Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 44 (1938)
Key file

Number 545 (15 January 1938)

Modern developments of the steam locomotive. 1.
Editorial comment: Not so very long ago it was fashionable to prophesy the early decease of the steam locomotive, and the major and minor prophets differed only as to whether its successor should be operated by electricity or the internal combustion engine. Much of this prattle was of course propaganda inspired by commercial or financial interests, and seconded in the lay press by non-technical. "experts" in search of sensational matter to tickle the fancy of those who believe that novelty must necessarily connote "Progress"
Absurd and exaggerated as were many of the claims put forward for the rivals of the steam locomotive, they may have had some value in fostering the rational and legitimate uses of the newer means of traction, and probably had a stimulating effect on those who, confident in the outstanding merits of the orthodox steam engine, had been content to let it develop merely by increasing size and weight rather than by seeking to enhance its general efficiency.
Whatever may happen in the distant future, it is now safe to affirm that, apart from special circumstances, the steam locomotive remains the most efficient source of locomotive power in the sense of giving the best return for money when everything is taken into consideration; but it is equally clear that this agent is still susceptible to improvement to an extent that becomes ever more apparent as scientific methods of research replace the crudities of rule-of-thumb experience.
The current trend of advance, so marked within the last few years, has mainly followed two distinguishable paths. On the one hand we have unprecedented improvements following strictly orthodox lines, and on the other, the creation of entirely novel systems which frequently represent attempts to introduce in the railway locomotive features known and approved in other fields of steam practice.
While it cannot be denied that many of these latter are fairly promising, it is just as well to restrain our enthusiasm, for many examples show that schemes of great merit in themselves, and highly successful in the spheres for which they were primarily intended, manifest all manner of difficulties and drawbacks when operating in the peculiar conditions of the railway locomotive. There is a strong temptation to believe that any arrangement known to give extraordinary efficiency in stationary engines must consequently prove economical in railway service; and this obsession is most likely to fall upon those whose acquaintance with actual. railway conditions is more or less remote. The problem is to ensure that the (usually) costly construction of the ultra-efficient machines shall be compensated by savings in fuel and possibly maintenance charges, though unfortunately the last generally tend to rise in proportion to the capital outlay. Briefly put, it is an excellent thing to reduce the fuel cost by, say, .one penny per mile, if no extra charge be incurred in so doing, but if this attractive saving be outbalanced by an expenditure of eleven pence on maintenance, or interest on capital, or both, the saving in fuel is but a mirage of economy.
It should never be forgotten that the railway engine is in many respects severely handicapped. Restricted space and axle loading, and imperative requirements for the utmost security in operation, make frequent overhaul and attention more necessary for locomotives than for most other machines; hence all and every ccomplication, never in itself desirable, needs be subject to close scrutiny, before acceptance by the locomotive engineer, in whose mind the principle of dependability must always hold the foremost place.
In the claims put forward by inventors and projectors it is singular how little information is vouchsafed as to cost of manufacture and maintenance. Exact estimates of fuel saving are prominently exhibited, but when the question of price is raised, it is commonly answered by saying that although the first machines are admittedly very expensive, quantity production will reduce all costs to a relatively modest outlay. No doubt there is a modicum of truth in this; but even so, "mass-production" methods, however suitable they may be for such things as cheap motor cars or radio sets, are not likely to be applicable to locomotive engineering, if only for the reason that in the former case the ratio of cost of material to cost of machining is much lower than with heavy locomotives, to say nothing of the far higher standard demanded by the latter in regard to length of life and reliability.
Another point to be noted from the mechanical aspect is that many devices which work well when mounted upon rigid foundations and with ample room for access, develop unforeseen troubles when subjected to severe and continuous vibration or are obliged to occupy congested spaces; and this may be one reason why the steam locomotive of conventional form, with all its rugged simplicity, has so long held its own despite a notorious thermal inefficiency, Our present belief is that the most profitable way of progress lies in the perfecting of existing forms and ameliorations in detail, especially those which help to reduce the cost of repairs, and co- relatively to keep ):he engine in activity. Improvements in methods of lubrication, of bearings, and facility of access to working parts, are for instance items which though they be unspectacular, may in the aggregate make a vast difference to the qualities of a locomotive in its primal duty as an earner of revenue.

Diesel electric locomotives, Southern Railway. 2-3. illustration
The Southern Railway Company had put into service three oil-electric locomotives, designed for shunting duties. The framing and mechanical parts were oonstructedat the company'sworks at Ashford, and all electrical equipment was supplied by the English Electric Co. and installed at Preston Works. In working order, each weighs 55¼ tons and has a maximum tractive force of 30,000 lb. The tank capacities were sufficient to enable the locomotives to remain in service for a week without replenishing, They were stationed at Norwood Junction and leave the shed at about 6.0 a.rn. on Mondays and return about 6.0 a.m. on the following Sunday, the shunting in the Norwood Yard being of a fairly continuous nature. It can be 'seen from the photograph that at one end there is a cab across the full width of the locomotive; ahead of this was the control cubicle. O.V.S. Bulleid acnowledged for information.

4-6-2 tank locomotives, Leopoldina Railway . 4. illustration .
Designed for mixed traffic on the metre gauge Leopoldina Railway of Brazil, two 4-6-2 type tank locomotives, as illustrated, had been built by Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd. to the specifications of H.E.T. Vogel, chief mechanical engineer of the railway, and inspection of Livesey and Henderson, the consulting engmeers.

Great Western Railway. 4
New 4-6-0 tender engines completed at Swindon include the following :-Nos. 6851 Hurst Grange, 6852 Headbourne Grange, 6853 Morehampton Grange, 6854 Roundhill Grange, 6855 Saighton Grange, 6856 Stowe Grange, 6857 Tudor Grange, and 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 3750-6. No. 7800, the first of the new 4-6-0 "Manor" class engines was to be named Torquav Manor. Engines withdrawn No. 226 (B.R. No. 26), 0-6-2 tank; No. 1488, 0-4-2 tank ;Nos. 1523 and 1620, 0-6-0 tanks; No. 4204, 2-8-0 tank.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. III. The lay-out of locomotive depots. 5-6.
(a) Engines coming in to depot for requirements only.

  1. Take coal.

  2. Take water.

  3. Take sand.

  4. Turn.

  5. Empty smokebox.

  6. Clean fire.

  7. Engine examined by driver (coincidental with Item 6).

  8. Rake out ashpan.

  9. Minor running repairs, if any.

  10. Prepare engine.

(b) Engines coming in to depot to berth.

  1. Take coal.

  2. Turn.

  3. Empty smokebox.

  4. Clean fire.

  5. Engine examined by driver (coincidental with Item 4).

  6. Rake out ashpan,

  7. Wash out boiler.

  8. Clean wheels, motion and all other details below footplate.

  9. Engine examined by fitter and boilermaker.

  10. Repairs. (running and/or stopped work).

  11. Clean engine, other than details covered by Item 8.

  12. Prepare engine, taking water and sand.

London & North Eastern Railway. 6
New A4 Pacific type locomotives completed at Doncaster were Nos. 4462 Great Snipe (King's Cross), 4463, Sparrow Hawk (Gateshead), and 4464, Bittern. (Heaton Junction). New V2 2-6-2 type engines finished at North Road, Darlington, were Nos. 4793, 4794, 4795 and 4796, allocated ,to the Southern Area. Recent withdrawals included B15 class 4-6-0 Nos. 799 and 797; J23 0-6-0 No. 2518; and J71, 0-6-0, No. 811. In connection with the ManchesterJSheffield/Wath electrification scheme, a contract had been placed by the L.N.E.R. with the Metropolitan-Vickers Company Ltd., for the design, manufacture and erection of electric equipments required for seventy mixed traffic Iocomotives, suitable for the overhead line conductor system, using direct current at 1,500 volts. which was the higher voltage standard system authorised by the Ministry of Transport. These locomotives will be of the four-axle double-bogie type, and it is estimated that the weight will amount to 80 tons each, and that the horse-power will be approximately 1,850. The mechanical portion of the locomotives will be built by the railway in their own works.

2-10-4 heavy goods engine, South African Railways. 7-8. illustration
21 class built North British Locomotive Co. with 62.5 ft2; 4ft 6in coupled wheels, bar frames to design of G.A. Watson, Chief Mechanical Engineer. J.C. Swallow, advisory engineer in London.

Train of early rolling stock of the Western Railway of France at the Centenary of the Paris to St. Gaermain Ry. 8. illustration
Buddicom 2-2-2 No. 12.101 built in 1844

L.N.E.R. suburban services: abolition of second class. 8
From 1 January 1938; and third class ticket holders permitted to use second class carriages. Third class season tickets issued from all stations on Great Eastern Section.

