Locomotive Railway Carriage & Wagon Review
Number 787 (March 1958)
Meeting current steam locomotivbe demands. 41-3.
Comment on the greatly accelerated schedules introduced on the Midland Division of the London Midland Region from June 1957. Noted that time could be kept with Class 5, notably No. 44985 which ran from Leicester to St. Pancras in ten minutes less than the new scedules. Trains sometimes ran late on the Nottingham route even with double heading. Greater availability of Class 7 locomotives would have helped: further Jubilee class should hhave been rebuilt or rebuilt West Country Pacifics could have been employed.
British Railways "Warship" class diesel-hydraulic locomotives. 43-5. 3
illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
North British Locomotive Company A1A-A1A with MAN engines and Voith transmissionjs. A demonstration run from Paddington behind No. 600 Active achieved 94 mile/h down Dauntsey bank, but was followed by the faiure of one of the engines and motoring back on one engine.
U.S. railroads store diesel power. 45
Locomotive testing at Rugby, B.R.: the quality of coal. 46-51; 53. 2
illustrations, 13 diagrams
From Locomotive Performance and Efficiency Test Bulletin
Experience with steel fireboxes on the Southern Region, B.R. 52-3
Precis of ILocoE Paper 584 by Burrows and Wallace
Norfolk & Western R.R. 57. illustration
Coal fired turbine electric locomotive
O.S. Nock. The locomotives of Sir William Stanier. 62-7
Number 790 (June 1958)
O.S. Nock. The locomotives of Sir William Stanier. Part II. 107-11
No. 791 (July 1958)
New motive power depot at Thornaby, N.E. Region, British Railways.136-7. 6 illustrations
O.S. Nock. The locomotives of Sir William Stanier. Part III. 151-6
No. 794 (Sepember 1958)
O.S. Nock. The locomotives of Sir William Stanier. Part IV. 163-7
Berkeley mechanical stoker for three B.R. class "9" 2-10-0s. 178-9. 3 illustrations
O.S. Nock. The locomotives of Sir William Stanier. Part V. 191-6.
No. 795 (November 1958)
Driving wheel diameter, coupled wheels and speed.
In the last years of steam locomotive building in Great Britain, construction has concentrated almost exclusively on locomotives of mixed traffic types, with coupled wheels of moderate diameter, in order to make them suitable for passenger or freight haulage at will. The purpose, of course, is maximum potential utilisation. Express engines with the traditional driving wheel diameter of 6 ft. 6 in. to 7 ft. are limited in their tractive effort, and thus in their ability to handle heavy freight trains; in general, therefore, at the end of a lengthy outward journey an express locomotive may remain idle for several hours awaiting a suitable return assignment. With improved front end design, however, the modern mixed traffic locomotive with coupled wheels of from 6 ft. to 6 ft. 2 in. diameter is constantly demonstrating its capacity to travel at speeds almost if not fully equal to those of the larger-wheeled express engines, so that an engine of the former type can tackle freight or passenger duties with equal competence. So, over any main line or in any area where fairly dense passenger and freight traffic is operated, it is possible to arrange the rosters of mixed traffic locomotives in such a way that the maximum possible proportion of their working day is spent in the movement of traffic. Up to the end of the last century the preference of not a few railways in the express passenger realm was for locomotives with single driving wheels of 7 ft. 6 in. to 8 ft. diameter. Although their adhesion weight might be no more than 18 to 20 tons at most, this was adequate with the light train-loads commonly hauled, and it was considered that the absence of coupling-rods was of advantage in reducing the internal resistance of the locomotive. But with the introduction of corridor stock, the weight of trains began to increase considerably, and additional adhesion became a necessity; the result was the gradual abandonment of the "single-drivers", and concentration on coupled types. While the latter were mainly four-coupled engines, by 1899 the North Eastern Railway was introducing its first 4-6-0 express locomotives, while the Great Western Railway followed suit in 1902. But whereas the N.E.R. from 1903 until all but the end of its independent existence joined the other East Coast Companies in building 4-4-2 rather than 4-6-0 locomotives for express passenger service, the G.W.R. concentrated on the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement, and soon demonstrated, with the help of Churchward's high steam pressure, enlarged steam-pipes, passages and cylinder ports, long-lap and long-travel piston-valves, and full regulator and short cut-off working, that six-coupled engines could more than match any existing single or four-coupled types in sustained high speed capacity,
In subsequent years all the world's principal speed records with steam have been made by locomotives with six-coupled driving wheels. They include the 43 miles covered by the L.N.E.R. Pacific Silver Link at an average of 100 m.p.h. in 1935, the 113 m.p.h, attained by the sister engine Silver Fox in 1936, and, of course, the historic 126 m.p.h. "blue riband" for steam secured by Mallard in 1938, an engine of the same type but with the advantage, in regard to freedom of exhaust, of a double blast-pipe and double chimney. These maxima were attained with driving wheels of 6 ft. 8 in. diameter, and they were matched by the 114 m.p.h. reached in 1937 by the L.M.S.R. Pacific Coronation, with 6 ft. 9 in. wheels. With the German streamlined Pacific No. 05.002. a party of members of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was entertained in 1936 to a maximum speed on the level of 118 m.p.h., and another engine of the same type was credited with a top speed of 124 m.p.h., in this case with 7 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels. In the United States one of the fine 4-6-4 locomotives of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad, built for working the Hiawatha streamlined trains" has maintained an average speed of 104.9 m.p.h. over 48 miles of level track continuously. These engines, since displaced by diesel-electric power and scrapped, had 7 ft. driving wheels.
