Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 40 (1934)

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Number 497 (15 January 1934)

British steam locomotives of 1933. 1

New 0-6-2 tank locomotives, Great Southern Rys., (Ireland). 2. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Small class of suburban tank engines: 5ft 6in coupled wheels; 18 x 24in cylinders (8in piston valves); 18ft2 grate; heating surfaces: 662 tubes; 112 firebox and 112ft2 superheater, designed by Harty.

Three cylinder express locomotive, Southern Railway. 3 + coloured plate (supplement)

L.M.S. Ry. Northern Counties Committee. 3.

Pacific type locomotives, Tientsin-Pukow Ry, China. 3-4. 2 illustrations

200 h.p. diesel-electric rail coach working on the L.M.S.R. 5-8. 3 illustrations, table

Drewry saloon railcar, Burma Railways. 9. illustration
Four wheel vehicle capable of carrying 12-15 passengers. 24/26 hp engine. Built to Rendel, Tritton & Palmer specification

Penmeanmawr & Welsh Granite Co's. locomotives. 10-13. 9 illustrations
The Trevor quarry was served by 1ft 11½in gauge lines (which are neither illustrated, nor described in detail) and 3ft and standard gauge at Penmaemawr. Therec were 17 locomotives in service at that time: 10 steam, 5 diesel and 2 petrol. The oldest were De Winton machines with vertical boilers and four wheels: these were Puffin of 1893; Lilian (1891); Louisa (1892); Penmaen (1878); Llanfair (1895; illustrated) and Watkin (1893). There were five Hunslet loomotives (outside cylinder 0-4-0STs): Hughie (illustrated); Stephen; Singapore; Tiger and Donald. For the standard gauge line at the summit there were two Avonside Engine Co. diesel electric locomotives named Attic and Kimberley: these are illustrated by a Works photograph, and photographs of receipt  of Attic via a Sentinel well road lorry and Kimberley at foot of incline and on a steep pitch: tthere was also a steam "spare" locomotive an ex-L&YR 0-4-0ST No. 43 LMS No. 11245 miodified with Tecalemit lubrication (photographed at beginning of ascent0

Rebuilt "Pacific" locomotive Paris-Orleans Ry. 14-16. illustration, 2 diagrams including side elevation and sectional elevation of boiler

L.M.S.R.—N.C.C.. 16
One new 2-6-0, No. 90, had been named Duke of Abercorn in readiness for the opening of the Greenisland loop. The other three 2-6-0 were named The Bann, The Bush and The Foyle.

The late Mr. G. J. Churchward. 17.
It is with deep regret that we have to record the death of Mr. G. J. Churchward, C.B.E., the former chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western Railway, in his seventy-seventh year. On Tuesday, 19 Dec., he was knocked down and killed by the 08.55 express train from Paddington for Fishguard, in the fog, within a few yards of his home, Newburn, Swindon.
Churchward was a native of Stoke Gabriel, Devonshire, and started his railway career as a pupil to John Wright, locomotive superintendent of the South Devon Railway at the Newton Abbot shops. He came to Swindon upon the amalgamation of the S.D. Ry , with the Great Western in 1876. In 1882 he was appointed manager of the carriage works a post he held until 1895, when he was transferred to the locomotive works as assistant manager. Upon his appointment as chief mechanical engineer in succession to William Dean, in June 1902, he commenced his task of standardising the boilers, engine parts, and types for which the Great Western Railway has become famous. The first locomotive of the Pacific type to run on a British railway, the famous The Great Bear, was built to his designs in 1908. Although at that date this class of engine was not altogether suitable for the permanent way, it was the forerunner of the present type of Pacific locomotive which is giving satisfactory service on other lines. Churchward was one of the first British engineers to appreciate the advantages of the superheater, and brought into general use on his engines a very efficient apparatus. He also developed the long piston stroke and the narrow piston ring and introduced the top-feed for boilers, by which the difficulty of introducing water at the top of the boiler was overcome. It was at his suggestion that the Great 'Western Ry. in 1903-5 purchased three French four-cylinder compound engines, designed by  A. de Glehn similar to those running on the Northern Ry. of France, between Calais and Paris. These engines gave excellent results on the GWR. though Churchward decided in favour of four cylinders with simple expansion. In 1910 he arranged an exchange of express engines with the L. & N.W.R. which led to the latter designing the Claughton class of four-cylinder express locomotives. Even more important was the work he did in the lubrication of rolling stock. He developed the use of resilient pads in oil-boxes which has proved so efficient that it is almost universally used at the present time.
Although a strict disciplinarian, Churchward was always devoted to the interests of his men, and in 1907 introduced a scheme enabling apprentices to attend techmcal classes without loss of pay. In addition he persuaded the directors of the railway to sanction payment of the school fees by the company and permit those students who distinguished themselves to spend part of the last year of their apprenticeship in the drawing office and chemical laboratory. He was, as always anxious to give full scope and opportumty to those who aspired to greater knowledge and achievement.
The Churchward era at Swindon may truly be considered that of speed and fine performance, while his designs kept to the simplicity and neat- ness of outline distinctive of British locomotive practice.
Mr. Churchward retired in January 1922, and was succeeded by C.B: Collett..

[W.A. Lelean]. 17
Death on 27 December 1933 of W. A. Lelean, who had been for many years in charge of the Locomotive Department of Messrs. Rendel, Palmer & Tritton, consulting engineers to the Indian Government. Lelean served his apprenticeship in the G.W.R. shops at Swindon, when he secured a Whitworth exhibition. In 1896 he was appointed by Sir Alexander Rendel as inspector in charge of contracts at the various Glasgow locomotive works, and remained there for 12 years. For some time he carried out the inspection in Continental locomotive shops, and then became chief of the locomotive staff of Rendel & Robertson, afterwards Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. During the last few years, in collaboration with Devon, and the locomotive builders, Lelean has been responsible for the designs of the standard locomotives for the Indian Railways. He also took the greatest interest in the development of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, of which he was for many years one of the vice-presidents, and acted as president for the past year.

[F.J. Davis]. 17
Death occurred after a short illness on 31 December 1933 in his 72nd year was a partner in the engineering firm of Taite & Carlton, Iddesleigh House, 'Westminster. Davis was well known to many railway men as his firm introduced pneumatic tools, the Holden system of oil fuel burning, the Worsdell von Borries compound locomotive, the Whitaker water indicator, etc.

Personal. 17
At the end of 1933 A.S. Bailey retired from his position as managing director of the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co. Ltd., and . Archibald J. Boyd, M.A., has been appointed as his successor. Boyd served as a pupil at the steel works of Carnmell, Laird & Co. Ltd. and became assistant manager of the company in London in 1913. He went on military service, but returned from France in 1916 to become assistant general manager of the new works which had been built by Cammell, Laird & Co. at Nottingham for the manufacture of shells and guns. He returned to London in 1919 as assistant manager, and became London manager in 1921, and a local director of Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd., in 1925. In the same year he was elected a director of the Midland Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd.; the Leeds Forge Co, Ltd. and the Newlay Wheel Co Ltd. control of which had been acquired by Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd. On 1 January 1929, when the railway carriage and wagon interests of Vickers Ltd. and Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd. were amalgamated, the name of the company was altered to the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co. Ltd. and Boyd became a director, with charge of the London office and the foreign sales of the company. Mr. F. J. Hills has been appointed London manager of the company. Mr. Hills was formerly with the Bristol Wagon and Carriage Works and on its absorption by the Leeds Forge Co. he entered the service of that company, subsequently joining the rolling stock department of the London office of Cammell, Laird & Co.
At the Birmingham works of the company J.W. Kidd will act as commercial and production manager, under the direction of Boyd.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulse. Valve gears. 18-20. diagram, 2 tables
Baker valve gear and conjugate valve gears
summarised, the advantages of independent motions for each cylinder, as opposed to conjugate gears in general, are:
(a). Each valve is accurately set individually, uniformity of the valve events for all cylinders being in most cases easily achieved.
(b). Setting of valves and correction of errors facilitated: the adjustment of one valve does not affect that of others.
(c). Effects of wear are not cumulative to the same degree and lost motion is less extensive.
(d). Components of each valve gear are comparatively light in weight.

The Royal Scot L.M.S.R. return from U.S. and Canadian Tour. 20
The Royal Scot train, after its tour through the United States and Canada, was on exhibition at No. 6 platform, Euston Station on Friday 15 December 1933 and on Saturday and Sunday following. The engine and eight coaches were open to free public inspection. In addition to the electric headlight and bell, which engine No. 6100 was to carry as a permanent feature, commemorative plates had been affixed to the engine and in each of the coaches forming the train. The inscription on the engine plate reads:- "This locomotive with the Royal Scot train was exhibited at the Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago, 1933, and made a tour of the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America. 'The engine and train covered 11,194 miles over the railroads of the North American Continent and was inspected by 3,021,601 people. W. Gilbertson, driver. J. Jackson, fireman. T. Blackett, fireman. W.C. Woods fitter.
The inscription on the smaller tablets fixed in the coaches read:-"This vehicle formed part of the Royal Scot train, which was exhibited at the Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago, 1933 and made a tour of the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America. The train covered 11,194 miles over the railroads of the North American Continent and was inspected by 3,021,601 people.
A ceremony of welcome was accorded to the Royal Scot and its train crew when it steamed into Euston at 12 o'clock on Friday 15 Dec. by a distinguished company including the Rt. Hon. Waiter Runciman, President of the Board of Trade; Sir Josiah Stamp, President of the L.M.S. Railway, the directors, and a large company. Four of the crew who made the journey with the train wore smart gold braided uniforms. C.O.D. Anderson, who was in charge on the technical side, and T.C. Byrom, who looked after the publicity and general arrangements, were also present. They were given a cordial welcome and Sir Josiah Stamp handed to each of the six a gold watch inscribed with the names of the chief cities visited on the tour, and the thanks and appreciation of the directors of the L.M.S.Ry. Following the successful exhibition at Euston, where in three days over 33,000 people inspected the train, the Royal Scot is to be on show at about fourteen of the principal English and Scottish centres on the L.M.S. Railway during the present month.

Southern  Railway. 20
Following closely on their decision to extend the electrically operated portion of their system from Chislchurst and Bickley to Sevenoaks, via Swanley and from Orpington to Sevenoaks via Chelsfield, it was announced at the beginning of December that it had been decided to extend the main line electrification scheme from Wivesfield Junction to Eastbourne and Hastings and from Haywards Heath to Horsted Keynes at a cost of £1,750,000. The extension is expected to be, completed early in 1935. New rolling stock required to include seventeen 6-car units, five 4-car units. and eighteen 3-car units with a number of Pullmans. Platform extensions will be necessary at London Bridgc, Lcwes and Eastbourne and alterations at Bexhill Central. Notice has been given of an application to Parliament for powers to build a loop line four miles long, from a junction with the main line near Folkestone to a junction with the same line 557 yards east of Abborscliff Tunnel. This is a deviation to avoid the possibility of the main line being obstructed by landslips as happened during WW1.

L.M.S. Railway. 20
Placing orders for 2,000 new freight wagons on renewal account. All will be of the 12-ton open type for conveying general merchandise. and will be filled with the continuous brake. Four hundred of the wagons will be built in the company's workshops, and thc remainder have been ordered in equal proportions from the following firms: Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. Metropolitan Cammcll Carriage, Wagon and Finance Co Ltd. Charles Roberts & Co. Ltd. Horbury Junction, and Hurst, Nelson & Co. Ltd., Glasgow. The new wagons will be fitted with underframes constructed of British steel.

L. & N.E.Ry. 20
The widened lines between Gidea Park and Shenfield, including the burrowing junction at the last mentioned place from thc main line to the Southend branch were brought into operation as from 1 January a result of this the local service to Shenlield and intermediate stations has been augmented and improved, and a number of accelerations have been made in the services to the Southend branch, and also the Colchester main line. Colour light signalling has been provided, and the stations at Harold Wood, Brerntwood and Shenfield had been rebuilt.

Vulcan Foundry. 22
Agreement with Frichs Locomotive Works of Aarhus, Denmark to use their design of diesel locomotives and railcars in the British Empire and British South American markets

Hartley Main Colliery. 22

Egyptian State Railways, excursion trains. 23. 3 illustrations
For the Cairo to Luxor service taking 12 hours coaches were being rebuilt with bunks, but still convertible for day use. The work was undertaken by W.D. Knight, chief mechanical engineer for Mahmoud Bey Shaker, general manager.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 24-6
See separate page

[Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd.]. 26
In the last issue it was noted that Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. were building a 225 H.P. Beardmore-engined six-wheeled diesel-electric locomotive for the Air Ministry. This was not quite correct: the locomotive in question was a Diesel-geared locomotive [diesel mechanical].

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 26
Building an 80 h.p. eight-wheeled double-bogie diesel-mechanical locomotive for the 18 inch track of the Royal Arsenal Rys., Woolwich. For the Egyptlan Delta LIght Rys. they were constructing a 110 h.p. diesel-mechanical locomotive.