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. Section 5. Dubliin and South Eastern Ry. locomotive types. 9-11. 5 illustrations
Four Vulcan Foundry 4-4-0 of 1896/7 Nos. 55-8 became GSR Nos. 450-3, but only No. 453 survived: it had been rebuilt with a Belpaire boiler in 1915. Two Beyer, Peacock 4-4-0s had been delivered in 1906 and numbered 67-8, but No. 68 was scrapped following an incident in the Irish Civil War. No. 67 became GSR No. 454 (Class D8). DSER Nos 4 and 5 had been supplied by Kitson as 0-6-2T in 1896,, but were rebuilt as 0-6-0 in 1908. They were again rebuilt in 1924 and 1926 with larger Belpaire boilers and became GSR Nos, 448 and 449, the largest 0-6-0 on the GSR. The DSER standard 0-6-0 Nos. 14, 65, 66 and 18 became GSR Nos 443-6 and had been classified as J88 and left unaltered. Beyer peacock supplied two 2-6-0 in 1922 Nos. 15 and 16 which became GSR Nos. 461-2, classified K2. Three of the 2-4-0T built at Grand Canal Street remained: GSR Nos. 423-5, Class G1. The 2-4-2T, also built at Grand Canal Street had been broken into two classes: F2: Nos. 428; 430-3 and F3 Nos. 434-9. No. 428 was rebuilt with a  class T Belpaire boiler. Nos. 434-9 had been rebuilt with Class 101 boilers at Inchicore. Three 4-4-2T, Nos. 52-4 were built by Sharp, Stewart in 1893 mainly to work mail trains between Kingstown Pier and Kingsbridge. Nos. 52 and 54 were rebuilt by the DSER with larger boilers and became GSR Nos. 458/9, classified C3. No. 53 (GSR 460) was reboilered at Inchicore. A class of 4-4-2T consisted of No. 20 built at Grand Canal Street in 1911 and Nos. 34 and 35 from Beyer Peacock in 1924 and differed in having Belpaire boilers. They became GSR 455-7 Class C2. No. 456 was rebuilt with a class 351 round-topped boiler.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 11.
At the end of 1937 the latest 2-6-2 passenger tank engine ex Crewe was No.. 195. The rest of the series, numbered up to 209, were now well in hand. Armsrrong, Whitworth and Co. had completed delivery of the order for 227 two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines (class 5), the numbers of which were 5225 to 5451 inclusive (A.W. Nos. 1280-1506). The bulk of these engines were attached to the Western Division, on which they have proved themselves ·a very useful and efficient class. The last of ,the non-superheated 0-8-0s—G class No. 9134—was converted into G1 class (superheater) during December, thus completing a series of conversions which began in 1912. As now running No. 9134 was provided with a standard Belpair e boiler and piston valves in place of the former flat valves. The following engines were now running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers — G1 class Nos. 9042, 9277, 9350, 9388; G2 class Nos. 9417, 9443. Prince of Wales class 4-6-0 No. 25749 had left the shops fitted with a round ·top boiler. Only two ex N.S.R. locomotives remained at the end of Deoember — Nos. 1432 and 1434, .both M class tanks (0-4-4). The D class tanks Nos, 1567 and 1570 had been withdrawn for scrapping, whilst the New L tanks Nos. 2270 and 2271 had been sold to the Manchester Colliery Co. At Derby the latest 2-6-2 passenger tank completed was No. 170; 0-4-0 tank No. 1274 had been withdrawn.

The rehabilitation of China's railways. 11-14. 3 illustration

Recent industrial locomotives. 15-16. 3 illustrations
Tunnel Portland Cement Co. Ltd. had purchased two Peckett 1860 class outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST WN 1919 Jubilee and WN 1920 Coronation. This followed an inspection of the Peckett locomotives at Ford's Dagenham plant. Barrow Haematite Steel Co. ere in the process of acquiring four Peckett 1895 inside-cylinder 0-4-0STs of which one had been delivered. Other Peckett locomotives included four 0-6-0STs for the Tyne Improvement Commission; one for Courtaulds of Coventry where there were seven in service, and two 0--4-0ST for the Gas Light & Coke Co, at Beckton. Ruston & Hornsby had exhibited a diesel  locomotive at the Public Works, Road and Transport Exhibition. Hunslet had also exhibited at that event.

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 18-21.

Vale of Rheidol Line. 21.
New passenger stock to be built with steel underframes

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. "Experimental locomotives for the Indian State Railways.,". 21-2.
At the meeting held on 15 December 1937, H.H. Saunders gave details of two experimental 4-6-0 locomotives, built in the early part of 1937 by the Vulcan Foundry Ltd. for the Grealt Indian Peninsula Railway, now part of the Indian State Railway system.
During recent years the Indian Railways had effected considerable improvements in locomotive working and whereas twelve years ago the G.LP. Railway averaged only 52.5 miles a day per engine, the figures had risen in 1935-6 to 72 — an improvement of 37 per cent. To still further improve these results by more intensive use of engine power, has given rise to a demand for locomotives that will require the minimum cgtention in sheds and give greater mileage between stoppings ; a regular 10,000 miles per month in pooled service, with a general overhaul in the region of 200,000 miles being aimed at.
To meet these requirements two locomotives were built by the Vulcan Foundry Limited, to the general specification of the Indian Railway Standards Committee and the Great Indian Peninsula Railway, the design being based on the existing 4-6-2 XB type passenger locomotives, first built for India in 1927. An illustrated description with the leading particulars appeared in our issue of July last, from which it will be gathered that although they are very similar in general.dimensions to the earlier engines, they are definitely experimental in detail, and, in addition differed from each other in a number of important details. Their most interesting features are probably the extensive use of roller bearings, on one engine Timken roller bearing axleboxes being fitted and on the other Skefko roller bearings to the driving crankpin as well as axleboxes. There were therefore considerable differences between the two engines. Apart from this it has generally been arranged that the more experimental features, not hitherto tried out, have been fitted to what might be termed the Timken engine; the Skefko engine being fitted with improvements on existing practice on more conservative lines.
The boilers were identical in both engines and followed normal Indian practice generally, except as regards the fireboxes. These are of all welded steel construction and are fabricated from four plates, the tube plate, the back plate, the throat plate and one plate forming the crown, side plates and combustion chamber; there being one longi- tudinal welded seam at the bottom of this to form the latter. The plates were of special firebox quality acid open hearth steel with a maximum phosphorous and sulphur content of .03 per cent. To increase the strength of the welded joints small half-round bridges ¾ in. by ½ in. by 3½ in. have been used. These were welded on all edges and fixed at right angles to the joint at the water side. Two Nicholson thermic syphons of British manufacture were fi.tted to each firebox, butt welded into the crown and lap welded to flanges pressed in the firebox throat plate. Flue and smoke tubes were beaded over and welded into the tube plate, a copper sleeve being inserted between the tube and plate. Water space and roof stays are of Longstrand steel, except in what may be termed the breaking zones where DL type Flannery flexible stays were fitted.
The ashpans were of the hopper type, which is normal Indian practice, with sloping sides arranged so that all ashes will fall into a central hopper. The hopper is fitted at the bottom with swing doors worked either by hand or steam from the ground enabling the contents to be completely discharged without the delay which has been generally inseparable from the earlier designs. Drenching pipes have been fitted on the right and left hand sides of the ashpan.
As an experimental measure both engines were fitted with Klinger reflex water gauges, with sleeve packed cocks for the steam, water and blow down connections, all in lieu of the standard gauge glasses and columns. In addition to this the Timken engine is also fitted for experimental purposes with Klinger seatless piston type valves for the injectors, ejector, soot blowers, turbo-generator, rocking grate and feed pump, and Klinger sleeve packed cocks for the lubricator, blower and pressure gauge. Klinger valves are of a patent design, and have no seating, the valve consisting of a plunger which moves between two renewable and flexible rings of non-metallic material, leakage being dependent on the fit of the rings on the plunger.
The cylinders were of normal design with Caprotti poppet valve gear, operated by a rotary drive from the main axle through a shaft fitted with Hardy Spicer flexible couplings.
Both engines have linered cylinders. In the Tirnken engine these were of Meehanite iron, grade C heat treated to give a Brinell of 240, and in the Skefko engine are of .5 per cent. low silicon iron. The slide bars of the Timken engine are also of Meehanite iron, but in this case grade A heat treated to give a Brinell of 3\0-330 is used. Although there were considerable differences in the design of the connecting and coupling rods, the rods were interchangeable. This is possible as the crank pins were identical, changing over of the rods, however, is not to be 'recommended as there are small differences in wheel balancing. The rods on the Timken engine were of standard design with bronze floating bushes grease lubricated. As an experimental measure, however, the fixed bushes of the connecting rods have been made of Skefko No. 3 steel heat treated after machining; this steel is similar to that used for ball races.
The rods on the Skefko engine, owing to thc necessity of keeping weight down, are made of 50-55 tons nickel chrome molybdenum steel; they are particularly interesting as the crank pin bearings are fitted with roller bearings. The crank pin is fitted with a self-aligning roller bearing both for the connecting rod and coupling rod; these each consist of a double row of rollers working in a spherical outer race common to both rows.
Grease is used for the lubrication of these bearings, being recommended on account of the protection afforded to the housing seals, and its freedom from leakage as compared with oil. The grease used is a soda soap grease suitable for maximum temperatures of 90 to 100 degrees centigrade, and should not, in normal circumstances, need replenishment between shoppings. Grease nipples are fitted, this has been done as sufficient experience has not been gained to say definitely whether they can be dispensed with or not. It should, however, be explained that the grease nipples fitted to the roller bearings of these engines are different to those used elsewhere on the engines for other qualities of grease. By this method it is hoped to hinder at least, the over industrious Indian Maistris (a not inappropriate name for some at least of the fitters employed in India) who might seek promotion by giving a charge of grease, irrespective of quality, to every grease nipple visible. Principal dimensions are as under:-
Cylinders 21~ in. by 28 in. stroke. Boiler- \Vorking pressure 2lO lb. per sq. in. Inside diameter (smallest ring) 5 Ft. Fin. Length between 'tube plates 18 Ft. 6g in. Thickness of platcs- Boiler barrel ti in. Firebox. .. i in. Firebox tube plate kin. Tubes- 24 smoke tubes diameter outside 5k in. 83 tubes diameter outside 2~ in. Heating Surface- Firebox 192 sq. Ft. Thermic syphons 50 sq. ft. Tube heating surface 1543 sq. Ft. Total 1785 sq. Ft. Superheater .. 504 sq. Ft. Grate area.... 45 sq. Ir . \Vheels- Dr iving , diameter 6ft. 2 i-i. Bogie, diameter !) ft. 0 in. Hind truck, diameter .. !) ft. 7 in. Rigid wheel base .. 13 ft. 2 in. Wheelbase engine 36 ft. 10 in. Wheel oase tender 2:2 ft. 6 in. Total enginl' and tender 67 Ft. 4~ in. "'eight in "'orking order- T. C. o. Coupled wheels 55 16 -0 On bogie 25 H) 0 On hind truck .. 17 5 0 Total 99 0 0 Total engine and tender 173 tons. Capacity of tender :',500 gallons water, 13 tons coal Tr act ive efTort at 8:; per cent. boiler press .... 31.220 lb.

