Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 28 (1922)

Key index to all volumes

Number 353 (14 January 1922)

Recent American built locomotives for France and Spain. 1-3. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
American Locomotive Company Mikado 2-8-2 type supplied to the Northern Railway of Spain and Pacific 4-6-2 type supplied to Paris Orleans Railway. The French locomotives had Cole-Scoville trailing trucks.

Electric locomotives for the Paulista Ry, Brazil. 4-6. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side & end  elevations)
3000V dc system with steep gradients: eight B + B freight locomotives and four 2-B + B-2 passenger locomotives supplied by General Electric Co.

London and South Western Railway 4-6-2 tank locomotive for heavy goods traffic. 6-7.
Notes many components standard with other classes, especially 4-8-0T. Urie design intended for haulage of short distance freight to Willesden London & North Western Railway and Brent sidings, Midland Railway. Nos. 516-520.

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. Chapter XII. Engines from the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 7-9. 2 diagrams (side elevation drawings)

The introduction of automatic couplers on New South Wales Railways. 9-12. 5 illustrations, 4 diagrams
E.E. Lucy, chief mechanical engineer introduced Laycock couplers initially in place of side buffers, but then in traditional central position with arrangements to take link couplings during the transition period and the retention of side buffers

E.L. Ahrons. Notes on safety valves. 12-14. 3 diagrams.
Ross pop type and position of safety valves on domes (as adopted by Johnson, Struoudley and Drummond), use of Naylor safety valve by Fletcher and location on coned boilers

The Peking-Suiyuan Railway. 14-17. 10 illustrations, map

London & North Western and Lancashire & Yorkshire  Rys. amalgamation. 17
New appointments on the mechanical engineering and mootive power sides, for instance George Hughes as Chief Mechanical & Electrical Engineer.

Great Western Railway appintment of new Chief Mechanical Engineer. 18. 2 illustrations (portraits)
Following Churchward's retirement C.B. Collett appointed.

Rebuilt 4-4-0 locomotives for the South Eastern & Chatham Rly.  18-20. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Wainwright D class rebuilt by Maunsell as D1 class

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs Section III. Manufacture of the spring. Sub-Section E. Centre fastenings, hoops and hooping. 21-3. 3 illustrations, 4 diagrams

New Mail trains, Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 24-5. 3 illustrations
Built at the Matunga Carriage Shops in Bombay

Sligo, Leitrim and Northern Counties Ry. 25.
Purchase of two 4-4-0s from Great Northern Railway (Ireland); also notes purchase of 0-6-4T from Beyer Peacock & Co. in 1917

Great Central Ry. 25
4-4-0 No. 429 was named Sir Douglas Haig during WW1 had been renamed Sir Henry

Number 354 (15 February 1922)

New 4-6-4 tank locomotive, L. B. & S. C. Ry. 27

Spanish three-cylinder 4-6-0. 29

The Great Northern Railway. 35. illustration, diagram
Gresley J23 0-6-0T

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs Section III. Manufacture of the spring. Sub-Section E. Centre fastenings, hoops and hooping. 43-6. 5 illustrations, 3 diagrams

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives. 48

Old Bury locomotive. 50-1.
Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Railway. Purchase made by Colonel Stephens in May 1911 from R. Hartley of 0-4-2ST which had worked at Griff Colliery in Nuneaton where it had been named Crewe. On S&MR named Hecate, later Severn.

Midland Railway Mutual Improvement Classes. 57. illustration
The Annual Conference of Secretaries of Mutual Improvement Classes, held at Derby, in November 1921, a photograph was taken. Framed copies were presented to J.H. Follows, C.B.E., General Superintendent of the Midland Railway and to L.C. Geach, Superintendent of Motive Power, in appreciation of the interest they had taken in the work of these classes.
The classes on the Midland Railway  were probably unique, as they are mainly carried on by voluntary effort on the part of the employees themselves. Each class was self-contained and self-governed, electing its own chairman and secretary and arranging its own syllabus for each session. The secretaries met annually at headquarters for mutual discussion. The members prepare papers on mechanical and other subjects of interest and utility, and the exchange of such papers between one class and another is frequent.
Commencing in 1897 with one class, comprising a mere handful of members, the movement had developed until there were forty-nine classes, with a membership of nearly 4,000. The meetings are usually held monthly and are open to all the staff employed at the locomotive sheds. Naturally the subjects discussed are mainly connected with locomotive details and working, and the classes therefore are of special utility to cleaners, firemen and young drivers, in affording an opportunity of obtaining sound knowledge of the machines they are to manipulate.
Appreciating the spirit of self-help, which is the character and basis of the classes, and to encourage this, as well as to associate the Company with the movement officially, two of the locomotive running inspectors — W. Tolley and A. Gardner — were appointed to keep in touch with the arrangements at each centre and to deliver lectures from time to time, illustrated by working models and drawings.
From time to time arrangements  were made for the men for visits to the Derby Locomotive Works on Sundays, affording opportunities for seeing locomotives in various stages of construction and repair, and large numbers of the staff have availed themselves of these facilities.
Hon. Secretaries of the Midland Railway Locomotive Mutual Improvement Classes on their Third Annual Visit to Derby, November tst, 1921.
Back Row (Left to Right). H. Horsley (York), T. Rees (Gurnos), W. J. Morton (Swansea), G. H. Walker (Carnforth), B. Doncaster (Manningham), T. H. Carr (Kettering), R. Gregory (Wellingboro'), S.W. Maltby (Mansfield), A. Pearce (Kirkby), W. T. Parke (Lancaster), W.H. Slater (Hasland), S. James (Westhouses). J. Pullan (Normanton), A.T. Beers (Wigston).
Third Row.-S. Wild (Coalville), J. W. Barker (Stourton), A. Pawson (Hellifield), J. Emmerson (Skipton), J. W. Harrison (Carlisle), A. E. Gray (Saltley), W. Jones (Walsall), H. Perry (Bath), T. Jones (Staveley), T.J. Blanchard (Boume), F. A. Morris (Peterboro'), B. Escott (Bromsgrove). W.L. Burgess (Shoeburyness), J. E. Slater (Heaton Mersey).
Second Row.-H. Moore (Leicester), E. J Horton (Toton), E. W. Penney (Bristol), F. Berridge (Bedford), H. Brooks (Burton), A. E. Stroud (Cricklewood), G. W. Hewett (Gloucester), G. H. Haynes (Worcester), W.H. Moss (Buxton), J. W. Hibbs (Rowsley), S. Smith (Leeds), F. C. Wilkinson (Liverpool), H. Oldham. (Nottingham).
Front Row.-H. Pratt (Plaistow), A. P. Quilter (Tilbury), J. W. Moxon (Canklow), V. Allsopp (Derby), Inspector Tolley (Derby), J. H. Follows, Esq., C.B.E., General Supt., L. C. Geach, Esq., Motive Power Supt., Insp, Gardner (Derby), C. A. Gilbert (Sheffield), A. G. Compson (Kentish Town), A. G. Curgenven (St. Albans).

G. Weston, Chief Locomotive Foreman at Redhill Junction. 57
After over fifty-seven years' service with the South Eastern and Chatham Railway, Weston retired at the end of 1921. He started at Bricklayers Arms as a signal lad in August, 1864, at the age of eleven years. He then became shunter, and in 1869 was transferred to the locomotive department. For seven years he served as a fireman, fourteen years as a driver, and for over thirty as a locomotive foreman. As a driver he was one of the first to work a train through the old Greenwich station, when the line was cut through to Charlton and Woolwich in 1878. A few years later he was driving on the main line, and on several occasions had distinguished personages as passengers. In 1889 he was chosen by Mr. Jas. Stirling to go to Paris to run the S. E. R. engine, No. 240, in the trials which took place on the P. L. M. Ry. main line between Paris and Laroche. These trials took place in 1889 and 1890 and were very successful, a speed of 78¾ miles per hour being attained. Weston was then promoted to take charge of Bricklayers Arms sheds, and a few months later to Charing Cross, then to Cannon Street. On the completion of the new sheds at Slades Green in 1899, Weston was put in charge It was about this time the amalgamation of the South Eastern and Chatham Railways took place, and Weston was sent to Redhill Junction to take charge of the district, which position he has held for over twenty years. Weston served under eight General Managers and six Locomotive Superintendents.

Reviews. 58

Lubrication of locomotives. E.L. Ahrons. Locomotive Publishing Co.
As a book dealing with a specialized subject, this is certainly a comprehensive and very useful work for its size. Vanieties and tests of oils are dealt with, and the application of efficient lubrication to axle box and journal bearing surfaces is fully discussed, a chapter being devoted to various mechanical and pressure systems of oiling these surfaces. The lubrication of driving rods, crank pins, eccentrics, etc., is dealt with at some length, and this is followed by the most important section which covers cylinder lubrication. The earlier types of displacement lubricators are illustrated and, after a description of the succeeding patterns of sight feed lubricators, the author deals with the various mechanical devices which have in late years come to the fore, chiefly owing to the growing adoption of superheated steam. The oil pipe arrangements and lubricants needed for superheat engines are discussed at some length and a chapter on graphite lubrication for cylinders, followed by one on brake gear and flange lubrication, completes the descriptive matter. The book is of handy reference size, and is well provided with drawings, etc., and should certainly be in the hands of all those who have, in practice, to deal with any branches of this all-important matter.

Handbook for iron founders. The Frodair Iron & Steel Co., Ltd. The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
The introductory to this book indicates that its purpose is rather to supplement the practical knowledge of the expert foundryman by matter which will probably not readily come before him, than to modify accepted practice and theory, and for this purpose it is admirably suited. The various grades of pig iron, and the constitution of cast iron, are dealt with metallurgically and chemically in as simple a manner as possible and the influence on the product of the mixmg of cast irons is dealt with at length, with numerous references to the high authorities involved. One chapter deals with the mechanical testing of cast iron, and following this, some extremely useful tables are given in connection with cupola capacities, blower deliveries, etc. The book concludes with further useful tables of a more general nature, and a glossary of metallurgical terms employed, together with a brief bibliography of the subject.

Mechanical appliances for handling railway traffic. G.V.O. Bulkeley, London: Railway' Gazette.
In this book descriptions are given of various appliances used in connection wrth railway traffic, e.g., jacks, cranes, winches, etc. The chapter on "Dock working" deals with different types of cranes in use at docks and goods yards, whilst the chapter on "Cartage" contains similar matter regrding motor lorries trailers electric vehicles, etc. The text is lucid and concise and is illustrated profusely, the diagrams being very clear.

