Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers
The citation of the early volumes is difficult as they lacked continuous pagination. Citation is now greatly assisted by the Proceedings being available at the undermentioned website: this has enabled prerviously seen items (held in the British Library) to be cited more accurately. It should be noted, however, that whilst the scanning has been excellently done, some of the associated indexing has been less than perfect which leads to titles like "midland railway" [sic].
1847/8 (Volume 1)
24 November 1847
Description of the luggage engine "Atlas". 1-14.
This was an 0-6-0 with a midfeather firebox and a 3ft 6in diameter boiler which was 13ft 6in long. There were 175 tubes of 15/8 diameter. The coupled wheels were 4ft 6in. The results of service on the Manchester Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway between May 1846 and October 1847 are reported. Coke consumption and running costs are quoted.
13 June 1848
On the balancing of wheels. 1-9.
Cited George Heaton as the originator of wheel balancing (for road carriages) in 1810. McConnell adopted system on Birmingham & Gloucester Railway. In the discussion Cowper stated that Braithwaite and Milner had introduced wheel balancing on the Eastern Counties Railway "eleven years ago".
On an express engine. 10-13
For Enfield and Edmonton branch of ECR.
26 July 1848
On the fallacies of the rotary engine. 1-3.
In the discussion Henry Robinson refers to Lord Dundonald's engine working in Portsmouth Dockyard, refers to Beale's rotary engine and the evaluation of Dundonald's locomotive on the Liverpool & Manchester Railway.
25 October 1848
Russell, J. Scott
Memoir of George Stephenson.
Refers to George Stephenson's many interests including electricity, but perhaps the obiturist's most thought provoking phrase was "Was there ever a bolder theorist than he was?"
On the adpation of the "Cambrian" engine to locomotive purpose. 16-21.
Messrs Thwaites & Co. of Bradford had built Albion to Jones' patented design. Crampton type mentioned on p. 18 and a rotary engine by R.P. Jackson on page 21.
Description of a railway carriage elevator. 22-5.
Lift installed at the Glasgow terminus of the Glasgow & Ayr Railway.
Vulcanized India-rubber pipe joints. 25-9.
Brockedon is credited by Thomas Hancock with the invention of the term vulcanization and introduced the process to Britain from the USA where he had met Charles Goodyear.
25 July 1849
On an improved locomotive boiler. 1-11.
Observations on blast pipe size and on great increase in heating surface and a corresponding increase in flue area. McConnell (pp. 8-9) noted the heat loss in the smokebox and Allan (p. 9) had experimented with rods in the tubes but this had no effect upon fuel consumption.
24 October 1849
On the economy of railway transit. 1-13.
The employment of Enfield on the Eastern Counties Railway and on the Norfolk Railway.
On railway axles. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 13-27
Volume 2 1851)
On an improved axle box for railway engines and carriages. 3-8.
Henson, Henry H.
On improvements in the construction of railway wagons.3-20.
Shipton. James A.
On the direct conversion of rectilinear into circular motion in the steam engine. 4-9.
On the improvement of the construction of railway carrying stock. 10-19
On the workshops for the locomotive carriage and waggon departments of the Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire railway. 22-7.
On an improved axle box for railway engines and carriages. 30-40
On an improved mode of moulding railway chairs. 42-5.
Volume 3 (1852)
Clark, Daniel K.
On the expansive working of steam in locomotives. 60-88; 109-131.
Adams, William A.
On improvements in the construction and materials of railway waggons. 206-13.
Hodge, Paul R.
On a new self-lubricating axle-box for railway engines and carriages, and a self-acting spring crossing point. 213-22.
Volume 4 (1853)
On an improved railway chair. 9-19
Copper, Edward A.
Description of Cugnot's original invention of the locomotive steam engine for common roads. 33-7.
Description of an oil axle-box for engines and tenders. 37-43
Craig, William G.
On improved India-rubber springs for railway engines, carriages, &c. 45-57.
Used Moultons Prepared India Rubber.
Adams, W. Bridges
On railway axle lubrication. 57-65.
On hollow railway axles. 87-101.
Improved railway joint chair. 101-08
Description of an improved coking crane for supplying locomotive engines. 122-6.
On an improved turn table.126-34.
On an improved apparatus for preventing explosions of steam-boilers. 134-6.
On the retardation and stoppage of railway trains. 156-65.
Volume 5 (1854)
On an improved locomotive engine. 24-33.
Marshall, William Prime
On Berdan's crushing and amalgamating machine. 33-48.
Payne, Edward J.
On a new railway train signal. 49-57.
An improved piston. 70-4.
McConnell, James E.
On an improved wrought-iron piston. 119-22.
Description of an improved friction hammer. 133-8.
Volume 6 (1855)
Description of an improved safety valve, for locomotive, marine, and stationary steam boilers. 24-9.
Description of an improved tuyere and smiths' hearth. 125-9.
Description of an improved water tuyere designed by John Nuttall. The tuyere was referred to in an earlier paper by Charles Beyer.
Miller, George M.
Description of a new expansive valve motion for steam engines. 146-54
Adams, W. Bridges
On an improved spring and axle box for railway carriages. 163-71.
Description of a spiral coil piston packing. 171-6.
Description of a new construction of pumping engine. 177-82.
Craig, William G.
On an improved axle box and spring fittings for railway carriages. 182-91.
On the construction of packing rings for pistons. 206-08.
Volume 7 (1856)
On an improved safety valve. 37-47.
The tamper-free duplex safety valve. It was not unknown for locomotive drivers to load their safety valves in order to obtain increased boiler pressure so that they could make up lost time. Such practice was dangerous and a number of boiler explosions were attributed to it. Ramsbottom's safety valve design prevented any loading which would result in an increase of boiler pressure, but did allow pressure to be released by means of a lever which had contact with both valves.
On an improved construction of link motion for locomotive and other engines. 70-7.
Description of a central buffing and drawing apparatus for railway carriages. 173-8.
On an improved locomotive boiler. 236-8.
Voume 8 (1857)
On a new water connexion between locomotive engines and tenders. 99-102.
Description of a safety escape pipe for steam boilers. 179-83.
On balancing the valves of steam engines. 189-92. Disc.: 192-5.