Victorian Railways  luxury train: "Spirit of Progress". 23-5. 3 illustrations

1938 railway centenaries. 25.

The steam locomotive export trade. 25-6.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section.. (8) Stroudley 0-4-2 tanks, classes D1 and D1/M. 26-9. 4 illustrations

Reviews. 29-30

Number 546 (15 February 1938)

Rebuilt 4-6-0 type engine, No. 2364, L.N.E.R. 32-3. illus., 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.)
B16/2

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. 55
Erratum:

Number 547 (14 March 1938)

Steam suburban services. 65

G.W.R. "Manor" class, 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines. 66-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
No. 7800 Torquay Manor illustrated which had been put to work on Banbury to South Wales section of Newcastle to South Wales through train. List of names selected for class.

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 81-3.

Reed, K.H. and Fayle, H. Recent developments of Irish locomotive practice, Great Southern Railways. 83-6.

C.H.E. [Cuthbert Hamilton Ellis]. Famouus locomotive engineers. IV. Archibald Sturrock. 93-6. 2 illlustrations (including portrait)
Somehow, in his departure from active work, Sturrock reminds me of that shining example in Hilaire Belloc's Cautionary Tales who:

"... thus became immensely rich,
And built the splendid mansion, which
Is called-
The Cedars, Muswell Hill;
Where he resides in affluence still."

For having departed from Doncaster, Sturrock seems to have taken but little interest in railway work, He did not, like David Jones, keep up the railway atmosphere by adorning his house with pictures of railway engines. As for residing in affluence, he was to do that far no less than 43 years, occupying the whole of his time until he was 73, in hunting, shooting and fishing. He went an shooting until he was 85. He was a queer personality. He was a hard worker and a clever engineer with plenty of imagination, yet locomotive engineering certainly did not provide him with his ultimate goal in life. He wanted to be, not a famous engineer, but an English squire with a large country house, a large town house, and nothing to do beyond killing game.
And in this he achieved his ambition. Young Erchie Sturrock, the Scotch mechanic, gave place to a kind of synthetic John Bull, noted for courtly manners, an English accent, and skill in field sports. Even in his busiest engineering days, he was well-known for his love of appearing in sporting attire, and having once left the Great Northern he was able to live the part as fully as he looked it. In keeping with this, he fulfilled the part of a Justice of the Peace with a kind of decorous gusto, and is reported to have said that he continued to sit on the Bench until he was so deaf that he was unable to hear the witnesses. The last we see of him is a strange old man with little hair and an immense white moustache, dressed in vigorous-looking checks with a high white collar and an immaculate stock. He died in his ninety-third year, on January 1, 1909. As we have seen, his ability, originality and activity were outstanding, and his early retirement leaves one speculating on what he might have done had he stuck to his guns as long as his tremendous vitality remained.

Lubrication and lubricants. 96-7.
Convened by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers a three-day conference on Lubricatian and Lubricants, held at the headquarters at Westminster, was divided into four groups, while the papers read numbered over one hundred. The four groups concerned, Journal and Thrust Bearings, Engine Lubrication, Industrial Appliances, and Properties and Testing.
The work of summarising the papers in Group II, Reciprocating Steam Engines, was undertaken by W.A. Stanier, and the following is an abstract of his remarks.
The French and German State Railways considered that various grades of superheated cylinder oil were desirable according to the degree of superheat obtaining in the cylinder, whereas the Canadian National and English railways employed only one grade. Of the opinions expressed for superheated cylinder oils the majority favour com- pounded oils since it is considered that at the temperature of superheated steam the oil becomes much less viscous and the fatty oil is partly decomposed, the decomposition products helping in the formation of stable and resistant boundary films. Oils A and B as quoted by the French State Railways, and the valve oil as used by the Canadian National Railways, were generally similar to those in use on the English railways:
Of special interest was the use of emulsified oil, prepared by the German State Railways, from the superheated steam cylinder oil and lime water for use in locomotives working under medium loads. With regard to the oils used far journals, motion, etc., the German Railways used winter and summer grades, as did certain of the English railways, while the Canadian National and the Other English railways prefer the same grade throughout the year; one of the latter railways considers that the inoonvenience of changing the grade of oil twice a year outweighs any possible advantage and in its experience no advantage was obtained when the thicker summer oil was used. It was the practice of the English railways to use a mineral oil containing a percentage of refined raw rape oil, the percentage depending on the different classes of work and the experience of the companies concerned, while the German State and Canadian National Railways use a mineral oil only. The German State Railways use an oil of higher viscosity far lubricating the journals and gear of streamline locomotives, this also being the experience of certain English Railways.
It was the practice of the German State Railways to use wick trimmings for supplying the oil to the valve gear, connecting and coupling rod bushes, while the English railways used worsted trimmings for the valve gear and either worsted trimmings, needle trimmings or felt pads for the rods. When needle roller bearings are fitted to the valve gear in Britain, grease was used as the lubricant. On the modern locomotive the pump lubricator had generally superseded the hydrostatic system far supplying the lubricant to the cylinders and the general principles employed by the German and French State Railways and the English railways would appear to be similar as regards the position of the pump, the provision and position of back pressure valves, etc. The English railways, however, do not favour the branching of lubricator pipes as indicated by M. Chatel, of the French State Railways, for use under certain circumstances. A point of interest was the recornmendation by M. Chatel that the high pressure cylinders should be lubricated towards the dead centres, where the piston is almost stationary, so that the piston rings can receive plenty of oil. It is the English practice that when a feed is taken direct to the cylinder barrel, it should be situated in the middle of the stroke.
Most of the French Railways injected steam or water into the cylinder exhaust to reduce the temperature of the gas when coasting, and they had under consideration an automatic device to come into operation when the driver closes the regulator, whereas the English railways attain the same end by allowing a "breath" of steam to enter the cylinder by means of the regulator or through the anti-carboniser or atomiser.
The analysis and mechanical tests of cast irons for piston rings and cylinders given by M. Chatel correspond to those generally in practice on the English railways, except for the higher percentage of silicon and the lower percentage of phosphorus, One railway in this country was, however, experimenting with a lower percentage of phosphorus, also with the use of nickel and chromium.
Modern French locomotives were fitted with four rings per piston head, the German with five, while the English railways favour two or three, but experiments were being carried out in Britain with an increased number of rings. Piston ring wear varied considerably according to the class of locomotive and the type of work on which engaged. For express passenger compound engines Chatel gives mileages of 12,500-25,000 for the high pressure cylinders and 28,000-37,600 for the low pressure cylinders at which the rings are replaced. On one English railway the piston rings of a three-cylinder (simple expansion) locomotive were changed at 40,000-45,000 miles.
The comparison of oil consumption is diffi- cult since the consumption is governed by working conditions and is not on an entirely quantitative basis: Nordmann and Robrade give a figure of 0.7 pint per 100 miles for a "series- 03" (2-cylinder) locomotive, the figure for the English railways for a 2-cylinder locomotive being 1.0-1.2 pints per 100 miles.

