Transactions of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers
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Volume 1 (1911)

Maitland, J. Pelham (Paper No. 1)
French locomotive practice. 21pp. Discussion from page 13.
The first paper is now almost a century old and paints a delightfully archaic view of France: A great part of the land is in the hands of peasant proprietors, many of whom find it hard to make “both ends meet ” and certainly have no surplus wherewith to indulge in "week ends” or day trips to the seaside. It will therefore not be a matter of surprise that, on the whole, the state of the French railways is far below that of England, Belgium or Germany, althoiigli many of the finest locomotives now at work in Europe are to be found in France. But a glance at some of the provincial and rural centres will reveal the fact that many specimens of engineering antiquity are still to be found—some even 60 years old—but nevertheless performing all the work required of them.
Dearberg asked for information about the bad condition of horn blocks on the LBSCR and GWR. The problem was not encountered on the LSWR due to oil grooves. On the NER the 4-4-0s were better than the 4-4-2s. He noted that a Whale 4-6-0 on the LNWR had run at 90 mile/h. Carmichael (15) considered that the Atlantics performed the best work.

Dearberg, Henry W. (Paper No. 2)
Locomotive fireboxes. 1-23. Discussion from page 12.
Meeting held at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C.. on Saturday, September 30 1911 presided over by Mr. Charles A. Suffield, Member of Council. Burtt noted that the NLR used soft basic steel firebox stays. On the GWR de Glehn compounds bronze firebox stays were used. J.R. Billinton had experimentally fitted B4 No. 45 Bessborough with a Drummond water-tube type firebox. J.R. Billinton fitted girder stays, but there were problems of deposits forming with hard water. Marsh reverted to direct stays. Sluug stays were used by Dugald Drummond on the CR. M.F. Long (17) noted that Stroudley used girder stays and then gave his assessment of Belpaire versus round-tope fireboxes. W.J. Bennettt and Nethercott (19)both noted that cracked tube plates were rare on the GWR where Belpaire fireboxes predominated. In response Dearberg noted that it was far simpler to fit stays in a Belpaire firebox and added that the GW amnd GCR were both major users of the Belpaire type. .

Johnson, F.S. Lovick (Paper No. 3)
Liquid fuel. 1-33. Discussion from page 18.
Meeting held at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C., on Saturday, Noveinber 25 1911, presided over by Mr. H. F. Anelay, Member of Council..Paper based on Indian experience gained at Sylhet. W. Wolford (19) gave an explanation of the Holden system. Marshall (21-2) noted that navies were turning towards oil firing. Fullager (23-4); Dearberg (25) commented on the "Deisel" [sic] (Diesel) engine. Garratt (27-8) described his experience using oil-fuel firing with the Holden system on the North Peru Railway.

Bennett, W.J. (Paper No. 4)
Boiler shop equipment and management. 1-27. Discussion from page 21.
Meeting held at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C., on Saturday, December 30 1911, presided over by Mr. Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council. Mainly boiler production and the use of plate rolls, vertical plate bending rolls, drilling, sawing, flanging, riveting, and sources of power (hydraulic and pneumatic). Garratt (22/23); Whitelegg (24) mentioned rotating hammers; Dearberg (24) noted that the boiler for a Bowen Cooke 4-6-2T had been formed from a single plate. Burtt that a single plate had been rolled at Brighton for an 0-6-0T boiler. On an Institution visit to Swindon Burtt had been informed that caulking was not done at Swindon.

Transactions

Volume 2 (1912)

Bray, H. Paine (Paper No. 5)
The application of highly superheated steam to locomotives. 1-15. Disc.: 15-36.
Meeting held at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C., on Saturday, December 30 1911, presided over by Mr. Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council. Burtt (21-2) reported on the LBSCR superheater trials with 4-4-2Ts: the superheated version consumed 29 lb of coal per mile; the non-superheated 37 lb/mile. He emphasised the importance of Welsh coal. It was possible to run the superheated locomotive from Rugby to Croydon without taking water. G.J.C. Jackson (27) advocated the use of the Swindon superheater as being the cheapest and most economical. The author in reply to a question by McKie noted that the Phoenix type of superheater required an extended smokebox. He also noted the excellence of the superheated King George V 4-4-0 in comparison with the saturated Queen Mary.

