Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 51 (1945)
Key file

Number No. 629 (15 January 1945)

The railways and Post-war planning. 1
Editorial considerefd that railway efficiency would be improved by improved lighting and signalling in yards and sidings; that bulldozers and earthmovers would be used to ease gradients; overall locomotive efficiency would be achieved by getting rid of inefficient designs and their replacement by more efficient ones; wheel diameters of rolling stock needed to be considered as this affected performance and that of journal resistance. Speed restrictions need to be eliminated and fairings and streamlining need to be employed

O.J. Morris. Standardising S.R. locomotives, Central Section. 2-4. 2 illustrations, diagram
Marsh 4-4-2T classes. Argues that I1 owed much to Stroudley and that components from scrapped D class engines were incorporated. Relates how the Royal Train to the Derby required the joint presence of Marsh and Lawson Billinton on the footplate. The origins of the design were the Ivatt 4-4-2T on the GNR and the Great Southern Railways Class 32.. W.E. Briggs notd that enginemen complainted about hot cabs due to the tanks employing hot feed via condensation. It was found that the oil and grease which got into the boiler reduced scale formation. The air operated screw reverser  found favour..

H.F. Hilton. Stephenson Letters of 1844. 5-7.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.  7-10.
0=4-2 mineral engines  built in 1870 and 1871

Early industrial locomotives. 11.

Metropolitan District engines. 12. illustration
Prior to electrification of the "District" as the M.D.R. was usually called to distinguish it from the Metropolitan Railway, the services were worked entirely by the well-known 4-4-0 tank engines built by Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., of Gorton Foundry. For a time the Metropolitan Company actuallv worked the District trains as well as their own, but from 1871 onwards. the District Company obtained engines of their own which were almost copies of those supplied to the Metropolitan line. Between 1871 and 1886, fifty-four such locomotives were put in service, and they successfully worked the traffic until the last steam train was withdrawn in November, 1905. The first section to be electrified was the branch or extension from Ealing to Park Royal and South Harrow; which was opened in June1903, and as the steam .locornotives became redundant they were withdrawn and stored at Mill Hill sidings. Unlike those of the Metropolitan, which found new spheres of action on provincial lines when no longer required in the metropolis, the District engines were disposed of for scrap in 1906, with the exception of half a dozen which were retained for service stock. The livery was changed from light green to dark green with black and red lines in 1881, but during the last year or two the lining was omitted in view of the forthcoming change-over to electric working. Although sundry improvements and alterations were incorporated in successive batches, the dimensions remained much the same: coupled wheels 5 ft. 9'in., cylinders 17 in. by 24 in., working pressure 130  psi. The Westinghouse brake was adopted in 1875 (non-automatic at first) whereas the Metropolitan used the automatic vacuum brake. The chief locomotive depot was at Lillie Bridge, but there were small out-stations. The last survivor of the District engines was No. 34, which lasted well into 1932. Illustration gives a good idea of the general appearance of these engines at the time of their general withdrawal in 1905.

Correspondence. 12

Victorian Railways. J.C.M. Rolland. 12-13. iiklustration (Standard Number Plate, Victorian Railways).
In 1896, Australian railways were virtually unknown to the "wide world," and "The Locomotive" has had a worthwhile share in making much better known the progress and performance of their rolling stock equipment, The writer has had some share as a "correspondent," but was rather too young to pose as an authority in the first year, at any rate, whatever his standing may be even now.
At this much later date, however, he is moved to lodge a claim of some unique features to be found in 1896 on the Victorian Railways. The points are of no special technical importance, but seem to be of interest and to be noteworthy as found on a system embracing some 500 engines and more. The first was the custom, from the commencement in the early 'sixties, of numbering the passenger engines with even and the goods engines with odd numbers. Though there were a few "singles" to start with, the distinction was virtually between four-coupled and six-coupled units. Early in the present century six-coupled passenger -and eight- coupled goods came into the service, but the distinguishing numbering remained for a further twenty years or so, when engines began to be numbered consecutively.
Another peculiarity was that, from about the middle 'eighties, when class letters were introduced, the locomotives were running' with no side numbers-a most uncommon feature, as the study of innumerable pictures shows. The numbers were displayed, together with the class-letter, on the buffer beams of the engines and on the tender buffer beams or on the back of the tank itself. As time went on number plates (without letters) were affixed to the sides of tank engines, and in 1918 the first o£ the "C" class 2-8-0s appeared from Newport with the plate C 1 on both cab sides. Since then all new engines are so distinguished, but there still remain a large number of the tender engines which cannot be identified from alongside unless they carry electric headlights with the numbers on the side glasses. An illustration is given of the now standard number plate on V.R. engines. This is cast in iron with the numbers kept well whitened and the sunk background in black. (300 is now, as a matter of fact, streamlined, and no such plate appears, but, instead. large brass numerals are affixed to the tender sides.)
In the 'nineties [1890s], too, there had just come into full service the "unique" standardisation equipment or stud of engines (referred to in "The Locomotive" of August, I944) wherein, at one blow, designs and orders for six types of engines embodying all the uniformity possible-heavy line passenger and goods, lighter line passenger and goods, and four-coupled and six-coupled tanks, had eventuated.
Another, at least, uncommon feature in a system of this size, belongs to a somewhat later date, but it may be allowed mention here. When the A2 class (4-6-0 with 6 ft. drivers) appeared in 1907/8, they took rank not only as the Department's heaviest passenger and express engines, but as its most powerful goods locomotives, which double title they retained till ten years later, when the eight-coupled Cs, already referred to, appeared. In these days when class distinction is being decried and often profitably dissipated in human society, it seems as if a parallel is to be found in the locomotive world. Many a fine engine in Victoria, and elsewhere too, works outward a fast express and works back with a stopping "pick up" goods. And the practical man asks, "Why not?"
A study of photographs' of motive power belonging to the Australian State Railways would show one small difference from most of those appearing in the pages of the Magazine — that is that no attempt is made to display the owner's name or initials, as is naturally done on most company-owned locornotives as there is normally no interchange of engines (usually impossible owing to gauge variations) there is, of course, little chance of their being "mislaid"

N.B. Atlantics and compounds.. W.B. 13.
In his indictment of the insularity of British railway engineers, your correspondent has overlooked the French Compounds tried by the Great Western. Is there any reason why a director should not know somethmg of the engineering features or his railway? An incident in later years concerning a six-coupled express would seem to show some basis for the objection. As to Webb's objection to the Air Brake, how did we suffer. It did not prevent a number of main line companies from adopting It. Years ago I was familiar with it on the G,E.R., N.E,R., N.B.R., C.R.. L,B,S.C.R. and L.C.D R

The North British Atlantics. H. Holcroft. 13.
Referring to correspondence in your November Issue, I would like to present my views on .some of the points raised. '
I think W.B. Thompson takes the statement about the refusal to permit six-coupled locomotives on the Waverley route .too literall y, as boards of directors do not customarily interfere in engineering matters. The usual procedure when a new locomotive is proposed is that the mechanical engineer prepares an outline diagram showing the wheelbase, overall dimensions, estimated axle loads, etc., and this is submitted to the civil engineer, who will say on what routes, if any, he can accept it for running. If the new design was likely to increase permanent way maintenance or to necessitate the strengthening of bridges, etc., the general manager would submit all the facts and estimates of cost to the board, who, as business men, would then weigh up the pros and cons and decide whether the expenditure was justified or not in view of their policy. No doubt this is what really happened in the above case.
In bewailing the failure of the North British to foliow French practice in their Atlantics, your correspondent seems to have quite overlooked the purchase by the G.W.R. about 1902-3 of three French compounds of Atlantic type, one to Nord design and two to Paris-Orleans design. These did give a very beneficial stimulus to British locomotive design, but not in the way he would have anticipated. The good points of these compounds were picked out and the direct result was the creation of Churchwards four-cylinder simple engines, first the 4-4-2 "North Star" and then the various batches of 4-6-0 superheated engines and the 4-6-2 "Great Bear," followed by Collett.'s "Castles" and "Kings," and eventually the carry-over by Stanier to the L.M.S. in his various 4-6-2s and streamlined Pacifies, This is the genealogical tree of the family of which the de Glehn locomotive was an ancestor.
The reference to F.W. Webb is unfortunate. Whatever he may have said about Yankees did not affect the brake position, Some two-thirds of the British railways had adopted the automatic or non-automatic vacuum brake and about one-third the Westinghouse air brake many years before the Clark and Webb chain brake was given up by the L.N.W.R.
In 1885 Webb produced his. own design of compressed air brake, a model of which was exhibited at the International Inventions Exhibition alongside his compound engine, "Marchioness of Stafford," and an eight-wheel coach with radial axle-boxes. .
The Unification of the Continuous Brake is a comparatively recent event. The railway companies got together, reviewed all the advantages, disadvantages, cost of operation and maintenance and other matters concerning the rival brake systems, and deliberately decided in favour of the vacuum brake for steam traction. Webb's "folly" had nothing to do with it.
The so-called insularity of British railway practice is a myth. As one who has served over 45 years under several of the most progressive Chief Mechanical Engineers, I can testify to their active interest in developments on foreign railways. These are closely studied and if such innovations do not always get adopted, it is not because of insularity, but merely that such developments are unsuited to our conditions. In the years between the two wars the British railways contributed their full share in the Sessions of the International Railway Congress, through which they had full 'knowledge of all that was transpiring on railways through- out the world.