Obituary. 97
Death of Samuel' John Sarjant on 18 February, at the age of 81 years, at Penmaenmawr. He commenced his career in the locomotive drawing office of the Midland Railway at Derby in 1872 under Matthew Kirtley, at the age of sixteen, and spent seven years in the works. He then took service with the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway in the drawing office at Newton Heath and as assist, loco. foreman under W.. Barton Wright. In 1885, he became distriot loco. superintendent of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway at Lonaula, and subsequently at Igatpuri, both depots being at the top, of the Ghats. He was then appointed assistant locomotive superintendent at Parel Locomotive Works, Bombay, and on the retirement of R.L. Trevithick, took charge- of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments. The carriage and wagon sections were separated later. Sarjant retired from the position of Locomotive Superintendent of the G.LP. Rly. in 1915. He was responsible for many improvements in the locomotive practice of the G.LP. Rly., including the introduction of superheating. Under his charge the locomotive stock was kept in the highest state of efficiency. He was a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers and acted as chairman of the Locomotive and Carriage Superintendents' Committee of the Indian Railways from 1908 to 1912, Sarjant was a keen locomotive historian and gave us considerable assistance in preparing the Locomotive Magazine serial articles on Great Indian Peninsula Railway locomotives.

Alfred Whitaker. 97
Formerly Resident Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Supt. of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway, died in his 92nd year on the 5 March. at his residence at Bath.. Whitaker joined the Midland Railway in 1860, as a pupil of Matthew Kirtley, then locomotive superintendent. On completion of his training at Derby, he was given charge of various locomotive depots on the system, first at Lancaster, and afterwards at Bradford, Carlisle and Leeds. He was the first District Supt. at Carlisle when the Midland line was opened in 1875. Subsequently he was given charge of the Leeds district, where he remained until he was appointed to the S. & D.R. in 1889. He remained with that railway until his retirement in 1911. During his term of office at Highbridge he was responsible for the re-building of the shops. He was the inventor of the tablet changing apparatus for single line working which bears his name, as well as a water leve1 indicator for locomotive tanks.

Number 548 (15 April 1938)

Post Office Mail Trains. 99-100
The working of the Down and Up Postals timed to ensure that Post Office workers could maximize their effort by switching between the two trains; also details of trains which conected with it at Rugby, Tamworth, Crewe and Carlisle. During the King's stay at Balmoral special arrangements were made to expidite Mail to and from His Majesty.

New 4-6-0 locomotives, Bengal Nagpur Railway. 103-4. illustration
Class GSM supplied by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn of Darlington to the designs and specifications of Sir John Wolfe Barry & Partners.

2-8-2 oil-burning tank loco. for Mexico. 102. illustration
Hudswell, Clarke & Co. locomotive for Eagle Oil and Shipping Co. 20 x 24in cylinders activated by Walschaerts valve gear, 3ft 9in coupled wheeels, 1262ft2 total heating surface and 24ft2  grate area. Holden system of oil firing and Belpaire firebox.

Tasmanian Government Railway. 102
Streamlined locomotives (R class Pacifics) and four coach train with buffet car with green and black livery to run between Launceston and Hobart.

Articulated 3-car diesel-engined train, L.M.S. 102
Built at Derby: demonstration run from Euston to Tring and back on 24 March 1938. Scheduled to enter service between Oxford and Cambridge. Seats for 162 passengers.

Sentinel geared steam locos., Egyptian State Railways. 103-5.. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
Four locomotives built by North British Locomotive Co. with Sentinel engines. Each totally enclosed engine had two 11 x 12in cylinders driving wheels of 3ft 8¾in diameter. The driving wheels were not coupled: thus in Whyte notation they were 2-2-2-2. They eliminated hammer blow. They had 200 psi Belpaire boilers which were identical to those used in 4-4-0 locomotives supplied in 1937 (see LM, 43, 304). The valve gear was modified Hackworth. An industrial 2-2-2 saddle tank with two Sentinel engines is also described.

[Bridge reconstruction on LMS Bath to Mangotsfield line]. 105
12 bridges were reconstructed to enable heavier locomotives to work through to Bath,

Articulated railcar, G.N. Rly., (Ireland). 106-8. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & end elevations, plan)
G. Howden design for Dublin to Howth suburban service with Walker patent power bogie with two Gardner 6LW diesel engines, Vulcan-Sinclair hydraulic transmission and five-speed gearbox. Burlingham hot water heating, Dunlopillo upholstery and Rexine finishes.

Wirral Lines electrification, L.M.S. Railway. 108-13. 6 illustrations.
Photographs include consol and circuit breakers in electricity control room and maintenance depot. Mersey Railway rolling stock had to be modified for working to New Brighton.

36-ton travelling crane, Southern Railway. 114-15. 2 illustrations
Ransomes & Rapier Ltd Stokes cranes for Nine Elms and Bricklayers Arms depots.

C.P.R. bell for L.N.E.R. loco. 115. illustration.
As fitted to No. 4489 Dominion of Canada.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. The development of rail motor car services in France. 115-17.
Precis of Paper No. 389 by L. Dumas

Number 149 (14 May 1938)

Stream-lined Pacific type locos., Victorian Railways. 134. illustration

2-6-4 type broad-gauge tank engines, South Indian Railway. 135-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

2-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive L.N.E.R. 136-7 + folding plate f.p. 146. diagram, plan.
Detailed working diagrams.V2.

Three-car oil-engined train L.M.S.R. 139-43. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Built at Derby with Leyland engines and hydraulic torque comverters. Special attention is paid to the articulation. The livery is described as Post Office red on the lower part of the vehicles and "aluminium" above.

W.A. Tuplin.  Mixed traffic locomotives. 143-4.
Modern designs: GWR 43XX 2-6-0; Gresley 2-6-0 classes leading to No. 1000

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 157-9

Number 550 (15 June 1938)

The control of transport. 165
Professor Alexander Gray of Edinburgh University paper presented to Institute of Transport Congress held in Edinburgh considered the financial performance of the amalgamated railways and the London Passenger Transport Board, and in particular the removal of the 62 bus ciompanies

Improved 2-8-0 freight engines, G.W.R. 166. illustration
38XX series: Side window cab, outside steam pioes and improved sanding gear: No. 2884 illustrated.

London & Southampton Railway Centenary. 166

2-6-0 locomotives, L.M.S.R., Northern Counties Committee. 167. diagram (side elevation)
W class diagram shows No. 90 Duke of Abercorn. Other names listed

New high-power electric locomotives, Swiss Federal Railways,. 167

4-6-4 express locomotives. New York Central Sytem. 168. illustration
Class J-3A Hudson supplied by American Locomotive Co. of Schenectady. No. 5445 (illustrated) streamlined locomotives to haul Twentieth Century Limited

2 ft. 6 in. gauge "Mikado" locomotive, Chosen Ry. Co. 169-70. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Korea: Kokai (Yellow Sea) line: locomotives supplied by Kisha Seizo Kaisha Ltd and by Nippon Sharyo Ltd in Japan

Leeds City Station. 170
The  combination of the Wellington and New stations as Leeds City: a joint LMS/LNER venture with the new (LMS) Queen's Hotel

High-power diesel locomotive for Roumania. 171-3. illustration
Supplied by Sulzer Bros. of Winterthur and Henschel of Kassel for operation over the Transylvanian Alps from Campina to Brassov with gradients of 1 in 47/1 in 50.

Miniature locomotive for a garden railway. 173. illustration
10¼ inch gauge 4-4-2 designed J.N. Maskelyne for railway in Dudley. Two locomotives supplied with boilers manufactured by T. Goodhand of Gillingham in Kent.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 174-8. 9 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Mechanical coaling plants. Illustrations of those at Colchester, York, Doncaster and Whitemoor on the LNER and Rugby on the LMS.

G.W.R. Centenary. 178.
On Whit Monday 1 June 1938 the line opened from Paddington to Maidenhead

Institute of Transport Congress, Edinburgh May 18-21, 1938. 179.
President Sir Alexander Gibb; three keynote papers: The problem of rates classification by George Mills, Divisional General Manager, LNER Scottish Area; Transport in Europe, regulation and control by Archibald Henderson, Chairman of the Traffic Commissioners, Southern Area, Scotland and Post War development of government control by Profesor Alexander Gray of Edinburgh University.

Manchester & Bolton Railway Centenary, 179
Opened 29 May 1838: used Bury locomotives with names

London & North Eastern Ry. 179
New J39 0-6-0 locomotives allocated to North Eastern Area Nos. 1546, 1548, 1551, 1558 and 1560; to Scottish Area Nos. 1862, 1863 and 1896; and to Southern Area Nos. 1804, 1808, 1835, 1898 and 1903. Two engines of J39 class had been fitted with all-welded boilers: Nos. 1509 and 1535. Withdrawals included last F8 2-4-2T Nos. 40 and 420 and ex Hull & Barnsley 0-6-0s Nos. 2412m 2540 and 2542.