Anderson, T. Scott (Paper No. 6)
Electric welding. 5-15. Disc.: 16-24.
Meeting at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C., on Saturday, February 24 1912, presided over by Mr. Herbert W. Garratt, Vice-Chairman of Council. Notes that electric welding was patented by Wilde in 1868.

Fry, Lawson H. (Paper 7)
The development of American locomotive practice. 1-16. Disc.: 26-7.
Meeting of held at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London on Saturday, 30 March 1912, presided over by Herbert W. Garratt, Vice-chairman of Council.
Development was divided roughly into four periods:
forty years of pioneer work from 1830 to 1870;
twenty years of growth from 1870 to 1890
fifteen years of change by the introduction of new types from 1890 to 1905, and finally a period of growth in which we are now. To illustrate the characteristics Includes a chronology, but skewed towards post-1897 development.
All modern steam locomotives are direct descendants of Stephenson’s Rocket built in 1829. This locomotive combined three essential elements:

fire tube boiler;
draught produced by the exhaust
direct connection between the cylinders and the driving wheels.
The Rocket "strain" was taken to America in 1831 by an engine of the Planet type built by Messrs. Robert Stephenson and Co. for the Mohawk and Hudson Railroad. This class of locomotive was the first to use horizontal cylinders, and its many good points were widely copied by both British and American engineers. M.W. Baldwin, the founder of the Baldwin Locomotive Works, studied it before building his first engine Old Ironsides completed in 1832

Bassett, Frank Laurence (Paper No. 8)
Water softening. 1-22. Disc.: 23-36.
Meeting held at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C., on Saturday, 27 April 1912, presided over by Mr. Herbert W. Garratt. The author dealt at some length with the chemical nature of the salts producing hardness in natural waters, and proceeded, to describe the various kinds of scale met with in locomotive boilers. He then outlined the principles underlying the removal of scale-forming compounds in softening apparatus, and gave a description ofa typical water softening plant. The paper concluded with a comparison of the cost of water softening and the expense involved. by the use of hard water.. The use of boiler compounds was also dealt with during the evening the author showed several chemical experiments demonstrating the more important chemical reactions. Messrs. Beckton, Gobert, Bennett. Maitland and Dearberg joined in the discussion which followed. Vice-chairman of Council. G.J. Jackson (24-5) noted the large water softening plant which had been installed at Swindon its capacity was 15,000 gallons per hour, and it reduced 24° of hardness to the normal proportion of 2°.

Long, Montague F. (Paper No. 9)
The electrification of the L.B. & S.C. Railway suburban system. 1-29. Disc.: 30-49.
Meeting held St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C., on Saturday 18 May 1912, presided over by Mr. Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of the Council,
Increases in passenger numbers followed the introduction of electric traction and this could be achieved with fewer staff. A greater rate of accelerations was achieved.
Discussion
: Fullagar (34-5) refered to "the supposed danger of the third rail". Until a few months ago, there had not been a single employee killed in the discharge of his duty owing to the third rail on the NER. They had killed a large number of dogs and a certain number of trespassers, but nobody whose business it was to be there at the time. The most serious trouble they had was with the injectors of the tank engines – the waste pipe used to drip water on the third rail and several firemen had had shocks; also, sometimes, owing to something being dropped on the third rail, a short circuit was caused. The only other drawback to the third rail suggested was the frequent junctions. On the east side of the Central Station at Newcastle a very large proportion of these were electrified, but the train had always got two motor cars, and if it should be stopped at a signal, one or the other was always in contact. They could afford to leave out the live rail. There were great drawbacks to the single-phase system, one of them being the difference of 24 tons weight between the motor bogie and the trailer and the actual weight of the motor equipment—19 tons. This was a very serious matter besides the loss of elficiency of a single-phase motor. It all wanted power to move it and general wearing expenses were caused by this weight.

Wardlaw, Frank A. (Paper No. 10)
The application of composite valves in locomotive operation. 1-15. Disc.: 16-20.
Meeting held at St. Bride Institute, on Wednesday 25 September, 1912, presided over by Charles A. Sufield, Chairman of Council. Clack valves: includes observations on water quality.

