Journal Institution of Locomotive Engineers
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Note disparity between Volume number and first Part number: Volumes 1 to 5 were "Transactions"
Journal No. 1
The electrolytic process for preventing corrosion and scale. 5-14. Disc.: 15-43
Presented in London on 27 November 1915. When ferrous and non-ferrous metals are used in the construction of a vessel which is in regular contact with liquids, corrosion is prolific: this is particularly noticeable in locomotive boilers, surface condensers, and steel ships fitted with bronze propellers, It is always the electro-positive metal which is first attacked and depleted to the benefit of the less soluble or electro-negative metal. Locomotive boilers often become grooved and pitted internally. The conditions which produce galvanic action account for these troubles; in all cases a difference of electrical potential exists and when an electrolyte or conductor is present in the form of water, there is a flow of electrical energy from the high potential to the low, and the part of the metal from which the current enters the liquid undergoes electro-chemical change in the form of corrosion
Journal No. 2
South, E.J.H. (Paper No. 38)
The cleansing of locomotive boilers. 53-73. Disc.: 74-84; 108-22.
Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Saturday, 18 December 1915, at 2.30 p.m.,. presided over by Mr. A.R. Bennett. (Vice-president).
Believed that hot water washing out was first developed in Italy. A modified form of injector manufactured by Gresham & Craven was described. . The Hornish boiler cleaner supplied by the Hulburd Engineering Company is described and reference is made to Churchward's top feed apparatus and to Marsh's system. Discussion: Dearberg (110-11) Strong advocate of hot water washing out,:noted that temperature of the water ranges from 180 to 200F, but no case of scalding had been recorded. Nevertheless, it was difficult to see inside the boiler as a gas jet would not burn in the presence of so much steam, although this might be overcome by using miniature electric lamps on flexible leads. Hot water washing out made broken stays rare and leaky tubes was greatly reduced. Maitland (112-13) noted the saving of time achieved by hot water washing out, the reduced thermal shock to the boilcr, the reduced time in again raising steam, and the reduced degree of expansion lengthened boiler life . A.R Bennett (113-14) commented on the life of fireboxes: one of the original copper fireboxes on the Metropolitan Railway lasted for 17 years: "It refused to wear out". Tomlinson, the then Locomotive Superintendent, was eager to ascertain the cause and had specimens of the copper analysed and contributed either a paper or article.
Journal No. 3
Some disappearing locomotive types. 104-7.
The 2-4-0, single drivers and especially the 4-2-2: there were nine 0-4-0 tender locomotives left in 1915 (2 on the Furness, 4 on the GSWR and 3 on the NBR); the 2-2-2 type was fast disappearing; the 4-2-2 were still numerous on the MIdland (95), but the GWR was down to one and the GNR 13 and the NER 20. Both the 0-4-2 and 2-4-0 types were in numerical decline. The terms "Pacific" and "Atlantic" were applied to tank engines..
A suggested improvement of wheel arrangement notation. 107-8.
One in which the driving wheels are shown in bold: single driver with two leading radial axles: 2-2-2-2 compared with Greater Britain with independent driving wheels: 2-2-2-2
Journal No. 4 (New series)
Maunsell, R.E.L. Presidential Address. [Paper No. 39]. 125-33.
A design may be theoretically correct, but for some local reason does not work out in practice, and the defect and its cause only become apparent when the engine is put into service. An alteration in the position of an oil-hole or the shape of an oil groove may sometimes make all the difference between an engine which is a source of trouble to a foreman and one which commands his confidence, and in like manner a slight alteration in the height or shape of a blast pipe or the length or shape of a brick arch may convert an engine, which a driver considers " shy for. steam," into a free steaming engine. As I have said, it is practically impossible to guard against such minor defects creeping into a completely new design, and in order to keep them within the narrowest possible limits, I am strongly in favour, when a new class of engine is called for, of only building one in the first instance and waiting until it has been thoroughly tested for some months on the road before proceeding with the construction of any more. An obvious objection to this practice is, of course, that it is more costly to build one engine than a batch of, say, six or eight. I freely. admit this, but I contend the additional expenditure so incurred is not only warranted, but may sometimes prove to be the means of saving considerable outlay in alterations to a larger number of engines.
