Modellers' Backtrack

It now seems incorrect not to have included Modellers' Backtrack, especially as a file has been available on the steamindex site for several years. Material relating solely to railway modelling will no longer be excluded: although steamindex is not really interested in scenery made from cardboard and sponge rubber. It had an untidy bibliographical life beginning in April and ending in March.

Volume 1 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6
Volume 2 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6
Volume 3 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6
Volume 4 Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Number 4 Number 5 Number 6

Backtrack "key file"
Steamindex home page

Volume 1

Number 1 (April/May 1991)

Editorial. David Jenkinson.

Why we are here. 3
Mission statement

Scales, gauges and allied matters. 3
No preferred scale, but fine scale fsvoured.

Future plans and prospects. 3
Balance and use of colour

Interlude at Cambridge. 4.
Vintage colour photograph from P. Colebourn Collection of E4 No. 7490 (LNER lined black livery) with branch train for Mildenhall consisting of four six-wheel coaches. Gresley buffet car behind. 11 June 1938.

Peter Erwood. The present state of the modelling art. 5-9.

David Foxwood. Signalling aspects.10-14.

David Jenkinson and Ian L. Wright. Pre-group Great Western carriages. 15-19.

David Jenkinson. Carrying on the torch at Lonsdale. nbsp;20-8.
MODEL RAILWAY: 7mm fine scale layout started by Neil Corner and taken over by W.S. Norris.

Russell Carter and Paul Timothy. Bulleid's light Pacifics. 29-36.
Russell Carter drawings (4mm scale): plan and side and front elevations of air-smoothed 21C123 Blackmore Vale and No. 34073 249 Squadron; also rear eleevation of tender and detailed drawing of RAF Squadron's badge. Similar drawings of preserved rebuilt locomotives Nos. 34010 Sidmouth and 34016 Bodmin. Photographic illustrations (all unrebuilt unless stated otherwise): No. 34088 213 Squadron passing Folkestone Junction on 23 September 1956; No. 21C154 Lord Beaverbook at Folkestone Junction in 1948 and 21C152 Lord Dowding; No. 34002 Salisbury in Eastleigh Works being painted; rebuilt No. 34016 Bodmin passing Winchfield with down Bourenemouth express on 4 August 1962; rebuilt No. 34052 Lord Dowding (Southern Region official); rrebuilt No. 34050 Royal Observer Corps leaving Victoria in July 1961 with fast train for Tunbridge Wells; No. 34049nbsp;Anti-Aircraft Command with modified casing at Waterloo in 1961; Nos. 34085 501 Squadron and 34078 222 Squadron at Folkestone Junction in 1960; No. 21C165 at Ramsgate in 1948; front view of No. 21C129; and nameplate of rebuilt No. 34052 Lord Dowding

Ken Morgan. What is a goods train. 37-46.
Freight trains were formed predominently of open wagons carrying coal, or return empties. Most lacked continuous brakes. Illustrations: continuous brake-fitted LNWR covered van painted with diamond-shaped symbols to assist identification by illiterates (photograph); reproduction of drawings of wagons from D.K. Clark's Railway machinery nbsp;(all from LNWR: cattle wagon, round-ended open goods wagon; covered general goods wagon; low sided general goods wagon; timber truck (later known as bolster and used in pairs); coke wagon with iron lining; brake van (with totally open veranda); LMS freight marshalling circular (1943); NER horsebox (passenger stock livery and drawgear)

LMS tender comparisons. colour file for modellers. Gavin Morrison. 47
Both viewed from rear: No. 46221 Queen Elizabeth (green) and No. 46204 Princess Louise (red). Tender behind No. 46221 still showed its streamlined origins. Also No. 46204 was possibly only red Princess Royal to display later tender emblem.

King's Cross departure: vintage colour page. rear cover
C1 Atlantic No. 3274 in green livery with stopping train or semi-fast leaving suburban platforms with articulated lavatory brake third at front. P. Colbourn Collection. See also letter from Steve Banks on page 191

Number 2 (1991 June/July)

Campling, Nick. The GNR/LNER class K3s.53-7.
Refers to RCTS Locomotives of the LNER. Part 6A. for detail. Locomotives for GNR were painted green, but LNER then applied lined black to all. Notes the three cab variants: GNR, NER-type and standard LNER. The 4mm drawings show all three cab variants. Illus. (colour): 61800 at Sleaford Junction, Boston, with freight on 23 June 1958 (R.C. Riley), 61810 on Norwich shed on 31 May 1960 (RCR). Bamp;w: 4005 at March on 2 May 1936; 2461 at same place amp; location (H.F. Wheeler); 61973 at Coke Ovens Junction, Lowestoft with fish empties on 9 October 1956 (RCR); 61849 at Stratford on 10 August 1958 (RCR); GNR 1001 on King's Cross shed; LNER 116 (Darlington-built); 61906 at Doncaster Works in 1961; 2937 at Scotswood Works; 61834 at Haughley on freight on 3 May 1958 (RCR); 61947 at Hawkins Lane Sidings, Burton on Trent on 26 May 1959 (RCR); 61834 on express at Bury St Edmunds on 16 June 1960 (RCR) and GNR 1000 when new on King's Cross shed.

Essery, Bob. Making tracks. 58-62.
Mixed prototype and model, but predominantly the latter. Illus.(protype only): concrete sleepers with bullhead rail near Melton Constable in 1917; Midland Railway 81 lb/yd rail on 40 lb chairs on Settle to Carlisle line with open carriage truck No. 178; MR Bradford station under construction; MR Lenton Junction South in November 1913.

Erwood, Peter. As it was. 63-8.
How freight used to be handled and the necessity for cranes to handle certain loads.

David Foxwood. Anatomy of a boat train. 75.
SECR E1 class 4-4-0 No. 179 with boat train consisting of matchboard-sided Pullman gangwayed (except outer brake ends)nbsp;corridor stock known as Boat Train No. 2 with red-painted Pullmans probably in the immediate post-grouping period.

Brigantes. In the eye, or in the mind? 76-7.
Perceptions of colour: describes perception tests which showed that colour memory is very poor, and notes the effect of the way in which colours are perceived. Illus. (all colour): Rebuilt Scot No. 46144 Honourable Artillery Company with class 3 2-6-2T No. 40202 at Llandudno Junction shed on 18 March 1962; A2/3 No. 60500 Edward Thompson leaving St Neots on 31 May 1962 and A4 No. 60007 Sir Nigel Gresley at Stirling with train for Aberdeen on 9 June 1965 (Alan Tyson). See also letters on page 190 from John R. Endacott, (contact with Mick Gabbarus at Stratford Works concerning GER blue which weathered to black) P. Millard (upper panels of LNWR passenger stock were painted with a mixture of 1 lb of ultramaeine in 112 lb of white lead: the varnish led to the distinctive colour).and Larry Goddard. yellowing caused by the varnishes changed the appearance of GWR green. Post-WW2 varnishes were different and writer refers to maroon Oldham Corporation buses for change in colour.

Gibb, John S. Cart Lane crossing. 78-9.
Drawing of Furness Railway 0-6-2T No. 101 on freight train passing Cart Lane crossing, the starting point for the crossing of Morecambe Bay to Hest Bank; also map.

Barry C. Lane. Pullman..80-92.

The historical environment: colour file for modellers. Alan Tyson. 93.
Colour photo-feature: Conway station and ornate bride over the line and signal box on 22 July 1964: in one view rebuilt Patriot No. 45530 Sir Frank Ree is passing on down express.

Great Western suburban. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
No. 6106 lettered "Great Western" at Aylesbury in summer of 1938: Dufaycolour from Philip Colebourn Collection

Number 3 (August/September 1991)

Barry C. Lane. Pullman. [Part 2]. 100-10

Robert Reeves. The Great Western Duke and Bulldog 4-4-0s with drawings by K.C. Woodhead. 111-16.
Originally known as Pendennis Castle class, later as 3252 class, but later known as Duke class after No. 3252 Duke of Cornwall. Bogies originally fitted with Mansell wheels; boilers originally fitted with steam pumps driven off crosshead. Some were rebuilt with Belpaire fireboxes and some were fitted with larger boilers and became Bulldogs. Finally Bulldog frames were combined with Duke boilers to become Dukedogs. The first Bulldog was No. 3352 Camel (later No. 3340). Frames could be curved: Nos. 3300-40; straight Nos. 3341-3440, and deep straight Nos. 3441-55. Steam reversing gear was fitted, but was replaced by screw reverse from about 1908. Illustrations: No. 3276 Dartmoor (straight nameplate) at Bodmin Road c.1906; No. 3323 Mendip (round top boiler); No. 3330 Vulcan (Belpaire boiler); No. 3260 Mount Edgecumbe (narrow cab) at Gloucester in 1932; No. 3285 Katerfelto (wider cab) at Reading in 1927; No. 3258 The Lizard (short tender) at Reading General; No. 3267 Cornishman at Didcot in February 1936; Duke class: diagram (side amp; front elevations); Bulldog: diagram (side amp; front elevations); also 2000 and 2500 gallon tenders: diagrams (side amp; front elevations and plans); No. 3352 Camel in original condtion; No. 3368 Sir Stafford at Swindon in 1900; No. 3341 Blasius at Reading General; No. 3409 Queensland during WW2; No. 3405 Empire of India at Old Oak Common in 1931; No. 3361 with nameplates removed after May 1927.

Jenkinson, David. The Fry Model Railway. 117-20.
Model railway created by Cyril Fry which was begun in the mid-1930s and on which he worked until his death in 1974.

Peter Fidczuk. The 16-ton steel mineral wagon. Part 1. Pre-War and War-time designs. 124-33.

T.W. (Smokey) Bourne. Model railways and road transport. 134-9.

Homeward bound from holiday. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
4F No. 4182 hauled excursion train of LMS stock leaving Scarborough pre-1939 from Philip Colebourn Collection

Voilume 1 Number 4 (October/November 1991)

Peter Fidczuk. The 16-ton steel mineral wagon. Part 2. Later pre-nationalisation developments. 148-56.
Ministry of War Transport and Ministry of Transport orders and designs. The Labour Government in the autumn of 1945 ordered 50,000 steel 16 ton wagons mainly to replace wagons which were beyond repair and to maintain work at Royal Ordnance Factories (ROF). These orders were placed with ROF Hayes, but constructed at Woolwich and Dalmuir. Designs included the Charles Roberts diagram 1/100 design and the LMS Diagram 2109 design, but with LNER pattern pressed steel doors. The Chairman of Charles Roberts, Duncan Bailey, was critical of the decision not to construct his Company's patented vehicle, but this would considered to be tt high. Welded doors were used on some wagons and rhe 1948 programme included both riveted and welded bodywork. nbsp;The wagons were intended for coal or iron ore.

David Foxwood. Signalling aspects. Part 2. 157-63.
Signals neither stopped, nor started trains. Freight trains lacked continuous brakes and dumb buffers were not banned until 1913. It was a duty of signalmen to ensure that trains were complete: hence lamps on brakevans, Even after the implementation of continuous brakes on passenger trains drivers were discorouged from using them for mormal stopping, unless in an emergency.

Holt, Geoff. Random thoughts from the workbench. 164-7,
Msinly the construction of model locomotives, but also considers some aspects of the prototype which are difficult, but nor impossible to replicate in models, notably the lightly constructed Walschaerts valve gear introduced by Gresley and retained by Thompson and Peppercorn, and the inside motion on earlier locomotives.

Jenkinson, David. Close encounter of a Guage '1' kind. 168-71.
Illustrated by a visit to John van Riemsdijk's garden layout which included model steam locomotives with three and four cylinders, articulation, and compounding.

Harrison, Jim. The philosophy of the small layout. 172-3.
Solely concerned with modelling, but included two colour illus. of New Holland pier and station with one of the steam ferries.

Earnshaw, Alan. Mirfield station. 174-82.
Includes the engine shed. Illus. (all black amp; white): Lamp;YR A Class 0-6-0 No. 1293 next to sand house at engine shed; 8F No. 48163 also next to sand-drying house; Class 27 0-6-0 No, 12365 with shedmaster's residence behind; A Class 0-6-0 on up coal train in LYR period; map; plan (1893); 7F 0-8-0 No. 49662 with LNWR 0-8-0 passing coaling stage in 1949 with freight for Huddersfield; Aspinall 3F No. 52305; Johnson 3F No. 3341 at Cooper Bridge station in May 1939; 4F No. 44474 on 22 October 1955; rebuilt Scot No. 46117 Welsh Guardsman; Class 5 No. 44776.

