The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 27  (1921)

Key file

Number 341 (15 January 1921)

New goods engines for India. 1-3. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2-8-0 and 4-cylinder 2-10-0 types with double bogie tenders supplied by North British Locomotive Co. under the supervision of Robert White and Partners, Consulting Engineers,

London & North-Western Ry. 3
New engines of the four-cylinder Claughton class wouldl shortly be running: Nos. 2095, 2101, 6, 8, 10, 11 and 13. They completed the series referred to in the Dec. issue. A further order for similar engines would shortly be put in hand at Crewe. No. 1977 Mars, was compound passenger engine converted to two-cylinder simple Renown class. One of the 2-8-0 compounds with large boiler (originally 0-8-0) had been simplified and superheated, No. 1038. As thus converted this engine reverted to its original type viz., 0-8-0.

Passenger tank locomotive, Great Northern Ry. 4. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Gresley N2 condensing 0-6-2T built at Doncaster Works, but also to be supplied by North British Locomotive Co.

New tank locomotives. London & South Western Ry. 5
Work was about to be commence on two types of new tank locomotives at Eastleigh Works. The 4-8-0 type is intended for working the hump in  Feltham Marshalling Yard and for transfer service between Nine Elms Goods Yard and Feltham, and the 4-6-2 type for the interchange traffic in the London district between the Midland system at Brent Sidings and the L. & N.W. Ry. at Willesden and Feltham Yard. Four of the 4-8-0 type and five of the 4-6-2 type have been ordered. Walschaerts motion, outside. Motion of 4-8-0 interchangeable with that of 4-6-0 express engines. Motion of 4-6-2 interchangeable with that of 4-6-0 express goods engines. Bogies interchangeable and similar to those of 4-6-0 express goods engines. The engines fitted with the Eastleigh pattern superheater. Designed by R.W. Urie, chief mechanical engineer of the L. and S.W. Ry.

Railways in British Malaya. 5.
In his last report, Mr. P.G. Anthony, C.M.G., general manager and chief engineer of the Federated Malay States Ry. stated that twelve Pacific type and two Mallet locomotives were supplied by the Baldwin Locomotive Works during 1919. Orders were placed in England for ten I class, ten L class and sixteen P class engines. Two O class locos. were lent for a time to the Siamese State Rys. to work rice traffic. Eighteen bogie carriages for mail trains were mounted on underframes received from Japan and twenty-four of the same type and a postal sorting van were under construction at Kuala Luinpur workshops. During 1919, 150 covered goods wagons, 100 low-sided, fifty firewood and fifty timber trucks were built at these shops, using materials from Japan and Canada.

New rolling stock for the North Staffordshire Railway. 5.. diagram (side elevation)
During 1920 four new tank locomotives of the new M class 0-4-4T had been put into service: numbered 15, 17, 19 and 54. From the accompanying diagram, which gives some of the dimensions, it will be seen that they are similar to the five engines built in 1907-8, with the exception that the capacity for coal and water had been increased. They have cylinders 18½ in. x 26 in.; coupled wheels 5 ft. 6 in. diameter. The total heating surface was 990 ft2. The grate area was 18 ft2. The engines were built at Stoke Works to the designs of J.A. Hookham, Locomotive Superintendent. The Stoke Carriage Shops had built the following: one eight-compartment third-class bogie coach, two seven-compartment third-class with lavatories and corridors, one composite, four first and two third-class with lavatories and corridors, and two third-class and brake vans. Outside firms built two third-class and brake vans and fourteen eight-compartment third-class bogie carriages. The N.S. Ry. had also built at Stoke fifty pairs of twin timber trucks and 100 10-ton goods wagons, while outside firms supplied 134 of the latter. At the Stoke Works several new and up-to-date machines had been installed, and particular attention given to improvements in details connected with shop process and organization.

Indian railway notes. 5.
A record for India in through train running was achieved by a military train conveying families, etc. of a regiment from Peshawar, in the North West, to Cannanore, a cantonment on the Malabar coast in the Madras Presidency. The journey represented a run of about 2,500 miles over the N.W., G.I.P., M. & S.M. and S.I. Rys. A longer journey over the broad gauge railway system was possible, viz. from Dalbandin, on the line to the Persian frontier to Mangalore, Madras coast, totalling over 3,100 miles.
For the Bombay electrified local services steel cars of special construction were proposed 70 ft. long and 12 ft. 6 in. wide, each seating about 200 passengers: T the largest passenger cars in the world.

Great Western Railway. 5.
New chart in Locomotive Publishing Co series depicts one of the latest 4-6-0 four-cylinder express locomotives of the Great Western Ry. The drawing gives a sectional elevation with the details shaded and numbered to correspond with a key indicating the names of individual parts. It is printed on art paper, size 32 in. by 15 in.

Metropolitan Ry. 5
Four new 4-4-4 tanks were now in service numbered 103 to 106. Four more were nearing completion at the works of Kerr Stuart & Co., Ltd.

[Great Western staff changes]. 5
F.W. Marillier, O.B.E., retired from the position of works manager and superintendent of the carriage and wagon department of the G. W. Ry., Swindon, on 30 November, being succeeded by C.C. Champney, [KPJ probably Champeney: see Espacenet] A.M.I.C.E.  E.T.J. Evans, assistant divisional loco. supt., Wolverhampton, appointed assistant carriage and wagon superintendent. W.E. Baines appointed assistant divisional loco. supt., Newport, in succession to H.C. Rodda, moved to Wolverhampton as assistant loco. supt.

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter I. 6-8. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Bury locomotives

Locomotives of the New Zealand Government Railways. 8-10. 6 illustrations
In 1877 the American firm Rogers supplied 2-4-2 tender locomotives Nos. 87 Lincoln and 98 Washington, and Nos. 92-7 in 1878 (No. 96 of this series is illustrated), Baldwin supplied six Class T 2-8-0 in 1879. In 1878/9 further single boiler Fairlie 0-6-6-0T locomotives were supplied by Avonside. Rous-Marten claimed to time one running at 53 mile/h. In 1885 Nasmyth Wilson supplied 10 2-8-0 and these were  known as class P. For passenger traffic Nasmyth Wilson supplied 2-6-2 (known as class V): ten for the Government Railways and 3 for the Wellington and Manawatu Ry. Twelve engines of similar wheel arrangement, were  supplied by the Baldwin Works, and classed N. Some of them were originally built for the Wellington and Manawatu Ry., and it was one of these—No. 10—that gave Mr. Rous-Marten a maximum speed of 64.2 m.p.h. On. the occasion in question, a special train was run in order to prove the superiority of a private railway over the Government-owned railway in the matter of speed. A distance of of 37½ miles was covered in 46 min. 4 sec. (=48½ m.p.h.) and for 15 consecutive miles the speed averaged 60 m.p.h., whilst the maximum attained was 64.2. A development of the two classes (N 2-6-2 and O 2-8-0) followed on the Wellington and Manawatu Ry. by the adoption of compound engines—the Vauclain one of four cylinders, with the h.p. cylinder arranged beneath the 1.p. cylinder, and both working on the same crosshead. The 2-8-0 engine—No. 13 of the Wellington and Manawatu Railway—came first, and was thus the pioneer compound locomotive in New Zealand. It was built at the Baldwin Works in 1896 and was classed in the Government list as Oa.

A relic of the South Devon Atmospheric Ry. 10-11. illustration
At Goodrington Sands, near Paignton, was a surface water drain-pipe composed entirely of the iron pipe used in connection with the atmosphblic system of propulsion unsuccessfully employed as an experiment on the South Devon .Ry. between Exeter and Newton Abbot in 1847 and 1848. The pipe now conveys a small stream under the Kingswear branch railway, and through part of the beach. It will be noticed from the illustration that the slot at the top of the tube is now closed by one of the rails used on the familiar longitudinal road of the G.W.R. We are indebted to Dr. T. F. Budden for the photograph reproduced. The atmospheric system may be briefly described as comprising an iron pipe running between the rails in which a close-fitting piston travelled by means of the withdrawal of air by pumps in front, air pressure from behind forcing it through the partial vacuum which the exhaustion of air in front created. Behind the piston some gearing trailed, to which a bar attached to the carriage was connected, so that the move-ment of the piston drew forward the carriage and vehicles coupled thereto. To admit the bar, a slot ran the whole length of the pipe at the top, covered by a longitudinal valve of thick leather, hinged on one side and free on the other. The piston gearing comprised a set of rollers, which opened the valve on the free side behind the pis-fon to admit not only the bar from the carriage, but also the needful external force to force the piston onward. The withdrawal of the air from the pipe necessary to enable a train to run, was effected by powerfil plant in pumping houses, erected at intervals of about three miles. These pumping stations are still in existence at Exeter, Starcross and Totnes, but are, of course, now used for other purposes. The line was opened from Exeter to Teignmouth on 29 May 1846, and thence to Newton Abbot, 30 December 1846, and was worked by the G. W. Ry.., which at that time also worked the Bristol and Exeter Ry. The atmospheric trains started running on 8 September 1847, with four trains daily between Exeter and Teignmouth, other trains being still operated by steam locomotives provided by the G.W. Ry. By 10 January 1848, all the trains between Exeter and Newton Abbot were air-propelled, but the defects of the system soon appeared, and some six months later it was abandoned. The failure of the system was attributed to the inability of the leather of the valve to withstand atmospheric influence and changes of temperature, while trouble also arose from the composition used to seal the pipe, probably due to chemical changes from contact with the iron ; also rats often gnawed the leather and caused leaks.

Midland Ry. 11
Most of the large Tilbury Baltic 4-6-4 tanks on the Midland Ry. had been transferred from Wellingborough to St. Albans shed, and were working passenger suburban trains between Luton and St. Pancras. They had been fitted with steam heating apparatus for this service. '

Enfield-Stevenage Loop. 11
The doubling of the line between Cuffiey and Langley Junction on the G. N. Ry. Enfield-Stevenage Loop had been completed and was opened for goods traffic on 23 December 1920.

Clayton Wagons; Ltd. 11
Delivered another three first-class Pullman Cars for the Great Eastern Ry. service, similar to the two cars described in our November issue, but the interior finish is different. The Ansonia was panelled in pear wood, which, in contrast with the blue carpets and upholstery, makes an extremely effective contrast. The Cambria 'finished in dark curl mahogany, beautifully inlaid, and in this car the carpets and chairs finished green. The Catania was specially noticeable on account of the very rich effect produced by the diamond striped inlaid mahogany panelling as contrasted with red carpets and upholstery. Some of the third-class Pullmans were ready for service. Owing to the large amount of work in hand, Clayton Wagons, Ltd., were already extending their shops at Lincoln.

French Railways. 11
Under the terms of the Armistice of  11 November 1918, 5000 locomotives were ceded by Germany to the Entente Powers. Of these 2,683 engines were allotted to France, but 697 of them were handed over by the French authorities to allied states as follows: 217 to Belgium; 200 to Italy; 100 to Poland; 92 to Czecho-Slovakia; 48 to Roumania; 30 to Lithuania; 10 to Greece. The remaining 1986 were distributed as under; 297 to the Alsace-Lorraine Rys.; 311 to the Eastern Ry.; 309 to the State Rys.; 70 to the Cie. du Midi; 561 to the Northern Ry.; 178 to the P.L.M. and 260 to the C. de f. de Paris a Orleans. On 1 March 1920, 151 of these engines were out of service by reason of the heavy repairs required. Of the French locomotives lost in 1914, the following engines were captured by the German army during the first weeks of the war, viz.:—Nord, 76 ; Est, 14 ; P. 0., 1. The Nord-Belge lost seven locomotives. On account of the urgent need for locomotive power which arose in 1917, an agreement was made on 30 November 1917, between the French Government and the railway companies for the construction and delivery of a number of new locomotives; the State bearing a portion of the expense. The agreement envisaged the construction of 300 engines and 250 tenders for the State Rys.; 220 engines and 200 tenders for the P.L.M.; 220 engines and 150 tenders for the P. 0. 40 engines and tenders for the Midi, and 50 engines and tenders for the Nord. All these locomotives, which, with a few exceptions, were built in the United States and Great Britain, were delivered to time. It will be of interest to note that the Carriage No. 2419 of the Cie. Internationale des Wagons-Lits, which formed part of the train of Marshal Foch, was the coach in which the Armistice was signed at 5 o'clock on the morning of 11 November 1918. The French Government was anxious to acquire this vehicle on account of the historic interest associated with it, and it has been presented to the State by the International Sleeping Car Company, and is to be placed in the Army Museum. There are two inscriptions at each end of the carriage. The first reads :— " In this carriage was signed, at Franc Port, near Compeigne, on November 11th, 1918, at five o'clock in the morning, the Armistice Convention imposed on the Germans by the victories of the Allied Armies. For the Allied Governments the plenipotentiaries were Marshal Foch, Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Armies, assisted by Admiral Wemyss, First Lord of the British Admiralty ; for the German Government, State Secretary Erzberger, President of the German Delegation, Count von Oberndorf, Minister plenipotentiary, General Major von Winterfeld and Captain Vanselow." The second inscription enumerates the five great battles—Marne, 1914 ; Yser, 1915 ; Verdun, 1916 ; Somme, 1916 ; Battle of France, 1918. We are indebted to our esteemed correspondent, Monsieur F. Achard, of Belfort, for the foregoing notes and information.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IIIC. Manufacture of back plates. 12-13. diagram.

W. Paterson and H.C. Webster. Running shed trials and tests. 13-15. 2 diagrams
Tests on oil, tests on water (and sampling methods). Examination of chains. Buckton chain tester.

Great North of Scotland Ry. 15
Six superheated 4-4-0 passenger engines had beeen supplied by the North British Loomotive Co.: Nos. 47 Sir David Stewart, 48 Andrew Bain, 49 Gordon Highlander; 50 Hatton Castle; 52 Glen Grant and 54 (unnanmed). They were fitted with vacuum and Westinghouse brakes.

The Vickers "Through" System of train lighting control as used on the S.  E. & C. Railway. 16-17. illustration, 2 diagrams
Enabled guard to switch lighting on and off for tunnels.

Automatic couplings and side buffers. 17-19. 2 diagrams
F.R. Rand & Co. Auto Equalizer Coupling

George Willans. Locomotive feed-water and boiler feeding. 20-1. 2 diagrams.
Sharp Stewart & Co. promoted the use of the Giffard injectot. Timothy Hackworth's Royal George incorporated a feedwater heater. Ross Winans patented a system US Patent 309 in 1837. Cites Zerah Colburn's Locomotive engineering. A further American patent was taken out by Mann and Thyng in 1838: US Patent 628 of 1838.

Continuous brakes on goods trains. 21-2.
Problem of leakage and of wagons with defective brake cylinders.

Steam turbine locomotive on the Swiss Federal Railways. 22
4-6-0 built Swiss Locomotive Co. and modified with a steamn turbine pllaced in front of the smokebox and transmission through 28 to 1 gearing via a dummy crankshaft and a condenser beneath the boiler. Extended trials between Romanshorn and Winterthur showed that the locomotive could haul 200 to n300 tons with a 30% saving in fuel. The turbine was supplied by Escher Wyss.

Reviews. 23

Heat engines: embracing the theory, construction and performance of steam boilers, reciprocating steam engines, steam turbines and internal combustion engines: a text book for engineering students. David Allan Low, London : Messrs. Longmans, Green & Co. 592 pp., 656 illustrations and 315 exercises.
In view of the very considerable body of literature extant relating to heat engines, one is apt to assume a somewhat critical attitude towards fresh works upon this subject, especially to those which are primarily addressed to students. Within this literature, Professor Low's (Emeritus Professor of Engineering, East London College (University of London)) book, however, deserves to rank highly, since it is characterised by those qualities of brevity combined with thoroughness, and the same remarkably judicious treatment, which have made his former volume on Applied Mechanics. widely known and appreciated. Naturally, in covering so vast a field as that embraced by the study of heat engines, much has to be left alike to teacher and student; but it is hard to imagine how more could have teen said, or expressed to better purpose, than in the author's limit of space. The drawings have for the most part been specially executed ; and it may be added, are much more precisely drawn and better reproduced than in many other books of this kind. The theoretical and practical sides of the subject are given equal attention, the author being solicitous to see that the reader is well guided in his progress, and the mathematical treatment is made as simple as is compatible with a proper exposition of the elements of thermodynamics. Exercises, the greater part of which are quite original and all well selected, follow those chapters that require progressive tests of the student's knowledge, and the book is completed by a number of useful tables and a very adequate index.

