustment would take place immediately after starting, as the high crank efforts put up then offer the most favourable opportunity for slipping, when assisted by the jerking motion of the train produced by the irregular drawbar pull in consequence of an unfavourable position of the cranks.
Thus, not abnormal variations in receiver pressure brought about by unfavourable crank dispositions would be the cause of slipping, but the unequal drawbar pull resulting from it. To my opinion, any divided-drive, uncoupled engines (such as the ex L.S.W.R. 4-2-2-0 Drurnrnond) would automatically try to adjust themselves to the relative position of the cranks giving the most uniform drawbar pull. Three cylinder engines with cranks fixed at 120 degrees have the most uniform drawbar pull. Would this not explain why these Webb compounds were such good hill climbers, just by assuming such a crank disposition, which gives the most uniform drawbar pull? See also response from original author on page 403

Single driver tank locomotive in Austria. E. Rihosek
Re "Single-driver Tank Locomotive in Austria" (July 15 issue), I wish to draw your attention to the fact that the numbers and dates you give of Series 97 are not quite correct. The first engine of this series was built in 1878 and not in 1879 as stated. The classification "97" was given in 1884 and not after the war, the numbers being (in 1911) 97.01, 97.99, 97.101—97.199 and 97.201—97.225. After the war, the Austrian Federal Railways took over only 28 of these locomotives and since that time, a number of the "97" class has been broken up or sold to industrial companies. There are at present two rebuilt engines in, service, the first having been rebuilt in 1934 and the second in 1935, their numbers being 12.01 and 12.02.

The Holland Railway Co. and its locomotives. L. Derens
Mr. Scholdcrer has probably misread my statement with regard to the Queenboro' service of the Zealand Steamship Company. He will see that the words "since 1887" are also between the brackets which does mean that only the day service started at that date and that before 1887 there was only a night boat to and from Queenboro'. The date when rhe night service was transferred to Folkestone, given by Mr. Scholderer as 1911, may be correct, although I am unable to check this at present. With regard to the Continental Bradshaw for July 1876, stating that the Queenboro'-Flushing route was then open, this is quite right, although a real mail train service from Flushing to Germany did not begin before 1881. Of course before that year one could travel from England to Germany via Queenboro' by any ordinary train from Flushing, but there were no mail trains. The day service from Queenboro ', as Mr. Scholderer writes, first figures in the Bradshaw for June 1887, which is in accordance with my own statement.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 335
At the general meeting held 30 September, the following were elected:- Members: David Carleton Buttle, Director of the Nitrate Railways Co., 110 Cannon St., E.C.4; Eric Percival Gildea, Divisional Mechanical Engineer, North Western Railway, Karachi; Michael John Ginetty, Running Supt., Gt. Southern Rlys., Ireland, Broadstone, Dublin; George Robert Lock, Deputy Chief Engineer, Crown Agents for the Colonies, 4 Millbank, S.W·.1.; Harold Young, Chief Mech. Engineer, New South Wales Govt. Rlys., Redfern, Sydney. Transfer from Associate Member to Member: Joshua Bradley, Production Engineer, M. & S.M. Rly., Perambut, Madras; Eric Aston Cole, Acting Works Manager, Assam-Bengal Rly., Pahartali, Bengal; Jack Armytage Kilby, Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer, Egyptian State Rlys., Bulak, Cairo; Henry Merrett Ravensbury Morse, Works Manager, Carr. and Wagon Shops, North Western Rly., Moghalpura, Lahore. Associate Members: James Spencer Cartlidge, Carr. and Works Dept., L.N.E. Rly., King's Cross, N.; Ernest Charles Noble, Locomotive Service Engineer, Dearborn Chemical Co., Ltd., Peru 1186, Buenos Ayres; Chi-yu Wu, Asst. Engineer of Ministry of Rlys., Chinese Govt., studying in England, City and Guilds Engineering College, S.W. Associates: Henry Norman Anderson, General Manager, Buenos Ayres Midland Rly., Buenos Ayres; Joseph Edge Beckett, Chairman and Managing Director, Beckett, Laycock and Watkinson , Ltd., Acton Lane, N.W.10; Oswald Bruckner, The Texas Co. (China), Ltd., Shanghai; Reginald John Drury, Secretary to P. and W. MacLellan, Ltd., 10, Princes Strees, S.W.1.; Alwyn Maitland Kempson, Production Manager, Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd., Wilton, Birmingham; Colin MacQueen, Service Engineer (Locos.), Dearborn Chemical Co., Peru 1186, Buenos Ayres; George Pettigrew-Smith, Chairman Monarch Controller and Associated Co. 's, 7 Victoria Street, S.W.!.

Reviews. 336

By Cornish Riviera Limited. W. G. Chaprnan. London: Routledge & Co. Ltd.
In choosing as his subject the journey of the Cornish Riviera Limited as a daily demonstration of fast running with a heavy passenger train, the author will interest a very large number of holiday makers and others who have been introduced to the charms of our West Country by the Great Western Railway.
Starting with the epoch making high speed run of the City of Truro in 1904 and the introduction of the non-stop run between London and Plymouth in the summer of that year, when the train consisted of seven vehicles weighing 180 tons, the history of the famous train is traced down to the summer service of 1936, with the load increased to 13 or 14 vehicles and the weight behind the locomotive in the neighbourhood of 500 tons. Chapter 2 is devoted to describing the preparing of the engine and train for its long journey, and this is followed by chapters describing the journey to Penzance and St. Ives, and including interesting notes on the permanent way, signalling, dining car arrangements, working of the electric train lighting equipment, etc. The text is written in the interesting style adopted by Chapman in his popular books published by the G.W.R., and lavishly illustrated by excellent photo. reproductions
.

La locomotive actuelle. H. Vigerie, of the Chemin de Fer du Nord, and E. Devernay, of the Ecole Polytechnique, with a preface by J. Lancrenon, Chemin de Fer du Nord. 607pp, with 552 illustrations. Paris: Dunod.
The last edition of the work written by Pierre Guedon entitled "Le Mecanicien de Chemin de Fer" dates back to 1920. To bring this book up to date and to incorporate descriptions of recent developments in perfecting the steam locomotive Vigerie and Devernay have had the enterprise to undertake a complete revision of this admirable study of the locomotive. It is practically a new book and is issued under the title La Locomotive Actuelle." To accord with the intentions of M. Guedon, the authors have not made any modifications to the mathematical explanations reproduced from the special reports of eminent technicians who have studied the functions of a locomotive from a purely theoretical point of view.
The resume of the several phases of design, which forms the first part of the book, along with the various formulae and calculations in the body of the work form a complete guide to the study of locomotive practice. The subordinate grades of the technical personnel of the railways will profit from the descriptions of new apparatus that now form part of the modern locomotive and which are usually only to be found disseminated among numerous reviews and pamphlets. The authors have judiciously recorded the progress made in the last ten years in the better utilisation of steam.

Empire Exhibition, South Africa. 330. illustration
At the Empire Exhibition held at Johannesberg, Hadfields Limited had a large exhibit. The stand was photographed prior to its being dismantled and shipped to South Africa and is shown in the accompanying photo. re- production. The exhibits of historical interest comprised specimens that had been collected from the original experiments which resulted in the invention of manganese steel and silicon steel. Since its introduction "Era" manganese steel had been used for railway and tramway track work.

Number 531 (14 November 1936)

Some aspects of running shed maintenance. 337
Editorial comment on amount of maintenance which should be performed at locomotive depots rather than in main workshops.

2-4-2 tank locos. Egyptian State Railways. 338. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
W.G. Bagnall products for the Minich Auxiliary Railways: outside cylinders, Walschaerts valve gear, Belpaire fireboxes with 13½ x 20in cylinders and 3ft 8in coupled wheels.

Group of six 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives for the London. Midland & Scottish Railway, leaving the Scotswood Works of Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. 339. illustration
Photograph of six Class 5 4-6-0 locomotives which formed part of an order for 227 locomotives which this firm was building for the L.M.S. Rly.

London, Midland & Scottish Rly. 339
Additional engines of the 4-6-0 Silver Jubilee class turned out at Crewe Nos. 5727 Inflexible, 5728 Defiance, 5729 Furious, 5730 Ocean, and 5731 Perseverance. These engines were fitted with 4,000 gallon tenders, which are to be the standard for the rest of the series. The following Silver Jubilees of the earlier series had been named as shown: Nos. 5558 Manitoba, 5568 Westem Atlstmlia, 5579 Punjab, and 5625 Sarawak. Two further Royal Scots had been renamed after British regiments, Nos. 6128 The Lovat Scouts, and 6142 The York and Lancaster Regiment. The series would be completed by No. 6127, to be The Old Contemptible. Deliveries of standard engines from outside firms were as follows: 2-6-4 passenger tanks ex North British Locomotive Company, Nos. 2577-2593; 4-6-0 mixed traffic class ex Armstrong, Whitworths, Nos. 5251-5259; 2-8-0 freight class ex Vulcan Foundry, Nos. 8038-8052. The highest 2-6-4 passenger tank ex Derby is No. 2462. A recent withdrawal of interest was ex N.S.R. 0-6-0 No. 8573, the last of its class (N.S. 159) and also the last of the 0-6-0 type. Many L.N.W. Princes and George V's had been withdrawn. New standard 4,000 gallon tenders with increased coal capacity had been fitted to 4-6-2 Princess Royal class Nos. 6208 and 6209.

The Mercury Express, New York Central Lines. 339-40. 2  illustrations
Between the cities of Cleveland, Toledo and Detroit by the New York Central system, on 15 July 1936, a streamlined luxurious set train was put into service on a very fast schedule. The distance between Cleveland and Detroit by the shortest route is given as 163.3 miles and the running time 2 hours 50 min. Named the Mercury seven cars, painted grey with a silver stripe, air-conditioned throughout, and designed on entirely new lines, both in the internal arrangement and its furnishmgs, and in the exterior from the illuminated locomotive to the rounded-end of the observation car. The steel cars were considerably lighter than the standard equipment, although of full size. The total weight  was: 391 English tons, and accommodation provided for 200 passengers.

0-10-2 or "Union" type locomotive, Union Railroad, U.S.A. 340-1.  illustration
Baldwin locomotive to work 45 mile long line which served the steel industry on Lake Erie in Cleveland

Baltic type tank locomotives, Sao Paulo Rly. Brazil. 342.  illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Six 5ft 3in gauge 4-6-4T locomotives supplied  by North British Locomotive Co. to requirements of P.C. Ford, chief mechanical engineer under supervision of Fox and Mayo, consulting engineers. 5ft 6in coupled wheels, 21½ x 26in cylinders, 200 psi boiler pressure, Belpaire  firebox, 1600ft2 evaporative heating surface plus 430ft2 superheat

4-8-2 locomotives, Gold Coast Railway. 343.  illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Five Nasmyth Wilson 3ft 6in gauge to design of G.S. Simmons and supervision by Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Diesel shunting engine, L.M.S.R. Northern Counties Committee. 344-5. illustration
Harland & Wolff Ltd. diesel mechanical locomotive supplied on trial

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers Paper on "taper boilers." 345
At the meeting held on October 28 at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, J.W. Thompson read a very practical paper  (Paper 361) intended mainly for draughtsmen and engineers familiar with boiler design and not with the various shop processes.
After dealing with the laying-out of the plates of a modern taper boiler, the several types of coned barrels, and the methods of developing them, were explained. The Lefax system of setting out conical barrels was, in the author's opinion, considered the most reliable for drawing office use.
The methods of forming coned plates with horizontal rolls and with the vertical hydraulic plate bend machine were clearly explained ; also the other processes of setting barrel ends, smokebox tube-plates, throat plates, etc. Referring to the cast iron dies, which were used so extensively in boiler work, it was suggested their design could be better based, more or less, on past experiences or upon a knowledge of existing designs, which have been proved satisfactory. By doing this, useless and costly experimenting could often be avoided.
The author suggested the need for an improved method of fitting copper and steel back plates by fitting the plates as at present but utilizing the existing dies and bed, and then putting them in the press, thus giving them a good metal-to-metal joint, and in all probability save caulking the firebox seam.
Other suggestions referred to incorporating the tube-plate with the first barrel-plate, instead of having a solid ring round the joint, thus saving weight and eliminating welds.

