The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume  46 (1940)
Key file

No. 569 (15 January 1940)

Looking forward. 1.
Editorial comment on the effect of WW2 on railway progress and on the journal

L.N.E.R. 1
Progress on Manchester-Sheffield electrification.

L.M.S.R. 1
Noted speeding up of services. Two new 7P 4-6-2 locomotives built at Crewe Nos. 6238 City of Carlisle and 6239 City of Chester. New Class 4F 0-6-0 built at Derby: Nos. 5486-4596, plus two diesel shunters Nos. 7085 and 7086. 8F 2-8-0s to be constructed at Crewe.
Coronation Scot to remain in USA.

New passenger tank locomotive, East Indian Strate Railway. 2-3. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
2-6-2T built by Vulcan Foundry

Railway centenaries. 3

Northern Railway of Spain. 3
Restoration of links to French railways at Hendaye and Irun.

H. Fayle. Martin Atock and his locomotives. 4-6. 3 illustrations (including portrait)

E.W. Twining. Experimental loccomotives, Great Western Railway. 7-10. illustration (photograph). 3 diagrams (side elevations)
William Dean's 4-4-0T No. 1 0f 1880;; and as rebuilt as a 2-4-0T; including ass photographed in 1920; and the 4-2-4T No. 9 drawn with the assistance of C.B. Colllett.

New ambulance car, Victorian Railways. 10-11. illustration

C.W. Brett. Repair of rolling stock by fusive methods. 11-13. illustration 
Welding. Repair of cracks in the outside cylinder of a colliery locomotive

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 13-16. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams.
Continued from 311 in previous volume. Includes description and illustration of Alexander Spencer bogie.

L.M.S.R. 16
Walter Paterson had retired: he had been Superintendent of Operation at Crewe (presumably retired end of 1939). Joined Horwich Works as an apprentice in 1892. During WW1 he was District Locomotive Superintendent at Blackpool where refugee Belgian fitters were employed and later in WW1 when DLS at Low Moor he was in charge of 90 female workers. He was associated with Enginemen's Mutual Improvement Classes.

Diesel railcars in Luxemburg. 17-18. 2 illustrations
Metre gauge lines: notes reconditioned diesel electric railcars used with great economy on the Diekirch-Vianden route and the conversion of passenger coaches to diesel mechanical units with rubber diaphragm transmissions (Mylius system) for the Luxemburg-Echtenach route where 1 in 33 gradients were encountered

High-speed lightweight trains. 18-21.
Based on ASME paper by C.T. Ripley (freely available as pdf in Transactions ASME 1940, 62, 347-66 and in part as Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1939, 142, 97). Refers to Coverdale and Colpitts Report (Coverdale & Colpitts were New York based consulting engineers and reported on high speed trains).

"Baltic" type locomotive, Barsi Light Railway. 22-3. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Ministry of Supply. 23
Sanctioned expenditure of £8 miilion on 240 2-8-0 tender locomotives and 10,000 twenty-ton covered freigh wagons. Locomotives tio be built by Beyer Peacock, North British Locomotive and Vulcan Foundry

Electric locomotives for Brazil. 23
General Electric Co. of USA had delivered four 2-Co+Co-2 4470 hp locomotives to the Paulista Railway.

Some apspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department. 23-4
Four aspect colour light signalling, notably on main line from Wateroo to handle dense suburban traffic; the requirements of high speed streamlined trains where older automatic signalling gave inadequate braking distances, and the Hudd system of automatic train control being insatalled between Edinburgh and Glasgow.

Obituary. 24
Herdner: chief mecanical engineer of the Midi Railway between 1907 and 1920. Responsible for two and four cylinder compound locomotives. Aged 87 at death.

Reviews. 25

Early British locomotives. C.F. Dendy Marshall,. London: Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
Another of the interesting works on British locomotives by Dendy Marshall had appeared, and was a supplement to the volume on Two essays in early locomotive history published by him in 1928. In the original work the author attempted to compile a catalogue of the first hundred locomotives, but the evidence as to some of these was scanty and incomplete, whilst the existence of others, not hitherto suspected, had now come to light. In the present volume the writer amends the previous list in accordance with the information now available: but there still seems to be a possibility of further discoveries, and he suggests to those interested that research might be undertaken with regard to eight possible examples which he enumerates. A good deal of additional information is given about many of the locomotives previously described, there is confirmation that Wm. Chapman introduced the bogie in 1813, whilst of the further engines discovered particularly interesting ones are those of Daglish at Orrel and Taylor Swainson at Whitehaven. Many wIll read wIth interest the chapter on the original Stephenson engmes, particulars of the first forty being given from an old ledger recently discovered, this clearing up many uncertain points with regard to the early productions of this firm. The story of the various steps in the early development of the locomotive is a very fascinating one and much credit is due to Dendy Marshall for the very painstaking manner m which he has tackled it and the care with which he has sifted the modicum of wheat from the vast amount. of chaff in which it was engulfed. A number of illustrations, many of them hitherto unknown add to the interest of the work. .

The railway handbook, 1939-1940. London: The Railway Publishing Co. Ltd.,96 pp. Paper covers. 25
Designed to provide the railway student with a concise collection of useful statistics and other information. The sixth edition was somewhat later than usual on account of WW2. The same sequence had been continued, but all matter has been revised and brought up-to-date with the latest available statlstics. The chronology of railway history has been extended to eleven pages so as to include Items of outstanding importance and recent occurrence; this may be gauged from the fact that the Railway Executive Commlttee, appointed .by the Minister of Transport to be hIs agents. for controlling the railways, is included. This year.the Mimstry of Transport is not issuing the usual census of railway employees, but, by courtesy of the Minister, The Railway Handbook has been able to publish the figures for the week ended 11 March 1939.

The vacuum brake, its theory, history and practice as used on the Great. Western Railway. C.H. Mathers. Shrewsbury: Wilding & Son Ltd.
This handbook of 78 pages is intended for use in Improvement Classes and includes diagrams arid illustrations mainly relating to G.W.Ry. equipments. At the end fifty Questions and Answers are given which should prove useful to Improvement Class Instructors.

Correspondence. 25

Early Pullman Cars. Reginald B. Fellows. 25
Re writer's recent article has produced in your correspondence columns additional information as to the all-Pullman train of 1881. The scantiest references (if any) to this pioneer train are found in railway histories. The names which Stephenson Knight gives, in his letter in LM December issue, to the four cars of which the train was made up agrees with one exception with a contemporary newspaper account of the inaugural tnp. The car which Knight refers to as Albert Edward was called Maud in the contemporary account, the four cars being described as follows: Parlour-Restaurant car Victoria; Smoking room car Maud; Drawing room car Beatrice: Parlour car Louise. I suggest that the Albert Edward was one of the single cars which had been running on a Brighton express pnor to 1881.
The contemporary account also states that the idea of lighting the train by electricity was due to J.P. Knight, the General Manager of the L.B. & S.C. Ry., "an Idea the feasability of which was rendered evident to him on his hearing of Sir W. Thompson's experiments with the Faure accumulator and on his witnessing at Paris the success of the vanous systems of electric lighting by incandescent lamps." This was, I believe, the first complete train to be lighted by Electricity in England.

South Australian locomotive. A.V. Green
On page 177, Vol. 35 of the Locomotive,
you illustrate engme No. 14 of the South Australian Railways, and compare it with an illustration of the first locomotive in New Zealand, page 204, Vol. 26, and you suggest possibly both viIews are the same engine. I do not think so. I have a list of South Australian Railway locos. in front of me which gives No. 14 being supplied by the Avonside Engineering Co. direct, while the following engines were obtained direct from the Canterbury Railway, New Zealand:-
S.A.R. No. 38 (48), Class I, Type 0-4-0T. In service (S.A.) 1879. Makers, Neilson and Co. .
S.A.R. No. 43, Class M, Type 0-4-2T. In service (S.A.) 1881. Makers, Slaughter Gruning.
Classes Nos. 44, 45, 46, 47, Class M, Type 0-4-2T. In service (S.A.) 1880-81. Makers, Avonside Engine Co.
S.A.R: Nos. 49. 50, 51, 56, Class E, Type 2-4-0T. In service (S.A.) 1880-82. Makers, Avonside Engine Co.
So far I am unable to get the makers' numbers of the above, but since Slaughter Gruning and Co. became Avonsld.e Engineering Co. in 1866, engine 43 must have been built before 1867.
The Canterbury Railway, New Zealand, converted their gauge. from 5 ft. 3. in. to 3 ft. 6 in. The only Australian Colonies then having the 5 ft. 3 in. gauge were South Australia and Victoria, but I have no record of Victoria ever takmg over New Zealand locomotives. See also letter from Leslie G. Poole page 142.