Nethercott, W.H.  (Paper No. 11)
The construction of the Wootton type of locomotive boiler. 1-20. Disc.: 21-7.
Meeting held St. Bride Institute, on Saturday 26 October, 1912, presided over by Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council.
Noted that the Wooton type of boiler had been introduced in Britain on the Holden Decapod, and had then been used by Ivatt and by Marsh on Atlantics.
In reply to a question concerning the value of the Wootton type it was stated the boilers used on the Atlantic class engines on the LBSCR had been running for over six years, and in terms of general wear and tear were in a "very good state of preservation indeed". With ordinary round top boilers, and especially those with solid bars, it is quite common to renew the firebox in less than six years. The only wear at present noticeable is in the enlargement and elongation of the tuheholes. So far as the wearing generally in the fire is concerned, the plate is practically as good now as when it was put in, with the exception of the tubeholes, which have gone very oval, especially up in the top corners.
Discussion: Smith (Swindon, 22) noted that at Swindon horizontal, not vertical, rollers were used. Cheesley (Swindon) asked about caulking and was informed that it was deirable for the inside to be caulked. Rennie asked about boiler life and was informed thatt this was excellent on the LBSCR.

O'Callaghan (Paper No. 12)
The Lassen and Hjort system of water softening for locomotive use. 1-12.  Disc.: 13-24.
Meeting held at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C., on Thursday 28 November 1912, presided over by Mr. Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council.,
Notes the application of this system at Swindon and by W. Worsdell on the NER at Hartlepool under Pearson

Maitland, J. Pelham (Paper No. 13)
Coal as a factor in locomotive practice. 1-12. Disc.: 14-32.
Meeting held at St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, E.C., on Saturday 21 December 1912, presided over by Mr. Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council.
On the LBSCR the Atlantics consumed 39.5 lbs of coal per mile, whereas the 4-4-0s averaged 44.1 lbs/mile. The 4-4-2s suffered from the disadvantage of less adhesive capacity. A comparison of superheated versus non-superheated boilers showed that the former averaged 26.8 lbs of coal per mile as against 44.1 lbs/mile. A Galloway-Hill furnace is described on page 10: in this steam is admitted to the fire instead of air. A 4-4-0 so-equipped had run 275 miles per day without the fire being cleaned as clinkering is inhibited.

Volume 3 (1913)
This Volume has continuous pagination

Fowler, Henry (Paper No. 14)
The maintenance and repair of locomotives. 1-15. + 3 diagrams
Address by the President without discussion: boilers received the most treatment and were regarded by the speaker of being of primary importance. Refers to paper presented by Paget to IMiechE in 1910. Much of the text without the diagrams was reproduced in the Locomotive Mag., 1913, 19, 40-6.
Heavy repairs defined as
:

Light repairs defined:

Topics examined included pitting and corrosion, burning of the firebox and expansion/contraction which led to grooving. Wear of the motion and cylinders, wheels and axles and boiler mountings were also considered. 

Woolford, A. (Paper No. 15)
The manufacture of oil gas for the lighting of trains. 17-35. Disc.: 36-40.
Meeting held St. Bride Institute, Bride Lane, London, on Friday, 28 February 1913, presided over by Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council.
Cost of gas manufacture at Stratford, GER is given in reply to question on p. 38.

Fry, Lawford H. (Paper No. 16)
Modern locomotive practice in Europe and America. 41-58. Disc.: 59-73.
A Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Saturday, March 29, 1913, at 7 p.m., presided over by Mr. Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of ‘Council, when a paper on “ Modern Locomotive Practice in Europe and America,” prepared by Mr. Lawford H. Fry, M.Inst.C.E., Vice- Chairman, was read.
Garratt (59-60) spoke about his own design and cited the advantage of being able to fit driving wheels of any size. The behaviour of the design on curves was superior to that of the Fairlie and Mallet. He noted the work of Garratt locomtives on the Tasmanian railways and on the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway. J. Clayton (61-2) argued that the Midland compounds produced a 7% saving in fuel consumption, but did not believe the claims of 15-20%. He was critical of the 4-4-2, but not of the 4-6-2 type. He favoured 4-cylinder simple expansion as it was easier to distribute the strains. He both noted the advantage of superheating to compound engines and criticised the Midland Railway for failing to apply it. Stanier (63-4) noted the existence of the Churchward 2-8-0 and 2-8-0T on the GWR. The leading coupled wheels of the 42XX type had spherical crank pins and bushes to prove 2½in side play: this enabled the class to operate over sharp curves at collieries. Stanier noted that the 4-cylinder layout distributed the working stress "very nicely". Refering to the 43XX he called the mixed reaffic locomotive the "engine of the future" noting that is was suitable for working excursion traffic and troop trains. Lelean (64) noted that the bronze bushes fitted with white metal lining as adopted by Swindon demonstrated low wear. Woolford (65-6) noted that the Mogul had originated on the GER in 1878/9.