Campling, Nick. Great Northern Railway coaching stock. 183-5.
Manchester bogie train constructed Doncaster 1898 consisted of composite brake; lavatory composite and third brake.: dimensions, photographs and drawings. Illus. include end view; Diagram 277 vehicle No. 41615 at York c1947 and Diagram 45J Bullion Salloon No. 4336 in April 1928..

Campling, Nick. 4-wheel carriage trucks. 186-8.
The CCT or covered carriage truck was an anchronism still being constructed by British Railways in 1961, but this article features GNR/LNER vehicles as depicted in official photographs and drawings derived from them. Illus. Doncaster diagram 364 c1892 vehicle No. 2881 labelled "CARRIAGE TRUCK"; Doncaster diagram 390 October 1909 vehicle No.3164 labelled "MOTOR CAR VAN"; also two open flat trucks Diagram 375 12ft 6in wheelbase No. 3287 in November 1912 and D375 with 10ft wheelbase No. 2799 c1893. Also Diagram 358 vehile number 303after overhaul in February 1926

Colour file: ground level. 189.
Colour photo-feature: Callington station on 25 August 1961 with 2-6-2T No. 41316 (R.C. Riley) and St Albans Abbey with pedestrian crossing over concrete sleepers with bullhead rail (Alan Hammond).

From our correspondents.., 190.
Trackwork. Peter Squibb.
See Issue No. 2: states that pilotman tended to imply a human "token" used during single line working. Points do not incorporate "tie bars", but incorporate stretchers or stretcher bars.
Boxmoor station. Eric Edwards.
Coal wagons. Peter Tray.
In the eye or in the mind? John R. Endacott.
See Volume 1 page 76: contact with Mick Gabbarus at Stratford Works concerning GER blue which weathered to black.
In the eye or in the mind? P. Millard.
See Volume 1 page 76: the upper panels of LNWR passenger stock were painted with a mixture of 1 lb of ultramaeine in 112 lb of white lead: the varnish led to the distinctive colour.
In the eye or in the mind? Larry Goddard.
See Volume 1 page 76: the yellowing caused by the varnishes changed the appearance of GWR green. Post-WW2 varnishes were different and writer refers to maroon Oldham Corporation buses for change in colour.
King's Cross again. Steve W. Banks. 191.
See rear cover of Issue Number 1: train in illustration former of 55ft 6in articulated brake third/lavatory composite which perpetuated a former GCR coach length as it was constructed at Dukinfield Works; also notes was an "ordinary passenger train"..

Book reviews. 191.
Birmingham New Street: the story of a great station, including Curzon Street. Richard Foster. Wild Swan. JBW ****
Four volumes: well received.

Busy scene at Guildford: vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover.
U class 2-6-0 No. 1611 probably at head of Margate to Birkenhead through train in 1938. Locomotive in olive green with number on tender and leading coach in malachite green.

Volume 1 Number 5 December 1991/January 1992)

David Jenkinson. Passenger trains and their operation. 197-203
Uniform sets of coaches were rare in steam days and it was quite common to see trains with added non passenger vehicles especially parcels vans, fish vans and horseboxes. Illustrations: class 2 2-6-2T No. 41328 with three-coack push amp; pull train at Higham Ferrars c1956 (colour: Ian L. Wright); Class 5 No. 45215 with four LMS coaches (three non-corridor) at Leicester Central on 8 May 1964 (colour: R.C. Riley); Coronation beaver tail and 16.00 for Leeds hauled by No. 4468 Mallard; LMS standard sleeping car showing gangway adaptors inside carriage washing plant at Willesden in 1957; Bulleid restaurant car showing Pullman gangway and buckeye coupler; M7 No. 30110 at Gosport with push amp; pull special on 3 May 1953 (E.D. Bruton); J39 No. 64843 with single coach and vans at Burnmouth with train on Eyemouth branch (Eric Treacy); fixed set of ex-LBSCR four wheel coaches (with electric lighting) on Isle of Wight in Southern Railway period; diesel railcars Nos. W35/W36 with corridor coach in between near Reading West on 21 July 1951(E.D. Bruton); GWR 43XX 2-6-0 No. 8327 with five Southern Railway coaches on Brighton to Cardiff service at Patchway in 1930s; GWR 43XX 2-6-0 No. 7327 with 7 GWR coaches on similar service at same location, but earlier in date; push amp; pull set formed of former GCR coaches at Winsford amp; Over on 17 October 1953 (E.D. Bruton); 18.37 departure from Salisbury to Waterloo headed by No. 34052 Lord Dowding on 25 April 1954 (E.D. Bruton); 09.33 Sunday departure from Crewe (08.10 ex-Liverpool headed by No. 45737 Atlas with theatre traffic at front including road vehicle on flat truck (E.D. Bruton);

Adrian Tester. Making tracks. Part 2. Early Midland Railway permanent way. 204-12.
The development of permanent way on the consituents of the Midland Railway. Includes design, with diagram, of straight switches. The Leicester amp; Swannington Railway used fish-bellied wrought iron rail. Cites S.W. Johnson's Presidential Address as key source. The original track deteriorated rapidly and the directors visited other lines and acquired replacement rail from John Bradley amp; Co. The advice of John Cass Birkinshaw was probably a key factor. nbsp;The Sheffield amp; Rotherham Railway acquired its rails from Nant y Glo amp; Beaufort Ironworks and this was secured to the stone blocks by pointed slotted pins. The Birmingham amp; Derby Junction used parallel rails made from wrought iron. Small gravel was used as ballast. Cites Francis Whishaw. Peter Barlow considered the rail as a beam and advised the London amp; Birmingham Railway on how to improve its permanent way. The Birmingham amp; Gloucester Railway under the guidance of Moorsom adopted flat bottom rail. Suggested that Samuel Hughes may have been source of American practice. Kyanized sleepers were employed. Burnt clay was quite widely used as ballast. F.S. Williams Our Iron Roads cited. The Midland Counties Railway introduced permanent way of a type to remain standard for many years with double-headed rail which became the basis for bullhead rail. In part this may be attributed to Vignoles and to Woodhouse. The North Midland Railway followed Geoge Stephenson's policy. Illustrations: fish bellied rail at Darlington Bank Top; Bodmin amp; Wadebridge Railway joint chair and ordinary chair on stone blocks; preserved Birmingham amp; Gloucester Railway flat-bottom rail with stone blocks; stone blocks and chairs at Earlestown Works; round section sleepers at Nine Elms; Liverpool amp; Manchester Railway crossing being excavated (archaeology) at Crown Street Ford Liverpool; rail sections after Johnson and Whishaw; broad gauge with passage of last train on 20 May 1892 at Teignmouth; Liverpool Street station; supported joints between Riccall and Selby in early LNER period.

Peter B. Denny. Buckingham. 213-19.
EM gauge model layout based upon Great Central Railway.

Peter Fidczuk. The 16-ton steel mineral wagon. Part 3. Developments under British Railways. 220-30.
Some consideration had been given by British Railways to introducing 40 ton or 21 ton coal wagons, but this was impossible due to the limitations of colliery screens. In 1951 a decision was taken to eliminate grease axleboxes and this led to pressure being put on the wagon programme. Pressed Steel open a new factory at Linwood to manufacture wagons. Both riveted and welded versions were produced. There were trials with both the vacuum and Westinghouse air brake, but the former was selected for larger scale adoption. There were difficulties with using braked wagons on hoists and they were mainly used to reinforce the braking power on coal trains running from the Yorkshire and North Midlands coalfields to the major power stations. Aluminium alloy bodies were constructed at Shildon from 1954. Sand and limestone were conveyed as well as coal and latterly they were used on civil engineers' trains. Illustrations: B254252 (Metropolitan Cammell, 1956 Lot 2799 with welded body affixed to solebar with U-shaped brackets); B561754 (Pickering, 1956 Lot 2918: 16-ton with vaccum brake) at Goole Docks in April 1982; B88429 (Pressed Steel 1953, Lot 2255, manufactured Linwood) at Goole Docks in April 1982; B160415 (Maclellan, 1958 Lot 3143) ex-shops at Toton in bauxite livery with vacuum brake and instanter coupling.

Alan Kirk. Mirfield shed. 231-6.
Plans and elevations of buildings and water tank and coaling stage, photographs of interior. Also anecdotes about drivers and their ability to stop with precision eveen at places like Bradford Exchange.

Colour file for modelmakers: landscape tones. 237
Colour photo-feature: Alan Tyson pictures of Chinley South Junction signal box on 21 January 1967 and Grindleford station at entrance to Totley Tunnel on 25 March 1966:

From our correspondents.., 238

Book reviews. 239

Stanier locomotive classes. A.J. Powell. Ian Allan. CR ****
"highly authoritative 'starter' to the subject

Midland amp; South Western Junction Railway. Vol. 2. Locomotives. Mike Barnsley. Wild Swan. DJ ****
Highly recommended

North Eastern renaissance. Andrew Scott. Ian Allan. AE ***
Mainly K1 No. 2005

Varnished teak. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
Gresley outer suburban twin articulated coach at King's Cross in April 1939 (Dufaycolour)

Number 6 (February/March 1992)

David Jenkinson. The twelve-wheelers of Wolverton. Part 1. The prototypes. 244-56.

David Foxwood. Rules and regulations. Part 1. Naming of parts. 257-60.

Stop signals. Alan Tyson. 261.
Romiley Junction on 24 March 1966; Chinley Station South Junction on 26 June 1965.

The Eric Bruton album: Number one: Big Four freight. 270-1
G2A 0-8-0 No. 49366 passing Northampton No. 2 signal box with a southbound freight on 5 April 1952; N2 No. 69590 lettered "BRITISH RAILWAYS" on J class freight between Red Hall signal box and Hatfield on Sunday 16 April 1949; 57XX No. 7791 passing Kensington Olympia on 6 October 1951; W class No. 31922 heading towards Kensington Olympia on 27 March 1954.

Alan Wells. The Beyer Peacock 4-4-0s of the Midland and Great Northern Railway. 272-80.
The Lynn amp; Fakenham Railway ordered four outside-cylinder 4-4-0s from Beyer Peacock WN 2105-8/1881. These carried the green and black Lamp;FR livery.

Colour file for modellers: platform lamps and barrows. 285.
Luggage barrows at Filey station in 1970s (S.C. Dent); platform oil lamp at Lavernock (Taff Vale Railway); gas lamp at Llanishen (Rhymney Railway), both in 1960 (Ian L. Wright); Lazonby amp; Kirkoswald oil lamp in 1966 (Alan Tyson)

Bristol Bath Road: vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
Dufaycolour photograph taken from Temple Meads platform on 5 September 1937 shows Saint class No. 2979 Quentin Durward and Star class No. 4048 Princess Victoria.

Volume 2

Number 1 (April/May 1992)

B4 No. 5195 in apple green at Neasden in 1939. front cover
7mm scale models of WCJS clerestory dining cars. lower front cover

Nick Campling and Ken Woodhead. The Great Central 'Immingham' 4-6-0s: LNER Class B4. 4-10.
Illustrations: C4 No. 5194 and B7 No. 5474 (lined black) at Aylesbury (former with LMS through coach from Bradford) (colour); B4 No. 1482 Immingham in apple green on Ardsley shed on 23 April 1949 (colour); No. 1097 Immingham in GCR livery c1910; No. 1100 in GCR livery c1910; diagrams and plan for model making; No. 1096 (GCR black livery) c1920; No. 6101 with flower pot chimney and green livery c1937; No. 6097 Immingham in apple green at Copley Hill shed in 1936. See also letter from Steve Banks (p. 150) concerning first illustration: train was 08.20 from Manchester with through coach from Huddersfield attached at Penistone

David Jenkinson. The twelve wheelers of Wolverton. Part 2. 21-9.

nbsp;Number 2 (June/July 1992)

Bobnbsp;Essery. Goods brake vans. 53-60.
Very interesting illustrations, the earlier of which use the spelling "break": Spalding amp; Bourne Railway supplied by Metropolitan Carriage amp; Wagon Co. in 1865; GWR Toad brake van (drawing); GNR close-coupled 20 ton brake van; GNR six-wheel break van for working between King's Cross amp; South of London; GWR 12 ton brake van (diagram, including plan, based on Swindon 58198 by B.C. Lane)

David Jenkinson. The twelve wheelers of Wolverton. Part 3. Modelling the details. 61-8.