London & North Eastern Railway. 345
New 2-6-0 engines of the K3 class completed at North Road Works, Darlington, .were Nos. 2473, 2498 and 2499, all allocated to the Southern Area. At Doncaster another 2-6-2 tender engine of the V2 class, No. 4773, had been completed and working from York. No. 7408, ex G.E. 2-4-0 tender engine had been reconditioned at Doncaster and fitted with a large cab. An interesting withdrawal was 0-6-2 tank engine No. 2491, class N12, as this was one of the few Darlington built engines with dornelcss boilers made in 1923 for the Hull and Barnsley section.
The L.N.E.R. decided to fit two further six-coupled express passenger engines of type B3, Lord Faringdon class wit h Caprotti valve gear. Two of these engines were fitted with this valve gear eight years ago and given excellent service, running an average of 53,000 miles per amnum. The decision to equip a further two engines of the same class had been prompted by the satisfactory saving in coal consumption which has been observed in the case of the two engines already equipped, particularly since the design of the gear was modified about two years ago,
London Film Productions have bought from the L.N.E.R. for use in their Denham Studios two 0-6-0, J15 class, tender pngines Nos. 7541 and 7835. These are for use in connection wirh the film "Knights without Armour."

The Institution of Mechanical Engineers President's Address. 346-50. 5 tables
The presidential address of Sir H. Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc., delivered on Friday, 23 October, from which the following extracts have been made, took for Its main subject, as may have been expected, the steam railway locomotive, especially in view of the progress made during the last forty years. In 1898 S.W. Johnson, locomotive superintendent of the Midland Railway, and President of the Institution for that year, gave a comprehensive address on the details of the mechanical equipment of British railways, including locomotives, carriages, wagons, brakes, signals and permanent way, and also gave an epitome of the passenger, goods and mineral traffic, and of the financial position-in fact, a valuable summary of the conditions then existing on our railways. That address was amplified by tables, diagrams, etc., showing the progress durmg the preceding thirty or forty years. In 1907 T. Hurry Riches, locomotive superintendent of the Taff Vale Railway, again reviewed the position in a paper read before the Institution, giving a detailed description of the most recent types of locomotives then in service of the many British railway companies.
Reverting to railways forty years ago, in Johnson's time, Sir Nigel pointed out there were no British locomotives which weighed with their tenders 100 tons, no engines with a higher steam pressure than 175 lb. per sq. inch, no grates with an area of more than 27 sq. ft., and no express engines with a higher tractive effort than 19,400 lb. In fact, most of them were much smaller in each of these respects. To-day we have engines weighing 165 tons, steam pressures of 250 lb. per sq. inch, grate areas up to 50 sq. ft., and tractive forces of over 40,000 lb. The power of British locomotives has increased by 100 per cent. since Mr. Johnson's year of presidency. In those days the weight of the heaviest Scotch expresses from Euston and King's Cross averaged 260 tons, WIth a maximum of 300 tons. To-day it is an ordinary occurrence for trains to exceed 500 tons in weight and sometimes they attain 600 tons. The speeds have also been steadily increasing during the last few years.
Table 1 gives the comparative main dimensions of locomotives described by Johnson and those in service to-day.
In 1898 Mr. Johnson deplored the limitations of the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, and enlarged on the difficulty which was even at that time encountered in crowding the machinery into the confined space between the frames. The limitations of the track gauge of 4 ft. 8½in. have not, however, imposed on British engineers difficulties comparable with those set by the loading gauge, that is width and height. Locomotives on American and Continental railways have the same track gauge, but can be built so much higher and wider that engines of more than double the weight and power of the most modern British engines are common abroad.
In 1932 a new stage in the development of railway operation was initiated by the introduction of extra high-speed railcar services. Railways on the Continent, particularly in Germany, and in the United States of America, were being badly hit by competition from road and air services. The Diesel engine had reached a high state of development and railway engineers in conjunction with the manufacturers produced Diesel-electric railcars capable of maintaining much higher aver- age speeds than those of the steam train. The fast railcar afforded many obvious advantages over the road competitor. It could run at higher average speeds over the well-laid tracks, effectively controlled by an efficient system of signalling, and consequently with much greater safety. It also afforded many advantages over air transport, because of its safety and reli- ability and independence of weather conditions. Incidentally the costs of transportation were cheaper. Furthermore, what it lost in speed as compared with air services it gained in being able to pick up and set down its passengers at railway stations situated in the heart of the great cities instead of at an aerodrome located some miles away.
After prolonged trials in Germany the Flying Hamburger was put into regular service in May 1933; its average speed is 77.4 m.p.h. It consists of two coaches only, articulated, and carried on three bogies. The motive power is two Maybach 410 H.P: Diesel engines mounted on the outer bogies and directly coupled to electric generators. Traction motors of the ordinary type are mounted on the axles of the carrying wheels. In 1933 similar extra high-speed railcar services were started in France. The cars are fitted with four 200 h.p. Bugatti petrol engines, making a total of 800 h.p. per car. Speeds comparable with those on the German railways are run, and it is claimed that the fastest speed of any rail vehicle has been attained by Bugatti railcars. In the United States, the Union Pacific Railroad put into service the first super-speed internal combustion engine unit in 1933. This was a three-coach train fitted with a 600 h.p. Winton engine. By the use of aluminium alloy for constructional purposes the weight of the complete train was brought down to 120 tons, advantage having been taken of the experience obtained in the construction of aeroplane bodies. The carriages, however, are 8 inches less in width and 3 ft. less in height than the standard coaching stock on American railways. The height of the centre of gravity of the stock is lowered by about 25 inches and the wind resistance is, of course, also considerably reduced, Consequent upon the success of this innovation further trains of increased power and seating capacity were built for the Union Pacific. Other railways followed, probably one of the most successful trains being the Zephyr of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad. The coaches forming this train are also very light, stainless steel framing being used throughout. The success and popularity which has followed the introduction of the various extra high-speed trains, both on the Continent and in America, is such that their running has now become firmly -established and is bound to be extended. Both France and Germany are particularly active in this direction.
The demand for trains of greater carrying capacity has led to the development of steam locomotives capable of maintaining similar speeds and of hauling much heavier trains; such locomotives 'have been built in Germany and America.
In Germany new streamlined high-speed locomotives were built, and in May 1936 a steam-operated service was started between Berlin and Hamburg making an average speed of over 74 m.p.h., which is now probably the fastest steam-operated train in the world.
In America notable examples of stream-lined high-speed steam locomotives are provided by the 4-4-2 type for the Chicago, Milwaukee Railway, known with its stream-lined train as the Hiawatha, and the more recent engine of the 4-6-2 type for the New York Central, known, with its luxurious 440-ton train, as the Mercury. This challenge by the steam locomotive has been taken up by Diesel engine makers of America, and the Winton Company have produced a double locomotive for the Atcheson, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, having two 900 h.p. engines in each unit, making a total of 3,600 h.p. The engine weighs 240-tons, but the first cost must be very greatly in excess of that for a steam locomotive of similar power.
The fast services provided by these various trains have re-established the railways in public estimation and have not only recovered large numbers of passengers from alternative forms of travel but have also created new and additional traffic.
In England conditions are not quite the same. Competition with railways by air services is never likely to be as intensive as abroad. The distances between the great industrial centres are shorter, the aerodromes are generally some long distance from the cities, and owing to fogs and the general visibility conditions of our climate, the reliability of maintaining daily air services can never com- pare with those of other great countries. The first example of the streamlined extra high-speed train on British railways is the Silver Jubilee train running between London and Newcastle, a distance of 268 miles, in four hours, with one intermediate stop at Darlington, the average speed between Darlington and London, a distance of 232 miles, being 71 m.p.h.
At first glance this does not appear to be such a difficult task as that of the 74 m.p.h. run of t he steam-operated Hamburg-Berlin train of the German State Railways. But when consideration is given to the many long and steep gradients and certain compulsory speed reductions, the performance is really more meritorious. On the Berlin-Hamburg line, after leaving the environs of the termini, the road is practically flat and free from speed restrictions and curves, and the whole line is exceptionally suitable for the maintenance of continuous high speeds.
It may be of interest to hear what led to the construction of the Silver Jubilee train which started on 30 September 1935, and also to hear the results of the first year's working. Sir Nigel visited Germany in 1934 and travelled on the Flying Hamburger from Berlin to Hamburg and back; he was so much impressed with the smooth running of the train at a speed of 100 m.p.h., which was maintained for long distances, that he thought it advisable to explore the possibilities of extra high-speed travel by having such a train for experimental purposes on the London & North Eastern Railway. He approached the makers of that train and furnished them with full particu- lars as to gradients, curves, and speed restrictions on the line between King's Cross and Newcastle. With the thoroughness characteristic of the German engineers they made exhaustive investiga- tion and prepared a complete schedule showing the shortest possible running times under favour- able conditions and then added 10 per cent. to meet varying weather conditions and to have sufficient time in reserve to make up for such decelerations or delays as might normally be expected.
The train weighing 115 tons was to consist of three articulated coaches and generally similar to the German train. The limes for the complete journey were given as 4 hours 17 minutes in the up direction and 4 hours 15¼ minutes in the down. The train provided seating capacity for 140 passengers. The accommodation was much more cramped than that provided in this country for ordinary third class passengers, and it did not appear likely to prove attractive for a journey occupying four hours. The general manager suggested that with an ordinary " Pacific" engine faster overall speeds could be maintained with a train of much greater weight, capacity, etc. A trial with a train of seven bogie coaches demonstrated that the run could be accomplished with reliability in less than four hours under normal conditions.
To secure a sufficient margin of power it was considered essential to streamline the engine and train as efficiently as possible and at the same lime to make alterations to the design of the cyl- inders and boiler which would conduce to freer running and to secure an ample reserve of power for fast uphill running.
The train was completed early in September of last year and after a few runs on which excep- tionally high speeds were reached went into ser- vice on 30 September. It completed twelve months' service of five days weekly on 30 Sept. last, and had run 133,464 miles during that period and carried 68,000 passengers. There has only once been an engine failure when the train had to be stopped and another engine substituted. The financial results are very encouraging. The seven coaches forming the train and the streamlined locomotive cost £34,500. The gross receipts from the running of this train amount to 13s. l t d. per mile. Operating expenses, which include locomotive running, carriage expenses, wages of traffic staff, carriage cleaning, advertising, etc., amount to 2s. 6d. per mile. These figures exclude profits on the dining-car service and interest on capital cost of the train and locomotive. A supplement is charged to all passengers, whether paying fares or holding contract tickets or free passes; it is 5s. first class, and 3s. for each third class passenger, and the annual receipts from this item alone has amounted to, £12,000, or roughly 33 per cent. on the first cost of the train.
It will be appreciated that the result of the experiment has been very encouraging. It may seem almost paradoxical that in order to secure the high average speed of the train extra high- speed is not necessary. The fact remains that in ordinary running the train does not exceed a speed of 90 m.p.h. Other express trains with much lower average speeds often attain maximum speeds as great as those run by the Silver Jubilee. Where the time is gained is by running uphill at similar speeds to those normally run downhill. To illustrate this point in the most elementary manner it is only necessary to state that to run a distance of 15 miles at 30 m.p.h. occupies 30 minutes, a similar distance at 60 m.p.h. takes 15· minutes, and at 90 miles p.h. takes 10 minutes. To increase the downhill running speed from 60 to 90 m.p.h. therefore only saves 5 minutes, but to increase uphill running speeds from 30 to 60, m.p.h. saves 15 minutes. This obvious fact was mentioned because it is not yet fully appreciated how much overall train times are reduced by running fast uphill.
Dynamometer car records of the running of this train of 220 tons and the dynamometer car of 32 tons behind the tender show that only about 400 draw-bar horse-power is required to maintain a speed of 80 m.p.h. on the level, but when on a rising gradient of 1 in 200, 1,000 to 1,200 drawbar horse-power is necessary. The locomotive, however, is having to exert an additional 300 h.p. to lift itself up the gradient of 1 in 200, and thereore m effect, correctmg tor gravity, is havmg to exert what is equivalent to 1,400 h.p. to pull the train up this gradient at 80 m.p.h. To this must be added 350 h.p. to overcome the resistance of the locomotive, making a total of 1,750 h.p.
A very important factor in connection with the working of trains at high average speeds is the air resistance and the advantage of streamlining. The trains referred to in Germany, France, and America, and the Silver Jubilee are all streamlined. Experiments have been made at the National Physical Laboratory with scale models of the streamlined Pacific engine of the Silver Jubilee type and an ordinary type Pacific engine to determine the comparative head-on wind resistance and to calculate the horse-power required at various speeds to overcome the air- resistance. The results are shown in Table 2. To maintain a schedule of 71 m.p.h. between London and Darlington with this train entails an average running speed up hill and down dale of 80 to 90 m.p.h., after making allowance for start- ing, stopping, and the various speed restrictions. It will be seen from Table 2 that streamlining results in a saving of over 100 h.p. continuously at these speeds on a still day. There is, however, generally a wind of greater or lesser intensity, and consequently, as the power required to overcome air resistance varies approximately as the cube of the speed, such reduction as may result when running with a favourable wind is not to be compared with the extra power required on the opposite working against a contrary wind. Hence it follows that in the same case of this train the probable average saving of power due to streamlining is considerably in excess of 100 h. p.
Dynamometer car experiments with this train show that although, as stated, only about 400 drawbar horse-power is required on the level, the average drawbar horse-power on the run from London to Newcastle is 620. To this must be added the horse-power required to overcome the internal resistance and the head-on air resistance of the locomotive which with an ordinary Pacific engine at 80 m.p.h. is about 450 h.p., but with a streamlined engine is reduced to 330 h.p. The saving in power output due to streamlining the locomotive is therefore in the region of 10 per cent.
The coal consumption of the engines working this train average 39 lb. per mile; if the consumption of coal is proportionate to the power, the savmg due to streamlining is about 4 lb. per mile, an average of about 200 tons per annum. When running downhill during experimental runs at very high speeds, up to 110 m.p.h., the effect of wind resistance was much more marked. The drawbar horse-power required amounted to 1,200. The head-on air resistance and frictional resistance of an ordinary Pacific engine is equivalent to 800 h.p., making a total of 2,000 n.p. Thhe effect of streamlining at tnat speed IS to reduce the head-on resistance by 250 h.p., the net saving therefore being equal to 12½ per cent.
An experimental run with the Silver Jubilee train was made recently between Newcastle and Edinburgh and back. On this occasion the weight of the train behind the.tender, including the dynamometer car, was 252 tons, and in working the train up the long grsadient of Cockburnspath of 1 in 96 the minimum speed was 68 m.p.h. The actual drawbar horse-power was 1,460; a further 660 h.p. was required to overcome the effect of gravity on the 166-ton engine, in addition to which some 400 to 500 h.p. was required to overcome the air and frictional resistance of the engine at that speed. Therefore the actual power output of the locomotive was between 2,500 and 2,600 h. p., a figure which has never previously been attained by a locomotive in Great Britain. If the demand for longer and heavier trains becomes insistent, there is no insuperable difficulty in providing engines of greater power capable of working longer trains at these speeds. There is, however, one great obstacle. Owing to the density of traffic in England it is a difficult matter for the operating departments to arrange train workings so that a clear path can be secured for such extra high-speed services. The whole object of the introduction of trains of these overall speeds would be defeated if there were a liability of the trains being held up and delayed by other traffic. The more the general traffic is accelerated the easier becomes the task of finding a path for such trains.
One of the main difficulties is in connecton with the slow running of goods trains, particularly over sections of the railway where only two running lines are provided. The mineral trains scheduled at less than 20 m.p.h. are the worst offenders. During recent years the running of fast brake-fitted goods trains has been considerably in- creased, with a view to meeting the competition of the road, but only a very small percentage of the railway companies' wagons are fitted with continuous brakes. It would not be safe to run wagons connected with three-link couplings, and no form of continuous brakes, at high speeds, because of the great distance such trains would run before they could be brought to a stand by the application of brakes on the engine and guard's van only.
In America all railway goods vehicles were fitted with the Westinghouse brake many years ago and during more recent years the whole of the goods and mineral wagons running on the principal Continental railways have also been fitted with continuous brakes. It must be admitted that in this matter the British railways have failed to make progress when compared with the railways of other countries. The failure is not due to lack of enterprise, but to the inherent difficulties and cost of fitting the whole of the wagons running in this country with continuous brakes. There are approximately 1½ million wagons running on British railways, of which about 700,000 are privately owned. To fit the whole of the British wagons with continuous brakes would probably cost in the region of £30,000,000. It is difficult to make out a case to justify this enormous expenditure. The acceleration of goods trains would produce many beneficial results, the transportation and delivery of goods could be expedited, the cost of working goods trains would be lessened because the overall transportation capacity of the locomotives and wagons would be increased, consequently less rolling stock would be required; and the congestion of lines would be reduced. The idea to be aimed at is to run all trains at the same speeds. Credit must be given to the late Mr. G. J. Churchward of the Great Western Railway who designed the first locomotives of the 2-6-0 type in 1911 for express goods services. Table 3 shows the progress which has been made in more recent years in the design of engines built primarily for working mixed traffic or express goods trains.