Messrs. Bramah & Fox. Stirling Everard. 13.
In answer to the request of your correspondent, Mr. H. F. Hilton, for iriformation regarding this firm, the business was founded by John Joseph Bramah, and was at' first situated near St. Barnabas' Church, Pimlico, London. The following quotation is taken from "Old and New London," Volume V, chapter iv, page 44 (Edward Walford, published by Cassell & Co. in the eighteen-eighties): "The younger Bramah inherited the business faculty of his uncle, and his love of mechanism, if not his inventive skill. He it was who here gathered together a huge business in railway plant, with the aid and help of the two Stephensons, George and Robert, and subsequently transferred it to Smethwick, near Birmingham, as the 'London Works.' joining with himself 'Charles Fox and John Henderson as his partners; and out of their works finally' grew up the original Crystal Palace'." , It should be added that at the time that the Crystal Palace was built the firm was trading under the name of Fox, Henderson & Co., with which your correspondent may be, familiar.

British locomotive builders. Ian G.T. Duncan. 14
Re British Locomotive Builders appearing in your December issue, in particular those appertaining to Messrs. Markham, of Chesterfield. I have notes of some locos. of theirs still at work, and I append a list of a few examples which may be of interest.
Clay Cross Co., Cricke Cliffe Quarry (3 ft. 3 in. gauge):
Dowie 0-4-0 o/c. ST, Markharn , 108/1893.
Tommy 0-4-0. o/c  ST, Markham , ? /1889.
Parkgate Iron & Steel Co. (4 ft. 8½ in.):
11 0-4-0 o/c ST Markham, ? /1914.
10 0-4-0 o/c: ST Markham, -/-.
Cooke & Co., Sheffield:
2 0-4-0 o/c ST Markham, 111/I897, converted to use as stationary boiler.
It will be notice that four years elapse between the appearance of locos. Nos. 108 and 111, which suggests that towards the end of the Nineteenth Century the firm was not a large producer of engines. I have not come across examples built later than 1914, and would be pleased to hear what others may have to say upon this matter.

Locomotive steam brakes. C.A. Branston
Though Robert Stephenson appears to have been the first to design a locomotive steam brake of the plain, orthodox "shoe to tyre" type, the first conception of a steam-actuated brake would seem to have originated eighteen months earlier with one R. Roberts. It was a band brake, the two drums (one for the hand brake) being mounted symmetrically on the crank axle. To the best of my knowledge the design was never executed. It may perhaps be objected that a band brake is an "illegitimate" appliance from a railway engineer's point of view; but though eliminated to-day (except on funicular railways) they were now and then to be found in early railway practice, and as late as 1866 Hartmann, of Chemnitz, equipped some locomotives for the Saxony State lines with such a brake; in this case the bands were applied to the upper third portion only of the perimeter of the four driving wheels.
Stephensons classical design is illustrated, e.g.,' in Reynolds' book. (1882) and in most modern American handbooks and papers which treat of the development of the air brake, as it served as a pattern for the type of driver brake (from the 'seventies onward actuatecl by air) which remained in universal use till the four-coupled (or American) type of locomotive was eliminated. With reference to Stephenson's brake, Reynolds ·says it was intended to be fitted to one side only of the engine; Stretton states that it was originated with a view to operating the buffer brakes applied by George Stephenson to some of the cars of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. The brake appears to have been tried on the Leicester & Swannington Railway, and Warren mentions that such a brake was fitted to the "Patentee," a locomotive supplied to the Liverpool & Manchester Railway in 1834.
Apart from the priority of date of Roberts' invention, some half-dozen British locomotive steam brake patents preceded Allan's design; yet each of the patentees' "invented" some particular and more or less fundamental detail which distinguished his device from that of others, else he would not have obtained a patent.
Irrespective of the various ways in which inventors and locomotive builders have carried out their individual designs. there have also been a number of types of steam-actuated locomotive brakes. In addition to the simple steam-actuated "shoe to' tyre" type of brake, such as that of Stephenson (1833), there was the turbine-driven strew brake of Petiet (1860), the plain steam slipper brake (or sledge brake) as used in Saxony , Italy and elsewhere on steep grades (1875), the steam wedge brake of Mc'Connell (1855) the steam band brake of Hartmann (1867), the steam-actuated weight brake of Haswell (1862), etc. These names are not necessarily those of the originators of the corresponding designs, nor the dates those of priority, but all these brakes were in actual use some time or other.
All these brakes (except, in Europe, the simple shoe to tyre type, originated by Stephenson ) have now been superseded, but it is interesting to note that the slipper or sledge brake, in the form of a magnetic track brake, has of recent years reappeared in Germany on the light, high-speed Diesel trains there. Yet it was in Germany that the defects and dangers of the simple sledge brake were so well recognised that its use in yards and over crossings was prohibited!' As to the history and development of the counter pressure brake I am ignorant. In practice it has been associated chiefly with the name of le Chatelier (1865), and his system has been in use in most countries where long mountain grades have to be negotiated, its peculiar advantage being, of course, that it does not cause overheating of. the tyres .. Improvements in the air brake appear to have driven this form of retarder very much into the background of late years, though an analogous system-that of Riggenbach- continues in general use on rack railways.
In conclusion, may I plead for the counter pressure brake that its name ("water brake" in America) is most misleading, and its description (your correspondent speaks of "water injection") positively horrifying to an engineer? Any water brought to the cylinders flashes at once into steam; if it did not. there would be but little hope of salvation for the cylinder covers!

Reviews. 14

Great Eastern locomotives past and present, 1862-1944· C.L. Aldrich. 80 pp..
This is an enlarged edition of a booklet by the same author published some time back. Evidently a Great Eastern enthusiast, he has gathered together a mass of facts relating to G.E.R. engines that will interest many. It is non-technical and the excellent illustrations are an interesting reminder of one-time familiar locomotives that are now gradually disappearing.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 14.
On 10 November 1944, D. W. Sandford  read a paper entitled "The Relationship between Smokebox and Boiler Proportions." On December 8 the Annual Luncheon was held in London. Colonel Eric Gore-Browne, chairman of the Southern Railway, proposed the toast of the Institution, and W.S. Graff Baker, president, replied. Two hundred and eighty- five members and guests were present. Theodore E. Thomas replied for the, guests.