Southern Ry. 25
No. 2527 Vulcan 0-6-0 goods has been reboilered and classed as C2X..

L.M.S.R. 25
Orders placed with Cowans, Sheldon Ltd. for three 70 ft. vacuum turntables.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers General Meeting. 27.
Luncheon at Waldorf Hotel on 14 December 1939, President5ial Address by O.V.S. Bulleid and business meeting.


No. 570 (15 February 1940)

Reducing the volume of breakdown work. 27.
Work represented by derailments and other breakdowns costs the railway companies a not inconsiderable sum of money each year. The breakdown gangs are recruited from the workshops staff at the depots, and in order to minimise the interruption to output of repair work, it is frequently necessary to call men on day duty for night calls, and vice versa. This means, however, that much time worked on breakdowns is payable at overtime rates, in addition to the agreed paid breakdown allowance and the provision of rations. Other direct charges arise from making good any resultant damage to engines, rolling stock and permanent way, and the provision and maintenance of costly cranes and other equipment (the maintenance of crane boilers which, apart from washing-out examinations and repairs, are constantly in steam, may be heavy in bad water districts) and overtime paid to delayed train crews; other costs may be incurred by claims in respect of personal in juries and of perishable and other important traffics delayed in transit as the result of breakdowns. Whilst a marked and constant reduction in the number of breakdowns would not lead to the total abolition of steam breakdown cranes, which must in any case be available for work in connection with bridges and permanent way, it would permit the present number of breakdown units to be sensibly reduced by increasing the individual areas covered. In this connection, also, it must not be overlooked that the private lives and outside activities of a large body of men, in both the supervisory and the wages grades, are strictly circumscribed by being practically always on call; the continuance or extension of this condition may have detrimental effects on their mental outlook. Any endeavour to improve the existing state of affairs must include a classification of the causes of breakdowns, and in the last analysis it will be found that the majority is due to failures, in one way or another, of the human element. Enginemen may relax the vigilance of their look-out momentarily, but at a crucial moment, or not satisfy themselves when shunting that facing points are fully closed; the examination of a partly worn tyre may be superficial, or the standard of maintenance of a length of permanent way or of points, more particularly on secondary running roads or in sidings, lower than is desirable.
Considering the matter in general terms, the basic remedies consist firstly in recruiting staff for the engineers' and all operating departments from personnel having a high standard of intelligence and vigilance, and who are found by test not to be accident prone. Secondly, the existing high standards of maintenance, with reference to engines, rolling stock and permanent way alike, must all be raised. Lastly, engines, rolling stock and all equipment concerned with the working of trains must be critically examined with a view to making them more reliable and more foolproof. This is admittedly a wide and ambitious programme, already partly in process for this and other reasons, but the end justifies the means. The recognition of the expression "safety first" may be one of degree, but the principle is inherently sound.

L.N.E.R. 27.
A further 4 engines of the "V2" 2-6-2 class have been completed at Darlington, Nos. 4863, 4864, 4865 and 4866; also rebuilt No. 846, "B 16/2" class (Walschaert gear). No. 3717, class "J3" has been withdrawn. This engine was built by the Vulcan Foundry in 1882 and since the withdrawal of the old saddle tank No. 3685 built at Doncaster in 1882 (Works No. 348) has held the distinction of being the oldest Great Northern engine still in service on the L.N.E.R. This distinction now falls to No. 3908 a saddle tank at King's Cross. This engine was built by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1891 (No. 2758). Only one other G.N. engine built in 1891 is still in service; this is No. 4990, built by Neilson & Co. and now used as a shunting engine at Doncaster Works. It was formerly No. 3920.
Class "E4" (2-4-0) No. 7408 and other engines of the class now frequently assist mineral and goods trains from Darlington to Stainmore Summit.

L.M.S.R. 27.
Three further heavy oil [diesel] engines (0-6-0) had been completed at Derby, Nos. 7088, 7089 and 7090. Express engines recently withdrawn from service were: Class 3 4-6-0 No. 14620 (Caledonian), Class 3 4-4-0 No. 25272 Brindley and No. 25282 Champion (L.N.W.Ry.), Class 2 4-4-0 No. 368 (Midland), Class 2 4-4-0 No. 14402 Ben Armin (Highland), and Class 1 2-4-0 No. 20157 (Midland).

G.W.Ry. 27.
Seven more 4-6-0 express engines had been completed at Swindon, No. 5989 Cransley Hall, No. 5990 Dorford Hall, No. 5991 Gresham Hall, No. 5992 Harton Hall, No. 5993 Kirby Hall, No. 5994 Royden Hall, and No. 5995 Wick Hall.

Mixed traffic locomotives, New |Zealand Railway. 28-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Class J: semi-streamlined 4-8-2 designed P.R. Angus, Locomotive Superintendent. Forty supplied by North British Locomotive Company. Fitted with Vanderbilt tenders, equipped with Baker valve gear, steel fireboxes using Colville's steel and Skefco roller bearings. 18 x 26in cylinders, 4ft 6in coupled wheels, 1752ft2 total heating area (including superheater), 39ft2 grate area and 200 psi boiler pressure.

W.G. Bagnall Ltd staff dinner. 29
W.S. Edwards, Managing Director and F.B. Harris, chief draughtsman present

H. Fayle. Martin Atock and his locomotives. 30-7. 7 illustrations

2-4-0 tank loco., Netherland Indies. 33 illustration
Hanover Locomotive Works for 0.75 m gauge line in Sumatra with 2ft 11in coupled wheeels, 10 x 14in cylinders, 135 psi boiler, 5ft2 grate area and 238ft2 total heating surface.

L.M.S.R. new stock: Liverpool and Southport electrified lines. 34-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation & plan)
24 three-car units built at Derby with English Electric electrical equipment. Lightweight rolling stock with Westinghouse electro-pneumatic brakes

F.C. Hambleton. Webb compounds: "John Hick" class L.N.W.R. 36-7.
Three-cylinder compounds with 6ft 3in driving wheels for Northern section. Full list of Crewe Works numbers, running numbers and introduction and withdrawal dates.

E.R.S. Watkin. Locomotives of the Appleby-Frodingham Steel Co. Ltd. Part 2. Appleby locomotives till 1934. 37-9. illustration
0-6-0T No. 50 illustrated: built Hudswell Clarke & Co. with 15 x 22in outside cylinders, 180 psi boiler pressure, 665ft2 total heating surface; 14ft2  grate area and 3ft 4in coupled wheels. Locomotives at the South Linc olnshire mines near Colsterworth. Locomotives of the North Lincolnshire Ironworks at Scunthorpde including Manning Wardle locomotives. From 1934 ther3e was a new standard with 18 x 22in cylinders; 982ft2 total heating surface; 18ft2  grate area and 3ft 8in coupled wheels.

An early Canadian engine. 39. illustration
Originally supplied as a 4-4-0 for Canadian broad gauge (5ft 6in) by the Globe Locomotive Works in Boston, USA in 1853/4 but converted to 0-4-4T for use on standard gauge Great Western Railway of Canada George Smith photographed at Hamilton, Ontario..

Train ferry services icebound. 40
Danish services between Copenhagen and Malmo and Sassnitz and Trälleborg.

Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn. 40
Supplied 0-4-0ST named Derwent to ICI

Blizzard near Beattock. 40
Six passenger, two freight and one newspaper train were trapped by snow: 200 soldiers and 100 railwaymen worked to clear the line

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. V. Water supplies and their treatment, boiler washing. 40-2. diagram
Diagram of Cowans Sheldon water crane. Notes dangers of using canal water as could contain acidic mining residues

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 43-4. 2 illustrations
Continued from Volume 45 page 341. 0-4-2ST

Some apspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department. 45-8. illustration

Lowe, A.C.W. The Neath and Brecon Railway. 48-52. illustration, map, 2 diagrams
RCTS Locomotives of the Great Western Railway Part 10 .