Stepihenson Loco. Society. 350
J.N. Maskelyne, the President, gave a talk at the first winter session meeting on 12 October in which he related reminiscences of his early locomotive observations and showed many photographs of L.B. & S.C., S.E. & C., and G.W. engines and trains running in the late 1890s and 1900s, including a number of now little known types and services. The annual dinner and entertainment tobe held on 12 December at the Maison Lyons, Shaftesbury Avenue, London, W., at 6.30 p.m. Morning dress.

Petrol driven railcar, New Zealand Govt. Rlys. 350-1. illustration
Six petrol and one diesel engine driven railcars for special services had been put into traffic by the New Zealand Government Railways. The six-wheeled vehicle illustrated (No. 4 Maahunui) was used on the service connecting Wellington, Masterton and Palmerston North, via the Rimutaka incline. The power unit was a 130 h.p. six-cylinder 10- litre capacity petrol engine, maximum revs. per minute 2,200, with coil ignition and electric starting, made by Leyland Motors Ltd. It was fitted with the Lysholm-Smith fluid torque converter, infinitely and automatically varied, by load and grade conditions.

Midland & Great Northern Railway. 351
The following 85 locomotives had been taken over by the L.N.E.R. from the M. & G. N. and as they passed through shops the numbers would be prefixed with a cypher :-1-7, 9, 11-18, 20, 23, 25-28, 36-39, 41-99.

The Bowes Railway. 351
Late the Pontop & Jarrow Railway, had taken delivery from ,the L.N.E.R. of No. 1787, a six-coupled domeless tank engine, class J79, built at Gateshead Works in 1897, and was No. 5 in the Bowes Rly. stock. There were only three of this type built, Nos. 407, 1662, and 1787, and the last was one of the works pilots at Gateshead Loco. Works for some years. The family of Bowes have been associated in the coal mining industry in the County of Durham for upwards of 200 years. No. 5 was stationed at Jingling Gate Shed near Pelaw, and worked coal down to the shipping staithes at Jarrow-on-Tyne.

Pacific type locomotive with poppet valves, P.L.M. Railway. 351
The poppet valves mentioned in our last issue are of the "O.C." type manufactured by the Societe d Exploitation des Precedes Dabeg."

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting. 351
A conference attended by over eighty delegates representing the mechanical and civil engineering departments of railways in the UK and overseas, was held on Wednesday, 21 October, at the British Oxygen Company's works, Cricklewood. The conference was divided into two sessions—locomotives and permanent way. The morning session—locomotives—included subjects relating to the welding of copper fireboxes, repair of cylinders, welding cylinders and frames, repairing frames, and the building-up of worn piston-heads by a deposit, or coating, of manganese bronze. A number of excellent lantern slides were displayed showing welding operations on locomotive fireboxes carried out in the shops of the South Australian Govt. Railways, at Islington, near Adelaide, by authority of F.J. Shea, chief mechanical engineer, and under the supervision of J. H. Harrison, the works manager. Other examples shown were from the Redfern shops of the New South Wales Govt. Rlys (H. Young, chief mechanical engineer), and from the State Railways of Hungary. Examples of work done in France and Portugal were also referred to C.G. Bainbridge, who occupied the chair, explained very carefully the aims of the conference and the various reports submitted for debate. Among those who took part in the discussion (morning session) were: Dr. Cook (Imperial Chemical Industries), representatives from London, Midland & Scottish, London & North Eastern, and the Southern Railways; R. W. Meredith, of the Great Northern Rly. (Ireland), S. W. Proctor, of the Western Australian Govt. Railways, and C. F. Wood, of the South African Railways. The afternoon session, which was devoted to the permanent way section, was presided over by R. E. Dore.

C.P.R. semi-streamlined tranis. 351
The new service of semi-streamlined trains between Toronto and Detroit, Montreal and Quebec, and Calgary and Edmonton had proved a great success. The smooth running, roominess and air conditioned comfort were all features of attraction. Each train consists of a mail and express car, a baggage and buffet car, and two first class passenger cars headed by one of the new 4-4-4 high speed locomotives of the 3000 series. Frequent spurts of 115 m.p.h. had been recorded on the Toronto-Detroit service. All the cars were of light-weight design and semi-streamlined.

Great Southern Railways. 351
No. 407, the last of the four-cylinder 4-6-0 express engines, had been converted to two-cylinders; it had a new type of boiler known as K type, rather larger than fitted to the other engines, but these would also be so provided when the time comes for reboilering.

A curious old Belgian locomotive. 352-4. 2 diagrams
0-600 built by Carels of Ghent and exhibited at the 1873 Viemma Exhibition: incorporated ideas of Belpaire and Stevart (latter's scissors valve gear); aimed to be self balancing (that is without balance weights. See also page 402

W.B. Thompson. Some American notes. 354-6.
During the winter of 1890-1 writer spent six months at Colorado Springs, a health resort at 6000ft above sea level in the eastern Rockies where he observed the primitive nature of railroadinng including that of the Colorado Midland which ascended to 11500 feet to cross the Rockies with gradients of 1 in 25 and the use of 4-6-0 with Le Chatelier brake. On a visit to the same resort in 1936 he observed the luxury trains passing through and the sophistication of the automatic train control and railway rolling stock. 

The Egyptian Phosphate Company's Railway. 356-8. 7 illustrations
Metre gauge line connecting phosphate mines to Safaga on the Red Sea. The railway used hopper wagons and had the following locomotives: Nos. 1 nad 2 were Andrew Barclay 0-6-2T WN 1214/1810 and 1278/1912; No. 3 was Avonside 0-8-0T WN 1670/1914; No. 4 was a 100 hp Sentinel steam locomotive; No. 5 was a Deutz diesel and No. 6 a Hunslet diesel mechanical

Butterley steel wagons and colliery tubs. 358-9. 4 illustrations
Patent (not found) for colliery or quarry tubs with locking joints at corners; also applied to steel railway wagons

New train for the London-Edinburgh service, L.N.E.R. 359.
Initial announcement of Coronation service in six hours and of the West Riding service to Leeds and Bradford

Railcar locomotive, Lubeck Rly. 360-1. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Streamlined 2-4-2T and two coach articulated unit operated in push & pull mode. Had accommodation for 300 passengers of whom 42 were second, and the remainder third. The remote control was electric supplied by Becker. The maximum permitted speed was 74.5 mile/h. The 40 mile Lubeck to Hamburg could be accomplished in 49 minutes.