P.R. Bunce. Scottish horseboxes. 69-71.
Only inludes those from Gamp;SWR and NBR.

T.W. (Smokey) Bourne. Model railways as an art form. 72-4.
An interesting claim, but...

Paul Rees. . A Great Western Railway goods depot in Liverpool. 75-9.
Restoration by the National Mueums and Galleries on Merseyside of former GWR goods depot on Manchester Dock in central Liverpool from which traffic used to be conveyed across the Mersey by barge for conveyance by the GWR from Birkenhead.

Barry C. Lane. The Aspinall six-coupled goods. 80-6.
Notes that 496 were put into service between 1889 and 1918. They were sometimes known as the 11 class (the initial locomotive shared this both as the Works and the running number, but in 1919 the locomotives were classified as Class 27, or if superheated class 28.

Colin Ganley. A little piece of history. 87.
GWR locomotives: No. 1376 0-6-0T taken over from the Bristol amp; Exeter Railway which had built it as a standard gauge engine at its workshops in Bristol stating that it was intended for use on the Culm Valley line. After the grouping No. 1376 and its sister engine No. 1377 ere allocated to Weymouth and No. 1376 then moved to Oswestry. Locomotive No. 120: 119 class 0-6-0PT origated as a standard gaugue 0-6-0ST constructed at Swindon in 1861. Withdrawn from Oswestry in 1933. Both illustrated.

Essence of Southern: vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
Norwood Junction in 1939 with E3 class 0-6-2T No. 2167 (black livery) hauling freight (visible GWR wagon and two private owner's seven plank wagons; diesel electric shunter No. 2, and multiple unit derived from SECR stock.

Number 3 (August 1992/September 1992)

David Geen. [Great Western Railway] dining and restaurant cars. [Part 1]. The wooden panel cars. 100-9.
Part 2 see pp. 160 et seq. Note author's name given as "Green": his website clearly indicates Geen

John B. Gibb and K.J. Norman. Lancaster LNWR 1903. 110-11.
Drawing (black amp; white) of northbound express passing through Lancaster Castle station hauled by Webb Waterloo class No. 773 Centaur and a Precedent class 2-4-0 with Midland Railway 0-6-0 No. 1374 in background.

Bob Miller and David Goodwin. Southport #150; Lord Street in 1886. 112-16.
The Cheshire Lines Extension Railway opened to Lord Street on 1 Sreptember 1884 for passenger traffic and on 1 June 1885 for freight. Passenger traffic ceased on 7 January 1952. Includes map of the line and notes on main train services and motive power. Illustrations: nbsp;

D.K. Horne. Clearances. 117-19.

John C. Adams. North British Railway: Reid third class brake model. 120-2.

Philip A. Millard. Photographic survey of LNWR signal cabins. 122-6.
All colour unless stated bamp;w: Dunham Mass ey (bamp;w); Boars Head Junction (bamp;w); Vulcan Bank; Euxton Junction; Bamfurlong Sorting Sidings; Chester No. 5; Chester No.6; Moor Row; and Brent Junction (bamp;w). Interesting in that "cabins" rather than signal boxes.

Edward Talbot. A visit to Asters, with additional note by John van Riemswdijk. 127-30.
MODEL RAILWAY: visit by author to Japanese factory where Aster Gauge 1 steam models were made and where he met Messrsnbsp;Susumu Fujii and Inoue. The business was founded by S. Teraoka inn 1955.

Making tracks. Part 3. Midland Railway permanent way. 131-40.
Directors and Officers of the Permanent Way Company were Peter Barlow, William Barlow, Charles Wild, James Samuel, Robert Richardson, Peter Ashcroft, Charles May (Manager) and W. Howden (Secretary). Most held patents and the aim of the Company was to exploit them. William Barlow's Saddle-back system is considered in detail.and it was used on the Great Western Railway. Peter Barlow was responsible for introducing fishplates, inside key chairs an steel rail: this last supplied by the Victoria Ironworks of the Ebbw Vale Iron Co. in 1857. Rail laid at Derby station lasted until 1873. The LNWR conducted extensive trials with steel rail. Midland Railway engineers mentioend include John Crossley, A. Johnston, Alfred Langley (who returned the keys to outside, McDonald who adopted heavier rail. James Briggs was the final Midland engineer appointed in 1915. BS9 was adopted following the St Neots accident in 1895.

Bob Miller. The Sacre singles. 141-6.
2-2-2 with double frames and Crewe pattern outside cylinders as a response to broken crank axles. No. 399 was built in 1882 and Nos. 500-10 followed. They were intended for use beween Manchester and Grantham on the service to King's Cross and for the Cheshire Lines Committee expresses between Liverpool and Manchester

From our correspondents.

'Imminghams'. J.H. Quick.

'Imminghams'. John Cockcroft.

Aylesbury, 1938. Steve Banks.
Express was 08.20 from Manchester with through coach from Huddersfield attached at Penistone; the other train was the 09.35 Leicester to Marylebone which stopped at all stations north of Aylesbury and then waited for a long time at Aylesbury before going forward.

Colour file for modellers: the colliery scene. Alan Tyson. 149.

Local trains at King's Cross. Vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
A1 No. 2550 Blink Bonny in local platforms with stopping train headlamp, and Great Northern articulated set behind in morning sunshine in April 1939: not much colour left in reproduced image (green on boiler barrel difficult to detect: reds on buffer plank and teak coaching stock had survived)

Number 4 (October 1992/November 1992)

Geoff Holt. Random thoughts from the workbench: cosmetic rivets. 156-9..

David Geen. [Great Western Railway] dining and restaurant cars. Part 2. Steel panelled stock. 160-71.
Part 1: see pp. 100 et seq Illustrations of H25 type (narrow body with 7ft bogies); H26 No. 9569 with automatic (buckeye) couplers; Nos. 10002-4 (articulated set); No. 4061 Glastonbury Abbey with concertina stock (one in crimson lake livery) with H27 or H28 dining car near Twyford with down express; interiors of articulated vehicles including first and third class saloons and kitchen unit; No.4015 Knight of St John on up express at Filton with articulated set in service; No. 6000 King George V nbsp;with down train of dining cars halted at Wellington station (probably "stop and examine"); 9ft wide vehicle No. 9579 after postwar renovation; ex-Cambrian Railways tea car in March 1937; H38 type No. W9607W on cross country working; 1929 built Cornish Riviera kitch car on Ocean liner duty at Plymouth Millbay; Castle class on west to north express with H38 car in formation; preserved H39 kitchen/first on Severn Valley Railway.

Peter R. Bunce. Great Central Railway open carriage truck. 172

Jack Ray. Forty years on#151;at least!#151;a Crewchester retrospective. 173-6.
Gauge O model garden railway

Doug Hewson. Big is beautiful! Running a 5in gauge ground level model railway. 177-83.
Prototype! A2 class No. 60536 Trimbush on down express passing Dukeries Junction in 1962; remaining illustrations show ratherb over-scale human beings sitting uncomfortably behind model steam locomotives.

Paul W. Bartlett. Gulf Red #151; a nearly forgotten livery. 184-8.
No. DE 301599 ballast brake/workmen's van (LNER diagram 203) in Tyne Yard; DB 985459 Grampus ballst wagon at Northampton in February 1983; DB 995251 Whiting in Samp;T Department at St Blazey in June 1979; DB 982095 Sole at Peterborough in May 1980; DB 996757 GANE bogie rail carrier at Bristol Kingsland Road in September 1980; KDB 997653 bogie bolster at Reading West in July 1982; DB 983859 Catfish nbsp;ballast hopper at Stoke Longport Junction in April 1980; DB 993708 ballast plough/brake in January 1986.

Paul Rees. The Woodside Project. Part 1. 189-92.
Wirral Museum exhibit covering the Ferry Terminal, bus and tram terminus, Woodside Station, t he landing stage, graving dock and pumping station as in 1934. Contract between local authority and Merseyside Model Railway Society.

Bob Essery. Train classification and locomotive headlamp codes. 193-9.

T.W. ('Smokey') Bourne. Non-locomotive movement. 200-2.
Horses, capstans, tractors with pneumatic tyres.

From our correspondents. 203

'Blink Bonny' at King's Cross. Peter E. Whitaker

'Blink Bonny' at King's Cross. John Measures.

Horseboxes. J. Page

As it was. R.E. Rodrigues.

Colour file for modellers: branch line bridges. Stephen Dent. 205
Viaducts on Boar's Head to Adlington branch and at Redbrook across River Wye near Monmouth.nbsp;

Great Western in transition. Vintage colour page. Sydney Perrier. rear cover
Unidentified Hall class (dirty) with locomotive coal hoppers in two different liveries. Photograph taken 5 September 1937 by Sidney Perrier.

Number 5 (December 1992/January 1993)

David Geen. GWR dining and restaurant cars. Part 3. Collett's later dining and restaurant cars. 216-29.
Includes buffet cars, kitchen cars (to run with excursion stock), kitchen/dining cars to run with Centenary stock built for Cornish Riviera in 1935 with Beclawat windows, but rapdly replaced by airstream vents. The Super Saloons were modified with kitchens and a further series of kitchen cars was constructed in 1936/7. Some vehicles were built with six-wheel bogies aznd were mainly intended for heavy excursion traffic. Mention is made of the buffets installed in the single unit diesel railcars and in the twin-unit railcars.

Williams, Mike. LNWR 30ft 1in picnic saloons. 230-4.
Six-wheel third class saloons intended for private parties and fitted with a WC and aa compaartment for luggage or food. Built in 1893. Diagrams and plans. Photo. illus: shown in use at Gloucester old station behind MR 2-4-0 No. 1295 (1282 class) in early 1900s; behind 0-6-2T Coal Tank No. 7722 at Huddersfield in late 1920s; and interior of preseved vehicle.

Lane, B.C. Tender exchanges. 235.
Use of Lamp;YR eight-wheel tenders on LNWR G1 0-8-0s (No. 9167 shown in this state at Willesden in 1932) and LNWR tenders on Lamp;YR 0-8-0s (No. 12952 shown at Bolton shed in this condition probably post-WW2)

Jenkinson, David. The 'domeless' LMS Class 5 4-6-0s. 236-47.
The early domeless locomotives also included the four named locomotives. This is mainly about the construction of models in 4mm and 7mm scale, but includes information and some excellent illustrations about the prototypes.

Bruton, Eric. Southern tank engines. (The Eric Bruton album No. 3). 248-9..
H class No. 31310 leaving Hastings for Rye with 17.45 in September 1950; E5 No. 32586; 4-8-0T No. 30494 at Feltham in 1952, and 415 class 4-4-2T No. 30583 nbsp;at Exeter Central on 12 April 1953.

Rees, Paul. Getting it right: the Woodside project. Part 2. 250-5.
Birkenhead: timetables in 1930s.

Water columns, tanks and standards. (The Ibbotson Portfolio No. 2). 256-7.
Water column at Five Ways, Birmingham; water tank at Tewksbury and water crane at Leek.