Number No. 630 (15 February 1945)

Motive power for railways. 15-16..
Editorial: Due in a great measure to the rapid development that has taken place during recent years of the oil-electric locomotive, we are now becoming accustomed to hear the opinion expressed that the end of the steam locomotive is looming in the distance, if not actually near at hand. Others reach the same conclusion by pointing out the benefits to be derived by the adoption of electric traction. The advocates of both these different motive power units can without doubt point to successful applications of each type of system, but in arriving at any conclusions on the subject it would certainly appear that the general circumstances prevailing, or, shall we say, surrounding the use of these methods of railway operation' warrant close consideration before any definite pronouncement is made in favour of one as against the other, and any comparison made as between these relatively new locomotive types and the old steam locomotive.
In this country the steam locomotive is still very firmly established, and is for all practical purposes unchallenged as the motive power for main line working. That the large electrification schemes recently inaugurated by the Southern Railway have been most successful does not detract in any way from the truth of this statement. All that the Southern electrification proves is the well recognised truth that the expense and complication occa- sioned by the use of electricity as the means of motive power on 'railways is governed by the density of the traffic,. in line occupation, in other words. In general, we believe this is the main consideration, though in making such an assertion we are well aware that there are' notable exceptions. As a case in point, the electrification of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul between Harlowtown, Montana, and Avery, Idaho, which constituted one of the world's first main line electrifications, was largely dictated by the heavy grades encountered over the Continental Divide, together with the availability of hydro-electric power supply. On the other hand, the more recent use of electric traction seen on the Pennsylvania System extending between New York and Washington, D.e., and Harrisburg, Pa., has been brought about by the electric operation of the line in the vicinity of New York consequent on the completion of the terminal station in New York City in 1910, and the subsequent electrification of the local lines round Philadelphia, Pa., together with the fact that the line between New York and Philadelphia carries more traffic per mile of track than any other line in the world. Considering further the present conditions in this country and those that may arise in the future,. it seems safe to say that the example set by London in the electrification of .suburban lines may easily be followed by some of the larger. provincial cities; in fact, in Manchester we have already seen a move in this direction, and further, the use of electric locomotives between Manchester and' Sheffield will be an accomplished fact in the near future, though the arguments advanced in favour of this scheme are not known to us. In his address to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, Mr. Graff-Baker suggests that the future may see a move away from steam locomotives, and that their place may be taken by either electric or so-called Diesel-electric locomotives.
Steam locomotives are considered as being uneconomical from the point of view of coal consumption, and it is thought that much improvement in this respect cannot be expected. This may or may not be true, but it is true' that while coal consumption is important it is not everything .. The steam locomotive has been vastly Improved of late years, admittedly at a cost, but with all that it is. still easily the cheapest prime mover for railway working, and the refinements that have been made have tended towards greater thermal efficiency and have also largely improved its availability, and thus increased its economic value. The observations made by Mr. Graff-Baker concerning the difficulty of obtaining "mechanical balance" at varying speeds are not very dear. It is, of course, true that impact between wheel and rail increases with speed, but modern high-speed locomotives that can run at the highest safe speeds are far less destructive 'to the track than were those of half their size and power of only a few years ago. The case for the electrification of any of our main line railways must rest on much surer foundations than the argument put forward as to why the steam locomotive as such is unsuitable as a means of traction, and with the Weir report still fresh in our minds, we are far from convinced that electrification can do much better for railway stock holders. Glancing now at the other alternative to the steam locomotive, the oil-electric engine, this can be said to be a more formidable rival to the steam engine. It has the great advantage that it, like the steam locomotive, is a self-contained unit. Any large use of this type of power could, how ever, only be justified if traffic conditions permitted of its being put to maximum use. For equal power the cost of these locomotives is about three times that of' a steam engine, Further, the fuel required is oil, and not coal, which means that in place of employing a home-produced fuel, oil which is imported would be used, and in large quantities. The alternative would be the provision of some kind of coal distillation plants, which pre- sumably would add to capital expenditure already considerable on account of the high cost of the oil- electric engine. For main line working the steam locomotive is hardly likely to be replaced by either electric or oil-engine driven units for some time to come. There is no difficulty in building steam locomotives of sufficient power to handle the traffic offered, either passenger or freight, and from the standpoint of speed there can be little doubt that the steam engine can readily run as fast as safety and traffic conditions permit, and do so without any detrimental effect on the road. By reason of the fact that electric or oil-electric locomotives require less servicing' than steam engines, it is reasonable to suppose that the time needed for "turning round" will be shorter and their availability for train working thereby increased, but to 'set against this it is probably true to say that traffic working more than engine availability is the chief factor which governs the possible mileage that any motive power unit can make, and that in practice the steam locomotive can meet maximum requirements.

E.C. Poultney. New 4-8-2 locomotives, South African Railways. 16-18. 3 illustrations
Locomotives constructed by Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., for the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge lines of the South African Railways and Harbour Administration. These large engines, 30 in number, have been suppled to meet increasing traffic demands, while at the same time they form part of a replacement programme whereby engines of modern construction will be substituted for older designs, a policy which is highly commendable, as it may confidently be expected to lead to operating economies not only due to the use of more powerful engines, but also to a decreased fuel consumption in relation to the loads hauled as well as to greater availability. These engines are of a standard design known as Class 15 F, of which 65 were already in service, 21 built by Continental makers in 1938 and 44 by the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., during 1939. This firm had in hand a contract for a further 60, so that when these are cornpleted there will be a total of 155 Class 15 F locomotives in traffic, forming a valuable addition of powerful locomotives of modern design to the locomotive stock of the Railway Administration.

Obituary. 19.
Death of Herbert Thornton Buckle, who, prior to his retirement in 1927, was in charge of trials and the testing of engines at Brighton. Buckle was a frequent contributor of drawings to the Locomotive Mag, and was responsible for nearly all of the illustrations in the series of articles "Locomotives of the L.B. & S.C.R." and "Locomotives of the G.E.R." Some of his work appears in the North London Railway series. In addition to his keen interest in locomotives he was a very enthusiastic student of heraldry. Buckle started on the G.E.R. at Stratford and left there in 1891 to serve in the L.B. & S.C.R. drawing office at Brighton until his retirement. He died at the age of 80.
We also regret to record the death of Mr. C. G. Hodgson, O.B.E., former Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Sudan Government Railways.

L.M.S.R. 19
T. F. Burge  appointed district locomotive. superintendent, Longsight.

Canadian National Rlys. 19
Satisfactory tests have been completed at Montreal Terminal of train operation with radio. Two locomotives have been equipped, a Diesel and an electric. Their respective drivers now receive instructions by radio, previously they were given written train orders and signals.

L.N.E.R. 19
E.H. Baker, Assistant to the Locomotive Running Superintendent (Eastern Section) Southern Area, appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, Peterborough.

Red Cross Exhibition Coach. 19
For touring the railways an exhibition coach has been loaned to the Red Cross "Penny a Week Fund," and facilities are being provided to enable it to visit sixty centres in England and Wales. The coach, a blitzed L.M.S. dining car, has been repaired and equipped with display cases and pictures of activities of Red Cross and St. John, including Prisoners of War services and "Aid to Russia," and will travel 4,000 miles to stimulate interest in the "Penny a Week Fund." Miss Greta Richards, the 15-year-old daughter of a Southern Railway fireman elected Railway Queen for 1945, will be present at the opening of the coach at many of the centres visited.