During the trial period above referred to, any defects which become apparent can be noted and remedied, the engine can be indicated and the valve setting adjusted, and the whole machine " tuned up" to become a model for similar engines which are to follow. I also contend it is most important to disperse as quickly as possible any pre judices against a new class of engine which may arise among the running staff in consequence of the development of minor defects before referred to,. and these defects can be more quickly remedied in one engine than in a larger number. If the best work is to be obtained from a machine the operating staff must have absolute confidence in its reliability, as well as in its efficiency.
I now come to the objections that may be raised by the shed fitting staff in consequence of the inaccessibility of parts, which, in the ordinary period between shop repairs, must from time to time be removed for examination, repairs, or renewal. Defects in design of this nature are much more likely to occur in these days of big engines than they were in the days of comparatively small engines when plenty of space was available for the arrangement of details and present-day refinements with a view to economy were not a feature of the design. Road gauges, platform gauges and tunnel gauges remain practically as they were. Increased allowances in weights and wheel bases are grudgingly granted, or perhaps I should say extracted, while all the time the call for engines of greater hauling capacity is incessant and insatiable.
Not withstanding the difficulties nowadays occasioned by want of space, I hold that defects of inaccessibility should not occur, and if they do, they are a reproach on the supervision of the designer. Not only are such defects extremely annoying to the shed fitting staff by causing expenditure of 'unnecessary labour and loss of time, but their evil effects are still more far-reaching, as there is always a tendency to postpone repairs to a part which involves a vast amount of "stripping " before it can be removed, and delay in attending to it may result in an engine failure, accompanied perhaps by considerable damage.
It should therefore be laid down as an axiom of design that every part of an engine motion; or other part likely to require removal for repairs in the running shed, is so constructed that it can be taken down by itself and with a minimum amount of trouble. The attachments of such parts, if bolts or pins, should be so arranged that there is sufficient clearance to knock them out, and the position of nuts should be such that they can be conveniently manipulated with an ordinary spanner. Although it is not possible in all cases, it will be found generally advantageous to keep nuts in view, that is facing the operator. Nothing is more exasperating to the shed or shop fitter than trying, 'probably with a lamp in one hand, to slacken or tighten a nut which is hidden away in some dark corner, resulting very often in such ii'uts not being properly secured. Again, we find nuts placed in such positions that it is perfectly impossible to operate them by means of an ordinary spanner, or indeed any form of spanner; the only means of lightening them being with a hammer and chisel, which method is unreliable and destructive to the nut.
Another small point worth attention is to reduce to a minimum the number of the sizes of bolts and nuts, and very often the size selected for these depends more on the passing fancy of a draughtsman than the actual requirements of the part which they secure. The greater the variety in sizes of nuts the more spanners the shed fitter has to carry to the job and the less likely he is to have the one he actually requires.
Many illustrations could be given of inaccessible engine parts, but the following few will suffice to make my meaning clear:
Piston rod cotters are sometimes so placed that driving them in or out is a matter of considerable difficulty.
Piston rod and valve spindle cross heads are sometimes. designed without any provision being made for "starting" them on their respective rod ends.
Spring link pins or bolts are arranged with no clearance behind to permit their being driven back when the spring requires removal.
Spring arrangements are so designed that it is necessary to completely lift the engine to change a spring.
Small internal steam pipes are so arranged as to render their removal impossible without half stripping the boiler..
I have known cases where it was impossible to take- down parts of a cylinder cock gear without removing the. whole arrangement.
One most glaring case of ill-considered design came under my notice not long ago, and although it more particularly affected the shop fitting staff, I mention it to emphasise my point. In order to remove an engine brake shaft, it was necessary to take down with it the supporting brackets which were placed inside the frames. An arm on one end of the shaft which was shrunk on had to be heated and removed before one of the brackets could be disengaged from the shaft. When the shaft journals were turned ups. one bracket was placed in position and the arm shrunk on again and the whole arrangement had then to be lifted up bodily and the brackets bolted in position.