Overhead travelling cranes, etc.. The Vaughan Crane Co., Ltd., of Openshaw, Manchester. 58
Hundred page catalogue, describing and illustrating .their specialities. Their leading manufacture is the construction of electnc travelling cranes embodying the most modern constructional features and used for working loads ranging from 5 cwt. to 150 tons. The book is compiled in sectional form, each section dealing with a definite type. Typical examples of overhead cranes and the varied classes of work on which they are employed are shown, and offer suggestions to engineers and others contem- plating installing cranes. Technical details of the construction of the electric cranes will be found in the specifications given in the book. Even for light loads of, say, 1 ton and upwards, electric cranes justify their initial cost. They form an economical proposition for light machine shops, warehouses, goods sheds and similar applications where hitherto only hand power cranes have been used. Separate motors are provided for actuating the three movements of the crane, viz., hoistin~, traversinz and longitudinal travelling. Where the span IS short anl the work intermittent, hand chain mechanism can be provided for the cross traversing movement, the power being only slight compared with that for hoisting. Hand power overhead travelling cranes are also manufactured by the Vaughan Company for dealing. with heavy loads which are used so occasionally as to prohibit the expenditure necessary for the installation of an electric crane of sufficient capacity. These are used in engine houses, electricity generating stations, etc.

Royce Limited, Electric Crane Makers, Trafford Park Manchester. 58
Received order for a two-motor electric telpher wiith self-dumping grab of 1-ton capacity, from Worcester Corporation in connection with a scheme for an extension of the plant of their Electricity Station.

South African Railways electrification. 58
Pre-WW1 suggestions for extensive conversion to electrical operation of the South Afncan Railways  had crystallized into a definite programme and a start was being made with the electrification of the Glencoe-Maritzbarg section of the Natal Line.
In June, 1919, the consulting engineers, . Merz and McLellan submitted a comprehensive report covenng electrification schemes for (1) Capetown to Touws River, and Capetown Surburban lines; (2) Glencoe-Durban and Glencoe- Vryheid East; (3) Witbank-Genniston-Randfontein and Witbank-Komatipoort.
From this report it was apparent that the most pressing case was·the Glencoe-Durban section, and particularly the 120 miles Glencoe-Maritzburg, as beyond Maritzburg conditions had been made easier by extensive deviations. The whole of .the mineral traffic of the Natal coalfields, for which Glencoe is a collecting centre passes over this line on its way to the coast at Durban and for many years the mountain section between Glencoe' and Maritzburg had been a veritable bottle's neck, with the limit of steam traction possibilities reached. Important economies will be effected by the introduction of electric locomotives; assuming a loaded traffic of 20,000 tons per day in one direction on a 1 per cent. up grade, eleven electnc trains, each of about 1,800 tons would be capable of this duty for which fourteen steam trains would have to be employed. A valuable feature of electrification in these hilly districts will be the characteristic of regenerative braking on descending grades, obviating all wear and tear on wheels and brake shoes inevitable with steam traction.
This electrification will be one of the most important hitherto undertaken, comparing in this respect with the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul undertaking, the locomotives being designed to take a continuous current supply of energy at a pressure of 3,000 volts on the trolley line.
It is a matter of congratulation that the first order placed for this important contract amounting to between £750,000 and £1,000,000, has been secured by The Metropolitan-Vicke:s Electrical Company, Limited, Trafford Park, Manchester,in face of the most strenuous European and American competition

Number 355 (15 March 1922)

Mallet locomotive Peking-Suiyuan Ry. of China. 60

Decapod locomotive for Russia. 60

Great Western Ry four-cylinder express locomotive. 61. illus.
No. 4048 renamed Princess Mary for use on the Royal Train which ran on 22 February 1922 which left Paddington at 16.15 and arrived at Shifnal at 19.06.

Three-cylinder locomotive for service in Spain. 61-4 + folding plate and 2 other diagrams

Presentation to Sir Hugh Reid, Bart by his employees. 64. 2 illustrations
Silver-gilt casket presented on 25 February in the Board-room of the North British Locomotive Co.

Piston valves. 65-9. 8 diagrams.

The "Duplex" Mechanical Stoker. 69-71. illustration, 2 diagrams

Improved exhaust steam injector. 72-3.

Albert Jacquet. "Engerth" locomotives on French and Belgian Railways. 74-6.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. 78,

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. Chapter XIV. Engines by George England and Co. 81-2. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Little England type. See also correpondence page 184 from R.R. Burgess and response from Author

The locomotive boiler explosion on the London and North Western Railway at Buxton. 83-5.
On 11 November 1911: based on Ministry of Transport report by Major Hall on explosion which destroyed four-cylinder compound 0-8-0 No. 134 which carried a boiler constructed in 1905 working at 200 psi. The cause was badly fitted safety valves and failures to check replacement pressure gauges.

New wagons, Great Southern and Western Ry. 85. 2 illustrations
Manufactured by Metropolitan Carriage Wagon & Finance Co. Ltd at its Oldbury Works: 10 ton open wagon and covered wagon (van) types

A spring frame bogie. 86-7. illustration, diagram
Gibbins' patent manufactured Gloucester Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd.

Nottingham Works of Messrs. Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd. 87. illustration
Visit by engineers and railway officials to the works on 3 March 1922 witha special train provided from St. Pancras to see new suburban rolling stock being supplied to the Great Indian Peninsula Railway; hosted by A.S. Bailey and W.L. Hichens

Number 356 (15 April 1922)

Great Northern Railway three cylinder 4-6-2 express engine. 91-2. illustration
No. 1470 Great Northern

Ramsay condensing turbo-electric locomotive. 92-3. 2 illustrations

G.W. Ry. locomotives on the Cambrian Rys. 93-5. 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Two 2-4-0 type, original Nos. 212 and 213 were sold to the West Somerset Mineral Railway in 1911 and pssed from there to the Bute Works Supply Co. and thence to the Cambrian. A further 2-4-0 No. 10 took a more direct route as did 4-4-0 type Nos. 82 and 95 which were acquired to replace those lost in the Abermule disater: these were former GWR Nos. 3521 and 3546.  

0-6-4 superheater tank engines, Midland Railway. 95-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
No. 2035 with Belpaire firebox

Recent electric locomotives for industrial purposes. 96-8. 3 illustrations
English Electric products for narrow gauge (illustrated one for working in confined spaces); another for Blackburn Corporation Electricity Works and a battery-powered locomotive fort Birmingham Corporation Electricity Works.

2-8-4 tank locomotive, Palestine Railways. 99 + Supplement (plate: illustration)
Kitson & Co. Ltd of Leeds

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding: Chapter XIV, Engines by George England and Co.. 100-2. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Bristol and are both illustrated by line drawings and in a photograph

The lubrication of a modern locomotive, 102-3.

Cronite steel for locomotive details. 103. 2 diagrams
Firebars and firebox doors.

Albert Jacquet. "Engerth" locomotives on French and Belgian Railways. 104-6. 6 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-6T built by Schneider of Creusot WN 211/1855 for Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Ry. RN 2403 (Fig. 8). In 1857 six 0-6-4T WN 315-320 were put into service on line from St. Rambert to Grenoble by the firm running the Dauphiné railways which were absorbed into PLM stoch becoming 2404-9. The Chemin de Fer du Midi Nos. 302-8 were acquired from Emil Kessler of Esslingen in 1855 and were followed by Nos. 309-25 iin 1856-8. Fig. 10 shows this type which was also constructed by Ernest Gouuin of Paris in 1857 Nos. 326-45. They worked passenger trains in the Pyrenees on steep gradients. Some wer e fitted with the Wenger compressed air brake. In Austria and Switzerland Engerth locomotives were used on passenger traffic, and in 1856 Chemin de Fer du Nord bought six paasenger locomotives from Emil Kessler of Esslingen. They were also built by Cavé of Paris and in the Nord workshops at La Chapelle. Figs. 11 and 12 show this type. They received names which are listed, some of them of major scientists including Nos. 2.406 Faraday and No. 2.411 Priestley. They were rebuilt  as 0-4-2 with four-wheel tenders at La Chapelle.(Fig. 13). Originally used on express services between Paris and Calais, they finished on local services arounf Lilloe and were withdrawn in 1910-12. See also letter from A.R. Bennett on page 216

T.H. Sanders. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section A. Locomotives and tenders. 111-13. 3 diagrams
Suspension systems for electric locomotives

North Eastern Ry. 113
4-6-2 under construction at Darlington Works weighing abot 100 tons and capable of hauling any load between Newcastle and Berwick

G. Willans. Locomotive feed water heating and boiler feeding. Secion 2. Boiler feeding. 113-14

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives. 115-16. 2 illustrations

Retirement of Mr. C. Cumming, Loco. Supt. Highland Ry. 116. illustration (portrait)
Commenced his railway career at Ladybank on the North British Railway and completed his apprenticeship in the drawing office at Cowlairs. He then became assistant locomotive foreman and afterwards was in charge at Hawick, Thornton, Parkhead and Burntisland. He was then made district superintendent for Fife and the northernb section of the NBR. He was appointed to the post at Inverness in October 1915 and retired due to ill heath.

Ahrons, E.L. The early locomotives of the Glasgow and South Western Ry. 117-18. illustration, table

Railway wagon hand brakes. 118-20. 4 illustrations

High-sided wagons for tge New Zealand Government Rys. 121. illustration
Order for 2500 12-ton all-steel wagons being supplied by Cammell, Laird at its Nottingham Works under the supervision of Sir J. Duncan Elliot.

Reviews. 122

A register of all the locomotives now in use on the London and North Western Ry, C. Williams.
Williams' previous lists of L. & N. W. Ry. locomotives have been noted for their completeness and accuracy, but the present publication, which brings the enumeration down to 31 December 1921, is in many ways larger and better than any of its predecessors. A different arrangement has been adopted, the names of the engines being given along with the numbers instead of in an alphabetical list at the end; this allows room for the insertion of new names, a feature which, now that the naming of the many passenger locomotives turned out since 1917 nameless, is being proceeded with, will be appreciated by many. New columns are provided giving the Crewe works numbers of each engine and the dates when converted from one class to another, whilst notes are also added with particulars of renaming, renumbering, etc. A list of the Dundalk, Newryand Greenore engines is given for the first time together with one of those sent overseas in 1916-7. With such a mass of figures the difficulty of avoiding errors must have been very great, but after making a large number of tests we can only congratulate Mr. Williams on the high degree of accuracy he has attained.

Number 357 (15 May 1922)

New locomotives for Portugal. 123. illustration
2-8-0 supplied by the North British Locomotice Co.