Mr. H.E. Allwood. 26
Works manager of the Nigerian Government Railways, appointed chief mechanical engineer SIerra Leone Government Railway, Cline Town, Sierra Leone, in succession to Mr. R. Malthus who had retired

Santa Fe type locomotives for the Turkish State Railways. 26-7. illustration, taable
Thirty locomotives were under construction at the works of Henschel & Sohn A.G., at Cassel, and the Friedrich Krupp A.G., of Essen, for the Turkish State Railways, five passenger 4-8-0 had been delivered by former and ten goods locomotives (2-10-2) had been delivered by latter firm. 2-10-2 illustrated.

A new light rail car. 27. illustration.
Micheline railcar with pneumatic tyres: Michelin Tyre Co.

Longest through locomotive working in Great Britain. 29
New railway record established by the L.M,S, Railway with the introduction into regular service between London and Glasgow, and vice versa, of the new Pacific locomotives The Princess Royal and Princess Elizabeth, These engines were working daily on The Royal Scot express. Each engine makes one through trip every weekday from Euston to Glasgow or vice versa, and the distance of 401½ miles thus covered represents the longest through locomotive working in this country, if not in Europe, Changing of engines at Carlisle is avoided, and train loads up to 50U tons are worked over the summits of Shap and Beattock without assistance. The unpiloicd limit for the Royal Scot class of engine was 420 tons.

[Leigh-on-Sea]. 29
On Thursday, 4 January 1934, the Mayor of Southend on Sea formally opened the new LM.S, Station at Leigh-on-Sea.

Great Western Railway. 29
One hundred and three new locomotives were built at Swindon during 1933, comprising: 40 0-4-2 tanks, 48XX and 58XX classes; 13 2-6-2 tanks, 61XX class; 20 4-6-0 tender engines, 59XX class; 30 0-6-0 tanks, 97XX and 87XX classes. All except the 58XX class were fitted with autoruatic train control apparatus. Among ,the 93 locomotivcs condemned last year, were several 4-6-0 type, Stars and Saints; the last of the 4-4-0 Counties i.e. County of Somerset, and sornc of the 4-4-2 County tanks, It had been decided to equip the principal high-speed passenger engines with speedometers. As a cornmencement one hundred engines wer« to be fitted.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 29
At a meeting held on 21 December, at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the papcr on Steam Motive Power Operation, with special reference to enginc loading, was contributed by T.H. Shields. The subsequent discussion was participated in by Major C.E. Williams, O.B.E., who was in the chair, and Messrs. H, Chambers (L.M.S.R.), E.C. Poultney, Cyril Williams and H. Holcroft (S.Ry.).
The following elections, as recommended by the Council, were approved:-Membcrs: F.H. Hough (workd manager, L.C. & W. Shops, Nizarns Guaranteed State Ry, Lallaguda, Dcccan}, A. Lawrence and I. Midderigh (resident engineering inspectors in Glasgow for the Crown Agents for the Colonies), J. Cook (divisional loco. supt., F.C, Central, Cordoba, Rosario de Santa Fe, Argentine Republic), Associate Members:-.A.J. Benedetti (assistant to local works manager, Los Talleres, F.C. Sud (Seccion B. B. N.O.), Bahia Blanca, Argentine Republic), R.W. Kennaway (assistant: engineer, Diesel Traction Dept., Sir W. G, Armstrong-Whitworth & Co. Ltd. Scotswood Works, Newcastle on Tyne), R.I. Spencer (loco. mechanical inspector, LM.S.R Derby). Associates:- A. Bissett (manager in Scotland for C. C. Wakefield & Co., Glasgow), K. Fraser (managing director, The Yorkshire Copper Works, Ltd., Leeds), A.J.R. Walker(director and general manager, United Water Softeners, Ltd., London)
.

The Railway Club
The 27th annual dinner was held on Friday, 15 December 1933, at the Broad Street Station Restaurant. The president was in the chair supported by Lord Monkswell and W.A. Willox (vice-presiderts) and C J. Allen (past president), The function was very well attended and an enjoyabln evening was spent by the members and their guests. It a meeting held at 57 Fetter Lane. E,C., on 12 January a paper entitled Why the L.& N.W.R. was the the Premier Line was given by J,D. Goffey.

Stephenson |Locomotive Society. 29
The 24th annual meeting was held at headquarters, King's Cross. on 9 December S.H, Beaver was appointed headquarters (London) secretary; : J.H. Seaford retaining office as honorary general socrctnry. All the other officers, including tlu provincial branch secretaries , who were present, were re-elected. The vacant seat on the council was filled by the election of J. Sturt. Further lecture arrangements were announced for the remainder of the winter sessions in London, Manchester, Edinburgh and Glasgow. The president, J.N. Maskelyne took: thc chair at the annual dinner which was held later in the day at thc Midland Grand Hotel, St. Pancras, when the attendance was a record and an enjoyable evening spent. The Society is  willing to supply speakers or lantern-lecturers for boys' schools, young mens clubs or the like, upon railway and locornotivc subjects,

Hobbies and Models Exhibition. 29
The Third Annual Hobbies and Models Exhibition will be held in the City Hall, Deansgate, Manchester, from Monday, 15 January to Saturday, 27 January, inclusive. It will be opened by Commodore Sir Bertram F. Hayes, of the White Star Line, Readers who visit this exhibition will be assured of a very pleasant and interesting hour or two, inspectin the large display of models of all kinds, covering aviation, building, engineering, railways, road transport, shipping, yachting, etc. Features of special interest include the Largest Working Model Railway in the world, the Living Picture Zoo (a splendid collection of rare animals and birds staged in a novel setting), displays  of working models by Model Clubs, engineering firrns. and private individuals; a fine collection of foreign and colonial stamps, a home cine theatre, demonstrations of night photography, model aircraft in flight, and a host of other attractive exhibits.

Correspondence. 29

Steam locomotive design. J.C. Cosgrave
In the paragraph headed "Eccentric Rod " which appeared in the last instalment of Phillipson's articles on locomotive design Design, the author states that the length of the radius rod should not exceed that of the eccentric rod. While it is certainly correct that the length of the eccentric rod should not be unduly shortened in favour of the radius rod. it would be interesting to know of any special reason why the limiting proportion suggested by Phillipson should be rigidly adhered to: the writer of this letter is acquainted with several examples of apparently excellent layouts of Walschaerts' gear in which the radius rod is considerably longer than that of the eccentric rod.

Invention of the link motion. E.A. Forward
Re F.W. Brewer article in the December issue on the Invention of the Link Motion. If the sketch of the original Williams link gear as reproduced by Colburn, but tirst published in 1846, is correct, then, as pointed out by J.G.H. Warren, it would appear that the Williams form was really the forerunner of the Gooch gear, while Howe convericd it into the shifting- link gear as adopted by Stephenson and Co. Howe's original wooden model, of 1842, still exists in the Science Museum.
Regarding the Forrestcr locomotive Swiftsure on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, it is now known that this engine had the Carmichael gear with one fixed eccentric and a double-gab eccentric rod, for it was seen on the L, & M. Ry. in 1834 by Mmrc Sequin, and its gear roughly sketched by him. It would appear, however, by Alexander Allan's evidence, that the later Forrester engines for the Dublin and Kingstown Railway had a four fixed eccentric gear.

Number 498 (15 February 1934)

Operating economies. 31
Mainly through civil engineering: notes the cut offs on the Great Western Railway route to the West of England and the widening between Guidea Park and Shenfield on the Great Eastern main line and the Greenisland cut-off in Northern Ireland: both of the latter were covered in this Issue

New 2-6-0 locomotives, L.M.&S. Railway. 30-1. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Stanier design: No. 13245 illustrated

New ten-coupled compound locomotives, Nortern Ry. of France. 33-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Opening of the Greenisland Loop Line, Northern Counties Committee. 37-8. illustration

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 39
Meeting held on 25 January R.I. Kirkland, Associate Member, read a paper on "Locomotive Boiler Repairs in Headquarters Shops." .. The author dealt at some length with the condition of boilers as revealed on examination pnor to the commencement of repair, and to trace each of the defects back to Its origin with the object of enabling a sounder judgment of the ensuing repair to be formed. Material used as precis for Paper 321.

L.M.S.R.- Nortiiern Counties Committee. 39.
Engines Nos. 59 and 67 were being rebuilt at Belfast as Class V2 and would be re-numbered 85 and 86. They were to have names of Castles in Northern Ireland. Two new 2-6-0 tender engines were to be constructed and numbered 94 and 95. New coaches were to be built for the new fast business train from and to Portrush, to be similar in design to the stock of the "Royal Scot" train, and will comprise one brake 3rd class, one buffet car, and one 1st, 2nd and 3rd composite.

Guidea Park to Shenfield widening L.&N.E. Ry. 42-4. 4 illustrations, diagram (track layout and gradient profile)
Also included the dive under for the down Southend line beyond Shenfield. Contrctor Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons. Design C.J. Brown and immediate supervision of R.J.M. Inglis.

Number 499 (15 March 1934)

Rebuilt Atlantic type engine with poppet valves, L. & N.E.R. 66. illustration
C7/2

Diesel-hydraulic railcar for the L.M.S. Ry. 76-9. 4 illustrations, diagram (side, end & section elevations & plan)
Leyland Motors four-wheel rail-bus: trial run from Euston to Watford and back. Sir Arthur Rose, a Director of LMS, took controls on return journey. Includes description and pictures of braking mechanism based on automotive practice. See also p. 127

A track depression indicator. 83-5. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Stone Cardew device fitted to locomotive

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 86-8. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including side elevation)
Blorsig 2-4-0

2-8-0 locomotives, Udaipur-Chitogarh Railway, India, 89.
W.G. Bagnall locomotives for metre gauge line with 3ft 7in coupled wheels, 16¾ x 22in cylinders, 1163ft2 total heating surface (including 175ft2 superheater), 23.5ft2 grate area.

Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. 89
Received an order for ten K3 class 2-6-0 from LNER; and for four locomotive boilers from Buenos Ayres Greatv Southern Railway.

Robert Stephenson & Co. 89
Received an order for ten K3 class 2-6-0 from LNER.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. Last years at Inchicore. 90
See separate file

Rebuilding of three Derbyshire viaducts. 90
Work had begun in the Derwent Valley between Derby and Arnbergate on the reconstruction of three big viaducts, carrying over the river the L.M.S. main line from London and Derby to Manchester and the North, which were to be rebuilt to carry the heaviest types of locomotive. The three viaducts concerned were Belper Pool, Broadholme and Swainsley. All three to be constructed in steel and concrete.

A remarkable small-scale model locomotive. 91.

Institution of Loco. Engineers, Annual Dinner. 91-2.

Diesel shunting locomotive Great Western Railway. 92. illustration
0-4-0 diesel mechanical locomotive supplied by John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd for use at Swindon Works.

Twin dining cars, "Protea," South African Rys. 93-5. 4 illustrations, 3 diagrams
63 ft long and 9 ft 3 in wide: one car served as a dining saloon, the other as a spacious kitchen. Special bogies were designed for the coaches

Number 500 (14 April 1934)

The 500th Number of the "Locomotive". 99-101.

Diesel locomotve forv Woolwich Arsenal. 101-2.
Twin three axle bogie Hunslet Engine Co, Ltd. for eighteen inch gauge with McLaren four-cylinder engine and drive through a gearbox and clutch..

Three-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tank engine, L.M. & S. Ry.. 102-4. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 2500 illustrated: three-cylindersd for maximum acceleration

Mikado type express engine, Polish State Railways. 104
For service in Danzig Corridor

Project for a locomotive of high capacity. 106. diagram (side elevation and plan)
Chapelon scheme for a six-cylinder compound 4-8-4 with divided drive and double blast pipe and thermic syphons.