Deeds of a great railway. G.R.S. Darroch, with a preface by [KPJ General Ivor?]L. J. Maxse, London : John Murray.
Very little has yet been recorded of the role enacted by the locomotive departments of the British Railways in their war effort, and this work describes the manner in which the resources of the Crewe Locomotive Works of the L. and N. W. Ry. were improvised to provide the munitions of war which were so largely instrumental in turning the tide of victory in favour of the Allies. The war had not long started before the assistance of the late chief mechanical engineer of the L. and N. W. R. was sought, and as the urgency arose Crewe became practically a private arsenal, subsidiary to Woolwich. As assistant to Bowen Cooke, the author had excellent facilities for collecting the information required for his book. In treating his subject he has refrained as far as possible from lengthy statistics and elaborate technical descriptions of manufacturing methods. To some extent the book is a short history of the war, as the writer connects the various critical periods which arose, with the part which the L. & N. W. loco. staff and workpeople were able to play in providing the essentials of warfare. The salient facts and figures of the work performed by the railway in transporting troops and goods forms an interesting chapter. The coming of the American troops was felt, not only by the enemy, but by the L. and N. W. Ry.; on August 28th, 1918, no fewer than thirty-five special trains left Liverpool with 17,274 officers and men. A number of excellent illustrations of Crewe manufactures include an armoured train, mine sweeping paravane, gauges used for making Graze-fuses, tapping machine for fuse-caps, Graze-fuse in section, rolling out dents in 4.5 cartridge cases, 6-in. shell making, in the new fitting shop, Crewe tractors in road trim and as a light railway locomotive, drop forgings, 68-ton naval gun, tackle for shipping locos. sent overseas, etc., with a frontispiece of the late Bowen Cooke to whom so much of the success of the enterprise and achievements were due.

The locomotive up-to-date. Charles McShane. Revised 2nd Edition, 1920. Messrs. Griffin & Winters, Chicago ; The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.,
Twenty-one years have elapsed since the appearance of the first edition of the above-named work, during which time the locomotive steam engine has probably undergone a greater development in the United States than in any other country. Mr. McShane deals with his subject in so practical a manner that his new edition, which has been completely revised and largely re-written, will therefore be welcome to many, especially to that large public which is unable to master the more elaborate scientific and mathematical treatises which have been issued in recent years. Beginning with a description and discussion of the functions of the slide valve, the author passes on to a detailed account of the various forms of slide and piston valves commonly in use, and gives a simple method, due to J. G. A. Meyer, for the solution of problems relating to the steam distribution. Much space is devoted to valve gears, their erection and adjustment, correction of errors, setting, etc., the directions for which are remarkably explicit and set forth in the form of rules which should appeal by their simplicity to those who are not highly skilled in these somewhat intricate operations. The Stephenson, Walschaert's, Baker, Southern and Young motions are very fully described with instructions applicable to the treatment of failures with these gears. In fact, through-out the book, the author is at pains to instruct his readers in the best and most practical ways of combating possible road casualties. American engineering has been exceedingly fertile during the past decade or so in developing special boiler details. Flexible stays, brick arches supported by water tubes, and mechanical stokers being features which appear now to be normal in transatlantic practice. Mr. McShane deals with all the foregoing, and he gives attention to superheating and feed water heating. His treatment of injectors, lubricators and brakes is very thorough, as befits a book intended for the man on the footplate. The rest of the book is devoted to a description of various special devices in wide use in America, and there are useful notes on compound locomotives, indicators, compressed air, electric, and internal combustion locomotives. The book contains 893 pages with 376 illustrations, all of excellent quality and well reproduced. We believe this edition of The Locomotive Up-to-Date will be as well received and as popular as the first impression.

Centenary volume of Charles Griffin & Co., Ltd., Publishers. Chairman Francis J. Blight, With Foreword by Lord Moulton, and many distinguished contributors.
Amongst the many publishing houses existing to-day, there are but few that may claim the destinction of a century of active life and progressive development. Of these, the house of Charles Griffin & Co., is one, and its centenary has been celebrated in a fitting manner, by the issue of a commemorative work which, by intrinsic interest and beauty of execution, con-stitutes a worthy memorial of an event of moment to all•those whose inclinations or avocations, incline to the study and ap-preciation of the written records of science and technology. Autobiography is to many a fascinating branch of literature ; and if this be so, where individuals are the subjects, not less agreeable is it to trace the growth and fortunes of some great house of publishers. Making contact with people of intellectual eminence, and with the more humanistic side of commerce, it rarely happens that the leading spirits of such houses fail to attract us by their characters and achievements, and thus it is that the history of the firm becomes as it were a series of biographies, differing and variegated in personality, but linked throughout by the thread of a unifying story. To narrate at length the record of the fame and fortunes of Messrs. Charles Griffin would be but infelicitously to attempt a task already well done in the pages before us.

Great Eastern Ry. 24
Assistant general manager's office artistically produced brochure entitled An Hotel of Distinction:. a description of the Felix Hotel, Felixstowe, now owned by the Great Eastern Ry. Co., which is considered the finest and most luxuriously furnished on the East Coast. It possesses 250 rooms, and everything about its management and equipment is thoroughly efficient and up-to-date. The booklet is beautifully illustrated aild the letterpress is in English and French.

Diesel and semi-diesel engines. 24
Price's Company, Ltd., Battersea, London: very interesting brochure bearing the above title. Written from an historical as well as practical point of view it includes a lot of information regarding the development of heavy oil engines and many practical hints of value to those concerned with the installation and working of Diesel and large oil engines. The notes on lubrication are well worth studying.

Caledonia Works, Kilmarnock. presentation to Mr. Orr. 24
On the 10 December 1920 the staff of Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co., Ltd., held a supper and dance in die Art Galleries, Kilmarnock. Special interest attached to the occasion from the fact that opportunity was taken to present Mr. David Orr, the cashier, with handsome gifts for himself and his wife to mark his completion of fifty years service with the firm. The Company presented Mr. Orr with a cheque for a substantial sum and the gifts from the staff consisted of a valuable gold watch for Mr. Orr, and a beautiful diamond and opal ring for Mrs. Orr.

G. W. Ry. Debating Society.  24 
At the December meeting of the held at Paddington on the 9 December. G. Seddon of the L. & Y. Ry., Manchester, read a paper entitled The advantages of a Train Control System embracing all stations." The paper was illustrated by lantern slides. A very interesting description of the system used on the L. & Y. Ry. was given, followed by a good discussion. The Author was accorded a very hearty vote of thanks for his able paper. R.H. Nicholls, C.B.E. was in the Chair.

Cammell, Laird and Co., Ltd. 24
Snnual report for 1920 mentioned important additions to their Machine shops at Sheffield to keep pace with the supply of large shafts and other forgings. The Steel Foundries have been re-modelled and extended, and further enlargements are pro-jected. The tyre, axle and spring departments at Sheffield have been kept very busy by the Nottingham Carriage and Wagon Works and the allied firm at Birmingham— the Midland Railway Carriage and Wagon Co., Ltd. To keep pace with the unprecedented demand for " Cammell " springs a re-arrangement of this Department has been necessary. At the Penistone Works the new and up-to-date tyre plant is being rapidly pushed forward. The Bessemer Steel Works and other portions of the Penistone establishment engaged in the manufacture of rails, bars, blooms, billets, fishplates, etc., have been well employed. The File Department had maintained full activity throughout the year. The well-arranged Carriage and Wagon Works at Nottingham, built for the Government for shell production, is now furnished with the latest machinery of all kinds. The smithy is receiving its forge hammers, the supply of which has been delayed owing to the moulder's strike. The electro-pneumatic hammers, Massey and Brett drop stamps, Ajax forging machine, bulldozers, saws, shears, etc., have been installed and are doing good work. The latest patterns of oil furnaces have been adopted after much investigation. Die sinking tools for the preparation of stamping are in evidence and hydraulic presses, horizontal and vertical, have been installed. There is every prospect of plenty of work for 1921 as the Company has secured an order for 2,500 wagons for the New Zealand Rys. and another order for 400 wagons for the Calcutta Port Commissioners.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 24
The Annual General Meeting is to be held on the 19 January at 7 p.m., at Caxton Hall, Westminster, followed by a paper to be read by J. F. Gaims. On Feb. 15th a paper will be read by . F.J. Hookham, of London, entitled " Standardization of Locomotive parts on a National Basis. The Annual General Meeting of the Leeds Centre was held in the Philosophical Hall, Park Row, on the 11 January. The Glasgow Centre will hold its General Meeting on the 20th inst. at the Royal Technical College, George Street, when I. Kempt to read a paper on Points in connection with Lubrication and Lubricators. The February meeting of the Manchester centre will be held on the 4th prox., at the College of Technology, Sackville Street, when H. McKay will read a paper on Autogenous and Electric Welding.

Railway Club. 24
The Fourteenth Annual Dinner was held at the Holborn Restaurant on the 17 Decimber. and proved a very successful function. The occasion celebrated the coming of age of the Club. On Friday evening, 11 February  H.L. Hopwood to read a paper entitled Ten years progress at Doncaster Works, Great Northern Ry., at the Railway Club, 65, Belgrave Road, S.W.1.

Number 342 (15 February 1921)

Madrid-Saragossa-Alicante Ry. 8-coupled bogie locomotive. 25-6. illustration

Four-coupled passenger locomotive for the Tezpur-Balipura Tramway Co. of Assam. 26. illustration
For light passenger service W.G. Bagnall Ltd., of Stafford built the neat 4-4-0 tender engine shown. The gauge of the tramway was 2 ft. 6 in. Principal dimensions: cylinders 11 in. x 15 in.; coupled wheels,  total heating surface 398·87 ft2, grate area 7.45 ft2, working pressure 170 psi. In working order the weight of engine and tender was 30 tons. The engine was supplied to the order of Bolling & Lowe, London.

Locomotive tests on the North British Railway. 26
On Wednesday, 12 January 1921, a series of load trials took place on the N. B. Railway. The section of the line chosen was on the 6½ mile bank between Bridge of Earn and Glenfarg, which has a ruling grade of 1 in 74, on the Edinburgh and Perth line. One of the latest Great Western Railway 2-8-0 mineral engines, No. 2804, in charge of Chief Inspector C. T. Read. driver W. H. Lovesey and fireman F. Cockram, was tried on a heavy goods train, against N.B.R. 0-6-0 goods engine No. 46, and did remarkably well, but was unfortunate on one of the tests. Owing to a heavy snow storm, the sand pipes became clogged with snow, and the sanding gear rendered inoperative. However, the trials appear to have been highly successful, The G.W.R engine travelled from Swindon to Edinburgh via Banbury (G.C.), Mexboro and York, thence over the N.E.R It left Swindon on the morning of  8 January, and stopped for Sunday at York. Edinburgh was reached on Monday,  10 January. The return journey was made on Friday and Saturday, 14 and 15 January, via Doncaster and over the G.C.R to Banbury.

Furness Railway.  26
Kitson & Co. had delivered the five Baltic type tank engines to this line. They have cylinders 19½ in. diameter and 26 in. stroke, inside the frames, with piston valves on top, driven by ordinary link motion. The six coupled wheels were 5 ft. 8 in. diameter. The boiler was 5 ft. diameter with a Belpaire firebox, having a total heating surface of about 2,000 ft2 and a grate area of 26 ft2. They were numbered 115 to 119. Five six-coupled tender engines (0-6-0), Nos. 31 to 35, had been delivered from the Atlas Works of the N.B. Loco. Co., Ltd.

Highland Railway. 26
On 13 January a trial trip from Inverness to Forres and back was made with the new 4-6-0 express locomotive, No. 53 Clan Stewart, which had been fitted with the Scarab oil burning apparatus. The following day the 10.30 train from Inverness to Perth, via Aviemore, was worked by this engine. The tender tanks, five in number, carried 500 gallons of oil fueL In view of the recent fall in the price of oil fuel, and the long distance the coal supplies for the Highland Railway have to be hauled, there should be an economy in using this fuel. N.E.R tank engine No. 951 stationed at Dmgwall, and No. 991, 0-6-0, was working at Inverness, and we understand another N.E. engine of the same class was working between Inverness and Invergordon. Nearly all the Ben class had their safety valves removed from the top of the dome, to above the firebox.

North Staffordshire Rly. tank locomotives & stock. 27. 4 illustrations
M class 0-4-4T (No. 15 illustrated); 0-6-0T with outside cylinders (No. 74 illustrated) purchased from Kerr, Stuart & Co., twin timber trucks and composite third brake.

Great Northern Ry. 27.
Eight more of the new 0-6-2 superheater tanks built by the North British Locomotive Co., Hyde Park Works, were in service, Nos. 1729 to 1736 inclusive.

Great Central Railway. 27.
A new 4-6-0 four-cylinder engine, 1164 Earl Beatty, had been stationed at Immingham to work the extremely heavy combined fast passenger and fish train from Grimsby to Nottingham (due 16.09). This train, which consisted of three of the heaviest type of bogie coaches and from 15 to 20 fish vans, had become too heavily loaded for the 4-6-0 engines of the 1100 class, which had been working it.

Caledonian Railway. 27
The earlier 4-4-0 engines Nos. 66 to 79, built 1884 to 1889, were being replaced by new 4-4-0 engines now being built at St. Rollox. Of the new engines Nos. 74, 77 and 81 were at work. Tbe older engines were still running as duplicates, numbered 1074, 1081, etc.

Automatic train control combined with audible signals used on the Great Western Ry.  29-31. 3 illustrations, 4 diagrams
Acknowledges signal engineer C.M. Jacobs and notes inventionn of Insell, Howden (should be Bowden) and Newton as well as himself.

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter II. . 31; 33
Grand Junction Railway locomotive Shark No. 3

The Carriage and Wagon Works of the Great Western Railway, Swindon. 32; 33-5. 4 illustrations, 5 diagrams

[P.C.D.] Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives. 36-9. 3 illustrations, map
Map shows the former extent of the railway (with the stretch from Cromer to Holt through West Runton and Sheringham being the most northerly and sole remaining part still in use albeit as part of the National Network and part heritage railway). The swing bridge at Sutton Bridge (illustrated) is also extant and part of the dismal A17 "trunk" (as in elephantine) road from Norfolk to almost everywhere other than London. The Norfolk & Suffolk Joint (with the Great Eastern) also exists, but solely as the link to the Cromer main line of the Great Eastern   

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section III-C. Manufacture of back plates. 39-42. 6 illustrations, 3 diagrams

T.H. Sanders. Notes on the nnew Standard Indian Wagon Spring for the broad gauge stock. 42-4. 2 diagrams

George Willans. Locomotive feed-water and boiler feeding. Beattie: 1854-1858. 44-6. 2 illustrations, diagram
As well as describing a Joseph Beattie device patented in 1854, it desribes a device patented by J.E. McConnell in 1851 and one by Stroudley of 1872. See allso letter from F.W. Holliday on page 78.

An internal-combustion industrial locomotive. 46-8. 2 illustrations, diagram (sectional elevation & plan)
Ruston & Hornsby Ltd locomotive at H.M. Powder Factory at Waltham Cross

New cars for the District Railway. 48-9. 2 illlustrations.
Metropolitan Carrriage Wagon & Finance Co. supplied 100 cars with British Thomspn Houston Co. electrical equipmrnt to the design of W.T. Agnew Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Underground Electric Railways Ltd. The rolling stock was very distinctive.

Fifty-ton bogie wagons, Great Northern Railway.  50. illustration, diagram (side & end elevations)
Built by Leeds Forge Ltd. to design of H.N. Gresley mainly for brick trafiic.