D-pattern balanced slide valves for all types of engine developed by Robert Wilson of Patricroft, mainly stationary (especially for steam hammers, notably at Low Moor), but also including locomotive. Contributors to the discussion included [Robert] Wilson (it was his work which was being described, mainly in its application to steam hammers), Henry Maudslay, Pilkington, Morrison, [Joseph] Tomlinson who noted that in the case of the locomotive slide valve there did not appear to be any provision for keeping the back steam tight after wear had taken place. Wilson replied that he had found the wear was so slight that the elasticity of the plate was sufficient to compensate for it, by the deflection of the plate under the pressure between the supporting sides
On lighting railway trains with gas, with description of Mr T.J. Thompson's system. 242-58.
1858 (Volume 9)
Dynamometer and friction break [sic]. 92-117
On a new construction of railway springs. 160-5.
Fairbairn, William A.
On an improved construction of axleboxes and coupling rods for locomotive engines. 166-70.
Advocated India rubber linings for axleboxes as this made them last longer.
Haswell, John A.
Description of an improved railway switch. 171-6
On the improvements and progress in the working and ventilation of coal mines in the Newcastle-on-Tyne district within the last fifty years. 177-236.
As Wood is so important in the development of steam locomotives this paper is listed
Description of the locomotive engine shed and turntables at Gateshead Station. 256-60.
Paper presented in association with a visit to Gateshead by the Institution.
On the burning of welsh steam coal in locomotive engines. 274-95.
B. Laybourn (287) noted the use of coal on the Monmouthshire Railway; B. Fothergill (288-90) noted the problem of the burning of firebars; W.G. Craig (290-1) made observations about coal burning on the MSLR; W. Smith (291) noted that channelled firebars were used by Gray; Tomlinson (293) noted the use of Gray's firebars on GWR Iron Duke
Volume 10 (1859)
Description of a new steam pressure gauge. 179-85.
Description of Haste's improved safety valve for steam boilers. 186-94
On the application of superheated steam in marine engines. 195-210.
Description of Fryer's apparatus for filling locomotive tenders with water. 211-16.
On increased brake power for stopping railway trains. 230-7.
In 1859 on the Scottish Central Railway a form of combined counter-pressure and steam friction brake was devised, in which a leaky shutoff valve was placed in the blast-pipe and a connection provided from the blast-pipe below the valve to a brake cylinder applying brake blocks to the wheels of the carrying axle or axles. When the valve was closed, the regulator still being at least slightly open, pressure rapidly built up on the exhaust side of the pistons so that a retarding effect was produced without reversing the valve gear. This arrangement was certainly fitted to one, perhaps more, of the six 2-4-0s built late in 1857 by Fairbairn & Sons and to one or more of the 2-2-2s rebuilt between 1854 and 1859, originally dating from 1847-49, as Allan definitely refers to the brakes on the leading and trailing axles and as shown in one of his diagrams. The trials included the descent of an incline of 5 miles of 1 in 80. Abstract based on Carling Newcomen paper.
General meeting [notice of the death of Robert Stephenson]. 245-8
Volume 11 (1860)
Ryder, John N.
On the application of superheated steam. 22-9. Disc.: 29-38.
Mainly in marine boilers. Charles Markham (29-30) noted that the low evaporative rates on locomotives did not favour superheating. H. Maudsley considered that the superheating was little understood.
On Giffard's injector for feeding steam boilers. 39-47; 74-7 (Supplementary paper). Disc.: 48-51; 77-82.
Lowe noted that Sharp Stewart obtained sole rights to the injector in 1860. Mainly application to stationary boilers. Charles Markham contributed to discussion p. 49 (on stationary boilers)
On the burning of coal instead of coke in locomotive engines. 147-71. Disc.: 172-5
Development of the brick arch, the deflector plate inside the firedoor and appropriate firedoors. Argued that combustion of coal led to considerable economic savings, in spite of its lower evaporative duty: Derbyshire hard coals could heat 6.7 lbs of water per lb of coal as against 7.9 lbs of water per lb of Durham coke (the best in Britain). 18% more coal was required. South Wales coal could heat 8.1 lbs of water per lb. Durham coke cost 8 to 9 shillings per ton at the ovens, but this increased to 15 shillings by the time it reached Normanton. Markham noted that the Stockton & Darlington Railway had always burnt coal and used large flues to achieve this. Noted work by Samuel Hall ("about 17 or 18 years ago") where holes were cut into the firebox immediately above the surface of the fire, but that this caused excessive heat in the smokebox. Markham acknowledged the work of McConnell and Beattie. In the discussions which followed, Mr. B. Fothergill stated (page 172): "the results in this paper were thoroughly confirmed by those obtained in a series of experiments.. made on the Lancashire and East Lancashire Railways, which were so strongly in favour of coal that there are now no coke burning engines on those lines.". On the other hand, D. Adamson (174-5) questioned the need for long tubes and brick arches! B. Fothergill (p. 175) noted risk of excessive heat in smokebox.
Description of Aert's water axlebox. 178-91. Disc.: 182-7.
W.A. Adams (p. 184) was critical of the excessive cost and the risk of the water freezing. Aerts replied (pp. 184-5) that there had been no problem with freezing during experiments on the ECR and GNR.
Description of a light steam hammer for light forgings. 284-7. Disc.: 287-92. Plates 61-5.
Volume 12 (1861)
Description of a method of supplying water to locomotive tenders whilst running.X43-50. Disc.: 50-1 Plates 10-12.
Charles Markham contributed pp. 51-2.
Williamson, Alexander W. and Perkins, Loftus
On a boiler, engine, and surface condenser, for very high pressure steam with great expansion. 94-108
Volume 13 (1861)
Description of a feed-pipe connexion for locomotive engines. 88-91.
Miller, George M.
On a packing for pistons of steam engines and pumps. 315-27.
Volume 14 (1863)
On the locomotive engines in the International Eexhibition of 1862. 78-111
Volume 15 (1864)
On the improved traversing cranes at Crewe Locomotive Works. 44-58.
On the distribution of weight on the axles of locomotives. 92-119
Volume 17 (1866)
On the corrosion of locomotive boilers, and the means of prevention. 56-78.
On an improved mode of manufacture of steel tyres. 186-98
Webb, Francis W.
Description of a curvilinear shaping machine. 280-7.
1867 (Volume 18)
Everitt, George A.
On the composition and durability of locomotive boiler tubes in reference to coal-burning. 46-57.
Brass for the tubes, and ways to prevent the copper plates of the fireboxes being of hard or brittle quality. The method of testing.