From our correspondents. 259-60/62.
Sacreacute; singles and the LNWR. Edward Talbot.
See Volume 2 No. 3: notes that Sacreacute; adopted the Crewe-type frame arrangement for his 2-2-2 with outside cylinders to avoid crank axle breakages. Adds that they were not really the final 2-2-2 design as the Webb Problem class of 1895-6 were renewals, and that in the case of Crewe Works implied replacement: the replacement Problems had new steel frames, new cylinders and new steel boilers pitched higher than on the original.
GWR dining cars. Chris Youett.
See Vol. 2 No. 3: six wheel and 11ft 6in American bogies fitted
Post Office vehicles. J.B. Dawson
Mamp;NEJPS (Midland and North Eastern Railway Joint Postal Stock) used on Travelling Post Office services from Newcastle to Birmingham.
Club saloons. Philip A. Millard.
See letter from Tony East: it was improbable that he nbsp;rode in a twelve-wheel vehicle on a North Wales Land Cruise train due to restrictions on the lines which the excursions traversed. It is more probable that the vehicles used were ex-LNWR Club Saloons (Nos. 234 and 235) used on the Manchester-Llandudno Club Train from 1907 and which became Nos. M814 and M815 (illustrated) on the Land Cruise Trains.
Train classification and locomotive headlamp codes. Arnold Tortorella.
Semaphore codes used by Caledonian Railway as used on the Gamp;SWR lines on trains running into Glasgow.
Train classification and locomotive headlamp codes. Mike Barnsley.
Railway Clearing House system introduced 1903 (diagram). The LSWR tried the system for a short time, but then reverted to disc codes. The LBSCR, SECR, LTSR and Metropolitan Railway retained their disc codes and the GER continued to use discs, but followed the RCH pattern for main line trains.

A trio of tunnels. (Colour files for modelmakers). Stephen Dent (phot.). 261.
Tunnel portals at Flax Bourton, Disley and St. Anne's No. 2 tunnel.

LMS loose-coupled freight. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
LNWR 19inch Goods 4-6-0 No. 8824 on up freight at Berkhamsted in 1938 (Philip Colebourn Collection).

Number 6 (February-March 1993)

Roberts, Stan. The Woodside Project supplementary: telephone kiosks. 268-72.

Bruton, Eric. Buffet cars. (The Eric Bruton album No. 4). 273.

Steve Banks. Passenger trains and formations on the LNER. 274-82.

Volume 3

Number 1 (April/May 1993)

Holt, Geoff. The red Scots. 4-13.
The author's definition extends to the unrebuilt locomotives, plus the solitary 6170 British Legion. The approach is that of the model maker who was constructing three 7mm models (two unrebuilt locomotives at different stages in their existence plus No. 6170 for David Jenkinson). There is comment on the errors which have been detected in many of the drawings (diagrams) available to model makers. The illustrations and diagrams have been gathered to show the detail differences and changes wrought on the locomotives: these include smoke deflector plates and steps.

Wordsworth, Ian. Layout planning. 14-21.
Although ultimately concerned with such non-prototype features as fiddle yards (although how the bizarre prototype fiasco would love to be able to employ such features) this does feature many useful prototype features: station layout plans for Ashburton, West Bay, Highworth, and Holywell Town plus R.C. Riley photographs of Bath Green Park with 2P No. 40698 on 13.10 to Templecombe on 22 July 1958; Bath Green Park with 41243 on 17.45 to Bristol on 4 July 1959; Highworth on 9 June 1951 with No. 5805 awaiting departure; T9 No. 30719 at Padstow on 15 July 1960 and 41310 at Torrington on 25 September 1962.

Bruton, Eric. LMS non-passenger coaching stock (the Eric Bruton album No. 6). 22-3.
Bogie van No. M31978 at Windermere in June 1950 (vehicle rebuilt from former LYR ambulance coach by LMS in 1924); M40476 six-wheel slatted fish van at Mallaig Junction in June 1951 (30ft vehicle built by LMS to MR design for fruir or fish traffic); General Utility Vans (GUV) hauled by Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 2684 near St Albans on 14 August 1948.

Millard, Philip A. LNWR Royal Train Saloon No. 56. 24-9.
With colour photographs of then extant fittings and furnishings by Peter Bishop. Includes black amp; white photographs of vehicle in its original state and as converted to a holiday home in 1936.

Fidczuk, Peter. Air Ministry tank wagons. Part 1. The War years. 30-7.

Post-War austerity on the LNER (Vintage colour page). Eric Bruton. rear cover
A4 No. 2510 Quicksilver in black livery, as yet not renumbered, with "LNER" on tender, north of Hatfield on up express in August 1946.

Number 2 (June/July 1963)

Fidczuk, Peter. Air Ministry tank wagons. Part 2. Post War service. 60-9.

Bruton, Eric. Ex-GNR 8-ton express goods van, (The Eric Bruton album No. 6). 70-1.
No. 421829 photographed at St Albans in April 1949. Vehicle had been constructed at Doncaster in 1908. The vehicle had originally been painted in red oxide. Drawings (side and end elevations).

Kirk, Alan. Beattock station. 72-7.
Collection of drawings and black amp; white photographs, track layout and plans of station buildings. Station master's house and railwaymen's cottages are also portrayed..

The Ibbotson portfolio. No. 4. Tunnel vision. 78-9.
Hindles Tunnel (Ilkley branch); Whatstandwell Tunnel; Liverpool Central Tunnel; and single track, substandard Shirland Tunnel.

Holt, Geoff. The red Scots. Part 2. 80-9.
Wonderful colour photographs of the models, and this part is mainly about the art of model construction with very little about the prototypes.

Western transition. (Vintage colour page). Eric Bruton. rear cover
Down Torbay Express hauled by Castle class No. 5058 Earl of Clancarty on seawall near Shaldon in June 1949: rolling stock still in GWR chocolate amp; cream

Number 3 (August/September 1993)

Campling, Nick. The Thompson class L1 2-6-4T.116-19.
"The L1 was a good all-round passenger tank locomotive" concludes the author: they were certainly very good looking in the original apple green and there is an H.N. James colour illus. of No. 9000 at Stratford in snow in early 1947 alongside a green K2. There is also a colour illus. of No. 67708 (BR lined black) at Westerfield Junction with a train for Felixstowe on 22 May 1957. There are model makers drawings (side/front and rear elevations) and notes on differences between the prototype and batches supplied by contractors.

Brasier, Stuart. Stopping the freight. 120-7.
The author lists twenty four reasons for freight trains to be stopped and these may be summarised as picking up and detaching wagons; replenishing water; changing locomotives and/or crew; descending and ascending steep gradients; and permitting fater trains to pass.

Kay, Chris and Goodwin, David. Inspired by Mostyn. 128-33.
Research for a model to be set in 1977, but with many older buildings notably ther lamp shed and weighing machine office.

Henderson, A.D.M. Bodmin North: the history of a model. 134-9.
This takes the reverse step of relating a long-established model railway to its prototype with the assistance of an aerial photograph taken on 1 June 1961 which shows a branch train leaving for Padstow and 1:2500 plan of 1908.

The Waterman Collection. 140-1.
Gauge 1 models constructed by Geoff Holt for Pete Waterman, photographed in colour by Tony Wright. With the exception of the track (where the sleepers are clearly plastic) the images probably give a clearer image of the LNWR locomotives concerned than most contemporary photographs. Webb three-cylinder compound No. 1309 Adriatic; nbsp;Webb 2-4-0 compound No. 1304 Jeannie Deans and Bowen Cooke 0-8-2T No. 1189.

Millard, Philip A. The Maryport and Carlisle Railway as a prototype for modellers. 142-55.
Other than the word "modellers" this is as about as this magazine got from the world of the gentle art of deception: this is all about a very real railway including its persistent profitability. Locomotives are not covered in very great depth although it is noted that the company built many of its own locomotives and modified still more. The illustrations were especially good and included a map: 2-4-0 No. R1 (former No. 19) with short passenger train of six-wheeled coaches at Maryport station; 0-4-2 No. 3 passing 2-4-0 No 10 at Maryport (A.F. Selby); 2-4-0 No. 8 on passenger train at Maryport; plan of Brayton Junction; Aspatria down side buildings (colour); Aspatria up side buildings (colour); Dalston station buildings (colour); Brayton station house (colour); Brayton station signal box (colour); Dalston station signal box (colour); LMS Diagram of 0-6-0 goods engines Nos 29 and 30 (weight diagram side elevation); LMS Diagram of 2-4-0 passenger engines Nos 10 and 13 (weight diagram side elevation); 0-4-2 No 15 at Currock shed; 0-4-2 No 4 with additional buffing gear for chauldron wagons; nbsp;Bullgill signal box (colour); Bullgill station (colour); Dalston goods shed (colour); Water tank at Curthwaite station (colour); diagram of six compartment composite brake of 1905; 0-4-2 No 18 with brake van; 0-4-4T No 26; 0-6-0 No 14 on passenger train at Carlisle Citadel; 0-6-0 No 18 on passenger train at Carlisle Citadel; 0-6-0 No. R4; tri-composite bogie coach No. 15; horsebox No. 4 (Pickering ); Brayton Junction and signal box in 1920s; coke hopper wagon No 1631 (Hurst Nelson 1905: must have been indexed by KPJ in 1961); cattle Wagon No 720 (Hurst Nelson 1913).

LNER 12 ton ventilated box van (corrugated ends). (The Eric Bruton Album No. 7). 156-7.
Fitted van No. 175859 at St Albans City on 26 December 1946; ventilated van No. 256331 outside St Albans goods shed on 19 Occtober 1946; official LNER photograph of No. 186548 model makers diagram (side amp; rear elevations). See also short article by Peter Tatlow (Vol. 4 p. 74) which corrects data concerning width: 8ft 2in or 8ft, but never 7ft 8in..

GWR siphon G van No. W1306 (The Eric Bruton Album No. 8). 158-9.
Model makers diagram (side amp; rear elevations) based upon Swindon drawings. The type was introduced in 1912, but this vehicle dated from 1924/5 Lot 1347. They were intended for the transport of milk and were gangwayed. Vehicle is shown at Chippenham Chippenham in March 1949.

Bunce, Peter. A brace of CCTs . 160-1.
Model makers diagrams (side amp; rear elevations) for Covered Carriage Trucks from the LSWR and from the Great Central Railway/Cheshire Lines Committee (GCR and CLC) as constructed 1897 to 1903

From our correspondents. 162-4.
Scots, live steam amp; newcomers.
Naval gazing (which did not do any long term good) from D. Rowlands, Peter Baker, Peter Tray, J.T.C. Long and Andrew J. Rice.
LNER passenger trains. A. Maclean.
Drawings (side elevations and plans) of third class saloons with centre tables intended for excursion traffic as manufactured by the NBR in 1921/2 and by the LNER at York in 1924 (the latter followed Greley NER practice): these were constructed to diagrams 1693G and 11760 respectively.
SR livery. L.A. Snelling. 164
GWR dining cars. C. Youett
Great Northern Railway fitted vans. M.J. Holland
Glasgow Highlander. D.A. Anderson.
Includes LMS official photograph ofnameplate of Class 5 No. 5157 The Glasgow Highlander

Air Ministry tank wagons #151; MBT Vol. 3 No. 2. A. Hall-Patch.
Comment on dimensions of the cladding required after conversion to conveying bitumen: see also letter from Paul W. Bartlett on p. 275.

GWR coaches in BR days (Colour file for Modelmakers). 165.
Dick Riley colour photographs of auto trailer built in 1933 No. W161W at Plymouth Laira in overall faded carmine livery on 17 July 1960 and No. W3955W toplight of 1919 and unidentified corridor brake composite, both in carmine amp; cream livery) at Patchway on 20 September 1955

LMS Ex Midland 2-4-0 no 20267 leaving Wellingborough Locomotive Wellingborough Wellingborough M3 168

LMS local passenger. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
Former Midland Railway 2-4-0 No. 20267 leaving Wellingborough with local train on 28 July 1938 (Dufaycolour image). See also letter in Number 4 page 218 from M.J. Holland on unusual nature of the rolling stock visible in this picture..

Number 4 (October/November 1993)

No 6229 Duchess of Hamilton masquerading as No. 6220 Coronation at Flushing, New York Central Railroad on 30 April 1939 with headlamp and bell. Front cover.