O.J. Morris. The rolling stock of the Portsmouth Gas Company: industrial locomotives in service. 111-12. illustration

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. "One hundred years of railway coaches." .119
At the meeting held on the 15 March. a paper with the above title was read by A.N. Moon Assoc. Member. The president, Major C.E. Williams, O.B.E., occupied the chair and a large number of members were present. The author of the paper introduced his subject with a reference to the early history of wheels and wheeled vehicles prior to the advent of the locomotive. He then gave on the screen a reproduction of a well known illustration of trains on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway describing many of the outstanding features in these. Following up the evolution of the railway carriage, Moon showed a number of different attempts at improvement in accommodation introduced be- tween 1840 and 1870 including an early smoking saloon for the Eastern Counties Railway and a mail coach for the London and Birmingham Ry. The comforts of third class travellers must have been very limited judging from the illustration of such a carriage built for the Manchester and Leeds Railway. Great advance was made m the years immediately following 1870.
By 1872 the Midland Railway's third class compartment had been increased in size to 6 ft., the first class being 7 ft. 3 in. and in the following three years the second class was abolished. The third class was then further improved by the provision of cushioned seats and backs. One oil lamp still did duty for two compartments, however, the partition being cut to accommodate the introduction of the roof lamp.
First class sleeping cars of the transverse berth pattern now familiar, were introduced in 1873 on the orth Eastern Railway, arousing some criticism at the time. Sleeping cars of the Pullman Car Co. of America commenced running in the following year on the Midland Railway, presumably fitted with the American type of longitudinal berth; these cars ran until 1888. The Pullman Company not only ran sleeping cars but "parlour" or "drawing-room" cars on the Midland Railway. They were all introduced at the same time, 1874, and constituted an important step forward, for they were the first bogie coaches run in this country. Midland drawing-room car No. 8 was shown, probably one of the 1874 importation and almost certainly of the same type. The bogie for locomotives was an English invention, being patented in 1812 by William Chapman, a locomotive builder, but it was not used in this country for passenger stock until after Ross Winans had applied it to such vehicles in America. Locomotives were first mounted on bogies in England in 1833. The bogies on the Pullman car illustrated seem to have had a composite wood and iron framework and to have been similar in general features to modern American and Continental practice. The mtenor of this "drawing-room" car was illustrated. The traveller sat on a swivel chair beside what must then have seemed an embarrassing expanse of glass window. These open saloon coaches were not received with great favour by the conservative British public, who preferred the additional privacy of the old type of compartment stock. The Midland Railway were quick to see the advantage of the bogie and built bogiie coaches of their own. There is a drawing m existence at Derby dated 1874 and showing what must have been a very early attempt at a carriage bogie design. The rivalry which existed between this railway and the London and North Western prevented the latter from adopting the bogie. Instead, in 1882, they produced their first coaches with radial wheels. These carrages were 42 ft. long mounted on six wheels, of which one pair was arranged to swivel so as to take up a more or less normal position on a curve. Eventually this railway adopted bogies.
The author's reference to the introduction of continuous brakes on the British railways was followed with interest especially the mention of Barker's hydraulic system on the old Great Eastern Railway. Further, the cord communication in use before the introduction of the present alarm signal apparatus awakened memories of a device which seldom worked when called upon. Tram lighting contributed to the very comprehensive contents of Moon's paper as also did train warming. Finally, a number of recent examples of metal construction were thrown on the screen and the chief features explained.
In the discussion which followed, the magnificent examples of private cars used bv Indian princes were mentioned and several speakers contributed items to the interesting historical details recorded in Moon's paper especially on the extended use of six-wheeled carriages with radial wheel bases. See also letter from W.B. Thompson on page 195.

German State Railways. 119
In the course of his remarks at the recent Berlin Automobile Show, Dr. Dorpmueller, Director-General of the German State Railways, referred to the application of the internal combustion engine for railway traction, and said that the German Railways had ordered a large number of express railcars to work about 23 main line services. Dr. Dorpmueller also gave some details of results of railcars on the German State system, and mentioned that accumulator railcars had been abandoned. The manufacturers had been able to increase the power output up to 400 h.p. per engine. The "Flying Hamburger" had two 400 h.p. engines, making a total output of 800 h.p., and top speed of over 100 m.p.h.; it would soon be surpassed by a type of expres railcar equipped with two 600 h.p. Maybach 12-cylinder engines, i.e., a total power output of 1,200 h.p. While the average speeds of the quickest trains in Germany to-day is 43.4 miles per hour, the average speed with the diesel motor train will be 64 miles per hour, cutting the timings by over 30 per cent.
Besides the Berlin-Hamburg fast services, the railcars will shortly be introduced on the Berlin-Leipsig and Berlin-Dresden sections with a seating capacity of about 180 in each train.

Welded light weight German coaches. 120-1. 2 illustrations
Vereniningente Westdeutsche Waggonfabriken A.G. for German State Railways seating 84 third class passengers.

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. 121-2.  2 diagrams.
GB 8741/1840 (16 December 1840): a device by which the driver could adjust the weight available for adhesion on a single driving wheel locomotive.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulse. Chapter XI. Compound expansion. 123-5.

Obituary. 125
It is with great regret we have to record the death of William Temperley Batho, who died suddenly of bronchial pneumonia in his sixty-eighth year at Rio de Janeiro March 26, 1934. He was educated in England and in Bonn, Germany, and then entered his father's office, the late W.F. Batho. His apprenticeship was served with Dubs & Co. of Glasgow and afterwards he was associated for a period with Gaulcher & Co. Batho then joined the East Indian Railway as a civil engineer and remained in India for a number of years. Upon his return to England he took an active part in the formation of the Diesel Engine Co. and was its managing director until merged with the firm of Carels Freres of Ghent into The Consolidated Diesel Engine Manufacturers Ltd. with whom he occupied a similar position. Batho was thus largely responsible for the early commercial development of the Diesel engine in this country in which work he was closely associated with the late Dr. Rudolph Diesel. In 1914 he joined Sulzer Bros., London, and has been in charge of the Diesel Department there since. Upon the formation of Sulzer Bros. (London) Ltd. he was elected to the board of directors, a position he occupied until his death. He was a man of firm character, integrity and strong personality and his death will be regretted among a wide circle of friends in all parts of the world.

[E.H. Purser]. 125
We regret to record the death of E. H. Purser formerly chief locomotive inspector of the L.B. & S.C. Railway, on 25 February, at the age of 73. Purser joined the Brighton Railway at the age of 14 and became fireman, driver and finally chief locomotive inspector of the Southern Railway. He served under five chief mechanical engineers, W. Stroudley, R. J. Billinton, D. E. Marsh, L. Billinton, and R. E. L. Maunsell. He was the first driver to have the 4-6-2 tank engines Nos. 325 and 326 Abergavenny and Bessborough , and handled the latter for several years. After 51 years on the railway, Mr. Purser retired in August, 1926.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 126-7. 2 diagrams including side elevation
Former broad gauge locomotives built by Robert Stephenson & Co. as 2-2-2 in 1861-4 and named Castor, Pollux, Amstel and Maas, These were rebuilt between 1879 and 1881 as 0-4-2 (as shown in diagram). They were equipped with the Thierry system for smoke consumption. They were scrapped between 1897 and 1909.

Diesel-hydraulic railcar, L.M.S. Ry. 127
See page 76 et seq: failure to record that Timken axleboxes fitted to vehicle

London Transport. 127
Osterley station opened on 25 March 1934: it replaced Thornbury Road. The new station had a tower and beacon and faced thee Great West Road.

Stationary steam engines. 127
The LMS owned two stationary engines which between them had give 222 years of service. The older at Holyhead was 121 years old and pre-dated the arrival of the railway. It was used to pump out the graving dock and operated at 5 psi. The 101 year old Swannington engine provided power for the incline. It had been instaled in 1888 and was built by the Horseley Coal & Iron Co.

Persian State Railway. 127
Beyer Peacock had received an order for five 2-8-0 locomotives: 3 to work on the Southern Section to the Persian Gulf and two for the Northern Section from the Caspian Sea to Tehran

New passenger cars for the Barmen-Elberfeld Suspension Ry. 128. illustration

Fast steam trains on the Netherlands Railways. 128-9. table
Trial of 4-cylinder 4-6-0 hauling a light trainn between Amsterdam and Arnhem.

An ingenious reduction gear. 129-30. illustration
Pierce of the Welsh Granite Co. improvised a reduction gear for a conveyorusing an old locomotive firebox as the base.

A Russian "booster" of the 'sixties [1860s]. 130. diagram
Mahovo flywheel invented by C. von Schubersky and shown fitted to a bogie

Reviews. 131

The wheels of Ind. John W. Mitchell. London: Thornton Butterworth.
Railway men in different parts of the world have unusual opportunities for contact with the people they labour amongst, have unique expenences and many interesting episodes to talk about, but unfortunately few have the inclination to write them down for publication, Here we have a notable exception; we have seldom read a more interesting narrative of railway experience than Mr. Mitchell's. He recounts his life, experiences and adventures, whilst filling the appointment of a D.T.S. on the Bengal Nagpur Railway in India, providing a most interesting and instructrve volume.
If only some of our politicians would get some first hand information from the huge innocent rank and file of India before committing themselves to so much talk and criticism of the work of European officials it would be better for all.
Mr. Mitchell gives his experiences frankly and freely. He tells of the artifice, cunning and deceit of the native staff as well as of the passengers and merchants; of all these we have ample confirmation from others who have seen service on the Indian railways. The author comments on the ingratitude displayed by Indians to a service which has done so much for the advancement of their country.
Mr. Mitchell's national pride when he noticed that the locomotives he came in contact with were of British build does not appear to be shared with many of the Britons still at the head of the railway administration for every effort seems to be made to secure supplies of stores and even rolling stock from any country but this, notwithstanding the fact that when the Government of India wants money, it does not hesitate to come here for it. The number of Europeans in the railway service has decreased by 2,300 in the decade 1922-1932, not much encouragement for the Briton to do his best in helping to secure for India a satisfactory and successful transport system. Whether the gradual extinction of the European element in the personnel is going to eventually prove a benefit remains to be seen; we very much doubt it.
The tricks of the traffic staff and unreliability of many of the workers is undoubtedly true to life. The sportsman will find much to amuse him as the district the author was in charge of happens to be one of the finest in India for big game; further, those interested in the customs of the Hindu religious system will find much to entertain them in the author's description of the huge pilgrimages he personally attended in his official capacity. The Juggernaut festival at Puri calls for traffic arrangements by the B.N. Ry. which few railway men in this country can really appreciate.
Finally, the author reminds readers of what the "Wheels of Ind " have done to help the followers of Vishnu to enjoy- cessation of famine, freedom and peace, the exploitation of natural and commercial resources of India and the provision of markets for his produce, thus providing employment for the people. "These same folk on religion, pleasure or business bent are flung from Duzdap to Tinsukia, from Tuticorin to Peshawar in but a fraction of the time of pre-railroad days. "
On November 5th, 1932, a special pilgrim train left Howrah station, Calcutta, to visit the majority of the most sacred spots of the Hindu faith. The fortunate ones, who thus encompassed in the space of a few weeks what would have formerly taken a lifetime, lived and slept in the train. In a great sweep, south, west, north and south again they rolled from shrine to shrine gathering merit and absolution at each move of the wheels." A most interesting narrative from life.

Die Diesellokomotive mit Unmittelbarem Antrieb. Arnold Langen, VDI. Untersuchungen Ueber den Spuelvorgang an Zweitakt-Maschinen .W. Lindner, VDI. VDI-Forschungsh~ft 363. Published by VDI-Verlag G.m.b.H., Berlin.
The first article in the above publication is a report on the trials made by Langen for the Research Department of the Humboldt-Deutzmotoren A.G. of airless-injection diesel engines, in their possible application to railway traction. Tests were made with a stationary vertical 4-stroke airless-injection motor of 250 mm. bore by 450 mm. stroke developing about 50 h.p. per cylinder; and the informatlon sought was mainly as to the results of super-charging and data for the necessary compressor plant. A section of the work is devoted to tests of a method of starting in which combustion takes place in the air used for initially putting the engine into motion; and this is followed. with results of trials undertaken with a modified gear-driven locomotive using an engine of normal construction and weighing about 20 tons.
Aided by comprehensive illustrations, the author reports upon experiments made with various arrangements of motor, gears, and auxiliaries to overcome te:chnlcal dlfficulties and in particular the pronounced fluctuations of starting torque. Following a suggestion made by Wagner, an arrange ment similar to that of a. steam locomotive was tried, i.e., a horizontal double acting 2-cylinder engine directly connected to the road wheels. The new constructional problems arising from this design are explained, and the results of the tests are given. . .
In the second article Lindner deals with engines working on the two-stroke principle, and chiefly aims at elucidating the scavenging processes in such motors on an experimental basis in the light of knowledge. gained from the study of gas-flow in models and from. prevlous research on existing engines. Cylinder scavengmg is dealt wIth under two aspects; the flow-pictures showing the effects of high or shallow scavenging. These experiments, conducted both with stationary and locomotive engines, give many indications useful for computing the areas of the scavenging ports, the flow-resistance of cylinders having varying port areas was measured. and a simplified method of calculation, avoiding flow-equations, has been evolved. Numerous observations on the engines tested justifies the application of figures derived from experiments made with the piston at rest to an engine in motion. A section dealt with the computation of the scavenging efficiency and its relation to the output of the motor.

Facts about British Railways. 131
The British Railways Press Bureau has published a new edition of the booklet bearing this title. It contains the figures for the year 1933, and records many interesting facts. The railways collectively have a capital of £1,100,000,000 invested by private subscribers, and as an investment this has shown a very moderate return. In 1913 the net revenue represented only 4.38 per cent. on the capital, and in 1933 this had fallen to 2.64 per cent. No one can say the shareholders rob the public, in fact a large proportion of the railway shareholders are themselves a part of the public. Luckily the business of the railways is conducted on enterprising lines, and of late years has shown increasing activity in improving services. One great merit of the British railways is their safety; there were only two passenger train accidents involving loss of life to passengers in 1933, six passengers being killed. Yet, as we all know, many of the express services are run at over 60 miles per hour.

Number 501 (15 May 1934)

Three cylinder 4-6-0 passenger engine with tapered boiler, L.M.& S.R.. 134-5. illustration, diagram  (side & front elevations)
No. 5552 illustrated and one exhibited at Euston station on 23 April 1934 (St. George's Day). Text refers to "rebuilt Claughton", but with taper boiler. Locomotive illustrated had high-sided version of Fowler tender. No. 5552 built at Crewe.