Some old Scottish locomotives. 361. illustration
Contractors Shanks & McEwan Ltd who had undertaken the Ambergate widening had employed an 0-4-0ST which had begun life as a Hawthorn & Co, of Leith locomotive, but had been rebuilt by Barclay & Co.

Multiple power brake cylinder for the vacuum brake. 362-3. 2 diagrams.
Vacuun Brake Co.

The Trans-Australian railway. 363
Line from Port Augusta to Red Hill would save two breaks of gauge and reduce the distance by 70 miles. New 4-6-0 locomotives were being supplied by Walkers Ltd of Queensland

2-6-2 locomotives for the Pekin-Hankow Railway. 363.
Weight available for adhesion 45 tons; engine weight 70.5 tons

A. Jacquet. The Belpaire locomotives of the Belgian State Railways. 364-5. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
2-4-0 express locomotives. Type 1 was an outside frame design and this evolved. Locomotives were supplied by Cockerill of Seraing, Societe Couillet, Charles Evrard of Brussels. Haine St. Pierre and Casels of Ghent

London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 365.
The original LNWR War Memorial Locomotive Patriot had been withdrawn and it was decided to transfer the name to No. 5500 and rename the class as the Patriot class. Eight more Jubilee class were to be built at Crewe and numbered 5731-8 and carry the locomotive names off the Royal Scot class, namely Perserverance, Sanspareil, Novelty, Meteor, Comet, Phoenix, Atlas and Samson

An early feed water heater. 366-7. diagram, 2 tables
Patent 1752/1857 (23 June 1857) Improvementsb in steam boilers, locomotives and to other furnaces by Daniel Evans: the water heater formed part of the grate.

A converted Polish railcar. 367-8.
Clayton steam railcar coverted to diesel with a 240 hp engine and Gebus transmission.

Retired Railway Officers' Society. 368
At the half-yearly luncheon held at the Liverpool Street Station Hotel on Tuesday November 10, the President, Mr. G. G. Senior, O.B.E., J.P., occupied the chair; a company of about 130 members and their friends attended. The toasts of  "Our Guests" was given by the President and responded to by Mr. Robert Holland-Martin, C.B., chairman of the Southern Railway, and "Success to the Retired Railway Officers' Society" by Sir Nigel Gresley, D.Se., C.B.E., seconded by Mr. W. V. Wood, Vice-President of the L.M.S.R., and responded to by Sir Charles Morgan, C.B.E. "The President" was proposed by Mr. Gilbert Szlumper, C.B.E., and replied to by Mr. R. H. Nicholls, late of the G.W.R. The usual success attended this pleasant function, thanks to the untiring efforts of Mr. W.A. Thomas, the Honorary Secretary.

London Transport Board. 368
Demolition of the old building at the Neasden Railway Depot was approaching completion. A contract has been let for the new building, and construction wouldl be begun shortly. The new depot would be the la.rgest operated by London Transport and wouldl accommodate about 650 passenger vehicles. The buildings will have a total floor area of 260,246 sq. ft. and, including sidings, the whole depot will cover 44 acres.

Correspondence. 368

Webb compounds. John W. Smith
Re article in the September Locomotive dealing with the Webb compounds. It brought back memories of the early 'nineties when I was living at Wernbley, Middlesex, and used to see the compounds at work, the L.P. cover prominently showing behind the open buffer beam. Double heading was frequent, and the trains passed through with considerable speed.
The question of the steam cycle in the Webb system of compounding is a difficult one, and I think your contributor has made out a good case, and opened again a most interesting subject.
I made a hasty, though unsuccessful search through Engineering of the period for some drawings of Webbs engines, but D. K. Clark, whose opinions command respect, gives in his The Steam Engine, Vol. 4, 1890, quite a space to the compound systems of the day, and a full description, with three line drawings of the "Dreadnought" class. There is also a combined indicator diagram taken from the locomotive Teutonic" It has a much better form than one might suppose. J. B. Ewing has something to say about the Webb compounds in his book The Steam Engine and other Heat Engines, of 1894. He writes: "The driving axles are not coupled, and the phase-relation of the low pressure to the high pressure stroke is liable to 'alter through unequal slips on the part of the wheels. This however is of no material consequence on account of the large size of the receiver, and the uniformity with which the two high pressure cylinders deliver steam to it. The design is completely symmetrical; it has the important mechanical advantages of dispensing with coupling rods, while retaining the greater tractive power of four drivers."
Surely this is rather optimistic, and was hardly reabised in service, while the question of the phase relation of the H.P'. and L.P. cylinders seems assumed, and lacked experimental proof.' ,
Webb's engines would I feel have g iven better results with a larger boiler, higher steam pressure, and above all coupling rods. But the 15 ton weight restriction of the time wax a serious factor to be considered.
I think the earlier 2-4-0's were more successful than the "Greater Britain" class, while perhaps the most useful compounds were the 4-4-0 "Black Prince" and "Alfred the Great " classes at the close of the century.

Reviews. 369

Steam locomotive design. D. Patrick. London: Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd. paper covers. 92 pp.
This little book discusses the design of component parts of modern steam locomotive practice, and makes no attempt at treating the preliminary design of the engine as a whole. The author starts at the stage when the wheel arrangement, size of cylinders, etc., have already been settled, and he treats the subject to make it as useful as possible to the practical draughtsman. Items covered in- clude cylinders, pistons, piston-valves, valve travel, crank pins, driving axles, connecting and coupling rods, cross- heads, slide-bars, crank axles, bogies and trucks, springs and brake gear. In the seotion on valve gear the Walschaert type only is dealt with.

Tile Railway Handbook, 1936-37. London: The Railway Publishing Co. Ltd. 96 pp., paper covers.
This well known publication makes its third annual appearance and contains the usual collection of useful railway starist ics and information. The tables regarding the electrification of steam railways have been revised to incorporate the latest developments all over the world. Another section which has been extensively revised is that relating to signalling. A new feature is a chronology of railway historical events, whilst a brief history of each of the British Railways is incorporated also.

Gradients of tile British main line railways. Second edition. London: Railway Publishing Co.
The revised edition contains a number of additions and alterations. The taking over of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway by the L.N E.R. last month has necessitated transferring ,the profiles of this line to the LN.E.R. section. The Salisbury-Bathampton line has now been added to the G.W.R. gradients. The book contains 100 pages, and the profiles of each line are on paper of distinctive tint to facilitate reference. Several of the diagrams have been re-drawn for the sake of clearness.

Ships of tile narrow seas. Edmund Vale. London, Midland and Scottish Railway, Euston Station.
A most attractively produced booklet has been prepared for gratuitous circulation among passengers and prospective passengers on the L.M.S. Cross-channel and cruising services. It is of historical interest, too, since in two years' time the company will celebrate its centenary as operators of Cross-channel steamship services. It deals in an interesting way with the history, development and present equipment of each of the company's steamship services to and from Ireland via Holyhead-Kingstown, Heysham-Belfast, and Stranraer-Larne, on the Firth of Clyde and the Lakes—and concludes with a chapter dealing with the notable work of L.M.S. steamers and their crews during the Great War. The book is useful as a work of library reference, and of great interest to travellers by the various services. Some of the photogravure illustrations are exceptionally fine.

Das Elektrische Eisenbahnwesen der Gegenwart (Electric Railway Operation To-day) .Special supplement to Elektrische Bahnen. Berlin,
This illustrated supplement gives a full account of railway electrification in Germany, in all its phases, in the middle of 1936, together with parallels drawn from the electric lines of other countries. The supplement is designed for the instruction of expert and student alike, and the eight chapters are the work of leading German electro-technicians. All aspects of electric traction on railways are dealt with very fully, and a hitherto rather wide gap has been filled by a chapter of 17 pages dealing with mountain railways, in which considerable attention is paid to the electric telpherage railway as well as to the more orthodox rack and combined rack-and-adhesion system. The telpherage can, of course, overcome difficulties of gradient far beyond the capabilities of the most ambitious rack-and-pinion line, though its actual capacity is more limited. A chart shows at a glance the relative potentialities of different types of mountain railway; steam, electric, cable and telpher. A criticism might be directed at Chapter VII, dealing with electric and Diesel-electric motor-coaches on railways. In view of the attention given to non-German electric locomotives elsewhere, more attention might have been given to multiple-unit operation over relatrively long distances, such as one finds on the Southern and Netherlands Railways. Though in the forefront where electric locomotives and Diesel-electric railcars are concerned, the German railways run no express services by multiple unit trains on the scale found between London and the South Coast, and between Amsterdam and Dordrecht, although the speeds found in the Bavarian Division are higher than those of England and Holland. The book is a most valuable compendium of information on large scale r ai lway e!ectrification.

Locomotive Engineer's Pocket Book, 1936-1937. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
The new edition of this well known reference book has been revised and contains new features. Among the titles of new items may be mentioned Resistance of Locomotive and Train, including Air Resistance and Streamlining. Electric Welding, with diagrams. The Staying of Locomotive Fireboxes, and a brief survey of Water Treatment. The tables of data, directories of chief mechanical engineers and industrial works owning locomotives are continued and brought up to date, also the useful list of mileages and gauges of the British, Colonial and Foreign Railways.

Number 532 (15 December 1936)

Air resistance of passenger trains. 371-2.
Experiments with model trains in a wind tunnel at the National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, were described in a paper given on November 27 at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers by F.C. Johansen, engineering research officer of the L.M.S. Railway, Derby. These tests should enable engineers to determine the exact advantages to be expected from various forms of streamlining. With ideal streamlining, the possible reduction in air resistance is one of 75 per cent. The corresponding fuel economy, Johansen mentioned, is in the neighbourhood of £1 an hour at 100 m.p.h. Alternatively, the maximum attainable speed could be increased by 12-25 per cent. according to the degree of streamlining adopted. Air resistance could be reduced by 50 per cent. without drastic departure from conventional design. The ideal streamlined train was a continuous cylindrical body with well-rounded ends, having a polished surface free from external fittings and irregularities.
The worst direction of natural winds is not one directly ahead, but from 30 to 60 degrees on either side of the head direction according to the type of train. Streamlining is, on the whole, more effective in dealing with the influence of side winds than against head winds or in still air.
Whereas the Silver Jubilee train of the L.N.E.R. is streamlined, the record-breaking train of the L.M.S.R. on the London and Glasgow run was one of conventional appearance.
Another point mentioned by Johansen was the "surprisingly large proportion" of the air resistance of a railway coach, especially in cross winds, contributed by the bogies and under carriage structure. It is consequently advantageous to use articulated stock, to include the under carriages in streamlining measures, and to extend the fairings to the ends of the coaches, leaving no exposed gaps between them. The air resistance is less if the under carriage is totally enclosed than if only side valances are fitted. A £aired shape at the tail end of a train reduces air resistance to an extent which is more marked the more complete the streamlining, but greater advantage can be gained by fairing the front than by fairing the rear end.
The general object of the research was to obtain data from which to estimate the economic value of reducing the air resistance of passenger trains and to indicate the directions in which feasible departures from conventional forms of design might most profitably be pursued. Manifestly the costs of modifying design and construction of operating and maintaining high-speed trains must be considered along with the potential savings in power, and increased earning capacity, before the overall effect on net revenue can be appraised, and before the degree of air resistance reduction can be decided. At the outset of the project it appeared probable-and was subsequently confirmed experimentally that the air resistance of all the coaches in a train of normal length would exceed that of the locomotive; perhaps offering, in consequence, wider opportunity for monetary saving in return for a given expenditure on modification of design. Throughout the experiments, accord- ingly, the effects of changes of external shape were studied mainly in relation to coaches. The influence of certain modifications on the air resist- ance of the locomotive was, of course, included, but the comprehensive aerodynamic study of the steam locomotive was postponed for subsequent investigation.
The wind tunnel has been found of undisputed utility in aeronautical research, and offers means of investigating the air resistance of trains which has preponderating advantages over full-scale experiments. For while the results of wind tunnel experiments on model trains may be subject to some uncertainty from differences in scale and mode of operation between the full-size train and its model, they are at least consistent among themselves, being obtained under controlled conditions by precise measurements of air resistance alone. The effects of modifications of shape, moreover, are likely to be less open to error from scale and similar differences than the absolute values of air resistance, and they can be deter- mined by a wind tunnel far more quickly and cheaply than is possible on the full scale.
In the present state of aerodynamical knowledge, a wind tunnel experiment is the only avail- able means of predetermining the air resistance of a new form of train before it is actually construc- ted. In full-scale trials on the other hand, apart from the impossibility of controlling the natural wind, air resistance cannot practically be segrega- ted from other components of resistance nor be controlled throughout a succession of tests.
The investigation was carried out with models in a 7 ft. wind tunnel at the National Physical Laboratory, on behalf of the L.M. & S. and L. & N.E. Railways. These two companies, together with the Southern Railway to whom the results were communicated, defrayed the cost of the work.
One model represented a "Royal Scot" engine and tender and six 60 ft. L.M.S. corridor coaches, complete in almost every detail of external shape and measured 133.6 inches over buffers, the cor- responding full-scale train being 445 ft. 3 in. Another model, which may be termed the Ideal train, was made of polished wood to represent the fully streamlined equivalent of the standard train. It consisted of seven vehicles of identical cross section which could be connected by dowel pins at the ends to form a continuous parallel body, faired at each end and having an overall length of 133.2 inches.