Jenkinson, David. The definitive 'Duchess'. Part 1. 172-86.
Includes model making drawings by Russell Carter (side and end elevations of streamlined and original non-streamlined locomotives with and without double chimneys), general arrangement drawings (side elevations, sections and plan) and many photographs which depict detail from many angles (including above and from the front and there is an especially good illlustration from the rear of ther streamlined tender fitted to No. 6225 at Perth in 1939). Part 1 is devoted to the streamlined locomotives and the original non-streamlined engines without smoke deflectors and with single chimneys. Details of liveries carried, de-streamlining and fitting with double chimneys are tabulated. Illus. (all black amp; white): No 46231 Duchess of Atholl in BR standard blue livery paired with a streamlined tender; first non streamlined Duchess No 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch from colour painting (very odd); left hand side of No 6222 Queen Mary and right hand side of No 6224 Princess Alexandra both at Shrewsbury when new in blue livery; two views of No. 6220 Coronation (one from front and one from rear); front view of No. 6223 Princess Alice at Edgehill (Eric Treacy); No. 6236 City of Bradford showing double chimney from above; tender detail of No. 6225 Duchess of Gloucester at Perth (shows long ladder and rearward extension of body); first of the red amp; gold streamliners No 6225 Duchess of Gloucester actually in work's grey!; No 6229 Duchess of Hamilton in black livery with partially cut-back tender; No 6239 City of Chester as previous; No 6248 City of Leeds ex works in wartime black livery; streamlined black No 6224 Princess Alexandra paired with a non streamined tender; only streaminer to get a BR number No 46243 City of Lancaster; cabside detail of No 6231 Duchess of Atholl at Perth in 1939; left hand side of first non streamlined Duchess No 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch in work's grey livery; right hand side view of same locomotive in full red livery; front end view of No. 6234 Duchess of Abercorn at Crewe in August 1938; rear view of No 6231 Duchess of Atholl at Perth in 1939; No 6224 Duchess of Atholl in wartime black livery and with cut-back streamlined tender; No 6232 Duchess of Montrose at Edge Hill in 1939 (Eric Treacy); No 6233 Duchess of Sutherland at Bressingham (Norfolk); No 6233 Duchess of Sutherland in double chimney condition with smoke deflectors plates c1945, but still in red livery; No 6252 City of Leicester ex-works in plain black livery with streamlined tender, and same locomotive in pre-1946 livery (mainly dirt) and with fully cut-back tender; No 6234 Duchess of Abercorn at Thrimby Grange late in 1947 (Eric Treacy).

Lane, Barry C. Carriage drawings made easy. 187-91.

Sunbeam at Birkenhead Woodside. 191.
Webb Experiment class compound 2-2-2-0 No. 1104 Sunbeam on turntable.

Deeds not words, J.P. Richards: a man and his models. 192-9.
Very significant collection of models of LNWR locomotives and rolling stock to be eventually housed by NRM. KPJ has always been dubious of model railways, but these models capture in colour and in three dimensions a world which had gone by the mid-1920s: includes colour illus. by Ron Prattley of carriages and wagons, some of the most notable being spacial wagon No. 65906 for transporting plate glass; open fish truck No. 11501; open carriage truck No. 11163 and fruit amp; milk van No. 11897.

Roberts, Stan. No. 1 Hamilton Street. 200-1.
Mainly model buildings based on Merseyside prototype

Henderson, Adrian. Boscarne and Dunsmere. 202-6.
Boscarne Junction and Dunsmere Halt between Bodmin and Wadebridge. Although most is about a paradigm model it is ineviatble there are rich gleanings about the prototype. It is noted rhat on 13 November two of the 2-4-0WTs were used to haul the school train up to Bodmin General. The illus. of the prototype include Beattie 2-4-0WT No. 3329 on 10.10 Mondays only Padstow to Wadebridge consisting of two LSWR coaches with lavatories plus cattle truck in 1937 (Ian C. Allen); Dunsmere Halt in late 1950s and Signalman Cottage at Boscarne Junction.

Bruton, Eric. Headcode 'C' traffic: a treatise. Part 1. Parcels and van trains. 207-15
The GWR used a different headcode from that adopted by both the LNER and LMS and this was not stsandardised until 5 June 1950. Illus.: Class 5 No. 45058 heads a class C train in the Lune Gorge on Sunday 25 May 1952 (train includes a coach and two open carriage trucks loaded with horse drays presumably for a theatrical party followed by several vans and milk tank wagons; No 5989 Cransley Hall on up parcels amp; van train with Cordon gas cylinders and Enparts van at front at Dawlish Warren on 10 June 1949; 43XX class No 5380 on 10.53 Shrewsbury to Paddington at Wolvercote on 13 July 1953; A4 No 60028 Walter K Whigham in dark blue (purple) livery on 23.45 Edinburgh to King's Cross at Potters Bar on 4 December 1949; LMS Ivatt2-6-2T No. 41295 at Olympia on 23 March 1954; A1 No 60117 (apple green) on 23.45 Edinburgh to King's Cross at Welwyn Garden City on 5 March 1950; W1 No. 60700 at nbsp;Ganwick on evening down King's Cross to York on 2 August 1951; rebuilt Jubilee No 5736 Phoenix on 23.35 ex-Glasgow 'Horse and Cart' arriving Euston on 3 April 1948; Class 5 No. M5048 at Bushey and Oxhey with down Euston to Bletchley van train on 25 September 1948; 43xx No 9315 at Olympia on 27 March 1954, and up Rugby to Euston 'Horse and Car't behind No 44769 at Bushey and Oxhey on 25 September 1948.

From our correspondents. 218-20.
Beattock station. Deric Fuller.
Vintage colour page, Vol. 3 No. 3. M.J. Holland.
See rear cover of Issue No. 3:
16 ton mineral wagons. Dick Riley.

Private owner wagons. Bernard Holland.
Notes that the collection of drawings prpared and owned by the late Peter Matthews has been destroyed and that the Historical Model Railway Society was hoping to assemble as much extant material as possible.
Maryport amp; Carlisle Railway. Peter R. Bunce.

Departmental use of GWR catering vehicles. Paul Bartlett. 219

Stopping the freight. Jim Brodie

Stopping the freight. Don Rowland.

The red Scots. Bob Hines. 220.

Book reviews. 220
Great North memories: the LNER era 1923-47. GNSR Association. AT. *****
Work was highly recommended, but was mainly based on photographs.

Townscape [Foord Viaduct, Folkestone], Vintage colour page. rear cover
Class C 0-6-0 nbsp;No. 1723 hauling passenger train over viaduct with red East Kent coaches beneath. Sydney Perrier.

Number 5 (December 1993-January 1994)

Live Steam. Dave Rowlands. 228-35.
Entirely model: both propietray and scratch built.

The chaldron. John A. Elliott. 236-42.
Both prototype and models are discussed . The type was used on the Northumberland and Durham coalfields. Also includes box wagons which were used more widely. 4 drawings (7mm=1 ft)

Jenkinson, David. The definitive Duchess. Part Two. (drawings by Russell Carter). 243-56.
Mainly prototype: post WW2 developments. three side elevations (plus relevant front and rear) (3.5mm=1ft). Table lists dates when de-streamlined/or built, when fitted with double chimney; smoke deflectors; smokebox restored to normal; original livery; and date scrapped. Another tabulates the various "BR" liveries carried. Illus.: No 6221 Queen Elizabeth de-streamlined at Crewe in 1946; No 6222 Queen Mary de-streamlined at Crewe in summer of 1946; No. 6235 City of Birmingham ex-works in plain black and de-streamlined; No 6223 Princess Alice de-stramlined, but with small front windows to cab; No 6224 Princess Alexandra view from above; No 6242 City of Glasgow.ex-works in 1947; No 46221 Queen Elizabeth on up Mid-Day Scot at Carlisle and No 46239 City of Chester on same train (BR green with proper smokeboxes (both col. illus. from Gavin Wilson); No 46220 Coronation with deformed smokebox c1953; No 6248 City of Leeds at Glasgow Central c1948; Nos 46223 Princess Alice and 46232 Duchess of Montrose side by side at Carlisle c1959 (Eric Treacy); No 46223 Duchess of Rutland at Crewe North c1961; No 46229 Duchess of Hamilton at Edge Hillc1961; No 46233 Duchess of Sutherland at Carlisle with up Royal Scot c1958 (Eric Treacy); No 46229 Duchess of Hamilton restored at Swindon in May 1976 (two views colour); No 46246 City of Liverpool c1958 at Carlisle (in maroon with BR lining: colour Gavin Wilson); No 46238 City of Carlisle at Camden on 4 August 1962 (colour: maroon: Geoff Rixon); No. 46246 City of Manchester at Euston on 14 April 1962 (colour: maroon: Geoff Rixon); No 46256 Sir William Stanier FRS at Carlisle in 1962 (colour: maroon:Gavin Wilson); No 46242 City of Glasgow as rebuilt after Harrow and Wealdstone passing Elvanfoot, c1960 (David Anderson); close up detail of No 46256: trailing truck with roller bearing axlebox, cylinders and rear of tender (colour: Gavin Wilson: includes note on accuracy of colour rendered); No 46231Duchess of Atholl in BR blue (colour illus.); painting in colour of No 6230 Duchess of Buccleuch: nbsp;remaining images all black amp; white: No 46250 City of Litchfield with cabside yellow stripe at Carlisle Upperby in 1964; No 46251 City of Nottingham (red) from the front at Crewe North c1960; No 6253 City of St Albans in works grey in 1946; No 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent c1962 (Jim Carter); No 46255 City of Hereford (BR blue) at Carlisle c1952; No 46256 Sir William Stanier FRS (tender lettered BRITISH RAILWAYS) at Carlisle in 1948; No 46256 Sir William Stanier FRS in red livery from the nearside rear at Lancaster and in Crewe North MPD with yellow stripe on cab in September 1964 (Jim Carter).

John Clegg. Gauge 1 carriage stock. 257-8.
Three colour illustrations and 3 black amp; white illustrations of GCR Barnum coach finished in varnished teak; Sentinel steam railcar Pearl (green amp; cream); Clayton 6-wheel bogie Pullman Ansonia; Pullman observation car Lady of Morven; and late Midland Railway dining car.

Philip A. Millard. An outline of Lamp;NWR passenger train working. Part 1. 262-8.
Illus.: 4-6-2T Superheater tank No. 962 on a Buxton train departing Manchester London Road c1912; large Jumbo 2-4-0 No 1525 Abercrombie on up express near Stowe Hill tunnel, Weedon, c1904; Cauliflower 0-6-0 on local train at Farington Curve Juunction c1922; Jumbo No. 864 Pilot at Radcliffe-on-Trent with Nottingham to Market Harborough train in 1921; Large Jumbo No. 868 Condor on Bushey troughs with Euston to Northampton stopping train formed of lavatory stock introduced for this service in 1906; special two compartment brake third for Liverpool-Newcastle service to meet restricted clearances on NER (built 1917); London suburban train c1900 near Kenton; 2-4-2T No 402 shunting coaches (Manchester to Birmingham set) at Manchester London Road c1921; Royal Scot No 6161 King's Own arriving Manchester London Road on train formed of ex-LNWR stock, c1930; Precursor No. 639 Ajax on Carlisle to Crewe slow passenger train at Farington c1921; George V class No 2220 Vanguard at Tamworth with semi-fast with LYR fish van at front c1925; Renown class No 1949 King Arthur at Tamworth with semi-fast c1925; inter-district coach set formed from former four-wheelers; Large Jumbo No 1748 Britannia heads Liverpool to Southport train; 4-4-2T No 2077 leaving Rugby with a local train which included full brake vans and horsebox; George V class No 1583 Henry Ward on secondary passenger train c1922; Precursor No. 734 Celtic leaving Stafford on down slow with a stopping train.