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. 154-5. 3 diagrams
First part. Second part: combustion and boilers: refers to Samuel Hall and Dewrance and Hawthorn in early attempts to burn coal. GB 13782/1851 enabled a mixture of coke and coal to be burned in the firebox. GB 69/1853 Certain improvements for economising fuel in the generation of steam (split firebox)

Electric locomotive design. VIII — Individual axle drives. 156-7. 2 illustrations, diagram
Jeaumont design applied to 1-Co-1 of the Midi Railway; subsequently adopted by Swiss Locomotive Co. The Buchli-SLM drive was applied on 41 2-Co-1 supplied by Metropolitan-Vickers to the GIPR. The Soc. Alsacienne de Constr. Mecanique supplied 2-Bo-Bo-2 to PLM; GEC/Hawthorn-Lesle with Oerlikon equipment supplied 2-Co-2 express locomotives to GIPR; Skoda drive was used in 1A-Bo-A1 for Czechoslovak State Railway; 1-Co-1+1-Co-1 for New York, New Haven & Hartford Railway used Westinghouse system with helical springs to relieve torque stresses;  and modified S.A. de Secheron AEG Kleinow on E04 and BLS series 201.

Number 502 (15 June 1934)

A comparison of 1896 with 1934. 167-9.

Three-cyl. 2-8-2 express loco., L. & N.E. Railway. 169-71. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 2001 Cock o' the North

An old locomotive favourite in New South Wales. 171-2. illustration
New South Wales Governmennt Railways Terrier type 0-6-0T built in Australia by Mort & Co. and Vale & Lacy in Sydney.

Two-cylinder Pacific type express locomotives, Alsace-Lorraine Railways. 172-3. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Societe Alsacienne design with bar frames and inside Caprotti valve gear

The first steam-tender loco. 174. diagram
La Jumelle built for the St Etienne and Lyons Railway in 1843 to design of Verpilleux. It was a steam tender or 0-4-4-0

Diesel-electric trains, Netherlands Railways. 175-7. 5 illustrations, diagram
Three car articulaterd units capable of being run in multiple joined by Scharfenberg coupling. Capable of 90 mile/h and desinged to cruise at 60 mile/h. Units built by Werkspoor, Beijnes and Allan with Maybach Vee-type 12-cylinder or by Ganz-Jendrassik 8-cylinder engines built uneder license by Stork Bros. of Hengelo with Brown Boveri or Smit electrical equipment. [KPJ: it makes the British Railways entry into diesel traction look even worse].  

300 h.p. double power bogie unit for the South African Rys. 178-9. 2 illustrations
Drewry Car Co. with Parson's 8-cylinder petrol engines

L.M. & S. Ry. 180
After two years' work, necessitating the use of 140 tons of new steelwork, 22,000 linear feet of electric welding and 66,400 welding electrodes, repairs have been completed to the Sharnbrook Viaduct carrying the main line of the L.M.S. Railway over the River Ouse at Sharnbrook, near Bedford. The viaduct, which was constructed in ]881, consists of 10 spans with a total length of 572 feet, and carries the two passenger tracks of the main line from St. Pancras to the Midlands and the North. Alongside it is another viaduct of 9 spans carrying the goods train tracks, and the electric arc-welding methods used in the repair of the passenger viaduct have proved so successful that the goods viaduct is to be similarly repaired in the near future. While repairing the underside of the superstructure, the welders worked on temporary trestles slung from the via- duct with the river 35 ft. below them and trains rumbling over the viaduct above their heads. The repairs, which consisted principally of providing a new steel floor and generally strengthening the wrought iron superstructure against the wear and tear caused by the passage over it of express trains travelling at high speeds, were begun in 1932 and have been carried on with very little interference to railway traffic. To provide power for the electric welding operations two 33-H.P. generating units were installed at the viaduct, and electric hammers, drills and a grinding machine were also in operation. The welding plant was obtained from the Quasi-Arc Company Ltd. and built to the railway company's requirements. Each machine consisted of a Donnan petrol engine of 33 b.h.p. driving a welding dynamo and auxiliary dynamo at 1,500 revs. per minute. This dynamo supplied current to three welders simultaneously, and each welder is supplied with a resistance regulator by which he can adjust the current to suit the particular type and size of electrode being used.

Great Western Railway. 180
4-6-0 express engines completed at Swindon were: 5023 Brecon Castle; 5024 Carew Castle; 5025 Chirk Castle; 5026 Criccieth Castle; 5027 Farleigh Castle.

L.M. & S. Railway (L. & N.W. Section). 180
Nos. 5553-5 are the latest 4-6-0 Baby Scot type locomotives with taper boilers to be completed and turned out, at Crewe. Of the preceeding series, the last five engines, Nos. 5547-51, were allocated to the Wester n Division and stationed at Preston. Two of the 0-6-2 coal side tanks. Nos. 7715 and 7722, had been converted from motor rodding to vacuum control gear for working push and pull truins. The 2-6-2 tanks attached to the Western Division had all been renumbered bearing Nos. 1-12, 16-20, 41-55 and 66-70. The following engines were now running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-4-0 George V class No. 5315; 0-6-0 18 in. goods class No. 8535; 4-6-0 19 in. goods class No. 8756; 0-8-0 class G1 Nos. 8945, 9239 and 9368. Recent withdrawals included the last of the Maryport and Carlisle locomotives, viz., 0-6-0 No 12514. Other withdrawals comprised two further Experiment class 4-6-0s, No. 5461 City of London and 5526 Bactria; and 4-cylinder Claughton class Nos. 5945 Ingestre, 5931 Captain Fryatt, and 6009 (no name).
4-6-2 Pacific No. 6201 Princess Elizabeth was attached to the Northern Division and located at Polmadie (Glasgow).
Midland 2-4-0 tender engine No. 155, had become Engineer, South Wales, with the plates on the splashers. The Clan class engines had been transferred from the Highland section to work passenger trains on the Callandcr and Oban line.

L N.E.Ry. 180
The name Cock o' the North carried by the new 2-8-2 engine, described in another part of this issue was formerly borne by one of the ex-N.B.R. Atlantics, No. 9903. This engine, had been renamed Aberdonian, which was carried by another Atlantic No. 9868, withdrawn from service.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulse. Tractive effort of compound engines. 180-2. 3 tables
Continued from page 140. Some formulae for the determination of the tractive force exerted by compound engines had already been given, see equations (2), (3) and (4), Chapter II. Further formulae, abstracted from the handbook of the American Locomotive Company are listed-

The history of the British non-stop express. 182-6

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: combusion and boilers. 186-7..  3 diagrams.
GB 13782/1953

The stream-lined diesel-electric train. 189-93. 4 diagrams including elevations & plans
Based on tests conducted on model trains and reported in Transactions of ASME in 1934.

New Post Office van for Belfast-Coleraine service, N.C.C., L.M.S.R. 195.
A new post office sorting van had been built by the I..M.S.R. (Northern Counties Committee) and was in service between Belfast and Coleraine. Built on the lines of the latest N.C.C. coaching stock, to harmonise with the general appearance of the trains to which it is marshalled, the new vehicle (No. 430) replaced the existing van, now out of date. The vehicle measured 43 ft. 10¼ in. over headstocks, and 9 ft. 6 in. wide over mouldings. It was somewhat larger than the vehicle replaced and afforded ample room for carrying out the postal work. The sorting sets, ranged along one side at the van, comprise three letter' sets of 48 boxes each, one newspaper set of 43 boxes with zinc-lined well in front and provision underneath for direct sorting. The registered letter desk had 30 boxes, was partitioned off from the main desk and had a roller shutter so that it may be locked up when not required. Underneath these sets the usual swivel seats had been provided. Opposite the sorting sets were large windows, giving ample light for sorting work, and below these was the bag rai1. In one corner of the van there was a nest of six drawers for stattionery and writing materials. The staff accommodation and appointments of the vehicle were up-to-date in every way, and included a three-compartment wardrobe, lavatory with hot and cold wash hand basin, electric urn for making tea, and rest seat and table for the staff. Full fire protection equipment was fitted, and the vehicle was electrically lit. We are indebted for the above particulars to Major Ma1colm Speir, manager of the Northern Counties Committee.

French Railways. 195
Widespread adoption of diesel locomotives and motor-trains is occurring in the services of all the French railways. There were 73 diesel motor-trains in service during 1933, and a further 213 were on order. The State Railway, with 28 motor-trains running, would shortly take delivery of 62 new units; the P.L.M. Railway was adding to its 14 motor-trains by a further 107, and had decided to order 3,500 h.p. diesel locomotives for the Paris-Mentone service, 690 miles; the Eastern Railway with eight motor-trains, had ordered 14; and the Northern' Railway, with six, had ordered 13. Apart from these orders, the Alsac~-Lorraine Railway, with three motor-trains running, had eight on order and was contemplating 14 more; the Southern. Railway was adding to its eight units by six, and the Paris-Orleans Railway was adding to its six motor-trains by four. These developments were the result of a policy to speed up services, win back traffic lost to the roads and reduce running costs: In this regard, M. Tirard, chairman of the Southern Railway Company, recently stated, "We have noticed on the Marmande to Mont de Marsan run which since 1 August used only diesel motor-trains, that passenger traffic increased 7%, while other lines in this district, which use steam locomotives recorded a 10% decline." The developments were also bemg watched closely in official quarters as it is added they will probably put a stop to further track electrification: electrification, which is particularly vulnerable to aerial attack, is already being opposed by the War Department for strategical reasons in so far as the Eastern, Northern and P.L.M. systems are concerned.

Loughman St. L. Pendred. 195
Among the King's Birthday honours Loughman St. L. Pendred, past president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and editor in chief of The Engineer, had been honoured with the C.B.E.

Correspondence. 195

The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. F. Gaiser.
Re Derens' article on the Holland Railway locomotives in the May issue: some time ago an old hand-written locomotive list of the Cologne and Minden Railway came to hand in which the builder's numbers of the four engines, Ruhrort; Essen, Guetersloh and Bielefeld are registered in the following order: 63, 61, 62, 64 Thus, the identity of the Zaan with the Bielefeld is now beyond doubt.
As to the photo of the Muenster, this was given to me by Mueller, a former locomotive fcreman to the C. and M. Railway at Dortmund, in 1910, when he was living in retirement in his country home at Neuenahr. He died in 1911. Druitt-Halpin knew him well. The engine-driver in full dress, standing on the footplate of the Muenster, was his father. As I distributed several copies of the photo to my friends there are now, of course, more than one collection in which they may be found. In 1912, I published the Muenster in the Locomotive Mag, V. 20 (p. 218), and this was the first publication of it.
I am longing to mention my admiration for the thorough, well - documented and inspiring work which Derens is doing. The list of weights included in the December number is especially interesting inasmuch as it enables one to distinguish the 2-2-2 long-boiler engines from those having the rear carrying axle behind the firebox. In the former type of engine the adhesive weight was always a little less than a third of the total weight, whereas in the latter it would be considerably more than a third. From this view, of ne engines Nos. 13-19, 21-27 and 29-36, the following appear to have been of the long-boiler description: 13-19, 21, 22, 24 and 30, whereas 25-27, 29 and 31-36 were decidedly of the other type. The engine No. 23 (Holland) seems to conceal some mystery, as its dimensions (see November number, p. 322) are much too small for a locomotive built in 1856 and as in it the adhesive weight surpasses only slightly a third of the total weight. The dimensions are the same as those of the Stephenson engines Komeet and Vesta of 1842, and this seems to indicate that the Holland was one of the earlier engines of the railway and that it was reconditioned about 1856 and the rear axle moved back under (not behind) the firebox, so involving the change of weights. Fig. 8 (November issue, p. 324) is extremely interesting in showing the slotted-out frame which was a peculiarity of the Great Western broad-gauge engines.

One hundred years of railway coaches. W.B. Thompson
May I add a few comments to your article on p. 119. The earliest British sleeping cars were, I think, those which began running between Euston and Glasgow in 1873. The accommodation was by no means luxurious, and I only once travelled in one of these cars. The Pullman sleepers on the Midland Scottish trains were of the ordinary American type with fore-and-aft berths, but of course they had not the advantage of modern electric lighting. The Pullman draw- ing 1'00111 cars on the Midland day Scotch expresses were perhaps the most comfortable vehicles I have ever seen on a British railway. The reason why they were not more used was that not many people could afford to use them. The Midland company had already taught the public to expect to be carried in the best trains at fares of Id. per mile, and few passengers were willing to pay the first class fares plus a Pullman supplement. These drawing room cars, like the older American Pullmans, had open platforms at the ends, and when a boy I once, for the sake of experience, stood out on an end platform while the train ran at full speed through Blea Moor tunnel.
The L. & N.\V.R. 42-feet coaches were 8-wheelers, not 6- wheelers. They were not bogie vehicles, but the two end axles were fitted with the Webb radial axle box arrange- ment. I remember seeing chassis which had been put together at Crewe being hauled to Wolverton to have the bodies added. The 6-wheeled coaches were much smaller and only weighed about 13 tons.