Until about the 1930s most of the British locomotives built for mixed traffic service, with driving wheels of from 5 ft. 8 in. to 6 ft. or 6 ft. 3 in. diameter, were sluggish machines, rarely attaining any speed much in excess of 60 m.p.h., and except in emergency not used on any passenger work other than the haulage of moderately-timed excursion trains. But as improved front-end design became general, so the speed potential of the mixed traffic types began to increase, until with such engines as the extensively built Stanier Class 5 4-6-0s on the L.M.S.R. 80 m.p.h. speeds in passenger service became cornmon, and an ability was displayed on occasion even with 6 ft. wheels to attain 90 m.p.h. Equally a 6 ft. Western Region Hall 4-6-0, called upon at short notice to take over the up Bristolian after a failure of the train engine, has covered the 77.3 miles from Swindon to the Paddington stop in 59 min. 37 sec., with from 80 to 84 m.p.h. maintained for 57 miles continuously. Finally, when the Bulleid Merchant Navy Pacifies were introduced in 1941 and the light West Country Pacifies in 1945, although with 6 ft. 2 in. driving wheels they have teen classed nominally as mixed traffic locomotives these designs were intended for passenger service exclusively, and both have shown themselves to be among the speediest locomotives the country has known. But in the last two decades high speed records have been made with locomotives having still smaller driving wheels, and, moreover, with more pairs coupled. The second notable rebuilding carried out by Chapelon, when he was in charge of Paris-Orleans locomotive design, was a conversion of a Pacific to the 4-8-0 wheel arrangement, with 5 ft. 11 in. driving wheels, compound propulsion, oscillating-cam poppet-valves, thermic syphons, and a working pressure of 290 lb. per sq. in. With a 635-ton train, worked from Calais to Paris, one of these engines was timed in 1935 to maintain an average of 79.7 m.p.h. over 46.6 miles of level track, and to reach a maximum of 91 m.p.h. down 1 in 200. Still more surprising was the feat of one of the highly efficient J class 4-8-4 locomotives of the Norfolk & Western Railway, U.S.A., in attaining 110 m.p.h. on level track with a train of 935 tons weight, but with the considerable assistance of roller bearings through-out both locomotive and coaches.
These reflections have been prompted by an extraordinary performance in August last by one of the new Class 9 heavy 2-10-0 British Railways standard freight locomotives. As is generally known, these were used extensively on passenger service during last summer on such trains as the former steam-hauled Master Cutler and the South Yorkshireman; on the occasion now under review one of them was attached at Grantham to the up Heart of Midlothian", to work this train to Kings Cross. After clearing Stoke Summit, No. 92184, hauling a train with a tare weight of 462 tons and a gross weight of 485 tons, attained 78 m.p.h. by Corby Glen, 86 by Little Bytham, and 90 before Essendine, keeping up an average of all but 86 m.p.h. for 12!- miles. At the 90 m.p.h. speed, the 5 ft. driving wheels were revolving 8!- times per second, and the 21 ft. 8 in. coupling rods were moving round a circle of 2 ft. 4 in. diameter at the same speed. Later on in the same journey the engine maintained from 75 to 78 m.p.h. for some distance on practically level track. One could hardly imagine that such speeds, if attained frequently with ten-coupled 5 ft. diameter wheels, would be beneficial from the main- tenance point of view, but such a performance is of considerable interest as a measure of the vast change which has taken place during the past half-century in the relation between driving wheel diameter, the coupling of wheels, and maximum attainable speed.
Loconotive testing at Rugby: regulator tests. 202-5.