The locomotives of the Cannock and Rugeley Colliery Co. Ltd. 52-5. 8 illustrations.

Reviews. 55.

Mechanical World Year Book. Manchester: Emmott & Co.

Electrical Year Book. Manchester: Emmott & Co.

Principles of electric arc welding. T.H. Child. Epsom: Draughtsman Publishing Co.

Correspondence. 55-6.

Some aspects of braking. C.W. Clarke. 55

Famous locomotive engineers. P.C. Dewhurst. 56
The article on S.W. Johnson of the Midland Railway under "Famous Locomotive Engineers" is a particularly interesting one in a series which is itself of great interest; there are, however, one or two points which in the interests of the history of locomotive design may usefully be commented on, The Johnson 2-4-0s on the Midland Railway were much more direct descendants of Kirtleys 2-4-0s than of Johnson's previous designs of that type on the E. & G. Rly and G.E. Rly.; the wheelbase, inside and outside frames,. as also the general arrangement excepting the. reversing- rods and handwheel—but including the cab, mentioned later—deriving from Kirtleys engines. In the case of Johnson following Kirtley we have the, rather unusual, example of a successor finding two of his "outside-appearance" features, viz. the cab and the placing of the spring-balance safety-valves on the dome, already 111 use, the Kirtley cab having appeared on his M. Rly. "890" class of 1871—and also on some of his double-framed goods engines—and these cabs were indistinguishable from the Johnson cabs to the last except to those "in-the-know." None of the foregoing can be considered a lessening of Johnson's prestige, it being rather. the hall-mark of a good designer to incorporate good practice and. tradltlonaly existant "on the job" no matter how distinctive his own views may be, an example of this being evident on the G.E. Rly. itself where the outside frames of the later 2-4-0s -by Holden-carry on the style of Johnson's early 2-4-0s on that line. An appreciative reference to "finish" also appears in the article; to which may be added that extremely good "mechanical judgment" entered into the ~etalls of )ohn- son's designs, this having a preponderant influence the remarkable freedom from engine-failures characteristic of the latter half of Johnson's regime on the M.Rly.; and the trans-plantation of many of the features to other parts of the world has shown their value not to depend upon locality.

Famous locomotive engineers. C.F. Dendy Marshall. 56
The portrait on page 6 of "Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive," to which Mr. A.V. Green drew attention in your issue for December, is undoubtedly one of Boulton, and not Murdock.

A railway near the Arctic Circle.  E.E. Smith. 56
Isolated from other railways there is a British owned line, eighteen miles long, in Northern Norway which connects the Dunderland Iron Ore Mines at Starfosshei wIth. the coast near Mo-I-Rana. Both terminal points of the railway are on the road from Trondhjem to Bodo which crosses the Arctic Circle about 35 miles north of Starfosshei. A regular bus service runs between Crong, the railhead of the Norwegian State Railways and Bodo but this is destined to be supplanted if the extension of the Nordland Railway from Mo to Bodo is ever realised. The preliminary earthworks are already in existence as far as Mo-I-Rana and any extensions northwards would use the Dunderland line as far as Starfosshei. If this comes about a little known mineral line will form an important link in a great tourist route to the Far North. The engines shown in the accompanying photograph taken at Moi-I-Rana sheds are No. 3 0-6-0T built by Robert Stephenson & Co. in 1902 (No. 3005) and No. 5 4-6-0T built by Andrew Barclay in 1905 ( No. 1032).

Trade notes and publications. 56

Bassett-Lowke Ltd. 56
The vacancy on the board of Bassett-Lowke Ltd. caused by the death of Captain A.B. Lockhart, D.S.C., RN., in December, has now been filled by Mr. R Bindon Blood. Mr. Bindon Blood is at the present time managing director of Winteringham Ltd. of Northampton, the company producing the bulk of the locomotives and rolling stock sold by Bassett-Lowke Ltd.

Messrs. Ruston & Hornsby Ltd., Lincoln. 56
Had acquired the whole of the share capital of Messrs. Davey Paxman & Co. (Colchester) Ltd., the well-known oil engine builder; and boiler manufacturers. The business will be continued as heretofore under the Managing Directorship of Mr. E. P. Paxman.

Mr. C. W. Brett. 56
Author of "Repair of Rolling Stock by Fusive Methods" in our January issue, is Managing Director of Barimar Ltd.


No. 571 (15 March 1940)

Six months of War. 57-8

Metre gauge 4-6-2 locomotives, Leopoldina Railway, Brazil. 58-9. illustration

Institution of Locomotive Engineers Annual Dinner. 59

Some apspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department. 59-63. 3 illustrations
Freight hanndling and shunting methods

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XV. Thomas Russell Crampton. 67-70. 3 illustrations (including portrait and 2 drawings: side & front elevations)

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 71-4. 2 illustrations, 5 diagrams.
Bogies featured: GWR double bolster suspension; Sheffield-Twinbarrow bogies both for broad (5ft 6in) and narrow (metre) guages; GWR Dean bogie; London Passenger Transport Board motor bogie; LMS six-wheel bogie for sleeping cars and pressed steel freight bogie

Obituary. 74
A.S. Bailey began railway career on Metropolitan District Railway at Lillie Bridge Works under the Hon. S.A. Cecil, and then moved to LSWR at Nine Elms. In 1895 he became chief inspector of locomotive building in Glasgow for Sir Alex Rendel & Sons, Consulting Engineers. In 1897 appointed Works Manager at Jamalpur, East Indian Railway. From 1904 until 1912 he was chief mechanical engineer of the Bengal Nagpur Railway. In 1912 he joined Cammell, Laird & Co. as London Manager and in 1915 was appointed general manager of the National Projectile Factory Nottingham equipped by Cammell, Laird for the government. In 1921 he became a director of Cammell, Laird. He retired in 1933.

L. Derens. The Dutc h State Railway Company. 74-6. illustration, diagram
Includes details and diagram of experimental use of pulverized fuel instigated by P. Labrijn, Chief Engineer, to burn Limburg coal.

A new charcoal gas railcar. Italian State Railways. 76-8. 2 illustrations
built by Ansaldo company

Light railcars, Cie du Chemin de Fer du Bas-Congo au Katanga. 78-9. 2 illustrations
Two Wickham & Co. 3ft 6in gauge petrol railcars with mechanical transmission (Mylius type preselecctor gearbox) and two Ford V8 engines with first class seating and an area for luggage and natives

Some modern locomotive steels. 79-83. 3 diagrams
Thos. Firth & John Brown Ltd of Sheffield: Firth Brown products: Firthag (medium carbon steel), Nitralloy special steels (treated with ammonia gas). Diagrams show the range of compositions and properties.

Outsize train loads. 84.

L.N.E.R.: interesting rebuild. 84. illustration
When the former Hull & Barnsley Q10/2 class was withdrawn the relatively new boilers were transferred to some of the W. Worsdell 0-8-0s of NER Classes T and T1 (LNER Q5). The photograph shows No. 654 in original condition and No. 939 as reboilered..

No. 572 (15 April 1940)

The problem of nationalisation. 85-6.

2-8-8-4 articulated locomotives, Southern Pacific Lines. 86-7. 2 illustrations
Designed for haulage on climb to 6274 ft summit between El Paso and Tucumcari, a climb of 3000 ft at high speed (75 mile/h specified). 24 x 32in cylinders, 5ft 3½ driving wheels, 250 psi boiler pressure, 139.3 ft2 grate area and 9749 ft2 total heating surface including 2281 ft2 of superheater.

Gooch's first locomotive for the G.W.R. 88-9. illustration
Firefly 2-2-2 with 15 x 18 inch cylinders and 7 foot driving wheels.

Obituary [Samuel Lucas]. 89
Samuel Lucas died on 18 March 1940, aged 79. He was former Chief Draughtsman of Kitson & Co.

New "Atlantic" type locomotives, Belgian National Railways Company. 89-90. diagram (side elevation)
Streamlined for hauling light expresses between Ostend and Brussels.

Mobile workshops for B.E.F. 91-2. diagram (side elevation & plan)
Consisted of three four-wheel vans (including one long wheelbase) which included an electricity generator, the workshop car (with lathes, etc) and an accommodation vehicle. Fitted with Westinghouse brake. Painted in khaki green. Engineered under the direction of R.A. Riddles. Director of Transport Equipment. Exhibited at Waterloo station and inspected by Major-General G.S. Szlumper.