Number 503 (14 July 1934)

What determines the Useful Life of a Steam Locomotive?  197
It may not be realised by many of our readers that the period of useful life of a locomotive has been legally defined. In the case of Hitchin versus the Great Northern Railway, a pre-war l[i.e. pre-1914] egal dispute originating over a matter of rating, the Court, assisted by proper engmeering assessors, came to the conclusion that the useful life of a locomotive was 30.4 years, after which span the increasing cost of repairs added to the reasonable assumption that as a mechanical appliance It was out of date was held to justify replacement on financial grounds. Such decisions can, naturally, only be made up on averages but none the less they are reasonably sound; possibly, for example, the period of 30.4 years was found to be the average life of two boilers and, as most of us are aware, the condition of the boiler is often the decisive factor in questions of scrapping. Since that decision the added requirements of locomotive work and the greater boiler pressure have increased the general rate of wear and tear, and it is reasonable to assume that the period of useful life has shortened since the Hitchin decision to, say, 25 or even 20 years. What are the implications of the Court's conclusions in this case? At the outset we would emphasise the suggestion that removal from service should depend on economic grounds and not on possibilities of repair. Too often an engine, now unfit for its designed work by reason of increased speeds and loads, is reconditioned for the nth time and put on to secondary, tertiary or even more minor services yet which no doubt are performed with ease and magnificent appearance but without reference to the economics of the matter. Thus one may see any day express engines with 6 ft.-7 ft. driving wheels probably designed in the nineties and reboilered early in the present century with higher pressure and enlarged heating-surface working a two-three coach train over an insignificant branch; or we read of the conversion of engines to auto-train purposes, presumably two-coach units at the outside, designed in the seventies [1870s] for what in those days constituted heavy local goods or mineral traffic; or again an incredibly dirty specimen of the freight- service power of the eighties [1880s] may be seen engaged in yard-shunting.
We suggest therefore that the major implication is that there is a financial limit to the disrating process whereby an engine is relegated to increasingly light services as its age advances and newer types appear and that on the attainment of this limit the engine should be scrapped without reference to its state of repair; we find ourselves unable to believe that modern locomotive engineering is incapable of designing power which from the operating as well as the financial side will justify the removal of obsolete or even obsolescent types that otherwise would be engaged on work for which they were never designed. The minor implication is that an increased renewal programme would have an exhilarating effect upon the locomotive building industry and that the repercussions of improved business would in turn react favourably on the traffic receipts of the railways who, when all is said and done, are dependent upon prosperity for prosperity.

G.W.R. 197
Air-conditioned quick lunch-bar cars decoratcd in shades of grcen and silver and illuminated by champagne coloured lights, were introduced by the Great Western Railway. The cars, which are of the saloon type, with large windows, were 57 feet long and 9 feet wide. A counter runs the whole length of the saloons at which passengers may obtain quick luncheons or light refreshments. Stand-up rest seats of modern design had been provided along the counter, beneath which was a recess for hand-bags, etc. Each car was equipped with refrigerators, griller, hot-plate and special apparatus for supplying hot water, milk and coffee. The cars brought into use on  9 July 9th, ran in the following services: 09.45 Paddington to Stourbridge Junction, 14.40. Stourbridge Junction to Birmingham, 16.05 Birmingham to Paddington, 09.00 Bristol to Paddington, 17.]5 Paddington to Bristol.

London Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N. W. Section).  197
In addition to Iocomotivcs Nos. 5552-6, all of which were in service on the Western Division and stationed at Preston, a further ten 4-6-0 three-cylinder passenger engines of the improved "Baby Scot" typc with taper boiler were being turned out at Crewe: numbers commence at 5607, thus fol!owing the fifty similar engines, Nos. 5557-5606, ordered from the North British Loco. Co., and of which delivery would shortly commence. The re-numbering uf non-standard engines in the 20,000 series include two 4-6-0 Expcriments not affected by the scheme applied to standard cngines: Nos. 5456 and  5473. renumbercd 25456 and 25473 respectively. 0-6-2 coal tank No. 7838 had been fitted with vacuum control gear for working push and pul" trains, while 0-6-2 18-in. tank No. 6890 had its motor rodding gear rrmoved. Recent transfers include 4-6-0 Experiments Nos. 25509 and 25511 from Central to Western Division, The remaining Experiments were attached to the Westrrn Division. Latest rebuilds with standard Belpaire boilers were 4-4-0 George V class No. 5403; 0-6-0 18-in. goods No. 8509; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos, 8954 and 9239; and 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9437, The new Diesel shunting engine No. 7408 which was engaged at Crewe sorting sidings is now at work on shunting duty at Camden.

Six-engined "Sentinel" steam locomotives for Colombia. 198-202. 3 illustrations, diagram (detailed side elevation & plan)
Sentinel Waggon Works of Shrewsbury for metre gauge. Locomotive tested on Societe Nationale de Chemins de Fer Vicineaux Belges between Marches and Bastogne. Woolnough water tube boiler operating at 550 psi. Bogies had a Bissel truck.

Oil-engined buffet railcars, Great Western Ry. 203-5. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation & plan)
Supplied by Associated Equipment Company with Park Royal Coachworks bodywork to requirements of C.B. Collett. To seat 40 passengers; two toilets, cafeteria and bar. Used on Birmingham to Cardiff service with supplement charged on third class fare.

Test run with engine No.2001 "Cock o' the North", L. & N.E.R., between King's Cross and Barkston. 205-6.

The high-speed steam locomotive. 207-10. 3 diagrams
In part inspired by the German Henschel high speed steam train.

Boiler for 4-6-2 express locomotive, "Princess Royal", L.M.S.R.. 229-30. 5 diagrams.

Rebuilt goods loco., L.N.E.R. (G.E. Section). 236. illustration
J15 No. 7902 illustrated (photograph: E.R. Wethersett): locomotive had been involved in a buffer stop collision at Ongar and foolowingv repair in works had new stle chimney, pop safety valves and improved tender

Number 504 (15 August 1934)

The relation of the loco. dept. to the railway organisation as a whole. 231.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter XII. Main frames: loads and forces. 5 diagrams.
Static weight distribution (vertical) is disturbed when locomotive is in motion. Shock stresses also arise. Shows effect when locomotive lifted by sheer legs. Loads are also applied in horizontal direction and begins considerationn of cylinder forces.

Festiniog and Welsh Highland Railways. 234-5.

O.J. Morris. The Lydd (Kent) Military Railway and its locomotives. 238-41. 3 illustrations, 2 tables
Established in 1883 to serve Artillery test ranges and locomotives acquired in 1885.

WD No. type name manufacturer WN acquired

132

0-6-0ST Manning Wardle 948/1885

1885

134

0-6-0ST Manning Wardle 968/1885

1885

2746

0-6-0T Napier Hunslet 882/1905

1906

1882

0-4-2T Nicholson Fowler 10978/1907

1907

4125

0-4-0ST Trafford Manning Wardle 1926/1887*

1916

4109

0-4-0ST Betty Avonside 1769/1917

1917

*Rebuilt in 1903

300 H.P. oil-electric locomotive at work on the L.M.S.R. 242-3. illustration, diagram (sectionalised elevation)
Built by English Electric Co. Ltd. in conjunction with Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. Diesel electric shunting locomotive tested in Rugby yard and in Crewe yard on hump shunting. Work on branch line freight and passenger trains anticipated. Much made of continuous availability.

A "stream-line" locomotive of thirty years ago. 244-6. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Dr von Wittfeld of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works design for a three-cylinder compound 4-4-4 with the driver's controls at the front within a V-shaped cab nd the fireman in the normal position. The cranks were set in the same plain for all three cylinders. The locomotive was built by Henschel & Son in 1904.

F.W. Brewer. Locomotive regulators. Some early and modern types. 246-8.

Obituary.  262
Death of Fred Bland, a former director of Edgar Allen & Co. Ltd. He was an authority on tramway track, points and crossings, and the writer of many articles on the history of railways.

Northern Rly. of France. 262
An oil-electric train of three vehicles was tried between Paris and Lille. The two end coaches had each a generating set with a heavy oil engine of 400 H.P. and two motors on the axles. A streamline smoothness is obtained by rubber panels between the coaches. Ten of these trains were to be built by the Societe Franco-BeIge. With stops at Amiens, Arras and Douai, the trial run of 160¼ miles between Paris and Lille was covered in 160 minutes.

Making spring hangers, etc., without drilling. 262
Spring hangers are being made in the Milwaukee shops of the C.M.St.P. & Pacific Railroad without drilling: the hardened bushes being pressed into punched holes made in the hanger, and whilst it is hot.

London Transport. 262.
Consideration had been given to the name of "Chancery Lane" station on the Central London line. Suggestions had been made that a more exact description of the location is desirable, having regard to the fact that the new entrances to the station are at the top of Gray's Inn Road. It had been decided to supplement the name "Chancery Lane" with the name "Gray's Inn."

London & North Eastern Ry. 262
New 4-4-0 Hunt class engines recently completed at Darlington Works were 205 The Albrighton, 214 The Atherstone, 217 The Belvoir, 222 The Berkeley and 226 The Bilsdale. These were to be followed by another fifteen engines of this class. The passenger service between Stirling and Buchlyvie and between Gartness and Balloch was to be withdrawn as from October 1.

Great Southern Rlys. (Ireland) .262
Announced that the line between Galway and Clifden (50 miles)  to be closed on August 27 and between Westport and Achill on Sept. 2. Both formed part of the Midland Great Western system and were much used by tourists and visitors to Connemara.

0-4-4 tank engine, No. 6408 LM. & S.R. 263. illustration
E.R. Wethersettt photograph of No. 6408 on Stanmore branch train. Stanier falsely accused of being responsible for design with its stove pipe chimney.

Number 505 (15 September 1934)

Two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives, L.M.& S. Ry.. 266-7. illustration, diagram (s.& f.elevations)  + plate
No. 5020 built at the Vulcan Foundry: both photographs are of same locomotive: Stanier class 5: first ten to be allocated to Highland section.

T.R. Perkins. The Saundersfoot Railway. 272-6. 4 illustrations, map

Rebuilt dining car, G.N. Rly (Ireland). 276-7. 2 diagrams (including side & end elevations and plan)
Car had suffered damage in a malicious derailment and had been restored with high pressure for cooking

F.W. Brewer. Locomotive regulators, some early and modern types.  278-9 2 diagrams
Lockyer and Hulburd types

75 H.P. standard "Hunslet" diesel locomotive. 287. illustration
Built for work in South America and supplied through Robert Hudson Ltd., Leeds, is one of a range of standardised small diesel locomotives. The design is not new, but it has been brought up to date in almost every detail, due to the experience gained from locomotives of this type m service all over the world, several of which have been at work since 1928. The main frame which carried the engine and gearbox was constructed on locomotive lines from two vertical frame plates, the frame stays being not only between the frames but also extending to the extreme limit of width of the locomotive where they were riveted to a pair of heavy steel channel sections. The engine was a four-cylinder McLaren unit delivering 75 B.H.P. at 1,000 r.p.m, and identical with that fitted in the articulated locomotive supplied to W oolwich Arsenal. The clutch was the' 'Hunslet" patent multiple disc type and the drive is then taken through a flexible coupling to the gearbox. This is of the usual built-up type rigidly bolted between the frames, constant mesh gearing, the wheels being of nickel chrome case hardened steel and the changes being effected by heavy dog clutches. The change, however, is not of the automatic type but is operated directly by the driver, the gear change lever and reverse lever being placed conveniently in the cab for operation. The final drive from the gearbox is by chain to the trailing axle and by coupling chains to the intermediate and leading axles. Sanding gear fitted, both leadmg and trailing.:Locomotive weight 10 tons and capable of hauling about 300 tons on the level.

Southern Railway. 287
No. 862 Lord Collingioood. (Lord 1\clson class) has been experimentally fitted with a double chimney. No. 923 Uppingham (Schools class) has been renamed Bradfield. Tbe old L.B.S.C.R. running shed at llattersea Park was closed on 1 July and the engines transferrcd to the former S.C. & C.R. shed at Longhedge close by, which officially known as Stcwarts Lane.
A. B. McLeod has been appointed Assistant Western Divisional Running Superintendent in succession to the late H. P. Dawson. J. E. Bell succeeded McLeod as Divisional Superintendent for the Isle of Wight.

Egyptian State Railways. 287.
The new chief mechanical engineer is Abdel Rahman Harnada Bey, M.C., in succession to Mr. W. D. Knights, who retired recently.

North Western Railway of India. 287
E. L. Manico had been appointed deputy chief mechanical engineer of this system.

Obituary. 287
The death occurred on Aug. 19 of  Edward Herbert Hart, at Bitterne, Hants, aged 78 years. Mr. Hart was formerly a district locomotive uperintendent on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and on many occasions officiated as head of the locomotive department. Mr. Hart served on the Great Northern Railway in his early days.

[Robert Coey]. 287
Death at Harrogate on 24 August of Robert Coey, formerly locomotive engineer of the Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland, in his 84th year. Coey was a native of Belfast, and went to Inchicore Works as a draughtsman in 1876. He was appointed chief draughtsman in 1880 and assistant locomotive superintendent and works manager a few years later. When lvatt left Inchicore to become locomotive superintendent of the G N.R. in 1896, he was succeeded by Coey, who held office as locomotive superintendent of the G.S, & W. Railway until 1911, when he retired.