O.J. Morris. Eastleigh Railway Museum. 180-3. 5 illustrations
Brief historical background: Rouse-Marten, Rosling Bennett, Archie Sturrock and Sir William Acworth attempted to form the Railway Musem Assocition. It had long been argued that if a National Railway Museum was established it could not be historically representative [KPJ this remains true]. By 1938 the LNER had established its Museum in York; the LMS had preserved two locomotives; London Transport had preserved one bus. The Southern Railway was making a start at Eastleigh in the Paint Shop with a Whitworth screw cutting machine sent to Nine Elms in 1858 of a design patented in 1834 (BP 6566/1834). There are two illustrations of this machine (KPJ: was this lost during WW2?); sectional wooden model of Beattie mid-feather firrebox patent BP 259/1854; also feed-water heater pump as fitted to 2-4-0T No. 247; Mansell wheels (illustrated) developed by Richard Christopher Mansell; Vortex blast pipe off A12 0-4-2 No. 642; gilded door fittings from LSWR Royal Train (illustrated); Adams 4-2-2 drawing (illustration: reproduced)

Breidsprecher break of gauge device. 184-5. illustration, diagram
change gauge between German and Russian railway systems.

L.M.S.R. engine casualties. 185-6.
Presentation of Motive Power Shields by Sir Josiah Stamp at Euston on 25 May 1938 gave names of winning district motive power superintendents: J.E. Wood, Plaistow, W.H. Ensor Shrewsbury; A.H. Whitaker, Bristol; W.E. Blakesley, Crewe; I.E. Mercer, Werllingborough; H.B. Buckle, Derby; H.G. Prentice, Motherwell; F.C. Anker, Nottingham; S.W. Gerrard, Longsight and Wakefield, D. O'Hara.

Early Eastern Counties Railway locomotives. 186-7. 5 diagrams (side elevations)

Railway electrification. 187
Sir Ralph Wedgwood, Chief General Manager of the L.N.E.R., contributed a talk to the B.B.C. Transport series which was broadcast on 12 May 1938. He dealt with the possibilities of speed if the lines were electrified. It was true that an electric locomotive could haul a heavy train at a more constant speed than a steam locomotive, and that over a varied line it could maintain a higher speed between point and point. But it was "5 a weight carrier rather than a flier that the electric locomotive would do its best work. Suburban electrification, dependent on the multiple unit, not the electric locomotive, was a proved success, where the passenger traffic was heavy and the goods traffic light. This was particularly the case with London, South of the Thames, where there had grown up by far the largest system of suburban electric railways in the world.
North of the Thames progress had been less rapid, but was making great advances now that the main line companies. and the London Transport Board had pooled their suburban interests. Apart from London, progress was slow — the traffic was less intense, and the pressure of freight traffic on the available facilities was greater. The capital cost was therefore heavier in comparison with the reward to be obtained. Still progress was being made, and new sections of suburban line had been electrified in the Liverpool area, and on Tyneside, within the last few weeks. Main line electrification stood on a different footing. It must justify itself as a business proposition mainly on the economies it brought with it; and unfortunately the smaller the scheme the smaller l was the proportion the economies were likely to bear to the capital expenditure involved. An experiment to be successful must be made on a big scale or not at all. Such an experiment was in progress on one of ,the lines connecting Manchester with Sheffield, where heavy grades, long tunnels and intensive traffic gave favourable conditions for success. Taking the whole of our railways, even those that served the North of Scotland, they gave a more frequent service than any other country in the world — more than twice as frequent as the French railways and eight times as frequent as the U.S.A. Passenger questions, continued Sir Ralph, bulked large in the public eye, but as a matter of fact the railway drew much less than one-half of their revenue from passenger business. Coal and goods traffic gave more money over all. They carried 190 million tons of coal a year out of about 240 million tons produced, but they carried it only 44 miles on an average; in America' they carried it 324 miles, and in India 200 miles. On the other hand, they were themselves one of the largest consumers of coal, and one wagon- load out of every fifteen that they hauled went to stoke the fires of their own locomotives.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 187
E. Thompson, mechanical engineer, North Eastern Area, is to be mechanical engineer (Western section), Doncaster. A. H. Peppercorn, locomotive running supt., Southern Area, to be mechanical engineer, North Eastern Area, Darlington. F. W.. Carr, assistant mechanical engineer. Stratford, to be mechanical engineer, Southern Area (Eastern Section). L. Hyde, works manager, Inverurie, to be works manager, Cowlairs. L. Farr, works manager, Cowlairs, to be works manager, Inverurie.

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 188-90

Tuplin, W.A. Mixed traffic locomotives. 190-1. 2 tables
Performance of LNER K2 and K3 class 2-6-0s on heavy passenger expresses between Wakefield and Doncaster.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. V. Dugald Drummond. 192-6. 4 illustrations (including portrait)
See also letter from W.B Thompson on p. 231

Number 551 (15 July 1938)

The Castlecary accident. 199.
On 10 December 1937 the 16.03 Edinburgh to Glasgow express over-ran Castlecary home signal and hit stationary 14.00 Dundee to Glasgow train leading to 35 fatalities. Automatic Trtain Control would probably have prevented the accident. The Inspecting Officer commended the Buckeye couplers and Pullman vestibules on the coaches of the express.

London & North Eastern Railway. 199
New 0-6-0 tender-engines of the J39 class, completed at North Road Works, Darlington, were Nos. 1930, 1933, 1940, 1942, 1943, 1952, 1965 and 1971, all of which, we understand, were working in the Southern Area. An innovation in the tenders of the last four of these engines was the fitting of a high back piece, with a coal gate, similar to the tenders of the V2 class and the Pacifics. The first of the new series of K4 class in hand was No. 3442 Mac Cailein. Mor and was painted green. The latest A4 Pacific No. 4901 Capercaillie was working from Gateshead. 4-4-0 D49 class No. 327 had been rebuilt with Walschaerts valve gear.

The Flying Scotsman of 1888 and 1938: fifty years of speed. 200-5. 6 illustrations, diagram (elevation and plan)
Press demonstration run to introduce two new train sets for non-stop Flying Scotsman and Sunday Scotsman between London and Edinburgh, but limited to a run from Stevenage to Barkston Junction and back. From King's Cross to Stevenage travel was in six-wheel coaches hauled by Stirling single 4-2-2 No. 1. From Stevenage the new rolling stock was employed hauled by A4 No. 4498 Sir Nigel Gresley.. The trains featured a buffet car with a ladies' lounge and toilet room in addition to first and third class dining cars. Double glazing and sound deadening materials (rubber and asbestos) were employed to provide a quieter passenger environment. Pressure ventilation was provided. The exterior was the normal teak finish, but the interior was more like that of the streamlined trains. 

Miniature railway at the Glasgow Exhibition. 205. illustration
Two 21 inch gauge steam-outline Pacific locomotives supplied by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. Ltd with Dorman diesel engines; replicas of Stanier Princess Royal pacifics and named Princess Elizabeth (painted bright red) and Princess Margaret Rose (painted green).. The rolling stock nwas fitted with air brakes, similar to those used on the City's tramcars

[Southern Railway staff changes]. 205
C.J. Hicks promoted to Works Manager at Ashford on retirement of G.H. Pearson who had been Assistant Mechanical Engineer and Works Manager at Ashford since 1914..

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Summer Meeting in Scotland. 206-8. 2 illustrations, table
The summer meeting took place on 8-12 June and included Dr Dorpmuller, the German Minister of Transport and fourteen officers of the German State Railway. The British Minister of Transport, Dr. E.L. Burgin was also present. Stanier was in attendance.
A special seven coach train, including the LMSR dynamometer car, hauled by Coronation class Pacific No. 6225 Duchess of Gloucester was run from Euston to Glasgow Central with a stop at Carlisle to change the engine crew which had been Driver F.C. Bishop and Fireman J. Greenup of Camden then Driver D. Kerr and Fireman T. Reid of Polmadie. The main interest was the rapid ascents of Shap and Beattock banks.
The Institution's Dinner was held in the evening of 9 June in the Grosvenor Restaurant, following a cruise to Inverary on the Duchess of Montrose. Both the Ministers of Transport spoke at the dinner. Dr Burgin called for simpler controls on the locomotive and Dr Dorpmuller noted that Britain relied for steam for her railways more than any other country..
A visit was made to the Clydebridge Steel Works of Colvilles Ltd in the morning of Friday 10 June and after lunch St. Rollox Works was visited where the preserved Jones' goods 4-6-0 and Caledonian Railway No. 123 were inspected. Saturday was spent at the Empire Exhibition and on Sunday morning the LNER arranged a special train from Queen Street to the Forth Bridge where the visitors were allowed to study part of it on foot. In the afternoon they were taken on a coach tour of Edinburgh.
It should noted that a much fuller account is given in J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1938, 28, 569

Electric stock, Bognor and Littlehampton lines, S.Ry. 208-10. 2 illustrations
O.V. Bulleid contributed to design of unusual buffet cars which provided tables with scalloped edges facing towards windows and revolving chairs. The bar was provided with high stools. The whole was aimed to provide a high turnover. The exterior of the new buffet cars was painted in light (malachite?) green.