American-built locos in England. 19-20. diuagram (side elevation)
The ordering in the U.S.A. of yet another type of steam locomotive—the 2-8-0—for temporary service on British railways makes apposite a brief review of the principal American-built locomotives which have operated on English railways in the course of the last 110 years. With two early exceptions, such engines have been acquired only when British locomotive builders were too busy or for one reason or another were prevented from tendering and accepting the contracts. A characteristic of every batch of locomotives which have come here from the other side of the Atlantic, with the sole exception of the first, has been the lack of success under railway operating conditions in these islands, and all have had a short life ..
The difficult working of the celebrated Lickey incline of the Birmingham-Cheltenham route was the reason for the importation of the first American-built motive power, viz., the Norris 4-2-0 engines for the Birmingham & Gloucester Railway. Some of this type of engine operated subsequently on the Grand Junction Railway; they weighed, only 9½ tons, of which probably no more than half was carried bv the 4 ft. driving wheels. They had two steeply-inclined outside cylinders l0½ in. by 18 in. The nominal performance up the Lickey bank is said to have been the haulage of 33 tons at 12/15 m.p.h.; but a maximum load of 53 tons is stated to have been pulled at 8½ m.p.h. On the Grand Junction, according to the manager, Capt. Moorsom, they hauled 100/120 tons at 14/22 m.p.h. up 1 in 330; and seven journeys between Birmingham and Liverpool with gross loads averaging 100 tons showed a coke consumption of Norris Locomotive, Birminaham & Gloucester Railway, 1840 50 lb. a mile and an evaporation of 4.27 lb. of water per lb. of coke. It was a long time after this before further American-built engines were seen here, for the next was the Lovett Eames, a single-driver brought here more or less for exhibition and brake demonstration purposes towards the end of the last century. Like its opposite number, the 4-2-2-0 James Toleman, which went from England to Chicago, it was eventually scrapped in the country where it was exhibited; but a relic of it is the bell, which was for years at King's Cross shed, and is believed to have gone from there to Hornsey depot.
When several English railways urgently needed new locomotive power at the close of last century, . the British builders who could then construct main- line locomotives had a full volume of work, mainly for export; and three companies with main lines running out of London perforce had to go outside of England and Scotland to buy the engines they needed; and in so doing had to give up all idea of having their own designs perpetuated. The three lines were the Midland,. the Great Northern, and the Great Central. The engines of the last-named were ordered shortly after the opening of the Great Central's London extension, which took place on 9 March 9 1899, a regular passenger service beginning on 15 March. The G.C. American engines were delivered in the summer of 1900. All three railways were offered, and accepted, Mogul engines, a wheel arrangement of which only two classes hitherto had run on English railways. All were built either by Baldwin or by the Schenectady Locomotive Works (later' the American Locomotive Company) and all were of generally similar proportions, though the Schenectady engines had a much neater and cleaner exterior than the others. The 30 Midland locomotives from Baldwin were the first to arrive, in 1899, and were followed closely by the Schenectady batch of 10. Both had 18 in. by 24 in. cylinders outside the frames,5 ft. wheels, and bar frames; but there the exact, as distinct from the general, similarity stopped. The Baldwin engines had a parallel boiler barrel and a working pressure of 180 lb. per sq. jn.; the Schenectady locomotives had taper barrels and a pressure of 160 lb. The Baldwins had small bogie tenders with a water capacity of 3,900 gal.; the Schenectadys had 'what was almost a standard· Midland six-wheel tender carrying 3,250 gal. of water. In working order the Baldwins weighed 44¾ to 46¼ tons plus 35½ tons for the tender; the Schenectady engines scaled 47¾ tons and their tenders 40 tons.
The 20 engines for the Great Northern, delivered in 1899, were all Baldwin-built, and were close copies of the Midland engines by the same maker, but had the dome in the centre of the boiler barrel length instead of towards the rear; and the sand- boxes were at frame level instead of on top of the boiler. The working order weight was 45 tons, of which 38¼ tons were on the coupled wheels. The 20 Great Central engines of 1900 had the same sizes of cylinders and wheels, but the working pressure was 170 lb.; and though Baldwin was the builder, the constructional lines were cleaner than those of the Midland and Great orthern engines. And there were several Great Central standard details, e.g., the Pollitt chimney, the dome, safety valves, vacuum brake, and the Gresham & Craven injectors. None of these engines for the three trunk railways lasted very long, and in the early summer of 1909 both the Midland and Great Northern began to withdraw them.
Between the arrival in England of the last Great Northern engines and that of the first Great Central Moguls, two further locomotive deliveries had been made from the States, namely, five 0-6-2T engines for the Barry Railway and two 0-8-2T locomotives for the Port Talbot Railway, all built by the Cooke Locomotive Works. The Barry engines had bar frames in front of the firebox and plate frames behind. They had parallel boilers, 18 in. by 24 in. outside cylinders, 4 ft. 3 in. wheels, 160 lb. boiler pressure, and a weight of 56¼ tons, of which 44¾ tons was on the coupled wheels. The Port Talbot engines had 4 ft. 4 in. wheels, of which the two centre pairs were flangeless.: The boiler was of the taper type, with Ramsbottom safety valves set to blow off. at 175 lb. per sq. in.; 61 of the 75 tons of total weight was available for adhesion.
During the 1914-19 phase of the war several types of tank and tender engines from Amenca made their appearance in England, some of them only in transit. And from that time there was a gap of more than 20 years until the Consolidations and 0-6-0T engines of the present phase of the war began to arrive. Even then,' some of them seem to have been "in transit," for it is understood that some of the Consolidations working on English lines have been withdrawn and re-shipped abroad.

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 20-2. 3 illustrations
Continued from page 190, Vol.50) Nos. 8 and 9 (see page 190, Vol. 50) were 2-4-0 saddle tanks by the Vulcan Foundry (Nos. 394/5) in 1854, of similar appearance to the preceding type having domeless boilers; as with Nos. 6 and 7, the saddle tanks were replaced by well and trough tanks, but plain brass domes and all-over cabs were fitted ; the cylinders were 15 in. by 22 in.; wheels, 3 ft. 6 in. and 5 ft. 3 in.; and tanks, 800 gals. capacity; as altered, the tank capacity was reduced to 600 gals. No. 8 was rebuilt in 1880, and acted for many years as shunting engine at Westland Row, being scrapped in 1903; No. 9 was replaced in 1890, but may have lasted a few years longer; the rear coupled axle of this type was placed relatively far back, almost under the footplate, giving it a somewhat unusual appearance.
Two further single saddle tanks, Nos.10 and 11, were supplied by the Vulcan Foundry in 1856 (Nos. 407/8) 0If exactly similar type to Nos. 6 and 7; -in this case, too, the saddle tanks were replaced by well and trough tanks. No. 10 was rebuilt in 1876, and both engines were scrapped in 1902, having been on the A list since 1896; in their later days one of them usually worked on the Shillelagh branch, where the trains were hght.
In 1856 eleven engines were taken over with the Dublin & Kingstown Railway; these were all 2-2-2 well tanks with outside cylinders: and frames, and bore names only as follows: Vauxhall, Princess, Belleisle, Shamrock, Erin, Albert , Burgoyne, Jupiter, Vulcan, Cyclops and Comet; with the exception of Vauxhall, which was a rebuild of a Forrester tender engine, all had been built at Grand Canal Street between 1841 and 1852. These engines were regarded as separate stock, and were not allotted numbers in the D.W. & W. Railway list, in fact, until 1859, the half-yearly returns give "Wicklow" and "Kingstown" engines separately. It will not be necessary to descnbe these engmes more fully, as a full account appeared. in THE LOCOMOTIYE for 1935. Four of these engines were withdrawn in 1867 (Albert was one) and two were rebuilt in 1869/70 and taken into the D.W. & W. Railway stock; these will be referred to later. Four others were withdrawn in the years 1871, 1873, 1874 and 18??, but one appears to have been again added to stock in 1879: the last two that had not been renumbered in the D.W. & W. Railway stock were finally withdrawn in 1883. After Nos. 1-5 had been built, the naming of "Wicklow" engines was discontinued, and was not resumed till 1897. The first locomotive superintendent was William Pemberton, who afterwards held a similar post on the Irish North Western Railway, between 1859 and 1870. In 1856, when the Kingstown line was taken over, Samuel Wil£red Haughton, the locomotive engineer of that line, was appointed to the post on the Dublin & Wicklow Railway, and occupied it till 1864; he died in 1898.
No further engines were obtained till 1860, when the extension of the line south of Wicklow necessitated some tender engines for main line working, up to this No. 3 being the only example. Orders had been given to two Manchester firms, Sharp and Fairbairn, and apparently the two Sharp engines, which were of the 0-4-2 type, were to have borne numbers 12 and 13, but these were altered after delivery to 15 and 16. Nos. 12 to 14 were 2-4-0 outside framed tender engines by Fairbairn, probably a standard design, and were delivered in 1860; the cylinders were 15 in. by 20 in., wheels 3 ft. 6in. and 5 ft. 6 in., and the four-wheeled tenders carried 1,000 gal- Ions; in their. original form the engines had weatherboards only, with safety valves ou both the dome and firebox. No. 12 met with an acci- dent on 9 August 1867,. being derailed on a bridge at a place called the "Brandyhole" on Bray Head, falling on the land side with a loss of two lives; it was known as "Old Brandyhole" afterwards.
All three engines were rebuilt in 1880/1 with cabs, and modernised in appearance; Nos. 12 and 13 were scrapped in 1901 and 1904 respectively, and No. 14 became 14A in 1905. In 1907 this latter engine was given another 'rebuild, and the cylinders enlarged to 15~ in. diameter; it was taken back into stock with the number 31 and named Glen of the Downs; in 1913 it received a six-wheeled tender off No. 48, and after having been used mainly on the Dublin local services, was withdrawn in 1923, being then the last Fairbaim engine running on the line.
Nos. 15 and 16 were 0-4-2 inside framed goods engines by Sharp, Stewart & Co. in 1860, makers' Nos. 1210/1; the cylinders were 16 in. by 24 in., wheels 5 ft. 0 in. and 3 ft. 6 in., wheelbase 7 ft. 2 in. + 6 ft. 10 in. = 14 ft. 0 in., heating surface 1,082 sq. ft., copper firebox and brass tubes, weight of engine in working order 26 tons 6 cwt., tender with four wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter, wheelbase 9 ft. 6 in., tanks 1,400 gals.; weight in working order 14 tons 12 cwt.; total weight, engine and tender, 40 tons 14 cwt. No. 15 was rebuilt in 1883 and again in 1900, receiving the name Barrow on the latter occasion; it was scrapped in 1925, having been withdrawn in 1922, but remained behind Bray shed for some time before. No. 16 was rebuilt in 1882 and 1901, on the latter occasion as a 0-4-2 side tank with the name Killiney ; it worked on the Dublin local services and latterly on the Shillelagh branch before being scrapped in 1922.
As already mentioned, the company took over, in 1861, a mineral line known as Hodgson's Tramway, extending from Avoca to Arklow; two locomotives and 100 wagons were taken over with the concern. These engines were considered as separate stock, and were not renumbered in the ordinary progession; they were of the 0-4-0 type, with separate four-wheeled tenders; outside cylinders 8 in. by 12 in., coupled wheels 1 ft. 6 in. diameter; the tender wheels were 3 ft. 6 in. diameter, the wrought' iron tank being carried on a wooden frame. The cylinders were set above the boiler, driving by links to the axles, which were entirely springless; the engines were described as of "agricultural type," and were probably provided with flywheels. After they were taken over by the D.W. & ,W.R., S. W. Haughton, the locomotive superintendent, removed the links and substituted diagonal connecting rods. The returns for 1861 mention two "tramway engines," and a third is mentioned in 1863; this may have been a new engine built at Grand Canal Street, but more likely it came from the Wicklow Mining Co.
The method of working the tramway was as follows: the mineral wagons were hauled by horses to Avoca station, whence the tramway ran alongside the railway for five miles, diverging some distance before reaching Arklow, whence it continued on its own right-of-way to the quay; this last portion was worked by horses, as a bridge over the river was not strong enough to carry locomotives, these only working over the intermediate section. In later years the practice seems to have been to use a broad gauge engine on the railway to tow the wagons on the tramway alongside; up to about 1900 an engine is said to have been lying at Avoca station, in a derelict condition, that was finally brought to Grand Canal Street and scrapped, but no particulars are available. Three tramway engines appear in the returns up to 1875, one being scrapped in each of the years 1876, 1878 and 1880, when the official returns make no further mention of the tramway; 112 wagons were also scrapped in the last-mentioned year, presumably, the entire narrow gauge rolling stock. The mineral traffic was afterwards diverted from Arklow to Kingston Harbour, but the output of the Spanish mines finally caused its complete cessation; it is worth noting that a, scheme is now on foot to get the mines working again, owing to war conditions.