Balloon gas specials. 92
Gas for barrage balloons for defence of London supplied by train from RAF depots.

New locomotives for Spain, Madrid, Saragossa and Alicante Railway. 92-3. illustration, 2 diagrams (including sectioned side elevation)

Locomotive returns. 93
Statistics for locomotive stocks removed from annual reports of the Four Main Line Companies.

L..N.E.R. 93
Darlington had placed V2 class Nos. 4672-5 8into service; rebuilt 4-6-0 No. 926 with Walschaerts valve gear and fitted 4-4-0 No. 365 with an experimental form of rotary cam valve gear. Southbound coal traffic was being hauled by all types of locomotive including Pacifics.

Morris, O.J. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives., Central Section. 93-4.
Continued from previous Volume see p. 344 Continued on page 181.

Instiution oof Locomotive Engineers. Electric motor coach trains. 95-7
H.H. Andrews: long precis of Paper 412 See also letter from W.T. Thompson. .

Some apspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department. 106-10. 2 illustrations

Battery locomotives for London Transport. 112. 2 illustrations
Metropolitan Vickers Ltd motors for powerful mixed mode: third rail at 600 V and battery at 300  V capable of operating over temporary track in association with works ttaking place to straighten Central Line tunnels

Major Samuel A. Forbes. 113
Obituary..Death of Major Samuel A. Forbes who died at his home in Perth on 14 March 14. He will long be remembered by a wide circle of friends. Major Forbes was a former leader of the Volunteer movement in Perth and became Major of the Cyclist Battalion, and later served with that unit in the Great War. Scottish Railway activities were for many years recorded by Major Forbes, and his wide knowledge about the locomotives of the Highland, G.N. of S., Caledonian and North British Railways was considered most authentic. There is a reproduction of a photograph by Major Forbes in the first number of The Locomotive (Moore' s Monthly llagazine) published January 1896, and many other contributions by him have appeared at intervals ever since. He had photographed practically every type of locomotive on the old Highland Railway and had recently been engaged in the study of the old railways around Newtyle.

A 3,500 [h.p.?] steam-diesel freight locomotive. 113
Built by the Kuibyshev Engineering Works, Kolomna,Russia; designed by L.M. Maizel, and could be operated by internal combustion and steam simultaneously, or by either. The steam engine of the locomotive worked on coal dust which, after conversion in a gas generator, also served as fuel for the Diesel engine. It was claimed the new engine operates on two-thirds the amount of fuel required by the ordinary steam locomotive of similar power. The driver's cab is in front and the controls are easily operated from the driver's seat. The fireman's cab is situated behind the boiler. The tender is mounted on two six-wheeled bogies and carries a coal pulveriser, a gas generator and a condenser.

C.L. Fry, Assistant Running Superintendent, Great Southern Railways, Transport Section. 113,
His interesting model railway and tramway system at Dundrum. Co. Dublin. Fry has designed and constructed the layout to a scale 7 mm. to 1 ft. in a room 25 ft. by 15 ft. The railway system is double line throughout and the walls of the room have scenery painted on them depicting villages, towns, seaside resorts, etc. Automatic block signalling is installed. The rolling stock includes locomotives of the latest types on the Great Southern Rys., L.M.S., L.N.E.R. and Southern, the latest Drumm Battery train, the Diesel car train on the Great Northern of Ireland and several passenger and goods vehicles. The tramway system is worked automatically from overhead wires. Included in the rolling stock are scale models of the Dublin-Blessington steam trams.

Reviews. 113·

The History of Bradshaw. G. Royde Smith. London and Manchester: Henry Blacklock & Co. Ltd.
The spate of literature in connection with the centenary of Bradshaw is a sure indication of the interest it has aroused, and but for the troublous times through which we are now passing, it is likely there would have been a public celebra- tion of the event. In our March issue we reviewed a book on the subject by Charles E. Lee and now we have a much larger treatise by G. Royde Smith. As it is issued by the publishers of Bradshaw it must be regarded as official and is certainly a valuable and interesting record and very well got up. In the main it confirms the story as given by Mr. Lee, and includes among other illustrations a portrait of George Bradshaw and a coloured picture of the "House of Bradshaw " in Albert Square, Manchester. There are also many reproductions of title pages and time tables, both coach and train, of various periods, and it would appear that there can be little more now to be written or said on this very interesting subject. As the first issue of the ' Railway Guide" in its well known form with yellow wrappers took place in December 1841 it is to be hoped that some further celebration may be possible when the centenary of the event arrives.

A History of the Great North of Scotland Railway.  Sir Malcolm Barclay-Harvey. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
Of all the principal railways of the pre-grouping era it is probable that less has been written about the Great North of Scotland than any other. This is no doubt due to it having been regarded as a purely local line serving a comparatively small and well defined area in the north-east of Scotland. Nevertheless it took an important part in the establishment of railway communication with the far North, was the first to adopt several innovations afterwards copied by its larger contemporaries, and was extensively patronised by the reigning monarchs and other royal personages both of this and other countries. The writing of its history is therefore very welcome and Barclay-Harvey has been at great pains to present it in a thorough and impar- tial manner. For this he is particularly well qualified as he has had access to many official documents and has an extensive personal knowledge of the system. In its early days it must be confessed that it was not a good railway. Its trains were slow and unpunctual, its charges high and its appreciation of public convenience hardly seemed to exist. Squabbles with its Highland neighbour were apparently perpetual, and it was not for many years that peace was established. In its later days, however, the Great North made ample atonement for its past delinquencies and no railway served its district better. Its quarrels with its old rival the Highland were made up and the trains between Aberdeen and Inverness were worked by both companies with their own engines throughout.The collection and setting forth of the many details of this interesting story have evidently been a labour of love to the writer and will be much ap- preciated. There is a special chapter devoted to the rolling stock and every locomotive that worked on the line is de scribed. It is profusely illustrated, mainly with full page photogravures, seventeen of which represent locomotives. The only grumble that can be made against these is that the illustration of Mr. Heywoods latest type was taken before the nameplates were affixed. The book is well got up and forms a noteworthy addition to railway bibliography. See also letter from WGT

John Brunton's book, 1812-1899—memories reproduced by J. H. Clapham. London: Cambridge University Press. 114
Probably John Brunton's name will not be very familiar to our readers, who have heard more of the elder Brunton, William, in connection with his Mechanical Traveller. John, however, had a career both diversified and interesting, as he was connected with most of the principal engineering activities of his time from the building of railways to hospitals. His early training was at the famous Hayle Foundry in Cornwall where he had the privilege of meeting Richard Trevithick and also worked with the latter's son Francis, later locomotive superintendent of the London and North Western Railway. One of his earliest railway undertakings was a tramroad in the Swansea Valley and later he was engaged on the London and Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds, and Maryport and Carlisle Railways. His most important work was, however, in India where he laid out the Scinde Railway during the course of which he was involved in many amusing and sometimes hazardous experiences. The story of his life was written by himself for the benefit of his grandchildren, but is now given to the public. It un- fortunately ceases in the early 1870s though John Brunton lived until 1899, but the period it covers is full of interesting episodes and the story of such a varied career is well worth putting on record.

Brazing: principles, materials & methods.-Manchester: Emmott & Co. Ltd. 114
This is another of the Mechanical World Monograph series and is a concise summary of the processes for the joining of metals other than by soldering or welding.

Holiday haunts 1940. London: Great Western Railway. 114
The G.W.R. have apparently decided that war or no war the public must have holidays and are taking steps to cater for them. Consequently "Holiday Haunts" has been published as usual and contains all its well known features. A fresh selection of photographs has been made for the illus- trations and the information has been as far as possible brought up to date. Such enterprise is worthy of encourage- ment and will we hope meet with the success it deserves.