Bogie covered goods wagon for the Shanghai-Hangchow-Ningpo Ry.  51
Bogie covered goods wagons under construction at the works of the Metropolitan Carriage Wagon & Finance Co., Ltd., Saltley, Birmingham. These wagons, of 40 tons capacity were the largest wagons of this type to be built in UK. The bogies were diamond framed type and had the pillars stamped out of steel. The wheels were of the rolled disc type. The couplers were of the Janney type and used in conjunction with a very efficient arrangement of buffer plate and centralizing gear similar to that in use on other Chinese railways. The bodies for all these underframes were being built in China. A.J. Barry & Partners, Westminster, were the consulting engineers.

Obituary. 51
Mr. G. P. Neele who retired from the position of Superintendent of the line to the L. & N. W. Ry. in 1895, died on 4 January 1921, aged 95 years. Mr. Neele commenced his railway career at the Shoreditch terminus of the Eastern Counties Ry., and on the absorption of the Norfolk Ry, was transferred to Norwich as chief clerk in the office of the Superintendent of the Norfolk district. In 1849 he was appointed superintendent of the South Staffordshire Ry., with headquarters at Walsall, and remained there until the line was purchased by the L. & N. W. Ry. in 1860, when he was appointed Divisional Superintendent of that line at Birmingham. In the following year he was transferred to Euston to become first superintendent of the line. On retiring from the Railway service, Mr. Neele was elected to the Watford District Council, taking his seat in the Council Chamber for the first time on his 70th birthday, December 12th, 1895.

We regret to hear of the death of Mr. Alexander Keir. 51
at one time a well-known personage on the Great Eastern Ry. Mr. Keir had reached the great age of ninety-four. He was a driver on one of the Scotch railways until he joined the Eastern Counties Ry. in 1850. He became locomotive foreman for the London district in 1866, and retired at the end of 1897. Mr. Keir died at Kirn, on November 14th last .

F.A. Lemon. 52
Assistant works manager promoted to works manager of Crewe Works in place of Captain H. Beames, who had been appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer in succession to the late Bowen Cooke.

South Devon Atmospheric Railway. 52
E.A. Forward of the Science Museum noted that one ot the pipes was removed for the Museum in 1913.

Reviews. 52

The steam locomotive. E.L. Ahrons, London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons., Ltd.
This little work is intended for the student and describes in non-technical language the chief parts and functions of the modern locomotive. The author also gives the reasons which have led to the adoption of many of the principal details. Chapters are devoted to the boiler and its more important adjuncts; the engine including the mechanism and valve gear; framing, springs, axles and wheels; also the tender. Compounding and superheating have been dealt with and clearly explained. Very clear type has been used and the drawings well reproduced.

The Port of Swansea. 52
Swansea Harbour Trust booklet arranged by H.N. Appleby. Particulars of the tides, dock facilities, rates and charges and other useful information for traders are included, as well as a list of steamers plying between various English and foreign ports.

Accidents on the Cambrian Railways. 52
On 18 January 1921 the Talerdig cutting was blocked by a heavy fall of earth, and the 10.25 express from Aberystwyth to Shrewsbury ran into the obstruction. No one was injured, and the passengers were transferred to another train on the other side of the obstruction. The block was not cleared until the afternoon of Thursday, the 20th. The same train on Wednesday, January 26th. drawn by engine No. 95, was approaching Abermule when it met the 11.33 train from Welshpool headed by engine No. 82 on the single line, with disastrous results. Fourteen passengers and three railwaymen were killed and many injured. Amongst the killed was Lord Herbert Vane-Tempest, a director of the Cambian Railways.

Underground Railways Training School. 52
Milman Street, Chelsea, on 20 January  paper read by H. Yorke, staff instructor, and a new film entitled The Training of an Underground Railwayman was shown to a large audience, which included several of the leading officials of the principal railways. The film is to be shown in the company's private kinema theatre for staff educational purposes. A feature is the portrayal of accidents of all kinds which could happen to a railwayman or passenger, and one of the duties of the instructor is to explain how the mishaps are caused and the best way to avoid them. Views of electric locomotives used on the different tubes were shown. A good discussion followed and on the proposition of C. J. Selway, of the G.N.R, and seconded by F. C. A. Coventry, of the G.W.R, a hearty vote of thanks was accorded Mr. Yorke for his able paper. Mr. H. E. Blain was in the chair.

The Consolidated Pneumatic Tool Co., Ltd. 52
of 170, Piccadilly, London, W.1., appointed J.A. Angus, Kairn's Foundry, Strand Road, Rangoon, Burma, their Agents for Burma.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 52
London, 24 March 24 R P.C. Sanderson to read a Review of Main Line Railway Electrifications in the U.S.A. at Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, at 19.15. Leeds Centre: 8 March paper by J. Weatherburn, of Darlington, on Dynamometer Cars, in Philosophical Hall, Park Row. Manchester Cenlre: 4 March paper on Lubrication by L. Archbutt, of Derby, at the College of Technology. Sackville Street.

Railway Club. 52.
At the meeting on 11 March E.W. Brown tol read a paper on Railway Law at 19.30, 65, Belgrave Road, S.W.I.

Number 343 (15 March 1921)

London and South Western Railway locomotives. 53-5. illustration, 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Urie rebuild of five Drummond four-cylinder Paddlebox 4-6-0 and new Urie 4-6-2T and 4-8-0T classes. See also letter from F.W. Brewer on page 192

"Mikado type" locomotive, Soudan Government Rys. 55-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Supplied by North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. to design of C.G. Hodgson, Chief Mechanical Engineer. Inspection by Sir A.L. Webb.

Locomotives for Indian metre gauge railways. 56; 57. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Photograph shows a large consignment of locomotives being despatched for shipment from Kerr, Stuart & Co.'s California Works at Stoke-on-Trent, forming part of' an order for the Indian metre gauge lines of the Jodhpur-Bikanir, Eastern Bengal and Rohilkund-Kumaon Rys., as well as H.E. The Nizam's State Railway. The engines were built to the specifications and inspection of the Consulting Engineers, Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. The locomotive at the head of the train was also sent by the same steamer. It had cylinders 16½in. x 22in., Walschaerts valve gear with inside admission piston valves, and the guide bars, crosshead, etc., protected by dust shields. The coupled wheels had a diameter of 4ft. 9in. Belpaire firebox. Grate area 15.4 ft2. Superheating surface 151 ft2, total heating surface of 937 ft2. Working pressure is 160  psi.. Locomotives working on the Jodhpur-Bikanir line provided with eight-wheel tenders, as shown in the diagram. they are employed on account of the relatively considerable capacity of the tender which is required for working over the waterless tract of the Bikanir Desert. The tenders of the Eastern Bengal locomotives  were also eight-wheeled, but those for the Rohilkund-Kumaon and Nizam's Rys. are of the six-wheeled type.

North British Railway. 57
Five new 4-4-0 engines of the Scott class with 6 ft. 6 in. wheels had been built at Cowlairs: Nos. 497 Peter Poundtext, 498 Father Ambrose, 499 Wandering Willie, 500 Black Duncan, and 501 Simon Glover. Two new 4-4-2 express engines under construction by the North British Locomotive Co. to be Nos. 509 The Lord Provost, and 510 The Duke of Rothesay. The small 4-4-0 passenger side tank engines of the 19 class, Nos. 101, 103 to 105, 109 to 111 and others are being relegated to the duplicate list and re-numbered above 1400: their places are being taken by new 0-6-0 goods engines of the B class with 18½ in. x 26 in. cylinders, ten of which were being built.

L. B. & S. C. Ry. 57
The 08.48 express from Brighton had been accelerated as from the 7 February to perform the journey to London Bridge in 62 minutes; 3 less than its pre-WW1 time. Lately it had been 78 mins., with stops at Haywards Heath and Croydon.

London and North Western Ry. 57
Latest series of 4-6-0 four-cylinder passenger engines Claughton class to be built at Crewe, were Nos. 15, 23, 30, 32, 42, 63, 68, 102, 110 and 119. A further batch of similar engines  wouldl shortly be put in hand.
Two further engines of the 2-8-0 G.C. type have been taken over on loan from the Ministry of Munitions. In the R.O.D. list they were Nos. 1859 and 1887; they were now Nos. 2979 and 2980 respectively.
No. 1975 Jupiter, has been converted from four-cylinder compound to two-cylinder simple, Renown class. No. 1224 (a 0-8-0) had been similarly converted, with the addition of the Schmidt superheater.
No.. 3058, a Special DX. goods (originally No. 1600), had been broken up.

The last of the Allan singles. 58-9. illustration
Engineer, South Wales

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter III. The original engine of the Great Central Railway. "Python", No. 1. 59.

The Vulcan patent pneumatic riveter for firebox side stays. 60-1. illustration, diagram.

[P.C.D.] The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives. 62-5.  4 illustrations, diagram
Bridges at Potter Heigham and across Breydon Water and diagram of single line and tablet sections. See correction page 108

George Willans. Locomotive feed water and boiler feeding. Drummond: 1896. 72-5. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Also F.H. Trevithick feed water heating in smokebox device for Egyptian State Railways.

North British Railway steel dining cars. 76-8. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation), 3 plans
With six-wheel bogies and three configurations: third class with kitchen; composite with kitchen and semi-open first. Built by Cravens Ltd to design of W.P. Reid.

Correspondence. 78

Locomotive feed water heating. F.W. Holliday.
Re article by G. Willans writer does not give quite enough explanation of  Stroudley's Feed Water Heating Apparatus. It is true that Stroudley built two of his first goods engines, Nos. 84 and 85, with the apparatus described by Willans, with the shut off valve, but all the rest of the engines Stroudley built were fitted with a hot water feed apparatus which the driver could not shut off. Part of the exhaust was conducted by a pipe to the tank, and could not be shut off or interfered with, and the water, especially in his Tank Engines, soon got near the boiling point. This device was very economical, as is proved by the report of the consumption of coal of the first eighteen Tank Engines (D class) which came out from 1873 to 1875, which averaged only 24.12 lb. per mile. See Engineering, 14 January 1876. R.J. Billinton, who succeeded Stroudley, rebuilt with new boilers some of the Stroudley Tanks and he then discontinued the hot feed apparatus and fitted them with injectors instead of pumps, which Stroudley of course had to use, as injectors in those days would not work with hot water. Stroudley's feed water heating was so successful and economical, that the drivers got quite a nice coal premium through it in those early days of 1873, etc. The apparatus was very favourable to the life of the boiler, because the water being almost or quite boiled entered the boiler practically pure.

Egyptian State Rys. 78
An order for fifty bogie oil tank wagons had been placed with Clayton Wagons, Ltd., after keen competition from American and German builders.

Locomotive Engineers' Pocket Book,  78
The 1921 edition of this useful book of reference: the information contained in its 300 pages covers a large range of subjects of practical use to the locomotive engineer, in addition to which there are numerous tables and diagrams.

Reviews. 79

Electrification of railways. H. F. Trewman, London : Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.
Author was Chief Instructor of Electrical Engineering. Ordnance College, Woolwich. Without going into technical details, the author reviews the main arguments for and against electrification of steam railways, although at the same time he gives sufficient technical electrical information to enable the points involved to be understood by readers who are not electricians. Therefore all who have connection with railways will understand the problems discussed. The commercial aspects of capital and operating costs are investigated, but the figures given are only approximate and the writer mentions the difficulty in obtaining accurate comparisons, as true data is only possible between railways working under identical conditions. Alternative systems and the probable improvements in the future are considered. This little book is practically a summary of all the latest information on the position of railway electrification.

British Railways and the Great War. Parts 1 and 2. By Edwin A. Pratt. London : Selwyn & Blount, Ltd.,
This work will provide a detailed account of what was done by the Railways of Great Britain during the war, and in view of its magnitude it has been decided to publish it in fortnightly parts. It is expected to complete the publication in ten parts, but it may be necessary to add to the series, as certain sections have still to be written. In Part 1, Mr. Pratt gives a history of the pre-war railway policy, starting with the formation of , the Engineer and Railway Volunteer Corps in 1865, and the railway organization for the requirements of war, followed later by the creation in 1896 of the Army Railway Council, subsequently known as the Railway Council, and the steps ultimately leading up to the formation of the Railway Executive Committee in November, 1912. On the declaration of war the Secretary of State for War intimated that the railways were to be controlled by the State, and the Executive Committee took charge. Many sub-committees had to be formed to deal with the multifarious questions brought to their notice, and this explains how it was that the Executive Committee was able to accomplish so much. Much information is given concerning the lines taken over by the State, and a complete digest is given of the financial arrangements between the Government and the railway companies for the control period, and this information comes at a very opportune time. Part two details the mobilization and despatch of the British Expeditionary Force and troop traffic arrangements generally. Restrictions of travel, season ticket rates alterations, reduced fare concessions and the complicated details attending the demobilization of our Forces overseas and at home are also fully explained.

Smithing and forging. Joseph G. Horner. The Mechanical World Series. London and Manchester : Emmott & Co., Ltd.
The object of this book is to place before the reader, in a practical way, information regarding the forging of iron and steel. The author is to be congratulated on having succeeded in producing a work of exceptional value, and the book will be of interest to both managers and foremen, who are responsible for this class of work. Commencing with a chapter on the design and arrangement of the smithy, the author goes on to describe the tools and the operations. Then follow chapters on examples of work which can be done by presses, steam and power hammers, and the action of each on the forging is explained. The two last chapters are devoted to describing modern furnaces and the heat treatment of steels. We have every confidence in recommending Mr. Homer's book to overseas managers of railway shops ; they will find it a mine of useful and suggestive information for increasing the efficiency, and for reducing the cost of the work done in the smithy.

Railway signal engineering (mechanical). Leonard P. Lewis, Second Edition, Revised. London : Constable & Co., Ltd.
Lecturer on Railway Signalling, Royal Technical College, Glasgow. Published first about ten years ago, the second edition of this book includes the latest available information, and is a most useful volume. The field which it covers, provides an outline of the general principles of Mechanical Railway Signal Engineering (excluding power-worked signals) with examples of their practical application, in a form suitable for men engaged in railway work, and the author deals with his subject in a simple and concise manner. Signals of all classes, and for all kinds of service, are described, and considerable attention is also paid to constructional details. Chapters on point connections and interlocking apparatus are very instructive. Of course it is impossible to give details of every piece of signal apparatus employed on British Railways, or yet to describe the practice of every railway company, but, as far as possible, the average practice of British railways is given. Reference is made to the work of standardizing signalling material, which is being made by the Ministry of Transport. but, inasmuch as every railway carrying passengers is subject to the regulations of the Board of Trade, to that extent the main principles have been standardized. In minor details, each company employs its own particular practice. A chapter is devoted to signal box arrangements, and another section deals with miscellaneous apparatus, including staff locks, tablet locks, fouling bars, electric detectors, etc. After describing the apparatus employed in signalling installations, the author gives examples of signalling schemes, so that the reader can easily follow the working indicated in the signalling planes. The final chapters are devoted to interlocking tables and diagrams, and methods of working trains. In the appendix the installation of track circuits, and fog signalling are dealt with. Altogether the book is one of the most instructive written on this subject., and we have no hesitation in recommending it.

Mechanical World Electrical Pocket Book, 1921. London : Emmott & Co., Ltd.
The latest issue of this well-known annual compares favorably with previous editions. Among the important improvements, the first place is taken by the lengthy section on motor starters and controllers. The section on transmission conductors and cables has been revised and a new table of maximum currents introduced. The matter on wiring systems, and methods has also been rewritten and extended. Substantial additions have been made to the section on electric heating and cooking, while the matter on electric lifts has been rewritten. Other revisions have been effected and new illustrations introduced.

Travel In South Africa. Issued by the Publicity Department of the South African Railways and Harbours,
Over 300 pages describe what was seen on a tour through the most interesting and scenic portions of South Africa. No attempt is made at giving a detailed account of such a large country, nor is reference made to development, agriculture or industries. The book is intended to draw attention to the attractions of South Africa as a field of travel. The descriptions are exceedingly interesting and instructive, particularly the realistic account of a visit to the Victoria Falls. The book is profusely illus-trated with excellent views of the towns, scenery, etc., and is a handy size for the pocket. To anyone contemplating a visit to South Africa it should prove a helpful and interesting guide.