With certain large locomotives, especially those with a high boiler pressure, it has occasionally been found very difficult to close a regulator of the sliding type in the event of the engine slipping severely. When the engine slips, with the regulator only partly open, there is a relatively high pressure drop through the regulator, imposing an increased load on the face of the slide and this load may be so great that it becomes beyond a man's strength to move the slide against friction, even with the large leverage usually provided by the regulator handle and linkage. In the case of a regulator in the dome, it is not practicable to lubricate the regulator slide, as can be done with a similar regulator in the smokebox, because any excess lubricant would find its way into the boiler where its presence would be most unwelcome. This trouble was found to occur occasionally with the BR Standard Class 9 2-10-0. An attempt to lubricate the slide of the regulator with a coating of molybdenum disulphide proved to be effective for only a few days and thought was given to the fitting of a smaller regulator, as the total pressure on the smaller slide would be less and so the force needed to move it would be less and, possibly, a smaller total movement would enable the leverage to be greater. It has, however, been regarded as a matter of good design to provide a large cross sectional area for the whole steam circuit of modern locomotives and the question naturally arose of how great an effect the reduction of area of the regulator parts would have on the normal performance of the locomotive. The work of Chapelon, in particular, has shown the great benefits that accrue from the provision of steam passages of ample size, so that any step in the opposite direction might be regarded as retrograde and harmful. Only an actual test could show if the proposed change was sufficiently harmful to matter or to warrant some other more costly solution of rhe problem. The essential parts of the regulator originally fitted to the B.R. Standard Class 9 are shown in Fig. 53.. This regulator is of the type in which the main valve consists of a slide, with a number of slots in it, which moves over a horizontal surface, with a number of similar slots also, on the body of the regulator and which carries a smaller slotted pilot valve. Fig. 54 shows how the port opening increases in area as the regulator is opened. The horizontal scale shows both the movement of the pin and that of the main valve after the lost motion has been taken up. The diagram refers only to the opening and not to the closing of the valve, when the effect of the lost motion is to leave the main valve open, whilst the pilot valve closes, so that movement of the pin at first has very little effect in reducing the area that is open. When this valve is fully open the area through the ports is 34.2in2. The regulator that it was proposed to substitute for the original one is that normally fitted to the B.R Standard Class 4 2-6-4 tank engine, having a maximum port area of 24.3 sq. in.. The essential parts of this regulator are shown in Fig. 55. For the purpose of the test, however, a new regulator was not fitted but a special stop was applied to the large regulator to stop die slide in the appropriate position. The resistance to flow through the larger regulator thus partly open would probably be a little greater than that through the smaller regulator with its valve fully open and the slots in the valve and in the head correctly in line with one another. The usual stop on the operating handle was removed so that there was no doubt that the regulator valve was really moved right on to the stop of the regulator itself whether in the fully open or in the restricted position.
Two more historic locomotives preserved. 205. 2 illustrations
GNSR D40 No. 62277 Gordon Highlander and L&YR 2-4-2T No. 1008 ex-BR No. 50624
Dual-voltage electric multiple-units for the Brussels-Amsterdam service.
206-8. illustration. 2 diagrams
Twelve two car units capable of operating on 3000V or 1500V with pantographs for each voltage built by Werkspoor
O.S. Nock. The locomotives of Sir William Stanier. VI. 208-14. 6 illustrations, 10 tables
More Barclay diesel shunters for British Railways. 214. illustration,
Andrew Barclay 204hp diesel-mechanical 0-4-0: No. D2413 illustrated
Diesels as assistants to Milwaukee electric locomotives. 215
Between Avery, Idaho, and Deer Lodge, Montana.
New B.R. multiple units. 215
Derby light weight unit at Whitby Town (M. Mensing) and Western Region Cross Country unit built by Gloucester R.C.&W. Co. (R.J. Sharpe)
G.T. Bevan. Track weight and bogie type considerations in changing
from steam to diesel operation. 216-17. 4 tables.
A1A-A1A versus Co-Co. in terms of haulage capacity and adhesion
New electric multiple-units for British Railways, Eastern Region.
For London, Tilbury & Southend Line
Motive power changes on the Great Eastern Line.
218. 2 illustrations
Photograph of No. 72009 Clan Stewart leaving Colchester on a Clacton to Liverpool Street service (K.L. Cook) and No. 70000 Britannia leaving Sheffield Victoria with Liverpool to Harwich boat train (J.K. Morton): caption gives details of complex working.
Diesel developments on the Great Northern Line of British Railways, Eastern
Region. 218-19. illustration
Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. Type 2 diesel-electric locomotives allocated for use between King's Cross and Hitchin and Hertford North; also Craven's two-car dmus
New stock for London Transport Central Line. 219-20
Twelve prototype motor cars ordered from Cravens Ltd to be used in association with reconditioned trailer cars from the Piccadilly Line
[22-ton Platefit wagons]. 219. 2 illustrations
Modified at Shildon for conveying containers and equipped with SKF roller bearings to work Freight Liner service between Hendon and Gushetfaulds Glasgow.
News of the month. 220
Kent Coast electric stock.
Eastleigh turning out a series of four-car units (CEP and BEP) at rate of three per fortnight
More Western Region diesel multiple-unit trains
Being built by Pressed Steel Co. at Paisley and Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd for Paddington suburban services and in the Bristol area and in Devon and Cornwall.
Book reviews. 220
Directory of Railway Officials and Year Book, 1958-59. Tothill Press
Twenty locomotive men. C. Hamiilton Ellis. Ian Allan
[Duke of Edinburgh inspecting British Timken stand]. 220. illustration