Journal of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers
Volume 30 (1940)
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Missing papers: The
Locomotive Magazine for 1940,
46, 139-41 contains a resume of a paper on Modern French steam
locomotive design by Robert Leguille and George Chan presented on 17 April
1940 and chaired by O.V.S. Bulleid. Riddles, Stanier and T.H. Turner contributed
to the discussion. Cox's name is not mentioned although he had worked with
Leguille in India. WW2 was about to get far worse and this is probably the
reason for its non-appearance .A precis of the preprint for
this paper is given at the end of this web-page.
The Locomotive Magazine for 1940, 46, 179-81 contains a resume of a paper on diesel electric shunting locomotives by P.R. Agarwal of the Eastern and Indian Section
Journal No. 153
Bulleid, O.V.S. Presidential Address. 7-12.
As a prelude to the Opening of the Session, members were invited to meet for lunch at the Waldorf Hotel, Aldwych, London, on Thursday, 14 December 1939, Some 132 members partook of the repast and most of these stayed on to the General Meeting which followed at 2.30 p.m.
Very dull: concerned arrangements made for mechanical and electrical engineering during WW2: Committee chaired by Sir Nigel Gresley and membership of Fairburn and Stanier from the LMS, Graff-Baker from the LPTB. Richards from the LNER, Collett from the GWR and Raworth from the Southern. Sir Nigel Gresley proposed the vote of thanks..
Mills, F. (Paper 412)
The fabrication of the locomotive frame by arc welding. 13-57. Disc.: 57-66.
31st and 32nd Ordinary General Meetings of the Western Australian Members held at the Railway Institute, Perth, Western Australia, on Friday, 19 May 1939, at 8 p.m.. and Friday, 21 July, at 8 p.m.: the Chairmen being respectively Mr. T. Marsland and Mr. F. Mills: paper read at 31st Meeting and discussed on 32nd Meeting on 21 July 1939..
Journal No. 154
Andrews, H.H. (Paper No. 413)
Electric motor coach trains. 96-130. Disc.: 131-40.
13 Marcli 1940, in. London.
Discussion: C.F. Fairburn (131-5) described LMS experience of the Wirral electrification; F.N. Beasant (135-6) described the use of electric motor vans (i.e. parcels vans with haulage ability) on the LNER Tyneside electrification; W.A. Stanier (136-7) noted the use of lightweight rolling stock for the Southport electrification. W.S. Graff-Baker (137-40) recorded problems with bearings. J. Pelham Maitland (141) complained about vibration in EMUs; C.B. Unwin (141-2); A.N. Moon (142-3 and written communication 145-7) commented about weight reduction in the Southport units; Brian Reed (144-5) commented on the high speed electric units used between Paris and Le Mans..
Fell, E.W. (Paper 414)
Modern locomotive boiler shop practice. 157-206. Disc.: 206-13. 22 figures (illustrations and diagrams)
Annual General Meeting of the Manchester Centre, Session 1939-40, held at the Literary and Philosophic Societys Rooms in Manchester, on Tuesday, 21 March 1939, at 7 p.m.: chair taken by Mr. F.W. Abraham.
It is scarcely necessary to say that in view of the importance of the locomotive boiler, from the point of view of capacity, first cost and maintenance, there should be scrupulous care in its design and construction, and nothing but the best of materials, the most up-to-date methods, and the highest standard of workmanship should be accepted for this vital organ of the modern locomotive. A detailed account of constructing locomotive boilers (Belpaire type),
F.W. Abraham (206-7);
G.R. Nicholson (207) . said there were one or two points he would like to raise. Firstly, the question of ordering of copper plates. The author favoured the ordering of plates cut to shape. He did not think that this was quite so easy as it seemed, and in his opinion each plate should be analysed on its merits. When plates were ordered to shape, the manufacturers required various extras, and generally speaking i t was found that when these extras were taken into consideration, they exceeded the wastage and scrap value of the unused plate. He thought that something between the rectangular and fully shaped plate should be aimed at as the most economical way of ordering.
Referring to the question of foundation rings being built up from bars and welded, he said that he was well aware that one part of the L.M.S. used steel castings and that American-built locomotives used them very successfully indeed. In the machining of foundation rings the built-up bars were not always absolutely square, and he frankly thought that they got a better job if the ring were fully machined on the sides where the plate fitted. He asked for the Authors views on testing and the relative merits of the different types of tests, and said that he thought hand-fired steam tests were better than using steam from another supply.
Referring to the question of rivet diameters, he referred to the old system which gave a clearance of 1/16 in. between the rivet and the hole, and said that he felt that the author would agree that the clearance necessary was just enough to get the hot rivet into the hole.
J.F. Harrison (207-8) asked whether it was a fact that sling stays were not used on the L.M.S. boilers, and if so, had they experienced any trouble with the copper tube plate grooving in the top flange.