Eric Bruton. Headcode 'C' Traffic: a treatise. Part Two. 269-74.
Text refers to some traffgics which were not relected in the illustrations: ntably horseboxes and cattle wagons, including special wagons provided by the GWR and Southern for conveying show animals, circuses, ballast trains on the Southern and using HERRING on the GWR. The evhicles used for carrying fish and milk are also described. Illus.: Stanier Black Five No 45249 leaving Llandudno Junction. on down train including nine horseboxes on 9 June 1948 (notes tall lattice girder signal); V2 No 60915 on down Scotch Goods north of Hadley North tunnel (notes sheeted open wagon and severl container wagons in formation on 22 Apeil 1950; Horwich 2-6-0 No. 2798 on long train of empty milk tank wagons near Napsbury on 10 July 1948; Star No 4054 Princess Charlotte on down empty milk tanks and parcels train on seawall at Teignmouth on Sunday 29 May 1949; class 5 No M4520 on down empty milk tanks and single van near Harpenden on 24 August 1948; Austerity No 77388 on potato special on seawall at Teignmouth on 2 June 1949; Hall class No 5991 Gresham Hall on strawberry special formed of cattle trucks passing through Teignmouth station on 8 June 1949; class A2/3 No 60500 Edward Thompson in apple green on down perishable train passing Marshmoor Hatfield on 22 June 1949; Castle No 4032 Queen Alexandra leaving Penzance on 18.45 milk and parcels for Kewnsington on 27 August 1949; K3/2 No 61954 on 17.40 Aberdeen to King's Cross fish train at nbsp;Potters Bar on 4 December 1949; class 5 No 45305 passing Clifton amp; Lowther on up milk and parcels on 11 June 1950; Jubilee No 45595 Southern Rhodesia on down milk and parcels near Shap on 8 June 1950; BR class 4MT 4-6-0 No 75034 on 15.35 Swindon to Grimsby empty fish wagons at Wolvercote Junction on 15 July 1953; and Jubilee No 45623 Palestine on down express milk and parcels picking up water at Dillicar troughs on 28 May 1952.

From our correspondents. 275/7

Air Ministry tank wagons. Paul W. Bartlett. 275

GNR covered vans. M.J. Holland

LNER L1 tanks. J.F. Aylard

Maryport amp; Carlisle. Peter Robinson

Maryport amp; Carlisle. Ian Middleditch.

Dent, Stephen (phot.). Weathering and winter (Colour file for modelmakers). 277.
Views of freight trains near Northenden Junction in January 1968 with Class 5 No. 44663 (without smokebox numberplate) and 9F No. 92249

The definitive 'Duchess'. John Bolton. 278
Writer had worked in Crewe Works and had encountered Arthur Edleston at Derby who had sketched out a non-streamlined Duchess and called it Lady Godiva.

Great Central express (Vintage colour page). rear cover
C4 Atlantic No. 6086 passing Wendover on up expres in 1939 (also reproduced with greater contrast in LNER locomotives in colour, 1936-1948).

Number 6 (February/March 1994)

Roberts, Stan. Letter boxes. 284-7.
Rich variety illustrated by examples then extant in the Liverpool, especially the Wirral area.

Millard, Philip. An outline of LNWR passenger train working. Part 2. 288-95.
Most services were provided with a basic set formation that had very strict paths and augmentations as fixed by the timetable. Illustrated by 07.20 Liverpool to Leeds stopping trains which detached two vans at Manchester Exchange in exchange for an additional 57ft third.

The Ibbotson portfolio. No. 5. More tunnels. 296-7
Moorcock tunnel; Christleton tunnel (with water troughs); Doveholes tunnel and Thackley tunnels (northern portals)

Roberts, Stan. An afterthought on telephone kiosks. 306-7.
National Telephone Company's kiosks at Liverpool Exchange below map of Lamp;YR system and telephone cabinets at Liverpool Central station.

Bartlett, Paul W. LMS/LMR brake vans. 308-15.

Goodwin, David and Miller, Bob. Wagons of the Salt Union Limited. 316-25.

Shephard, Bob. City of Truro: a livery survey. 326-30.

Volume 4 (1994)

Number 1 (April/May 1994)

'Whisky on the wagon' - the operational history of the BRTE bulk grain wagons. 4-10.
Predominantly prototype. Traffic to Burghead near Elgin for the automatic maltings owned by Scottish Malt Distillers (a subsidiary of the Distillers Co Ltd) from Eastern England. Enclosed steel hoppers suplied by Rootes Pressings, with welded all-steel hopper bodies, in 1965/6; from Pwell Duffryn in 1966-8 and BRE at Doncaster in 1971. Company trains tabulated: in 1966 from Doncaster to Elgin; 1975 Doncaster to Burghead, Dufftown and Muir of Ord, and in 1980 to Burghead and Muir of Ord from Doncaster. The wagons carried advertisement boards. Eventually the vehicles were used for alumina traffic to Fort William. Drawings. Illus.: Colour: BRT 7750 and T7611 at Millerhill on 6 November 1982 (Don Rowland); remainder bamp;w: 40192 at Doncaster with train on 28 October 1980 (Trevor Scott); 5864 (with Haig board) at Doncaster in 1969 (David Larkin); 6028 (with The Malsters Association of Great Britain); 6054 (Grant's Stand Fast); 6112 (Good Old Johnnie Walker) at Millerhill in April 1969 (Don Rowland); 47380 at West Blyth on 20 June 1984 with Alcan compnay train (Trevor Scott); 7746 with pedeestal suspension at Stoke in 1987 and 7785 at Birkenhead in March 1987 (David Ratcliffe).

Tamerig station signal gantry. L.G. Warburton. 14-18.
Tamerig does not exist: model only. 4mm scale. Prototype (page 17): former LNWR signal gantry at Preston

Henderson, Adrian, The Urie H15 4-6-0s (the engines that won the First World War?). 19-27.
Includes drawings for model makers. nbsp;Primary source cited Bradley.

Bateman, John. NER timber structures in Yorkshire. 28-35.
Especially the influence of William Bell, architect of the North Eastern Railway between 1877 and 1914. Many illustrations of station buildings. Colour illus.: Hutton Cranswick (22 August 1969); Flamborough (19 August 1968); Hemingborough (15 August 1967); Howden (15 August 1967); Hambleton (14 April 1968); Seamer goods shed (7 August 1969); Scarborough station signal box (13 August 1970); Scorton (7 April 1969); York station tea room (1 August 1975); Starbeck (15 August 1966). Black amp; white: Drax Hales (29 August 1965); Barlow (29 August 1965); Weeton (27 August 1965); nbsp;Knaresborough goods shed on 2 August 1966 and waiting rooms on 2 September 1963; Poppleton signal box on 14 April 1987; Bilton Junction hut on 16 October 1966; Wetherby on 3 April 1965; Melberby on 17 May 1964; Lowthorpe on 20 August 1965; Nunthorpe station shelter on 29 September 1966 and Church Fenton waiting room on island platform on 4 August 1988.

Moss, Raymond, Edward Exley and his coaches. 36-42.
O and OO gauge models: includes a biography of Edward Exley who was born in Bradford on 23 March 1896.

Lane, Barry C. Lamp;YR horse boxes. 43-8.
Includes 7mm scale drawings.

The Ibbotson portfolio. Number 6. Rural charm.
Black amp; white illus.: Helpston station in 1963; Hykeham station entrance; Hathersage station entrance; Frocester station.

Number 2 (June/July 1994)

Smith, David L.O. Gas holder tanks. 60-2.
Based on gold medal winning model (1992 Model Engineering Exhbition): 7mm model based on LMS vehicle No. 278472 (illustrated in colour). Diagram and black amp; white illus. of prototype vehicles alongside LYR 2-4-2Ts Nos. 50636 and 50795 at Manningham and single cylinder gas tank wagon alongside LYR railmotor steam railcar No. 10617 at Horwich. See also letter from J.B. Horne on page 222 (V. 4)..

Essery, Bob. Railway topics. 63-6.

Tortorella, Arnold. Modelling the Glasgow and South Western Railway. 67-72.

Williams, Geoff. Perspective modelling #150; an afterthought. 72-3.
Illustration from Bucks Herald in 1963 which reproduced a photograph taken in 1915 of 3rd Bucks Territorials marching past Aylesbury High Street station and passing a milk float owned by Cartwright.

Tatlow, Peter. Great Northern and LNER covered vans #150; a tailpiece... 74-5.
See article in Vol. 3 page 156: corrects width quoted for LNER vans with corrugated ends (8ft or 8ft 2in, but never 7ft 8in)

Jenkinson, David. An introduction to the Southern Railway main line EMUs. 76-91.
Mainly that constructed for the Brighton electrification of 1933.

Garrick, David. The steam shed. 92-8.

Horne, Keith. Switching trains. 99-108.

Peacocks at Peel. Colour file for modellers. 109.
Colour photo-feature: Isle of Man Railway Beyer Peacock 2-4-0Ts Nos. 1 Sutherland and 5 Mona in very different shades of Indian red in August 1964.

King's Cross departure. (Vintage colour page). rear cover.
A1 class No. 2557 Blair Atholl departs King's Cross in 1937.

Number 3 (August/September 1994)

Jubilee No. 45566 Queensland at Shipley on St. Pancras to Bradford Forster Square train with LNER vehicles at front. B.C. Lane. front cover

Bourne, T.W. (Smokey). Back to reality. 116-18.
Critical of the concept of Chief Mechanical Engineers, notably Webb, but Stanier is also condemned. In both cases their approach to standardisation is condemned: Webb because Crewe Works were unable to adept to change, and Stanier for his application of a standard tapered boiler to a poor design as in the class 3 2-6-2T. He also condemns the 8F type for being too slow. Illus.: 5552 Silver Jubilee in original condition in black livery with chromium plated boiler bands and numerals; 45555 Quebec with narrow tender on Shrewsbury shed in 1951, preserved 75078 passing preserved 45596 Bahamas at Keighley in 1991.

Essery, Bob. Passenger traffic: Railway topics. Part 2. 119-24.
Classifies trains into expresses, slow trains and suburban trains. There were three timetables per annum. The LMS regulations for mixed train operation are quoted. There were also excursion trains and the hire of complete trains.Illus.: Class 5 No 5043 at Northfield in down direction (exprerss headlamps, Gamp;SWR non-corridor third at fron); Royal Scot No 6147 passing Tring c1931 on down express formed of pregrouping stock; Horwich 2-6-0 No 13018 on excursion at Millers Dale in 1934; Class 5 No 5066 on stopping (ordinary passenger) train; Stanier 2-6-2T No 96 near Dore and Totley with eight coaches on 24 May 1936; former HR 0-4-4T No 15054 at The Mound with mixed train; Class 5 No 5033 approaching Hunton Bridge with up horsebox and carriage wagon train in September 1948, and Royal Scot No 6136 near Boars Head with up milk train in late 1930s.

Banks, Steve. Passenger trains and formations on the LNER. Part 1. Expresses 125-9.
The heart of the express train formation was the restaurant car: the LNER operated restaurant firsts, a few restaurant thirds, and some restaurant composites, plus the articulated triplets which might include a kitchen car as the centre vehicle. A few unclasified cars were used to provide meals on sleeping car services. The restaurant cars tended to be coupled to dedicated open firsts, and more rarely with open thirds (which tended not to be dedicated catering vehicles). There were also some semi-open firsts,, pantry thirds and buffet cars, but few of the last were used on express trains. Illus.: A1 No 2595 Trigo on the ECML at Granthouse with up express; D49 No 62757 The Burton entering Doncaster with Hull portion c1952; A3 No 2750 Papyrus near Hatfield c1937; Gresley restaurant 1st No. 6119; A3 No 2500 Windsor Lad arriving Edinburgh from west, c1937; Gresley open 3rd dining car No. 61705; Gresley pantry 3rd No. 1189.

Heavy metal. The Eric Bruton album No. 7. 130-1.
Black & white photographs: 21 ton iron ore hopper No. E253564 at Tebay (constructed G.E. Turner in 1941); 21 ton steel mineral wagon (with two side doors) at Hatfield in March 1950 probably E300531 (constructed Darlington in 1948); 27 ton iron ore tippler B382833 at Gloucester in May 1953 (constructed Shildon); 16 ton Ministry of Transport wagon No. 47600 (constructed Cambrian Wagon Works 1948) at Teignmouth in September 1949; LNER gas tank wagon with Mansell wheels at Lowestoft in September 1948.

Jenkinson, David. An introduction to the Southern Railway main line EMUs. Part 2. 132-9.
4-COR, 4-RES and 4-BUF corridor multiple units for express services to Portsmouth and Bognor.

Bartlett, Paul B. ENPARTS. 140-4.
Nos. ADW 198; ADW 199; ADW 150356; ADW 150422; ADB 957157; ADB 975043; ADB 975775; ADW 150197 and ADB 975784: vehicles included Swindon long wheelbase vans, bogie siphons, BR Mark I brake seconds, also DENPARTS nbsp;based on horsebox frames.nbsp;

Hammond, Tony. Denbigh Viaduct. 145-6.
On the Denbigh, Ruthin amp; Corwen Railway: illustrations and drawings.