The remedy was, of course, to make the brackets with removable half bearings.
I feel I owe the members an apology for somewhat labouring this point, but I plead its importance as justification. I only wish it was a recognised part of the curriculum of every draughtsman engaged on locomotive design to spend about six months as a running shed fitter. He would at least learn by bitter experience how, some things should not be done.
The capability of a new engine to easily perform its appointed duty, and with a good margin of power to spare, is probably looked upon by the driver as the point of para— mount importance in a new engine, but this is a question of fundamental design. and altogether outside the scope of this paper. He will also proceed to criticise the engine from the point of view of general convenience, both on the footplate and elsewhere, and also as regards the accessibility of the parts in which he is specially interested.
Now I may say at once that I do not believe it is possible to be certain that any new arrangement of a foot-plate and boiler front will be satisfactory if decided by means of a drawing only. No matter how much care is expended in plotting the positions of various mountings, it will be found when the engine is built that slight alterations here and there would have made a much more convenient and practical foot-plate.
The shape of the regulator handle, the height and shape- of the cab windows,, the positions of injector steam valve handles, the brake application handle, the fire-hole door handle, etc., etc., are all points which considerably affect the convenience of the driver and are therefore worth a good deal of consideration.
In order to settle the best and most convenient position for these details, I suggest the advisability when a design for a new class of engine is being prepared, of constructing a full-size model of the cab and boiler front which can be- very cheaply built up of wood and canvas. All the various mountings, or if- these are not available, rough models of them can then be placed in position and moved about untir each is most conveniently located. When this method is- adopted, it is surprising to find how many slight alterations. are desirable, and even necessary, no matter how carefully the original drawing has been thought out. For instance, the movement backwards or forwards a few inches of the- reversing wheel and bracket, or lever and sector, as the case may mean all the difference between a driver having to stand comfortably or uncomfortably at his post on the footplate. In the case of a tank engine it is desirable to make a model of the boiler, side tanks and coal bunker in addition to the cab, to insure that the tanks do not unduly interfere with the outlook from the foot-plate. The model should, of course, be erected at the working height above ground level when it will be found not only useful for the- purposes above mentioned, but also for determining the- best position and shape of foot-steps, hand-rails, tool boxes, etc.
When such a model is completed, I make it a practice- to invite a few of the leading drivers to inspect it and freely criticise the arrangement of the details, and I have never yet failed to obtain from them some sound practioal suggestions as regards minor alterations.
Bennett, A.R. Vice-Presidential Address. [Paper No.
Better known as Rosling Bennett. Significant contribution to the history of the locomotive on the South Eastern Railway, especially the contribution made by Cudworth.
Burnett, Robert H. Vice-Presidential Address. [Paper
No. 41]. 133-52.
Coal combustion, including Cudworth and Beattie's contributions and brakes: reproduced in full.
Journal No. 5
The mechanic in India. 157-86. 21 illustrations
Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Saturday, 26 February, 1916, at 2.30 p.m., chaired by Mr. C.A. Suffield, (Vice-President).
Some of the text is reproduced in full as it certainly illustrates Colonial attitudes. In introduction it may be explained that these notes are based upon extended experience with native labour in India, largely in reference to marine and general engineering. As, however, locomotive and railway engineering includes many of the same conditions and problems, and in places direct reference to railway working can be made, it is thought that these notes will be of interest to locomotive engineers, many of whom have had, or may have, to deal with native labour and to take into account many of the same natural peculiarities and conditions.