He said that he had no experience with steel stays, and noticed that the A2uthor stated that the limit allowed on hole in tapping was plus .005 to 000, and that the limit allowed on the stays was plus .0015 to minus .001, it thus being possible to put a stay minus .001 into a hole plus .001. Could the Author say whether trouble had been experienced with leaking due to these wide limits? Were the taps used ground thread or not?
With regard to copper welding, he asked if the Author had any experience wi.th inserting copper plates into firebox sides and fillet welding same, and if so, wh.at preheating of the copper plate was found necessary.
It was noted that wedge liners had been used extensively ; had they proved unsatisfactory ?
In conaection with the expanding of flue tubes, he asked the Author if the hole in the tube plate was parallel or taper.
J.W. Thompson (205); E.M. Gass (209) practice at Horwich; D. Patrick (209-10) note on combustion chambers; G.F. Horne (210).
Journal No. 155
Clayton, Thomas (Paper No. 415)
Notes on the design of wagons for broad gauge railways in Argentina. 219-49. Disc.: 249-72. 33 figures (mainly diagrams)
Second Quarterly Meeting of the South American Centre of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was held on Thursday, July 6th, 1939, in Rosario, Argentina, Mr. F. Campbell, Chairman, presiding. Members of the Centre left Buenos Aires by the night train on the Central Argentine Railway for Rosario. By kind permission of the General Manager of the Central Argentine Railway, the meeting was held at the Railway Companys Clubhouse at Perez
Very comprehensive examination of design criteria for wagons (predominantly bogie) for Argentinia conditions. Includes tank wagons, cattle wagons, horseboxes and brake vans.
Discussion: J. Vittone (256) argued that wood should not be used in the construction of wagons. Repair costs for wagons with steel floors on the B.A. Provincial Railway were 72% less than for ones with wooden floors : the steel needed to be low in carbon, manganese and silicon and impurities to resist corrosion and advocated welding. Tyres should have a 1 in 20 camber and advocated solid wheels.
Wall, H. (Paper 416)
Locomotive boiler lagging and sheet metal work. 273-85.
Sixteenth Ordinary General Meeting of the Western Branch held at the Conference Room of the Bombay Electricity Supply and Tramway Co.s Offices on Friday, the 26 May 1939, at 6.15 p.m.: Chair being taken by Mr. T. Cooper.
Practice in India.
Journal No. 156
Cardew, C.A. (Paper No. 417)
The making of comparative efficiency tests with locomotives on the road. 294-356. Disc.: 356-64.
Third General Meeting of the New South Wales Branch of the Institution took place in Science House, Sydney, on Thursday, 16 November, 1939, at 7.45 p.m. Forty-five Members and Visitors attended, amongst the latter being Mr. F.C. Garside, Assistant Commissioner for Railways. The Chair was taken by Mr. H. Young, Chief Mechanical Engineer of New South Wales Dept. of Railways.
In dealing with the subject it is intended to present it in the form of some notes traversing such aspects as:
(1) General considerations relating to test conditions.
(2) Coal and water supplies, and their measurement.
(3) Some test apparatus, and factors affecting accurate results in its design and application.
(4) A consideration of some details which affect the obtaining of truly comparative data.
(5) The tabulation of mean test results and the making of deductions therefrom relative to comparative efficiency of performance and the determining influence of economic factors.
It should be stated at the outset that in this Paper it is not proposed to make reference to tests conducted with the air of a dynamometer car, for, whilst in all locomotive testing the use of such a car is an extremely valuable adjunct, and in some cases a necessity, all railways have not one at their disposal ; and, furthermore, dynamometer equipment and its use is, in itself, an extensive subject, and is best dealt with in a Paper devoted solely to it. Tests made without a car, however (especially under certain conditions, to be referred to later, which afford a greater degree of constancy of controlling factors than may otherwise apply, and provided that the limitations applicable to such testing be recognised), can supply surprisingly accurate data and reliable results.
Discussion: the Chairman, H. Young, (356-7) noted that in France, much success has been achieved due to testing, where M. Chapelon has produced phenomenal results in reducing steam consumption. Sir Nigel Gresley has done a lot to perfect the locomotive. He has been responsible for initiating the complete plant for testing locomotives, now being built at Rugby. The value of the dynamometer car is fully realised here, and what such equipment would do in the way of making possible further progress in locomotive design, as well as the stationary testing plant.
Cochrane, R.C. (Paper 418)
Some remarks and observations regarding the introduction of diesel traction on the Buenos Aires Midland Railway. 371-92. Disc.: 392-413.
Third Quarterly Meeting of South American Centre held on Saturday, 30 September 1939, when Mr. F. Campbell, Chairman, presided.
Passenger traffic was relatively low, and after an experiment with Sentinel locomotives (where the only economic gain was decreased fuel consumption) the railway turned to diesel traction. P.C. Dewhurst (p. 403-4) commented on railcar design..
Journal No. 158
Pargiter, G.M. (Paper 419)
Modern locomotive shed running practice. 431-65.