Obituary. 79
Death of Sir O. H. P. Scourfield, at his residence, Williamstown, Pembrokeshire, on 5 February, at the age of 73. Sir Owen was a frequent contributor of articles on the Welsh Railways to the railway journals during the  1880s and furnished us with most of the information for the article on the Pembroke and Tenby Ry., which appeared in these pages in 1912.

Quasi-arc system of electric welding. 80
We have received from the Quasi-Arc Company, Ltd., of 3, Laurence Pountney Hill, E.C.4., particulars of their process of electric welding for iron and steel. In this system of welding, the quasi (or partial) arc is obtained by the use of the patented electrode, which consists of a steel wire core with an aluminium wire running beside it and covered with specially prepared blue asbestos. For welding or reinforcing a worn surface, the electrode is held in a simple insulated holder, taking current, either direct, or alternating, at a pressure of about 105 volts, with a suitable resistance for regulating the current. An arc is struck between the electrode and the work carrying the negative connection, and this arc is immediately destroyed and a quasi-arc formed and maintained, owing to the asbestos covering of the electrode passing into the igneous state, and as a secondary conductor maintaining electrical connection between the work and the metallic core of the electrode. The welding operation once started, the electrode melts at a uniform rate so long as it remains in contact, and metal is deposited on the work continuously, and with regularity ; the covering material of the electrode in the molten condition, combining with and removing the oxide or scale from the work, acts as a slag and floats and spreads over the surface of the weld as it is formed. The fused metal is thus protected from all risk of oxidation, and moreover, allows the steel to cool much more slowly, while the slag covering is readily chipped or brushed off when the weld cools, leaving a clean metallic surface. Results of tests made establish the fact that a suitably designed joint welded by the quasi-arc process is not merely as strong as, but is actually stronger than a riveted one. The quasi-arc process of electric welding, and electrodes are largely used in all the Royal Dockyards, and have been approved by Lloyd's Register of Shipping, and the British Corporation for the survey of shipping for use in important portions of ship construction.

Vaughan Crane Co., Ltd. 80
Openshaw, Manchester, booklet No. 8, describing the various types of cranes they make. Electric Overhead Travelling Cranes, for all loads up to 200 tons and possessing interesting features, are illustrated and we note in particular a view showing a number of their cranes installed in the shops of the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. The same firm also specializes in runway systems, wall jib cranes, warehouse hoists, pulley blocks, etc.

Railway Club. 80
On 8 April at 7-30 p.m., D.H.F. Meacock will read a paper entitled Railway Publicity, at the Club Room, 65, Belgrave Road, S.W. On the following day a visit has been arranged to the Nine Elms Sheds of the L. & S.W. Ry. at 2-30 p.m.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 80
A General Meeting of the Glasgow centre will be held at the Royal Technical College, George Street, on the 24th inst., when a paper by Mr. R. W. Reid, C.B.E., on " Some Comparisons on British and American Rolling Stock " will be read. At the Manchester centre on the 4th inst., at the College of Technology, Mr. L. Archbutt, F.I.C., read a paper on " Lubrication and Lubricants." Mr. J. Weatherburn read a paper on the " N.E. Ry. Dynamometer Car," before the Leeds members at the Philosophical Hall on the 4th inst. At the General Meeting in London, to be held at Caxton Hall on the 24th, a paper by Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson, on a " Review of Main Line Railway Electrifications in the U.S.A." will be read and discussed.

Number 344 (15 April 1921)

4-6-4 type tank locomotive, Furness Railway. 81; 82. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Rutherford inside-cylinder (19½ x 26in) supplied by Kitson & Co, Ltd.

Great Eastern Ry. 81
Two four-wheeled shunting engines, Nos. 210 and 229, have been completed at Stratford Works. Three six-coupled tram engines Nos. 125, 126 and 129 would shortly be leaving the shops. Beardmore have delivered seventeen of the 4-6-0 express engines, the numbers starting at 1541.

Stratford & Midland Junction Ry. 81.
The locomotives of this railway were lined out with bright green panel bands with a fine yellow line on either side; otherwise the engines were painted black, with vermilion buffer beams. The goods engine purchased from the L.B. & S.C.R. (No. 428) had been numbered 7 on the S.M. J. It was fitted with the vacuum brake and injectors instead of pumps.

Amalgamation of the Lancashire and Yorshire Ry. with the London and North Western Ry. 82
Statement from the Company Secretary of the L&YR of the extent of the Company's route mileage and locomotive stock.

Electro-mechanical train control experiments on the North Staffordshire Railway. 83-5. illustration, 2 diagrams
Syx system patented W.R. Sykes Interlocking Signal Co. Ltd

New locomotive traction increaser. 86-8. illustration, 3 diagrams.
Booster supplied Franklin Railway Supply Co. of New York and developed by Howard L. Ingersoll of New York Central Railroad. Advantages claimed:
1. An increase in tonnage from 2, l00 to 2,582 tons, or an increase of 23%.
2. An increase of tonnage from 1,800 to 2,015 tons, or an increase of 12%., at about 13 miles per hour.
3. An increase of tractive power at 7½ miles per hour, from 36,440 lbs. to 42,900 lbs., an increase of 18%.
4. An increase of tractive power at start with 1,958 tons on 0.86%t. grade, from 40,421 lb. to 49,282 lb., an increase of 22 per cent.
5. An increase of tractive power at 13 miles per hour from 34,228 lb. to 38,793 lbs., or an increase of 13%.
These results show that the Booster can be conservatively/ estimated, under average conditions of freight service, to start a train about 20%. heavier than the same locomotive without a Booster, and that it will accelerate this train to a given speed in a shorter time.

Great Central Ry. 88
Two more four-cylinder 4-6-0 engines of the Lord Faringdon class at work on the main line express trains between Manchester and Leicester, Nos. 1166 Earl Haig and 1167 Lloyd George. The Grimsby passenger and fish train worked by 1164 Earl Beatty, mentioned on page 27, now runs forward to Leicester instead of terminating at Nottingham as previously.

North British Railway. 88
Fifteen large 0-6-0 goods of the No. 8 class have recently been built by the North British Locomotive Co., Nos. 46,72,73, 84,109,110, 111, 171,175, 272, 273, 299, 506, 507 and 508. Atlantic engines 869, 875 and 879 were rebuilt with 21-in. cylinders and superheaters during 1920. A start had been made with the rebuilding of the 729 to 740 class, which were built at Cowlairs in 1898, and Nos. 730, 737 and 765 were at work with new boilers and square cabs. Six new superheater tank engines of the 438 class had been built at the Atlas Works of the N.B. Loco. Co., Nos. 511 to 516.

Locomotives of the New Zealand Government Railways. 88-91. 7 illustrations
Continued from page 10. Construction of locomotives at Addington Works, near Christchurch, began about 1891, when two 2-6-2 tank engines of class W were put to work. These were followed by some 4-6-0 express engines—designated U with cylinders 16 in. by 20 in., driving wheels 4 ft. 6 in. The total weight was 61 tons. No. 274, built at Addington in 1894, is shown in Fig. 20. Ten more came from America, but this batch had slightly different dimensions, viz., 16½ in. by 22 in. cylinders and 4 ft. 2 in. wheels. Messrs. Sharp, Stewart and Co., also delivered six others in 1899—Nos. 172 to 177. There were forty-nine of this class at work, the latest development (known as Ud) having cylinders 16½ in. by 22 in. and wheels 4 ft. 10 in. in diameter, the latter being the largest sized wheels yet adopted for locomotives in New Zealand.
Class Q engines, were noteworthy pioneers of the Pacific, or 4-6-2 type. They were of American design built at the Baldwin Works in 1901. Thirteen engines were included in this class, No. 349 being represented in Fig. 21. Compared with previous designs, there was a considerable increase of power, and these were known as Class A.

The Carriage and Wagon Works of the Great Western Railway, Swindon. 92-7. 8 illustrations
Wood working machinery including some American tools and a sawdust gas producer plant

W.B. Paley. In praise of Trevithick. 97-9. 2 illustrations (including portrait), 2 diagrams
Concise biography with portrait and drawings of locomotives

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section III. Manufacture of the spring. Sub-section D. Spring fitting. 99-102. 6 illustrations, diagram
Includes illustration of Tinius Olsen testing machine

New steel rolling stock Metropolitan District Railway. 102-4, diagram (side & end elevations), plan
Eight car trains built Metropolitan Carriage and Wadon and Finance Co. at Oldbury: characterised by oval windows to motorman's cab.

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter IV. Engines built by Sharp, Roberts & Co. 105-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives, 106-8. 3 illustrations
J.W. Mann, formerly an Edward Fletcher assistant, was the locomotive superintendent of the Lynn & Fakenham Railway: he was appointed in 1880 and remained until 1884 when he moved to Swedish and Norwegian Railways and  then tio a Brazilian railway where he died in 1894. The Great Yarmouth & Stalham Light Railway bought two 0-6-0ST engines from Fox Walker: WN 333 and 338 in 1877 and they were named Ormesby and Stalham. They became Eastern & Midlands Railway Nos. 15 and 16. In 1900 No. 15 was sold to a North of England colliery; No. 16a became works shunter at Melton Constable. Another 0-6-0ST was supplied by Black Hawthorn & Co, WN 416 and became No. 7 Ida.
: Ross was not designer of Breydon Bridge: it was the work of William Marriott.

Reviews. 108

Engineering as a career. Percival Marshall. London: Percival Marshall.
Booklet: one of seies

British Railways and the Great War. Edwin Pratt. Parts 3 & 4. Selwyn & Blount.

Number 345 (14 May 1921).

Superheater conversion of Lancashire & Yorkshire 4-cylinder 4-6-0 express locomotive. 109-11. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side elevation), table
Includes gradient profile of Manchester Victoria to Blackpool Talbot Road and dynamometer record of run made on 5 December 1920

"Garratt" locomotive for the South African Railways.  113-14. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
2-6-0 + 0-6-2 supplied by Beyer Peacock

[Babcock and Wilcox, Ltd.]. 114
Sir Jas. Kemnal, managing director of Babcock and Wilcox, Ltd., was received in audience by the King of Spain on completion of the Bilbao works of the Babcock and Wilcox Co., to employ 2,000 to 3,000 men on locomotive construction, under the direction of a British staff.

[Locomotive 999]. 114
Although it has now nearly completed thirty years in the service of the New York Central and Hudson River R.R., the famous locomotive 999 is still at work hauling a light passenger train between Avis and Clearfield. It has been re-numbered and is now known as 1086. It will be remembered that when working the Empire State Express in May, 1893, this engine is said to have made a speed of 112.5 miles per hour. A movement is on foot to have the engine placed on a stand in the Great Central Station, New York City. See also letter from William Hoecker on p. 222

Great Western Ry. 114
New engines of the 2-6-0 mixed traffic type, Nos. 6315 to 6325, had been completed at Swindon. Twenty more 2-8-0 side tanks were in course of construction, Nos. 4280 to 4299.

Mixed traffic electric locomotive Bernese Canton Rys. 115-16. diagram (side & front elevations)

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings, 116. diagram (side elevation)

New express locomotives Great North of Scotland Ry. 118.  illustration
Six superheated 4-4-0 supplied by North British Locomotive Co.: Nos. 47 Sir David Stewart, 48 Andrew Bain, 49 Gordon Highlander, 50 Hatton Castle, 52 Glen Grant and 54 unnamed,

G. Willans. Locomotive feed water and boiler feeding. 118-20. 3 diagrams
Haythorn Patent GB 5360/1903; some form of arrangement with Alley & Maclellan of Glasgow; Caile-Potonie 1905 and C. Margery Patent GB 11,216/1912

Locomotive tubeplates. 120-3. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives, 123-6. 3 illustrations, diagram
4-4-0T and 0-6-0T No. 3 Blakeney and 0-4-0ST No. 4A Alpha

Some interesting locomotive models. 126-9. 4 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Notes on non-working models built for publicity and exhibition by E.W. Twining, Sons & Co. of Northampton. Two were for R. & W. Hawthorn Leslie & Co.: one was the Caledonian Railway 4-6-0 originally supplied to the Highland Railway, but sold to the CR due to excessive weight; the other was Comet supplied to the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway in 1835. The valve gear was not known and the model maker indicates what may have been used. This part was subject to a response from Hawthorn Leslie on page 222. and from E.A. Forward on page 191. Two other models were also described: one for Beardmore of a 4-6-0 supplied to the Great Eastern Railway and another, to a larger scalde, of a Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway 0-6-0

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section III. Manufacture of the spring. Sub-section D. Spring fitting. 130-2. 6 diagrams
See also letter on page 191 from C.E. Squire

Motor driving wheels for Metropolitan District Railway,  133. 2 illustrations
Taylor Bros. & Co. Ltd solid rolled disc wheels