Description of a 30-ton horizontal duplex hammer. 218-31.
1869 (Volume 20)
On the mechanical firing of steam boilers. 155-82.
Volume 21 (1870)
Siemens, C. William
On Le Chatelier's plan of using counter-pressure steam as a break [sic] in locomotive engines. 21-59.
Counter pressure brake. See Dunn Reflections page 39 Cited by Carling who stated that F. Holt (presumably in the discussion section) described work on the South Staffordshire Railway in 1855 or 1856, before its absorption by the London & North Western. Holt stated that some fourteen years previously he had fitted up a new goods locomotive with a pipe in the smoke box from a washout plug hole in the lower part of the tube plate to a shut-off cock and then into the blast-pipe through the normal orifice and nearly down to the steam chest. His idea was to provide a supply of water to act as a lubricant when the engine was reversed and the usual steam supply cut off. He made no mention either of steam keeping the hot gas from being drawn down the blast-pipe or of the cooling effect due to evaporation, though both would have occurred. The locomotive concerned was most probably one of two 0-6-0s built by Vulcan Foundry in 1855 or one of two 0-4-2s built by Beyer, Peacock in 1856. The device worked successfully for a time but then the old type of reversing lever either broke or disengaged its detent and went over into full forward gear with such violence that the lever was broken and other damage done to the locomotive. That was the end of the experiment and Carling's own impression was that Holt was prevented from going any further by higher authority, though he did not actually say so. This was most unfortunate as most of the elements of success were there, but it was actually still a decade away. There does not seem to have been any publicity at the time of the trial.
Marten, Edward B.
On the conclusions derived from the experience of recent steam boiler explosions. 179-218
Includes response to explosion in Yarmouth
1871 (Volume 22)
On the mechanical ventilation of the Liverpool passenger tunnel on the London and North Western Railway. 22-35; 66-74; 184-99.
Haswell, John A.
Description of the break drums and the mode of working at the Ingleby incline on the Rosedale branch of the North Eastern Railway. 200-12.
On steam boilers with small water space, and roots' tube boiler. 229-59.
1872 (Volume 23)
On a steam jet for exhausting air. 97-117.
Includes a description of Pneumatic Despatch Tubes used in London by the Post Office (Ref: Backtrack, 1999, 13, 377)
Volume 24 (1873)
Description of an improved apparatus for working and interlocking railway signals and points. 31-44.
Kitson, Frederick W.
On the Allen governor and throttle valve for steam engines. 47-62 .
Sheriff, James D.
Description of the bracket chairs for suspending double-headed rails on the West Cornwall Railway. 252-9.
Volume 26 (1875)
Some notes on the early history of the railway gauge. 66-91.
Webb, Francis W.
Description of a direct-acting circular saw for cutting steel hot. 126-33.
Volume 28 (1877)
On steam boilers and engines for high pressures. 117-57.
Supplement to notes on the early history of railway gauge, respecting the origin of the 4ft 8 ½ inch gauge. 158-63.
Address of the President. 167-75.
Wilson, John C.
On the construction of safety valves. 176-96.
Webb, Francis W.
On an improved form of slide valve for steam and hydraulic engines. 197-205.
Geach, John J.
On the mechanical appliances used in the construction of the heading under the Severn, for the Severn Tunnel Railway. 206-20.
Riches, T. Hurry
On the Tynewydd Colliery inundation, with particulars of the appliances used for rescuing the miners and recovering the workings. 221-36.
Fell, John C.
On the economy of variable automatic expansion in steam engines. 276-95.
Description of improved radial axleboxes and guides. 304-13.
Volume 29 (1878)
On continuous brakes for railway trains. 67-105.
Reference to Fay & Newall screw type brakes on LYR, also to experiments with vacuum and air barkes.
Address of the President. 295-300.
On mechanical traction upon tramways. 395-439
On the effect of brakes upon railway trains. 467-89.
On the effect of brakes upon railway trains (second paper). 590-632.
Volume 30 (1879)
Williams, R. Price
On the economy of railway working. 96-153.
On recent brake experiments upon the Lyons Railway. 157-69.
Trains and apparatus are described. The experimental van used in Captain Douglas Galton's British experiments was sent over by the London Brighton and South Railway.
On the effect of brakes upon railway trains. 170-218.
Greig, David and Eyth, Max
Experiments referring to the use of iron and steel in high-pressure boilers. 268-327
Clark Steam engine p. 658-9 notes that Mr. F. W. Webb, in discussion of the paper of Messrs. Greig and Eyth, stated that after having tried various proportions of rivets and pitches, he had arrived at a single-riveted double-welt joint for 7/16-inch boiler plates of steel, possessing 71.6 per cent of the breaking strength of the whole plate, made with ¾-inch rivets at 2 inches of pitch. The covering plates are 3/8-inch thick and 5¼ inches wide, making a lap of 2 5/8 inches on each plate, and a width of 1½ inches from the centre line of the rivets to the edges of the plates. He believed this distance, 1½ inches, to be the best, and previously to the adoption of the given proportions he had found that the holes went oval long before the joint ought to have been destroyed
On the compounding of locomotive engines. 328-63.
Webb (probably pp. 349-51) contributed to discussion
Address of the President: On cheap internal transport considered as a necessity for the prosperity of a country. 399-405
1880 (Volume 31)
Riches, T. Hurry
Is automatic action necessary or desirable in a continuous railway brake? 100-51.
On a new reversing and expansive valve-gear. 418-54.
Volume 32 (1881)
Bell, I. Lowthian
On the Tyne as connected with the history of engineering. 425-47. V32
Crampton, Thomas Russell
On an automatic hydraulic system for excavating the Channel Tunnel. 440-50. V33
Volume 34 (1883)
Webb, Francis William
On compound locomotive engines. 438-62.
First report to the Council of the Committee on Friction
at High Velocities; by Alexander Blackie William Kennedy and A. Morin.
Various authorities, including Fleeming Jenkin, A.S. Kimball, R.H. Thurston, Douglas Galton, and George Westinghouse.
1884 (Volume 35)
On the consumption of fuel in compound locomotives. 119-21.
Webb made a written contribution, but the spoken discussion turned towards criticism of Webb's compound locomotive from McDonnell, Ramsbottom and Aspinall.
On portable railways. 126-49.
On the Moscrop engine recorder, and the Knowles supplementary governor. 150-66.
Savill, A. Slater
Description of the automatic and exhaust-steam injector. 167-89.