It may further be explained that, while not altogether ignoring the higher and wealthy classes who can afford to send their sons to local colleges, or to Europe, and thus enable them to have engineering principles well instilled into them, this paper is more particularly concerned with the ordinary artisan, a stage higher, perhaps than the common labourer, but still not of the class where training and privilege of environment justify a different level of skill and intellect being realised. But even in regard to the former class, which includes many young men who are engaged in important appointments in locomotive and railway engineering shops, chiefly in the executive departments, it may be pointed out that even with the good college education behind them, it is often seen, that although they are excellent in emulation or imitation, they lack greatly in initiative, and have little originality. It may be due to the relaxing climate, but there always seems to be that lack of real serious effort or thought required to overcome the many difficulties and problems which so often unexpectedly and necessarily' arise in the engineering profession. Consequently, there are still many lucrative positions available for European engineers in India. However, from a business point of view, native trained men are exceedingly keen, frequently clever, and occasionally venturesome to a degree.
In this connection the writer has in mind one or two flourishing native firms; but even in these the responsible positions with regard to engineering requirements are largely entrusted to Europeans, who will take on hrge engineering contracts, providing they see a chance of adequate return. Still, with the reasonable and inevitable expansion of technical education, and the ever-increasing contact with and adaptation of Western principles and ideas, there is no doubt that India will produce, in due course, many excellent engineers; for, generally speaking, they have an inborn partiality for the profession, as an alternative to becoming lawyers or merchants, which in many cases are certainly the more desirable and (to them) congenial occupations. The Indian loves either to dispute with the law or his customer, as the case may be; so that these two branches will always be in greater favour. Beyond these, however, engineering offers many opportunities and possibilities, and is being extensively followed up.
There are at present only five Universities in India, notwithstanding a population of 315 million people, and of these, the one in Calcutta has to serve 100 million in the Bengal and Orissa districts. There is a great necessity for primary schools dealing with engineering subjects, the present number not being nearly adequate for such a population. It will, therefore, be seen that engineering education has still a great way to go before it can be considered adequate.
Seeing, however, that even for men of the higher grades, unless they can be sent to Europe, there are relatively limited facilities for education and training, it cannot be expected that the artisan class shall realise a very high standard, apart from that capability in certain directions which is more or less innate with so many of them. The Indian mechanic is much handicapped in his development on Western lines, but in subsequent remarks, while it is necessary to refer to some of his deficiencies, it is also necessary to consider, not so much his lack of aptitude as the lack of education and opportunity.
He has an excellent memory, is a fairly good business man, and an excellent imitator. On the other hand, he often suggests a degree of simplicity, often more apparent than real, is not sufficiently energetic, and lacks initiative. He is temperate in habits and regular in attendance at business, but usually requires too long a vacation to recuperate. It is a most difficult task to induce a workman to forego his Chuti, which usually extends over three or four months per annum, and any attempt to foil him is met with pre-arranged letters and telegrams, in the attempt to convince his master .that it is absolutely necessary for him to go. Usury is the source of many of his troubles, it being carried on to an enormaus degree. "Pice is in. fact almost his God, and it would not be any exaggeration to say that the first word a child of the artisan class would utter is "pice. There is an enormous amaunt of money in India if the native would only circulate it instead of hoarding. If this change of ideas could be adopted the country would improve generally, and at a rapid rate, while the cost of living would not be so high as it has become during late years.
Taking all these facts into account and considering the few facilities for education offering, especially in the engineering line, native workmanship particularly, and his comprehension generally of the business in which he may be engaged, are both remarkable and creditable. In general engineering there is more scope, and as showing how extensive are the opportunities afforded by railways, it may be mentioned that there are at present about 40,000 miles of line. There are many feeder or branch lines from outlying districts in Bengal and round Sundabunds. Additions to these latter are in contemplation, and will for the time be only of narrow gauge types. These are being run inconjunction with steamer companies, with the object of opening out the jute growing districts and connecting them with the main lines to Calcutta.
Journal No. 6
Dendy Marshall, C.F. (Paper No. 42)
The Dendy Marshall 4-cylinder system of locomotives. 190-218
Second Ordinary General Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Saturday, 25 March 1916, at 2.30 p.m..
Some of the diagrams from this paper and some general comment is contained in O.S. Nock's The LNWR Precursor family. (1966). pp.104-7.
Journal No. 7
Dearberg, Henry Woodgate (Paper No. 43)
The Garratt locomotive. 225-54. Disc. (Journal 8): 261-97.