Lieut.-Col. M. M. Bidder, 287
Died at the age of 55 on 26 August as a result of a motor accident. was formerly vice-chairman of Kitson & Co. Ltd. Col. Bidder was a grandson of the famous G,P. Bidder, the "Calculating Boy," and a colleague of Robert Stephenson in the early days of railways. His father was G. P. Bidder, Q,C. Col Bidder joined Kitson & Co. as a director in 1912. During the War he saw service in Gallipoli and elsewhere.

Number 506 (15 October 1934)

Three-cylinder 4-6-0 passenger engine, L.M. & S. Railway. 296. illus
Slight modifications to weight distribution and tender: No. 5573 illustrated built North British Locomotive Co. with 4000 gallon tenders

T.R. Perkins. The Saundersfoot Railway. 297-300. 4 illustratuions

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and fprmulae. 300-3. 4 diagrams, table
Brakes and brake rigging, See errata on page 340

New Post Office vehicles, L.M.& S. Railway. 304-5. 3 illustrations
Three 60ft and one 57ft sorting vans. The 60ft vehicles were fitted with mail exchange apparatus and had toilets, electrically heated hot water and electric ovens. All were fitted with Post Office gangways. Design credited to Stanier.

F.W. Brewer. Locomotive regulators, some early and modern types. 305-8. 3 diagrams
Joco balanced type with three valves; M.L.S. multiple valve type, Owen regulator

Beyer-Garrett tank loco, for the British Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. 314.  illustration
0-4-4-0T with 3ft 4in diameter coupled wheels, 14 x 20in cylinders and 185 psi boiler pressure. Hauled dead to Cardiff via Wrexham and Oswestry

W.B. Thompson. Notes on railway travel in Canada. 318-19
Journey from Montreal to the Rockies and back using the Canadian Pacific Railway. Noted that fewer trains than in Europe, but that they ran at high speed and appeared to be punctual. The most exciting part was thr journey through the Kicking Horse Pass viewed from the observation car.

[World's fastest newspaper train]. 319
The 01.20 Paddington to Swansea was faster to Newport than the fastest day train. Swansea was reached at 05.44 and connections were arranged for newspapers to arrive in time for Welsh breakfasts

Propulsion of the Cunard-White Star liner "Queen Mary". 319-20. illustration
Eight very heavy bronze propellers manufactured  by J. Stone in Deptford and by the Manganese Bronze & Brass Co. of Millowall had to be moved by road to the Surrey Commercial Docks for shipment to the Clyde

Locomotive connecting  rods. 320-1
Nickel chromium steels had been replacced by vanadium steels. Electric furnaces tended to be used.  Limits for phosphorus, sulphur and manganese. Heat treatment. Bushes.

The running shed foreman. 321-2.
Charateristics necessary: age, temperament, technical ability, ability to be able to maintain disipline, etc

The last of the L. & N.W.R. "Precedents.". 327
On the withdrawal of the L.M.S.R. summer services, the last of the L. & N.W.R. Precedent class of 2-4-0 passenger engines, No. 25001 Snowdon, was taken from traffic. Apart from being the last of its class in service, it was also the only one to come under the recent renumbering scheme. Snowdon was built at Crewe in 1875, and was one of the original "Precedents." Stationed at Penrith shed, its last duties were to work the 3.5 p.m. train to Whitehaven and back. It will be remembered that one of the 6 ft. 6 in. 2-4-0 engines, Hardwick, is preserved as a relic at Crewe Works, and there are still a few used as engineers' departmental engines at Lancaster, Watford, Bangor, etc.

American locomotive notes. 327
A streamlined locomotive of the 4-4-4 type with 7 ft. driving wheels had been ordered by the Baltimore and Ohio R.R. and would be ready soon. A streamlined Diesel car was also in hand for the B. & O. Other orders for locomotives recently placed were 20 of the 4-8-4 type for the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western, also 20 tender engines to be converted to tank shunters and 20 other engines of various types. The Boston & Maine R.R. ordered 6 freight engines and one shunter as well as 4 passenger engines (4-8-4 and 4-6-2 types). The Nickel Plate line was purchasing 15, 2-8-4 type and 5 shunters; the Lehigh Valley 5, 4-8-4 type; Seaboard Air Lines 5, 2-6-6-4 type. Pittsburg and West Virginia 3, 2-6-6-4 type, and the Northern Pacific 10, passenger locomotives. Other lines were reconditioning many engines that had been idle during the slump period.

Great Southern Railways (Ireland). 327
The Galway-Clifden, Westport-Achill branches and also the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway were being kept open for all traffic until further notice. A new signal cabin had been erected at Dublin, Amiens Street, and would shortly be brought into use, and when done the Great Southern will signal its own trains into and out of the City of Dublin Junction platform at Amiens Street independently of the Great Northern Co. whose signal box had hitherto controlled all movements at the north end of the station.

Personal. 327
G.W. Duncan has resigned his appointment as publicity manager of the London Passenger Transport Board. W. Gott, commercial advertising officer (railways), and H.L. Spratt, commercial advertising officer (buses and tramways), will continue to be responsible for their respective sections of the Publicity Department. H.T. Carr will be acting publicity manager and responsible for the remainder of the work of the department including the press bureau, traffic advertising, and public letters.

Eastern Bengal Railway. 327
G. Thomson, deputy chief mechanical engineer, has been appointed to officiate as chief mechanical engineer. C.A.K. Bradley officiates as deputy C.M.E in his place.

Correspondence. 327

[State of Britain's railways]. R.B. Hunt
On the eve of my departure for South Africa it may be of interest for me, as a railway enthusiast, to let you have my reactions on the English railway systems, based on observations during frequent travels whilst in the "Old Country. "
The first thing that struck me, and very much disappointed me, was the poor outward condition of all locomotives. In my boyhood days I was always thrilled with the beauty of our locomotives, and I submit that this fact is the fundamental reason for the much-desired enthusiasm of the younger generation. Whilst appreciating fully the heavy expense of maintaining all railway stock to perfection, surely it might be possible to give special attention to the "crack" locomotives of the different lines. As an instance, I submit that, as there is always a large crowd of interested onlookers to see the departure of the 10.30 a.m. Cornish Riviera express, headed by one of the magnificent King class engines, surely all the Kings should be spotless and brilliant in appearance.
These engines are beautifully finished as they leave Swindon works; it therefore appears to be a great pity that this is not maintained during useful life.
The condition of the carriages also leaves much to be desired. One of my particular extravagances is to always travel first class at a cost somewhat approaching twice that of third. But what do I get for that heavier investment? The train goes no faster and runs as no higher cost; the only difference appears to be that the compartments are constructed to hold less people and one is honoured with an antimacassar. Generally the compartments were not clean and one longed to get a vacuum cleaner and bucket of' petrol, as well as a sponge to clean the windows.
I would add that the Pullman Brighton Belle, in which, I travelled to Brighton, is an extreme exception. This is. the most beautiful and comfortable train I have ever travelled in.
Your train service has to compete to-day with the modern, comfortable and fast motor car on beautiful highways and can only do so by offering transport more comfortable and faster.
This leads me to my next point, speed. Whilst it may be accepted that England easily leads in this, yet there is much to be done to maintain the supremacy over the motor' car which has developed its speed out of all recognition .. We have to-day two-hour expresses to Birmingham and Bristol, but we had them years and years ago. I am certain that these times could be considerably improved, proved sufficiently for my satisfaction by the Cheltenham Flyer which has, I believe, travelled from Swindon to London in 61 minutes. Surely this is not the only section of Our railway on which a speed of 80 m.p.h. can be maintained. With your perfect tracks one should be allowed to expect; speeds up to 90 and even 100 m.p.h.
Much could be done by your railway companies to lay stress on the exceptional safety to the travelling public of' their services. One reads regularly of hundreds killed and' thousands injured on the highways, yet with thousands of" millions of miles covered by your trains annually hardly a, life is lost. I believe I am right in stating that the Underground system has yet to lose a life through accident. With this in mind much could be done to bring this safety- factor forcibly before the public mind. See response from A. Sinkinson in nxt volume

The high speed steam locomotive. 327
It was very pleasing to note that the article on the above- had called forth Mr. Keiller's letter (August) which I quite appreciate. The main object of the article was to call attention to the possibilities still extant with steam, if high-speed- light trains are to be the fashion, and if steam is to be retained, no doubt a great deal of controversy will arise- as to the best type of locomotive, as the simplicity of a debate "single versus coupled" will be a relatively small item compared with the arguments of high-pressure boiler design, geared engine prospects, etc. The orthodox steam loco. however still appears to be in the running, and I am sure both Mr. Keiller and myself look forward to the C.M.E. in combination with the directorate who will in due course produce- the right machine for this work.

Number 507 (15 November 1934)

Anti-friction bearings. 329-30

2-8-2 heavy goods tank locomotive, "7200" class, G.W. Rly.. 330-1. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 7200 illustrated. Intended to replace Aberdare 2-6-0. 52XX 2-8-0T rebuilt with trailing radil truck to accommodate larger bunker; also larger water tanks.

Great Western Railway. 331
Ten new Hall class 4-6-0 locomotives from Swindon: Nos. 4941 Campion Hall, 4942 Doldowlod Hall; 4943 Elmdon Hall; 4944 Ickenham Hall; 4945 Leckhampton Hall; 4946 Marwell Hall; 4947 St. Benet's Hall; 4948 Siddington Hall; 4949 Trematon Hall and 4950 Wardley Hall.

2-6-0 locomotives for the West Highland line, L. & N.E.R. 331. illustration
K2 No. 4700 Loch Lomond with side window cab.

Diesel-electric shunting locomotive for the Port of Rosario. 332. illustration
Supplied by Henschel & Son of Cassel with Sulzer of Winterthur engine

American locomotive notes. 332
2-6-6-4 Mallet fot Pittsburg & West Virginia R.R.; Baltimore & Ohio R.R. considering a three-cylinder compound design of 4-8-4 for express traffic with 6ft 8in coupled wheels; a single inside 27 x 30in high pressure cylinder and two outside 30 x 30in cylinders. A new 4-4-4 was ready for service. The Pennsylvania R.R. had ceased to develop steam locomotives for its Philadelphia to Wshington route as this was beinng electrified.

North West State Rly.: notes on the locomotives of India's largest railway. 332-5. 8 illustrations.
Illustrations: 2-6-6-2 Mallet No. 490 on freight train at Jhelum; remainder  photographs by P.S.A. Berridge: Class E 4-6-0 No. 427; Beyer-Garratt 2-6-2+2-6-2 on heavy freight on Lalamusa & Rawal section; Kitson-Meyer hauling freight on 2ft 6in gauge Kalka Simla line; NG class 0-8-0 shunting locomotive No. 913; H/GS 2-8-0 Nos. 1710 and 412; above Hirok the Karachi to Quettan Mail hauled and banked by H/GS 2-8-0 locomotives; Caprotti four-cylinder Pacific XS class on Karachi Mail leaving Lahore.

Great Northern Railway of Ireland. 335
The Bainbridge to Scarva line had reopened using a railbus on all weekday services but steam trains on Saturdays. The railbus worked through to Newry.

Forth & Clyde Junction Railway. 335-6. illustration
Passenger services ceased on 29 September 1934, but freight services remained. The line linked Stirling with Alexandria 26 miles away. The line was characterised by many curves and many level crossings. It was first projected in 1845 and was revived in 1852 with an Act being passed in 1853, It opened on 20 May 1856 and was operated by the Scottish Central Railway until 1859 when four locomotives were ordered from Peto, Brassey and Betts' Canada Works in Birkenhead. These were Crewe type 2-4-0 with 16 x 26in outside cylinders and 5ft coupled wheels. The North British Railway took over in August 1871 and the locomotives were renumbered 401-404
In 1879 Nos. 401 to 403 were replaced by 17in. Drummond goods engines. No. 404 was rebuilt at Cowlairs in 1874. In 1883 it was put on the duplicate list as 404A. In 1895 it was re-numbered 835 and was scrapped in 1900. Two of the ex Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway singles went to work this section some time after the NBR had taken it over. Later the line was worked by 0-4-4 and 4-4-2 tanks. The advent of the motor omnibus sealed the fate of the line. As most of the stations were at some considerable distance from the villages they were intended to serve, the 'buses lifted people from their doors, and thus took the bulk of the traffic. In 1928 a Sentinel railcar service was put into operation, but even this was run at a loss. At the time of closing the cars so engaged were 31073 Quicksilver. and 39 Pearl. The Lennoxtown- Buchlyvie-Aberfoyle passenger service remained.

London & North Eastern Rly. 336
On completion of the new series of Hunt class engines at Darlington Works, we understand the next order to be put in hand will be for another five Sandringham class 4-6-0 engines: Nos. 2843 Champion Lodge; 2844 Earlham Hall; 2845 Gilwell Park; 2846 Helmingham Hall, and 2847 Kimberley House. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. have completed the following "K3" class 2-6-0 tender engines for the Northern Area:- Nos. 1302, 1304, 1306, 1308, 1310, and 1324, and for the Southern Area, Nos. 2934 to. 2937. Another three of the 4-4-4 tank engines, Nos. 1519, 2149 and 2153 had been converted to the 4-6-2 type, class A8, completing the order for ten to be reconstructed this year at Darlington. A start has been made with another series of J39 class goods engines at Darlington, the first seven bearing the numbers 1475 to 1479, 1488 and 1490. These are to have the tenders of the Raven Pacifies which are being provided with standard 8-wheeled tenders. The name of No. 362 given in our last issue as Goatham should be Goathland. New Pacifies built at Doncaster are Nos. 2505 Cameronian; 2506 Singapore, and 2507 Salmon Trout.