4-6-2 express locomotive, Great Northern Railway. (see coloured supplement). 124-6. diagram (side elevation) 

Great Western Railway, combined engine and crane, 127-8. illustration, diagram (side elelvation)
No. 16 Hercules; credited to Collett: 0-6-4CT

Swindon Marlborough and Andover Ry. 0-6-0 tank engine. 130

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. 131-3. 6 diagrams

2-8-4 tank locomotive, Palestine Ry. 135-9. 3 diagrams (including side & front elevations and sections)
Six locomotives supplied by Kitson & Co. Ltd. of Leeds for the steeply graded line from Ludd to Jerusalem

Inspection saloon, Gold Coast Railway. 149-50. 3 illustrations

Contractors' side tipping wagon. 153. illustration
Ship Canal type with Ruston on side  

Number 358 (15 June 1922)

2 Cylinder Compound Locomotives of the Buenos Ayres Railway. 155-6

NSWGR Turbo Generators. 156

Three-cylinder express locomotives, Caledonian Railway. 157-8 + supplement (plate)
Plate: Works official photograph

Dewrance's Bronze Injector Clack box, 158

G. Willans. Feed water heating & boiler Feeding, 159-60

Oil Fired Bell Industrial Locomotive. 162

The Chronicles of Boulton's Siding, 163

The Treffry Viaduct. 167-9

Metallic asbestos packing. 169

High Production Work in Railway Shops.

Albert Jacquet. "Engerth" locomotives on French and Belgian Railways. 173-4

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. 175

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives. 177-8.
Ivatt 0-6-0 and No. 9 4-4-2T

New 'Baltic' Tank for Glasgow & South Western. 178.

Palestine Railway rolling stock. 179.
First class carriage

70-ton trolley wagon, North Eastern Railway. 182-3

A new locomotive sandbox. 183-4. diagram
James Southworth, an engine driver at Wigan (L&YR) invented an improved sandbox and claimed to be patented, but not traced

Joseph Henry Bowles. 184
Locomotive Superintendent, Peterborogh Great Eastern Railway, retired after 47 years service.

T.G. Moore. 184
Train Lighting Department, North Eastern Railway, York. Death

Correspondence. 184

Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. R.R Burgess.
1n his article dealing with England & Co., A.R Bennett says that many locomotives have been constructed in London although private builders have been few. I should be glad if he would be good enough to give a list of the railway shops at which these numerous engines were produced, and also, if possible, say how many were turned out at each place. And has he any idea how many England & Co. built from first to last

Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. A.R. Bennett
Replying to R.R. Burgess, locomotives had been built by four Railway Companies in London, viz. (in order of importance), by G.E.R, Stratford; L. & S.W.R, Nine Elms; L.C. & D.R, Longhedge; N.L.R, Bow. The L.B. & S.C.R are likewise said to have turned out at least one at Battersea. I cannot say how many were built at each place, but histories of the first three have been published in The Locomotive, from which some idea might probably be gleaned. Neither can I remember how many were constructed by England and Co. If the works numbers of the Cudworth engines accepted by the S.E.R, or of the two delivered to the Somerset and Dorset Railway, could be ascertained an addition of ten or twelve would nearly represent the sum total since, after the strike, England did little more than alter the Cudworth engines thrown on his hands to suit customers and build a few of his small standard tanks.

East and West Junction Railway. J. Bradshaw. 184
Referring to your article of April 15th, 1922, on the old East and West Junction Railway, there was an engine hired from the late Mr. Isaac Boulton, a tank engine named Wellington. The driver, who came with her. was a John Whitehead, who has long since been dead.
There was also an engine from the Somerset and Dorset Railway which only ran one trip, and to the best of my recollection, this was a six-wheeled coupled goods engine, with outside frames and built by Messrs. Fox, Walker & Co., Bristol. After this engine ran one trip, and while shunting in Stratford-on-Avon goods yard, the leading tyre came off. It was then sent back. No other engine was supplied to this company beyond the one already mentioned from Mr.Isaac Boulton.
I do not remember reading the article which appeared in your magazine some years back, but I have a good recollection of the first lot of engines which were delivered by Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1873, at which time my father was in charge of the locomotive department there. Douglas. Loco. Supt., Isle of Man Ry.

The early locomotives of the G. & S. W. Ry. C. Chambers
Re E.L. Ahrons' article on the early locos of the above. I have possessed a list for many years, including the names of all except No. 15, which I have not so far been able to trace. I have cylinders and wheel dimensions, dates and types, also the builders of all but four, which I think must be those referred to by your contributor as being built by Thomas Edington & Sons — the numbers are 7, 8, 10 and 15. No. 7 was rebuilt in 1852 as a four-coupled 15-in. by 20-in. cylinders; No. 8 was rebuilt in 1851 as a 6-ft. single with 15-in. by 20-in. cylinders. Nos. 10 and 15 were both sold in 1851. This might be a means of tracing the latter two if names of purchasers are available. See also Editorial response page 211.

Number 359 (15 July 1922)

Great Central Railway locomotives for burning pulverized coal and colloidal fuel. 187-91. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
J.G. Robinson paper presented at Institute of Transport Congress

"Mogul" locomotive for the Central Uruguay Ry. 191-2. illustration
Beyer Peacock Co. Ltd oil-buring locomotive with Belpaire firebox and Willans feed water heating appartus

"Pacific" type locomotives for the North Eastern Ry. 192. diagram (side and front elevations)
Suggests enlarged S3 class 4-6-0: no mention of Raven

Floating stuffing box and gland for "asbestos metallic" packing. 193. 2 diagrams

London & North Western Ry. 193
The last ten of the order for ninety 4-6-0 passenger engines (Prince of Wales class) have now been delivered by Beardmore & Co., as follows : Nos. 53, 197, 433, 614, 1083, 1320, 1323, 1344, 1742 and 2043.
At Crewe, a new series of 0-8-0 superheater goods engines (G2 class) had been completed, and would be in service, Nos. 134, 869, 2047, 2050, 2171, 2226, 2255, 2367, 2371 and 2372. Work was also in hand on a further series of similar engines, the first five of which to bear Nos. 344, 872, 2182, 895 and 994.
Additional 4-6-0 passenger engines have been named, as follows: Prince of Wales class; No. 1290 Lucknow, 1694 Premier, 522 Stentor and 2516 Dalton; Claughton class: No. 2230 Clio and No. — Vindictive. No. 2051 Delamere (Precursor class) had been simplified and superheated and is now similar to the George V class. Nos. 1917 Inflexible and 1924 Powerful (Jubilee class) had been converted to two-cylinder simple, Renown class. The following four-cylinder compound mineral engines had been converted to 0-8-0 superheater, G1 class: Nos. 640 and 1278, 0-8-0 B class, and No. 2114, 2-8-0 F class.

New passenger tank locomotives, Glasgow and South Western Railway. 194-8 + folding plate (detailed walking drawing). illustration, 2 diagrams (including front & side elevations)
Robert H. Whitelegg Baltic 4-6-4T including a trial run from St. Enoch to Carlisle and return with a load in excess of 300 tons (greater on some of less steeply graded sections. Includes a gradient profile.

Berliet motor car for French light railways. 198. illustration
Petrol-engine four-wheel rail bus capable of hauling a four-wheel coach demonstrated between Lyons and Cremieu on 22 May 1922.