Riches, Charles H.
Description of the new locomotive running shed of the Taff Vale Railway at Cathays, Cardiff. 243-56.
On the use of petroleum refuse as fuel in locomotive engines. 272-330.
On the mineral wagons of South Wales. 415-43.
Timmis, Illius A.
On the application of electro-magnets to the working of railway signals and points. 444-71.
Volume 37 (1886)
Experiments on the steam-jacketing and compounding of locomotives in Russia. 297-354
On the working of compound locomotives in India. 355-409.
1887 (Volume 38)
Brown. Francis R.F.
On the construction of Canadian locomotives. 186-273.
Volume 39 (1888)
Description of tramways and rolling stock at Guinness's Brewery. 327-62
Volume 40 (1889)
Supplementary paper on the use of petroleum refuse as fuel in locomotive engines. 36-84.
Lapage, R. Herbert
On compound locomotives. 85-147.
Further experiments on condensation and re-evaporation of steam in a jacketed cylinder. 641-702.
First Report of the Research Committee on the Value of the Steam-jacket: tabulated results of previous experiments; Alexander Blackie and William Kennedy. 703-45.
Volume 41 (1890)
On the compounding of locomotives burning petroleum refuse in Russia. 47-111.
Address by the President. 181-202.
Some recollections of early locomotives.
Volume 44 (1893)
Tensile tests and chemical analyses of copper plates from fire-boxes of locomotives on the Great Western Railway. 139-98.
Aspinall, John Frederick Audley
Experiments on the draught produced in different parts of a locomotive boiler when running. 199-202.
1894 (Volume 46)
Description of a fluid-pressure reversing gear for locomotive engines. 252-75.
Volume 48 (1895)
Trevithick, Richard F.
Locomotive building in Japan. 298-307.
Volume 51 (1896)
Beare, Thomas Hudson, Bryan Donkin , Research Committee on the Value of the Steam Jacket. Experiment on a locomotive engine. 466-500.
English and Bryan Donkin
Transmission of heat from surface condensation through metal cylinders. 501-35.
Volume 54 (1897)
Mechanical features of electric traction. 43-123
Diagrams to facilitate the design of riveted joints for boiler work. 124-31.
Johnson, Samuel Waite
Address by the President. 149-208.
Includes a table of Midland Railway locomotive crank axles taken out during five years ending December 1896.
Volume 55 (1898)
Robertson, Leslie S.
Narrow-gauge railways, of two feet gauge and under. 376-403.
Water softening and purification by the Archbutt-Deeley process. 404-54.
Electric installations for lighting and power on the Midland Railway, with notes on power absorbed by shafting and belting. 553-604.
Smith, Walter M.
Results of recent practical experience with express locomotive engines. 605-69.
30 per cent of power absorbed in propelling locomotive iteself. Paper also included a comparison between the three cylinder compound locomotive and the standard M1 class 4-4-0s. Tennant 2-4-0 was also tested..Ascertaining the pull curve of train resistance was obtained from F W Webb of the London and North Western Railway. Standard coal was employed.
Peet, W. Gadsby
Mechanical testing of materials at the locomotive works of the Midland Railway, Derby. 670-95
The latter included a 50-ton Whitworth hydraulic testing machine and a Deeley torsion testing machine. Methods of autographic recording and details of test specimens...
Volume 59 (1900)
Recent locomotive practice in France. 375-433.
Discussion: Bowman Malcolm (416-17) described his experience with Worsdell von Borries two-cylinder compound locomotives and his experience of Walschaerts valve gear on the Belfast & Northern Counties Railway. Also discussion by H.A. Ivatt (412-13) on his experience with the Worsdell von Borries system with a Class 101 0-6-0 and his own arrangement on a Class 60 4-4-0 whilst he was Locomotive Superintendent of the GNR(I). John A.F. Aspinall (408-12); Twinberrow (423-5) referred to self-balancing systems including the Yarrow, Schlick, Twinberrow system..
Observations on an improved glass revealer, for studying condensation in steam-engine cylinders, and rendering the effects visible. 509-53.
Capacity of railway wagons as affecting cost of transport. 557-616.
Volume 61 (1901)
History of the Furness Railway locomotives. 727-38.
Illustrated with line drawings of virtually all locomotives from Fairburn 0-4-0s tpo latest 0-6-0s and 4-4-0s.
Some experiences and results derived from the use of highly superheated steam in engines. 847-64.
International Engineering Congress, Glasgow, 1901.
The balancing of locomotives. 1157-208.
1902 (Volume 63)
Smith, Walter M.
The application of cylindrical steam distributing valves to locomotives. 515-44.
Volume 65 (1903)
Stromeyer, C.E. and Baron, W.B.
An inquiry into the working of various water-softeners. 773-886.
Controlling chemical treatment; and detailed descriptions of water softening apparatus by Archbutt-Deeley, Atkins Company, Babcock and Wilcox, Bell Brothers, Body Water, Carrod, Desrumaux, Doulton...
1904 Volume 66
Compound locomotives in France. 327-80. Disc.: 380-467.
Participants to the Discussion included John F. Robinson (pp. 398-400) and Churchward (400-04).
Volume 67 (1904)
Testing plant on the Great Western Railway at Swindon. 937-9.
Bed of cast iron bolted onto a concrete platform. Five pairs of bearings enabled horizontal travel. Dynamometer.This led to contributions from W.F. Pettigrew which noted measured tests in service. (940-5) and from J.F. McIntosh: "We have no fixed locomotive testing plant, properly so called, unless a 10-mile gradient of 1 in 75 may be classed as such. Tabor indicator was used. Noted that working conditions could not be replicated on a test plant (945-6).
A scientific investigation into the possibilities of gas-turbines. 1061-1106. Disc.: 1106-31.
Volume 69 (1905)
Superheaters applied to locomotives on the Belgian State Railways. 409-27
Volume 70 (1906)
Large locomotive boilers. 165-75. Discussion: 176-255.