London and North Eastern Rly. 372.
At Dariinglon, North Road Works, a series of 2-6-0 (K3 class) engines had been completed for the Southern area, Nos. 3813 to 3817. From Beyer, Peacock and Co. Nos, 1532 and 1533 were new J39, 0-6-0 goods engines, and were at Newport and Leeds respectively. Two Paciflcs were now stationed at York, Nos. 2570 and 2576. One of the 4-6-2 rebuilt tanks (Class A8) No. 1519 has been provided with a boiler of the same type as are fitted to the Class VI 2-6-2 tanks, but with a "pull-out" regulator of the old G.N.R. pattern. Doncaster Works had completed another V2 class, 2-6-2 tender engine No. 4774, which had gone to Peterborough.
The L.N.E.R. were to construct 121 new locos. during 1937. Included in this number were 14 streamlined Pacific engines of the Silver Link class which were responsible for hauling the Silver Jubilee train. A further 11 engines of the Green Arrow mixed traffic type were to be built, together with 32 locomotives of the Sandringham 4-6-0 express passenger type for service on main line and secondary passenger trains, Thirty-eight 6-coupled freight locomotives together with 20 tank engines of the 2-6-2 type and six shunting engines made up the total.
The L.N.E,R. line, six miles long, between Soham and Snailwell Junction, Newmarket, at present single track, was to be doubled. This line forms part of the route used by the Continental trains between York and Liverpool and Harwich and by other important services between Lancashire, Yorkshire and the Eastern Counties. It was anticipated that when ·the line is doubled the running time of passenger trains over the section will be reduced by two minutes and of freight trains by four minutes.

Rebuilt 4-4-0 Passenger Engine L.N.E.R. 372. illustration
Modernising a passenger engine of thirty-seven years' service is shown by the radical alterations made in the rebuilt D20 class locomotive, No. 2020, of the London & North Eastern Rly. Externally, the principal alterations noticeable are the raised running plates to clear the coupling rods, the narrow splashers and the new steel cab, and a modified tender. The new cylinders were 19 in. diameter by 26 in. stroke, fitted with inside admission piston valves 10 in. diameter, and with lap of 15/8 in. and maximum travel of 6 in.; the latter are actuated by means of rocking levers driven by Stephenson's valve gear. The wheels had been re-balanced. The vacuum brake had been fitted on the engine and tender, and the engine arranged for left hand driving. Bronze axleboxes are now fitted to the coupled wheels. The rebuilding had been carried out at Darlington Works to the designs of Sir Nigel Gresley, chief mechanical engineer. On the former North Eastern Railway these engines were known as Class R and the first one was constructed in 1899 (No. 2011) to the designs of Wilson Worsdell. The driving and coupled wheels were 6 ft. l0in. diameter and the bogie wheels 4 ft. The main feature .of these engines was their extreme simplicity; whilst their efficiency was proved when running on the Edinburgh and Newcastle route when they could keep time with trains of 350 tons. No. 2020 was stationed at York.

New Turbine Locos., Grangesberg-Oxelosund Rly., Sweden. 373. illustration
Engine had been provided by the Aktiebolagat Ljungstroms Angturbin of Stockholm with a large superheater. Exhaustive comparative tests with one of the railway's ordinary locomotives of modern design have proved that the fuel saving was increased to 23.8% and this low consumption of fuel had been maintained. The main advantage, however, has been in the increase in hauling power, enabling considerably heavier trains to be worked by the turbine locomotive, and thus improving the carrying capacity of the railway, the operating facilities of which, at the present time, are taxed to their utmost capacity. Due to the satisfactory results in service with the first locomotive, the Crangesberg-Oxelosund Railway ordered two similar locomotives from the Aktiebolagat L jungstroms Angturbin, and these are now in service and giving excellent results. This is the first repeat order for turbine locomotives on record. The photograp shows the three turbomotives on the Grangesberg-Oxelosund Railway, of which the one nearest the camera is the one first delivered. This locomotive had now run about 135,000 miles (215,000 km.) in slow speed heavy freight traffic. The results have been very satisfactory and the cost of upkeep extremely low. Put into service in 1932 a mileage of 71,500 miles was recorded be- tween general repairs. The corresponding distance run by the ordinary reciprocating engine on this railway is between 31,000 and 36,000 miles.

[Southern Railway]. 373
At a cost of nearly one million pounds decided to electrify the line as far as Reading, and to complete various small sections in the Guildford and Aldershot area.

[Hiawatha train]. 373
Considerable weight reductions had been effected in new cars built for the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific R.R. Co. 's Hiawatha train. The new stock was 40% lighter than the standard cars. Hauled by the same locomotives, and a nine car train, the original sohedule with seven cars, is maintained. Using the new method of construction the addition of two cars only increases the train weight by 27 tons, whilst the seating accommodation was increased from 376 to 464. This train is timed to run between Chicago, SI. Paul and Milwaukee, a distance of 410 miles with five intermediate stops, ·in 390 minutes at an average speed of 66 m.p.h.

4-6-0 Four-cylinder express locomotive, No. 6029 "King Edward VIII". 373. illustratiion
Renamed King class locomotive No. 6029 King Edward VIII. This was the last engine of the series built..

"Mikado" express passenger loco., Bulgarian State Rys. 374-5. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Product of Swiss Locomotive Co. at Wintherthur with 1.65 m coupled wheels and 640 x 700 cm cylinders. Followed German National Railways design  

London, Midland & Scottish Railway: experimental high-speed test runs between London and Glasgow. 375-8. illustration.
Outward a time of 353 min. 38 seconds was achieved and the return 322 min 15 seconds or 70 mile/h average. Driver T.J. Clarke was in charge with firemen C. Fleet  and A. Shaw. Riddles was on the footplate. Lemon was on the train

The introduction of the locomotive into London. 378.
14 December marked the centenary of locomotive use by the London & Greenwich Railway reached London Bridge and was opened by the Lord Mayor of London (who is not named in this report, but the Chairman of the railway Dottin is).

2-8-2 type freight locomotives Canadian National Rlys. 379. illustration.
As a result of the experience in service on the lines in Western Canada the Canadian National Railways put into traffic another five 2-8-2 freight locomotives of the class S-4-b, as a development of the S-4-a class, No. 3800, built at the Point St. Charles shops in 1930. The new engines, Nos. 3801 to 3805, have been built by the Canadian Locomotive Company of Kingston, Ontario. The superheater was Schmidt type E. with multiple type regulator with compensating lever. The feed-water heater "Elesco" type K-40 with C.F.-l pump. Two thermic syphons fitted in the firebox and an automatic soot-blower provided as well as a signal foam meter. Valve gear of the Baker long valve type used. Floating bushes are applied to the main rod big end, main and intermediate connections in the side rods and in the main driving boxes. The mechanical stoker is of Type BK. The cab is of the vestibule type and is of steel welded. The tender is of the Vanderbilt type on six-wheel bogies. The locomotives have been built to the designs of John Roberts, Chief of Motive Power and Car Equipment of the C.N.R.

London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 379
The following new engines of the 4-6-0 "Silver Jubilee" class had left the Crewe shops: Nos. 5732 Sanspareil, 5733 Novelty, 5734 Meteor, 5735 Comet, 5736 Phoenix, and 5737 Ajax. Names had also been given to two earlier engines of the same type, viz., Nos. 5557 New Brunswick and 5623 Palestine. Latest deliveries from outside firms: Nos. 2607 (2-6-4T) ex North British Locomotive. Co. No. 5280 (4-6-0 mixed traffic class) ex Anmstrong, Whitworths; and No. 8065 (2-8-0 freight class) ex Vulcan Foundry. The latest 2-6-4T ex Derby No. 2472. "Royal Scat" class 4-6-0 No. 6127 The Old Contemptible, was officially named at Euston on 28 November 1936. "Princess Royal" class 4-6-2's Nos. 6200 and 6201 running fitted with new tenders having increased coal capacity. Engines reoently turned out at Crewe rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers included the following:-0-6-0 18 in goods class Nos. 8367, 8513, 8556, 8608; and 0-8-0 class "G1" Nos. 9099, 9118, 9237. Withdrawals included four ex L.N.W. "Special Tank" shunters, Nos. 7435, 27379, 27386, and 27390 ; also the following: 4-4-0 "George the Fifth" class Nos. 25225, 5364, 5368 and 5398; ex N.S. "L" class 0-6-2 tanks Nos. 2259 and 2263; and 4-4-2 "Precursor" tanks Nos. 6795 and 6804. A series of fifteen 2-8-0 freight engines was now in hand at Crewe, Nos. 8012-26. These were the last engines on order at Crewe in connection with the 1936 programme.

Essendine and Bourne branch train. 379
Consisted of two bogie coaches which formerly were in use as steam rail cars on the Great Northern Railway.

Great Northern Ry, (Ireland). 379
Work to be started at Dundalk on five small 0-6-0 goods tender engines, suitable for working over any section of the line.

Tank Locos. for the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd.  380
Three six-coupled outside cylinder standard gauge saddle tank locomotives (0-6-0ST) supplied by R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. of Newcastle on Tyne, to the United Steel Companies Ltd. for the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co.'s Works at Scunthorpe, Lincolnshire had cylinders 15 in. diameter by 22 in. stroke, with Stephenson's valve motion. Coupled wheels 3 ft. 5 in. diameter spread over a wheel base of 11 ft. Working pressure 180 lb. per square inch. Tractive effort at 90 per cent. of the working pressure, 19,557 lbf. Total weight in working order 40.45 tons. The total heating surface 668.8 ft2. and grate area is 14 ft2. The special rocker bar grate with damper bar arrangement was supplied by J. & J. Neil (Temple) Ltd. Appleby-Frodingham Co.'s numbers of these engines were 3, 7 and 31.