Third Ordinary General Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Saturday, 29 April 1916, at 2.30 p.m:in the unavoidable absence of the President, Mr. W.A. Lelean, Vice-president, presided.
Includes Garratt articulated locomotive for Congo Railway. According to Rutherford (Backtrack, 2007, 21, 437) this paper was originally requested from Garratt by G.F. Burtt, The Institution's Secretary.
Ahrons, E.L. (Paper No. 44)
The classification of locomotive types. 302-6. J10?
Written communication on the classification of locomotive types pp. 333-6 J F Gairns
Heavy freight trains in the United States. 306-7.
Mr. James M. Mead, a member of the United States Government, in introducing a Bill to limit the length of trains to 60 cars, in his evidence said: "Ten men are killed and 308 injured every week in 'long-train' accidents.
"In the 100-car train there is often 100ft. of slack at the rear of the train. No matter how carefully the engineer starts his train this slack will cause a terrific shock at the rear, which frequently results in tearing out drawbars, draw couplings and air hose.
"To handle long trains brakesmen must ride on top and use hand brakes. This is dangerous. If the hand brake does not work in exact uniformity with the air brakes the man's arms may be wrenched from their sockets.
Illus.: Baldwin triple articulated compound Locomotive, Erie Railroad hauling long freight
Journal No. 9
Bennett, Alfred R
The Channel Island Service of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. 308-17.
For a brief period the LBSCR operated a Channel Island service out of Littlehampton, but it, or its agents also sailed from Shoreham and Newhaven. Originally, the LBSCR lacked authority to operate steam vessels and the service, started in 1850 was operated by Maples & Morris. obtained power to own steam vessels, and terminated the old agreement with Maples & Morris, retaining, however, the services of Mr. Maples as manager of the Channel Island boats, a position he continued to occupy until 1866 when the LBSCR ceased to be interested in traffic to the Channel Islands..
Gairns, J.F. (Paper No. 45)
British Railways as a national asset. 318-22.
British railways represent about £1,300 millions of capital; revenue, expenditure, tonnage, numbers of passengers and other annual statistics require to be expressed in millions; several hundreds of thousands of men are directly employed by railway companies; and railways provide the best and, in a large measure, the only means of passenger conveyance and goods transport within the limits of the United Kingdom. These afford sufficient reasons for classing the railway system as one of the principal factors in national economy; but the war has brought to the fore another and previously little appreciated aspectthat, although constructed and operated almost entirely by private enterprise, they have proved invaluable in meeting both the anticipated and the unanticipated needs of the stressful time we are passing through.
Journal No. 10
Fullagar, L.A. (Paper No. 46)
Locomotive cab arrangements. 327-32. Disc.: 387-8
Highly critical of LNWR cabs, of the lack of two gauge glasses on GWR; notes that only GER and NER fitted seats ror their drivers. Highly critical of variation in driving position: left hand versus right hand. R.P.C. Sanderson (387) correspondence noting Ragonnet power reverse used in America
Dearberg, Henry Woodgate (Paper No. 47)
Some observations on industrial locomotives. 337-46; Disc.: 384-6: 1917, 7, 80-2.
Experience gained from operating locomotive at a large gasworks (42 miles of track and 42 locomotives). Track was lightly laid and had severe curve and steep gradients with heavy loads being hauled up 1 in 26 and there were some stretches of 1 in 12. The conditions demanded short wheelbase four-coupled inclined, outside-cylinder locomotives, limited to a weight of 16 tons. Boilers required small diameter, brass tubes and direct crown stays. Many experiments had been conducted on blast pipes, partly in an attempt to reduce spark throwing. Spark preventers, including a device developed by Drummond had been evaluated. The shape of steam pipes was important. Single bar crossheads were advoacted. A single injector was adequate. The valve gear need to be modified with increased lead to cope with the severe conditions. Hot water washing out was pracyticed on a fortnightly basis.. J.W.H. Rea, of the Western Railwuy of Buenos Ayres (7: 80) written communication criticised the adoption of a standard height for the blast pipe nozzle..