"In America the great power of engines now employed renders the wide fire-box a necessity, but in Great Britain, where the coal burnt per mile is very much less, few boilers of this kind have been built." He made reference to the Ivatt Atlantics and Holden's 0-10-0T. Continuing [in the USA] " poorer coals in large quantitities can be burnt with much greater facility and economy in this type than in the narrow pattern [but his offset when] "goods trains are kept standing, as is often the case." With reference to the USA, Churchward noted the leaking of tubes and via stays. A higher standard of skill was required by the fireman. The main mass of the fire being so much nearer the tube-plate had a bad effect upon the tubes. Churchward referred to Drummond's experiments with water tubes and noted his experiments on steam drying. Churchward had fitted a Schmidt superheater to the No. 1 boiler. Hughes opened the discussion questionning why freight locomotives were not fitted for compounding in the UK. He is also mentioned piston valves, water softening and furnace deign.
1906 (Volume 71)
Riches, T.H. and Heywood, Thomas E.
Mechanical appliances used in the shipping of coal at Penarth dock. 423-33.
Riches, T.H. and Haslam, Sidney B.
Railway motor-car traffic. 651-78. Disc.: 678-718.
In 1873 or 1874 Rowan attempted to sell steam railcars in Britain but without success, although sales were achieved in Austria and Switzerland. The LSWR Fratton to Southsea service was the earliest and this was followed by the vertical boilered cars on the GWR. They enabled more frequent services to be provided where traffic was light. The Taff Vale Railway has heavy gradients of up to 1 in 40. The TVR cars were designed to cope with heavy gradients and the locomotive portion was designed to be simple to detach from the body and to be able to raise steam rapidly. He considered the alternatives of electric vehicles: battery electric had been used in Swansea and in Belgium but the capital cost was high: the overhead and third rail options were also mentioned.
The TVR car was steam-heated, had oil-gas lighting and an electric bell for communication with the conductor-driver. The cars cold provide a more frequent service, set up or set down more frequently and had rapid acceleration and could achieve 20 mph on 1 in 40.
Cars were also operating on the GNoSR, GCR, LNWR, SECR, GSWR, GNR, NER and PTR (where three miles had to be climbed at 1 in 40).
Steam as a motive power for public service vehicles. 753-860.
Lighting of railway premises: indoor and outdoor. 865-906. Disc.: 906-41.
Includes arc lighting, oil lamps and gas lighting; the use of a portable photometer for assessing lighting in passenger stations; the cost of gas mantles; fuel consumption; the use of incandescent electric lamps; and the problems of lighting goods yards, locomotive sheds and workshops. Hughes contributed to the Discussion (pp 917-20)
1907 (Volume 72)
Riches, Tom Hurry
Address by the President. 495-507.
Ivatt, Henry A.
Notes on road trials of three express passenger-engines, carried out on the Great Northern Railway in 1906. 525-32.
With No. 1300 (a four-cylinder compound); No. 292 (combined 4-cylinder compound or simple) and No. 294 (2-cylinder simple). All were Atlantics. Nock considered these tests to be highly inconclusive., but were reproduced in his book on the class.
1908 (Volume 74)
Dalby, W.E. and Hurry Riches, T.
Balancing of reciprocating engines. Lecture at the Graduates' meeting. 197-217.
Combustion processes in English locomotive fire-boxes. 237-68.
See LNWR Expperiment class: reserach at Liverpool Univeristy was funded by LNWR.
Fry, Lawford H.
Combustion and heat balances in locomotives. Based on experiments with the Pennsylvania Railroad Testing Plant. 269-375.
Volume 75 (1908)
Riches, T. Hurry and Reynolds, Bertie
Forced lubrication for axle-boxes. 599-624.
Volume 76 (1908)
Aspinall, John A.F.
Address by the President. 423-91.
Volume 77 (1909)
Locomotives designed and built at Horwich with some results. 561-653.
Presented at IME Meeting in Liverpool on 27 July 1909. Wintour, speaking on behalf of Ivatt noted, "As Mr. Churchward has stated, it is absolutely necessary there shall be some check on the lubrication which, if it once gets slack, will cause a great smash on the engine. In one case where the lubrication failed, the piston and the cylinder were quite broken up, and we find it very necessary to have a reliable lubricator and a good cylinder oil, with steam superheated to 650°F. If these precautions are not taken, more cost may be incurred in five minutes than will be saved in two years." Like many others, Ivatt patented an arrangement of steam pipes in the smokebox, to provide a low degree of superheat in older engines where new tubeplates were hard to justify: but their complication militated against their advantage-they were mounted on trunnions to permit swinging them clear for tube-cleaning.
Heat transmission. 921-1071
Volume 78 (1910)
Compounding and superheating in Horwich locomotives. 399-507.
Presented 17 March 1910.
Volume 79 (1910)
Paget, Cecil W.
English running-shed practice. 825-53.
Whyte, Frederic M.
Handling locomotives at terminals. 855-72.
American locomotive terminals. 885-98.
Classification (marshalling) yards of the Pennsylvania Railroad at East Altoona, Pa. Here the traffic from three divisions was concentrated.
Volume 83 (1912)
Rolling-stock on the principal Irish narrow-gauge railways. 599-652.
Characteristic dynamical diagrams for the motion of a train during the accelerating and retarding periods. 877-945.
Bernard M. Jenkin in discussion introduced Figure 9 which showed performance of Holden/Russell Decapod .Quoted from Captain Douglas Galton's Paper on the Effect of railway brakes
Volume 84 (1913)
Henderson, James B.
Theory and experiment in the flow of steam through nozzles. 253-322.
In response to a circular issued by the council, asking for suggestions as to subjects for research, a large number were received, and the subject of the action of steam passing through nozzles and steam-turbines was selected amongst others for possible future research. Professor James B. Henderson was invited to write a preliminary paper upon the work hitherto done in this subject, and the present paper is offered for discussion before the details for carrying out the proposed research are settled.
Trevithick, F.H. and P.J. Cowan
Some effects of superheating and feed-water heating on locomotive working. 345-482.
Relationship of smoke-box temperature and draught to rate of firing; values from Goss's Locomotive Performance
Volume 87 (1914)
Recent development of express locomotives in France. 383-428.
Contributors to the discussion included H. Fowler (416-17), Ahrons (425-6) on Serve tubes, Poultnery (426-7) who commented on the Claughton type; W.M. Urie (427-8) on superheating on the Caledonian Railway;
Compound articulated locomotives. 429-62.
Contributors to the discussion included Edgar Worthington (456-8) who made observations on Fairlie locomotives and on Webb compounds..
Signalling on railway trains in motion. Northern Railway. 463-8.
Signalling on railway trains in motion. Eastern Railway. 469-78.
Signalling on railway trains in motion. Southern Railway. 478-83.