Electric locomotives. 199-202.
The following is an abstract from a lengthy paper on the above subject, read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers at the Paris meeting (June, 1922) by Sir Vincent Raven, chief mechanical engineer of the North Eastern Ry. The complete design of an electric locomotive is a combination of mechanical and electrical engineering. The mechanical portions definitely affect the design of the electrical portions and vice versa, and each portion has to be' worked out in detail. Dealing with the principal three classes — (1) shunting, (2) freight, and (3) passenger locomotives — it is not practicable to confine any class strictly to the duties for which it was primarily designed. A passenger locomotive should be able on occasion, to haul goods trains, and freight locomotives frequently have to do shunting duties. One of the most impor- tant points in considering any design is whether the locomotive is well adapted for dealing economically and conveniently with two or more different classes of traffic.
Shunting Locomotives. — A maximum speed of 25 miles per hour is ample, but they should be able to move the heaviest trains in use. The tractive power must, of course, be limited by the strength of the standard draw-gear, and this consideration determines the weight on the drivers. On British railways it is not possible to go much beyond 30,000 lb. drawbar pull, and an adhesive weight of 60 to 65 tons should be sufficient. Compared with steam locomotives usually employed in goods yards this is a substantial increase, but it is of advantage to have plenty of adhesive weight in order to start trains rapidly and thus speed up shunting operations. For these locomotives the design should not be complicated by considerations of steady running, and should be as simple as possible, and, if practicable, the whole weight should be on the driving axles.
The simplest arrangement is the double bogie design, each bogie carrying a pair of geared motors. The construction is cheap and the maintenance easy, due to the facility with which a bogie can be removed for overhaul or repair of the motors, and a spare bogie substituted. The buffers and drawgear may be mounted on the body, and the tractive effort trans- mitted from the driving wheels through the bogie centres; or the drawgear may be fixed to the outer end frames of the bogies, and the inner end frames connected together by an articulating joint, thus removing all buffing stresses from the body.
The North Eastern Ry. has had in use at Newcastle, for seventeen years, two shunting electric locos. which have given extraordinarily good results. They are of the double bogie (0-4-4-0) type, with buffers and drawgear mounted on the body. Data not reproduced herein
The locomotive is capable of hauling a load of 335 tons on the level at 14 m.p.h., and of starting up a gradient of 1 in 25 with a trailing load of 166 tons, and of hauling this load up the same gradient at 9·5 m.p.h. They have been in service since 1905, and have been in the shops only three times for thorough overhaul. Their daily duty consists of about 14½ hours shunting work, and 2 hours running with trains. Including the time for preparing, stabling, running to and from the shed, their daily service occupies about 18 hours, and, if required, they could do more. For the whole of 1921 the average cost per engine for repairs, inspection, preparing, cleaning, etc. was £\03. This figure is rather high, as it included some special repairs to one of the locomotives, which would not be required in an ordinary year. For the year 1921 the corresponding figure for the steam locomotives doing the same class of work, would be £610.
Freight or goods locomotives. — The conditions which govern the design of freight locomotives differ in different countries, mainly in respect of the strength. of the standard draw-gear and the use of power brakes on goods wagons. On British railways it is useless to design a locomotive for more than 30,000 lb. tractive effort, whereas in the U.S.A. there is no objection to a 120,000 lb. pull. In other countries the drawgear strength may be intermediate between these figures; for example, in South Africa a pull of 60,000 lb. is considered practicable.
The question of the speed to be provided for is a point for careful consideration. One of the great advantages of electrification on a railway is the possibility afforded of speeding up the slow moving traffic. By increasing the average speed of the goods trains, the length of time lying in sidings for passenger trains to pass can, in general, be greatly reduced, as shorter intervals can be utilized. When a line reaches the point of congestion, the capacity can be increased by quadrupling or by electrification. The former is a very costly matter, and even if it relieves the congestion, the many advantages obtainable by electrification are not secured.
The only practicable way to effect any substantial increase in the average speed of goods trains, which, owing to the absence of power brakes on the wagons, cannot exceed 35 m.p.h. on the level, is to increase the speed up the gradients. This can be done by providing a sufficiently powerful locomotive and designing it for the speed required.
Where conditions are different, as in the U.S.A., it is economical to have much heavier trains. The Pennsylvania Ry. has built an experimental locomotive of 4,800 H.P. capacity, which is intended, with the assistance of a similar locomotive pushing at the rear, to take a train of 3,500 tons up a 1 in 50 gradient 12 miles long, at about 20 miles per hour, or a train of 5,600 tons up a 1 in 100 gradient, 24 miles long at about the same speed.
The North Eastern Railway in 1914 built ten freight engines for working mineral traffic. These are of the double bogie (0-4-4-0) type, the two bogies, being articulated, carry the buffers and drawgear on their outer ends. 1500 D.C.  {full data not reproduced herein)
In dealing with mineral traffic five electric engines can do the work formerly done by thirteen steam engines. The cost of repairs, shed charges, etc. during the year 1920 amounted to 1½d. per engine mile, of which repairs were a little over 1 penny and shed charges slightly under ½d. The corresponding figures for the same year for steam engines doing similar work were about 11½d. per engine mile total, of which the repairs alone would cost about 8d. The present-day costs are considerably below those ruling in 1920, and are estimated by the author to be about 30 per cent. less.
The author gave particulars of various electric freight locomotives in France, Switzerland, Italy and America. A design for the Paulista Ry. of Brazil had two articulated bogies, each with three driving axles and three motors. This arrangement is a development of the older design to obtain a greater tractive effort than is possible with four driving axles, without any substantial departure from the simple method of drive by individual motors geared to the axles. The use of six motors enables the speed to be controlled over a wide range. The motors can be grouped-(1) all in series; (2) three in series, two in parallel; (3) two in series, three in parallel. With each grouping, two speeds can be obtained by suitable alteration in the strength of the motor fields. Thus six different speeds, ranging from about 6 to 21½ miles per hour, can be obtained with the same tractive effort of about 30,000 lb. Provision is also made for the use of regenerative braking by converting the motors into generators when descending a gradient.
The freight locomotives for use through the St. Gothard tunnels in Switzerland are of the 2-6-6-2 type, and in some respects resemble the 2-8-8-2 locomotive on the Pennsylvania R.R. There are two pairs of motors, each pair being geared to a single jack shaft by single gearing. This jack-shaft is connected by cranks and side rods, arranged on a special system, to three driving axles.
The latest development in Switzerland is on the principle of the Quill Type Drive. These have no side rods.
In comparing the various designs, the first point to be considered is whether the motors drive direct or through gearing. The cost of the motors alone is about 30 to 40 per cent. of the total cost of the locomotive. Any design, therefore, which involves an unnecessarily large and costly motor is clearly at a disadvantage. For a given horse-power the lightest and cheapest motor is, in general, the motor which runs at the highest speed. For a freight locomotive a suitable motor speed can only be obtained by the use of gearing, unless the armature has a diameter about twice that of the driving wheel. The latter alternative leads to an unwieldy and expensive design. The majority of recent designs use geared motors, whether they are geared directly to the driving axles, or transmit their power through jack-shafts and coupling rods. In the author's opinion. the use of gearing, which is now highly efficient and has a long life, is an essential feature of a satisfactory design.
The use of cranks and side-rods for a freight locomotive is not a necessity. The design of the Paulista locomotive, referred to above, is one example of what can be done to produce high-powered locomotives without having recourse to cranks and coupling rods. The advocates of transmission by some form of coupling rod contend that it reduces the proportion of dead weight on the track, as the whole weight of the motor is carried by springs, and that, by grouping two, three or more axles together, and connecting them to one or two motors, larger and pro rata cheaper motors can be used than would be possible with, individual drive.
The importance of keeping down the dead weight has been over-estimated. It is obvious that the less the dead weight the easier is the locomotive on the track at the joints and crossings. But the track has to withstand the shock due to the passage of the whole train, not only of the locomotive. A full-sized train on British railways will have more than 100 axles without counting those of the locomotive, and it is difficult to believe that a little extra dead weight on the four axles of the locomotive alone will make any appreciable difference to the wear and tear of the track. It is much more likely that the life of the rails will be determined by the gradual wearing away of the head of the rail, and in places by the reduction in area due to flange friction.
It must be remembered that on steam freight locomotives the dead weight on a pair of driving wheels is as much as 4 tons with a wheel diameter of about 4 ft. 6 in., and for steam passenger locomotives may be as much as 6 tons. For an electric freight locomotive, such as that of the North Eastern Ry., the dead weight with 4-ft. wheels is not more than 4½ tons.
As to the advantage obtainable by the use of one or two large motors, instead of two or four smaller motors, while it is true that, other things being equal, the cost per horse-power falls as the size increases, the difference in favour of the larger motor is more than offset by the extra cost of the mechanical parts, the jack-shaft with its cranks and bearings, and the various coupling rods with their bearings. Further, the framework of the bogie carrying the axle and jack- shaft bearings must be made specially strong and massive to stand up to the reciprocating stresses inherent in this system of drive.
Apart from first cost the question of maintenance cost is of great importance. It is essential that the jack-shaft bearings should be kept in proper adjust- ment and good condition, and the permissible wear of the brasses is small. If the locomotive has to come in frequently for adjustment and relining the bear- ings, the cost of upkeep is considerably increased. Electric locomotives should be regarded as fit for the road at all times, subject to proper lubrication, attention to the brakes and periodical cleaning, inspection and turning of tyres.
The author is, therefore, definitely of opinion that for British railway conditions, the most suitable and satisfactory arrangement for an electric freight loco- motive is the design with two four-wheeled bogies articulated together, each bogie containing two motors geared to the two axles without any coupling rod transmission.
On other railways, where the strength of the draw-gear permits a greater drawbar pull, a similar arrange- ment, but with three-axle bogies, seems to be the best, provided there is no objection to a rigid wheelbase of about 14 ft. If a short wheel base is essential and the desired tractive effort makes it necessary to have 180 tons on the drivers, three double bogie locomotives can be coupled together and operated as one.
Passenger Locomotives.—It is hardly possible to arrive at any definite conclusion in regard to the best design of locomotive for all sorts of passenger traffic, owing to variations in weights of trains, gradients, etc. Speeds vary, some expresses maintaining a speed of over 60 m.p.h. for considerable distances, while local trains average about 30 m.p.h. with frequent stops.
A locomotive of unsuitable design may start oscillating or "nosing," and the oscillations may reach such a degree as to injure the track or the locomotive. It cannot be said that there is yet any complete understanding as to the origin of the trouble, or agreement as to the best way of guarding against it.
It may at first sight seem obviously wrong to have only one class of locomotive for heavy fast expresses and for light local trains. A heavy express locomotive is necessarily somewhat expensive, and it is clearly not economical to use it regularly for light duty. On the other hand there is much ad- vantage in keeping down as much as possible the number of classes of locomotives. For British railways it is best to use the same engine for all expresses and fast trains running considerable distances without stopping, and to equip a sufficient number of trains as multiple unit trains without locomotives for the local passenger service. If this is done, the advantages of electrification can be obtained for both classes of passenger traffic economically and conveniently.
For the North Eastern Ry. an experimental electric express locomotive has been completed. This is of the 4-6-4 type with driving wheels 6 ft. 8 in. dia. and bogie wheels 3 ft. 7¼ in. dia. The weight on each pair of driving wheels is 18 tons 10 cwt. and on each pair of bogie wheels 11 tons 12 cwt. 2 qr. The electrical equipment consists of three pairs of motors, each motor having a capacity of 300 H.P., so that the total capacity of the locomotive (one hour rating) is 1,800 H.P. measured at the tread of the wheels.
The use of three pairs of motors enables a wide range of speed to be obtained, as in the freight locomotives for the Paulista Ry., by grouping the six motors- (1) all in series; (2) three in series, two in parallel; (3) two in series, three in parallel. With each grouping provision is made in the control equipment for regulating the speed by reducing the excitation of the motor fields. Thus, there are for each grouping four different degrees of excitation, viz., full field, 18 per cent. reduction, 31 per cent. reduction, and 40 per cent. reduction. With this arrangement twelve different speeds are available for any particular value of the tractive effort.
The maximum tractive effort corresponding to a speed of 65 m.p.h. is 8,400 lb. or 3¾ tons. The tractive resistance of the locomotive alone at this speed, including that due to windage, should not be more than about 1,600 lb. The drawbar pull would therefore be about 6,800 lb., equivalent to about 15 lb. per ton for a 450-ton train. This should be ample to maintain a speed of 65 m.p.h. on the level under ordinary conditions of weather. Three distinct types of electric express passenger engines have been constructed :-
(a) Geared locomotives with twin motors and quills.
(b) Gearless locomotives with the motor armatures built on the driving axles.
(c) Gearless locomotives with transmission by con- necting rods. The North Eastern locomotive belongs to the first type. Each pair of motors is mounted in the frame- work immediately above the corresponding driving axle. Concentric with this axle is a hollow shaft or "quill," carrying at each end a "spider." The arms of the spider mesh with the spokes of the driving wheels, and are connected to them by springs called the " quill springs." The quill carries a gear wheel which engages with the two pinions of the pair of motors. The" quill" runs in "suspension" bearings, which form part of the motor frame, and the distance between the gear centres is thus definitely maintained. This arrangement allows a pair of motors to be geared to a single driving axle through a flexible connection, allowing the axle to move up and down on the axlebox guides without transmitting the movement to the motors. The dead weight on the track is thus reduced to a minimum.
For heating the passenger coaches the North Eastern locomotive has a specially designed boiler in which steam is produced electrically, and is the first electric boiler for this purpose in which the heating elements are designed for direct current at 1,500 volts. The boiler is of the five tube type, each tube containing a heating element consisting of a tube of quartz in the interior of which is a spiral of high-resistance wire. The boiler contains one hundred and forty-four of these elements, and switchgear is provided so that the number of elements in circuit can be reduced as desired. The maximum output is about 1,000 lb. of steam per hour at 120-lb. pressure.
Locomotives of the other types (b) and (c) have been built for various railways on the Continent of Europe and in America, and are described with diagrams in the paper. The paper concludes with an interesting comparison of the three types (a), (b) and (c). The advantage of the quill drive may be stated as follows :- The dead weight on the track is reduced to a mini- mum as the motor is entirely spring-borne. The motors are geared, and therefore can be designed for a satis- factory peripheral speed, and the centre of gravity of the locomotive is reasonably high, owing to the use of driving wheels of large diameter, and the mounting of the motors above the centres of the drawing axles. The gearless locomotive has the following advantages :-The electrical equipment is extremely simple, without special armature shafts, armature bearings, suspension bearings, etc. There is no expensive quill with spiders and quill springs. These points tend to compensate for the higher cost of the motor itself, which, by reason of its low peripheral speed, is comparatively expensive. It is also claimed that the simplicity of the electrical arrangements leads to lower cost of maintenance than is possible with a geared motor combined with quill drive.
In the third type, in which the power is transmitted to the driving wheels through cranks and coupling rods, the disadvantages have already been mentioned in connection with freight locomotives. As the cranks ana coupling rods cannot be exactly balanced, the high speed due to the small driving wheels is liable to give rise to considerable vertical oscillations. The maintenance cost of the various crank pin and jack-shaft bearings, etc., would be unduly high. In the author's opinion the choice at present lies between the quill drive and the gearless locomotive, but further experience is necessary before any decisive opinion can be expressed.
The question of the possibility of oscillations or " nosing" of the locomotive when running at high speeds has also to be considered. Experience in the U.s.A., we are assured, has proved that an electric locomotive cannot travel satisfactorily at such speeds as 70 to 75 m.p.h. if the wheel arrangement is sym- metrical. For example a 4-6-2 type might perhaps be satisfactory, whereas a 4-6-4 type would not. This is an important point, seeing that one of the advantages of electric working is that there is no necessity for turning the locomotive at the end of the journey, and this is only possible if it can run equally well in both directions. For such speeds it might be quite satisfactory to run a 4-6-2 locomotive with the bogie leading, but not with the bogie trailing. It is difficult to find any satisfactory explanation of the difficulties which have been experienced in the U.S.A. in this direction, especially in view of the fact that there are on British and Continental railways a number of symmetrical locomotives capable of run- ning at high speeds. On the London, Brighton and South Coast Ry. and on the Northern of France Ry. there are engines of 'the 4-6-4 type, on which tests have shown no oscillation difficulties, and the North Eastern 4-4-4 tank engines have run up to 70 m.p.h. without ill effects.
In view of this there must be some cause which gives rise to violent oscillations on symmetrical electric locomotives in the U.S.A. which are absent when symmetrical engines are run in Europe. It appears to the author that the oscillation can only arise from the fact that there is a periodic disturbance tending to set up horizontal oscillations, the frequency of this disturbance being the same as the natural frequency of the locomotive in oscillating in a hori- zontal plane. As soon as these two frequencies coincide the oscillations tend to increase until they become dangerous. There is no doubt that much has yet to be learned about the behaviour of electric locomotives of a symmetrical arrangement when running at high speeds, but he suggests that one possible cause of the trouble in the U.S.A. is that on practically all the railways the rail joints are staggered, whereas on the British lines and, he understands also in France, the rail joints are opposite each other. The staggering of the joints in the U.S.A. must set up periodic disturbing forces both horizontally and vertically, and the frequency of the disturbance will depend entirely upon the speed of the locomotive. The whole question is one of considerable difficulty.