Horne, Keith. "Indian country". Making tracks. No. 6. 149-52.
Laying in points and crosings to meet the needs of freight.

Hogarth, Colin and Kirk, Alan. The Killin pugs and their territory. 153-62.
Drmmond 0-4-2STs of 1886. Also detailed survey of line including engine shed at Loch Tay and signal box at Killin JUnction.

From our correspondents. [Letters]. 163-4; 166

Pullman Colours. Charles Underhill 
Your correspondent Charles Long (April Issue) ought perhaps not to be quite so lightly dismissive of the green/white Pullmans on the Great Eastern. The evidence for this livery is there, as it is for the 1914 Pullmans for the Caledonian also.
If the original Pullman Company could be said to have had a standard livery it was green (hence Pullman Green, which is a shade included in most if not all American makes of model paints). It is indeed an olive shade. The Pullmans introduced into the UK by the old company were not all painted the standard colour. The earliest imports were finished, according to Hamilton Ellis, in "greenish brown" or "oily brown", but later cars seem to have been painted usually to match in with the operating companies' own stock, e.g. lake colour on the Metropolitan and South Eastern, and umber/white on the LBSCR. Probably these operating companies wanted their train sets to look homogeneous, (it is interesting that the older Brighton cars were repainted around 1906 when umber/white became the Brighton's own standard) but the colours were certainly non-standard for the original Pullman company.
It was after Davison Dalziel took over the Pullman company in UK and Europe that it was decided to make umber/white (later cream) the standard livery. The Caledonian cars were repainted around 1924, and it seems likely that the GER cars also got redone around this time, probably coinciding with their transfer to the GN Section.
As a footnote, it is interesting that the first Hornby Pullmans came out in green/white colours. Frank Hornby had quite frequent contacts with German manufacturers, travelling via Hook of Holland, so he may well have seen the GER Pullmans on his travels! Hornby changed from green to brown about 1925, too. See response from Charles Long page 276.

Rake. Philip A. Millard 
Re Chris Smith's letter in MBT Vol.4 No.1 in which he mentions the use of the term 'rake' to describe a set of coaches. I do agree that this is a most unrailwaylike expression, but I see that the recent prospectus for Eurotunnel's rights issue refers to groups of carrier wagons as 'rakes'. Another case of the prototype following the model, perhaps?

North Eastern cranes: colour file for modellers. John Bateman. 165.
5 ton crane at Driffield on 22 August 1969 and water cranes at Milford Junction on 9 August 1967.

10.00am from Edinburgh Waverley. (Vintage colour page). rear cover.
15 August 1939: up Thames Forth Express hauled by No. 2747 Coronach departs at same time as up Flying Scotsman hauled by A4 No. 4490 Empire of India. J83 No. 9830 shunting in between.

Number 4 (October/November 1994)

Something old, something new, something different. B.C. Lane. 171.
Editorial noting the great variety of rolling stock which was used in 1950s train formations.

Allsopp, S.G. Tenders. 172-7.
Notes how the LNWR had fewer tenders than locomotives and that when 7 the LMS increased productivity at Crewe it was necessay to acquire former ROD tenders (GCR-type) and that these were used on some of the Claughtons. Provided that the buffing gear and drawgear were compatible it was simpler to switch tenders if they were vacuum braked (the vacuum cylinders perched at the rear provided a clue) or were Westinghouse braked. On the GWR all tenders were vacuum braked and this made switching simple. It is noted that the tenders used on the BR and LMS "standard" class 2 2-6-0s could not be exchanged. Steam-braked tenders had to be modified if the boiler pressure was changed. Notes the use of combination valves where steam brakes were used on the tender and vacuum brakes on the train. Tenders with poor brakes were considered to be those of the LNWR locomotives and the Midland compounds. Most tenders used a bar coupling to join to the locomotive and this was normally difficult to disconnect . On the LNER Gresley used vacuum braked tenders on his larger locomotives whereas Thompson and Pepppercorn used steam brakes. Notes on water scoops.

Horne, John. Not to go. 178-9.
Load (gas valve) had punched a hole in floor of wagon (LMS side door five plank No. 163889): valve probably from Dempsters of Elland for Southampton Gaslight amp; Coke Co. Also noted on Edrow RR steel and its use in containers for LMS (built Birmingham Carriage amp; Wagon Co.) and in 20 ton steel four side door open wagon for Stephenson Clarke amp; Associated Cos.

Banks, Steve. Passenger trains and formations on the LNER: Expresses. Part 2. 180-8.
The LNER numbered its rolling stock according to section: the prefixes were 1 for ECML; 2 for North Eastern; 3 for North British; 4 for Great Northern; 5 for Great Central; 6 for Great Eastern; 7 for GNoS and 8 for Mamp;GN. Thus transfer of stock between sections involved renumbering. On the Great Central Gresley ordinary corridor vehicles were introduced from 1925, but Gresley catering vehicles were not introduced until 1928. The Flying Scotsman received new complete sets in 1924 and 1938. The East Anglian and Hook Continental also received completely new sets. On the ECML and on the Great Eastern sets were formed with first class accommodation at the London end, but on the Great Central Manchester was regarded as the premier destination and the firsts were at the front on leaving Marylebone. Trains could include through carriages or be based on through portions as with 16.00 ex-King's Cross which divided at Doncaster with tthe front portion going forward to Leeds and the rear portion going onto Newcastle. The latter added through coaches from Bournemouth and Bristol which might include LMS and Southern stock. On the Great Central there was a through carriage from Halifax to Marylebone which had been begun by the LYR and continued under the LMS. The 15.35 York to Glasgow included through coaches from Oxford for Newcastle; Harwich to Glasgow; Oxford to Glasgow; Southampton to Glasgow and Scarborough to Glasgow...

Burton, Duncan. Caledonian locomotive blue. 189-90.
Illustrated by colour photograph of 7mm model of Dunalastair 4-4-0 constructed by Geoff Holtt and painted by Keith King. Burton, who knew James McEwan served an apprenticeship at St. Rollox beginning in 1936 and was able to inspect the preserved 4-2-2 No. 123 which had been painted in 1935 by painters who had been applying Prussian blue routinely prior to the Grouping. Burton argues that it was a very dark blue. During WW2 the locomotive was stored outside and following the War was painted in a much lighter shade. The Glasgow trams used Prussian blue to indiacte the route on some vehicles.

Henderson, A. The South Western's heavy goods engine #150; S15. 191-9.
Illustrated in part by colour photographs of the preserved No. 506 at Ropley. There are also drawings for a model locomotive. Other col. illus. all by R.C. Riley: 30511 at Vauxhall on down passenger on 20 June 1959; 30510 at Reading South on 19 July 1959; 30500; and 30506 passing Worting Junction on down freight on 18 May 1963.

Millard, Philip A. Midland Railway signalbox safari. 200-4.
Illus.: colour: Guild Street and High Street Crossing (both Burton-on-Trent); Durran Hill Junction; Streetley Colliery Sidings; Desford Colliery Sidings; black amp; white: North London Incline; Mortimer Street Junction; Fiskerton; St. Paul's Road Goods Junction; Watling Street Junction; colour: Coalville Crossing and Newark.

Essery, Bob, Goods on the move (Railway topics No. 3). 205-9.
Coal and iron industries: where they were located and tonnages of coal consumed by various industries, and exported. There is a very brief consideration of coal by type, such as long flame required for firing pottery. Illus.: down freight headed by Geoge V 4-4-0 No. 238 F.W. Webb south of Watford (train included many sheeted wagons); LYR 0-6-0 No. 12182 on empty mineral wagons and one tank wagon passing Mirfield c1939; LYR 0-8-0 with trainn of mineral empties for Silkstone Colliery; 13 ton open wagon (8 plank, end amp; side doors) lettered Gibson; Sholts end door private owner wagon discharging its load into ship's bunker; LYR end door 20 ton wagon for conveying coal for bunkering; Caledonian Railway dumb buffer end amp; side door 7 ton wagon; Caledonian Railway 30 ton bogie mineral wgons; Caledonian Railway 8 ton swivel timber wagons (with load); ex-Caledonian Railway 15 ton wagons for pig iron.

Mould, Andrew B. Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Simplex engine No. 1. 210-13.
Three Simplex were supplied to the LYR by the Motor Rail amp; Tramcar Co. of Bedford in 1919.

Turner, S.T. Early goods stock on the LBamp;SCR. 214-19.
Considers two brake (break) vans (of 1851 and 1859); covered goods wagons of 1851 and coal wagons with dumb buffers of 1850-60. Article includes drawings by the author in 7mm scale and photographs of break van and freight rolling stock at Lewes c1865.

From our correspondents. 220/2.
Gas holder trucks, J.B. Horne. 222
See article on page 60 (V. 4): questions the quantity of gas which could be discharged from tanks without the use of pumps and shows a gas tank trunk built by Ashburys in about 1908 for the broad gauge in India: this had a pump located in a corrugated iron shelter on the vehicle. The GWR used pumps to assist dischare.

Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway occupation bridges. Colour file for modellers. 221.
Contract drawing of 1874 for bridge at Strake (latterly Cowgill) between Chatburn and Hellifield; also colour photograph of another similar bridge on route.

Variety at Neasden. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
Line up in August 1938 headed by B17/4 No. 2864 Liverpool; F7 2-4-2T No. 8307; D11/1 No. 507 Gerard Powys Dewhurst plus unidentified N5, J11 and A5 locomotives and a further B17.

Number 5 (December 1994/January 1995)

Essery, Bob. Delivering the goods (Railway topics No. 4). 228-39.
Includes a plea for information about mixed train working on Northern Division: see letters from D.P. Rowland and D. Massey on page 331.

The Eric Bruton album No. 8. 240-1.
A1/1 No. 60113 Great Northern in blue livery on Great Northern Centenary Special with headboard at York on 16 July 1950; Darlington on 16 June 1950: overall view and A3 60030 Colombo on up Queen of Scots Pullman

Horne, Keith and Lane, Barry. Nether Bradford. 242-7.
The complex and congested approach to Bradford Exchange and its trackwork which reflected both LNER and LMS practice.

The Ibbotson portfolio. No. 7. 254.
Trackwork (points) and tunnel/bridge at Wirksworth Quarry

Roberts, Stan. Letter boxes. Part 2. 255-7.
Mainly wall-mounted, but also post mounted. Most examples from Wirral. See list of errata on page 331.

Barry C. Lane. Sharp Stewart Manx miniatures. 258-61.
2-4-0Ts for the Manx Northern Railway. Illustrations: MNR No. 2 Works photograph; No. 1 Ramsey at work with Hurst Nelson bogie coach and Cleminson six-wheen coach; MNR No. 2 Northern at Ramsey; Southwold Railway Southwold;

Philip A. Millard. London and North Western Railway 32ft 0in carriages. 262-8.
Designed by Richard Bore at Wolverton and built in two distinct phases; 1878-80 and 1881-5. Few pre-1886 Wolverton drawings remain and drawings by John Watling in 1962 had to be based on photographs and measurements based on grounded bodies. These wer published in J. Historical Rly Soc. 1962, 4. Illustrations: Jubilee class "4-4-0" No. 1925 Warrior at Kenton on up fast with 32 foot in train post-1903; 18 inch goods 0-6-0 (Cauliflower) No. 461 at Greenfield station with train of 32 foot long coaches on 26 April 1907; 2v side elevation drawings; diagrams (side & rear elevations and plan; Whale Precursor and 19 inch goods 4-6-0 leaving Buxton with Canadian troop train containg 30 and 32 foot coaches in 1919.

Keith Horne. Curving switches. Making tracks. No. 7. 269-75.
Based mainly on LNWR and L&YR practice. Included use of bridge chairs and block chairs. Illustrations: Blackpool Central c1920; Southport Chapel Street c1920 with electro-pneumatic point operating mechanisms.diagrams, Manchester Victoria in 1959; Edinburgh Princes Street c1947

From our correspondents. 276/8.