Lubrication and lubricants. 133-5. 2 tables
Some interesting observations were made by L. Archbutt, in a Paper 101 read before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, at Manchester, entitled " Lubrication and Lubricants." The lecturer stated that it had now been proved that fatty acids in vegetable and animal oils in restricted amounts are an advantage and improve their lubricating value. He had investigated the process invented by Messrs. Wells and Southcombe, and made some friction tests in the laboratory of the Midland Ry. on a Thurston testing machine, at very low speeds under a heavy load. The speed at the surface of the journal was 7 ft. per minute, and the load about 270 psi.
A few preliminary tests were made with Wells' mixture Tonicol, containing about 25 per cent. of free fatty acid and these showed at once that 2.5%. of Tonicol mixed with a mineral oil lowered the co-efficient of friction to about the same extent as 10 per cent. of commercial rape oil. As he did not wish to take anything for granted, Mr. Archbutt then decided to prepare some fatty acids from rape oil and experiment with these. The mineral oil used was a paraffin base oil of practically the same viscosity as rape oil at 60° to 65° F., which was the temperature in the tests. The machine was run with the straight mineral oil until the friction became steady; then without stopping the machine the oil was changed to a mixture containing the fatty acid, and finally a check test was made with the mineral oil used at the commencement. The following striking results were obtained. Oil Mixture. [Table not reproduced]
Some further. tests made at the National Physical Laboratory with the Lanchester works gear by the Henry Wells Oil Co., were shown, comparing a straight mineral oil with a mixture of the same oil with 0.5%. free fatty acid. In these the speed of the worm was 1,100 revs. per minute, and the nominal mean distributed pressure on the worm wheel teeth 1.5 tons per sq. inch, the load on the actual area of contact being, of course, considerably greater. 34 horse power was transmitted. The pure mineral oil gave a constant efficiency of 95·95 per cent. up to a temperature of 100° Fahr., at which the efficiency suddenly fell off and continued to do so as the temperature rose, as is characteristic of mineral oils. The mixed oil, containing only 0.5 of free fatty acid, gave a higher efficiency, 96·2 per cent., and this was continued up to 120° F., and no sudden breakdown then occurred, but the efficiency gradually fell off. Mr. R. M. Deeley also carried out some tests with these same two oils, with the following striking results   [Table not reproduced]
The figures in this table under "static friction" are the actual deflections of the needle read off on the scales, from which the co-efficients of friction can be calculated. An interesting fact to note is that with the straight mineral oil the friction under the highest pressures increased in greater proportion than the load increased, whilst with fatty acid present this was not the case.
Tests with the Thurston machine, the Lanchester dynamometer and the Deeley machine are therefore in agreement as to the value of free fatty acids. On the Midland Ry. very successful experiments had been made on locomotives and on carriage axles, and it is hoped to replace a large proportion of the fatty oil used for lubrication with a very much smaller proportion of fatty acid.
Mr. Archbutt mentioned that he was taking a purely scientific interest in the Henry Wells Oil Co.'s invention, but believed it to be the most important advance in our knowledge of lubricants which had been made in recent years, and wished it to be thoroughly tested in practice. It seemed to him a great pity that animal and vegetable fats and oils, so essential for food, for the manufacture of soap and glycerine, and for other purposes for which their chemical composition essentially fits them, should be wasted in lubricating machinery, if the free fatty acids from a fraction of the quantity so used will answer the purpose. Not only so, but it will be a great advantage to get rid of lubricants which so readily thicken, gum and develop free acids which corrode. Mineral oils will be used more extensively, and fatty oils will be diverted into more useful channels.
He did not think free fatty acids will entirely replace glycerides for lubrication. There is good evidence that neutral glycerides have their use in certain circumstances, but he felt fairly confident that fatty acids will eventually replace the greater part of the glycerides now used for lubrication. A point on which he wished to be quite clear is that in liquid oil- film lubrication free fatty acids, or glycerides for that matter, have no use beyond that due to their viscosity. The special value of the free fatty acid comes in when contact friction occurs, i.e., friction at low speeds and under high pressures, where the complete oil film cannot form.
A few minerals-mica, talc, soap stone and graphite-act as natural lubricants. Graphite is by far the most important of solid lubricants. Natural graphite is found in the flake form and also amorphous, but the kind usually employed as a lubricant is the flake graphite. Amorphous graphite is made in the electric furnace, and by methods which have been described by Dr. Acheson, is obtained by him in a colloidal form and sold, mixed with water, under the name of Aquadag, or .mixed with oil as Oildag. The principal advantage of colloidal graphite is that it will remain suspended in water or oil for an indefinite period, provided the fluid medium remains neutral in reaction; natural, and also artificial graphite, which ;s not in the colloidal state, rapidly settles out and cannot therefore be used in a mixture with oil unless the mixture is continually stirred.
In the lubrication of machinery, solid lubricants are used, either dry, mixed with grease or mixed with oil. On parts of lace-making machinery dry graphite is used as a lubricant to avoid staining the fabric with oil, also in chocolate-making machinery to avoid getting oil into the chocolate. Of course, the speeds of such machines are low and the pressures light. There are also instances where machines have to work at very high temperatures (bottle-making), in which only a non- combustible lubricant can be used. Another instance occurs in the production of tungsten wire filaments for electric lamps by hot drawing through diamond dies. Here Aquadag is used as a lubricant. The wire is passed through the Aquadag paste and then through a gas flame which heats the wire to the required temperature and bakes on it a coating of the lubncant. In all these cases the solid lubricant is used to avoid troubles arising from the use of oil. The point which the Lubrication Committee wished to determine was whether, and if so, in what way, the addition of graphite to a lubricating oil was beneficial, and how the natural and colloidal forms compared with each other in efficiency. A number of tests were made with the Lanchester worm gear testing machine, Oildag being used in one series of tests and Foliac No. 100 natural graphite in the other. The results showed that in both series of tests graphite had a beneficial effect with some oils, but not with others. With some oils, flake graphite gave the best results, and with others, colloidal graphite. The most marked effect, an increased efficiency of 1·25 per cent., was obtained by adding Foliac graphite to an animal (trotter) oil. Oildag added to the same oil had scarcely any effect. Beyonne (Mineral) oil was improved almost equally by Foliac graphite and by Oildag; Mobiloil A., another mineral oil, was not much affected by either. Castor oil was a little improved by Oildag and not improved by Foliac. In the case of mineral oils, the graphite generally had the effect of raising the temperature at which unsteady running and a falling off of efficiency of the gear took place. The results on the whole showed that it is worth while to add graphite to a gear oil and best to add it in the colloidal form, because, although flake graphite may give a higher efficiency, it does not remain suspended in the oil unless continually stirred, and it causes greater wear of the lubricated surfaces.
One of the most interesting instances of the successful use of graphite in steam cylinder and valve lubrication was given by Mr. E. W. Johnston in a paper read before the Birmingham Association of Mechanical Engineers in 1916. Oil carried forward in the exhaust steam from cylinders lubricated with oil is frequently the cause of a great deal of trouble when such steam is required for heating or drying, or for washing or cooking, and when the condensed water is passed back into the boilers. Oil separators, such as the Princep's, will remove the greater part of the oil from the steam if a pure mineral oil is used for the lubrication, and chemical or electrolytic separators are very efficient in removing oil from condensed water, but none of these appliances effect complete removal of the oil; their ccst is considerable, and their efficiency is dependent upon the care used in working them. If, therefore, cylinders and valves can be efficiently lubricated without the use of oil, all this trouble and expense is avoided. This Mr. Johnston claims to have done on a plant including three 50 k.w, high speed vertical steam dynamos, two deep bore hole pumping engines and other small pumps working with saturated steam at 120 lb. pressure. Johnston first devised a special form of lubricator having the sight-feed glass filled with petroleum, through which the drops of Aquadag were arranged to fall and which worked quite successfully. Having obtained satisfactory results for a period, Mr. Johnston states that one of the high- speed engines, after accurate gauging of the valves and cylinders, was put on a six months' running test. At the end of this period, the greatest wear at any point was found not to exceed 1/1000 in. The walls of the cylinders and the surfaces of the piston rings had a mirror-like appearance. A set of indicator cards taken on full load, compared with those taken by the makers during the official test when the engines were new, showed a difference of only 0.6% after two years working on Aquadag lubrication. Micrographs taken from the surface of a piston ring showed that the graphite had filled up the pores of the cast iron and produced a smooth surface. There was no evidence that it had penetrated into the iron, except in one small place. This example of the lubrication of steam cylinders without oil is useful, but it is well known that vertical cylinders are easy to lubricate and it has yet to be ascertained whether horizontal cylinders can be successfully lubricated in this way. These remarks apply to the cylinders lubricated with saturated steam. In the case of cylinders using superheated steam the surfaces are drier and more difficult to lubricate, owing to the higher temperatures. Graphite has been used for such purposes, mixed with cylinder oil, and the results have been sometimes successful and some- times not. The failures with natural graphite are attributed to its being used in excess. Colloidal graphite is more likely to be successful, and no failures have been reported where it has been used. The railways are considerable users of super- heated steam for locomotives, but so far as he was aware no careful trials of colloidal graphite have been made. Much trouble is experienced from carbonaceous deposits in the cylinders, and it seems quite worth while to try whether by the use of colloidal graphite in the cylinder oil, the quantity of oil used could be reduced and the carbon deposit lessened. Among the advantages derived from the use of graphite in lubrication are greater ease in starting, owing to the reduction of the static friction. He had no doubt that in most cases the graphite used for lubrication should be in the colloidal con- dition. But, unfortunately, this is the condition in which it is most sensitive to external influences, and great care is needed in the selection of the oils with which it is used, to use such as are quite neutral in reaction and most likely to remain so during use. When the conditions are such that the graphite and oil are mechanically churned and prevented from sepa- rating, natural flake graphite is likely to be quite as effective. The purity of the graphite and freedom from grit are the essential points then to be considered.

Reviews. 135

Tank construction. Ernest G. Beck. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.,
Very few books of a practical value on this subject have been published and this volume will therefore be a welcome addition to the structural engineer's library. Besides giving full details of the usual methods of tank construction, the author devotes a considerable portion to suggestions for improving these methods, commercially and scientifically. To those engaged in designing, manufacturing and erecting tanks, a great deal of verv useful information is included, and should be of the greatest value and assistance. After specifying the materials used, their permissible stresses and physical properties and a general description of various kinds of riveting, consideration is given to economy of form to promote more efficient, rapid and economical processes of production, and a discussion of the advantages of cylindrical as compared with rectangular tanks, under certain conditions. Various ways in which the side walls of tanks can be stayed, as well as other means of ensuring stability are explained. Other sections relate to the design of curbs and rails, staying by horizontal rails, treatment for trough-bottomed rectangular tanks, suggestions for simplifying the design of roofs, walls and floors of cylindrical tanks and the treatment for dished bottoms of elevated cvlindrical tanks. A large number of very clear detailed drawings and sketches are included.

Steam locomotive construction and maintenance. E. L. Ahrons. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons,
This is a further volume of the Pitman Technical Primer Series, and is intended as a companion to the same author's book on The Steam Railway Locomotive. A general account in plain language is given of the workshop equipment and fundamental practice in locomotive construction. Foundry and general machine shop work are only briefly dealt with, but there is a complete survey of the erection of a locomotive and also a chapter on setting the valves. A section is included on the maintenance of a locomotive in service, with notes on the wear and tear of the more important parts and on repairs. The book does not profess to give any original matter on the subject but provides a handy reference to the student. It is very well illustrated.

Repairing of locomotives. E.L. Ahrons. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd. Part 2.
Part 2 of this series, which is to be completed in five parts, deals with repairs to boilers and fireboxes. The author describes in detail the usual methods of patching the boiler shell and firebox, tube-plate, firebox crown and tube-plates, and also goes thoroughly into the operations of renewing the stays. Renewmg superheater tubes and parts and repaIrs are dealt with. The building of brick arches and boiler testing are also explained.

Dictionary of British scientific instruments. Issued by the British Optical Instrument Manufacturers' Association. London: Messrs. Constable & Co., Ltd., 1921.
It would be hard to exaggerate the importance of scientific instruments in every branch of technical knowledge, whether pure or applied, and since the last few decades have witnessed the invention and manufacture of a large variety of these appliances, a work such as this possesses a very distinct value. Of course, there is an abundant and adequate literature dealing with every kind of scientific apparatus in a more or less specialized manner; but we are unacquainted with any book which gives descriptions and illustrations of so varied a selection of devices as does this. Although published under the auspices of what is virtually a trade association, the book bears no taint of propaganda or "puffing" for any speciality, and the instruments include very many that are not to be- classed as optical instruments.
The book begins with a series of short essays on the British Optical Industry, avigating Instruments, the Royal Meteorological Society, the Greenwich Observatory and British Optical Glass, which contain valuable historical notes and are of great interest. Then follows an alphabetical list of instru- ments of various kinds, with a short definition of the use and' nature of each. To this section succeeds a series of iflustrations, 313 figures in all, which serve admirably to illustrate the more important instruments mentioned in the dictionary. The instruments selected for illustration are well chosen; though we may suggest that those selected as typical of indicators for steam engines and the like hardly represent the most highly developed form of this appliance. Despite this little criticism, however, we have nothing but praise for this book, which we believe will be greatly appreciated' by those desirous of information concerning a most important branch of technology.

Oil fuel, its supply, composition and application. E. Butler, London: Chas, Griffin & Co., Ltd.
This is the fourth edition of what is recognised as a standard text book on the use of oil fuel, the extensive developments of which in all industries have necessitated considerable revision in the text. The use of oil fuel on railways is by no means new and most of the problems involved in its application have been studied by locomotive engineers for many years. This book, however, gives a deal of information in a convenient form and provides a classified record of progress and develop- ment of practically.all the purposes for which liquid fuel can be usefully employed. Not only are the principles of fuel oil combustion outlined as well as the composition of the various. fuel oils, but also the methods of testing, storing and burning. them. Descriptions of many types of burners are given, and although several of these are not applicable to locomotive work, there are many points that will prove of interest to rail- way men. The use of fuel oil for metallurgical purposes is" described and illustrated.

Practical electrician's pocket book. London: Rentell and Co., Ltd.,  135
In spite of the continued difficulties in regard to cost of production the publishers of The Practical Electrician's Pocket Book, have done their best to keep this well-known annual in line with the latest practice, and the edition for 1921 has, as a, natural result, been enlarged by several pages, of which a certain number have been absorbed by the growth of the Central Stations in the United Kingdom, the tables referring thereto forming a neatly compiled and most useful part of this very handy manual. The section on wiring has been most carefully revised and extended in order to bring it in line with the latest developments in conduit practice as set down by the LE.E. rules, while Mr. Raymond J. Mitchell has rewrrtten the chapter on Accumulator Road Traction, which is undoubtedly growing very rapidly in favour in the United Kingdom. An entirely new section has been devoted to an illustrated description of the Pulsynetic system of electric clocks, and the chapter on Electric Welding has been revised so as to include a practical description of the Quasi-Arc process, which is being used so largely in the shipyards and engineering works on the Clyde, Tyne, Mersey, etc. Space does not permit us to devote further attention to what is undoubtedly one of the best pocket books on the market for the practical electrician. a convincing proof of which is that it is now officially recommended by the examiners of the City and Guilds of London Institute.

Number 346 (15 June 1921)

New three-cylinder locomotive: Great Northern Railway. 137-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Gresley 2-8-0 built by North British Locomotive Co. fitted with conjugated valve gear.

[GNR 0-8-2T modified to burn oil fuel]. 140
No. 131: Scarab system

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives, 144-6. 3 illustrations

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter V. Reputed locomotives of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. 146-9. 3 diagrams (side elevations)

The Cleobury Mortimer & Ditton Priors Light Railway. 152-4. 2 illustrations, diagram
Includes a gradient profile and illustrations of 0-6-0STs Cleobury and Fleetwood: latter Hudswell Clarke (WN 313/1888) used for early freight, but then owned by Abdon Clee Stone Quarry to work beyond terminus to foot of inclined plane to quarry. Former had a companion, Burwarton (both built by Manning Wardle WN 1734 and 1735/1908.

G. Willans. Locomotive feed-water heating and boiler feeding. 157-9. 6 diagrams

Edge Hill Light Railway, locomotives. 159. illustration
Nos. 1 and 2: ex-LBSCR Terrier class Nos. 673 (73 Deptford) and 674 (74 Shadwell)

A French atmospheric railway. The Paris & St. Germain Railway. 162
See also letter from W.B. Paley on p. 252

Number 347 (15 July 1921)

Recent oil-fired locomotives. 165-7. 2 ilustrations, 2 diagrams
Included those on LSWR, NBR and MR,

Yard shunting engine, Caledonian Railway. 168. illustration
No. 399: Drummond 0-6-0ST with 4ft 6in coupled wheels and 18 x 26in cylinders

Italian State Rys. 171
2-8-2 express engines and 4-8-0 freight engines

G. Willans. Locomotive feed water and boiler feeding. 179-80. diagram

F.W. Brewer. "Strong" locomotives. 180-4. 4 diagrams

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. 184

The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives, 186

Working the automatic vacuum brake on goods trains. 191. diagram
via index

Correspondence. 191

Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. T.H. Alexander.
Re The Chronicles of Boulton's Sidings that locomotive engines were conveyed sometimes through the streets by their own steam. It will interest many of your readers to know that I recollect being one day in the town of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire, about 1869 or 1870, and happened to see a four-coupled saddle tank engine being taken under her own steam along the streets. The locomotive came from the works of Andrew Barclay and steamed along West Langlands Street up the hill, past the passenger station (G. & S.W.Ry.) to the goods yard. To mount the station brae (hill) not only was full steam put on, but I should think from twenty to thirty men were employed to haul the loco. along by means of ropes. The progress was very slow. but the loco. got up all right into the goods yard, where it was put on to the rails. Though not connected with railways it may be of interest to state that in the early seventies there were no traction engines in Ayrshire, but the portable mill was driven by a portable steam engine. Both vehicles were moved from one farm to another by horses, four were used for the mill and three for the engine. After threshing ceased for the day at a farm and the engine had to be conveyed to another farm, in order to lessen the weight the water was blown out of the boiler. On arrival at the next farm cold water was poured into the boiler, through a filler with a screw plug, till it was half way up in the water gauge and the fire was prepared ready for lighting up early next morning. They were not afraid in those days to pour cold water into a boiler which was still warm.