Bennett, W.J.  (Paper No. 17)
Locomotive boiler examination, defects and repairs. 75-94. Disc.: 95-115.
Meeting held Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Saturday 26 April 1913, at 7 p.m., presided over by Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council.,

Gairns, J.F.  (Paper No. 18)
Some debatable factors in locomotive design and practice. 119-58.
Meeting of held Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Saturday, 31 May 31, 1913t 7 p.rn., presided over by Mr. F. A. Wardlaw, Deputy \'ice-Chairman.
There appears little justification for the I ‘ Atlantic ” type, unless adopted for special reasons, and the fact that it restricts the adhesion weight and the number of coupled wheels seems to prejudice its value as regards large steam generative capacity in proportion to other factors. In view of what can be done with six coupled wheels, and the fact that all objections to “ tied legs ” have been summarily disposed of, the 4-6-0 type is able to hold its own against the “ Atlantic ” in any field where ten-wheeled engines can he introduced in any form. The 2-6-2 is a type which offers advantages, hut is unknown in this country and has not made much headway elsewhere, so that the fact that it gives the freedom of firebox design offered by the “Atlantic” type at the expense of a pony truck instead of a bogey hardly seems to possess great value. For general traffic the pony truck appears satisfactory, as witness the 2-6-0 designs on the Great Western, Great Northern, and to be expected shortly on the Brighton line, while the 2-6-0 and 2-8-0 designs for goods and mineral traffic on the Great \Vestern, and in the later form on other lines, indicate the desirability of using a pair of leading wheels even for slow heavy traffic.
As regards tank engines the governing conditions are : ( 1 ) character of traffic ; (2) steaming capacity ; and (3) al!owable dimensions. With heavy hogey set trains, and where a degree of main line working is involved, fairly large engines became a necessity. The 4-4-2 type is a good one when really big locomotives can be used, as they become the equivalent to a 4-4-0 main line engine, express or mixed traffic; but for ordinary duties the 0-4-4 or 2-4-2 is more suitable. The 0-6-2 is the best six-coupled type? unless special versions-2-6-2, 0-6-4, 4-6-2 or 4-6-4-become desirable to meet special conditions. Incidentally the writer would express his disagreement with those who speak of 4-4-2, ,4-6-2 or 4-6-4 engines as " Atlantic,'' " Pacific " or " Baltic " tanks. 'These types named are associated with particular engine wheel arrangements, but as the tank classes suggested are equivalent to 4-4-0 or 4-6-0 engines with two or four wheels supporting the bunker which replaces the tender, they cannot in any sense be described as equivalents. Indeed, by far the better course is to use the numerical classification only, with the affix T or the word tank, reserving the special nam

Burtt, G.F.  (Paper No. 19)
Some French train services and locomotive performances. 164-88. Disc.: 189-97.
Meeting held Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Friday, 3 October 1913 at 7.45 p.m., presided over by Mr. W.A. Lelean, Vice-chairman,
Comment restricted to the express train services of three railways: Nord, Paris Orleans and PLM.

Bennett, W.J. (Paper No. 20)
Locomotive boiler examination, defects and repairs. Part 2. 203-22. Disc: 223-45.
A Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Saturday, 1 November 1913, at 7 p.m., presided over by Mr. Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council,
Claimed it was very difficult to give an indication of boiler repairs that could be considered as standard practice as the general conditions on railways were "vastly different" to each other. The differences reflected systems, designs of boilers, and local feed waters. Further, there was diversity of opinion between boilermakers and repairers themselves regarding good practice.