Centenary of Dundee and Arbroath Railway. 114
April 1 marked the Centenary of the Dundee and Arbroath Railway, jointly owned by the L.N.E.R. and L.M.S., which generally speaking follows the North Coast of the Firth of Tay, for 17 miles on the level. Originally the gauge of the railway was 5 ft. 6 in. and the permanent way was laid on stone blocks. It was actually opened for traffic before the completion of its entire length on Saturday 6 October, 1838, and a temporary station was opened at Craigie about 1½ miles from the terminal at Dundee East. The engine hauling the train that day was named "Wallace" and was built hy Kinmond, Hutton & Steele. It had six wheels, the driving wheels being 5 ft. 6 in. diameter. The extension of the line to Roodyards, elose to Dundee East, was opened on 3 June 1839 and the completed railway between Dundee East and Arbroath was opened on 1 April 1840. On behalf of the joint owners, the L.N.E.R. and the L.M.S., the management of the Dundee and Joint Railway is to-dav conducted by the former company. -

Pamphlets and catalogues received, 114

All-welded overbridge constructed by London Transport at Hainault. 114
Murex Ltd. Hertford Road, Waltham Cross, Herts.

Hadfields Ltd. of East Heela and Heela \Vorks, Sheffield,  114
Brochures No, 438 and 440. The former deals with their "Era" non- corroding steels and contains useful information concerning the general properties and working characteristics of these special steels. Railway Track of Hadfields Patent "Era" Manganese Steel is the subject of brochure No. 440. The "Era" manganese steel possesses an unusually high work hardening capacity. In the manufactured state, its hardness is in tbe region of 220 Brinell, but immediately on the application of work it hardens considerably, until a figure as high as 580 Brinell is reached. Hundreds of Era manganese" steel crossings on the London Underground Railways are giving years of service where formerly ordinary steel rails would only last a few months.

Two 2.3-cwt. blooms raised by a 36-in. Witton-Kramer electric lifting magnet at one of the associated works of the English Steel Corporation Limited, Sheffield.  (photograph). 114

No. 573 (15 May 1940)

Publicity. 115-16.

4-8-2+2-8-4 Beyer-Garrett locomotive, Bengal-Nagpur Railway. 116-17. illustration
Supplied by Beyer-Peacock under the supervision of Sir John Wolfe Barry & Partners, Consulting Engineers.  Intended for the 54 mile Annuppur-Chirmin section. The Belpaire firebox was manufacturedc from steel and cotained Nicholson Thermic syphons. 5ft 6in gauge. 20½ x 26in (4) cylinders with 6½in piston valves, 4ft 8in coupled wheels, 3453ft2 total evapourative heating surface plus 661ft2 superheater. 70ft2 grate area, 210 psi working pressure.

L.M.S.R. 117
New Princess Coronation Pacifics ex-Crewe Works No. 6240 City of Coventry and 6241 City of Edinburgh. Two new diesel shunters Nos. 7091/2  and 4F 0-6-0 Nos. 4597/8 ex Derby Works: tenders fitted came from Jubilee class which acquired Stanier tenders. In anticipation of 100 new 8F 2-8-0 Coal Engine 0-6-0s renumbered into 20000 Series: 28152 and 28187. Withdrawn  Highland Railway 4-4-0 No. 14381 Loch Ericht and Precursor 4-4-0 No. 25188 Marquis and 0-6-0 Special Tanks Nos. 27351 and 27384.

Edward H. Livesay. On the Turbomotive's footplate. 118-21. 3 illustrations
Livesay's article formed part of a series which observed British locomotives at work through North American eyes. Introduces article by considering briefly the Ljungström 2-8-0 run by the Swedish Sta5te Railways where the turbine was placed in front of the smokebox. At the time of the return trip from Euston to Liverpool the Turbomotive had received a new boiler with a total heating surface of 2168ft2 total heating surface including 832ft2 superheater. 45ft2 grate area, 250 psi working pressure.  The outward journey was notable for starting without slipping and without sand from Euston up to Camden and away from Rugby and Crewe. "The engine played with its train". The turbine produced a musical singing sound and was known as "Gracie Fields" by the footplate crews. The return journey on a later day was fraught with a fire in poor condition. The boiler pressure was only 210 psi and a late start was made. By Sutton Weaver pressure was down to 160 psi. Nevertheless, it eventually recovered and from Crewe fast running was aachieved with a maximum of 83 mile/h being achieved, The ride was very good at speed and a deep subdued hum came from the turbine. Running in reverse backing onto the trains is also describes. .

L.M.S.R. 121
Platforms extended at Glasgow Central: No. 1 to 1030 yards and No. 11 to 1170 yards.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 122-3.
4-4-0 Nos. 15-18 built at Derby in 1891 to Johnson design. In 1896 Nos. 67/8, and in 1897 Nos. 7; 14, and 43 followed (using numbers from withdrawn locomotives). They included a modified version of the Adams bogie (the rubber was omitted). They had 5ft 9in coupled wheels, 18 x 24in cylinders, 1202ft2 total heating surface, 162ft2 grate area, 150 psi boiler pressure. Nos. 15-18 rebuilt with Deeley round top boilers with 1176ft2 total heating surface, and 160 psi Continued page 177.

New York Central system. 123
Fifty 4-8-2 locomotives on order with 5ft 9in coupled wheels and 25½ x 30in cylinders

A century of Austrian locomotive practice. 129-31. . 2 illustrations
Continued from previous Volume see p. 307: 4-6-4T No. 729.08 and 2-2-2T Series 12 illustrated

Locomotive tyre failures. 135-6.
Extensive precis of paper presented by Newberry to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Some apspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department. 136-8. 2 illustrations