H.F. Hilton. Stephenson Letters of 1844. 22-4.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 24-5. diagram (drawing: side elevation)
Introduction of the large superheated 0-6-0 (S class: illustrated) and genenral introduction of superheating to 4-4-0 and 4-4-2T classes and to the Atlantics. The purchase of a petrol engine shunter to replace horses at Kelso, the painting of large numbers on the tenders or tank sides to assist the control system, and the change to vacuuum brakes.

Engine-cleaning at Stratford about fifty years ago. 26-7. illustration.

New corridor coach, London & North Eastern Railway. 28-9. 2 illuustrations, diagram (side elevation and plan)
Sir Charles Newton suggested design for coach with doors at the centre reached by transverse passages: advantages listed for first class corridor vehicle.

Number No. 631 (15 March 1945)

The policy of modernisation. 31-2.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 38-9.

H.F. Hilton. Stephenson Letters of 1844. 43-5

Number No. 632 (14 April 1945)

The all-welded boiler. 47.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 59-61. 2  ddiagrams (side elevation drawings)

L.N.E.R. electric lighting for locomotives. 61-2. 2 illustraations.
Four A2/1 fitted with Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. axle-driven generators.

Number No. 633 (15 May 1945)

Locomotive steels of the future. 63.

Edward H. Livesay. Accross Canada in the cab. 64-8. 2 illustrations, map

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 74-5.

Number No. 634 (15 June 1945)

Steep grade working. 79-80.
Editorial comment developed from announcement that diesel railcars were permitted to work on Rimutaka Incline in New Zealand which had a 1 in 15 gradient for 2.5 miles. Considers both special locomotives and the Fell system used earlier on the temporary line over the Mont Cenis pass and then on the Rimutaka Incline where a single train might require for locomotives. The Fell system was developed by Vignoles and Ericcson, Pinkus and Seguier. Special locomotive designs included the Engerth developed for the Semmering incline. Other locomotives developed for steep gradients included the 2-8-2T and 2-10-2T designs for the Halberstadt-Blankenburg Railway with 1 in 16 gradients and the large 2-10-2Ts of the Höllental route befoe electrification. Electric traction could cope with 1 in 11 inclines on the Chamonix line and in Guatemala.

Metre-gauge 2-8-2 locomotives for India: Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway. 80-1. illus., diagr(s. f./r. els.)
Two locomotives supplied by W. Bagnall Ltd. with 4ft coupled wheels; 19 x 24in cylinders; 1686ft2 total hreating surface and 32.33ft2 grate area.

L.M.S.R. 81.
Following new locomotives into traffic: Class 5 4-6-0 Nos. 4873, 4874 and 4875 (built at Crewe); Clas 8F 2-8-0 Nos. 8391, 8392 and 8394 (built Horwich) and Nos. 8529, 8230, 8531, 8549, 8550 and 8551 (built by and operating on other railways); Class 4 2-6-4T Nos. 2673, 2674 and 2675 (built at Derby). Following locomotives withdrawn: Class 3P 4-4-0 (ex-LNWR) No. 25292; Class 3P 4-4-0 (ex-MR) No. 721. No. 25292 Medusa was one of four surviving members of the Precursor class and was withdrawn from Chester where Nos. 25297 Sirocco and 25304 Greyhound remained. No. 25277 Oberon was at Llandudno Junction.

A.E Dore. Some Fratton reminiscences. 82-3. 2 illus.
Observations made whilst working at the joint LBSCR/LSWR shed from 1898. At that time services from Portsmouth to Waterloo were worked by Adams A12 class 0-4-2 Jubilees and some of the older 4-4-0s including No. 135 built by Beyer Peacock and No. 460 by Neilson & Co. No. 448 (built by Robert Stephenson & Co.) jad 7ft 1in coupled wheels. No. 135 had a Drummond conical smokebox door. These were supersseded by Adams' 4-4-0 557 Class and later by the Drummond 290 class which were very similar to engines designed by him for the Caledonian Railway.

Hilton, H.F. The first locomotive built at Glasgow: the Monkland & Kirkintilloch Railway. 83-6. diagr. (s. el.)

Steam turbine locomotive Pennsylvania Railroad, USA. 86-7.

L.N.E.R. 2-6-4 tank locomotive. 88. illus.
Thompson L1 class

Fayle, H. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 89-90. 3 illus.

Everard, Stirling. Cowlairs commentary. 90-2. 2 illus. (drawings)

L.N.E.R. new third-class corridor coach. 92. illus.
Seven compartment 61ft 6in long on welded steel underframe with teak frame bodywork and steel outer panels.

Reviews. 93
Elements of workshop training. By Edgar J. Larkin, M.I.Loco.E. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd. 255 pp., 275 illus.
We have read through this work with more than usual interest because of the author's locomotive associations. Though little direct reference is made to such practice, the information contained is pertinent throughout, and there is a commendable lack of padding. This book is not a manual for proficiency in the actual. use of tools, but describes the construction and purpose of the different gauges and instruments normally used; testing; and the various processes of pattern-making, moulding, forging, plating, riveting and welding. Another chapter deals with machine tools. Science applied to workshops is covered in eight chapters, which illclude electricity, mechanics, chemistry, and simple mathematics, and an interesting section on metallurgy; all of these refer strictly to applications in workshop practice and are not allowed to wander off into vague generalities. We can find only two workshop processes which are not covered — flame-cutting and powder metallurgy by spray guns. We hope they will be included in future revisions, for the book is of the standard which is worth keeping constantly up to date.

The A.B.C. of locomotives of the minor British railways. Ian G. T. Duncan. 32 pp.
The publishers have rounded off their series of locomotive numbers by including the small light railways in a further booklet. Itis well produced on toned art paper and includes some very interesting illustrations. Particulars of locomotives now working are given, together with gauge, location, etc., but surely the only locomotive depot of the Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Railway is at Kinnerley.