Dearberg, H.W. (Paper No. 21)
The standardisation of large passenger locomotives. 247-60. Disc.: 261-77.
A meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at Caxton Hall, \‘ictoria Street, Westminster, on Saturday, 22 November at 7.30 p.m., presided over by Charles A. Suffield, Chairman of Council,.
Having noted the transition from single driving wheel to the four-coupled type, it is noted that the Caledonian Railway led the way in boiler design by producing the Dunalastair class of 4-4-0s with a boiler that bulged out over the tops of the driving wheels. These engines were an undoubted success and it was not long before they became world-famous. They were followed on other railways, notably the LYR 1400 class 4-4-2s and GNR 990 Atlantics. It was not long before large boilers became standard practice. Such engines were not only first class machines in terms of speed and power on express trains, but were extremely useful on all classes of work to be found on British railways: they were useful on slow stopping trains, mixed trains, and even goods trains if required. Although the author sought maximum boiler power he advocated the 4-6-0 in preference to either the 4-4-2 or 4-6-2 as these latter suffered from lack of adhesion. He considered that grate areas greater than 32ft2 were beyond the limits of manual firing. In support of this he noted Churchward's experiments with identical 4-4-2 and 4-6-0 designs and the standardisation on the 4-6-0: "the work performed by the 4-cylinder machines of this type is unequalled elsewhere, both as regards punctuality and speed, with very heavy loads".

Bassett, F.L. (Paper No. 22)
Locomotive lubrication.  283-98. Disc.: 299-312.
Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Saturday, 13 Deceniber 13, at 19.00 presided over by W. A. I,elean, Vice-Chairman of Council,
Considered the composition of lubricants: both a wide variety of vegetable oils (castor oil), tallow and mineral oils; their chemical composition and the means of applying them to axle boxes and cylinders. The latter included displacement lubricators (the earliest), the Roscoe lubricator, the Furness lubricator, sight-feed lubricators and mechanical lubrication..

Volume 4 (1914)

Hill, A.J. (Paper No. 23)
Questions affecting the cost of repairs and renewals of rolling stock. 1-14.
Presidential Address: The shed foremari and running department inspectors, etc., have not on!y to see that the engines are properly kept and manned, but also by careful diagramming to ensure that as many miles are got out of the engines as is possible, and that the engines are used on trains most suitable for them. As an illustration of what should not be done in this matter, I might mention a fact in my oun experience. Soon aftcr Mr. James HoIden came to the Great Eastern Railway as Locomotive Superintendent he found it was the custom for the bulk of the shunting work to be done by tender engines which were not in good enough state of repair for train work and were almost due for shops. By putting suitable shunting tank engines to do the work it mas done both more efficiently and much more economically.Comparitive analysis of published company data.