E.L. Ahrons. The locomotives of the Glasgow and South-Western Railway. 202-5. 4 diagrams (side elevations)
Continued from page 142. Ten 0-4-0 engines somewhat similar to Nos. 65-70 were subsequently ordered by W. Johnstone and built by Hawthorn. Of these Nos. 86 to 93 (Hawthorn WN 780 to 787) were delivered in 1852-3, and two others, Nos. 5 and 6 (Hawthorn WN 840, 841), in 1853. There is some doubt as to o. 6, since the company's records appear to show that this was a 6-ft. 6-in. single engine by . Hawthorn, though no further particulars can be traced. The 86 class had 5-ft. wheels, 15-in. by 20-in. cylinders, and 95 lb. pressure.
Engines 86 to 93, and possibly some of the 65 to 70 series as well, had domeless boilers, with the perforated steam pipes introduced at that period by Hawthorn. James Stirling, speaking many years afterwards, described these engines as the "cleanest running" in the service at the period. As will be seen later, the domeless boiler did not become the standard practice on the G. and S. W. Ry. until 1860, and it seems likely that the behaviour of these early engines had much to~do with its ultimate adoption by Patrick Stirling. Prior to the delivery of the above engines, two engines were built at the company's works at Cook Street, Glasgow. All that is known of them is that No. 8, built in 1851, was a 6-ft. O-in. single engine with IS-in. by 20-in. cylinders, and that No. 7, built in 1852, was a four-wheeled goods engine with 5-ft. wheels and IS-in. by 20-in. cylinders.
In 1853 Patrick Stirling, the celebrated locomotive engineer, who later became chief of the locomotive department of the Great Northern Ry., was appointed chief locomotive superintendent of the Glasgow and South-Western Ry. At that time Mr. Stirling was thirty-three years of age. He had served his apprenticeship at the works of his uncle, Stirling, of Dundee, where a few locomotives were built. Afterwards he was locomotive superintendent of the Bowling and Balloch Ry., and then became foreman of the erecting shop of Neilson & Co. in the early days of that firm. His next post was that of departmental works manager in the locomotive shops of R. & W. Hawthorn at Newcastle, and from this firm he went to the Glasgow and South- Western Ry.
The first engines which Stirling ordered came from Neilson & Co., but since no drawings or detailed particulars have been preserved, it is uncertain whether Stirling was responsible for the designs.
Of these No. 94 (N eilson No. 71) was a 2-4-0 mixed traffic engine with 5-ft. wheels, and 15-in. by 21-in. cylinders. This engine came out in 1855. Nos. 95 to 98 (Neilson Nos. 77 to 80), built 1854-5, were 2-2-2 passenger engines with 6-ft. wheels and 15-in. by 20-in. cylinders. The cylinders of all these engines were probably outside, but this is not definitely known. 11
The next engines, Nos. 99 to 102, were built by Messrs. Hawthorn (Nos. 894 to 897) in January and February, 1855. According to Messrs. Hawthorn's records they were ordered in February, 1854, by Stirling. R.H. Whitelegg, the present chief mechanical engineer of the G. & S. W. Ry., has informed the writer that the original drawings for these engines were signed by Mr. Stirling, and thus it would appear that the design actually was made by him. Fig. 5, which has been made from the original drawings of R. & W. Hawthorn, shows these extraordinary engines, and certainly no one would recognise in them a Patrick Stirling engine. There arc one or two points of special interest to be noted in them. In the first place, they had intermediate dummy crankshafts, but the design differed from the well-known Crampton type of dummy crankshaft engines in that the latter always had inside cylinders, whereas Stirling's engines had outside cylinders. Crampton patented the inside cylinder type with cranked shafts, principally in order to avoid breakages of crank axles due to lateral blows on the driving flanges, when the driving wheels were fixed on the axles. But the dummy shaft with outside cylinders would hardly be patent- able; it had been used on several of the early Stockton and Darlington engines in connection with vertical cylinders, and in 1836 R. & W. Hawthorn had built the Swift for the latter railway, in which the dummy shaft was placed between the two pairs of wheels.
In the second place, Stirling adopted outside cylinders, and in his early days he was a staunch advocate of these, though he altered his views some years afterwards. Moreover, the engines had domed boilers, and here it may be added that it was not until 1860 that domeless boilers and inside cylinders began to appear as a feature of Stirling's designs. Other points of interest are that the smokebox was of the flush drumhead type, rarely used in those days. The flush firebox was provided with roof girder stays, and the regulator was of the ordinary pattern in the dome. The trailing end was carried on volute springs placed beneath the axleboxes.
The cylinders of these four engines were 15 in. by 20 in., and the diameter of the coupled wheels 5 ft. The cylinder centres were 6 ft. 3 in. apart, and the wheelbase was 12 ft. 1 in. The boiler was 3 ft. 11 ~ in. diameter outside the largest or middle plate. Further particulars are not known. The engines did not have a very long career, for after eleven years of ser- vice Mr. P. Stirling replaced them by new goods engines in 1866.
Two six-wheels coupled mineral engines, Nos. 103 and 104 (Fig. 6), were delivered by Messrs. Hawthorn (Nos. 933 and 934) in November and December, 1855. They were the first six-wheels coupled engines which Mr. Stirling designed, and were amongst the very few 0-6-0 engines which were built for British railways with outside cylinders. The peculiar type of splashers was probably derived, with modifications, from Bury's previous 0-4-2 engines on the line. The cylinders were 16 in. by 21 in., and the coupled wheels had a diameter of 4 ft. 6 in. The wheelbase was 12 ft. 4 in. equally divided between the centres. The tube heating surface was 722 sq. ft., and that of the firebox 48·75 sq. ft., giving a total of 770·75 sq. ft. The grate area was only 9! sq. ft. The tender was carried on four wheels 3 ft. dia. with a wheelbase of 9 ft. The water capacity was 1,150 gallons. They lasted until about 1871 when the engines were replaced by Mr. James Stirling.
The next type to be built consisted of eleven 0-4-2 goods engines with outside cylinders. These engines (Fig. 7) were designed by P. Stirling, for the original drawings, which were kindly lent to the writer by Hawthorn, are dated 17, Cook Street, Glasgow, August, 1855, and signed P. Stirling. The design, like those of the 99 and 103 classes, bears no resemblance whatever to those usually associated with the name of the celebrated engineer, and included a domed boiler, regulator in the dome, and firebox roof stays of the girder type.
The 0-4-2 goods engine with outside cylinders was essentially a Scottish type, to be found on most of the railways north of the border, but it was never used in England, unless exception be made of two old engines built in 1839 for the London & Croydon Ry. The type was originally introduced on the Caledonian Ry. in 1847 by Mr. Sinclair, and so enamoured of it did this company become that they subsequently converted their 0-6-0 engines to the 0-4-2 design by removing the trailing coupled wheels and substituting smaller carrying wheels. Scott, Sinclair & Co. built several for the Scottish Central Ry. in 1848, and in 1855 both Patrick Stirling and Alexander Allan adopted it.
The first four 0-4-2 engines (Fig. 7) for the Glasgow and South-Western Ry., Nos. 105 to 108, were ordered in October, 1855, from R. & W. Hawthorn, who delivered them in 1856 (Hawthorn's WN  950 to 953). The coupled wheels had a diameter of 5 ft. and the trailing wheels of 3 ft. 6 in. The cylinders were 16 in. by 22 in. The wheelbase was 6 ft. lOt in. between leading and driving centres, and 6 ft. 2! in. between driving and trailing centres. The boiler barrel was 11 ft. 2 in. long by 4 ft. diameter outside the largest (middle) plate. The springs of the coupled wheels were underhung, but the trailing end was carried on a single transverse laminated spring. The curious splashers, which were a "cross" between those of Bury and of Sir Daniel Gooch's broad gauge engines, may be noted.
The tenders for these engines were similar to those of all the preceding engines built from 1852 by Hawthorn, and had four wheels 3 ft. diameter and a tank capacity of 800 gallons.
The seven succeeding engines built in 1857 by Neilson & Co. (WN 398-404) were similar to Fig. 7 but of slightly different dimensions. These were numbered 9, 14, 15, 17, 20, 30 and 33 on the G. & S.W. Ry. The cylinders and wheels were of the same dimensions as in the four engines by Hawthorn, but the wheelbase between leading and driving centres was 7 ft. 2½ in. and between driving and trailing centres 6 ft. 5 in. The boiler contained 142 2-in. tubes, which gave a heating surface of 973·5 sq. ft., and the firebox added 53ft2. Total heating surface 1,026·5ft2.
FIG. 8. In 1857 Stirling decided to give a trial to Joseph Beattie's system of coal-burning firebox and feed water heating apparatus, and ordered a trial engine from Beyer, Peacock & Co., which was delivered in 1857. This engine No. 109, named Galloway, was designed by the makers, whose  WN was 72. It was of the 2-4-0 type with outside cylinders, as illustrated in Fig. 8. The cylinders were 16 in. by 22 in.; the leading wheels were 3 ft. 6 in., and the coupled wheels 5 ft. diameter. The wheelbase was 6 ft. 5 in. + 8 ft. 3 in. = 14 ft. 8 in. 4 The boiler contained 371 1¼in. tubes, and was provided with Beattie's combustion chamber, and double firebox similar to that illustrated on Plate XVI. of Colburri's Locomotive Engineering. The heating surface was :-tubes 628 ft2, firebox 120 ft2, combustion chamber 662, toal 814 ft2. grate area 16.1 ft2. The six-wheel tender had 3ft 6in wheels. No. 109 ran until 1874.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section A. Locomotives and tenders. 205-7. 4 diagrams
Longitudinal equalizers. Beams were common in the USA and on Continental Europe. Six wheel tenders were typically British. The rigid eight wheel tender was used on the LYR. Bogie tenders were the norm in the USA and springs to liit sideplay are described.