Traffic control on the L.M.S.R. (Reprinted from "The Railway Gazette, ", February 22, 1929.)
A twenty-page booklet explaining the co-ordination of operating arrangements as a result of grouping-Central, Divisional and District Control-Outline of Unified Methods Adopted-Organisation and Working Control Telephone Circuits-Daily Telephonic Conferences.

Narrow-gauge railways in North Wales. Charles E. Lee. London: The Railway Publishing Co., Ltd. Price 8s. (Postage 5d.).
The narrow-gauge railways of North Wales, especially the Festiniog, are of special interest to light railway enthusiasts everywhere, and Mr. Lee has been successful in producing a very attractive little volume dealing with all of them. The Padarn, Festiniog, Nantlle, Welsh Highlands, Penrhyn, and other lines are fully described and admirably illustrated.

Modern locomotive classes. Brian Reed. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd. Price 6s. (Postage 6d.).
A booklet containing photographic reproductions, dimensioned diagrams and descriptive notes of sixty modern types of British locomotives. There are eighteen L.M.S.R.. eighteen. L.N.E.R., eleven G.W.R., ten Southern and three Ministry of Supply examples.,

The Isle of Man Railway. Ian Macnab.
An attractively produced book dealing very fully with the history, topography, services and locomotives of this interesting narrow-gauge railway. It is well illustrated and includes everything there is to be said about this unique little line. It is published at an opportune time, when many are looking forward to re-visiting this holiday island as soon as war-time restrictions permit.

Correspondence. 93-4

L.M.S. Locomotives. J.H. Higgins.
With reference to the paragraph on page 75 of the May number, on L.M.S. locomotives, may I point out that the writer is in error m stating No. 20002 to be the "oldest tender engine at work in Great Britain"?
This honour'may fairly be claimed by ex Cambrian Railways' locomotive No. 45, G.W.R. No. 900, built m 1864 by Sharp, Stewart & Co. (WN 1530) and therefore now in her 82nd year. This engine, the best of a series total of 20 supplied to the Cambrian, has seen continuous service throughout her long career and, apart from a new boiler, cab and mountings, etc., is substantially as built over 81 years ago.
In addition, mention may be made of two other ex Cambrian Railways locomotives which have reached their 80th year. They are Nos. 58 and 59, G.W.R. Nos. 1196 and 1197, 2-4-0 tanks built in 1866 by Sharp. Stewart & Co. (WN 1682/3). All these six engines have had long and interestmg careers, and in spite of their advanced years ate still performing useful work on branch lines in the Oswestry district, a fine tribute to their sound design and excellence of workmanship.

Lovett Eames. B.R.
In regard to your brief mention of the single-driver Lovett Eames in the article on American-built locomotives in your February issue, a recent notice in the U.S.A. says this engine was built by Baldwin in 1880 as an outside cylinder (valves on top) 4-2-2 with a Wotton firebox entirely covered by the cab. The note also says it "established a two-hour 'time-table' run between Philadelphia and New York." A system of equalisers was provided to eliminate excessive load on the drivers. Movable fulcrums controlled by a steam cylinder permitted a greater weight to be applied to the drivers when starting, and when running the excess weight was transferred to the trailing wheels. Lovett Eames seems to have been Baldwin's works number 5000, but also bore the original owner's number, 507. It was resold later to the Eames Vacuum Brake Co., of Boston, and was sent to England to demonstrate that system.

Fairbairn 2-2-2T Maua Railway, Brazil. R.N. Clements
In an article in The Locomotive of March, 1930, describing a Fairbairn 2-2-2T engine for the Maua Railway, Brazil, it is stated that nothing is known of the other engines used for the opening of this line. I suggest that it is possible that they may have been built by Thos. Grendon, of the Drogheda Ironworks, who "have supplied engines . . . through the good offices of the late William Dargan, Williarn M'Cormick and Robt. Stephenson, Esquires, for a South American Railway."
I would think it rather more likely, however, that the Grendon engines went to South America rather later, perhaps between 1855 and 1860. Possibly some of your readers acquainted with South American locomotive history may be able to identify them.
It also seems that Stephenson, on one occasion at least, sub-contracted an order to Grendons as on June 22nd, 1855, "A powerful locomotive engine manufactured by Thomas Grendon & Co., was shipped for Liverpool on board the Leinster Lass. This engine was purchased by the eminent firm of Robert Stephenson & Co., Engineers, Newcastle-on-Tyne."
It appears very probable that this may have been a long-boiler 0-6-0, as a few months later Grendon's delivered two engines of this type, clearly of Stephenson's design, to the Dundalk & Enniskillen Railway, and these may well have been built from the same drawings as the engine shipped on the Leinster Lass. Perhaps the subsequent history of this engine could be traced in England, though there is also a possibility that this may have been the engine which went to South America.
I wonder whether there is any record of the firm of Hurst Nelson having built locomotives An outside cylinder 0-4-0ST, probably 4 ft. gauge, named Otter, belonging to the Carnlough Lime Co., was said to be by them, but what would seem more probable is that they may have built wagons for this concern and supplied an engine with them which they obtained from some other maker. I never heard of any other locomotive attributed to them, and they do not appear in the list of makers published in The Locomotive some years ago.

Rockets on the L.M.S. 94
One of the worst incidents occurred at Tilbury, Riverside Station. The rocket demolished the carriage sidings on which it fell, damaged tlie passenger station, sidings and rolling stock, including 13 wagons and 142 coaches. Four coaches of an ambulance train were badly smashed up. The Goods Shed and offices were practically demolished and damage was caused to two ferry boats, the L.M.S. Marine building and the Station Master's house. Four railwaymen were injured.

Time-tables. 94
Train services during the summer months will be substantially the same as at present. Passenger services operated last summer were restricted by the heavy curtailment of passenger trains prior to D-day. These have since been restored. The augmented services introduced at the beginning of the year to the Eastern and Southern comities consequent upon their de-restriction are also to be maintained. The railways are still working under great pressure, and although they will do everything in their power to improve their passenger services further, priority must be given to the movement of traffic required for military operations, for the relief of the liberated peoples, and for the maintenance of the life of the nation. The locomotive position remains serious, and the situation for passenger vehicles is acute. Even should the war in Europe come to an end in the next few weeks, the heavy movement of priority freight traffic over the railways will continue for some considerable time. In these circumstances substantial increases in passenger facilities this summer must not be expected. The staggering of holidays is more essential than ever, and, coupled with mid-week travel, will not only afford considerable relief to the railways, but will also enable travellers to secure a greater measure of comfort for themselves.

War-time works. 94.
To afford an alternative means of crossing the River Eden between Carlisle and Scotland in the event of damage to the existing two-track viaduct, a new viaduct was constructed. At the same time considerable extensions were made to the through goods lines to Etterby Junction on the north side of the river to give increased facilities for freight train working. Alterations were also made to the locomotive depot at Kingmoor to speed up engine movements to and from Carlisle.
Additional lines were provided for a distance of. six miles between Pilmoor and Thirsk on the York-Newcastle main line. This work involved the demolition and rebuilding of Pilmoor and Sessay stations and platforms, the demolition of Thirsk station and the conversion of the existing platforms into island platforms. To provide additional facilities for the working of war-time traffic, six miles of line between Gloucester and Cheltenham were widened by the construction of two additional tracks.
As an alternative means of crossing the Medway at Rochester, the old railway bridge, which had been out of use for many years, was reconditioned to carry both road and rail traffic over the river in the event of either of the other two bridges being destroyed. This bridge is 700 ft. long and carries a double track. Four hundred and fifty tons of new steel work and 12,000 cubic feet of timber were used.

Number 635 (14 July 1945)

Feed water treatment. 95

E.C. Poultney. New York Central 4-8-2 type locomotive. 96-9. illustration, 2 diagrams
Includes diagrams and description of tender with water scoop to pick up water from the troughs (track pans) at high speed

Hilton, H.F. The first locomotive built at Glasgow: the Monkland & Kirkintilloch Ry. 99-101. illustration, map.

Killingworth Colliery locomotive. 101.

New 2-6-4 tank locomotives, London, Midland & Scottish Railway. 102-3. illustration., diagram. (side & front elevations)
Fairburn modifications to Fowler/Stanier design: No. 2673 illustrated in workshop grey.