Maitland, J. Pelham (Paper No. 24)
The design and equipment of the running shed. 5-18. Disc.: 18-26.
A Meeting of the Institution of Loccmotive Engineers was held at Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Monday, February 23rd, at 8.0 p.m., presided over by Mr. A. Woolford, Deputy Vice-chairman of Council, when a paper on " The Design and Equipment of the Running Shed," prepared by Mr. J. Pelham Maitland, Associate Member of Council, was read. Mr. Woolford announced that owing to Mr. Suffield, the Chairman, being abroad, and Mr. Lelean, Vice-Chairman, being indisposed, he had been asked to take the chair.
Favoured rectangular shed with the roads disposed parallel to the long side of the rectangle. Where this arrangement has been adopted, the Shed is accessible to engines at both ends, which is of very great advantage in the case of one exit being temporarily blocked. It has, however, one drawback, namely if a particular engine is required at short notice, it may mean that half a road of engines has to be pulled out, causing, in consequence, delay to the various operations, such as repairs, washing out, etc., which may be proceeding at the time. Consideration was given to coal storage and of the design of coaling stages, or other coaling arrangements. Noted that the GWR.employed a self-contained apparatus for lighting up fires which dispensed with the lighting-up furnace: The Armstrong and Rogers apparatus uses the whole of the heat given off by the coal for generating steam in the boiler of the locomotive required to be lit up. A heap of coal from the tender is placed upon the firebars, and a jet of oil, combined in the machine with air or steam (preferably the former on account of the greater percentage of oxygen possessed) is ignited and allowed to play upon the coal from seven to ten minutes. More coal is then put on and the engine left to generate steam in the ordinary way, givimg a 50% labour saving plus the abolition of the lighting-up furnace: a pressure of 20 psi could be obtained in a cold boiler in about 45 minutes. It was also more convenient, and the risk of accident is practically eliminated. It must also be noted that, not only is none of the coal burnt to waste, but also the heat given out by the oil burnt is used to generate steam in the boiler
DIscussion: Ahrons (18-20) the GWR, which had always employed straight road sheds, had made its latest shed at Old Oak Common, a round shed with four turntables. Ahrons had seen sheds where there is always a great deal of shunting dead engines going on, but had there been a turntable shed, the services of a special shunting engine could have been dispensed with. Discussing turntables, the failure most dreaded was when a careless man overshoots the mark and lets an engine into the circular pit of the table. Repairs to the turntable are a nuisance, but are generally foreseen in advance, and arrangements made. Every turntable in a large shed should have two separate and independent sources of power, an electric motor and an oil engine. The ramps mentioned for allowing long wheel base engines to be turned on a short table were invented and first used by Mr. Whittaker, late chief of the Locomotive Department of the Somerset and Dorset Railway, when he was in charge of the Midland district at Leeds. They were designed and made to turn Mr. Johnson's first bogie engines of 1876-7.
John Bowden (20-2) was apprenticed at the Gateshead Works, close by which is the Greensfield Shed, worked by four turntables, and he remembered several serious blocks due to carelessness. Subsequently, the large number of roundhouses seen in the USA corrected that impression. The larger sheds there differ from British turntable sheds in extendind over part only of the circle of which the centre is the turntable, and the covered space stands well back leaving the roads to the shed, which afford useful siding accommodation and on which expense in buildings has not been incurred. The roads in the shed have ample space between them and selection of engines can be made with little or no shunting. At the rear is situated the apparatus for hot water wash-out and feed, oil lighting up, stores, machine shop, etc., and every access is provided to the principal work of the shed staff by placing engines with tenders nearest to the turntable. Repair work, which is generally heavier in American sheds than in this country, is better placed for supervision and proximity to the stores and machines, and heavy pieces are moved to and from the engines with minimum labour. The greater width between tracks being at the front of the engines affords room where most required, and the narrower width toward turntables economises in the cost of buildings. Labour-saving appliances for clearing smoke-box cinder, ashpans, elevating coal and sand, (doubtless due to labour costs being higher). At Altoona, on the Pennsylvania Railroad, he saw an installation for coal and sand, the latter being provided with a simple sand dryer, elevators, riddles and spouts eithcr side to deliver clean dry sand to the engines and siftings into ballast cars through spouts furnished with measuring apparatus. Coal is delivered in the same way by spouts swinging on to the tender bunkers. Traverser operated sheds included the Pont St. Charles Depot of the Grand Trunk, in Montreal. In Britain the old Edgware Road Shed of the Metropolitan Railway employed a travserser, but the shed had been dismantled, although the traverser itself was still at work at Neasden operated by an electric motor.

Rottenburg, L. (Paper No. 25)
Locomotive costs in relation to total cost of railway goods transport. 5-34.
A Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Saturday, March 28th, at 7.30 p.m., presided over by Mr. A. J. Hill, M.Inst.C.E., President, when a Paper on “ Locomotive Costs in Relation to Total Cost of Railway Goods Transport,” prepared by Mr. Rottenburg, of the New Transport Company, was read

Woolford, A.  (Paper No. 26)
Pumps and injectors for feeding locomotive boilers. 5-19. Disc.: 20-31. + 2 plates. 13 diagrs.
.A Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Saturday, April 25, at 7 p.m., presided over by hfr. C. A. Suffield, Chairman of Council, when a pape: on “ Pumps and Injectors for Feeding Locomotive Boilers,” prepared by Mr. A. Woolford, Deputy Vice-Chairman of Council, was read.
original injector, with adjustable cones; the flap nozzle of Davies and Metcalfe's injectors; Gresham and Craven's sliding cone; combination injectors; Holden and...