Great Central Ry. 207.
No. 1090, the three-cylinder Atlantic 4-4-2 was being converted to two-cylinders. A new boiler with superheater and piston valves were also being fitted. Intensifore lubricators were being fitted. Two of Robinson's older 4-4-0s, Nos. 1031 and 1039, were being fittted with larger boilers with superheaters and extended smokeboxes, new cylinders with piston valves, ash ejectors and Wakefield lubricators.
Two Wrexham, Mold & Connahs Quay 0-6-2STs, Nos. 405B and 406B, had been withdrawn

New South Wales Governments Rys. new cars for Sydney suburban passenger traffic. 208-9.  2 illustrations
Steam hauled stock, but built to conform for simple conversion to electric trailer cars. Had sliding doors and vestibule connections.

Recent standardization in China. 209-11.
Yeh Kung Cho, Chinese Cice Minister of Communications visited Europe to appoint foreign advisors to assist in developing the country's railways. Initial talks took place with the American, French and British ggovernments and later Belgian and Japanese interests were involved, Standards for steel bridges, freight cars, couplers and locomotive parts were agreed.

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. Chapter XVII. Broad gauge (7 feet) locomotives. 211-13. illustration (diagram (side elevation)
In December 1872 bought four four 0-4-0 tank engines from the Holyhead Breakwater. They had been built in 1852 by  R.B. Longridge & Co. of Bedlington and were well tanks named London, Holyhead, Cambria and possibly Queen. These were converted into winding or stationary engines. Prince Albert remained at Holyhead and hauled the Prince Consort when en route to the Dublin Exhibition in 1853 and later performed the same task for the Prince of Wales when he opened the Breakwater. In 1901 it was sold to W. Wild & Sons who withdrew it in 1913 when the railway was converted to standard gauge, In 1853 E.B. Wilson & Co. built similar locomotives for the Portland Breakwater

New oil tank wagons for India. 214-16, 4 illustrations

[Obituary]. 216. illustration (portrait)
John Charles Taite was born in London on 8 May 1852, was educated at Crawford College. He served his time at the works of John Dewrance and Co., afterwards going as an improver to Sharp, Stewart and Co., Atlas Works, Manchester, and then to Nasmyth Wilson and Co., Patricroft. In 1875, in partnership with T.W. Carlton, whose father was Manager of the Locomotive Works of the Great Western Railway at Swindon, he established the firm of Taite and Carlton. The firm was largely interested in the introduction of pressed steel wagons and under-frames for British and Colonial railways, and introduced the Holden liquid fuel burner, the invention of James Holden, Locomotive Engineer of the Great Eastern Railway. This was extensively used in the oil-producing countries, particularly South Russia, Rumania, etc. Taite attended trials with this apparatus in the Mont Cenis and other sections of the Italian State Railways, where difficulties owing to asphyxiation of the engineers had occurred in the tunnels, and considerable success resulted. This was, of course, prior to electrification. He was also interested in the Worsdell two-cylinder compound engine which was still in use on Argentine railways. Subsequently Taite became interested in pneumatic tools and was Chairman of the Taite-Howard Pneumatic Tool Co., Ltd., until it was taken over by an amalgamation of pneumatic tool companies. In this connexion he read a Paper at the Glasgow Meeting of the Institution in 1901. He was also Chairman of the Wycliffe Foundry Co., Ltd. which specialized in the production of malleable castings. Died in London on 26 June 1922.

Engerth passenger engines. A.R. Bennett. 216. illustration
Being at Lille in July, 1910, I learnt that the Engerth locomotives that for very many years had been largely engaged in the local traffic about that important centre had recently been superseded by more powerful modern tank engines and had been withdrawn from further service. Visiting Tourcoing shortly afterwards I found several of these condemned Engerths in a siding there awaiting convoy to Paris for breaking up purposes, and was able to take the accompanying photograph. It will be noticed that the middle engine is No. 2·415 which is illustrated in Fig. 12, page 106, of M. Jacquet's article. The other two, 2·410 and 2·434, are mentioned on the previous page. The foremost engine, 2·410, only the bunker of which shows in the photograph, has side tanks like the one shown in M. Jacquet's Fig. 11. On the track behind No. 2·415 can be seen, one of the new tank engines by which the ancient stagers had been replaced. Remembering them; as I did, for more than forty years, from the time when their entire boilers had been sheathed in brass sheets, I was sorry to find them in such a forlorn situation. They were to be scrapped, not for any working defects, but simply as too light for the modern traffic. A few days later I was at St. Omer where I found some half-dozen condemned tender engines similar to M. J acquet's Fig. 13, but all with the dome-of somewhat different shape- close up to the chimney. They were apparently re-builds from Engerth passenger tanks and were also awaiting transit to Paris. Unfortunately photographs in this case were impracticable and it did not occur to me to note the numbers.

Correspondence. 216.

Locomotives of the Glasgow & South Western Ry.  J. H. Alexander.
Being an Ayrshire man, I am much interested in the articles by Mr. Ahrons. About twenty-five years ago, there appeared in the LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, from my pen, * an account of the Duke of Portland's old horse-driven tramway line (now part of the G. & S. W. Ry.) running from Kilmarnock to the harbour at Troon. This article. was illustrated from photos of the cast-metal plate rails and of some of the bridges still standing, one being that at Drybridge station, which has the date of 1811 cut out upon it, Before publishing that account I carried out, at different times. some researches to try if I could find any real authentic information about the loco. which was tried on the tramway at Kilmarnock and said to have been the first locomotive in Scotland. I searched through many old files of newspapers and journals from 1814 to 1822 in Glasgow, Kilmarnock and Troon; I also interviewed the late Mr. James Stirling (once loco. superintendent of the G. &S. W. Ry.), as well as a few old railway men and drivers; I also wrote to Messrs. Robt. Stephenson & Co., Ltd., Darlington, who said" they had no records of these very early locos. made by Geo. Stephenson." I heard a little from some and less from others but my informants had only obtained their information 'from, hearsay, so the results of my investigations were disappointing. However,.I happened to come across some information, given in an old book by one who, unfortunately, was not an engineer. I refer to a book, by a local Ayrslure artist, called Hunter, entitled Reminiscences of an Artistic Life." Hunter says that in 1816 (not 1817, as given by Mr. Ahrons), 'he was present at the trial run at Gargieston, near Kilmarnock, on the Duke of Portland's tramway line, of a locomotive; everything was satisfactory, but the weight of the engine broke some of the cast-iron tram plates and it was removed; that a man called Geordie Pettigrew was the driver of the first "steam horse" in Scotland and was regarded as a hero by everybody in the district; and that the locomotive was built by George Stephenson, and brought by his brother James from Newcastle to Kilmarnock. Whether it came by road or was shipped to Troon he does not say. Hunter speaks of the vertical cylinders, the coupling chain between the axles, and gives the impression that the engine had six wheels, instead of four, under the boiler. Were any six-wheel locomotives built by Stephenson at that early period of his career?
Hunter, though not an engineer, was an eye witness and his work called for more observation than usual on his part and this fitted him to relate his impressions with truth, therefore, I consider that he may be regarded as worthy of reliance. I have not been able to discover what was the final destiny of this old locomotive called The Duke, whether she was sold to some other company or later on was put to work on the G. & S. W. Ry. So far as I know there are no records extant (except that given by Hunter) and there is nothing, but hearsay to depend on. I may add that working drawings of what this early locomotive of Stephenson was supposed to be like were made from my notes and a silver model of the engine constructed in Troon. The draughtsman made it a six-wheel locomotive (not four wheels) without flanges and with chain coupling. Six steam supporting springs were put under the boiler. The reversing was performed by loose eccentrics and the after plate of the boiler, containing the firedoor, was arranged to draw out and this appeared like a grocer's scoop, its function being to contain a short address. The engine rested on tram plate rails modelled from one of old tramway rails. The model, along with an address, was presented by the Corporation of Troon, in 1914, to the present Duke of Portland, on the occasion of his silver wedding.

Locos. of the G. & S.W. Ry. Editor. 211.
With regard to the letter from C. Chambers, which appeared on page 184 of the June number, we should be glad if our correspondent would send the particulars of the missing Glasgow and Ayr engines. to which he referred, and add whether he can guarantee the information to be absolutely authentic. The engines Nos. 7 and 8 were not rebuilt, but were broken up and replaced by new engines.

Reviews. 211

The all electric age. A. Gowans Whyte, London: Constable & Co., Ltd.
>Written in a popular form this book should be welcomed by almost every householder possessing an electric installation. The Birth of the Electrical Industry is related in the first chapter followed in Chapter Il. by How Electricity is Made- Electric Traction-Power Stations-Electric Lighting- Heating and Cooking are dealt with separately and the labour- saving home and its simple appliances affords an interesting chapter. Illustrations. are frequent and very clearly produced throughout the book.