Opening General Meeting of the Session arranged to be held at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Westminster, on Wednesday, 30 October 1940, at 5.30 pm., SUBSEQUENTLY POSTPONED
Based on experience in LNER North Eastern Area. Refers back to Papers 392 (1938) and 397. Includes observations on turntables, sand driers, breakdown cranes and staff, the advantage of wheel drops over sheer legs for repairing damaged bearings, machinery which should be available for maintenance.
Morton, H. (Paper No. 420)
Progress in locomotive foundry practice with reference to locomotive castings. 466-96. Disc.: 496-501.
The sixth Ordinary General Meeting of the Birmingham Centre held at the Midland Hotel, Derby, on Wednesday, 15 March 1939, at 7 p.m.: the Chair being taken by Major G.S. Bellamy.
1. Physical properties of cast iron with reference to B.S. Specifications
2. Effect of graphite size on properties.
3. Modification of graphite size: Inoculation, Alloy additions, Low carbon irons.
4. Wear resistance.
5. Heat resistance.
6. Melting Cupola furnace.
7. Melting Other types of furnaces.
8. Foundry practice.
9. Cylinder production. Specifications.
10. Cylinder details.
11. Mechanisation-Sand plant.
Much progress had been made in the development of cast iron in its application for general engineering purposes, and in this short Paper the Author reviewed improvements made so far as they affect the locomotive engineer, and considered the advance in production technique necessary in the manufacture of iron castings to meet more stringent specifications.
Cast iron has generally been regarded by the engineer as a weak, brittle and unreliable material having a safe working load of 1½+-2 tons in tension and from 5 to 7 tons in compression, and therefore its field of application has been limited to unimportant components, and without due regard to particular service conditions such as heat, corrosion and wear resistance. Its particular advantage lay in the fact that in comparison with other ferrous materials, it possessed capacity to be readily cast into intricate shapes with accurate reproduction of mould profile on a repetition basis and at a low cost.
British Standards Specification No. 321, issued in 1926 for general iron castings. summarised.
Discussion: W.R. Carslake (697) noted the need for moisture control in the sand.
Preprint of paper not published in Journal (obained at Library of Instiution of Mechanical Engineers)
Recent developments in steam locomotive design in France to be read on 17 April 1940,
The Locomotive Magazine for 1940, 46, 139-41 contains a resume of a paper which infers that Leguille was a jo8int author, whereas the preprint makes no reference to him. Two controlling factors were mentioned at the start: French locomotives had to be economical as much of the coal had to be imported and had to be capable of hauling heavy trains, both passenger and freight. The first locomotive described was the Chapelon 4-8-0 introduced in 1935 on the Paris Orleans Railway, but intended for the Paris Lyons main line. The locomotive was remarkable for its small grate area (40.45 ft2, reduced weight and vert high cylinder horse power of about 4000 h..p. or 60.6 lbs per h.p. Thiis was achieved via the Kylchap double blast pipe, the Houlet superheater, and the great improvments to the steam ports: previously 10% of the cylinder section increased to 20%, The capacity of the steam chests had been increased to that of the cylinders to avoild oscillations in pressure. Large diameter poppet valves were used.
As a series of digressions Chan considered other exhaust systems used on French rauilways (including the variable nozzle used on the PLM and Lemaitre used on the Nord); the essential need for steel fireboxes with high pressure (285 psi and more) boilers, Nicholson thermic syphons (and the difficulty of employing them in copper fireboxes), the Houlet superheater and French alternaatives to it, poppet valves, Willoteaux piston valves and compounding (and to an extent the three-cylinder simple alternative). Two new designs were considered: a Santa Fe 2-10-2 compound and a 4-6-4: the R class three-cylinder simple and S classs four-cylinder compound.
The French general utility (mixed traffic) 2-8-2 was also considered. It had to be capable of hauling 650 tons at 60 mile/h and 1000 tons at 50 mile/h and safely run at 68 mile/h.
Cast steel cylinders were employed on these multi-cylinder designs.
The exxperimental locomotives described were a turbo-locomitive 4-6-4 Class Q, built by Schneider, This had a traditional boiler, but with a special steel firebox capable of working at 355 psi. Three turbines were fitted: one on each driving axle, each with forward and reverse vanes on the same shaft. Each was capable of 1000 hp and were very small.
P class 4-6-3 with separate engines to each driving axle and 850 psi boiler pressure: coal burning water tube boiler. Each engine had three 6 x 10 in cylinders leading to a 3000 hp locomotive with very even torque.
The Chapelon 2-12-0 with six cylinders: two high pressure and four low pressure with a preheating envelope between the high and low pressure cylinders was inttroduced and the author hoped that the designer would be able to come to Britain to describe his work
Finally the experimental Velox boiler fitted to an old 4-6-0 pssenger engine was described. This was limited to working at 285 psi due to the old cylinders. The Velox boiler was oil fired under pressure with the combustion gases passing through a gas turbine which drove a compressor to feed air into the firebox. The Velox boiler had a very small water capacity and thus could produce steam very quickly. A small diesel engine provided electricity to drive the water feed and fuel feed pumps and air compressor. The locomotive had hauled trains between Paris and Laroche and sometimes to Dijon.