Signalling on railway trains in motion. Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Railway. 488-90.
Signalling on railway trains in motion. Orleans Railway. 491-505.
Acfield, W.C., Lewis, Leon P., Raven, Vincent L., Stanier,
W.A. and Willox, W.
Audible and other cab signals on British Railways. 843-926.
Volume 99 (1920)
The uniflow steam-engine. 731-64.
Volume 101 (1921)
Nelson, Robert and John Dewrance
Waste-heat utilization. 643-7.
Fowler, Henry and John Dewrance
Ormandy, W.R. and Loughnan St L Pendred
Liquid, powdered and colloidal fuels. 653-7
Dalby, W.E. and Stanton, T.E.
The indicator as an aid to economy
Volume 102 (1922)
The electrification of English main line railways. 317-30.
Fowler, Henry and H.S. Hele-Shaw
Metallurgy in relation to mechanical engineering. 331-5.
British and American locomotive design and practice: some comparative comments thereon from practical experience. 375-511.
Volume 103 (1922)
Feed-water heaters for locomotives. 715-34.
Principal appliances in actual use were the Davies and Metcalfe injector, Weir heater, Caille-Potonie Heater, Worthington heater and Knorr heater.
Raven, Vincent L.
Electric locomotives. 735-81.
Volume 105 (1923)
Bond, Roland C.
The Walschaert locomotive valve-gear. 1137-41.
Author awarded a prize of £3 for this Paper, which was read in Manchester on 14th December 1922, and in London on 19th March 1923.
Volume 108 (1925)
Recent improvements in the efficiency of the steam-locomotive. 53-68.
Author awarded a prize of £5 for this paper, which was read in Manchester on 8th November 1923, and in London on 21st January 1924.
General meeting [the welcoming of President Sir Vincent Raven] by William Henry Patchell.. 607-10.
Volume 109 (1925)
Gresley, Herbert N.
The three-cylinder high-pressure locomotive. 927-67. Disc.: 968-86. 9 illus., 15 diagrs., 6 tables.
This paper is of great significance as in it he attempts to outline his design philosophy in a way in which only the greatest engineers were prepared to do (Churchward, Maunsell, Stanier and Bulleid were others). Advantages of the three-cylinder locomotive were summarized as under:
During the discussion, opened by James Clayton Gresley had to withstand a sharp attack on (1) the Patent priority of the derived valve gear (Holcroft 1909), and (2) the inherent weakness of the derived gear (at least as developed by Holcroft). Clayton (968-70) gave details of the satisfactory performance of No. A822 in service, but stated his preference for three independent sets of valve gear. This may explain the change from conjugated gears, on the S.R. Clayton was critical of the irregularity of the derived motion. Nevertheless, Clayton did support Gresley on the advantages of three cyclinders,.. Support for derived systems came from H.P.M. Beames (976-7): " it was the experience of all locomotive engineers that the less they got inside the frames the better. It was difficult to get a man to spend more time inside the frames than was necessary.". McDermid (J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1932, 22, 291 (Paper 291) quoted this paper and this led to further discussion on the draught in three-cylinder locomotives.
Raven (p. 978) noted that "there was a great similarity between the three-cylinder engines which he built and those which Mr. Gresley built to-day, with the exception of the valve-gear. So far as that was concerned, he always adhered to the Stephenson valve-gear, as he believed in simplicity. He used the three sets of valve-gear, and if he went back to railwork to-day, he would do the same again. The reason why he built three-cylinder engines was because they had on the North Eastern Railway a three-cylinder compound engine designed by Mr. Smith, who was the chief draughtsman to them in the days gone by, and it was on account of the even starting effort given by the 120° crank they were able to get with a three-cylinder engine, which led him to adopt it. One also realized that one was getting within the limit of gauges for high-power engines. The cylinders of the very large two-cylinder engines often struck the platforms, and therefore it was necessary to make some alteration. The particular advantages were the balancing of the engine, the starting effort, and the reduction of hammer effect on the permanent way. He was pleased indeed to be able to study the details of the advantages so admirably carried out by Mr. Gresley in his dynamometer-car tests. They bore out what his own experience had been, and he really thought the distinct advantages of the three-cylinder engine for locomotive purposes had been proved. The advantages of that engine could not be more clearly set forth than as given on page 946.
Mr. Clayton drew attention to the valve-gear. He did discover, after designing his arrangement, that Mr. Holcroft had devised a valve-gear for- three-cylinder engines, but it had not the same arrangement of levers. Mr. Holcroft had far more levers than he used. ' The other point Mr. Clayton referred to was very important, namely, the over-running of the valve-gear. He had had the same experience as they had had on the South Eastern and Chatham Railway, that was when running at high speeds excessive travel on the middle valve occurred when steam was shut off and the engine put into full gear, and the steam-chest covers were either broken or damaged. The trouble was overcome by allowing more clearance, and by using ball-bearings in all the working parts. The levers of the central valve-gear on the three-cylinder engines which he had built had all ball-bearings of the Hoffman type. He had built an engine with roller bearings fitted to all pins of the Walschaerts gear.
After five years' work, with one exception, the rest of the bearings were the same as those originally put in; the wear was so slight.
Of course, they were expensive, but they had been so successful that he was extending the experiment by fitting more engines up in the same way.
Another question raised by Mr. Clayton was also important: He said there were eight points where there were pins in the Author's particular valve-gear, and he said there were only eight points if they introduced an ordinary separate valve-gear for the middle cylinder. He (Mr. Gresley) quite agreed, but in his gear there were eight pin-joints, only requiring little attention for lubrication, the ball bearings having grease cups which ran f9r a long time without any attention. With a separate valve-gear for inside cylinders' having eight working points, one of these would be an eccentric on the axle,
In replying to Mr. Sisson (page 972) Gresley referred to the question of triple expansion. Of course, that could not be used successfully on a locomotive because they could not condense, and the whole success of that system was contingent upon having a condenser. Mr. Webb built a triple-expansion engine at Crewe, and they at Crewe in those days thought there was no engine like the three-cylinder compound, but when he built a triple-expansion and it did not work quite so well, and although it was hoped it would be better than the compounds, the hopes were not realized and it got the name of Ichabod, because the glory had departed from Israel. (Laughter.) Mr. Bowden (page 973) raised the question of a reduced boiler repair bill. He (Mr. Gresley) had not taken that as being one of the advantages, although obviously it followed as one. of the subsidiary advantages of the use of the three-cyli:p.der engine.