Model electric locomotives and railways. Henry Greenly, London Cassell & Co., Ltd.
In this book of 306 pages the author has gathered a most varied and interesting collection of photographs, diagrams, and working drawings, produced with most admirable clearness, whilst the text is full of useful data and informative details as to the practical construction of the model electric loco- motive and its track. The opening chapter is a concise sum- mary of the evolution of the full-size electric locomotive from the crude example shown at the Berlin Exhibition of 1879, to the powerful machines built recently. This introductory chapter is followed by others dealing with Notable Model Electric Locomotives, How an Electric Motor Works, the Four-conductor System, Electric Motors for Model Traction Purposes, Collecting Shoes, Overhead Bows and Track Bonding, Signals, Power Supply, etc. The book is to be recommended as a most useful manual to all who are interested in model engineering.

The lead storage battery. H.G. Brown, London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
In designing this work on the Lead Storage Battery Brown has apparently had in mind the state of mind of (1) the engineer who is perfectly familiar with prime movers, and distribution schemes, but is not quite so sure of his secondary cells; (2) the electrician with more or less indefinite, not to say confused, ideas of the working of secondary cells, and (3) the intelligent layman interested in country house lighting sets or in the electrical system associated with a motor vehicle. But be he engineer, electrician or layman he will find in the book, in plain and definite language and with clear elucidation of principles, the why's and wherefore's of secondary cells and the best-known methods of maintenance procedure. It is not desired to imply in the foregoing statement that the work is of a ponderous type. On the contrary, it is a short work of only 141 essential pages, and deals with the chemistry of secondary cells (so far as it matters to the user); the elec- trical characteristics as regards capacity, voltage, etc. ; the formation and structure of plates; erection; use of boosters, regulators and auto cut-outs; treatment; maintenance and repairs; testing; economics, etc., whilst the further treatment of the chemistry of the cell is left to appendices, as is also the method of carrying out simple analytical tests to determine the quality of water and acid intended for secondary cell use. Chapter 1. is a short resume of the chemistry of the lead plate secondary cell. The double sulphate theory is given, (and wisely left at that), with the object of explaining the reason for the changes in specific gravity and the voltage on charge and discharge. In Chapter n. the electrical characteristics with regard to charge and discharge voltages, and ampere-hour capacity, are treated in a very clear and concise manner. Valuable and interesting charts are presented, namely:-- (1) Rate of fall of open circuit voltage on a cell left idle for a number of hours after being fully charged. (2) Ratio of specific gravity of electrolyte and open circuit voltage. (3) Discharge voltages at different rates of discharge currents. (4) Charge voltage at different rates of charge currents and (5) Effective ampere-hour capacity at different discharge rates. (Two charts). Of particular interest is the author's treatment of the formation and strncture of plates in Chapter Ill. The reason for the different plate formations is set out. The significance of the statements on pages 27 and 32 with regard to the relation between ampere-hours capacity and thickness of plates, expounding, as these statements do the compromise between thin plates and frequent renewals or thick plates and longer service, will be apparent.
Chapter TX. deals with the design and arrangement of large secondary batteries. Wood separators vprsus rod separators is touched upon on pages 37 and 38. The proviso that a wood separator is an advantage" as long as it remains intact" is, however, not a very convincing argument in favour of wood separators. In commenting upon the working ·of batteries in parallel the author reaches the crux of the whole difficulty attending this principle in his concluding paragraphs, namely, the liability of disturbance of electrical equilibrium in respect of resistance or physical condition of plates and although separate voltmeters and ammeters are recommended whenever the parallelling method is resorted to, the difficulties which may attend any attempt to rectify the absence of balance might with advantage have been made clearer.

Number 360 (15 August 1922)

[Lynton and Barnstaple Ry.]. 219
Absorption by the London & South Western Railway (was outside grouping Act of 1921)

Narrow-gauge locomotives Larkhana Jacobabad Ry. of India. 221-2. illustration

Australian 3ft 6in gauge locomotives. 222. illustration
4-6-0 for Queensland Government Railways

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. 229-31

New Baltic type locomotive engine, Glasgow & South Western Railway. 236-7. 2 diagrams
Further detailed working drawings (cross sections)

G. Willans. Locomotive feed water heating and boiler feeding. 237-8. 2 diagrams

Saloon for H.E. the Governor of Bombay. 242. 2 illustrations

No. 361 (15 September 1922)

Three-cylinder express locomotive, Danish State Rys., 251-3. illustration, 5 diagrams
Three independent sets of Walschaerts valve gear, built by Borsig to specication of A. Floor, chief mecanical engineer

Ten-coupled tank locomotive Bombay Port Trust Railway. 255. illustration
2-10-2T supplied by Nasmyth, Wilson & Co

Rail motor car, Weston Clevedon and Portishead Light Ry. 255-6. illustration

Electric passenger locomotive, North Eastern Railway. 256; 257. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations & plan)

British and American locomotives. 258-9
Abstract of Dewrance IMechE paper

"Clacton-Pullman" express. 260. illustration

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. 260-2.

A special vehicle for testing bridges. 263
Swiss Federal Railways

Number 362 (14 October 1922)

Rebuilt express locomotive, London Brighton & South Coast Railway. 287-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
L.B. Billinton rebuild with Belpaire boiler of earlier 4-4-0 No. 55

[Bowman Malcolrn retirement]. 288
On the 30 October 1922 Bowman Malcolrn, M.LC.E., M.LM.E., retired from the position of engineer and locomotive superintendent of the northern counties section of the Midland Railway. Malcolm was the oldest locomotive superintendent in the British Isles, and at the time of his appointment, in 1876, as locomotive engineer of the Belfast and N. C. Ry. was the youngest, being only twenty-two years of age. He started with the B. & . C. Ry. in 1870. In 1906 when Berkeley D. Wise retired from the position of chief engineer, the duties were transferred to Malcolm. Malcolm was one of the first engineers to introduce high capacity rolling stock, putting into service a number of 30-ton bogie wagons in 1892. He also used the Worsdell two-cylinder compound system for a number of his express passenger engines, in conjunction with the Walschaert valve gear, and obtained very satisfactory results in practice. William Kelly Wallace has been appointed to succeed Malcolm, with F.W. Crofts as engineering assistant, and H.B. [sic should be "P"] Stewart as mechanical assistant.

Obituary. 288
E. A. Watson, general manager and engineer-in-chief of Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., died on 25 August 1922, after a long illness. Watson was formerly chief mechanical engineer of the Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland, and before going to Inchicore was assistant works manager of the Carriage and Wagon Works at Swindon.

North Eastern Ry. 288
Darlington works had been busy on a series of twenty-five six-coupled superheater coal engines of Class P3, No. 2344 up, and had taken delivery of the 0-6-0 side tanks, Class E1, built by Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., No. 2313 up. Most of these were working in the Newcastle area. Hull & Barnsley Ry. locos. have now been taken into the N.E. stock, with the addition of 3000 to the old numbers.

The railways of Tasmania. 288-91. 2 illustrations, map

Old shops engine at Norwich, G.E.Ry. 307-8

P.C.D. The Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway and its locomotives. 310

Bombay Baroda and Central India Ry main line composite carriages. 315

Number 363 (15 November 1922)

Past and present locomotives — Great Northern Railway. 319. illustration
Gresley Pacific No. 1471 and Stirling 8ft single No. 1

Clogher Valley Ry. 319
D.N. McClure appointed locomotive, carriage & wagon superintendent in sucession to G.H. Akerlind. Was formerly with Rio Tinto Co. at Huelva in Spain.

George Terrell. 319
Managing director Tyer & Co. MP. Elected President National Union of Manufacturers.

Great India Peninsula Railway. 319.
Automatic train control to be installed on Jubbulpore to Itarsi section.

An American freight locomotive of high efficiency. 320-2. diagram (side, front and cross section elevations)
2-8-2 built by Lima Locomotive Works for Michigan Central Railroad No. 8000 to design of A.H. Smith, President of the New York Central Lines. See also letter in Volume 29 page 156 from Wilkliam Hoecker

The railways of Tasmania. 323-6. 8 illustrations, table
Continued from page 290. Headquarters of Tasmanian Government Railways in Launceston. Almost all locomotives had been suppplied by Beyer Peacock & Co. Locomotives described and illustrated included No. A4 (a class A 4-4-0 reboilered with a  larger locally and fitted with a Pyle National turbo-generator and headlight; No. C8, a 2-6-0; No. D1, a 2-4-2T; and No. E1, a 4-8-0. Two railmotors (steam railcars?) were in operation in the west on the Staverton line and on the Zeehan to Regatta line. There were 175 passenger vehicles and about 1600 freight vehicles. The British Standard screw coupling was used on the 3ft 6in gauge and the semji-automatic centre coupler on the 2ft gauge.The Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Tasmanian Government Rys. was W.R. Deeble, whose offices were at Launceston. The Emu Bay Railway ran from Burnie on the north coast 88 miles southwards to Zeehan, Its chief mechanical engineer was A. Richardson with headquarters at Burnie. It used a railmotor on the Waratah branch.  No. 11, a 4-8-0 supplied by Dubs & Co. is illustrated; later locomotives of this type had been supplied by the North British Locomotive Co. David Jones was conulting engineer. The Mount Lyell Ry. connected Strahan wwith Queenstown and had 123 miles of route, of which 20 were 2ft gauge. Included 4½ miles of Abt rack system where the line rose 850 feet. A Baldwin 0-6-0T with outside cylinders is illustrated. The locomotive superintendent of the was R.C. Eyre, at Queenstown.

Great Western Ry. 326
The following appointments have been made in the Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Department; C. Crump, London Divisional Superintendent, to be Locomotive Running Superintendent and Outdoor Assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer, Swindon. Mr. J. W. A. Kislingbury, Divisional Superintendent, Neatb, to be Divisional Superintendent, London. Mr. F.C. Hall, Assistant Divisional Superintendent, London, to be Divisional Superintendent, Neath. Mr. H. ]. Roberts, Mechanical Engineer, Port Talbot, to be Mechanical Engineer, Barry Docks .. Mr. T. R. Herbert to be Mechanical Engineer, Port Talbot Docks, and Mr. E. W. Green to be Mechanical Engineer, Newport Docks.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 326
Another of the 4-4-0 express engines had been rebuilt at Brighton similar to No. 55, illustrated in last issue. This is No. 60. Ten of these engines were to be reconstructed.

Obituary. 326
Death of Prof. E. E. Foxwell, at St. John's College, Cambridge, on the 18 October 1922, after a very brief attack of bronchitis. He was aged seventy-one. Prof. Foxwell will be remembered as author of English Express Trains, published in 1884, probably the first work published on the timing of trains; and also joint author of Express Trains, English and Foreign (1889.)