Institution of Locomotive Engineers: recent developments in steam locomotive design in France. 139-41.
This interesting paper on Recent Developments Steam Locomotive Design was read before the Institution on 17 April 1940 at the the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, by M. Leguille and the author Monsieur Chan, Chef de la Division des Etudes de Locomotives a Vapeur, Societe Nationale des Chemins de Fer Francais. Mr O. V. S. Bulleid, President, took the chair.
The following are brief extracts [KPJ reproduced in full as not found in Journal subsequently acquired as a preprint from IMechE Library]:-
author commenced by referring to the progress made in steam locomotive design during the ten years in France since M. Chapelon converted the Paris Orleans Pacifics into 4-8-0 locomotives thereby almost doubling their power.
Similar conversions were made by the other railways and subsequently by the French National Railway Co. which took them over in 1938. Recently a number of new engines have been ordered of the Santa Fe (2-10-2) type and Decapod (2-10-0) type for goods traffic and of Baltic (4-6-4) type for passenger service.
In addition, some very special types have been built for experimen tal purposes, namely:
One locomotive with a Velox boiler;
One 4-6-4 locomotive with individual axle drive and high pressure boiler (850 lb. per sq. in.) ;
One 4-6-4 turbo-locomotive with separate turbines to each driving axle; and
One 2-12-0 freight locomotive with six cylinders in all, two high pressure and four low pressure.
Before dealing with these various engines, the Author mentioned two factors which have always governed the development of the steam locomotive in France. They have had to build economical engines with a low fuel consumption, as coal has to a large extent to be imported.  SecondIy, they must have powerful engines because of the weight of the trains. Since 1922 they have put into service steel coaches, very few of which of weigh less than 50 tons, and out of a total of 8988 bogie coaches, 3,155 are of all-steel construction, The weight of the passenger trains is usualIy about 640 tons and sometimes reaches 740 tons.
The Paris-Orleans Railway 4-8-0 locomotive designed by Monsieur Chapelon embodies most of the modern improvements in locomotive practice. The French railways are at present building 25 new engines of this type, which will be delivered this year and are intended for the haulage of heavy express passenger trains on the main line between Paris and Lyons, where long gradients of in 125 are encountered. These engines will be fitted with a mechanical stoker.
Their principal dimensions are as follows:- Wheel diameter, 1,850 mm. (6. ft. 1 in.'). High pressure cylinders: diam. 440 mm. (17.5 iri.}: stroke, 650 mm. (25.5 in.). Low pressure cylinders: diam. 640 mm. (25.5  in.); stroke, 650 mm. (25.5 in.). Working pressure, 20 kg. per sq. cm. (285 lb. per sq. in.). Grate area, 3.76 m2. (40.45 sq. ft.). Exhaust, Kylchap double chimney. Superheater, Houlet type giving 400-425° Cent. (750-800° Fahr.). Speed, 75 m.p.h. (can be raised to 87 m.p.h.). Tractive effort, 3,000 h.p, on the drawbar at 62 m.p.h. Coal consumption, 2.20 lb. per hour per h.p. on the drawbar at 62 m.p.h.
The weight is 107 tons plus 79 tons for the tender which has a capacity of about 10,000 galls. This locomotive is particularly remarkable for its small. grate area (40.45 sq. ft.) and reduced weight in spite of the very high horse-power available in the cylinders, about 4,000 h.p. This engine seems to have retained the record for the lowest weight per h.p., 60.6 lb. per h.p. Owing to the separate passages specially designed for steam and smoke, the Kylchap exhaust secures a given vacuum with a considerably reduced back pressure; the back pressure, as compared with that of the older "trèfle" exhaust, is reduced to one half for the low consumption rates and to one third for the higher ones. As much as 250 h.p. is gained at full power.
There are other types of exhausts to be found on French locomotives with the necessary widths of steam ports, which give approximately the same good results.
The P.L.M. type with crossed-bars and double nozzle petticoat is of the variable type to meet variations in the quality of the coal and the usages of firemen.
The Lemaitre type with six nozzles, five of which are fixed round a central one which is variable, a movable part in the shape of a pear making it possible to shut, partly or entirely, the steam exhaust by the central nozzle.
These improved types of exhausts have allowed of an increase in the rates of combustion in the boilers to an extent which could hardly be obtained before. It has been possible to burn more than 2,200 lb. per 10.76 sq. ft. on the grate of 40.45 sq. ft. area fitted to the above mentioned engmes, and about 1,980 lb. per 10.76 sq. ft. on the 46.26 sq. ft. grates of the "Pacific" engines and to obtain easily from existing boilers a steam output of 44,000 lb. per hour.
The evaporation rate attained has reached 220 lb. per 10.76 sq. ft. of superheating surface. In practice at maximum output it is 165 lb. per 10.76 sq. ft. This figure, although high, presents no disadvantage with the welded steel fireboxes with welded flues which are now the rule on the French railways.
In the firebox of the 2-10-2 class P locomotives, there is installed a Nicholson syphon, which value must be well known. Its use in steel fireboxes, whether of the wide or narrow type, does not give rise to any difficulty. As regards copper fireboxes, they have only had experience with a few Pacific engines of the Eastern and South-Eastern Regions, and found some leakage or cracks at the connection with the tube plate. They succeeded in repairing these by welding and in maintaining them in service for 240,000 miles without further repair.
The next improvement to be referred to is that realised in superheating. The engine in question is fitted with a Houlet type superheater, which gives the 750° Fahr. considered necessary. Another pattern taken from amongst the latest designs and adapted from the French railways is the "5.P.4" type of the Superheater Company. It embodies four outer tubes for the first branch of the loop and a fifth in the centre for the second branch. These superheaters have the advantage of securing a high temperature together with a low pressure loss, and a saving of about%. in comparison with previous superheaters which only gave a temperature of 570° Fahr. This is one of the most important successes achieved by French locomotive designers.
Reverting to the description of the 4-8-0 locomotive, attention must be drawn to the great improvement effected in the steam ports. Their section was previously 1/10 of the cylinder section. lt is now twice as large and equivalent to 1/5th of that of the cylinder. The capacity of the steam chests has been increased to that of the cylinders in order to avoid oscillations in pressure. In addition, large diameter poppet valves were used.
As a result, it was possible to raise the pressure in the intermediate receiver from about 30 lb. to 85 lb. per sq. in., while the low pressure cylinders produced approximately the same output as the high pressure cylinders. The usual objection made to the compound engine of having unproductive and therefore useless low pressure cylinders was thus removed.
The use of poppet valve is one of the improvements of which particular advantage has been taken in France, either for equipping all the cylinders of an engine, or only the low pressure cylinders where the use of large steam ports entails difficulty. For that reason there is now in France a total of 335 locomotives equipped with poppet valves. But poppet valves do not represent the only progress made in order to improve the steam ports. Piston valves with double inlet and outlet are also used, the maintenance of which does not entail the employment of such skilled fitters as poppet valves.
The piston valve adopted by the Eastern Region is adaptable to existing cylinders. It has made possible on the "Mikado" locomotives (2-8-2) an increase in the tractive effort from 1,400 to 2,000 h.p., and it has just been decided by the French railways to fit this type of piston valve on the 680 2-8-2 engines of the "C" class of the South-Eastern Region (formerly the P.L.M.).
Another type is the Willoteaux piston valve for use with new cylinders, which has been fitted on many "Pacific" engines of the Western and South-Western Regions. It has been adopted for the new 2-8-2 engines of the "P" class, of which 50 are now under construction.
It would, perhaps, be as well at this point to summarise the results of all these different improvements. When applied, for instance, to the "Pacific" locomotives, of which there are altogether 1,500, the practical results are as follows: Whereas an engine designed before 1930 developed at 75 m.p.h. a tractive effort at the drawbar of barely 1,300 h.p. with a coal consumption of 3.3 lb. per horse-power hour, the improved Pacifics now develop, under the same conditions, a tractive effort of 2,400 h.p., that is to say, an increase of over 80 per cent. in power with, moreover, a coal consumption reduced to 2.42 lb. per horse-power hour, or an economy of nearly10 per cent.
The most recent and powerful goods engine is the 2-10-2 of the Eastern Region which was designed to haul goods trains of 1,600 tons up 1 in 100 gradients. It is fitted with a Caprotti poppet valve gear. Its weight is 134 tons and is capable of developing a tractive effort of 67,200 lb. on the drawbar by the use of a booster on the pony truck.
The 4-6-4 engines "R" and "S" class for the Northern Region are, with one exception in 1912, the first engines of the Hudson or Baltic type to be built in France for fast passenger trains.
There will be four of the single expansion "R" class and four of the compound "S" class. These very powerful engines were ordered for a special purpose; they were to have wide fireboxes and large grate areas, according to American practice, and a comparison was to be made between the single expansion and the compound types from the point of view of maintenance costs and coal consumption. Economy in maintenance costs is, in fact, a very acute problem in France to-day. As you can see, the French Railways, while preferring compound engines owing to the resultant saving in coal consumption, are making further tests in order to examine the other aspects of the problem.
Standard types under construction or design are principally goods locomotives.
The 2-10-0 Northern Region engines of the "P" class with 4 ft. 11 in. driving wheels, of which fifty-one are being built, will be capable of hauling coal trains of 2,000 tons between Lens and Paris (maximum gradients 1 in 60). These engines have a very high adhesion weight, but a relatively small h.p. with a maximum of 2,000 on the drawbar at 50 m.p.h.
A new class of engine of the 2-8-2 type will be the first designed by the French Railways since the formation of the S.N.C.F., and is intended to solve the problem of the general utility engine. The problem of the general utility engine is rather more difficult than it appears, because the engine must be suitable to run over all lines and therefore have a restricted weight per axle, and a total length in accordance with that of the turntables available on the lines concerned. The steam ports must be carefully designed owing to the high turning velocity of the wheels, the diameter of which is relatively small.
In France the general utility engine must have at least four coupled axles in order to be able to haul a 650 ton train at 62 m.p.h. and also 1,000 tons at 50 m.p.h. It must also be able to run up to 68 m.p.h. Owing to the limitation of total length referred to above, it is necessary to use a pony truck as leading axle and not a bogie.
The particulars of the engine are as follows:- wheel diameter, 1,650 mm.; weight per driving axle, 18,500 kg. ; grate area, 4.25 m2; working pressure, 20 kgs. per sq. cm.; cylinders: high pressure, diam. 410 mm.; stroke, 700 mm.; low pressure, diam. 640 mm.; stroke, 700 mm.; tractive effort at 85% of working pressure, 24,000 kg.
Both the 2-10-0 "P" class and the 2-8-2 "P" class have the low pressure cylinders located between the frames. It is the standard location for compound engines and without doubt the best, having regard to the blast pipe, but it is rather difficult of realisation when the low pressure cylinders have a large diameter and are in line with the high pressure cylinders.
Of all the special experimental engines ordered by the French Railways in the last few years, only the engine with a Velox boiler could be tested before the outbreak of war.
The French Railways wanted to try steam engines without coupling rods, as on electric locomotives. They ordered two engmes very different in design. These are now completed, but not yet tested. They are turbo-locomotive 4-6-4 class "Q", built by Schneider, with 5 ft. wheels, and the 4-6-4 class "P" with separate engines to each driving axle and 850 lb. per sq. in boiler pressure.
Monsieur Chapelon has .designed a new goods  engine of the 2-12-0 type which was completed at the beginning of this year. It was designed with the object of reducing coal consumption still further. It is, of course, a compound engine, but with two h.p. and four l.p. cylinders. There are two superheaters, one in front of the h.p. cylinders and another one between the h.p. and the l.p. cylinders. In addition to this, the cylinders have an "envelope." The steam passes through the " envelope" and preheats the cylinders before entering them.
The locomotive which was fitted with a Velox boiler by the Compagnie Electro-Mecanique at its Le Bourget works, is an old 4-6-0 passenger engine, the ordinary boiler of which was removed and replaced by the Velox boiler. The latter is very efficient, very quick in action, and capable of continuous service. The working pressure was fixed at 285 lb. per sq. in. owing to the fact that the existing cylinders of the former locomotive were-retained.
The efficiencv of the boiler is excellent, and remains at 85 per cent. The working of the boiler is actually automatic. If the main throttle is suddenly closed, for instance, when the boiler is working at its maximum output, the working pressure increases but never exceeds 350  psi With this boiler there is no blast-pipe, and therefore there is no need for back-pressure. The cylinders of this engine can release the exhaust steam, at about 2 psi instead of 30psi as with an ordinary locomotive. At 75 m.p.h. this results in a gain of about 170 h.p. over and above that obtained by the higher efficiency of the boiler. It was calculated that, whereas an ordinary locomotive burns 2.205 lb. of coal or 2.36 lb. of heavy fuel oil, the locomotive 4-6-0 of the "E" class with Velox boiler burns only 1.256 lb. of 0.91 density, fuel oil.
Up to the outbreak of war, the Velox locomotive: had run 12,000 miles without failure. An interesting discussion was opened by Mr Stanier and the following speakers took part: Mr R. A. Riddles, Mr. Julian Tritton, Mr. Cyril Williams, Mr. T. H. Turner, Mr. W. A. Willox, Mr. J. Pelham-Maitland, and Mr. H. Holcroft.
Note.-Class " Q" 4-6-4, Class "P" 4-6-4, see "The· Locomotive" for August 1937. Velox Boiler, see" The Locomotive" for April 1940.