G.W.R. 1937 Renewals Programme. 381
Included the construction at Swindon Works of 286 locomotives, comprising: 25 Castles (four-cylinder 4-6-0), 10 Hall class (4-6-0), 20 Earls (4-4-0), 20 Manors (4-6-0), 10 0-6-0 standard tender goods, 50 2-8-2 tank engines, 101 2-6-2 tank engines, and 50 0-6-0 tank engines. Of the 294 passenger coaches which were to be built, 174 would be of the new end vestibule type. These coaches had deep seats, modern upholstery, large observaaion windows and improved "no draught" ventilation. In addition, two new trains of centre vestibule coaches, designed specially for catering for pleasure parties and the service of meals to as many as 400 passengers where they sit at one time, were to be built. All these coaches to have steel underframes and entirely encased in steel, built on a timber framework and fitted with a steel roof; a practice which had been followed by the Company since 1922. The programme also included the construction of 150 horse boxes, 50 bogic trucks and 6 eight-wheeled kitchen cars, making a total of 500 passenger train vehicles altogether. For its freight services, 3,940 wagons were to be built. Of these 750 would be vacuum fittcd for use on express freight services, including 100 of a convertible type for the conveyance of motor cars. The Company's stock of containers was 1,680 and during the coming year it was the intention to construct a further 200. These would consist of four types including insulated, bicycle, large covered and furniture removal.

Great Western Railway. 380
New engines completed at Swindon were 0-6-0 goods tanks, Nos. 3702-10, mixed traffic 2-6-2 tanks, Nos. 4110-5. Thc following had been condemned: 0-6-0 tanks, 770, 1398, 1552, 1718, 1826 and 1905; 0-6-0 goods, No. 1003 (M.S.W. 19); 2-4-0 tank No. 3598; 0-4-2 tank No. 1430; 4-4-0 tender, Nos. 3267 Cornishman, 3372 Sir N. Kingscote, and 3428; 2-6-0 tender Nos. 4323 and 4334.

L.N.E.R. —Felixstowe branch to be doubled. 380.
Plans had been completed for the improvemcnt of the line from Ipswich to Felixstowc. Traffic on this branch has doubled during thc last two years and during the summer the branch, which is single line, has been worked to it s maximum capacity, as many as 87 trains passing ovcr it in one day. In addition to thc handicap of a single linc, difficulties have been experienced on account of the short platforms at intermediate stations and the lack of carriage sidings at Felixstowe. The branch leaves the main line at Westerfield, the firsr station beyond Ipswich, and the stations on the branch are Derby Road, Orwell, Trimley, Felixstows Town, and Felixstow Beach. To modernise the branch and provide for future developmenr it is proposed to double the line between Dorbv Road and Felixstowe Town, a distance of 9½ miles: this will enable thc through services to be accelerated, an improved local service to be given and additional excursion trains to be run. At Westerfield the down platform is to be extended and a loop provided; at Derby Road additionnl platform and siding accommodation is to be laid down.

New tube trains, London Transport Board. 381-6. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including side and end elevations and plan)
Four six-car streamlined trains manufactured by Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd with various forms of electrical control from different manufacurers: Crompton Parkinson, General Electric, British Thompson Hoiston and Metropolitan Vickers Electric Co..

Air conditioning for Federated Malay States Rys. carriages. 386-9. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Two metre gauge first class carriages fitted with Stone's electro-mechanical air conditioning equipment supplied by Birmingham Carriage & Wagon Co. to requiremdents of W..S. Graeme and inspection by Crown Agents for the Colonies. Freon used as refrigerant .

Coventry Engineering Society. 389
At the meeting of the Coventry Engineering Society held on the 20 November, C.S. Cocks of Doncaster read a paper on "Locomotive Design as applied to modern conditions, where fast and reliable services are required." The steam locomotive of to-day is capable of hauling heavy loads at high speeds over long distances, and for periods up to eight hours without any attention other than that which can be given or controlled from the cab. It is also flexible enough to accommodate economically all the variations in load demanded in a service over undulating country, probably more so than any other form. The relations between tractive force, adhesive weight and unit loading were set forth, showing how closely related these items are to each other; and further, how the section of the line, over which the locomotive is to work, controls the three items due to the unit loading of that section.
The boiler was discussed in a general way giving a comparison of the wide or narrow type firebox, and the Belpaire or round top firebox. Mention was made of the advantages to be derived from the provision of easy steam passages. The relative merits of the poppet valve and piston valve were mentioned, as well as the principles of Sir Nigel Gresley's patent valve gear for three-cylinder engines, where, by means of a 2:1 lever, only two eccentrics are required to provide motion for the three valves,
Cylinder castings were referred to with special reference to the monobloc type of cylinder ; also the modern practice of designing all the passages to assist in the flow of steam: how they are designed to give a much less clearance volume than formerly and the effect on the economy of the locomotive.

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 389-93. 5 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
In 1863 Beyer, Peacock and Co. built four 2-4-0 mixed traffic engines  WN 396-9. They were of a standard type built by this firm for English railways as well as abroad, and characterised by neatness and symmetry of design. Engine No. 8 was involved in an accident of a remarkable kind. Probably due to neglect of the driver its boiler exploded owmg to the collapse of the top plate of the copper firebox just as the engine was about to start from Harlingen station on 31 March 1868, with a train for Leeuwarden. The sudden drop of the firebox crown with roofbars complete produced so violent a reaction that the boiler was blown away, carrying with it the front part of the frame with the leading pair of wheels.

[Great Western Railway]. 393
Line from Hatton to Bearley to be doubled: about 4½ miles.

An interesting old French locomotive. 394-5. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
From notes left by E.L. Ahrons: an 0-4-2 No, 2.301 built by the Northern Railway of France in 1886 at its La Chapelle Works and similar to Stroudley types. In 1890 , following a derailment at Longeuil, it was rebuilt as a 4-2-2

Colour light signalling. 395.
The L.N.E.R. placed a contract with the Westinghouse Brake and Signal Co. Ltd.  to install electric colour light signalling between Clapton Junction and Chingford. The Chingford Branch is 6¾ miles long, and there were six intermediate mechanically operated signal boxes. The substitution of colour light signalling for the present mechanical signalling would result in the abolition of the four signal boxes at Hall Farm Junction, St. James' Street, Hoe Street and Chingford Goods Yard, whilst the signal box at Highams Park will be retained only for operating the level crossing gates; the remaining signal box at 'Wood Street will be opened occasionally as required to control the points leading to the locomotive depot and carriage sidings. The installation of colour light signalling would make it possible to augment the present train services by extending to Chingford the trains terminating at Wood Street.