56-seater Michelin railcar, French State Rlys. 336-7. 2 illustrations
Following extended trials over three years with Michelin pneumatic tyred railcars, the French State Railways put into service a 56-seater coach, for operation in both directions. The illustrations give a good idea of its general appearance externally and internally. The overall length 53 ft. 6ft in.; width of body 9 ft. 1in., and the overall height from rail level is 9 ft. 4ft in. The car was carried on two eight-wheeled bogies with a wheelbase of 9 ft. 4 in. each. The front bogie has the two inside axles driven, and these are coupled by chains. The vertical load is carried by side bearers and not by the centre pivot.
Pneumatic tyres when running on steel rails are said to be only capable of carrying about one- third the load they can sustain on an ordinary road, hence the large number of wheels employed. . The petrol engine, gave  200 h.p. and its gearing giving four speeds in either direction are mounted on coiled steel springs and rubber m the body chassis in such a way that vibrations are not transferred to the coach. The Lockheed system of hydraulic braking is applied to all the wheels, operated by two independent braking systems, one for each bogie.
The pressed steel disc wheels have 34 in. Michelin pneumatic tyres inflated to a normal pressure of 9 lb. per square inch, with steel guid- mg flanges silenced by a rubber insert. Loss of pressure in any tyre sounds a hooter in the driver's cab.

[Swainsley Viaduct relics]. 337
During the reconstruction of the viaduct between Derby and Belper a diver investigating scour by the river discovered the timber piles of the original viaduct built by the North Midland Railway in 1840. These were in excellent condition. Frederick Swanwick was the original site engineer working for George Stephenson.

200 H.P. diesel-electric locomotive, Kallehavebanen Denmark. 337-8. illustration
Weighed 28 tons. Fittedv with 2-stroke Burmeister & Wain type engine. Capable of 37 mile/h maximum speed. Fitted with electric heating.

Nigerian Railways locomotives. 338
Notes G.V.O. Bulkley's use of the Kiesel formula to establish tractive effort when hauling trains. See letter from W.C. Williams on p. 394

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and fprmulae. The Westinghouse automatic brake. 338-40. 8 tables

Correction.340.
In the last instalment of  Phillipson's article on Steam Locomotive Design on page 302, we regret to notice that a few words were omitted at the bottom of the left hand column. As the wording does not convey the intended meaning we give below the correct version of the text, and have put the words affected in italics;- "The brake force exerted by the blocks must act radially

towards the centre of the wheel; the blocks must also be "so disposed that their horizontal centre line is slightly "below that of the wheels, with due regard to the necessity for the resultant of the spring borne load and the brake force to act within the arc of the axle box bearing. With this disposition the brake blocks are assisted to move clear of the wheels when released, this movement being further encouraged, not only by the provision of springs between the blocks and hangers, and also by so inclining the brake hangers that they tend naturally to return to the off' position under the action of gravity; it is important to observe that the necessary extent cf this movement is increased as the engine bearing springs weaken in service.

London, Midland & Scottish Rly. (Western Section). 340
No. 5629 is the latest new engine of the improved Baby Scot type with taper boiler to be completed and turned out at Crewe. Of the same type the North British Loco. Co. delivered up to No. 5581. The Vulcan Foundry delivered new two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines up to No. 5049. The twenty five similar engines on order at Crewe will follow the Baby Scots now building, of which No. 5654 will be the last. New locomotives recently allocated to this section include three-cylinder 4-6-0s Nos. 5557-72 and 5607-16; also two-cylinder 4-6-0s Nos. 5032-9. No. 9017 is the latest D class 0-8-0 to be converted to superheater G1 class and was running provided with a standard Belpaire boiler and also with the vacuum brake throughout. The following engines rebuilt with Belpaire boilers;-0-6-0 18 in. goods class 10S. 8450 and 8618; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 8948, 9250 and 9374; 4-6-0 19 in. goods class No. 8707. Two ex G. & S.W. 0-6-2 tanks, Nos. 16905 and 16911, were working temporarily from Workington shed.

Midland Section. 340
New 2-6-4 three-cylinder passenger tank engines, ex Derby, were in traffic up to No. 2542. These engines for service on the Tilbury line. Two of the Vulcan two-cylinder 4-6-0s were at work on the Midland section, Nos. 5030-1. Devon's Road shed is now under the Midland Division, while Buxton shed has been transferred to the Western Division as formerly. Orders have been placed for a total of 1,700 low-sided goods wagons of 12 tons capacity, for use in connection with their container traffic, as follows ;-700 from Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon & Finance Company Ltd., Saltley, and 400 from The Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Company Ltd., Smethwick. These are to be fitted with the vacuum brake. Three hundred unfitted wagons from Hurst, Nelson & Co., Motherwell, and 300 unfitted wagons from Charles Roberts & Co. Ltd., Horbury Junction, near Wakefield.
The L.M. & S. Rly. had for disposal nearly 200 nameplates taken off locomotives withdrawn from service. Some nearly 8 ft. long. all of brass with the name of the engine and date of construction engraved on the metal. All had been taken from engines built at Crewe. They were on sale at the Locomotive Stores at Crewe.

Diesel-shunting engines for the L.M. & S.R.
About eighteen months previously this railway ordered a variety of types of oil-engined shunting locomotives. Some of these have been in service for nearly a year, and others have only just been completed. Tenders had been invited for a further twenty shunting locomotives of higher power, up to 300 b.h.p.

Sheffield-Twinberrow type bogies. 341-3. 4 illustrations

Colonel H.A. Stenning. 350. illustration (portrait)
Colonel Harry A. Stenning, O.B.E., T.D., M.I.M.E., for many years Managing Director of The Superheater Company, Ltd., is retiring from that position at the end of this year. His connection of nearly thirty years with Superheating will not be severed as he retains his seat on the Board, and will act as Consultant to the Company. Colonel Stenning commenced his career in locomotive work under the late James Stirling at Ashford, and was afterwards at Nine Elms under the late Mr. Dugald Drummond. In 1904 he was introduced to William Schmidt by the late Leslie S. Robertson, then secretary of the Standardisation Committee. Dr. Schmidt had made the development of the superheated steam engine his life work; he had designed several different types of super- heaters, all of which produced a high degree of superheat, and he also succeeded in so modifying the details of the locomotive as to successfully meet the conditions imposed by the use of steam of very high temperatures. Colonel Stenning with Mr. Robertson introduced the smoke tube superheater into this country, and in 1906 induced Mr. George Hughes, chief mechanical engineer of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry., to fit two engines, a six-coupled goods and a 4-4-0 passenger, with a Schmidt smoke-tube superheater. Shortly afterwards the D. Earle Marsh, of the L.B. & S.C.R., H. A. Ivatt of the G.N.R., and J. G. Robinson of the G.C.R., fitted several engines with superheaters for trial, and later adopted the system. As a result of an extended trial of one of Marsh's L.B. & S.C.R. 4-4-2 tank engines be- tween Rugby and Brighton, fitted with a superheater, in competition with a L. & N.W.R. 4-4-0 tender engine using saturated steam, in 1910 the last mentioned railway took up superheating under the late Bowen Cooke. It was then standard British locomotive practice to use slide valves, and the earliest superheat engines in this country were so fitted, but piston valves were gradu- ally introduced largely at the instigation of Colonel Stenning. In 1913 the Superheater Company established its works at Trafford Park, but the war period prevented progress until 1920-1. The company was reconstructed as Marine and Locomotive Superheaters, Ltd., and undertook the manu- facture of the superheater equipment throughout. Later developments include the introduction of machine-forged return bends for the superheater elements. The name was again changed to the Superheater Co. Ltd. in 1924 and Its activities largely extended not only in relation to the rail- ways, but with electricity power houses, and marine engine builders. Overseas the Superheater Co. first applied their apparatus to locomotives for the Argentine, followed by South Africa and India, where the first engines fitted were for the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway. At the works the Company now deal with some 2,000 tons of steel tubes for the manufacture of steam super- heaters per annum.
We are notified that Eric A. Robinson, General Manager, has been elected a Director of the Company.

Kofler Train Stop. 350
Further trials with this device on the electrified section of the North Milan Railway demonstrated its satisfactory working at speeds up to 80 kilometres (50 miles) per hour. We gave a description of the Kofter mechanical train-stop apparatus in our issue of October 15, 1932.

Central Railway of Peru. 350
Orders placed by the Peruvian Corporation Ltd. for a Sentinel-Cammell steam rail bus to seat 82 second-class passengers, with a bogie trailer car to take 20 first and 44 second-class passengers. Also a Sentinel-Cammell freight unit to carry 20 tons. Both cars will be fitted with two compound engines and Woolnough boilers, with automatic coal feeding devices so that only one man is necessary to look after the driving and firing. The Peruvian Corporation has also ordered a petrol driven inspection trolley to seat two persons from D. Wickharn & Co. Ltd. of Ware.

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 350
Placed an order with Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. for a 15-ton [diesel] oil-electric shunting locomotive, metre gauge, for the Penang Harbour Board, Straits Settlements.

A Dorsetshire narrow gauge railway. 358-9. 2 illustrations
B. Fayle & Co. on the Isle of Purbeck

Number 508 (15 December 1934)

Travel speeds of the future. 363-4.
Editorial comment on high speed trains based upon a paper by Raymond Carpmael presented to the Institute of Transport, notably on the Great Western Railway. See also  letter from WHT on reference to Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad

Southern Railway: conversion of 4-6-4 type "Baltic" tank engines to 4-6-0 type engines. 365-6. illustration, diagram (iside & front elevations)
No. 2329 Stephenson illustrated: rebuilt at Easleigh Works

Heavy tank locomotives for the Netherlands State Coal Mines. 367. illustration
Werkspoor 2-8-2T for a new railway to link the Hendrik and Emma mines to the Juliana canal

Model railway catalogue, Section "A". 367
Bassett Lowke Ltd

The last of the "Jumbos," L.M. & S. Railway. 369-70. illustration
No. 25001 Snowdon had been withdrawn. Precedent class introduced by Webb in 1874 and which grew to a class of 166. Hardwicke and Charles Dickens were the most famous members

G.N. Rly. (Ireland), pneumatic-tyred petrol railbus. 370-1

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 374-7, 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
See also letter from W.S. Upton in next Volume and Author's response

2-8-2 type engine, "Earl Marischal". L. & N.E. 378. illustration

The railways of the Londonderry Port anf Harbour Commissioners. 379-81. 4 illustrations
Originally laid with flat bottom rails most was changed to tramway girder rails in 1902. Originally standard Irish gauge of 5ft 3in but when the Londonderry & Lough Swilly Railway changed to 3ft gauge in 1883 the six mile system became mixed gauge. The original locomotive was one of the former LLSR broad gauge engines: 0-6-0T John Cooke, a Rober Stephenson & Co. product of 1864. There were two locomotives in 1934: No. 1 (Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-0ST WN 2748/1891) and No. 3 R.S. Smyth (Avonside WN 2031/1928). The latter displaced No. 2 (Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-0ST WN 2836/1896). Horses had been displaced by a Fordson tractor for shunting on the quays along the River Foyle, although electric capstans were also used. The tracks crossed the Foyle by the Craigavon Bridge. Trains of mixed gauge wagons were worked and the locomotives could couple to either gauge. The assistance of the Harbour Engineers: W.E. Hutson (late) and J.S. Watt (then current),

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: Combustion and boilers. 384-5. 6 diagrams
GB Patent 259/1854. Continued in Volume 41 on p. 23

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 391-2.
Abstract of ILocoE Paper 334

Obituary. 394
Dr. Carl Sulzer, chairman of the Arm of Sulzer Brothers, passed away at Winterthur on 30 October in his seventieth year. He was the eldest son of the distinguished engineer, Mr. Henry Sulzer, and after training in the Winterthur works studied at Lausanne and Dresden under Zeuner and Lewicki. A short period in the Sulzer designing office was followed by a visit to America, where he was employed by the Brown & Sharpe Co. Upon his return in 1891 he undertook the design of workshop equipment and tools in the Sulzer works, the developrnent of which necessitated specialised tool equipment. In 1895 when he became a partner in the business, the Sulzer steam engine was approaching its zenith, and Dr. Sulzer had a considerable share in the management of this branch and in the evolution of large units for direct coupling to electric generators. He was responsible for several installations in Britain, notably those for the Metropolitan Electric Supply Co., Willesden, Harland & Wolff Belfast, Singer Manufacturing Co., Clydebank, and the Charing Cross Electrical Supply Co., Bow. Under his lead a complete change took place in the steam engine era in 1909 by the successful evolution of the "Uniflow" engine with its considerably increased revolution speed, forked frame and simplified valve gear, the first engines of which type were supplied to the Hafod Copper Works of Messrs. Vivian at Swansea. The experience with this design proved of great value in the modernisation of the ammonia compressor with which Dr. Sulzer was intimately connected, in collaboration with Professor Linde. He took a prominent part in the design and manufacture of steam boilers and high pressure pipe lines for hydraulic power stations, pressure vessels, gas holders, etc., in this respect closely following in the footsteps of his father. The introduction of the valve-type water level indicator was due to him. He was largely responsible for the adoption of the corrugated "Fox" flue" for Cornish and Lancashire boilers and the efficient arrangement of superheaters. Increasing steam pressure led to the manufacture of the vertical single and double bank straight tube boiler which was taken upon Dr. Sulzer's advice after exhaustive tests in 1890, and later, under his guidance, a boiler of 1,500 lb. per square inch pressure was designed, from which the Sulzer Monotube steam generator was evolved. Dr. Sulzer also took a keen interest in the development of the centrifugal pump for irrigation purposes, Pumps for de-watering became equally prominent, and as an example of Dr. Sulzer's perseverance the big installation at Codigoro should be mentioned, where stringent guarantees had to be given, which experts at that time considered unobtainable; but, in co-operation with Professor Prasil of Zurich, irnpellers were designed which enabled the guarantees to be complied with. The turbine pump was also developed, and the first high-lift mine pumps for Horcajo and the Victor Rauxel pit in Westphalia are of interest. When the Sulzer organisation was converted into a limited company in 1914 Dr. Sulzer became chairman and, leaving the technical side on the business more in younger hand, devoted much of his time to social and political duties for his country.