Review. 141

Scale railway modelling today Edward Beal. London: A. and C. Black, Ltd.

Correspondence. 142

Locomotive design. W.B. Thompson.
Electrification enthusiasts should remember that only a bad case needs to be supported by inaccurate figures. In the paper of which you print an abstract on page 95 of the April Issue we read "Prior to electrification the Southern Railway fast train from Waterloo to Portsmouth took 118 minutes. This has been replaced by a "multiple unit train, the main portion of which stops "only at Guildford and proceeds to Portsmouth, taking " a total time of 90 minutes." In fact, the electric service to Portsmouth began in July 1937. In 1935 steam-hauled trains were running between Waterloo and Portsmouth in 90 minutes, and electrification has not given any acceleration on this timing.

A history of the G.N. of S.R. W.G.T. 142
Re Sir M. Barclay-Harveys story of the G.N. of S. Railway and notice that he makes no mention of the curious practice of that railway in allowing passengers to travel in the brake vans of goods trains. The Company's rules permitted passengers so to travel on payment of the first class fare and the signing of an acknowledgment that the Company was not responsible for any loss or injury while so doing. A nasty accident with fatal results occurred on the Alford branch on 11 September 1888, which writer believed led to the withdrawal of these facilities. The Kittybrewster to Alford goods train was shunting some wagons at Ratch Hill Siding when twelve loaded wagons and the brake van which had been left standing on the line for about ten minutes suddenly started to move. The track is here on a fairly sharp gradient and the whole thirteen vehicles, weighing 127 tons, ran some miles at a constantly increasing speed until wrecked in a siding at Kintore, two passengers who were travelling in the brake van being instantly killed. At the official enquiry into the accident no explanation was offered as to why the wagons, after remaining stationary for some time, should suddenly start to move. That they stood stationary for a time seemed to prove that the brake must have been on and the suggestion was made that one of the two passengers who were travelling in the brake van must have tampered with the brake.

South Australian locomotive. Leslie G. Poole. 142
I desire to support A.V. Green, whose letter appeared in LM January issue, in stating that South Australian Railways Locomotive No. I4 was not obtained from New Zealand. This engine was built by Slaughter, Grunning in I864, maker's No. 587, and was shipped direct to South Australia and went into service, September 1865, being rebuilt in 1886 and condemned in August I899.
The enclosed list of locomotives obtained by the South Australian Railways from the Canterbury Railway, New Zealand, in 1877 may be of interest. From this it will be seen that nine engines and a frame were purchased. The frame was of Canterbury Railway No. 1 a 2-4-0T, Slaughter Grunning, No. 488 of 1863, which had been scrapped in New Zealand about 1875. This frame and parts from S.A.R. first No. 2, a Fairbairn 2-4-0 built in 1855 and scrapped in 1874, were rebuilt at the Adelaide Loco. Works in 1882 to form S.A.R. No. 56, class EZ " as a 2-4-0 tender engine.
List of Locomotives, South Australian Railways, purchased from the Canterbury Railway, New Zealand.

S.A.R. number Class Type Builder WN Date into SAR service Rebuilt Condemned CR No.
43 M 0-4-2T Avonside







44 M 0-4-2T Avonside







45 M 0-4-2T Avonside







46 M 0-4-2T Avonside







47 M 0-4-2T Avonside







48 L 0-4-0T Neilson






49 E 2-4-0T Avonside







50 E 2-4-0T Slaughter Grunning






51 E 2-4-0T Slaughter Grunning







The reason for the period between 1877, when the engines were purchased and the dates of going into service, is that the ship, Hyderabad, upon which the engines were loaded at Lyttleton, New Zealand, and leaving there on the 22 June, 1878, was wrecked off the South Australian coast, and it was with much difficulty that the engines were salvaged.

6 March, 19-10. The 50th Annual Dinner of the Past and Present Crewe Pupils and Premium Apprentices will be held at Oddeniuos Hotel, Regent Street, London, on Friday, May 24, and the chairman will be Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E. Mr. Reginald Terrell, Honorary Secretary of this function, would like to hear from past Crewe men wishing to attend. His address is 3 Victoria Street, London, S. W. 1.

INSTITUTION OF Locoxro rrvn ENGINEERs.-The following Candidates have been elected:-Members: C. E. Broxup, Inspecting Engineer for Egyptian @ Sudan Govts. in Mid- lands, 39 Corporation St., Birmingham; A. G. Corrie, Director of Messrs. J. B. Corrie @ Co., Ltd., and FeJco Hoists Ltd.; . Tate, :\Iechanical Engineer, Rio Tinto Co. Ltd.; A. F. Walters, Asst. Director, Transportation Equip- ment, Ministry of Supply. Associate Member: P. T. Ming, Engineer of Szechuen-Yunnan Rly. Graduates; D. K. Subarwal , Pupil at Darlington, L.N.E. Rly.; A. W. Turner, Engineering Research, L.i\I.S. Rly. Transfers from Asso- ciate Member to Member: Brian Fawcett, Acting Asst. C.M.E., Central Ry , of Peru. From Graduate to Associate Member: A. H. Emerson, Technical Assistant, C.M.E. Dept., L.N.E.R. (Electrical Section); G. H. K. Lund, Inspector, Gateshead High Shed, L.N.E. Rly.; G. L. Nicholson, Loco. Foreman, Southern Rly., Norwood June. -


No. 574 (15 June 1940)

Disciplline. 143

Rolling stock for the B.E.F. 144-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
LMS 8F 2-8-0 modified for French conditions mainly fitting of Westinghouse brake; also Frernch style rolling stock.

0-6-0 & 0-4-0 tank locomotives, the Butterley Company. 145. 2 illustrations
Bagnall & Co.

L.M.S.R. 145
Streamlined Pacific No. 4642 City of Glasgow had Been built at Crewe Works. Derby Works had built diesel shunter No. 7095. Former Caledonian Railway 4-4-0 No. 14328 had been withdrawn. Coronation Scot train had gone into store in USA.

G.W.R. 145
New locomotives ex-Swindon Works: 2-8-0 Nos. 3820-2; 0-6-0PT Nos. 3672-4.