Journal No. 11
Barnes, Victor T.E. (Paper No. 48)
Locomotive smokeboxes and fittings. 351-61. Disc.: 361-83; 442 (correspondence)
First Ordinary General Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Saturday, 30 September 1916, at 2.30 p.m.:The President, Mr. R.E.L. Maunsell was in the chair.
Barnes was a product of Eastleigh yet boldly stated "the circular smokebox and saddle is, in the opinion of the Author, to be preferred [to the built-up type], for the following reasons:- With the long, high-pitched boilers, which are now in use, severe strains are set up in the smokebox by the tendency of the boiler to break away from the frames as the locomotive sways from side to side when running. Strains are also set up owing to the boiler getting loose in thc expansion brackets and working radially between the frames at the firebox end with the smokebox as a centre. A cast iron or steel saddle into which is bolted for the greater part of its length and about a fourth of its diameter a circular smokebox strengthened at the bottom by a liner is not so likely to work loose under these strains, and it also forms a much more rigid support for the boiler. It is found with smokeboxes fastened at the sides to the main frames that the working of the plates caused by the strains set up in them breaks away any scale formed on the inside of these plates, and so they are constantly exposed to the corrosive action of the smokebox gases and their life is comparatively short. Again, in a circular smokebox there are very few joints and practically no corners, which makes it by far the easiest type to keep air-tight and also facilitates cleaning out."
Discussion: J. Clayton (377-9) noted that he made one or two notes as things went along. Flat smokebox doors were mentioned as being Midland Railway practice. This was so at one time, but they were given up and the old form of bulged door with dogs all the way round has now taken their place. It was found that the flat door became distorted and buckled extremely badly, so the old form of bulged door which was formerlv in use with the central bar and screw was reverted to with the dogs round the outside.
Back pressure in the cylinders has been mentioned as very detrimental, but I think, generally speaking, you will find that back pressure in locomotives on average service does not show very much on the diagrams. In support of this, too, some experiments were mentioned on the Austrian railways. The experiment was tried with orifices of 25 sq. inches and 116 sq. inches areas. These would represent diameters of 51/8in. and 127/8in. respectively. A blast pipe diameter of 123/8in. is, of course, unknown, but the increase of expended horse-power, due to the small over the large orifice was, we are told, as much as 304. I ran that same proportion out, for curiosity, and brought it down to British conditions for blast pipes, say 4½in . and 5½in. dia. The difference in area is only about 8 sq. inches, and by the same proportion would entail an increase of 27 in the horsepower expended, which does not look anything like so imposing as the big increase quoted as due to the difference in areas of the blast pipes which the Austrians used in their experiments.
As far as variable bhst pipes are concerned, their name is legion. The Midland Railway tried them very extensively, but as it was found that the drivers generally used the smaller orifice they were eventually given up. When the London, Tilbury and Southend was taken over by the Midland Railway all the variable blast pipe gear and arrangements were taken out and the old simple form used. Just in that connection, I might say that in the London, Tilbury and Southend variable blast pipe a cone was used on the inside of the blast orifice, which could be raised or lowered. The inside of this cone was filled with common salt. I wonder whether the author happens to know the reason or object of this. It is mentioned that the low blast pipe with the petticoat gives the best results. Speaking from personal experience, I have known very many cases where an all round improvement in the steaming of engines has resulted from the removal of the petticoat leaving the blast pipe nozzle low. I believe the extension of the chimney inside the smokebox may sometimes help if you have a very low blast pipe. It all depends upon the position of the blast pipe and the position of the top of the chimney, coupled with the " fit " (if such a term can be used) of the column of exhaust steam in the chimney. Carefully made experiments have shown that the column of the exhaust steam issuing from the blast pipe orifice became 8in. dia. at 25in. up the cone on the average working of the engine.