Personal. 395
Owing to pressure of business engagements and other duties, J. H. Seaford has felt compelled to resign the general secretaryship of the Stephenson Locomotive Society as from 31 December 31. He had occupied this voluntary office for twelve years.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Locomotive feed-water treatment. 395-8
At the meeting held on Wednesday 25 November in the hall of the Institution. of Mechanical Engmeers, J. Clayton in the chair, Paper 366 was read by J.S. Hancock, on the above subject, of which the following is an abstract.
After pointing out that chemical treatment of feed water for locomotive boilers has not made the progress that has been made in the treatment of feed. water for all kinds of stationary boiler plants, It was agreed that the locomotive boiler withstands the effects of unsuitable water in a remarkable manner, and the development of chemical treatment that has taken place in recent years is almost entirely due to the need for establishing more eoonomical working conditions.
It is customary to classify waters in terms of "hardness," an expression denoting the amount of scale-forming salts present in a water. Surface waters are usually not very hard, but most well waters contain considerable quantities of scale-forming salts.
The impurities contained in natural boiler feed waters are responsible for three conditions affecting the maintenance and operation of the locomotive, namely, scale, corrosion and priming.
Deposition of scale.-The continual evaporation of hard waters in locomotive boilers results in rapid accumulation of scale and sludge and leads to frequent stoppages for boiler cleaning.
The usual practice in a hard water district is to withdraw locomotives from service every 25,000 to 50,000 miles for boiler cleaning, an operation which requires the removal of a large number of tubes to enable the accumulated sludge and scale to be cleaned out. This operation is repeated when the engine goes into the workshops for a "service" repair, while at a "general" repair which is carried out at every 100,000-120,000 miles the boiler is removed from the frame and a new or repaired boiler takes its place. Other ill- effects of hard water are scaling up of internal injector pipes, collapsing of tubes and leaking of tubes and firebox stays. The decrease in boiler efficiency due to the presence of scale and sludge is appreciable but not excessive. From data available from tests carried out at various stages of the life of a large locomotive boiler, it appeared that the loss in boiler efficiency after working for over 12 months on hard water did not exceed 3 per cent. The heat conductivity of the various kinds of scale is, however, a matter of some importance, since the presence of a low conductivity scale may lead to over-heating of the metal. Hard, compact scales have the slightest conductivity, and loose, porous scales and sludges the lowest. It is fortunate that in a locomotive boiler the dense scale is deposited on the firebox plates and the porous scale at the smokebox end. Where over- heating of firebox plates has occurred, the cause has usually been found to be an accumulation of sludge in the narrow water spaces at the sides of the firebox.
Corrosion. Corrosion is a more important factor than scale in the ultimate life of a boiler. All the steel components, the tubes, roof stays, barrel and smokebox tube plate are subject to corrosion, the tubes usually suffering most severely. Corrosion takes place readily in boilers using soft natural waters. Corrosion in boilers is serious because it rarely takes the form of a general uni- form rusting of the entire surface of the metal but is confined to intensive attack at a few points. There are apparently three types of corrosion:-
(1) Formation of isolated pits along the top of the tube, usually at the smokebox end. This form of corrosion is frequently met with in districts where the water supplies are of the surface type, and form little or no scale in the boiler. The life of tubes subject to isolated pitting is gener- ally from two to four years, and failure occurs through penetration of the metal at one of the pits.
(2) Localised corrosion close to the copper firebox tube plate. In this case the attack is not confined to the top of the tube, but continues right round it. "Grooving" appears to+take place more rapidly than pitting, and grooved tubes fail generally after two to three years' service either by penetration at one or more points or by complete fracture around the ring. It is not uncommon to find grooving and pitting taking place on the same tube.
(3) The third type is certainly the most rapid of all forms of boiler corrosion and may take place even under a fairly heavy coating of scale. It is usually confined to the firebox end of the tube and is likely to occur if the feed water is introduced into the boiler just in front of the firebox tube plate.
It appears from a consideration of the conditions under which the various types occur in locomotive boilers, that corrosion is essentially a chemical process involving as the primary factor the dissolved oxygen introduced by the feed water. Calcium, magnesium and sodium salts, in the absence of oxygen, do not cause corrosion, but if present in sufficient concentration appear to accelerate the corrosion rate if oxygen is present. The danger that exists if oxygen is allowed to enter a boiler is fully recognised by the operators of high pressure stationary boiler plants, who take the utmost precautions, by mechanical and chemical means, to remove oxygen from the feed water. Since dissolved oxygen is such a vital factor, it is evident that the manner in which the feed water is introduced into the boiler is of great importance. A common method of introducing the feed water into the boiler is through an internal submerged pipe running from the back plate to within 2-3 feet of the smokebox tube plate. The oxygen is thus liberated under the water surface and brought into direct contact with the boiler tubes. In boilers fed in this manner corrosion usually takes the form of isolated pits at the smokebox end of the tubes. The tubes of boilers fitted with the Churchward "top feed" apparatus are invariably free from corrosion, and there is no doubt that almost complete liberation of the oxygen takes place in the steam space during the passage of the water over the trays. In a hard water district there is danger that the distributing trays will become blocked with scale, so that the apparatus does not function, and frequent cleaning is necessary. The primary object of a feed water heater is to utilise exhaust steam, but the open type of feed water heater has a further advantage in being able to expel 80-90 per cent. of the dissolved oxygen from the feed water. An increase in the life of tubes from one year to over four years was obtained some years ago on an American railroad by fitting open type feed water heaters.
Priming. It has long been recognised that the locomotive boiler is particularly susceptible to a condition which is known in this country as "priming" and in America as "foaming." These terms unfortunately have never been properly de- fined, being used in power station plant operation to indicate a light carry-over of boiler water, but by locomotive engineers to mean a very heavy carry-over. Steam generated from probably every locomotive boiler contains a small percentage of boiler water through the entrainment of small drops thrown into the steam space by the bursting bubbles. The amount of carry-over depends upon the size of the drops, the velocity of the steam leaving the water surface, and the distance from water surface to steam outlet. In addition to the continuous carrying-over of a small quantity of water, locomotive boilers frequently indulge in short bursts of "priming" in which sufficient water is carried over with the steam to pass unchanged through superheater elements and cylinders to the chimney. "Priming" invariably occurs in bursts lasting from a few seconds to a few minutes, during which the water level in the gauge glass will drop by two or three inches. The amount of boiler water carried over during priming is usually about 40-50 per cent. by weight of the mixture of steam and water; in the case of a boiler generating 300 lb. of steam per minute an additional 300 lb. of water per minute may be carried over during priming. On superheater engines priming entirely destroys the superheat. During a burst of priming at speed the running of the engine is not appreciably affected, but priming at starting often results in time lost and occasionally in the failure of the engine to get away with its train. Excessive priming increases the maintenance of locomotives, since it leads to blowing regulator valves, glands and superheater element joints, and not least, to increased washing out and decreased engine availability.
It is obvious that "priming" depends upon a number of factors, namely, depth of steam space, rate of evaporation, and the condition of the boiler water. In the case of a locomotive boiler in which the distance from water level at half glass to bottom of steam dome is 10 in.', the lift at full regulator is at least 5 in. with pure water, so that the working steam space is actually not very large. The lift is proportional to the velocity of the steam leaving the water surface, the velocity being determined by the total evaporation (i.e., amount of regulator opening) and the surface area of the boiler water. Carrying an unnecessarily high water level diminishes the working steam space and is responsible for innumerable cases of priming which would not have occurred with a normal water level.
Feed Water Treatment. Chemical treatment of locomotive feed water has come rapidly to the fore during the past 20 years, first in America and recently in this country. The earliest attempts at improving the quality of locomotive feed water on English railways were made between 1890 and 1900, when water softening plants were erected at a number of points where unusually hard waters had to be used. One of the earliest of these plants, erected on the Midland 'Railway at Derby in 1890, is stil1 operating. In those days the object of water treatment was simply to remove scale-forming impurities. To-day, as the result of wider experience, it is realised that economies in boiler maintenance are obtainable not merely by preventing the deposition of scale, but by extending the life of the boiler through the reduction of corrosion to a minimum. Correct feed water treatment must, therefore, condition the water so that on evaporation in the boiler it will neither deposit scale nor cause corrosion. Experience has also taught us that a mixture of softened and unsoftened waters is invariably a corroding water and that water treatment, to be successful, must be applied not merely to a few hard waters, but to all the feed water entering a locomotive boiler. The prevention of corrosion by removing the oxygen from the feed water is not feasible either by chemical or mechanical means, and it is necessary therefore to look elsewhere for a suitable remedy. A method of preventing boiler corrosion by chemical treatment of the feed water exists and has been used with success by American railroads for the past 15 years. This consists in treating the feed water with suitable chemicals so that a small quantity of free caustic soda remains at all times in solution in the boiler water. In America prior to 1920, when the rule of softening was not to soften below 4 degrees, the average life of steel fireboxes was 4-5 years, and , of tubes 2-3 years. The average life of tubes and fireboxes at the present time is approximately 12 years, as the result of treating the bulk of the feed water.
Water Treatment and Locomotive Operation. Softening of locomotive feed water invariably re- sults in priming, especially if the water is reduced to a low degree of hardness by the use. of lime and the maximum dosage of soda ash. Since "priming" interferes with the running of trains it must be eliminated at all costs and this is often done by eliminating the amount of soda ash used at the water softening plants, thus providing a water which is only partially softened. Alternatively, priming may be eliminated by reducing the boiler washing out or water changing mileage. The effect of water softening upon the mileage which can be run before priming commences is very great. For example, it was necessary, following the introduction of water softening on a section of a British railway, to carry out changes of boiler water every 500 miles in addition to the customary boiler washout at 2,500 miles. If the rate of evaporation and the working water level remain fairly constant, priming can be brought about in one way only, i.e., by raising the sodium salts in the boiler water to the priming concentration which in the case of locomotives in this country, varies usually from 150 grains per gallon for small engines to 200 grains per gallon for large passenger engines, although instances of higher concentration are sometimes reported. When the critical concentration of soluble salts is reached priming takes place intermittently and sufficient boiler water is carried away with the steam to prevent further increase in the concentration. The mileage which can be run before priming commences depends upon the rate at which the sodium salts accumulate in the boiler, i.e., upon the amount of sodium salts in the feed water and the rate of evaporation. In the case of a boiler whose water capacity is 1,500 gallons and average evaporation 30 gallons per mile, feJ with well water containing 4-5 grains per gallon of soluble salts, the critical priming concentra:tion of 200 grams per gallon will be reached at 2,200 miles after washing out, provided no carry-over is taking place. In practice, however, it frequently happens that the small percentage of carry-over prevents the salts in the boiler water from ever reaching the critical concentration so that the engine is able to run indefinitely without priming.
The well water after complete softening, will contain in addition to the original 4.5 grains, a further 11.9 grains of sodium sulphate, 1.6 grains of sodium chloride and 3 grains of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate, making a total of 21 grains per gallon. U sing this water the critical concentration of 200 grains per gallon will be reached at 470 miles after washing out. It is true to state that the success of water softening depends upon the elimination of prim- ing. The simplest remedy, frequent changing of the boiler water, is not recommended since it decreases to a very great extent the engine's avail- ability. Three methods of preventing priming are available. (1) Use of chemical anti-priming compositions; (2) intermittent blowing down; and (3) continuous blowing down. Various compositions are available for preventing priming in boilers. In a test one of these with fully softened water it was found that the point at which priming commenced was reached at 1,000 miles, whereas 500 miles was the limit without the composition. The disadvan- tages of this method are that frequent water changes (every 1,000 miles) are still necessary and that careful and regular dosing of the tender feed water with the composition is required. Inter- mittent blowing down, which consists in removing a portion of the boiler water at frequent intervals and replacing it with feed water is standard practice on American railroads. American locomotives are fitted with one and sometimes two large blow-off cocks which are operated either in the shed or at regular intervals, usually every 20- 25 miles on the road. In the case of the largest engines the volume of water blown down at the shed varies from 500-800 gallons; a "blow" on the road lasts for 15-30 seconds and discharges 100-200 gallons. The success of intermittent blowing down depends to a great extent on keeping engines to the same working and in the hands of the same fewenginemen. The normal washing out period on American railroads for engines fitted with blow down and operating- on softened water is one month. Continuous blowing down is the continuous discharge from the boiler of water at such a rate that the concentration of sodium salts is kept just below that at which priming occurs. This is effected by a valve which may be operated by hand, mechanically or by steam pres- sure, so that blowing down takes place only when the engine is working. The rate of discharge is controlled by a small orifice in the valve and de- pends upon the class of engine and the amounts of sodium salts in the feed waters. On the L.M.S. Railway this rate varies from 1 gallon per minute for shunting tank engines to 2.7 gallons for ex- press passenger engines and is equivalent to ap- proximately 7 per cent. of the water consumption. In order to minimise the loss of heat the blow down water may be passed through a cooling coil in the tender before running to waste on the track. The valve is bolted to a pad on the boiler back plate and takes boiler water from a point 2 in. above the highest point of the crown of the firebox. The spring, ball, seating and piston are of stainless steel. The controlling orifice is in the cap which may be either mild or stainless steel. The cylinder at the bottom of the valve is con- nected to the steam chest so that the opening of the regulator brings the valve into operation automatically. A length of armoured flexible hose connects the engine and tender pipes. Tank engines on the L.M.S. Railway are not fi.tted with tender cooling coils, the blow down water being discharged into the ashpan. The advantages of continuous over intermittent blow down are that it is entirely automatic and removes the minimum quantity of water from the boiler whilst 'keeping it free from priming. The boiler wash-out mile- age will depend only on the amount of scale-forming impurities which are being brought into the boiler by the feed water. In the case of softened water containing a minimum of scale-forming impurities the wash-out mileage may be extended to at least 5,000 miles, this increasing to an ap- preciable extent the engine's availability.

An  "Off the Beaten Track" Excursion, Pennsylvania R.R. 398-9
New kind of railway trip, an "off the beaten track" excursion, was operated by the Pennsylvania Railroad on Sunday, 12 July, leaving Broad Street Station, Philadelphia, at 9.20 a.m., for a run of over 250 miles over portions of the system rarely travelled or seen by the public. Organised primarily for the Philadelphia Chapter of the National Railway Historical Society, the excursion, at the invitation of the members, was thrown open to all up to the capacity of the train. About 125 members of the Society booked for the trip. On its journey the Railway Historical Special picked up passengers at Broad Street Station, Pennsylvania, 30th Street, and North Philadelphia. It then proceeded to Allen Lane, where it shunted on to the Whitemarsh Branch.

Netherlands Railways notes. 399
Streamlining: five 3700 class 4-6-0 and one 3900 class to be streamlined; and possibly all to b so modified.
Diesel electric traction was proving satifactory including the couplings between units and electrification was spreading
Lentz valves: the modified locomotives  had been converted to Walschaerts valve gear and piston valves, but No. 1779 had been fitted with an improved version of the gear
Superheating: all 1700 class to be superheaterd
Steam traction: no new steam locomotives to be acquired

The use of steam travelling cranes. 400-1.
Mainly the employment of breakdown cranes for civil engineering work, especially in the renewal or repair of overbridges and underbridges; care had to be taken to ensure that the crane could have access to the bridge without endangering itself: the permanent way had to be maintained as far as possible. Slinging girders required care to ensure that they arrived on site in the correct state for placement. Relieving bogies on the crane assisted operations. A supply of water was essential if the job was demanding or prolonged.

Diesel rail coaches for the Argentine. 401
The Drewry Car Co. had received an order for 99 railcars for the Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway and the Buenos Aires Great Western Railway. These were to have Gardener 6LW engines and be manufactured at the Dick Kerr Works of the English Electric Co.

Obituarry. 401
Sir Cecil W. Paget: very brief notice

An early door-to-door freight service. 402. illustration
Reproduction of the business card of Wm. Hudson, Goods Superintendent of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway at Brighton, dated 1860. It is interesting as a record of the method of transporting "Household Removals." door to door at that period, although the procedure has not altered greatly until the introduction of the system of carriage by containers was introduced and made it obsolete, or nearly so. There are now in service no less than 11,240 containers on the British railways, whereas in 1928, there were only 1,574. The container was first used in this country before the WW1, when closed horse-drawn cars were loaded on specially arranged platform rail trucks, but in 1926 the container system was definitely introduced. Fixed station cranes, yard gantries, runways, and mobile cranes, which were available at a large number of railway stations, enabled containers to be moved from rail to road vehicles and vice versa with speed and efficiency, and the dimensions are kept within such limits as to permit of them being loaded inside ordinary wagons.

L.M.S. new bridge over River Clyde. 402
Rapid progress was being made with an important improvement scheme on the main West Coast Route at Lamington (Lanarkshire), where a new viaduct is being built over the River Clyde to replace the existing bridge, and opportunity is being taken to ease the adjoining curves to permit higher speeds. The work to cost about £26,500. When the new viaduct is brough t into use, the speed regulation applicable to the old bridge will be removed and th« Anglo-Scottish and other express trains will no longer have to slow down to 40 m.p.h. when crossing the Clyde at this point.