Durtnall, W.P. (Paper No. 27)
The evolution and development of the internal combustion railway locomotive. 5-31. Disc.: 32-51. + 16 plates (37 diagrs.)
Twenty-Seventh Ordinary Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Wednesday, June 17, 1914, at 7.30 p.m., presided over by Mr. A. J. Hill, M.Inst.C.E.., President, when a paper on “ The Evolution and Development of the Internal Combustion Railway Locomotive,” prepared by Mr. W. P. Durtnall, M.I.Auto.E.,
Included railcars.

Ward, A. Kingsley (Paper No. 28
The application of the diesel engine to locomotives. 3-30. Disc.: 5-34 + 4 plates
Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Saturday, 26 September 1914, at 19.00, presided over by W. A. Lelean, Vice-chairman of Council.

Ahrons, E.L.  (Paper No. 29)
The internal disturbing forces in and balancing of locomotives (with special reference to three- and four-cylinder engines). 3-51. Disc.: 53-77.
Discussion: Symes (60-2); Hawksworth (62-3) cammented upon the balancing machine at Swindon and on the running qualities of the outside-cylinder 4-4-0 County class. On page 68 there was a confrontation between Ahrons and Hawksworth on the swaying experienced with these locomotives.

Nethercott, W.H. (Paper No. 30)
Locomotive boiler examination, defects and repairs in the running shed. 3-18.  Disc.: 19-32
Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on on Saturday, 21 November 1914, at 19.30, presided over by A. Woolford, Deputy Vice-chairman of Council.

Gairns, J.F.   (Paper No. 31
A comparison of British and foreign locomotive practice. 3-15.
Meeting held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Thursday, 17 December, 1914 at 19.30, presided over by A. Woolford, Deputy Vice-chairman of Council.
Included both American and European, especially French, notably PLM.

Transactions
Volume 5 (1915)

Hill, A.J.  (Paper No. 32)
Presidential Address: engineering education. 1-12.
Considers engineering as an academic discipline (giving the dates when the universities involved included engineering as a degree subject) and the method of educating apprentices at workshops like Stratford.

Thomsen, T.C. (Paper No. 33)
Lubrication of locomotives and tenders. 1-29. Disc.: 30-48 + plates (8 diagrs.)
A Paper on Lubrication of Locomotives and Tenders ” was read by Mr. Thomsen, B.Sc. The Discussion was apened by the Chairman and continued by Messrs. Lelean, Prentice, Allen, McColl, Grierson, and Geer. At the conclusion the Chairman proposed a vote of thanks, which was seconded by Mr. Lelean.
The paper considered the composition of lubricating oils and tests which could be performed to assess their suitability. There was a very extensive discussion.

Fullagar, L.A.  (Paper No. 34)
Comparison of slide bar pressures. 1-10. + 4 plates (diagrs.)
The engine types selected were the GWR County class and the Great Northern large Atlantics. The former, with other of the Great Western 30in. stroke classes, were those whose oscillation at starting was noticed. The latter, which represent the other extreme in connecting rod and stroke ratio, are amongst the steadiest running engines known to the Author. For the purpose of comparison an ipdicator diagram was taken belonging to what may be termed a neutral engine of not dissimilar dimensions, LTSR 4-4-2 tank of the No. 80 class, now MR Nos. 2176-9.

Lelean, W.A.  (Paper No. 35)
Inspection of locomotives under construction. 1-23. Disc.: 24-47
A Meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Thursday, 21st October, 1915, at 7.15 p.m., presided over by Mr. A. Woolford, Member of Council, when a paper on “The Inspection of Locomotives under Construction,” written by Mr. W. A. Lelean, M.I.Mech.E., Member of Council, was read. The Chairman
The locomotive inspector's record book was supplied with the paper and is bound with it in the I.MechE. Library set and is available as part of the IMechE Electronic Archive (as a separate pdf file). Notes on locomotive inspection and construction, based on experience, first in the works, then in the drawing office, then in inspection of materials for one of the large railways, and subsequently in inspection of locomotives under construction at contractors’ works for fifteen years.

Volume 6