125 m.p.h. on the L.N.E.R.: a British record. 210

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. Coal handling. 212-16. 6 illustrations, 2 diagrams.
Ferro-concrete coaling towers: Fig. 17 shows diagrams of those at Annesley and at Woodford to the patented design of Henry Lees & Co. Ltd. of Glasgow. The design involved a wagon tippler, a skip to hoist the coal to the top of the tower and water sprinkling to lessen dust. Figs. 18-20 show the tower at Norwich (LNER) where the tippler was situated under cover presumably to reduce noise and dust pollution Figs. 21 and 22 show a steel design constructed by Babcock & Wilcox Ltd. installed at Cudworth (LNER) and at Springs Branch (LMS). The last was constructed in an area of severe colliery subsidence and the design aimed to accommodate this.

[Lovett Eames]. 216
Re article in the December 1937 Issue, page 402, on the American single driver locomotive Lovett Eames, tried on thc Great Northern Ry. in 1881 and sold for scrap in April 1884, it was stated the engine bell was retrieved and preserved for many years at King's Cross Locomotive Depot. It was moved to Hornsey when the new shed was built and it served as a time signal for the filters employed there. Its active service accomplished it was on 11 July  handed over by Sir Nigel Gresley, on behalf of the L.N.E.R., to Mr. Richard Perinoyer , who is attached to the American Embassy. He has long wished to have a locomotive bell and is providing a good home for it.

A new speed indicator and recorder. 216. illustration
The provision of a reliable speed indicator and mileage recorder on the footplate of the locomotives working the present day high speed trains, is of increasing importance to enable the drivers to successfully handle them at the booked running times, as well as of assistance in regulating the speed over curves, junctions, etc., which carry a statutory limit. The record of the actual running serves as a support as well as a check in avoiding disputes about responsibility for delays. The Tel. R.T. 835 Speed Indicator and Recorder introduced by the Hasler Telegraph Works, London, for indicating the speed of locomotives, railcars and other vehicles, had been specially designed for flexible shaft drive.

Southern Rly. 216
Nos. 501 and 532 of the 0-6-0 class Q engines were working from Eastleigh. Four of the Schools class had been painted in the new light green l ivery and  working to Bournemouth.

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 218-20. illustration, 2 diagrams
Hackworth-Lentz valve gaer fitted to Dutch locomotive

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. I. Carriage and wagon tractive resistance. 221-5. diagram, 2 tables
Cites Pennsylvania Railroad with high loads by British standards

Great Western Railway. 225
The first two of the new series of Castle class locomotives are numbered and named 5068 Isambard Kingdom Brunel and 5069 Sir Daniel Gooch in memory of the two men famous in railway history throughout the world, and an appropriate commemoration of the centenary of the railway. Both locomotives were stationed at Old Oak Common Sheds. At the last annual meeting of the company the Rev. H. P. Hart drew attention to the fact that the Great Western Railway no longer had locomotives perpetuating the names of these famous engineers. In reply, the Chairman promised that this should have prompt consideration; apparently these remarks have soon borne fruit. I.K. Brunel was the company's first engineer. He planned and built the line from Paddington to Bristol; was champion of the broad gauge; builder of Box Tunnel and the famous Royal Albert Bridge, Saltash, Maidenhead Bridge and Clifton Suspension Bridge, and designer of the Great Western, the first steamship to provide a regular sailing across the Atlantic. Sir Daniel Gooch was the company's first locomotive superintendent, founder of Swindon \Vorks, designer of famous locomotives, and later Chairman of the Company. He was the champion of the Severn Tunnel scheme and laid the first Transatlantic cable, for which he was knighted.
New engines completed at Swindon during May were:- No. 7245, 2-8-2 tank; Nos. 4125-29, 2-6-2 tanks; Nos. 3770-74, 0-6-0 tanks. Withdrawals during the same period included Nos. 2375, 2394, 2421 and 2450, 0-6-0 tender; No. 4244, 2-8-0 tank; Nos. 4319, 4342, 4360 and 4399, 2-6-0 tender; Nos. 5100 and 5145 2-6-2 tanks. Express engines were to be fitted with an improved safety glass of the Armour plate type in order to give better protection to enginemen.

L.M.S. appointments. 225
Ashton Davies had been appointed Acting Vice President (Railway Traffic, Operating and Commercial) during the absence of E. J. H. Lemon on special Government service. T.N. Argile has been appointed Acting Chief Commercial Manager in place of Davies. F.A. Pope had been appointed to a new position of Superintendent of Operation under T. Royle, Chief Operating Manager.

London Transport 225
The contract for earth works, retaining walls and bridge abutments in connection with widening the Metropolitan line to four tracks between Harrow and Rickmansworth had been placed with Sir Robert McAlplne and Sons Ltd. Electrification of the line beyond Rickrnansworth to Amersharn and Chesham was to be put in hand, and do away with the need for the exchange of electric and steam locomotives on London Transport trains at Rickrnansworth, and five or six minutes saved on the journey het ween Baker Street and outlying stations.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section (10) 0-6-0T. Classes E1 and E1x. 225-8. 4 illustrations
Since the day in 1874 when William Stroudley placed in service his first goods tank engine, No. 97 Honfleur, the El class has enjoyed a dual identity that makes its story the more interesting. Designed essentially for freight work, as, witness the 4 ft. 6 in. wheels, the class was split up at an early date, and a number of its engines were transferred to passenger duties. The transfer involved certain mechanical alterations and additions, among the latter air brakes and the electrical passenger communication, but its most striking external feature was the substitution of the resplendent yellow livery for the more sober "goods green" that had hitherto characterised the class.
This mixing of duties at so early a stage in the career of Stroudley's goods tanks has always been something of a mystery, upon which even the authors of the "Histories" have not thrown any light, but it now becomes possible, through the researches of J. Pelham Maitland, to clear up this old-age topic. At the period referred to—that is, the decade commencing with 1877—the districts of South London served by the Brighton Company were undergoing so rapid an expansion that Stroudley found himself unable to cope with the demands for engine power. Brighton Works was indeed turning out passenger tank engines of the D class as fast as it could, and presently Neilson's of Glasgow were also called in to build numbers of these badly- needed locomotives. Unfortunately, even Neilson's, harassed as they must have been by Stroudley, who always "wanted his way to the last bolt and nut," were unable to work miracles in the way of immediate delivery, and in the interim of waiting, Stroudley had to find some other means of satisfying the Company's patrons. Particularly difficult was the case of the main suburban line out of London Bridge, owing to the stiffness of the New Cross bank. The increasing weight and frequency of the trains over this section were sorely taxing the abilities of the older suburban engines and the existing D tanks were needed in many other places as well. It was necessary to temporise, and this Stroudley did in the only manner open to him, by allocating some of his goods tanks to these arduous turns, which apart from their importance in the scheme of things, had the additional merit of dealing with first class and sometimes cantankerous passengers, who brooked no delays or breakdowns whatsoever.

Mixed traffic locos. for China. 231. illustration
Kin-Han line of the Chinese National Railways, the Société John Cockerill of Seraing, Belgium, built 2-6-2 mixed traffic tender locomotives. Coupled wheels 5 ft. in diameter; outside cylinders driving the middle pair of drivers, 20 in. diameter by 26 in. stroke, with piston valves and Walschaerts valve gear. The boiler carried a working pressure of 172 psi. The heating surface was: tubes and flues, 1,490 ft2.:firebox, 119 ft2.; superheater, 380.5 ft2; combined total, 1989.5 ft2 The grate area 32.29 ft2. The 5,000 gallon tender had a fuel space of 317 ft3 The adhesive weight was 46.5 tonnes and the total engine weight in working order is 72 tons

Electric colour light signals. 231
Installed on the L.N.E.R. line between Wickford and Southend and brought into use on Sunday, 26 June. The semaphore signals have been dispensed with and all trains over the 12½ mile section of line will be controlled day and night by 38 red, yellow and green searchlight signals, many of which will be worked automatically by the trains themselves. The new signalling was expected to be of great assistance during foggy weather.