Pullman colours. Charles Long 
May I assure Charles Underhill (August/September issue) that I do not 'lightly dismiss' contemporary published statements that the 1921 Great Eastern Pullmans - or, before them, the 1914 Caledonian cars - were finished in green and cream? I was, in fact, persuaded (a word I chose very deliberately in my April letter) that such testimony could not be accepted at its face value both by responses to an article I contributed to the January 1988 issue of Railway World (in which I had unquestioningly accepted that the GER cars, at least, were delivered in a distinctive livery), and by further research on my own account.
Well-known though it subsequently became in the USA, 'Pullman Green' was not introduced until as late as 1900, when - as recalled in the April 1925 issue of the (US) Pullman News - it supplanted the previously standard 'Pullman Brown' at the personal behest of Thomas H. Wickes, the company's then Vice-President and General Manager. Arthur D. Dubin, the noted American authority on Pullman, told me that 'Pullman Brown' was indeed an umber brown, and that the basic colour was relieved not only by elaborate gold lining (applied by stencil) but by red window frames and doors. This scheme is reflected in the colour-washes applied to large-scale drawings of pre-1906 American-built Pullman cars included in a London, Brighton & South Coast Railway album of carriage diagrams (last updated c.1910), which is now in the Public Record Office (file ref: RAIL414/745). Brian Radford has also written that 'Pullman Brown' was a stock Midland Railway paint colour. That 'Pullman Green' did not cross the Atlantic would appear to be confirmed by the livery details recorded for the last three American Pullmans built for service in Britain (Chicago Works Lot No.3223). Delivered in the winter of 1905/6, these were the only American-built cars to be purchased after the livery change in the USA. The official 'Descriptive Report' (specification of materials) for these vehicles — a copy of which was kindly supplied to me by Mr. Dubin — defines the exterior finish as "Pull. std. in England to belt rail [waist], upper panels cream color", Since the description that subsequently appeared in the Locomotive Magazine for 15th February 1906 confirms that their lower panels were umber, there can surely be little doubt that this colour, elsewhere known as "Pullman Brown", must still have been the existing 'Pull. std. in England'. It was at around this time that the financier Davison Dalziel was negotiating for control of the British Pullman Company (and there is a well-known photograph of him standing in front of one of the 1906 cars soon after its delivery). Thereafter, all connection was severed with the American Pullman group. Later contemporary published accounts of new cars for the Dalziel company, plainly based on official releases, frequently mention the "standard Pullman colours" of umber and cream — the latter sometimes referred to, more genteelly, as "ivory tint" or, less accurately, "white". Such reports cover not only cars built for service on the LB&SCR, but those for the Metropolitan (Locomotive Magazine, 15th June 1910; and Railway Magazine, July 1910), and the Caledonian Railway (Railway News, 20th June 1914; Railway Magazine, August 1914 - although in this case what is surely a simple misprint has rendered 'umber' as 'amber'; and Railway Gazette, 13th October 1922). In the face of this body of evidence, how could it be that a supposed scheme of 'special Pullman olive green and cream' also represented the British company's 'standard colours', as stated in the almost identical Locomotive and Railway Magazine descriptions of the 1920 cars for the Great Eastern? An equally puzzling reference in the August 1914 issue of Models, Railways and Locomotives to the "dark green" lower bodysides of the Caledonian's initial batch of Pullmans is flatly contradicted by the previously noted accounts of the same cars in both Railway News and Railway Magazine (both acknowledged to have been based on information supplied by Thomas Powell, the Pullman company's Secretary and Manager). The late Alistair MacLeod, an expatriate Scot once employed by the LB&SCR, personally assured me that, in his recollection, the finish of the Brighton and Caledonian Pullmans was identical. In a letter published in the May 1988 issue of Railway World he further claimed that the Pullman lower-body colour matched the LB&SCR's "burnt umber" (a rather darker version of the railway's own main livery colour, used for panel-edging) which "had a distinct greenish tinge". This, he suggested, could explain the occasional published references to "green" Pullmans, particularly if the vehicles had been seen in strong sunlight. Allowing, too, for some variation in different batches of colour mixed from natural pigments, the effects of varnish, and individual perceptions of the same basic colour, this thesis seems to me to offer a more likely solution to the mystery than does the contention that different liveries were deliberately chosen for different lines. (Plainly however, 'Pullman Brown' must have differed somewhat from the unequivocal chocolate colour used in the British company's final years.) True, Pullmans for the South Eastern & Chatham Railway were finished in non-standard crimson lake in order to match SE&;CR carriage stock. In this case however, the operating contract — uniquely, I believe — originally placed responsibility for the cars' external paintwork and its maintenance on the railway (PRO file ref: ANI09/741). But such an arrangement could in no way account for liveries that were wholly unlike those of any other Pullmans or the host railway's own stock. My understanding is that the Metropolitan cars latterly adopted an all-over dark red livery because extensive tunnel working caused rapid discoloration of the original cream upper panels.
The green-and-cream paintwork of the earliest Hornby Pullmans does present another conundrum — but was Hornby's rendition of current railway liveries that accurate at this early date?

Pullman colours.  Charles Underhill
I am sorry Mr. Long is unwilling to accept the evidence suggesting a green colour for the CR-based Pullmans, nor, it seems, for the GER ones (though they are of much less interest to me).
When I asked Graeme Miller, who had a remarkably accurate memory for things Caledonian, especially to do with carriages, he had no inkling that there was any controversy about the livery. His immediate answer was "They were green to start with, though they got repainted brown about 1924. I'll show you how they were lined, in gold." He thereupon took a pencil and paper and drew out the lining on the vehicle ends. His sketch tallied with the photographs I had, but which he had never seen. Up to that time I had doubted the statement in MRL, as being some kind of error or misprint, but Graeme's evidence convinced me that it was in fact most likely correct. Similarly, the story I had from Nelson Twells was that he had said to the ex-Paint Shop Foreman from Cravens that there was a rumour going round that the CR Pullmans had been green, but he (Nelson) was sure they could not have run in that colour in Scotland. The reply he got was to the effect that, whilst his informant could not vouch for the colour they ran in in Scotland, he could say that when they left Cravens they were green. As Cravens had built other Pullmans which went out painted brown, presumably he knew the difference. either of these two contemporary eye-witnesses had any reason to falsify evidence, so I find their statements pretty convincing. Turning to the paragraph in MR&    L, I think that Greenly was actually quoting a CR press release. He appears to have had good contacts in the CR, probably dating from when the Bassett-Lowke organisation supplied publicity models of 'Cardean' and a wqs coach, which were heavily advertised in the magazine. The apparent errors regarding names are easily explained, because the names were all chosen to cover the number of cars (seventeen) to be supplied under the 1913 Agreement between the Pullman Co. and the CR. The outbreak of war in the summer of 1914 prevented full implementation at that time, and only eleven cars arrived. The remainder under this agreement, plus others covered by supplementary agreements of 1922 and 1923, came into service 'after hostilities had ceased. The war also prevented, of course, the introduction of the full service pattern intended and referred to.

There seems to be a stalemate on this subject with both parties appearing to be right. If only an old coach body was available so that the paint could be rubbed down to the first livery, we would all be much wiser. Does anyone else have information available? Ed.

Rail over road and water. Colour file for modellers. Stephen Dent.
Viaducts on closed railways near Coldstream and at Appersett Gill on MR Hawes branch.

Narrow gauge Great Western. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
Welshpool & Llanfair 0-6-0T No. 823 Countess shunting at Welshpool.

Number 6 (February/March 1995)

Final thoughts and last words. B.C. Lane.
Editorial obituary for this short-lived journal.

Caledonian locomotive blue. 284.
Colour photograph taken by Brian Monaghan of model of Lambie 4-4-0 No. 18 constructed by Peter Westwater of Kirkcaldy and painted by Duncan Burton. Charles Underhill commented upon the accuracy both of the photograph and of the original paints on the model.

Tony Watts. The Wigan Coal and Iron Co. 285-92.
Wagon fleet of the company named and its successor the Wigan Coal Corporation. Bibliography. Illus.: aerial view of Kirkless works complex in late 1920s; Clockface Colliery, St Helens with four wagons in view, c1900; Alexandra Pit about 1908 with 0-6-0ST Manton; Golbourne Goods Yard LNWR anbout 1908 with Tarmacadam surface (Wigan Coal amp; Iron by-product); Wellington Dock, Liverpool with Wigan Coal amp; Iron ten-ton wagon 2305 (5-plank, dumb buffer) being held by crane to lower coal into hold of sailing ship (Elizabeth Robbins?) in April 1911; 5-plank half end-door wagon 2680; Wigan... wagon No. 590? with dumb buffers and Morley Coal amp; Cannel Co No. 191 with dumb buffers (both 4-plank?) at Blaenau Festiniog; Wigan Coal amp; Iron No. 172 (4-plank dumb-buffer end-door) drawing; No 415 also lettered Newcastle Main, Manton Colliery and brake van (7mm scale); Newcastle Main wagons at Manton Colliery, Worksop, c1908; Fleetwood docks October 1910 with grease lubricated wagons; Wigan Coal amp; Iron wagon being tipped into Company's Pagefield lorry built by Walker Bros of Wigan (picture probably taken by Eric Mason); 12-ton wagon built Pickering February 1923: A147, 7-plank, end-door; Wigan Coal Corporation 6-plank wagon built Ince Waggon amp; Ironworks Co in 1902, Wigan Coal Corporation 6-plank wagon lettered 8245 (7mm drawing); Wigan Coal Corporation 6-plank wagon at St Andrews in June 1945, and remains of brake van.. See additional information, especially about brake vans, from letter by Philip A. Millard in BackTrack 9 p.219.

R.J. Essery. Small locomotive sheds. (Railway Topics No. 5). 293-8.
Text notes primary funtions performed: coaling, watering, cleaning fire, smoebox and ashpan, lubricating and turning when available. Illus.: 15210 and 15229 at Dalry Road coaling stage (tub-type) in July 1947; 2-6-4T being coaled with difficulty from wagon at coaling stage at Chester (LNWR) in May 1938; Nottingham (ex-MR) ash plant on 26 June 1964; West Bridge, Leicester shed on 23 September 1937; Tipton (ex-LNWR single-road) with ex-MR 0-6-0T 1818 on 29 August 1938; coaling crane at Manningham in May 1966; smokebox cleaning at Rugby in 1960s - 45723 Fearless; Highbridge (SDJR) shed in 1934 with two ex-MR 0-4-4Ts including 1327 and coaling crane.

Bob Miller. Early Cheshire Lines twelve wheel carriages. 299-302.
Built for Liverpool to Manchester expresses by Ashbury Railway Carriage amp; Iron Co. Incorporated both MR and GCR influence. Illus.: five-coach set at Fulwood tunnel c1900 drawn by Sacreacute; o/c single; two of 1881 vehicles at Hough Green; No. 289 (Diagram 8) tricomposite; colour detail of carriage transfers showing lettering and CLC armorial device; No. 323 first second composite of 1884 for Southport service; two 4mm scale drawings.

Twells, Nelson. Railway road vehicles. 307-10.

Henderson, A. Wadebridge – the end of the line. 311-20.
Illus.: Beattie 2-4-0WT No. 30586 on station pilot duties in June 1960; station exterior and goods shed in July 1982; 2-4-0WT No. 30585 on shed, and 4569 with a B set in June 1960. Drawings of station and goods shed.

Turner, S.T. Early wagons on the LB&SCR: postscript. 321-3.

Sutcliffe, T.T. Standard LYR signal boxes: a brief historical survey. 324-30.
Design due to George Edwards.

From our correspondents. 331-2.
Railway topics No. 4. D.P. Rowland.
See feature on page 228 (Vol. 4): quotes from LMS Northern Division Sectional Appendix for regulations relating to Dornoch branch
Railway topics No. 4. D. Massey.
See feature on page 228 (Vol. 4): quotes from Highland Railway Working Timetable concerning brake vans on mixed trains.
Letterboxes. Stan Roberts.
Long list of errata to feature on page 255.

Liveries in transition. Colour file for modellers. Trevor Owen.
D5506 in original green livery and D5578 in blue livery: both at Stratford Depot on 1 April 1963.

3F in the snow. (Vintage colour page). rear cover
3F 0-6-0 hauling empty coal wagons north passed St Albans in 1937 with snow on tracks and in cutting (Dufaycolour).