Correspondence. 402

The Webb compounds. Viator.
Re E.F. Smith's arvicle in your September issue, also the letters from L. Derens and J.W Smith in the October and November numbers.
From my experience in travelling 49 miles a working day on the main line of the L. & N.W. Railway (l886-1921) which covers most of the "compound" period, I am of opinion that the letter of Mr. Derens comes nearest to the facts. I am not prepared to enter into a scientific discussion, but I may say I .have had excellent runs behind most classes of these engines.
I believe I am correct in saying that the first edition—the "Experiment" class—had 200 psi working pressure, as well as the later ones, and, generally speaking, they gave a very fair account of themselves, and some of their drivers waxed enthusiastic about them. The "Dreadnought" type with 6 ft. 3 in. wheels certainly did—to use the expression of one of the drivers to me—much "hard, heavy beIting," and another of these men—a "crack" driver of his time— told me that "he preferred a good load to a liglhter one with a compound, as he considered that the engines then gave a better account of themselves.'
The most satisfactory of all were undoubtedly the "Teutonic" (or "Jeanie Deans") class, with 7 ft. driving wheels, and I for one much regretted when they were scrapped. I had many good runs behind the "Greater Britain" class. They certainly could travel, and frequently exceeded a speed of 60 miles per hour. I well recollect seeing Greater Britain (while painted red) taking 17 or 18 6-wheeled coaches, equal to 26 as then reckoned, on the Sunday London Express which left for Crewe, if my memory is correct, at 5.5 p. m., and I understood that time was satisfactorily kept with these loads. Some of the engines were naturally better time-keepers than others, or it may have been "the human element" was an important factor in regard to this. With respect to the "automatic crank adjustment," from a long experience in travelling behind these engines, I am strongly of the belief that something of the kind must have taken place; it is an old saying and a true one uhat "the proof of the pudding is in the eating" and I am led to that conclusion. I feel I must just mention one incident respecting the 3-cylinder compound coal engines—0-8-0 type. An experienced driver assured me that for some reasons he was actually sorry when he was transferred to passenger train driving, as he got such splendid work out of his coal engine, and was so accustomed to it that he really regretted having to part with it. I may say I have studied locomotives all my life, and have had some footplate experience.

Belgian State Railway's loco. No.. 761.  402
Referring to the article on the Belgian State Rys. locomotive No. 761, pages 352 to 354 ·of our last issue, Dr. W. Lubsen of Munich writes as follows :-"Some years ago, I found in a report on Belgian locomotives a note that this enginc was converted in the late 'seventies to a normal inside cylinder loco., so forming the prototype of the 0-6-0 engines of class 2." It certainly seems more reasonable that engine No.. 761 lasted until 1889 in ·this converted form than in its original shape.

The Webb compounds, L. & N.W.R. Ernest F. Smith. 403
I regret the delay in replying to the letter of Derens regarding my article on the Webb compounds. In the third paragraph of that article I remarked that it had been suggested that the steam pressure in the receiver had something to do with the alleged tendency to automatic adjustment of the crank angles, and the first part of the article was directed to an examination of that theory. Therefore, the summing up of this part contained the words, "considered from the point of view of the relation of H.P. to L.P'. events in the receiver, if there is one most favourable crank disposition there must of necessity be four." This statement was not intended to be taken as meaning that the solution of the problem lay in the receiver pressure, but rather that, as it was then only one crank disposition that was claimed as giving optimum results, the reason must be sought elsewhere.
Turning now to the question of drawbar eflort. Mr. Derens thinks that with the cranks at the 135 degree angle there will be no tendency for either of the engines to slip. It appears fairly obvious to me, however, that in a state of matters where the greater part of the resistance to motion, the train is being thrown alternately on the H.P. and L.P.  engines, the circumstances are very favourable to slipping. Moreover, to use homely language, each engine knows nothing of resultant drawbar eflort: its behaviour is governed solely by the impulse received upon its piston, the adhesion at the rail, and the resistance to forward motion of the load. Consider also, that the resistance to slipping is a matter of instantaneous values, whereas uniformity of drawbar pull has a time element, and has no meaning except  over a period: and, in any case, the "most uniform" draw-bar pull would be more accurately described as the "least irregular," so far from actual uniformity is it! Now, for the drawbar pull to be least irregular, the maximum crank effort of the two engines must be out of step: from which it follows that the greatest resistance to forward motion occurs for each engine when its crank effort is at a maximum. Can it be denied that, in these circumstances, there will be a tendency for the adhesion to be overcome, and slipping to follow? On the other hand, when both crank efforts are in phase, giving the most irregular drawbar pull, the resistance to forward motion will be smaller for each engine at maximum crank eflort, and slipping will be less likely.
Again, on the question of slipping, which, let me repent, is the only way by which the crank disposition can be changed while the engine is working , does Mr. Derens seriously suggest that, if the cranks were at an unfavourable angle, the wheels would slip through only the amount required to remedy this, and then stop slipping? As to the extension of the theory to embrace the ex-L.S.W.R. 4-2-2-0 engines, why stop merely at two engines in the same frame? Why not two engines coupled together as in double-heading a train, or, for the matter of that, with one at the head and the other at the rear, if this tendency operates by virtue of the character of the drawbar, or propelling, eflort? Furthermore, and, as it seems to me, finally, there is the most devastating fact of all in connection with the theory under discussion: once one of the engines begins to slip, it is, for all practical purposes, disconnected from the load. It has then little or no influence upon the drawbar pull, which can, in turn, have no influence upon the slipping engine.

Reviews. 403-4

History of the Southern Railway. C.F. Dendy Marshall, London: The Southern Railway Company. 403
History making or, perhaps, history recording seems now to have been seriously considered by our railways. A few years ago we had a very informative work by Mr. E. T. McDermot on the story of the Great Western Railway, and now this has been followed by that of the Southern Railway from the pen of Mr. C. F. Dendy Marshall. The scheme of the latter effort is, however, quite different from that of the farmer. Included in nhe system which has now developed into the Southern Railway are the two earliest lines sanctioned for public traffic, the Surrey Iron Railway and tile Croydon, Merstham and Godstone. These were, of course, worked entirely by horse power, bur other early lines, the Canterbury and Whitstable and the Bodmin and Wadebridge, introduced the locomotive to the southern half of the country, whilst the London and Greenwich was the first to bring it to the Metropolis. The story of these is, of course, duly set out in the present work, and the author then proceeds to detail the development and incidents connected with the principal constituents of the S.R., the London and South Western, London, Brighton and South Coast, London, Chatham and Dover, South Eastern, and latterly the South Eastern and Chatham Joint Managing Committee. Finally he traces the fortunes of the Southern Railway from the time of its formation in 1923, though it is somewhat unfortunate that delay in publication of the work has resulted in this linishing with the year 1934. Our readers and locomotive enthusiasts generally will no doubt appreciate the large amount of space devoted to the locomotive matters of the several constituent companies and the Southern Railway itself, though, perhaps, the general reader would have preferred amplification of the general history of the line. There is also a chapter on the steamers and docks which will interest many, .and a number of appendices, including a list of authorities consulted, appear at the end of the book. There are large number of illustrations; many of these represent locomotive types past and present, the reproduction of which is much improved by the use of a good paper, although it must be admitted that this makes the volume somewhat weighty. Several of the locomotives are shown in colour, but it seems rather a pity that three of these depict Brighton engines, all in the Stroudley style of painting, whilst several other colour schemes, notably the Martley green of the L.C. and D. and the Beattie chocolate of the L. and S.W., are not represented. The many changes that have taken place recently on the S.R., especially the employment of electricity as the motive power on an extensive scale render it all the more important to put on record ,the chief events of its past, and our readers will consequently appreciate this latest addition to the railway library.

Power station electrical" equipment and layout. T.H. Carr. London: The Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd. 404
This booklet of 102 pages is full of interesting and practical information outlining the main features of modern power station electrical equipment arid suitable lay-out, but limitations of space make it necessary to omit much detail in some sections. Data relating to a station employing steam turbines as prime movers for driving alternators, is included. The essential principles of power house design are set forth under relability, operating and maintenance costs and a minimum capital cost, and these are dependent upon simplicity of design, sub-division of plant and apparatus, labour saving devices and extensibility.

Books received. 404

An introduction to the study of noise problems, H. Davies. London: The Draughtsman Publishing Co. Ltd.

Railway models.
Bassett-Lowke Ltd. were introducing a number of up-to-date, gauge 0 handmade scale model locomotives for the Christmas season. These included the L.M.S. Princess Elizabeth, the L.N.E.R. 4-6-0 Arsenal, No. 2848, and the L.M.S. 5XP Conqueror No. 5701, and the L.N.E.R. streamline locomotive Silver Link. These are all supplied either in clockwork, or electric driven by a d.c. motor on 8 volts or an a.c. motor at 20 volts. These locomotives range from 7 guineas to 16 guineas and were excellent value for the money. Bassett-Lowke were also placing on the market an inexpensive 0-6-0 goods locomotive, both L.M.S. and L.N.E.R. patterns, as well as a model of the 4-4-0 L.M.S. 2P locomotive, at 42/-, clockwork drive, also available in electric. Another important item is that the Twin Train railway which caused such a sensation last year in the model railway world is now being made at North- ampton, and the locomotives, bogie passenger vehicles and the whole range of goods vehicles, are available in English pattern design and colours.

The Railway Club
At the meeting to be held on Thursday, 14 January 1937, at the Royal Scottish C~rporation Hall Fetter Lane, E.CA, L.T. Catchpole will read a paper entitled The Tonbridge alterations, with film.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers
A paper entitled the History of the Steam Tram will be read by Dr. H. A. Whitcombe, at the meeting to be held on Wednesday, 6 January 1937, at 6 p.m. at the Hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Personal.
W.G. Hornett, who has become assistant managing director of the Sentinel Waggon Works Ltd. served as a draughtsman on the Great North of Scotland Railway at Kittybrewster and Inverurie Works under Wm. Pickersgill. In 1905 he was appointed assistant works manager of the Bengal Nagpur Railway shops at Khargpur, and later became carriage and wagon superintendent of the B.N.R. Between 1926 and 1929 he assisted in the preparation of designs and specifications of standard Indian rolling stock. He then joined 'the London staff of Heatley and Gresham Ltd., and retired from this position to join the Sentinel Co.

LMS personnel. 404
D. Williamson, Locomotive. Works Superintendent L.M.S.R., Glasgow, appointed Works Superintendent .(Locomotive.) at Horwich. J. Cochrane, district locomotive. Superintendent L.M.S.R., St. Rollox, to be locomotive. foreman at Dawsholm, Glasgow. E. Glendinning, district locomotive foreman, Ardrossan, to be loco. foreman, St. Rollox. J.M. McCrae, district locomotive. foreman, Forfar, to be loco. foreman Ardrossan.

Trade Notes and Publications. 404

Standard Steel Works Co. of Burnham, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 404
Announced appointment of Davis & Lloyd, Westminster, as their European representatives from the 15 November 1936.

D.P. Battery Company Ltd., Bakewell and London. 404
Received orders for locomotive batteries from the General Electric Company and Metropolitan Vickers for nine locomotives which will be used by the London Passenger Transport Board in connection with extensions in progress on the Underground system. The batteries are each of 768 a.h. capacity and 320 volts and comprise cells of the latest D.P. Kathanode Locomotive type.

Sandberg Sorbritic rails
Made at the works of the Workington Iron and Steel Co. publication issued by the United Steel Companies, Ltd., of Sheffield. contains much useful information in regard to tests, etc., and particularly in regard to the increased wear on electrified lines.

Sao Paulo (Brazilian) Railway. 404
Ordered hundred 40-ton .high sided wagons from the Gloucester Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. tol be fitted with Monarch door controllers supplied by the Monarch Controller Co. Ltd., Westminster, to the inspection of Fox and Mayo.

L.N.E.R. contract. 404
With Cowans, Sheldon and Co. Ltd., of Carlisle, for a 70 ft. articulated turntable to be installed at Southend Locomotive Depot.

Hydraulic Coupling and Engineering Co. Ltd., of Isleworth, 404
Order for supply of 18 Vulcan-Sinclair traction couplings for new diesel railcars for Netherlands Railways: cars, with engines of 150 h.p., were being built in Holland and include Mylius Mechanical Gearboxes.

Harland and Wolff Ltd. 404
Order for two locomotives equipped with diesel engines of about 1000 h.p. each for service in South America.