Obituary. 109

E.E. Lucy.
Mr. E. E. Lucy died in Sydney last year at the age of.83. He joined the Great Western Railway at Swindon as a young man in 1879. and went to Australia m 1907 as assistant chief mechanical engmeer of the. New South WalesRailways. He was appointed chief mechanical engineer five years later and retained that position until he retired in 1932. He was responsible for many successful locomotives, including 2-8-0 freight, 4-6-4T suburban, the C36 class of 4-6-0, and the immense three-cyhnder 4-8-2 freight type. During his term as C.M.E. the Sydney suburban lines were electrified. Mr. Lucy's son was at one time with Leyland Motors, Ltd., and was prominently connected with the introduction of the diesel train on the L.M.S.R. before returning to Australia.

C. F. Dendy Marshall.
It is with great regret that we have to record ·the death on June 14, at his residence at Wonersh, of Chapman Frederick Dendy Marshall, who as long as the history of railways endures will be remembered as an. able, painstaking and outstanding research worker and historian. He will also be remembered by those privileged to meet him as a indly gentleman ever ready to discuss engin:eering history with those interested and to show them his magnificent collection of railroadiana, which was particularly rich in items relating to the Liverpool & Manchester Raihvay.
Born in 1873, he was educated at Hurstpierpoint and Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he was an M.A. Although called to the Bar at the Inner Temple in 1898, he did not practice. During the first World War he was a technical examiner at the Munitions Inventions Department and managed the Ministry of Munitions "Journal."
Over a period of many years he had contributed to "The Locomotive" and other technical papers, usually on matters of historical interest, but not invariably, notable exceptions being his paper on "The Motion of Railway Vehicles on a, Curved Line," which shared the George Stephenson research prize awarded by the Council of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1930, and his work on "The Resistance of Express Trains" — the first extensive study of aerodynamics as affecting railway trains.
But it is as an historian on the grand scale that Dendy Marshall will be chiefly remembered. His "Centenary History of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway" will probably remain for all time the outstanding history of an early British Railway-in fact it is difficult to see that it could be improved upon.
His "Two Essays in Locomotive History," dealing with the first hundred locomotives and early British engines in North America, together with his later book, "Early British Locomotives," were excellent examples of the work resulting from his lengthy and careful search into all corners which might yield new information.
Another classical work of its kind was the volume he wrote on "The History of British Railways down to 1830," although this is not so widely known as his "History of the Southern Railway."
On the practical side he evolved a method of compounding which was applied to the L. & N.W.R. 4-6-0 locomotive No. 1361 "Prospero" -this was described in "The Locomotive," Vol. XXI, page 219.
He was elected a member of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in 1916, assisted in the foundation of the Newcornen Society, of which he was president 1934-35, and was in addition a member of the Royal Aeronautical Society, the Royal Philatelic Society and of the Athenaeum Club.
His contributions to literature were by no means limited to mechanical matters, for he was also an authority on the 'history of the Bntish Post Office, relating to which he possessed another unique collection. He was the author of "The British Post Office from its beginning to the end of 1925," for which work he was awarded the Crawford gold medal by the Royal Philatelic Society, and also of "A
Studv of the Line Engraved Twopence Postage Stamps of Great Britain," which was awarded several medals both at  home and abroad.

Correspondence. 109
Post-war railway traction. T.W.L.B.
The fact will now have become clear that the Railway Companies will have to plan vigorously to face the intensive competition of Road and Air transport, both passenger and goods, in the post-war years.
While the sight of a steam locomotive at work is one which captivates the imagination, it can be stated that in comparison with either an electric or diesel electric locomotive the steam loco. loses on these points: (a) Overall efficiency, (b) Cost of operation, (c) High standing costs, and (d) Availability for operation over a given period of time. In addition the steam loco. creates smoke and grime, with their attendant evils. What then is to take its place in Railway traction? Let us examine the alternatives. Electric traction has proved itself, on the S.R., L.M.S., L.N.E.R. and L.P.T.B. to be highly suited for intensive suburban services, for short distance express trains, and for heavy goods trains. It is extremely adaptable in meeting peak loads and is clean and efficient in operation. It also has the added advantage of utilising British produced fuel, viz., coal. One point may be made, that one National voltage and conductor be adopted to avoid confusion. Recent advances in Science have shown that the bogey of frost-coated conductor rails can be overcome. Electric traction, however, has to be proved in this country over such sections as Shap and Beattock, and the exposed grades of the Highland Railway, but the experience of the Swedish, Norwegian and Swiss railways show that snow and ice need not impede Electric traction. The adoption of complete Electric traction would mean a vast expenditure, but conversely would create a large amount of employment.
American experience in Diesel/electric traction has shown that for high-speed. passenger, and heavy goods trains it is capable of earning the operating companies excellent profits due principally to the high overall efficiency and the long availability of D./e. units between major overhauls. The "Des Moines Rocket" of the Rock Island R.R., for example, completed 1,565,053 miles in six years, only being substituted on five out of 4,390 trips, thus giving an availability of 99.8 per cent. The use also of D./e. units for shunting and yard purposes is finding increasing favour on both SIdes of the Atlantic. This form of traction, as applied to this country, depends on the use of imported fuel, but it may also be pointed out that British coal can be utilised for the production of oil.
An ideal scheme would be for large towns to have electric suburban and short distance branch services, the latter being very Important, WIth inter-town and long-distance services Diesel electric operated. All goods traffic might be Diesel electnc hauled. All passenger trains should be air conditioned, stations modernised and a first-class liaison built up between the public and the railway companies.
The railways of t his country, being of extreme strategic importance, must be raised to the highest degree of efficiency m the post-war world.

French compounds. W.B. Thompson. 109-10.
Holcroft disagrees with my view that when the French compounds came to Swindon the Atlantic type was "obsolescent." It is true that in 1905 I saw Atlantics still working main line trains on the Pennsylvania; but by then the Pacific and Prairie types were well established, and as far back as 1890 I had seen 4-6-0 engines employed m passenger traffic. Lack of adhesion was obviously a fatal defect in the Atlantic type and prevented its survival.
Holcroft says that superheating has made compoundmg unattractive except in special cases. In February, 1931, a paper was read before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers on the subject of French compound engines on the P.L.M. railway. The conclusion to be drawn from that paper appears to. be that, everything else being equal:
(1) a French compound is better than a comparable simple engine;
(2) a superheated simple engine is better than a non-superheated;
(3) a superheated simple engine is about equal to a non-superheated compound, and
(4) a superheated compound is vastly superior to an engine of any other type.
Superheating and compounding are complementary, not mutually exclusive. The paper dealt with the experience of one company only, but I do not see why the results should not be of universal application. I refer of course only to the French compound system; no other system need be considered to-day.