Correspondence. 394

Nigerian railway locomotives. W. Cyril Williams
Re page 338, you refer to the very interesting innovation by the General Manager of the Nigerian Railways, G. V. O. Bulkeley, of the Kiesel formula for the calculation of tractive effort. This is certainly novel, but caution would appear to be necessary in its application, as Kiesel doubtless evolved his formula having in mind the long barrels and shallow fire-boxes of American locomotives. In the example cited, comparison is made with the Garratt locomotive. Here we have a boiler with a wide and deep firebox and a short barrel of large diameter, this design being possible due to the slinging of the boiler in a cradle between the wheels. Thus all the heating surface of the Garratt boiler is nearer the source of supply, many Garratt boilers having as much as 50 per cent. more tube heating surface nearer the radiant heat of the firebox, Thus it is the value not the amount of each square foot of heating surface that counts and this is taken into account in Garratt boiler design.
The Garrntt is shewn as losing 2,381 lb. of tractive effort by comparison on the Kiesel formula basis. In practice no such loss is experienced; on the contrary, the output at the economical peed is in every way comparable and often exceeds that of the ordinary locomotive owing to the ease with which a boiler of adequate heating surface can be ap- plied. Further, the superheat of the Garratt boiler is markedly higher than in the ordinary engine, and in recent tests in South Africa the highest superheat ever recorded on the 160 odd classes of locomotives on the South African Railways, namely 730°F., has been obtained from one of the large Garratt locomotives. So it seems that the Kiesel formula cannot be used indiscriminately.

Ashley Brown, General Secretary, The British Rly. Stockholders' Union, Ltd.
I read with great interest the letter contributed by Mr. R. B. Hunt to your issue of the 15th October. Giving, as he does, the impartial view of a man who visits England from abroad and who is able to compare what he sees with what he remembers, his criticisms have a peculiar force. Changes are frequently so gradual that those of us who live amongst them fail to notice them, and it is often something of a shock to us to be compelled to appreciate the great gulf that separates our practice of to-day from our standards of long ago.
As Mr. Hunt points out, in the up-keep of our locomotives there has been a very serious falling off. I recollect the pleasure it gave me as a boy to visit Paddington Station for that great event the annual family holiday in Cornwall or Somerset, and the respect with which I contemplated the perfect appearance of Mr. Dean's handsome locomotives of that time. I felt vaguely that the company was making a concession in admitting to its trains so insignificant a person as myself. The first class carriage with its clerestory roof, its delightful internal paint-work and its large and imposing lighting apparatus produced upon my small mind a picture which I can see even to-day in all its detail.
Those days are gone and we live in times in which the locomotive and the carriage are expected to perform a maxi- mum of work at a rrururnurn of cost. The modern locomotive is, of course, as far superior to the Great Western locomotives of the 1890s as electric light is superior to oil, but our mood has changed, dignity has gone, pride is at a discount. We are all struggling to live. All the same, this phase of things can be carried too far. I am told that at least one railway company is working its engines to death in a fashion definitely unprofitable. Economies in, maintenance and oil sooner or later produce a bill upon which sav- ings appear as a loss, with compound interest added. It is the same thing with the first class carriage, little by little we economise at the expense of its comfort and after a time our first class passengers drift away into third class carriages.
When Mr. Hunt refers to the speed of our trains, however, I am not absolutely of one mind with him. The best British trains will compare very favourably with steam-hauled trains in any part of the world. To compare the Cheltenham Flyer with the two-hour Birmingham express is unfair to the Birmingham train which has to contend with gradients and curves utterly unknown on the Swindon-London run. I do not doubt that the journey from London to Birmingham could be made in exceptional circumstances 'in possibly one hour and fonty-five minutes, but it is not of advantage to any company to advertise a very fast train which is liable to be late on four days out of seven. What is so remarkable about the Swindon train is that it is always on time, or a minute or two early. See response from A. Sinkinson in nxt volume

Anti-friction bearings. A.D. Roberts.
On perusal of your leading article on "Anti-Friction Bearings" it occurred to me that the following passage, quoted from An Outline History of Anti-Friction Bearings published by the Fafnir Bearing Company, may be of interest to your readers.- " As early as 1870, we find several rail roads in the United States using roller bearings. Roller bearing railway car axles were operating in Ohio at that time. The Spencer Roller Bearing was in use on at least two other rail roads duning that period. By 1890, the Delaware & Hudson Railroad was using roller bearings fairly extensively. In those days the Boston & Albany had one car completely equipped with such bearings."

William T. Hoecker.
I have read with much interest Mr. W.B. Thompson's notes on railway travel in Canada, in the October Issue. In regard to left-hand running on double lines, this practice was followed 'on the Chicago-Omaha section of the Chicago and North 'Western Railway, as recently as 1931, and may still be in effect. Mr. Thompson's remarks relating to the scarcity of passenger trains between important towns, and the large numbers of motor cars seen from the trains, indicate that he has observed a condition which had gradually developed all over North America during the past twenty years. Perhaps a brief account of what has happened in my own vicinity may be of interest to Mr. Thompson, as a typical example. Prior to 1912, Houston, a town of nearly 300,000 persons, and Galveston, a well-known seaport and summer resort of slightly more than 50,000 population, were connected by three steam railway lines. The passenger service over these lines consisted of 13 trains on weekdays and 16 on Sundays, in either direction. In 1912, an electric passenger railway was opened between the two towns and hourly trains, usually consisting of a motor car and trailer, were instituted. The electric line promptly absorbed by far the greater share of local traffic and caused the withdrawal of some steam trains, but worse was to follow. A fairly good highway has always existed between Galveston and Houston; however, within the past decade this has been replaced by a concrete speedway. Under ordinary conditions it is possible to run the 48 miles over this concrete road in a little over an hour. There are long straight stretches between the small villages along the route, and some daring motorists attain speeds of 80 to 90 miles per hour. Naturally, fatal accidents are not uncommon, especially on week-ends and special holidays when the volume of traffic is tremendous. As a result of all this competition, the electric line now runs only half as many trains as formerly, and they are generally not well filled. On the steam lines, there are but five long- distance trains, all local trains having long ago disappeared.
There seems to be no solution to this problem, from a railway standpoint. Motor cars are so numerous (there are about 10,000 in Galveston County alone, and probably 50,000 in Houston] that the authorities are compelled to build expensive concrete roads between all the principal cities. There are several varieties of first-class, fully-equipped motor cars, capable of carrying five persons at 80 miles per hour, priced at around £160 sterling, when new. Very good second-hand cars can be bought for as little as £50. High-grade petrol sells for 9d. per gallon (including 2½d. tax). No steam railway can successfully compete with such conditions as these. Some of us have long been hoping the supply of petroleum would one day give out, but such hopes are apparently vain, as more oil is being discovered in Texas every day. And even if the supply were to fail, some genius would probably perfect a vehicle to run on hot air or some equally plentiful and inexpensive substance, so we may as well resign ourselves to the inevitable.

Reviews. 395-6

Railways for all. J.F. Gairns. Revised Edition by J. Kenneth Taylor. London: Ward, Lock & Co., Ltd. 396
This popular book has been substantially revised and new matter covering a wide range of railway developments during the past few years, incorporated. In addition to the large amount of detail on all sections of railway activity contained in the original work, descriptions have now been included of the latest locomotives, such as the L.M.S.R. Princess Royal and the L.N.E.R. Cock o' the North classes if' this country, articulated and other high-powered locomotives at home and abroad, details of steam locomotive design such as poppet valve gears. heavy oil-engined locomotives and railcars and the use of such units in high-speed service, and steam railcars. The Southern Railway's electrification schemes are described, and recent express accelerations here and abroad, improved methods of operation such as express freight services, and increased use of colour light signalling, are touched upon. The notes on marshalling yards now include a description of the working of the L.N.E.R. yards at Whitemoor. The formation of the London Passenger Transport Board, the forthcoming introduction by the Southern Railway of a cross-channel train ferry, and the association of the home railways with road and air transport are also among the varied items referred to in the new edition. Smaller type has been adopted, which has enabled extra matter to be included without altering the general style of the book. The numerous illustrations throughout are excellent.

Modern traction for industrial and agricultural railways. Roderick Hedley. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
This is a very substantial book, of nearly 200 pages. de- voted entirely to tractors and tractor details for use on the thousands of miles of tracks of all gauges which exist to serve the needs of collieries, steelworks, sugar plantations, etc., and which, viewed 'broadly, provide an infinitely wider scope and variety of service than exists on any ordinary passenger and freight railway system.
The subject of tractive power is thoroughly covered by sections on steam locomotives, compressed air locomotives, internal-combustion locomotives electric locomotives and crane locomotives, and concluding chapters deal with the principles of mechanical traction, fuels for internal combustion engines, and anti-friction bearings. The latter in particular is of considerable importance in view of the low starting efforts, as in general, the tracks of industrial and agricultural railways are not specially well laid or well maintained so that the weight of the tractor has to be limited, and obviously, the lower starting effort required, the more useful is the hauling power available.
It is an open point as to whether it is quite legitimate to include amongst the illustrations pictures of engines for the Sudan Government Railways and the Kalka-Simla line, although it will be readily admitted that engines of these types and sizes are not infrequently necessitated for purposes outside the true railway systems. The sections on geared' locomotives and articulated locomotives are of considerable interest, in view of modern developments. but we are rather surprised to find that no reference is made to the Shay loco- motive, which was one of the pioneer types, and carries out very useful work to-day, particularly we believe, in the North American logging industry.
This book should be of considerable value to manufacturers and engineers who are in any way connected with the plant or operation of railways external to the main systems, as it provides a very great wealth of information relative to the various types of engines which are now available for all classes of power. It is only some three decades ago that industrial and agricultural light railways had to depend for their motive power on either steam or animal traction. whereas to-day well-tried tractors are in use employing compressed-air storage; electric-conductor or accumulator power, or both combined; petrol or Diesel-electric; and straight petrol or Diesel drives. The matter of tractor selection for a given job is not therefore quite as simple as it once was, but on the other hand, it should be more readily possible to make a choice of power which has the maximum of technical and economic efficiency - and undoubtedly a study of this book will be of the utmost value to those responsible engineers who have this problem to solve.

The Railway King, 1800-1871. Richard S. Lambert. London: George AlIen & Unwin, Ltd.
The name of George Hudson, the Railway King, is familiar to al! who have studied the intricate history of early railways in England. In 1839, this 'inen draper of York, who had inherited a fortune of £30,000, entered the field to amal- gamate and extend the small railways then connecting a few scattered towns, each in the hands of a different company, mostly watching new developments which might cut off or lower the stream of traffic on which it was relying for revenue. He made an alliance with George Stephenson and his son Robert in railway promotion and established the foundations of the North Eastern, Midland and Eastern Counties Railways, and planned the idea of a single company whose trains under one management should run from Rugby (or even London) to Edinburgh, with control of the branches east and west of the main line. How nearly he succeeded is shown by the fact that at the close of 1848, just before the disastrous crash and the start of the investi- gations into his fraudulent financial methods, out of 5,007 miles of railway in the United Kingdom, 1,450 were under his control, and he had had the spending of £30,000,000 of subscribed capital. The story of his achievements in buying or leasing the smaller lines, often at extravagant prices, and how he managed to keep bankrupt sections open, as they formed links in his scheme of a railway system for the country, how he paid dividends which had never been earned, and how he fought to prevent his impending downfall, makes an intensely interesting narrative. Mr. Lambert in an excellent account gives details of the business morals in politics and finance at that period. Hudson was made the scape-goat for the disastrous crash following the undeniable financial frauds, but he was not prosecuted partly because so many honourable names were contaminated by his bribes. The story is well told of his later years in France in thircl- rate hotels and often hungry, and how his friends came to the rescue and bought him an annuity of £600, and how to the day of his death in 1871 his spirit was as sanguine as ever, never confessing defeat. The book has a good index for reference, and should find a place in the library of all who study railway history.