As regards the setting of the chimney, it follows, of course, that the exact axial line should be followed though this is not always done as thoroughly as it ought to be. Not only should the setting of the chimney with the blast pipe be watched, but also the setting of the blast pipe with the chimney. Not only the nozzle of the blast pipe, but the mean centre line passing through the blast pipe should be central with the chimney, because, as the author pointed out, the amount of straight in the blast pipe has a direct influence in the way the cone issues and strikes the chimney. On one railway in this country apparatus is sent out to the running sheds by which the chimneys can be set exactly plumb not only with the blast pipe top but also with the opening of the cylinders over which the blast pipe sits. This has been found to remedy most of the troubles with the setting of chimneys over the line of the blast pipes as it has regularised the method of all the staffs doing this work.
On the question of the drumhead tube-plate, such as is shown in Mr. Hughes' smokebox, one of the main lines, after many years of real trial of all kinds of steel and iron for this type of plate, gave them up in despair and went back to the old angle ring outside, from which no trouble resulted inside the boiler. The trouble generally experienced with the angle ring type is below the tube-plate and does not affect the boiler proper. With the drumhead tube-plate the trouble is likely to be inside where you cannot see it.
With regard to smokebox door joints, one of the things which conduce more than anything else to the tightness of the door is that the drivers should look after them much better than they do. I was attached to a railway on which all concerned were examined orally, and one of the questions was: " Let me see you close that smokebox door." Gener;iIly it was thought that closing the smokebox door consisted in screwing the handle up very tight, whereas the first thing to do actually was to carefully wipe the joint clean all round and close the door. If that were done there would not be anything like so much trouble as is often experienced.
I can speak well of the asbestos door joint. It was introduced many years ago on the North Eastern Railway. It is a good job and there is no trouble in its maintenance. After an experience of something like two and a half years with it, I can say that I have not known of any of these asbestos rings having to be touched at all or replaced in any way.
Journal No. 12
Houldcroft, A.T. (Paper No. 49)
The design and construction of steel railway coaches. 391-421. Disc.: 421-41.
Fifth Ordinary Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Saturday, 28 October 1916, at 2.30 p.m.:In the unavoidable absence of the President, Mr. A.J..Hill (Past President), took the chair.
Steel cars were in use in England on the LYR, NER, District and London Electric Railways. It was stated that the GWR and other main lines had constructed steel cars, but the former claim was corrected during the discussion. Since 1913 the Leeds Forge Co. had built, or had in hand, 22 different types of steel carriage, including first-class, sleeping, and third-class; designs had been prepared for 40 other types. The first steel cars for India were built for the Kalka-Simla Line in 1908. The first all-steel train for India was that built for the Great Indian Peninsular Railway for service between Bombay and Delhi. The next Indian vehicles formed a train of five steel cars for the North-Western Railway: these designs were prepared and supervised by the Consulting Engineers, Messrs. Rendel, Palmer and Tritton. Massive vehicles for the Egyptian State Railways were railed from Leeds over the Midland and North Eastern Railways, to the ships side in Hull Dock on their own wheels, after removing lamp tops and ventilators, and were carried as a deck load to Alexandria. A table is reproduced from The Engineer (10 August 1915) which shows the cost of carriage maintenance for each of the British main line railways.
Discussion: A.J. Hill (421-4) noted first inflammability (flammability) which had been highly important in the USA, and in India. Also noted the greater strength and safety. F.W. Marillier (GWR, 424-5) corrected the claim made for the Great Western Railway concerning its "all-steel carriages": the railway had used iron frames in 1850, but although steel frames were standard, coach bodies were constructed from steel and wood. He noted the dangers of using timber for coaches operating over electrified lines.E.F. Price (MR, 425-7) made a plea for a standard loading gauge, but considered that damp climates might lead to corrosion; G.A. Anderson (427-8) considered that steel coaches were ideal for India and "had come to stay". G.H. Sheffield (428-31); Kelway-Bamber (431-3); Redpath (433-4); J. Clayton (434) asked whther the oxy-acetyle processd was employed. E.R. Calthrop (Barsi Railway, 434) noted that steel wagons had been supplied by Leeds Forge for the Barsi Railway..