Re "performance of poppet valve (19C Class) engines on the South African Railways"- 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. "Your South African Correspondent." 110
Commenting on my article in the May, 1944 issue of your journal, when, as an unbiassed and disinterested observer, I described the performance of the above locomotives fitted with the R.C. valve gear,. the Chief Mechanical Engineer apparently takes exception to the claims I made for this class of engine.
In support of his contention the Chief Mechanical Engineer advances the fact that the 19D (Walschaerts gear) and the 19C (R.C. gear) were the subjects of dynamometer car tests, when it was found that the I9D was more economical than the R.C. valve gear engme by 10-11 per cent. in steam consumption. Further, the superheat on the 19D was higher by 20-40 deg. Fahr., which he states would account for 2-4½ per cent. in the above economy.
The statement immediately following these figures is not so convincing: "Generally, therefore, the 19D was the superior engine, and this was evident even without the dynamometer car test results."
Mv article was a resume of more than eight years observation of the work of the 19C class, and in contrast to other types of locomotives I found the poppet valve engines excel in: (a) Acceleration, (b) Hill-climbing, (c) Speed, and (d) Drifting.
It is surely those four attnbutes which should decide the future motive power in rail transport. To reach the destination more rapidly is the cry—the R.C. valve, m my experience facilitates this object. Heavier maintenance may be the price of increased speed, but in view of the finding of the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Federated Malay States Railways, together with the remarkable results obtained with the K-4 class of the Pennsylvania R.R., I do not feel disposed to concede this point.
In the face of its competitors it will be extremely difficult to keep the steam locomotive on the track—a task by no means rendered simpler by the present outlook of conservatism pervading. the domain of steam.
To prove the point for the 19D, the South Afncan Railways would have to run an engine of this class over the section Wellington-Cape Town, 45¼  miles, in under 50½ minutes; attain 66 m.p.h. on the easier section of the Paarl bank; top this five-mile rise, of which two miles are advese at 1/80, at no less than 59½ m.p.h.; shut off steam ¼-mIle before topping each bank en route; dnft at 55-60 m.p.h. on the favourable grades and use no steam for 24 out .of the total of 45¼ miles. The 19C achieved these speeds despite a slowing to 22 m.p.h. for a relaying restriction of more than a mile at the foot of the 1/80 out of Klapmuts.
The gross time on the 19C test was 54 minutes 2 seconds (50½ minutes net) for the 45¼ miles, which compares very favourably with electric schedules not only on the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge here, but also with those in England on the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, as under:
(i) Southern Ry. Victoria-Brighton, 51 miles in 60 mins.-51 m.p.h. (Electric).
(ii) S.A.R. Pretoria-Germiston, 34 miles in 47 mins·-43½  m.p.h. (Electric)
(iii) S.A.R. Wellington-Cape Town, 45 miles in 54 mins.-· 50 m.p.h. (Steam test).
It will be argued, no doubt, that the poppet valve engine accomplished this with only four bogies (147 short tons) but in this regard I would point out that many pre-war high speed passenger services were operated successfully with either short trains of standard stock or specially constructed lightweight vehicles.
These facts, together with the details I described in your May, 1944, issue, are remarkable enough, but when it is.remembered that these poppet valve 19C locomotives are but branch line engines with only 4 ft. 6 in. driving wheels. and are daily working seven-bogie trains (220-230 short. tons) over long stretches of 1/40 grades at 25-30 m.p.h., their regular performance is best described as the acme of versatility.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 110
A. H. Peppercorn, at present Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer and Mechanical Engineer, Doncaster, will shortly relinquish the duties of the latter post to devote his full time to that of Assistant. Chief Mechanical Engineer. L. Reeves, Mechanical Engineer, Scotland, has been appointed Mechanical Engineer, Doncaster, J.F. Harrison, Mechanical Engineer, Gorton, has been appointed Mechanical Engineer, Scotland, and G.C. Gold, Locomotive Works Manager, Darlington, has been appointed Mechanical Engineer, Gorton.

L.N.E.R. 110
Owing to its geographical position, the L.N.E.R. sustained great damage to its rolling stock, track or other property from nearly one out of every seven V 2s that fell in Southern England. Altogether 149 caused damage to the Company's property. The first V 2 to fall on the-L.N.E.R. made a direct hit on the track at Palmers Green, damaging the station, signalling and fencing, but traffic was.resumed after an interruption of 24 hours. Other traffic delays were caused when V 2s fell at Wood Green and Angel Road (where in both cases the tracks. again received direct hits), Muswell Hill, Stratford and Ilford, but in no case was the delay more than 13½ hours, owing to the rapidity with which engineers repaired the damage. The Stratford area suffered very badly, there being many instances of serious damage to rolling stock, tracks, stations, marshalling yards, signal boxes, workshops and other buildings.
Some loss of life amongst staff was inevitable, and since the beginning of the war 110 men and women of the L.N.E.R. have been killed whilst on duty and a further 608 injured throu.gh enemy air activity,

L.M.S.R. 110.
The following new locomotives have been put into traffic: Mixed traffic tender, class 5, 4-6-0, Nos. 4876-4883 (built at Crewe); Freight tender, class 8F, 2-8-0, Nos. 8394-99 (built at Horwich), Nos. 8470-76, 8532-35, 8552-55. (built by and working on other railways}: 2-6-4 tank, class. 4, Nos. 2676-81 (built at Derby); 0-6-0 Diesel shunters, Nos. 7120-21 (built at Derby). The following had been withdrawn: Class 4P, 4-6-0, No. 25798 (ex L.N.W.R.); class. 2P, 2-4-2 tank, Nos. 10677, 10724, 10742, 10780 (ex L. & Y.R.); class 3F, 4-6-0, No. 17905 (ex Caledonian); class 3F 0-6-0 No. 12117 (ex L. & Y.); class 2F, 0-6-0, No. 28552 (ex L.N.W.); class 2F, 0-6-2 tank, No. 7824 (ex L.N.W.); and class 7F, 0-8-4 tank, No. 7953 (ex L.N.W.),
New colour-light SIgnals, mostly four-aspect, with continuous.track circuiting, had been installed on the four main lines between Camden and Euston. The gradient 1 in 70 leaving Euston had always been a severe handicap to traffic working but the new signalling will enable trains to leave the terminal at closer time intervals than hitherto.

Number 636 (15 August 1945)

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.  117-19.

O.J. Morris. Standardising S.R. locomotives, Central Section. 120-4. 3 illustrations, diagram
D.E. Marsh's 'I3' superheater tanks were as good as the 'Brighton' ever had, and more momentous to the future of the steam locomotive than most loco. men could well foresee.

Number 637 (15 September 1945)

Thr 2-6-0 locomotive. 127.

Obituary. 127.
G.H. Loftus Allen former Chief Publlicity Officer, LMS

New G.W.R. 4-6-0 "1000" class engine. 128-9.3 illustrations., diagram. (side & front elevations)
Double blast pipe, welded tender, main dimensions. incorporrated modifications introduced with 6959 series of Hall class

Modified class K3 2-6-0 L.N.E.R. locomotive. 134. illustration., diagram. (side & front elevations)
No mention of either K5 classification or Thompson; but does state that boiler modified to accept higher (225 psi) pressure; three cylinders replaced by standard 20 x 26 inch type and Walschaerts valve gear.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 135-6. 2 illustrations, 2 tables

Number 638 (15 October 1945)

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs centenary. 152-3. 2 drawings (side elevations)
J38 and N2 modified for Scotland illustrated.

Number 639 (15 November 1945)

Locomotive developments. 159.
Editorial comment on New York Central Railroad 4-8-4: high-powered two-cylinder mixed traffic locomotives

Rebuilt "Pacific" No. 4470 "Great Northern", L.N.E.R. 160. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Thompson rebuild of pioneer Gresley Pacific

Arthur L. Stead. Dutch railway rehabilitation. 161-5. illustration
The extent of the pillage of the Dutch railways by the Germans is shown in the following table:

1939 1945
steam locomotives



streamlined electric trains



diesel electric trains



passenger carriages (steam worked)



freight wagons



The workshops were stripped of tools and some stations were destroyed.

E.C. Poultney. New York Central 4-8-4 type locomotive.  163-6. 2 illustrations

L.N.E.R. No. 4496 "Dwight D. Eisenhower". 165. illustration.
Just the caption: no further information (but A4 in prewar garter blue livery, but without valences)

J.M. Doherty. Compounding and present-day British locomotive practice. 166-8. 2 diagrams
Proposed 4-8-0 with six cylinders with four low pressure outside arranged in tandem. Narrow firebox and double chimney. High pressure cylinders 175/8 by 26in; low pressure: 19¾ by 26in. 250 psi boiler pressure; 6ft coupled wheels; 2038ft2 total heating surface plus 700ft2 superheat; 38.5ft2 grate area. Earlier British compound locomotives examined.

Restaurant cars for the G.W.R. 168-9.
Styling in preparation for restoration of services: included revolving chairs in first class section.

J.T. Clarke. Further recollection of French locomotives. 169-70. 4 diagrams

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs centenary. 171-3. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Noted and illustrated the two Gresley designs for service in Scotland: the P2 2-8-2 Wolf of Badenoch and K4 2-6-0 Lord of the Isles. Also recorded how much of the maintenance work had gone south to Doncaster, but some work done on Great North of Scotland locomotives. New construction ceased.

An early industrial locomotive. 174. diagram (side elevation)
Fletcher, Jennings & Co. design with driving axle of four coupled engine under the firebox leading to a compact arrangement

Number 640 (15 December 1945)

Trend of locomotive design. 177
Editorial comment

G.W.R. oil-burning locomotives. 178-9. 2 illustrations
28XX illustrated

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers, XXII. William Dean. 180-5.  5 illustrations (including portrait)

Argentina's need of locomotives. 185-7. table
Article by John Poole in The Revieew of the River Plate published in Buenos Aires. Table shows age of steam locomotive stock and whetheer supplied from Britain or elsewhere.

T.M. Hickey. "The Inter-City Express," New South Wales. 187-93. 3 illustrations, diagram
Newcastle to Sydney journey on footplate of C38 streamlined Pacific locomotive No. 3802