Laminated Railway Springs. C.E. Squire.
Re. Sanders' articles on Laminated Railway Springs: in his description of the multiple plate spring making machines on page 131 (May issue) there are several inaccuracies, mostly unimportant. May I, however, point out that the range of temperature of the plates is not nearly so great as stated? It is usual to work these machines with rather a large team and the time required to put the plates in is under ten seconds per plate. As the plates are each in contact with the adjacent ones until separated for hardening, there is very little difference of temperature between them when they go into the water, except in the case of the longest. If the spring has a large number of thin plates the long plate is generally cooled by contact with the die sufficient to make special provision necessary to deal with it.
It is most certainly not correct that "at least twice as much fitting is required." The machine does not give equally good results on all classes of springs, but on work for which it is suited it gives greater uniformity of results than is possible by the best hand work, and with less hand fitting by lower skilled men.
Under prevailing conditions in this country, spring making machines afford little or no financial advantage over the older methods and it is for this rather than for technical reasons that they have not developed further,

Locomotive models. E.A. Forward
Re Some interesting locomotive models in the May Magazine, and particularly in the model of the Comet, Messrs. Hawthorn's first engine of 1835: the gab valve gear was used in the earliest locomotives which had a single loose eccentric for each cylinder, the eccentric rods having a gab or notch in them that engaged with a pin on the valve lever or rod. Stephenson's earliest engines had this gear and it may be seen on Locomotion of 1825 or on the Rocket of 1829. Many of the early marine engines had gears of this description also. The four-eccentric gear is generally thought to have been introduced, in this country at least, by Forrester who used it on some engines built for the Dublin and Kingstown Ry. in 1834. In the earlier gab gears the eccentric rods were dis- engaged directly by hand, but, with the cylinders under the smoke box additional mechanism had to be introduced to lift one or other of the rods out of gear; this was sometimes effected by levers and links and sometimes by the roller levers as shown on the Comet. Later on forks were added to the gabs, which improvement did away with the two vibrating levers on the footplate by which the valves were worked by hand when reversing. The forked-gab gear was made in a variety of forms and one of these, by a slight modification, probably led to the Howe link motion.
On examining the construction of the outer framing shown on the drawings of the Comet, I should say that there is no wood between the two iron plates, but that the longitudinal framing is entirely of iron. See also letter from Hawthorn Leslie on page 222

Outside Walschaerts' gear, 330 Class, L. & S. W. Ry. F.W. Brewer.
The statement made in your March issue, to the effect that Dugald Drummond was the first designer to apply outside Walschaerts' valve gear to a standard gauge (tender) locomotive in this country, is, I find, inaccurate. As a matter of fact, H.A. Ivatt was actually the first man to adopt this gear in the outside position for a tender engine. This he did in the case of his four-cylinder compound, No. 292, which was put into service in March, 1905, at which time Drummond's 330 class was under construction. Ivatt fitted this gear to the outside, or h.-p. cylinders, and applied the Stephenson motion to the inside, or l.-p. pair.

Reviews. 192

Steam road vehicles. L.M. Meyrick-Jones, London: Iliffe &. Sons, Ltd. Second Edition.
In view of the importance of utilizing home-produced fuel, the possibilities of steam as applied to road wagons is receiving considerable attention. There has been a dearth of literature on the subject, but a welcome addition is made by this book. Its purpose is to provide a standard treatise on steam road transport explaining both theory and practice, as well as furnishing useful information for owners and an instructional handbook for drivers and mechanics of steam wagons. Within its twenty-eight chapters it deals with all the important technical subjects with which the user or driver of the steam vehicle should be acquainted, without introducing the advanced theory of the subject. The author describes in a clear and non-technical style the principles involved in the generation of steam and the construction of the various units which constitute the complete vehicle. Numerous drawings and half-tone reproductions of boilers, engines, gears, valve motions, and other components and accessories, can easily be followed. In this second edition each chapter has been carefully revised and added to or amended where necsseary, full account being taken of war-time experience and its influence on design. A number of new illustrations and additional matter have been included. The general plan and arrangement of the book, having proved satisfactory, remain unaltered.

The Wonder book of railways (new edition). Edited by Harry Golding, London: Ward, Lock & Co., Ltd.
With twelve exceptionally fine colour plates and nearly 300 illustrations almost entirely new, this attractively got up book deserves great popularity amongst the rising generation. It will be found instructive to youths interested in locomotives and railways and is written in simple language. Articles on the trains of all countries, express passenger engines, signals and signalling, carriages old and new, engine head codes, wonderful railway bridges, mountain railways, electric railways, etc., provide the entertaining reading matter for some of the forty-five chapters. It is the ninth and an entirely new edition and, like its predecessors, will prove an endless source of delight to the youngsters.

Apapa Wharfage Scheme. 192
The Civil Engineering and Contracting Department of Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., secured, in competition, the contract for the Apapa Wharfage Scheme, Lagos Harbour, Nigeria, from the Crown Agents for the Colonies. This work to be carried out for the Nigerian Government and form part of the general scheme for the improvement of Lagos Harbour. The work included in the contract consists of deep water berthage for ocean-going steamers, and comprises the construction of a concrete block- work quay wall some 1,800 feet in length, affording, in the first instance 26 ft. of water at low water ordinary spring tides, which may subsequently be increased to 30 ft.; the supply and erection of five transit sheds, reclamation of foreshore, and dredging for steamer berths in front of the quay wall. It will be remembered that the same firm recently obtained the contract for the supply, erection and equipment of new Locomotive Carriage and Wagon Shops, etc., at Ebute Metta, near Lagos, for the Nigerian Government Railways.

Number 348 (15 August 1921)

Eight-coupled bogie tank engine, London & South Western Ry. 193, illustration.
Urie 4-8-0T for Feltham hump marshalling yard: No. 492 illustrated

Three-cylinder express passenger locomotive, Caledonian Ry. 194-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Pickersgill 4-6-0, but conjugated valve gear not described in detail

Small shunting tank engine, Great Eastern Railway. 196. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Hill Class B74 0-4-0T with short chimney for working in Blackwall Docks

James Clayton. The superheater locomotive. 201-6. 4 diagrams

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter VII. Locomotives from Cardiff and the Portland Breakwater. 206-8. 5 diagrams (side elevations)

G. Willans. Locomotive feed-water and boiler feeding. Anderberg: 1916/1918. 215-16. 4 diagrams

New dining cars, Midland & Glasgow & South Western Railways. 217-19. 3 illustrations, diagram
Three R.W. Reid first class dining cars with kitchens 65ft long running on 6-wheel bogies and three 59ft long third class cars on 4-wheel bogies.  

F.W. Brewer. "Strong" locomotives. 219-21. 4 illustrations
See also corriegendum page 311

Transferring locos. by road. 221. 2 illustrations

Correspondence. 222

Engine No. 999, N.Y.C. & H.R.R. William T. Hoecker.
Re page 114 of your May 14th issue, I am quoting below an extract from a book {published in 1894) which described the exhibits at the Chicago Exposition, among which was the New York Central engine 999.
" Before being stationed among the exhibits of the New York Central Railroad the engine 999 was attached to various trains to test her speed. On the 9 May, while running the Empire State Express from New York to Buffalo, it is claimed that she made the last 69 miles in 68 minutes, making one of these miles in 35 seconds,and on another occasion a mile in 32 seconds. These figures are not official; and while there is no reliable evidence that this or any other locomotive ever ran at the rate of over 100 miles an hour, it is probable that the 999 has attained about the highest speed on record." Whenever accurate timing is resorted to, these fabulous records fail to materialize, and duly authenticated speeds in excess of 90 MPH. are very rare indeed for steam locomotives. The testimony of such careful and experienced observers as, Lord Monkswell, Chas. Rous-Marten and others is distinctly unfavourable to speeds in excess of 80 to 90 m.p.h. In fact I believe that the exhaustive and carefullv conducted tests in Germany some years ago (about the time of the Marienfelde-Zossen high-speed tests) demonstrated conclusively that 90 mph is about the extreme limit attainable with present types of steam locomotives.
These world's record claims remind me of another one which I read some twelve or fifteen years ago in a sensational journal called the Railroad Man's Magazine. The author of that claim asserted that a 4-4-2 compound engine of the type illustrated on page 180 of Volume V. covered a mile in 27 seconds in the course of a journey over the C. B. & Q. Ry. with a special postal train. He then hastened to explain that the "record" had never been given its proper place because it had not been officially timed. That is the great defect in all of these so-called" world's records," and one cannot help wondering how they were timed, if at all.

Boulton's Siding. George F. Tyas.
The following appeared in the Engineering & Building Times of 3 June 1872, taken from the Manchester Courier. In the month of March last, Mr. Charles Suthers, of Oxford Mills, Werneth, Lancashire, having ordered two new engines and boilers to be placed upon his premises to supplant others, it became evident that unless some preparation were made for working the machinery during this extension, the mills must be entirely stopped, to the serious loss of both employers and employed.
Mr. Suthers however, in order to prevent such loss, consulted with Mr. I. W. Boulton, of Ashton, engineer, when he at once proposed to turn the machinery by means of two portable engines of a powerful type, and the detail was left in the hands of Mr. Thomas Boulton, who very promptly despatched two engines with boilers combined, and placed them in the mill yard, occupying with all the appliances for water, etc., only about ten square yards. In a very short time two straps were attached, and without the aid of a flywheel, or the use of governors, the machinery was set in motion, and continued to run for six weeks (the time occupied in pulling down the old, and erecting the new engines), and this was accomplished without any loss of time.
The mills are now working with two engines of 200 H.P. each showing how great the power of the portable engine wi th high pressure boiler is, and thus clearly proving that a serious breakdown may be repaired with very little loss, compara- tively speaking, when the stoppage is taken into consideration. Would not this mean using two old locomotives, as you will notice there were neither flywheels nor governors used?

R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd. per W. C. Watson.
We wish lto draw -your attention to an error in your article describing "Some Interesting Locomotive Models" in the May number of your magazine, and also E.A. Forward's letter in the July number, in both of which allusion is made to the Comet as Hawthorn's first engine of 1835.
We wish to point out that the engine in question was not the first locomotive built by this firm, but was the first locomotive built by us for the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway, now incorporated with the North-Eastern Railway.

Trade notices. 222

Robert Stephenson & Co., Ltd., of Darlington, address of their.London office 17 Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.1.

Turton Bros. & Matthews, Ltd., Steel File & Spring Works, Sheffield.
This catalogue deals with the different varieties of twist drills, dies, punches, shear blades, files, hammer heads, etc. manufactured by this firm. Other specialities include Timmis' double-web section springs for locomotives, carriages and wagons for buffing, bearing and draw gear, as well as helical, volute and conical springs for all purposes. Railway key clips to prevent wooden keys working loose and shutter springs are included in the list. The Eyre patent double-action buffer for rolling stock, which has been described and illustrated in this journal, is dealt with in this list, and has been largely adopted as less tractive force is required than with any other type, when rounding curves. Several useful tables on tempering colours, temperatures, etc., are included.

Beckett, Laycock '& Watkinson, Acton Lane, Harlesden, N.W.I0.
Largely used by railway coach and omnibus builders, the window fittings manufactured by this firm are illustrated, described and priced in an artistic catalogue just issued. The " Beclawat " silent window channel, made in brass or white metal, is effective not only in preventing rattle, but rendering windows draught and rain-proof. The channel is cut to required dimensions, and is placed in position with counter-sunk screws to the door pillar, or it may be let in flush, the lining alone making contact with the window. The" Beclawat " automatic window balance is another speciality. The movement of the window is by lazy-tongs fitted to a suitable base, the weight being taken by springs so arranged that the window will remain in any position without the aid of straps.

Number 349 (15 September 1921)

New radial tank locomotve, G.E.R. 223.  illustration
Hill 0-6-2T No. 1003 illustrated: modifications as compared with Nos. 1000 and 1001

2-6-4 tank locomotives, Portuguese State Railways. 223-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Fifteen superheated locomotives supplied by Swiss Locomotive Cp. of Winterthur

Midland Ry. 224
Three of the Baltic tanks were working on the Tilbury section. No. 2290, the decapod (0-10-0) working the Lickey incline had beeen fitted with oil-burning apparatus

Glasgow and South Western Railway locomotive rebuilds. 225-7. 2 illustrations, 4 diagrams (side elevations)
0-4-4T 520 class with new boilers (No. 523 illustrated) and Manson 0-6-0  (No. 87 illustrated) rebuilt under direction of Whitelegg.

Great Northern Ry. 226
Nos. 1613 and 1614 were latest 0-6-2 superheater tanks completed at Doncaster. New 2-6-0 tender engines of the 1640 class built by Kitson and Co., Ltd., up to No. 1690 had been delivered.

North Staffordshire Ry. 226
Three new 0-6-2 tank engines have recentlv been completed at Stoke Works, Nos. 18, 22 and 72. The following 0-6-2 tanks have been equipped with oil-fuel burning apparatus :-Nos. 51, 55, 69, 71, 89,:93, 94, 96, 97 and 172.

Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 226
One of the 4-6-0 express engines, usually No. 1510, worked regularly the up Belfast boat train into Crewe, due at 07-45, returning with the 11.09 Scotchman. There are also other turns worked by L. & Y. Ry. engines, including a goods train by a 0-8-0 from Copley Hill. It is reported that the rebuilt 4-6-0 express engines will shortly be working into Euston,

New goods locomotives, Maryport and Carlisle Ry. 228. illustration
Two J.B. Adamson design built Yorkshire Engine Co. with 5ft coupled wheels, 19 x 26in cylinders activated by Allan straight link motion. and 1407ft2 total heating surface. No. 29 illustrated.

Rebuilt high-power electric locomotives, Metropolitan Ry. 228-30. diagram (side, front & sctional elevations & plan)
Locomotives reconstructed at Vickers Ltd. works in Barrow under supervision of Charles Jones, Chief Locomotive and Electrical Engineer.

North British Ry. 230.
0-6-0 superheater goods engines built at Cowlairs were Nos. 104, 105, 128 and 143.

Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., Ltd., 230
Delivered a large 0-6-2 side tank locomotive to the Seaton Delaval Coal Co., No. 12, and also a 0-6-0 outside cylinder side tank engine with pop safety valves to the Cramlington Colliery Co., Northumberland. This took the place of an old six-coupled goods engine built by Robt. Stephenson & Co., in 1854, No. 3 on the books of the Company.

Clayton Wagons, Ltd. 230
Order for 250 tipping wagons for use on the Bombay, Back Bay, Reclamation scheme.

Drivers' instruction car, Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 230-1. illustration, diagram

London & North Western Ry. 231
The first of the order for ninety 4-6-0 passenger engines (Prince of Wales class) had arrived at Crewe from the Dalmuir Works of Beardmore and Co., and was in the works for painting. It bore the No. 120, the makers' number being 174. Several others of the type were expected in Crewe shortly.
Nos. 1940 Trafalgar and 1962 Aurora, four-cylinder compounds, had been converted to two-cylinder simple Renown class. Nos. 1224 and 1289 were the latest four-cylinder compound mineral engines to be simplified and superheated.
The following 0-6-0 coal engines, which were sent overseas in 1916-17 and not returned, had been sold out of the service:: Nos. 17, 153, 198, 354, 778, 1099, 1179, 1316, 1339, 1349, 2047, 2050, 2171, 2255, 2371, 2381, 2383, 2436, 2448, 3053, 3105, 3109, 3119, 3151, 3209, 3231, 3271, 3320, 3325, 3339, 3353, 3356, 3387, 3414, 3415, 3418-23 and 3448. No. 2222 Sir Gilbert Claughton had been fitted with oil-burning apparatus. .
Special DX. goods engines Nos. 3062, 3155 and 3457 had been broken up.

Caledonian Ry. 231 Nos. 82 and 83 were new 4-4-0 engines similar to the 72 class, built by Armstrong, Whitworth and Co., Ltd.