Advantage had not been taken of the increased weight permissible on bridges due to better balancing. The engineers of the country imposed certain limits to the weight taken on a single pair of wheels, and they had not cared to increase the weights if the engines were three-cylinder, because it had not been proved that the hammer-blow was less. The Bridge Research Committee had found that th~ three-cylinder engine gave very much less hammer-blow on the bridges than the two-cylinder engines, and when they came to issue their report he hoped they would bear that in mind in considering the question of allowing greater weights with properly balanced three-cylinder engines.
Raven, Vincent L.
Address by the President [of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers]. 1085-6.
Aspinall, John A.F..
Some railway notes old and new. (The 12th Thomas Hawksley Lecture). 1107-51.
Volume 112 (1927)
The economic value of increased steam pressure. 99-213.
Kitson Clark, E.
An internal-combustion locomotive. 333-98.
An investigation into the cylinder losses on a compound locomotive. 465-79. Disc.: 480-517. 10 diagrs., 5 tables.
Volume 113 (1927)
[Presidential Address]. 723-47.
Fry, Lawford H.
Some experimental results from a three-cylinder compound locomotive. 923-54. Disc.: 955-1024. 5 illus., 22 diagrs. 17 tables.
Thorough series of tests on the Pennsylvania Railway locomotive testing plant at Altoona and trials in road service. On pp.955-61 Fowler gave details of compound locomotive performance on the LMS.
Volume 114 (1928)
The reorganization of Crewe Works. 245-62. Discussion: 245-88. 5 illus., 5 diagrs., 2 plans.
The trend of modern steam-locomotive design. 465-77.
Lecture delivered before the graduates' section in London on 26th March 1928, and repeated in Birmingham on 13th April 1928.
A pageant of railroad engineering. 495-8.
Address delivered at Western Branch in Bristol on 8th December 1927.
Volume 115 (1928)
Locomotive firebox conditions: gas compositions and temperatures close to copper plates. 985-1006
Metallurgist whom became in charge of research on LMS
Volume 117 (1929)
Johnson, W. Arnold
Alloy steels for locomotive construction. 1087-97.
Awarded a prize of £5 for this Paper, which was read before the Graduates' Section, North Western Branch, in Manchester on 11th October 1928.
Volume 120 (1931)
High-pressure locomotives. 101-35. Disc.:135-206 + 3 folding plates. 8 illus., 14 diagrs., 2 tables, 2 plans.
Locomotives described include the Delaware & Hudson two-cylinder compound locomotive of 1924; the Schmidt-Henschel three-cylinder compound locomotive of 1926; the Swiss Winterthur high-pressure locomotive (2-6-2T) of 1927; and the Berlin Machine Works Schwartzkopff-Löffler three-cylinder locomotive of 1930. He then described No. 10000, with its Yarrow boiler. Discussion: N.H. Scarth (Yarrow) (Pp 135-6); F. Wempe (Schmidt)(136-7); G. Haffner (Chief Engineer, French State Railways p. 137); A.C. Roger (French State Railways p. 137-8); Sir Henry Fowler (138-9) who commented on other high pressure locomotives, on the oil separator on the Löffler boiler, and on the chimney and smoke deflectors fitted to No. 10000; R.E.L. Maunsell (p. 140) commented on smoke deflection; W.A. Stanier (pp 1401-1) queried the amount of heat reaching the outer tubes. E. Kitson Clark (141): commented on the ratio betwen the hp and lp cylinders and cited E.W. Selby J. Instn Loco Engrs Paper 257. H.A. Stenning (p. 142-4) gave some details of the stress effects experienced in the boiler, due to excessive temperatures. Gysel (145) adhesion charcteristics of 4-6-4; W.W. Marriner (Yarrow, pp 145-7) mentioned the low loading g. was due to hard water; Charles King (147-9) queried the efficiency of 18% claimed for the Löffler boiler; P.J. Cowan (149-52) mentioned improvements in boiler feed; that Horatio Allen suffered from leaky seams and stated that wheel arrangement of 10000 was really 4-6-2-2; W. Gregson (153-5) discussed problems of hard water with the Brotan firebox and queried "how did No. 10,000 compare with the 250 lb per sq in in four-cylinder simple engines of the G.W.R. which had always been noted for their economical running" (Gresley did not respond!); R.J. Glinn (156-8) spoke about mobile power stations equipped with water tube boilers used during WW1 (illus. page 159). The paper was discussed in Manchester on 5 February and the following contributed: H.L. Guy (165-7); J.N. Gresham (167); R.C. Bond (167); S. Jackson (170-2); D.W. Sanford (LMS p. 172); C.H. Browne (on scale p. 172); E.F. Lang (on the relatively low boiler pressure p. 173) and Gresley responded (pp. 173-6). The paper was discussed in Leeds on 12 February: speakers included F.C. Lea (177-8); E. Kitson Clark (178); W.T. Athey (178-9) stated that he had entered Gateshead as an apprentice in 1887, commented on compounding and boiler scale; R. Aalan Thwaites (179); A.W. Chapman (179 on scale); J.J. Sheridan (179-80); John Blundell (180-1); G.A. Musgrave (181) noted his own involvement in the design of the boiler between 1924 and 1930 when the locomotive entered service. Gresley replied on pages 181-3. The paper was discussed at a meeting in Glasgow on 18 March: speakers included: Harold E. Yarrow (183-4); A.L. Mellanby (184-5); David C. Urie (185); Lindsay Foster (186-7); Robert Fox (187); J,M. Harper (188); Leonard Hyde (188-9); George Ness (189) and T.E.H. Heywood (190)
1931 (Volume 121)
Locomotive experimental stations. 23-39 Disc.: 40-53. illus., 6 diagrs.
Contributors to the discussion included G.V. Lomonossoff (40-2); Stanier (42-3) who commented on the Churchward plant and improvements made to reproduce actual running conditions on the plant and to power absorption; C.H. [presumably O.H.] Bulleid (p. 43) spoke on the advantages; C.H. Kuhne (pp 43-5) spoke about the Froude water dynamometer used to test road vehicles; T.R. Cave-Browne-Cave (page 45) spoke about wind tunnels; F.C. Lea (46).
Kitson Clark, E.
Humanity under the hammer [Presidential Address]. 107-41.
History of the hammer and hammering.
The manufacture and use of steel railway sleepers, 315-77.