[Obituary] 231
Death on 4 June 4 of Lt. Col. A. Fayrer Hosken, formerly Locomotive and Carriage Supt. of H.E.H. The Nizarn 's State Railway. Hosken was formerly at Stratford, Great Eastern Ry and subsequently on the Caledonian Railway locomotive staff.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway., 231.
The fourth of the new streamlined Princess Coronation class locomotives, No. 6228 Duchess of Rut/and was in service, thus leaving only one other to complete the series of five with streamlining. This engine, No. 6229 Duchess of Hamilton, nearing completion at Crewe, had been selected for  American tour, and very probably would be finished in the blue livery which was specially chosen for the Coronation series, Nos. 6220-4. Two of the non-streamlined engines. had also been turned out at Crewe, Nos. 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch and 6231 Duchess of Atholl. Patriot class No. 5503 The Leicestershire Regiment and No. 5516 The Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment had been named. Engines rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers included G1' class Nos. 9008 and 9113; also 18 in. goods class No. 8526. . One of the latter class, No. 8532, was running fitted with a round top boiler. Recent withdrawals included the following: 0-6-4 tank No. 2032; 0-6-2 coal tanks Nos. 7688 and' 27593; 4-6-2 superheater tank No. 6956; and 0-4-2 shunter No. 7859. Two of the new series 2-6-4 passenger tanks building at Derby were in service, Nos. 2618-19.

Correspondence. 231

[Life of Dugald Drurnmond]. W.B. Thompson.
Re life of Dugald Drurnmond stated that his 4-4-0 engines on the North British line had a pressure of 140 lb. This figure should be 150 llb. I used to see the engines on the Waverley trains fifty to. sixty years ago, and always understood that their pressure was 150 lb. The article in The Engineer 4 January 1878, which described the engines merely said that they were tested for 150 lb. in steam before g'oing into service, but the earlier article dealing with the goods engines, which except for the wheel arrangement were practically the same engine as the 4-4-0s, said that "the working pressure of Drummond's engines is 150 lb." (see The Engineer, 5 January 1877). It must be remembered that the Brighton Grosvenor, with which Drummond had been closely associated, had a pressure of 150 lb., and it was natural that Drurnmorrd should use it in his own engines. When new the Waverley 4-4-0's were easily the finest engines in the kingdom; the engines of the other six companies serving Carlisle looked a very poor lot beside them. The double-singles, the "720" class, on the L.S.W. were- apparently a European edition of the James Toleman, of the Chicago Exhibition in 1893. Unfortunately they were much too small for the traffic at the time when they were built, but with light trains they could run well. If they had been on a larger scale they might have given a good account of themselves.

Number 552 (15 August 1938)

New 4-6-2 express locos., L.M.S.R..234. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Non-streamlined: No. 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch illustrated: note that No. 6234 Duchess of Abercorn would have streamlined steam passages between cylinders and steam chests and was to be fitted with a hopper ashpan and deep firegrate.

Tank locomotive for Longmoor Military Railway. 234-6. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Designed and built by W.G. Bagnall Ltd. 0-6-2T with outside cylinders and valve gear named Kitchener

The Royal Visit to France. 236-7. illustration
King and Queen departed Victoria for Dover on Tuesday 19 July on six car Pullman train behind No. 915 Brighton. At Dover boarded Admiralty yacht Enchantress. At Boulogne boarded special painted blue with gold lines behind Nord streamlined super Pacific No. 3.1820 to Batignolles where the locomotive was changed to an Etat streamlined Pacific for the journey over the Ceinture line to the Avenue Foch (Bois de Boulogne) station. The return journey on 22 July started at Invalides Station behind No. 3.1820,

L.M.S. School of Transport. 237-9. illustration, plan
Opening took place on 22 July when a special train from St. Pancras took Lord Stamp and the Minister of Transport Leslie Burgin to Derby. The Principal of the School was Colonel Manton (biographical details given)..

Rebuilt Atlantic engine No. 3279, L.N.E.R. 242-3. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Former four-cylinder simple rebuilt with K2 type cylinders and outside valve gear.

E.H.  Livesay. Vancouver to Calgary on the footplate. 244-8.
Concentrates on the section from Kamloops through the Fraser Canyon through Revelstoke and the climb through the Kicking Horse Pass with a 2-10-4 at the rear banking to Banff and on to Calgary

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 249-51.  2 illustrations
Ash handling plant and turntables: Mundt and articulated types

P.C. D[ewhurst],  L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 254-6. 3 illustrations
No. 11 was a 2-4-0T (Fig. 9) built by George England & Co. and exhibited at the Great Exhibition in 1861 and was acquired by the Somerset & Dorset Railway and subsequently was renumbered before beijng sold to the LSWR in 1871: see Locomotive Mag., 1930, 36, 385. Fig. 10 shows No. 15 as numbered 23 at the Vulcan Foundry, one of six 2-4-0 built by the Vulcan Foundry for the Somerset & Dorset Railway, but only two were delivered (due to lack of finance by the railway) and received numbers 15 and 16. The remainder were sold to the Alsace-Lorraine Railways. The Somerset & Dorset pair were rebuilt at Highbridge Works in 1880 (Fig. 11)

A 1½ inch scale model saddle tank locomotive. 256. illustration
Model of Hunslet Engine Co. 0-4-0ST built by T.A. Common and presented to Science Museum

Railcar streamlining. 257-60. 7 illustrations, diagram

Number 553 15 September 1938)

Ventilation. 267
Sliding windows, fans and air conditioning; including filters to remove smoke and dust

G.W.R.. 267
Twenty diesel railcars to be constructed at Swindon with engines supplied by A.E.C. of Southall. Cotrol of electro-pneumatic type so that railcars could be coupled and provision to haul trailers including horseboxes.

Commonwealth Railways 4-6-0 passenger locos. and accelerated services. 269-70. illustration

Obituary. 270
Alexander Newlands: died Maxwell Park, Glasgow, 28 August 1938. Former Chief Civil Engineer of LMS.

Tasmanian Government Railways. "Boat Express" train and steam railcar. 270; 271. 2 illustrations

Victorian Railways, new steel cars. 271. illustration
Air-conditioned third class coach.

"The Mad Sarajevan," Jugoslav State Railways. 272-3. 3 illustrations
Belgrade, Sarajevo and Dubrovnik: reduction in journey times by Ganz three-car diesel multiple units.

Locomotives for the South African mines. 273-4. 2 illustrations
North British Locomotive Co. 4-8-4T for the East Rand Prroprietary Mines Ltd, and 4-8-2T supplied by Hunslet Engine Co. for Rand Leases (Vogelsfontein) G.M. Co. Ltd

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. VI. Edward Fletcher. 274-8. 3 illustrations (including portrait), diagram (side elevation)
See also letter from W.B. Thompson on p. 367

M. Igel. Locomotive boiler-washing plant. 280-4. 2 diagrams
A greater part of the heat of the boiler water ought to be transmitted to the filling water and can be achieved: (1) Steam and water may be discharged separately. (2) Boiler water may be blown-down by steam pressure (without recovering the steam separately). If the heat is being transmitted according to the first method it is obtainable: (a) By means of leading the boiler water through the filling water, to which the steam blown-down for the direct heating of the freshly supplied clear water is admitted; (b) By means of leading the fresh water, before its entrance into the filling tank, through the blown-down boiler water; (c) By means of leading the boiler water through a heat exchanger through which flows simultaneously the supplied fresh filling water. If the blowing-down of the boiler water is performed with steam pressure (according to the second method) the boiler water should be conducted: (a) Through a heat exchanger, to which the fresh filling water is supplied in a quan-tity dependent on the desired final temperature of the fresh water ; (b) Through the filling tank constructed as a preheater and containing at least the water quantity necessary for one filling.

World Power Conference. Vienna Sectional Meeting. 284
A paper on The Requirements and Supply of Energy for Electric Railways, was presented by Francis Lydall, from Merz and McLellan, at the 1938 Sectional Meeting of the World Power Conference in Vienna on 25 August 1938. Lydall divided his subject into four parts: the first discussed the energy requirements for electric traction, and showed that these are much lower than is usually expected, an approximate figure being 50 k.w.h. per 1,000 ton miles. Train heating during the winter adds about 10% to this, and reference was made to the relative advantages of steam and electric heating. The second section dealt with the consumption of energy for railway traction in Great Britain, which in 1937 amounted to 1,352,793,000 k.w.h. A table showed the consumption of various electrified lines for that year, with the source of supply and the half-hourly maximum demand. The third part of the paper related to the fluctuations of traction load and the ratio of the average to the maximum demand, and the author gave some interesting instances of the variations due to conditions of service. Curves were given showing the output from the power stations of the London Passenger Transport Board during a typical winter and summer week-day, also on a day of exceptionally heavy traffic. In the fourth section the factors affecting the cost of energy for electric traction were examined, and the relative advantages of purchasing energy and private generation were considered. Details of the provision of power for its electrified services were given by permission of the Southern Railway, which derives its current partly from its own power station built before 1914, partly from a power company, and partly from the Central Electricity Board, and the significance of the figures was explained.

L.M.S.R. Appointments. 284
C.R. Campbell, Assistant, Office of Divisional Supt. of Operation (Motive Power), Derby, to be District Loco. Supt., Carlisle. A.R. Ewer, Assistant, Office of Divisional Supt. (Motive Power), Derby, to be District Loco. Supt., Willesden.