James Clayton. The superheater locomotive. 231-3

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter VIII, Geared engines. "Perseverance", "Little Grimsby" "Lilliputian. 233-5. 4 diagrams (side elevations)

F.W. Brewer. "Strong" locomotives. 239-43. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives. 243-4. illustration

New third-class Pullman cars for the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 248-9. 2 illustrations, plan
Built by Clayton Wagons, Ltd., Lincoln

Answers ~ to questions. 250
1.-Are brake blocks more effective when cold or hot?
The brake experiments on the Pennsylvania RR., U.S.A., showed that brake blocks are less effective when their temperature has been raised. The move- ment of the tyre against the block causes abrasion or tearing of the particles of both surfaces. The report on these brake tests states that the constantly changing temperature of the contact surface has an important relation to the force of retardation developed by the tearing down of the particles. The resistance due to abrasion is dependent on the ultimate strength of cast iron. Above a critical temperature, approaching 900° F., the ultimate strength of cast iron decreases rapidly. The force of retardation due to abrasion and the corresponding mean coefficient of friction will therefore be a function of the constantly changing, but always high tem- perature of the working metal. The lower the mean temperature can be maintained, the higher will be the coefficient of friction, so long as this average temperature is above the critical temperature at which the ultimate strength of cast iron is a maximum. A high temperature also tends to warp the brake block. It was found that a solid block warped and touched the wheel only at each end, whilst in the middle the surfaces were 1/32in. apart. The smaller bearing area of the block on the tyre caused a rise in temperature and a lessened coefficient of friction. The uneven heating effect caused by the concentration of bearing area at the two ends of the block in turn caused the block to warp in the opposite sense, so that the ends would be drawn away from the wheel and the block bore in the middle. Tbe tests with solid brake blocks invariably resulted in longer stops or a lower mean coefficient of friction than was the case with slotted brake blocks. In the latter the blocks are slotted or cracked on the faces to make them more flexible, so that they are more free to conform to the contour of the wheel. With brake blocks of this form warping was largely eliminated.
2.-When steam is shut off and the lever is notched up, what is the reason for the rattling of the slide valves, which ceases when the lever is put into full gear?
When steam is shut off the piston acts as a pump. During the period when expansion with steam on would be taking place, the vacuum produced in the cylinder keeps the valve on its face. When the exhaust port opens, hot gases and fine ash are drawn into the cylinder from the smokebox. After the piston has completed say 55 per cent. of its return stroke, the lever being notched up, the valve closes the " exhaust" and the gases are compressed in the cylinder. . This compression forces the valve away from the face for a time until it falls again during the " admission" period. The alternate rise and fall of the slide valve, which occurs at each end or twice per revolution causes the rattling noise. When the lever-is placed in full gear the compression period is greatly shortened and does not begin until the piston has completed about 90 per cent. of its return stroke, and as the " admission" period begins very shortly afterwards the valve has hardly time to lift and the rattling is very slight. The suction period towards the end of the forward stroke is short, and therefore less air and gas are drawn into the cylinder from the smokebox.
3.-Why is the percentage mark on the sector plate say, 20 per cent. in foreway, much closer to mid-gear than 20 per cent. in back-way?
This is due to the angular position of the connecting rod, which causes the crank and therefore the corres- ponding eccentric to move through a smaller angle during the out-stroke than the in-stroke for the same piston movement. Thus, if the connecting rod be six times the length of the crank, the latter will move through an angle of 49½° on the out-stroke, whilst the piston moves 20 per cent. of its stroke, and 57¼° on the in-stroke for a similar return movement of the piston. From this it follows that for an equal angular movement of the crank from the dead centres, the piston will move further from its end position on the out-stroke than on the in-stroke. For instance, with the same ratio as above of connecting rod and crank, if the crank moves through an angle of 50°, the piston will move through 20.3 per cent. on the out-stroke and only 15.4 per cent. on the in-stroke.
4.-In the case of a superheater engine fitted with a "Bye-Pass" for the cylinder, does the bye-pass valve remain stationary or does it move up and down at each stroke of the piston, when running with steam off.
In the case of automatic bye-pass valves of the Fowler-Anderson type, as fitted to the Midland and other engines, with steam on, the valve closes the passage between the two ends of the cylinder. The underside of the controlling piston is acted upon by the steam, which lifts the valve and closes the passage. When steam is shut off the piston and valve fall, and free communication is maintained in the bye-pass pipe between the two ends of the cylinders. The valve itself remains stationary until steam is again admitted to the steam chest or header.

Ball bearings for rolling stock. 250
Very satisfactory trials with ball bearings on goods wagons have been carried out on the Swedish State Rys. A train of twenty-six wagons with ordinary bearings was increased to thirty wagons, or 15 per cent., with ball bearings upon a line having 1 per cent. grades 5 km. in length. The train fitted with ball bearings was stopped and started without difficulty on these grades. This could not be done with ordinary bearings. In another trial a load of twenty-nine wagons equal to 1,300 tons with ordinary bearings was increased to thirty-nine wagons or 1,800 tons when fitted with ball bearings and no increase in fuel consumption was noted. Upon these results the Swedish State Rys, have decided to fit the whole of their wagon stock with the Skefko ball bearings. See also letter fromj Northern Ball Bearings page 312

Reviews. 252

Mex Fuel Oil. London: George Philip & Son, Ltd. Produced under the auspices of the Anglo-Mexican Petroleum Co., Ltd.
The second edition of this text book is issued at a time when recent developments in the consumption of fuel oil lend an added interest to the subject. This new edition is considerably enlarged and brought up to date and practically every phase of oil fuel burning is described and illustrated. Considerable space is devoted to a detailed illustrated description of the principal burners and systems in use, while several recent installations of oil firing on the British Railways are both described and illustrated. Its use for land boilers, where, apart from the economy in cost of fuel, the advantages of saving in labour, cartage of ashes,. etc., make it a sound proposition. Applications to vanous. metallurgical and industrial furnaces, are also fully dealt with. At electric power stations, as an auxiliary fuel for peak loads, even when its cost was double the present figure, fuel oil proved itself an invaluable standby. At current prices it is a formidable rival to coal, even in this country, and the list of bunkering stations at which fuel oil-supplies can now be obtained shows that all the trade routes of shipping are well served. A description of the fuel oil installation on the Aquitania is given. A number of tables and other data are given in the appendices. The book has 210 pages and contains over 100 illustrations,

Steam boiler maintenance. Reg. Clayton. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.
In this little work, which is one of the excellent series of the publishers' Technical Primers, the author, who, as late Surveyor to the Manchester Steam Users' Association, is eminently well qualified to deal with this subject, gives much useful and highly practical advice and information upon the maintenance of stationary steam generators and the accessories generally found in modern boiler installations, typical examples of which are adequately descnbed. We can confidently recommend this book to all interested in steam boiler practice, whether in the capacity of owner, attendant or engineering student.

In view of the recent discussion in the Railway Press and the interest shown by railway engineers a booklet has been published by the Brass and Copper Tube Association, International Exchange, Edmund Street, Birmingham, entitled " Copper v. Steel."
It is a summary of arguments and statements brought forward in the course of the controversy as to the most suitable and economical material for locomotive boiler tubes. Taking figures most favourable to steel, a set of copper boiler tubes will outlast three of steel, covering a period of twelve years. The first cost of copper tubes is far short of being three times that of steel, the ratio being approximately 1 to 1·95, and when the value of scrap tubes (£10 per ton for steel and about £72 for copper) and the interest on outlay are taken into account the balance in favour of copper is very considerable. Further, if all the expenses resulting from stoppages could be shown the balance infavour of copper would be considerably increased. Comparative tests of fuel. consumption made by a leading railway between copper and steel tubes disclosed great waste of fuel where steel tubes were used, and other railways are making similar tests. Copper and brass tubes are now made by the principal makers in which instead of the usual even taper of about two gauges from end to end, they are three or even four gauges thicker at the firebox end for say a foot, gradually tapering off to the lighter gauge specified. With steel tubes this is hardly practicable.

Correspondence. 252

A French atmospheric railway. W.B. Paley.
The line was not opened till the end of August, 1837, ending not at, but opposite to Le Pecq, a place which is almost a river-side suburb of St. Germain. The atmospheric was originally intended to leave the old line at Nanterre, where a pumping engine was to be fixed, with another at Chaton. The engine-houses at both places were built, but never occupied. About half a mile short of Le Pecq the atmospheric diverged to the right, the station built at the junction being called Le Vesinet. The atmospheric was opened, as a single line, on  14 April 1847. Apparently it soon proved unsatisfactory, or at any rate insufficient, for so early as 1849 a powerful six-coupled engine was built by Eugene Flachat for working the incline. It was called Antée. An excellent engraving of it, with full particulars, may be found in the Guide du Mécanicien, by Le Chatelier and others, 1851. The atmospheric system was given up in 1860, being quite inadequate to deal with the increased traffic.
The rope and capstan arrangement at St. Germain station was worked by-power from the pumping engine house.

The lubrication of laminated spring plates.
J. Bennett Heyde & Co., Manchester, Duval method of eliminating friction between the leaves of laminated springs. As is well known, innumerable springs are taken out of service owing to the rusting up solid of plates, thereby causing breakages, and it is claimed that the adoption of this Duval method obviates this, as well as providing continuous lubrication between the sliding plate surfaces, ensuring thereby sweet working. The arrangement consists of the insertion between each spring plate of a very thin sheet of brass, with numerous perforations, which are filled with a heavy graphite grease, and it is stated that springs so fitted have been taken out of service-on road vehicles-after 12 months' work, with all plates as free from rust as when the springs were newly fitted. Primarily, of course, such arrangement is for springs working through a relatively large range, under continuous vibration, and it might therefore be found useful for comparatively light railway coaching stock, particularly for four-wheel vehicles working on indifferent track. The suppliers of this device will be pleased to give further information to any railway people interested.

Number 350 (15 October 1921)

Engine No. 4700, Great Western Ry. 253-4. illustration., diagram (side elevation)

New through train between Aberdeen and Penzance, and other winter services. 254-5

North Eastern Railway rebuilt "290" class tank engines. 255-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Retirement of Mr. G.J. Churchward, C.B.E., M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E. 256.

The Royal Arsenal Railway and its locomotives. 257-62. 10 illustrations, diagram, table
18-inch gauge railways were introduced by John Ramsbottom at Crewe locomotive works and the line at the Royal Arsenal "was designed and constrtucted by Major P.H. Scratchley" and opened on 10 January 1873 [KPJ: Scratchley spent most of his service in Australia, most notably annexing New Guinea (and proposing a benign administration for that territory) and eventualy dying in Australian waters, but was reburied at Charlton: none of the biographies mention the "miniature railway" at Woolwich]. The locomotive stock was extensive, both for the narrow gauge and standard gauge systems. The earliest narrow gauge locomootive was Lord Ragalan (illustrated).  A Crampton locomotive was tried on the system and a Beaumont four-cylinder compound atmospheric engine was tried. Sir E.P.C. Girouard was made Traffic Manager in 1891 before moving on to greater things in Africa.  At this time the chief mechanical engineer was G.H. Roberts. Neath, a foreman in the locomotive department invented a spark arrester. Oil fuel was used to fire the narrow gauge engines: the first was named Petrole after the Holden GER locomotive. Others used the Kermode and Lucal systems. Hornsby-Akroyd internal combustion engines were used in the Magazine and Filling Factory from 1896 starting with Lachesis. McEwan-Pratt internal combustion engines were also used Megaera illustrated.

James Clayton. The superheater locomotive. 263-4. 2 diagrams

Historic locomotives at the Chiago Pageant. 264-5.  2 illustrations

Locomotives of the New Zealand Government Railways. 266-7. 6 illustrations

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. 268-70. 3 diagrams

Goods locomotive, Stratford and Midland Junction Ry. 271. illustration
Stroudley C class 0-6-0 No. 7 in its new location (former No. 428). Fitted with injectors and ejectors in place of former pumps.

Electric locomotive, Groundle Glen Railway, Isle of Man. 271-2. illustration
Battery power locomotive from British Electric Vehicles Ltd

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter IX, Geared engines. "Rattlesnake", "No. 17" "Lion".  272-5. 4 diagrams (side elevations)

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives, 276

Number 351 (15 November 1921)

Rebuilt locomotives, L.& S.W.R. 283-5. 2 illustrations, 4 diagrams (side elevations)
Drummond 0-6-0 and 0-4-4T rebuilt with superheater and larger cylinders

Australian railways gauge. 285
The three Commissioners appointed to consider the question of a uniform railway gauge in Australia, recommended the adoption of the standard 4-ft. 8½-in which was favoured also by the Commission appointed in 1913. The New South Wales Government Rys. (4,S24 miles) and the East and West Transcontinental Rys, (1,051 miles) are 4-ft. 8½-in gauge, Victorian Government Rys. have 4,189 miles of 5-ft, 3-in, gauge, and the South Australian Government Rys. 1,080 of 5-ft, 3-in, and 1,029 of 3-ft, 6-in, gauge, Queensland has 5,469 miles and Western Australia 3,353 miles of 3-ft.6-in, gauge, There are also 1,070 miles of 2-ft. 6-in, track feeder lines in the Commonwealth,

Highland Ry.  285
On the northern section of the H. Ry. all the N.E, Ry. engines and the L. &S.W. Ry. tanks had been returned to their owners, The Mail trains (l0-30 a.m , ex, Inverness and 8-0 a.m. ex. Wick), are worked on alternate days by the 4-4-0 engines Durn and Snaigow. The other through train to Wick usually has one of the new Loch engines, either Loch Garve, Loch Ashie or Loch Ruthven, with occasionally one of the big Ben class.

Midland Ry. 285
One of 0-6-4Ts stationed at Kentish Town No. 2035 fitted with Belpaire boiler, and extended firebox and superheater.

Locomotive contracts. 285
We understand a contract for twenty-two 2-8-0 freight locomotives for the East Indian Ry. had been placed with the North British Locomotive Co, Other recent contracts included nine 0-6-0 engines for the Oudh and Rohilkund Ry. and five 4-6-0 type for the Mysore State Rys. placed with the Vulcan Foundry, The Hunslet Engine Co. were building three 4-6-4 tank locos. for the Burma Rys, Kitson & Co. were building seven 4-6-4 locos. for the Palestine Rys., and one 4-8-0 for the Ceylon Government Rys, For the Gold Coast Rys. seven 4-8-0 locos, were under construction by the North British Locomotive Co. as well as six 4-6-4 tanks for the Glasgow & South-Western Ry. They were also commencing delivery of the forty-five 4-6-2 type locos, for the New Zealand Government Rys.

London & North Western Ry. 285.
Twenty 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class locomotives had been delivered by Beardmore & Co. and were in the works at Crewe for painting, their numbers being: 120, 123, 125, 129, 135, 140, 141, 142, 145, 148, 224, 227, 232, 237, and 239 to 244. They had been built at the Dalmuir Works. At Crewe a series of 0-8-0 superheater goods engines was in hand, They were similar to the preceding engines of the same type, but the boilers pressed to 175 psi. These engines bore Nos, 485, 742, 253, 434, 1154, 215, 216, 220, 221 , and 223.
No, 1120 Thunderer (Precursor class) has been converted to superheater with extended smokebox, and was George V class having piston valves and 20½ x 26 in, cylinders, Six more four-cylinder compound passenger engines have been converted to two-cylinder simple Renown class: Nos, 1910, 1928, 1947, 1973 and 1978, Further compound mineral engines had been simplified and superheated, Nos, 41, 1110, 1223, 1227, 1897 and 2208. No. 1912 Colossus (Jubilee class) was running with the Belpaire boiler previously fitted to 1930 Ramillies).
On the occasion of the King's return to London on 8 October, several of the newest Claughtons were temporarily named. 150 was Holland Hibbert, 161 Ralph Brocklebank, 179 J.A.F. Aspinall, 205 Charles N. Lawrence and 207 Sir Charles Cust. All except the latter had been transferred from engines of similar type, From Carlisle to Manchester the engines on the Royal train were 161 and 150, the latter being the assistant and 1682 pilot in advance, From Manchester to London the engines were 207 and 179, with 861 Amazon in advance,

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 285
Another 4-6-4 " Baltic" type tank engine, No. 329, had been completed at Brighton Works, The series of Mogul goods engines, Nos. 347-356, were now being completed, These had the extra dome and top feed arrangement, This arrangement has also been fitted to No. 551, Vulcan goods, which had been rebuilt with a larger boiler.

Great Northern Ry. 285
Kitson & Co. had completed delivery of 25 mixed traffic 2-6-0 Nos. 1680-1704

S.E. & C.R. express locomotive with feed-water heater. 286. illustration
Maunsell modification to James Stirling 440 class 4-4-0 No. 13 (fitted with helcal feed-water apparatus)

Glasgow and South Western Railway locomotive rebuilds. 286-7; 289.   illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Whitelegg rebuild of Smellie 0-4-4T engines Nos. 728-31

The Royal Arsenal Railways, Woolwich. 288-91. 9 illustrations, 3 diagrams.