Included Round-hole loose-jaw type (Indian State Railways); Webb's Pattern: Rafarel's Patent Sleeper (1887)
Some factors affecting the riding of coaching stock. 465-504. Disc.: 505-21. 25 illus & diagrs.
D. Raymond Carpmeal (505-6) spoke about the GWR use of the Hallade recorder; R.F. McKay on latex foam seating; A.N. Moon (508-14) spoke about the riding qualities of six-wheel bogies, tyre wear, overhang and portable accelerometers supplied by the Cambridge Instrument Co.; S.R.M. Porter (514) on the transverse velocity of the bogie frame relative to the bolster; A.S. Quartermaine (GWR, 514-15) on newly laid rail. G.H. Sheffield (515-18): the Pullman bogie was introduced to England by Sir James Allport of the MR.
Problems of railway mechanics. 648-59.
Volume 122 (1932)
The mechanism of electric locomotives. 51-154
1933 (Volume 124)
The compression-ignition engine and its applicability to British railway traction. 3-61.
The investigation of the mechanical breakdown of prime movers and boiler plant. 337-479.
Volume 125 (1933)
Diesel traction. 537-613.
Read before the North Western branch in Manchester on 5 October 1933, and before the North Eastern branch in Newcastle upon Tyne on 28 March 1934.
Volume 126 (1934)
The mechanics of a locomotive on curved track. 457-61.
LMS Research Department
Volume 129 (1935)
Relation between theory, experiment, and practice in journal bearing design. 435-475
Volume 133 (1936)
[Presidential address]. 251-65. 3 tables.
An account of the development of the A4, plus a testing plant appeal.
Investigations in film lubrication. 413-72.
...fluid friction conditions. The second short section deals with experiments on a Deeley friction machine and shows the effect on the boundary friction of the...
Volume 134 (1936)
The air resistance of passenger trains. 91-208.
Volume 146 (1941)
The position of the locomotive in mechanical engineering. 50-61 + 4 plates. 13 illus., diagr., 3 tables. (Presidential Address).
A review of the efficiency of the steam locomotive, based on LMS testing plus a forecast of future development: makes reference to Goss and thr Altoona test plant
Volume 149 (1943)
Turner, T. Henry
Corrosion of boiler tubes. 74-88
Volume 152 (1945)
High-speed cinematography. 224-5.
George Stephenson Address
Lomonossoff, G.V. and Lomonossoff, G. Condensing locomotives.
275-88. Disc.: 289-303.8 illus., 25 diagrs., 4 tables. Bibliog.
Covers both reciprocating and turbine type of locomotive. Discussion: H. Holcroft (292-4) Anderson system
Locomotives I have known. 341-52 + 6 plates. 18 illus., 12 diagrs., 11 tables.
A select group of locomotives reviewed by the author.
Volume 153 (1945)
A study of the riding and wearing qualities of railway carriage tyres having various profiles. 25-40.
Locomotive practice. 351-79.
Volume 154 (1946)
Some notes on the "Merchant Navy" class locomotives of the Southern Railway. 316-33. Disc. 333-43 + 4 plates. 13 illus., 20 diagrs., 2 tables.
Very extensive account of the justification for the design and observations on its performance in service.
Volume 156 (1947)
Presidential Address. 1-5 + 10 plates. 42 illus., diagr., 3 tables.
Included the reason for introducing the Leader design as follows:
1 To be able to run over the majority of the Company's lines.
2 To be capable of working all classes of trains up to a speed of 90 miles per hour.
3 To have its whole weight available for braking and the highest possible percentage thereof for adhesion.
4 To be equally suitable for running in both directions without turning, with unobstructed look-out.
5 To be ready for service at short notice.
6 To be almost continuously available.
7 To be suitable for 'common use.'
8 To run not less than 100,000 miles between general overhauls with little or no attention at the running sheds.
9 To cause minimum wear and tear to the track.
10 To use substantially less fuel and water per drawbar horse-power developed.
Development of locomotive power at speed. 404-43.
Volume 157 (1947)
Bulleid, O.V.S., Peppercorn, A.H., Hawksworth, F.W.
and Ivatt, H.G.
Railway power plant in Great Britain. 235-9 + 4 plates. 12 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.) 2 tables. (Centenary Lectures).
Includes an outline of the Leader design. Other contributions from Peppercorn, Hawksworth and H.G. Ivatt..
Volume 158 (1948)
The mobile testing plant of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 450-63. Disc. 463-76 + 6 plates. 22 illus., 14 diagrs., 2 plans, table. Bibliog.
A dynamometer car plus a set of coaches which were equipped with electric generators. These generators acted as a variable 'load" for the locomotive being tested.
Volume 160 (1949)
The development of the Ljungström steam turbine and air preheater. 211-23.
Volume 166 (1952)
Considerations on bogie design, with particular reference to electric railways. 217-36.
Volume 167 (1953)
Development of the engineer in railway practice. 141-5 + 6 plates. 24 illus., 3 diagrs., table.
Volume 173 (1959)
Gent, A.N. and Lindley, P.B.
The compression of bonded rubber blocks. 111-22.
Volume 176 (1962)
Some speculations on the future of railway mechanical engineering. 61-106.
Volume 179 (1964)
The application of an analogue computer to a problem of pantograph and overhead line dynamics. 782-808
Calculating the behaviour of an overhead catenary system for railway electrification . 809-46.
Volume 189 (1975)
Bond. R.C. and Nock, O.S.
150 years of uninterrupted progress in railway engineering. 589-622.
Interesting juxtaposition of authors. Landmarks in mechanical engineering were judged to include Markham's innovation of the brick arch in association with the deflector plate. Typical express locomotives of "100 years ago" were the 2-4-0 designs introduced by Kirtley, Webb and Fletcher, and Stirling's 4-2-2. The use of steel was increasing, especially at Crewe where the Bessemer process was introduced in 1864 and the Siemens-Martin system followed in 1868. The quest for higher speeds is noted in the 1895 race from London to Aberdeen and in the exploits of City of Truro. The introdution of larger boilers was pursued by J.F. McIntosh, Ivatt in his Atlantics. The development of superheating was pursued by Hughes and by Bowen Cooke where the superheated King George V showed a fuel economy of 27%. Compounding is considered. Electrification; centralised signalling systems; stsationary locomotive testing; automatic train control.
BL: Shelfmark: (P) ST00-E(7)