London & North Eastern Railway. 284
North Road Works, Darlington, had completed series of J39 0-6-0 goods engines, the last six being Nos. 1974, 1977, 1980, 1984, 1996 and 1997, and these were located to the Southern Area. The first two of the new series of V2 2-6-2 tender engines Nos. 4804 and 4805 were completed. No. 4804 differed from the earlier engines of this class in having a multiple-valve regulator fitted in the superheater header and the regulator rod was outside the boiler, with a compensating crank about half way. One of the new engines is to be named The Green Howard, the christening ceremony taking place at Richmond at the end of the month. New 2-6-2 tanks of the V1 class completed at Doncaster were Nos. 404 and 425. The first of Jas. Holden's 0-6-0 side tanks, No. 275 G.E.R., dating from 1886, had been withdrawn from service at Stratford. Engiines withdrawn in the North Eastern Area included—B13 class No. 738, J21 class Nos. 568, 1818 and 530; J24 class Nos. 1841, 1944; J25 Nos. 1724, 1727 and 2137; J71 Nos. 1835, 448 and 498, and H. &B.R. 0-6-2 tank No. 2483.

A centenary of Austrian loco. practice. 285-8.

P.C. Allen. A Canadian railway centre. 289-93.  

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 293-7.

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. II. Carriage and wagon underframes. 297-9.

Number 554 15 October 1938)

A great century.  301
London & Birmingham Railway Centenary

D.S. Barrie. The London & Birmingham Railway: Centenary Exhibition at Euston.  302-4. illustration

LNER 4-6-2 No.4468 "Mallard",

C. Hamilton Ellis.  Famous locomotive engineers: VII. Patrick Stirling. 306-9.

Chosen Railway, Corea, Prairie type locomotives and combined mail and passenger car.  310-11. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2ft 6in gauge: locomotives capable of 70 km/h: built by Kisya Seizo Kaisya and Nippon Syaryo Kaisya

L. Derens. The Dutch State Railways Company. 312-14. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams.
See also letter on p. 367 from W. Lubsen

E. Abel. Railcars and diesel-electric trains. Danish State Railways. 315-16. 2 illustrations

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. IV. Locomotive depot equipment. 317-20.  2 illustrations, 2 diagrams

Miniature Garratt type locomotives,

P.C. D[ewhurst] . L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 322-3. 3 illustrations

4-6-4 passenger locomotives. Chicago and North Western Railway. 324. illustration

LNW compounds. the three cylinder mineral engines. 325
PAGE MISSING

Watchet Harbour. 327
PAGE MISSING

Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Harbour Line: new "Pendulum Train".  328
PAGE MISSING

The free wheel on railway vehicles. 330-2. 3 diagrams.

Number 555 (15 November 1938)

Derens, L. Description of Halls's crank arrangement:
cited 1950, 56, 182

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 322-3.

Livesay, E.H. London to Edinburgh on the footplate. 337-8.
Written as a companion article to the same author's "Vancouver to Calgary on the footplate" (Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1938, 44, 244-8).

D[ewhurst], P.C. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 349-51:

Reviews. 265

Railways to-day. J.W. Williamson, Oxford University Press.
So many text books have appeared during recent years on the subject of railways that it is not to be expected that there would be much more to be said on the subject, and indeed, the writer of the present volume does not claim to introduce new material. It is one of a series, the Pageant of Progress, and in 160 pages Mr. Williamson has condensed most of what the average reader would require to know to obtain a general insight into the construction and working of the railway system. Beginning with a historical summary, the writer deals next with the route, gauges, tunnels, bridges and the permanent way generally. Then follow the building and repairing of locomotives and other rolling stock, with chapters on signalling and operating conditions. He concludes with a brief account of locomotives on the road, together with Diesel and electric working. Criticism may be directed against some of the statements in the historocal chapters, always a controversial subject, but on the whole the book depicts a fair and reasonable picture of the development and working of railways from the early beginnings to the present. In addition to a number of small line drawings, it is illustrated with 23 half tone plates, the reproduction of which is excellent.

Heat Engines. A.C. Walshaw, Longmans, Green & Co. 413 pp.
Intended as an introductory text-book, this is divided into three sections, dealing respectively with the essential principles of heat and heat engines, steam and steam plant, and thermo-dynamic and internal combustion engines. Generally this work is very complete and deals as fully with the subject as would appear to be possible within similar confines. It is up-to-date and owell illustrated.with diagrams and figures. In view of the extent to which the poppet valve is used in heat engines of to-day, it is rather surprising that it is not included in the, chapter on valves and valve gears. An even more inexplicable omission is the absence of a diagram or description of a locomotive type boiler. As this is one of the most rapid steam generators ever produced within the limits of its size and is also used for various stationary and small marine purposes, this is probably an over-sight. This book is undoubtedly a very useful contribution to text-books in its class and should be of considerable assist-ance to students preparing for examinations in the subject, or to those requiring a cortege work of reference.

Correspondence. 367

Edward Fletcher. W.B. Thompson
Re article on Edward Fletcher, locomotive superintendent of the North Eastern Railway from 1854 to 1883, does not mention a rather puzzling matter which attracted some attention at the time, namely, the frequency with which his engines suffered from boiler explosions. It was not only with old and worn out engines, or engines of obsolete type, that explosions occurred. Your article rightly described the double framed goods engines built in 1870 as excellent, but two of them were wrecked by explosion after a few years' service; and of the inside framed type introduced in 1872—a very fine engine for that date—No. 787 built by Stephenson and No. 941 built by Neilson exploded when still comparatively new. The North Eastern was of course not the only company which had boiler explosions, but the Board of Trade inspector in one case reported that in a named period there had been fifteen boiler explosions on British railways all put together, and that of the fifteen nine had occurred on Fletcher engines. The following for one period of fourteen months shows the position pretty clearly:
Engine No. 787 exploded at Blaydon, Nov. 24, 1878.
Engine No. 375 exploded at Headingley, Aug. 16, 1879.
Engine No. 737 exploded at Leamside, Sept. 9, 1879.
Engine No. 746 exploded at Silksworth, Jan. 26, 1880.
And so on.
What exactly was wrong with the design or maintenance of the Fletcher boilers I do not know, but they seem to have been very susceptible to grooving. Apart from this unpleasant failing the Fletcher engines were very good, and if they had run into London instead of being visible only in their own district they would have been much more famous. Perhaps the greatest distinction between locomotive practice in the early days of railways and at the present time. lies in the fact that in spite of much higher pressures and very large boilers—expecially in America—explosions to-day; are almost unknown.

"Atlantic" Locomotive, Dutch State Railway. W. Lubsen
Re Derens' serial article describing the bad riding of the Atlantic class. Considering the construction of the leading bogie of the engine, it must be said that this form cannot have the good running qualities known of other classes of the said wheel arrangement. Tne design of the bogie makes the engine in question resemble an engine of the 2-4-2 arrangement with leading pony-truck. The bad running qualities of this class are well known, due to the short fixed wheelbase compared with the whole length of the locomotive. When running at high speeds suoh an engine has a distinct tendency to rolling. The. high percentage of counterbalancing might have enhanced the unsteadiness of the locomotive. The fact that the converted engine now running as a resistance car does not show greater unsteadiness when running backwards at a speed of 100 km. per hour, does not allow the conclusion that if the engine had the 2-4-4 arrangement it would have been a better running locomotive. On this point I cannot agree with Mr. Derens, for the running. qualities of a railway vehicle may be very different when, self-driven or being drawn.

Number 556 (15 December 1938)

Smoke. 369-70.
The pollution problem with coal burning locomotives. Coke was originally used (cites work, but not sources of inventors of coal burning grates), LBSCR patent device fitted to No. 189 and prerheated air used in water tube boilers likde that fitted to No. 10000.

4-6-0 streamlined locomotive, French National Railways. 370. illustration

Buenos Ayres Great Southern Rly. Class 12K 4-6-2 and 15A 4-8-0 locomotives. 370-2. 2 illustrations
Built at Vulcan Foundry and inspected by Livesey and Henderson, Consulting Engineers.

Some "improved" locomotive valve gears. 373-6. 6 diagrams

Automatic snifting valves. 376.

C.R.H. Simpson. An early Baldwin locomotive. 377. illustration
2-4-0 supplied in 1875 No. 21 J.W. Bowker of Virginia & Truckee Railroad. Fitter with a fire pump to extinguish fires in timber. Locomotive to the Sierra Nevada Wood and Lumber Co. in 1896.

A.C.W. Lowe. The West Cornwall Raailway. 378-82. 8 illustrations
Incorporated 27 June 1834: first portion opened on 23 December 1837. Main line included inclined planes at Angarrack which was later abandoned. Photographs of this section are included as are of terminus at Hayle and Truro.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. VIII. Robert Sinclair. 383-6. 4 illustrations (including portrait)

Irish notes. 387-8. 2 illustrations

W.T.H. The machine efficiency of American locomotives. 389-90. diagram