G. Willans. Locomotive feed-water heating and boiler feeding. Recent developments in the United States. 293-6+. 6 diagrams

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. Chapter X. Geared engines: "Ashtonian", "Pugsy" "Chaplin". 298-300. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Ashtonian was a tiny 0-4-0ST built by Boulton for Leese & Booth of Fairbolton Colliery, Ashton-under-Lyne. Pugsy was obtained from Grays Chalk Quarries (together with Bristol and Ophir) and was in a pre-assembled state and completed by Boulton. Chaplin was an Alexander Chaplin vertical boiler locomotive. William Wilkinson of Chapel House Foundry in Wigan rebuilt a Chaplin locomotive as a tramway engine

New Great Northern train for the London and West Riding of Yorkshire service. 306-9.  4 illustrations
Gresley five vehicle articulated set centred on a kitchen car fitted with electrical cooking apparatus supplied by J. Stone & Co.

Correspondence. 311

The chronicles of Boulton's sidings. Crampton's engines with dummy crankshafts. E.L. Ahrons
The writer can add the following notes to the account of these engines given in the October number of THE LOCOMOTIVE by Mr. F. W. Brewer (page 281). The date of Cramptori's patent for engines with dummy crank shafts is stated to have been 1849, though I have not the patent records by me as I write. Nevertheless I thir:k this date is not far from correct. Most of the engines built in this country were "rear driver singles" of the Folkestone type, and of the coupled engines there were very few. No. 273 of the North-Eastern Ry., mentioned by Brewer, was not a York, Newcastle and Berwick engine, but had originally been No. 33 of the York and North Midland Ry. The date when this engine was built by E.B. Wilson & Co. is uncertain, but it was probably about 1850 or 1851. It was illustrated many years ago in The Engineer, but the date 1840 then given was an error, and really referred to an older Fenton, Murray and Jackson engine, which the Crampton tank engine replaced. There were not so many Crampton dummy crank axle engines on the Continent, as the last paragraph of Mr. Brewer's letter would seem to indicate. Messrs. Stephenson built one in 1852 for the Eastern Railway of Prussia. The manufacture of these engines was then taken up by the long extinct firm of F. Wohlert, of Berlin, who built eight engines in 1852 for the Eastern Ry. of Prussia, and four for other German railways in 1853. All these engines were "rear driver singles." One or two small tank engines of the four wheels coupled type with dummy shafts, inside cylinders and outside frames were constructed by Messrs. Couillet in Belgium. Other than the above I do not think there were any inside cylinder dummy crankshaft engines on the Continent. There was another type with dummy driving axle and outside cylinders which has not been mentioned, though the writer doubts whether Crampton's patents covered these. There were four tender 0-4-0 engines of this type on the Glasgow and South-Western Ry., for which no less an engineer than the late Mr. Patrick Stirling was responsible. The writer hopes to illustrate these shortly. Three small 0-4-0 tank engines of the same type were built in 1867 for the Western Railway of France. .

The superheater locomotive. J.H. Alexander
In your journal of last month it was interesting to read that superheated steam was not unknown to Trevithick in 1832 [KPJ: can find nothing other than Clayton's article on superheating – which makes no reference to Trevithick]. He may have seen the application of it in some of the Cornish pumping engines. An old engineering book says that an effort to obtain superheated steam was made in Cornwall in 1828, so that the duty of engines increased more than 50 per cent. Bourne, in Recent Improvements in the Steam Engine, (published 1869), says that, in 1834, he made investigations with regard to the economy to be derived from a certain assigned amount of superheating. He found that the saving in coal accomplished by superheating common low pressure steam to a temperature of over 315 degrees, may be set down as about 10 per cent. In 1837, Bourne introduced a superheating arrangement in the Don Juan steam ship. The lower part of the funnel, from 8-10 ft. above deck, was formed of boiler plate and it was surrounded by another cylinder of larger diameter leaving an annular space in which steam might circulate. This annulus was divided by radiating partitions into four equal parts through two of which steam ascended to nearly the top of the annulus and thus passed over two of the partitions and descended through the two others to the steam pipes. Steam was thus exposed in a thin sheet, he said, to the heat of the smoke box and was thereby super- heated to the required extent. Bourne discovered that internal corrosion was apt to appear in a superheating appara- tus and for this he advised its prevention by placing pieces of charcoal within them, either in a wire cage or otherwise, for the carbon will unite with the oxygen which causes oxidation and would thus leave the iron free from attack.
Oleg's superheater, by Napier & Son, 1860, Lamb & Summers superheater, 1860, and the superheater supplied by Boulton, Watt & Co. for the Great Eastern Steam Ship, are described and illustrated in this book. In these early days of the superheater "the surface was fixed at 0·3 sq. feet per cubic foot of water evaporated."
Gairns in his book Superheating on locomotives tells us that the first serious proposal for loco. engines was made by Messrs. R & W. Hawthorn. The suggested design, illustrated in that book, is covered by Letters Patent of 1839. A steam chamber was placed in the smoke box with tubes through it for the passage of the waste gases from the furnace. Two designs were described. The other consisted chiefly of a steam chamber, partitioned off in upper part of smoke box. In 1850, Hodge suggested using a large coil of piping in the smoke box. McConnell, of the L. & N. W. Ry., in 1852, patented the simplest form of smoke box apparatus, a steam chamber having horizontal fire tubes through it in line with the boiler tubes. In 1859, he suggested the use of a flue through the boiler surrounded by a larger tube, the steam passing through the space between the two. A few more patents are described, but I shall now bring this letter to a close by describing an arrangement, mentioned by Bourne as tried about 1862, on an eight-wheel goods engine, Northern Ry. of France. The boiler barrel was crammed so full of tubes as to leave scarcely any room and little facility for circulation of the water. The boiler did prime, and to get over this difficulty a superheater was carried along the top of the boiler outside, but inside the horizontal chimney, passing along the top of the boiler to the back and had its open end turned up. The superheater was composed of a circular iron drum containing nineteen tubes through which the steam from the boiler passed before going to the cylinder.

Strong locomotives.  F.W. Brewer
Re article on this subject in the August issue it is incorrectly stated by me that neither of the two freight locomotives shown in Figs. 7 and 8 (p. 220) had counterbalance weights in the driving wheels. This statement (which was made when the views from which the engravings were prepared were not at the moment in my possession) is obviously wrong, as counterweights are present in the case of the 2-10-2 engine, Fig. 8.-

Northern Ball Bearings Ltd. L.D. Pearce. 312
Our attention has been called to a notice published on page 250 of your issue of the 15th Sept. last. After referring to various tests carried out with ball bearings on the Swedish State Railways, you conclude by suggestion that the products of the Skefko Ball Bearing Co. are alone responsible for the good results obtained, when such is not the case. The results which have induced the Swedish State Railways to extend the use of anti-friction bearings are no less due to N.K.A. than to S.K.F. N.K.A. Disc Bearings, of which we hold the .British rights, have been in use very successfully on the Swedish State Railways for several years, a fact which we proclaim in our advertisements, and which is substantiated by the certificate of the railways in question, and in consequence we ask you please to correct what is undoubtedly an inadver- tence, and as such, is not fair to us and our Swedish friends. It is a fact that the Swedish Railways are extending the use of anti-friction bearings (not ball bearings), as a result of the good results already obtained with our friends disc bearings.

New Indian iron and steel works. 312
Registration in India of The United Steel Corporation of Asia Limited, with a capital of twenty crores of rupees, by Bird & Co., of Calcutta, and Cammell Laird & Co., of Sheffield and London, may be considered an event of great importance to the future of the iron and steel industry in the East, it being proposed to establish as soon as possible works on a large scale near the deposits of iron, coal and limestone in India. Iron ore of the highest quality, fluxes of suitable character, and excellent coking coal occur close together in vast quantities in Bihar and Orissa. The cost of these at the works is very greatly below what has to be paid in other steel-producing countries. There are, upon main railway lines, suitable sites for works with abundant water supply within easy distance of the deposits, all of which are, or will shortly be, served by branch line railways. The combination of these factors with labour facilities indicates that India will be in the position of being able to produce the cheapest steel in the world. At present the industry in India is in its infancy, only two companies producing, one pig-iron and the other iron and steel. Both show very satisfactory results.
The present combination is a strong one. The firm of  Bird & Co., of Calcutta, of which Lord Cable is the head, control and manage a large number of the best Indian collieries, including the new Karanpura coal-field, as well as extensive iron ore deposits and limestone areas. The iron ore lies in the heart of deposits which have recently been stated on the authority of a geological survey of India, to be herna- tites, usually appearing to contain about 64 per cent. of iron, while samples from the better parts contain about as much as 68 or 69 per cent. iron. The phosphorus ranges from ·03 to ,08, or in some cases to as high as 15 per cent., and the sulphur content is usually below ·03 per cent. Enough is known to justify the belief that the quantities available will run into hundreds, possibly thousands, of millions of tons. The Corporation are taking options on the raw materials areas, and the works will, therefore, be assured of ample supplies of excellent quality at the lowest possible cost. Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd., are acting as technical advisers, and are responsible for the design, erection and staffing of the works. This will be a great advantage, as it wilt not only ensure the continued supply of a highly trained expert staff until the steel industry in India is sufficiently developed, but it will associate the undertaking with the whole of the experience of a leading British Steel Corporation. Plans of the new works, which will embody modern improve- ments and the most up-to-date labour-saving devices, are well advanced. The plant is designed to produce 600,000 to 700,000 tons of pig-iron, and the steel works and rolling mills are capable of producing 450,000 tons of finished steel per annum, As a first step, however, it is proposed to erect a unit capable of dealing with half the above-mentioned quanti- ties, and subsequent developments will only be undertaken as occasion demands.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 312
On 24 Nov. A. E. Kyffin to read a paper "Notes on axleboxes and hornblocks," and on 17 Dec. F. Turner will give an address on "Management difficulties". Both meetings to be at Caxton Hall, Westminster.

Number 352 (15 December 1921)

American-built locomotives for the Egyptian State Railways. 313-14. 2 illustrations
4-4-2 and 2-6-0 types with Belpaire fireboxes

Quill-drive electric passenger locomotives for the Swiss Federal Railways. 315-16. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Supplied by Sécheron with mechanical components by Swiss Locomotive Works: 1-B-1+B-1 and 1-C-1 types

The locomotives of the Isle of Wight Central Railway. 317-19. 5 illustrations

Locomotive repair organization. 320-3.  6 diagrams
Plus specimen locomotive repair sheets

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Sidings. 324-5. 2 diagrams (side elevations)

Tank engine for the Bengal Iron and Steel Co. 325. illustration.
Peckett 0-4-0ST Edith for 5ft 6in gauge.

Our supplement. 332.
Note on plate (facing page 333 in NRM copy) and locomotive illustrated: Great Central Ry. four cylinder, 4-6-0 engine, No. 464 built at Vulcan Foundry to Robinson design for Grimsby fish traffic. Works photograph

Aberdeen-Penzance trains. 332
Correction to distances quoted in October issue: 298¾ miles Penzance to Banbury via Westbury and 304¾ via Bristol.

Pre-War train speeds on the G.W.R. 332
Author W.J. Scott [probably Ottley 6119] but with slightly different title. Sold by Railway publishing Co.

Obituary. 332
Sir Charles Fox died 13 November 1921

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives, 333-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
From July 1893 Marriott retained his position at Melton Two earliest Hudswell Clarke tank engines, Nos. 41 and 8 were rebuilt in 1894; the second pair Nos. 40 and 9 in 1894 and 1895 respectively and Nos. 10 in 1896; No. 20 and No. 19 in 1903. In 1906 four of these locomotives (Nos. 8, 10, 19 and 40) were lent to the Midland Railway in echange for three Midland 0-4-4T Nos. 141-3. The 4-4-0Ts were operated as rail-motors (push & pull) with old Pullman cars. For a time they retained the yellow ochre livery, but were repainted in Midland red. The 0-4-4T engines were used on the services from Cromer and from Yarmouth to North Walsham and to Lowestoft. They retained their Midland livery but were lettered "M & G N".

The Ruston small excavator. 334-5. illustration
Ruston & Hornsby Ltd steam powered

First-class Pullman cars for the S. E. & C. Ry. 335-6. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & rear elevations & plan)
Six cars built by Clayton Wagons Ltd finished in lake livery and without Pullman gangways (British Standatd instead).

Bogie pulley wagon for the conveyance of propellers, North Eastern Railway. 337-8. illustration, 2 diagrams (side & end elevations & plan)
Four wagons built for the Admiralty during WW1 to convey propellers in express passenger trains.

E.L. Ahrons. Notes on safety valves. 338-40. 5 diagrams
Naylor safety valve largely used on the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway between 1868 and 1878; still used on Danish State Railways..

Correspondence. 341

The Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. By A.R. Bennett. F.W. Holliday.
All Mr. Bennett's articles are very interesting indeed, but I think the "Chronicles of Boulton's Siding" is the best of all. I hope he will issue it in "book form," at some future date. Mr. Bennett at the beginning of his article, seems to express some surprise that, at the early period he is talking about, the old diminutive Bury engines persistently kept in evidence, although at this period, much more imposing and larger engines were appearing at exhibitions, etc. Now the Bury engmes were for their time, very capable and effective. This is of course proved by their owners frequently keeping them thirty, forty or even fifty years, which had they not been good engines, would have been disposed of after a very few years of service. Their only defect was that they generally had only four wheels, so that when speed exceeded 40 miles an hour they oscillated badly and jumped off the metals, with, in some cases, serious results. The owners however soon remedied this, by adding a pair of small carrying wheels, which quite cured them of this defect. The larger engines then beginning to appear were not in all cases so satisfactory as they would seem, but partook somewhat of the "white elephant" class. Some had 18-in. cylinders (a large diameter for that early period) and only a small boiler whose total heating surface did not amount to more than 750 or 800 sq. ft.-hence they would not steam. Others had a large boiler barrel, but very small firebox and so on.

The Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. By A.R. Bennett. illustration
With reference to the July instalment of The Chronicles of Boulton's Siding in which several rebuilds by I.W. Boulton of Longridge's 0-6-0 goods engines reconstructed at Wolverton by McConnell were described, a correspondent sends us the photograph, now reproduced, of a rebuild of one of the same type by Mr. Webb. Unfortunately the number is not visible. The Webb rebuild has a considerably neater outline than those dealt with at Ashton-under-Lyne. The locomotive dealt with does not appear to have been a Longridge, but was probably one of the 0-6-0 classes, built by Sharps, Stephensons and Hawthorn's, illustrated on page 144 of our Vol. n. We should be glad if any readers can supply numbers, dates, or other particulars of this series of rebuilds.

J. W. Boulton.
With reference to Mr. G. F. Tyas' illustration of small tank locomotives. This was probably by Messrs. Hawthorns, of Leith, as they built many of this type. The only others I know of were by Wainwright, of the S. E. Ry., about forty years ago. About fifty years ago we built some steam carriages with this arrangement of working the valves from the crank pin. The little locomotive in question was no doubt of the usual Hawthorn design with the tank between the frame. The frame plates formed the sides of tank; their argument was that the engine was well balanced on each axle.
Hawthorns also built some road locomotives on three wheels and rubber tyres as near a rail locomotive as possible, for it had all the motion work under the boiler and saddle tank.
Messrs. Walter Carter, of Manchester, had one about forty-five years ago for hauling furniture vans at a speed of about 8 miles per hour. It was only broken up about ten years since.

Crampton's dummy crank shaft engines.   E.L. Ahrons.
From my letter on page 311 of THE LOCOMOTIVE of November, the following sentence was omitted :- " But although the date 1849 of this patent was given in Gaiser's book on Crampton locomotives, the records of The Vulcan Foundry show that two engines with dummy crankshafts were built by them in 1848 for the Shrews- bury and Chester Ry. These were illustrated by me on page 103 of The Locomotive of April, 1914.

Answers to correspondents.  341
(F.T. Neale).-
The original boilers of the London and North Western Lady of the Lake class, built 1859-1865, were telescopic in three rings. The diameter outside the smallest. ring was 3 ft. 10½ in. and outside. the largest ring 4 ft. 0½ in. The firedoor was oval, with the hinges on the left-hand side of the footplate.

Royal Arsenal Rys., Woolwich. 341
A correspondent writes us that the tank locomotives hired from the railway companies during the WW1 were three from the North Eastern, Nos. 129, 559 and 898; one from the Midland, No. 1516, and one from the Great Eastern, No. 0228.