Four-coupled superheater express engine, with top feed water heater. Great Eastern Ry. 327. illustration
D 56 class 4-4-0 No. 1794 fitted.

Great Central Ry. 327
Announced that new Director class to receive numbers 501-5 annd 511. No. 501 named Mons and 502 Zeebrugge. Nos. 473 and 474 were the last two of a series of express freight locomotives: Nos. 31-5 were new series of 4 -6-0 freight locomotives being supplied by Beyer Peacock. 2-4-2T No. 586 had been equipped for motor train (push & pull) working

The Glyn Valley Tramway. 328-9. 2 illustrations.
Tabulates locomotive stock.

W.B. Paley. Centenary of the Hetton Railway. 329-32. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
One illustration is taken from William Strickland's Reports on canals, railways roads and other subjects, architectv and engineer for the Pennsylvania Society for the Promotion of Internal Improvement, 1826. The two others show the left and right hand sides of one of these running in the twentieth century. Diagrams show the arrangement of the valve gear..

[William Burchell Paley]. 332
We are very sorry to have to record the sudden death of William Burchell Paley, the well-known writer on locomotive history, which took place on the 22 October, at Bramerton Street, Chelsea. Mr. Paley was in his 68th year. He was the eldest son of Professor F. A. Paley, LL.D., and grandson of Archdeacon Paley, of Carlisle, who wrote the well-known Evidences of Christianity and other works. He was educated at the Oratory School, Edgbaston, Birmingham, under the late Cardinal Newman. After he left school he took up brewing and was for some eight or ten years with a firm at Sheffield. Then he obtained a post as clerk to the Lord Great Chamberlain and this he held for some twenty-five years or more,, until he retired on pension two years ago. Mr. Paley was a most industrious contributor of articles on early locomotives and railways to the engineering papers. Apart from their literary merit these have considerable value, owing to the accuracy with which he gathered his facts, which were taken not so much from books as from personal investigation. The article we print above was completed only a few days before his death.

Accidents at Cheadle Hulme and Furness Vale, L. & N.W. Ry. broken connecting rods. 332-5
Both of the accidents involved locomotives fitted with Joy's valve gear. On 28 April 1922, the left-hand connecting rod of Prince of Wales 4-6-0 No. 877 broke near Cheadle Hulme when running at about 60 mile/h, and pierced the firebox: the fireman fell from the engine and was killed. The other involved a 4-6-2T No. 1710 when working the 17.40 Manchester to Buxton commuter train when fracture of the connecting rod led to the boiler being pierced and the driver being scalded. The reports by the Ministry of Transport found that the design of the valve gear was faulty andthat annealing of the connecting rods was essential.

E. Lassueur. Recent locomotives for the Dutch Indies Railways. 335-8. 4 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Includes the Javanic 2-12-2T developed from the 2-12-0T developed by the Hanover Locomotive Co. 2-8-2T also described.

28-inch  rolling mill. Messrs. Hadfield's, Ltd., Sheffield. 338-41. 2 illustrations

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. Chapter XVIII. Miscellaneous locomotives. 341-4. 4 diagrams

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section VI. Spring suspension. Sub-section A. Locomotives and tenders. 344-7. 3 diagrams

Questions and answers. 347-8.
No. 28 What is the correct formula for obtaining the tractive force of two, three and four-cylinder compound locomotives?

An interesting War relic. 348. illustration
On 31 January 1916 there was a zeppelin raid on a large Midlands railway wheel and axle works: photograph shows shrapnel damage to axles.

New steel carriages for suburban service, Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 349-50. 2 illustrations
Constructed at the Cammell, Laird & Co. works in Nottingham with manual sliding doors, to be operated by compressed air once system electrified and vestibuled throughout

Correspondence. 350

The Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. F.W. Brewer
Mr. Bennett's references to the experiments which were made with fireless locomotives with a view to using such engines on the Metropolitan Railway when the line was first opened in 1863, are very interesting. It is worth while recording that although Sir John Fowler himself was responsible for the "hot-water" engine, both he and Brunel maintained that the line could be worked with ordinary locomotives. Having regard, therefore, to the immediate success of the 4-4-0 condensing tank engines jointly designed by Sir John Fowler and Beyer, Peacock & Co., in 1864, the previous attempts to produce a satisfactory locomotive are not a little remarkable. At one stroke, as it were, a type of engine was evolved that, with but few and comparatively nnimportant modifications, continued in use for underground working for over forty years; until the Metropolitan (and with it the Metropolitan District) changed to electrical operation in 1905. Some thirteen of these Fowler engines are still at work-on the Aylesbury line of the Metropolitan. The District Railway had similar engines, and the L. 8: N.W.Ry., Midland Ry. and L. & S.W.Ry., possessed a number of the type, as readers know.
Apart from the absence of smoke, the only justification for the fireless locomotive notion was the belief that trains consisting of three carriages and weighing 20 tons in all, exclusive of the engine, would suffice for the prospective traffic, if run at intervals of five or ten minutes. In this and other respects, the experts were at fault, for in the first year's working of the Metropolitan Railway no less than 9,455,175 passengers were carried, necessi tatin g trains of 1 20 tons in weight, instead of 20 tons only. In 1884, after the completion of the" circle," the passengers numbered 114,500,000, and the receipts (which, for 1863, were £101,707) amounted to £1,012,000. The" Underground" was consequently popular from its very beginning. Owing, however, to the initially mistaken idea that ordinary coal-burning engines could not be successfully employed, or, at any rate, would not be necessary from the standpoint of power, the provision made for ventilation was never as good as it would have been if the line had originally been planned to be worked by such engines.

British and American locomotives: P.C. Dewrance. Edward M. Gass. 350
Noted that latter writer was making reference to ten-coupled rather than eight-coupled locomotives in relation to bridge stresses.

Review. 350.

Great Western Railway engines, 1922. A. J. L. W. London: The Great Western Railway Magazine.
The publication of yet another edition of this work is unfailing testimony to the popularity which it has achieved. This time the letterpress has been entirely reset and the article on the Standardization of Locomotives enlarged and brought up to date [KPJ italics]. Several new illustrations are given, in some cases supplanting those of older types now obsolete, whilst a half-tone block of the new Mixed Traffic Consolidation, No. 4705, appears for the first time. When reviewing a previous edition we suggested it would add to its interest if the dates and original numbers of the engines were given, and we observe that in this issue the latter have been indicated in the case... [damaged page]

Locomotives for gas works. Messrs. Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co., Ltd., Caledonia Works, Kilmarnock, Scotland.
The subjects of this excellently produced pamphlet of sIxteen pages are examples of locomotives that have been supplied by Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co., Ltd., to various municipal and private gas companies, some of them the largest and most important undertakings of the kind in Great Britain. The types shown, though all of the 0-4-0 outside-cylinder construction, cover a wide range of capacity and size, from 24 in. to standard gauge, and with cylinders from 4 in. by 8 in. to 15 in. to 22 in. In accordance with the requirements usual in this service, much ingenuity of design is displayed in combining power wIth compact and simple construction. Two of the engines shown, one of the 24-in. gauge for the Gas Light and Coke Company, and the other having 4 in. by 8 in. cylinders for the Manchester Corporation Gas Department, could hardly be surpassed for simplicity, every working part and detail, even to the throttle valve, being fully accessible.
Types of fireless locomotives are also shown, one of which, designed to work under retorts, has a vertical enclosed engine and gear drive, the whole of the working parts being absolutely protected from dust, etc
.

Number 364 (15 December 1922)

Ernest Lucy. Recent and future locomotive design in New South Wales. 351-7. 3 illustration, diagram (side elevation)
S type 4-6-4T for working steeply graded Sydney suburban routes, NN type 4-6-0 for main line passenger traffic and K class 2-8-0.

Pacific type express locomotive. North-Eastern Railway. 357-8. illustration
Raven design

E. Lassueur. Recent locomotives for the Dutch Indies Railways. 360-4. 5 illustrations
Rack and adhesion locomotives to work from Padang to Panjang and Fort de Kock to convey coal from the Ombilien mines on Sumatra. Locomotives built at Esslingen and at Winterthur. Also illustraates and describes 2-6-2T for working the Deli Railway from Medan to the Pangkalan-Brandan oil field.

The Wilson Welder and Metals Company's system of electric welding in repair work. 364-6. 3 illustrations
Use for welding fireboxes in America

E.L. Ahrons. The locomotives of the Glasgow and South Western Railway. 366-70. 5 illustrations, 1 diagram (side elevation).

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section A. Locomotives and tenders. 370-3. 3 diagrams, table.

Correspondence. 372

Old shops engine Norwich. C.S. Allison.
Re an old twin-stationary engine recently withdrawn from service at the G.E.R. shops at Norwich. It is there stated that the makers and exact date of manufacture are unknown. The date of installation mentioned (" early forties [1840s]) is doubtless correct.
As to the builders, I think there cannot be the least doubt but that it was turned out by W. Fairbairn & Sons, of Manchester. It is what that eminent engineer, Sir W. Fairbairn, called a "columnar engine and appears to have been the standard type of that firm for high-pressure (non-condensing) engines. If you will refer to Fairbairn's Mills and Millwork (first issue about the end of the ffties and last edition, I believe, 1878, Longmans), you will find the engine illustrated as in your block (only a single, not a twin), Further, the Norwich engine had a geared connection to the shafting, and this was Fairbairn's invariable practice (he did not believe in belt drives from prime movers and says so in his book), What is more, he had a standard type of built-up rim geared flywheel, which you will find fully illustrated in the several fine mill engines (including the Saltaire engines) of which he gives examples in his book. The Norwich flywheel is an exact Fairbairn wheel of this type.
However, I can hardly accept the statement that the working pressure was "originally" 80 Ib. per sq, in. Of course, this was a loco. shop and they may have used a loco. type boiler (as Nasmyth did for his steam pile driver), but if they relied on a Cornish, or more usually, an externally fired plain cylindrical one, 80 lb would have been a fairly perilous working pressure, knowing the very crude and haphazard methods of boiler-smiths in the "forties". On this point again Fairburn gives tables compiled by Mr. Harman, chief inspector of the Association forv the Prevention of Boiler Explosions, from the returns for the years 1858-1860. As late as this he shows there were twenty engines working above 60 lb, except a few "compounds".

Our Supplement: Baltic type tank locomotives, Glasgow & South Western Ry. 374 + plate

Mechanical couplers on the Indian broad-gauge railways. 374-6. 4 illustrations

Railways in industrial plants. 377-9. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Switches and crossings and tuntables in cast iron or steel manufactured by Robert Hudson & Co. of Gildersome.