Personal. 145
A.J. Deacon succeeded R.J. Chalmers (who had retired) as CME Queensland Government Railways: Deacon had formerly been Locomotive Workshops Superintendent.

4-6-0 type passenger locomotive, Jaipur State Railways, India. 146. illustration
Metre gauge 4-6-0 built by Hunslet Engine Co. under supervision of Robert White & Partners, Consulting Engineers

Air conditioned steel coaches, South African Railways and Harbours (3ft 6 in gauge). 147-8. 2 illustrations

New lightweight cars. Delaware and Hudson R.R. 148-9. 4 illustrations
American Car and Foundry Co. built six passenger cars each 84ft 9in long for services like the Laurentian between New York and Montreal. Photographs show weled body prior to addition of trim as well as interior and exterior of completed carraiges.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 150-3. map.
Introduction. Reprinted True Line, 1995 (48) 7-9

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XIV. David Joy. 153-7. 3 illustrations (including portrait), diagram
One in series not included in Twenty locomotive men. Notes on page 156 that Joy valve gear last fitted to Beames 0-8-4T

L.I. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 158-60. 2  illustrations, 3 diagrams

[F.C. Anker retirement from LMS]. 160.
Retired at end of June 1940 after 47 years service. Joined Derby Locomotive Works in 1893 as a pupil. After experience in Derby Running Shed appoited Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent at Bristol in 1902. Subsequently held similar position at Leicester. Became District Locomotive Superintendent at Buxton in 1909, at Skipton in 1919, at Wellingborough in 1921 and Nottingham in 1928 (from where he retired).

Weston, Clevedon and Portishead Railway. 160
Closed 18 May 1940.

An old "Crampton" locomotive. 160-1. illusstration (drawing: side elevation)
2-2-0T built by Robert Stephenson & Co. (WN 1644) and supplied to the Egyptian Government

No. 575 (15 July 1940)

Clear thinking. 171-2

0-8-0 diesel locomotive, Trinidad Government Railways. 172. 2 illustrations
Built by the Hunslet Engine Co.under the supervision of the Crown Agents using a Paxman-Ricardo 6RZ engine started by a Ford V8 petrol engine. Designed to operate at high tropical temperatures. Fitted with Westinghouse brake.

Some apspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department. 173-6. 3 illustrations
Civil engineering. Noted the River class "incident" on the Highland Railway. The four main line companies employed 50,000 permanent way men, purchased 257,000 tons of rail. 3 million sleepers and 1.3 million tons of ballast. Rail length was mainly 60 ft. The GWR had purchased steel sleepers to alleviate the deprerssion in the steel industry. The Southern Railway had laid welded rail in Quarry Tunnel . The LMS was experimenting with 120ft length flat bottomed rail. Higher speeds led to the use of the Hallade track recorder being used tom monitor the track and some ralignment, notably at Stafford, had been implemented.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 177-9. 4 illustrations
Continued from 122. Between 1907 and 1911 4-4-0s were rebuilt with the H1 boiler modified for the shorter frames: No. 67 in 1907; Nos. 68 and 17 in 1908, No. 45 in 1909, Nos. 14/15 an 16 in 1910 and No. 18 in 1911. In 1926 No. 45 was rebuilt with a G7 Belpaire boiler and No. 17 was given new frames and a G7 boiler in 1927 (illustrated in this form). Nos. 67/8 were scrapped in 1920/1 and Nos. 15 and 16 in 1928. The two 0-4-0STs with outside cylinders, Nos. 26A and 45A, had been built at Highbridge in 1895. Part ends with a classification system for the locomotives in stock.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 179
A.H.C. Page, LMS Metallurgist had been awarded the Trevithick Prize for his paper on the heat treatment of steels.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers (Indian and Eastern Centre). Diesel electric shunting locomotives. 179-81
Precis of a paper by P.R. Agarwal where advantages claimed were:
Successful in operation and performance.
Controls are easy and shunting movements are performed expeditiously.
Very good torque compared to its weight.
Can remain in service for a week at a time.
Avoids the trouble of refuelling and water.
Due to its quick operation in shunting movements. a less number of Diesel electric shunters would be required compared to steam locos.
Although the first cost is slightly high. it can be brought down if more engines are obtained.
Comparatively cheap in operation as savings work out to about 10% of the cost after allowing for interest and depreciation compared to steam operation.
In India there were on the whole about 5,200 broad gauge and 2,200 narrow gauge locomotives. Of these about 1,500 were employed mainly for shunting operations. Never appears to have been published in Journal Institution of Locomotive Engineers

Morris, O.J. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives., Central Section. 181-3:
Continued from page 93 Marsh Goods Class C3 0-6-0

Centenary of the excursion train. 183.
On 14 June 1840 an excursion was run from Newcastle to Carlisle and back. Thomas Cook and Rowland Hill came in slightly later: the latter when chairman of the London & Brighton Railway in 1844.

Sanding equipment for railcars. 183-5. 3 diagrams.
As applied by the Buenos Aires Western Railway, Madras & Southern Mahratta Railway and the Western Australian Government Railways.

Southern Railway. 185
Old Bodmin & Wadebridge Railway carriage which had been exhibited on the circulating area at Waterloo station had been removed.

L.M.S.R. 185
New streamlined  Princess Coronation Pacifics ex-Crewe Works: Nos. 6243 City of Leicester and 6244 City of Leeds. These completed an order for ten in the 1939 programme. One 4F 0-6-0 No. 4596 was completed at Derby: aa former Jubilee class tender was fitted. Diesel shunters Nos. 7096 and 7097 were turned out from Derby Works. Webb Coal engines Nos. 8128 and 8133 were renumbered 28128 and 28133. Class 6 0-8-0s Nos. 8896, 8942, 9009, 9036, 9046, 9077. 9318, 9348 and 9377 had been reclassified as Class 7 and Class 7 0-8-0s Nos. 9089 and 9372 had been reduced to Class 6.

C.F. Dendy Marshall. British locomotives in North America. 186-9.
Supplements Author's Two essays in early locomotive history. (Locomotive Publishing Co., 1928). Concerned with invention of locomotive bogie: contenders include W. Chapman, John B. Jervis, Ross Winans, Horatio Allen. Mainly United States, although single reference to Mexico, and some to Canada. Cites Railway and Locomotive Historical Society Bulletins. See letter from William T. Hoecker,

J.G.B. Sams. Mixed traffic engines: a suggestion..189
Proposed a two or three speed geared steam locomotive using quill or quill and jackshaft drive.

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. V. Water supplies and their treatment, boiler washing. 190-5. 3 diagrams
Economical Boiler Wasing Co. plant exploiting White patent: hot water system.

A powerful miniature locomotive. 195. illustration
0-8-0 tender locomotive added to V. Burgoyne's Crowthorne Farm Railway in Berkshire. Built to a scale of 2.7 in. = 1 ft. to 3 ft. 6 in. (9.5 inch gauge) The driving wheels were 9 in. diameter, the third pair being flangeless. The two cylinders were slightly under scale bemg 2.5 in. with a stroke of 4 in. The valve gear was Walschaerts type. The boiler was made of 1/16in. plate and had a working pressure of 160 psi was 14 inches in diameter, and fitted with 32 i-in. tubes. The grate area is 180 sq. in. The plate frames are t in. thick. The total length over tender is 11 ft. 6 in. and the width over foot- plates is 24 in. The height to the top of chimney is 32 in. and the centre line of the boiler is 21 ~ inches above rail level. - The engine has been tested with a load of six tons behind the tender, which it hauls with ease- on the level, and two tons up a 1 in 50 incline. A normal load over the line is four bogie ballast hopper wagons about 12 ft. long, tareing 2t cwt. with a gross weight of about t ton each. She has hauled these together with a steel colonial type bogie van and two 2.7 in. scale S.A.R. main line passenger coaches with ten children in each mak- ing a total load of about 3 tons, over 1/65 grades. with 160/170 lb. of steam in full gear and wide open regulator. Steam brakes are fitted to all wheels. The engine was built under Burgoyne's supervision in his own workshops.

Irish Notes. 195

L.M.S. Northern Counties Committee.
No. 102, 2-6-0 passenger engine was in service.

Great Southern Rys.-
No. 802 Tailte completed and had been out on trial. No additional trains were being put on for the summer season, but existing service would be duplicated when necessary.

Great Northern Ry.
An additional express train from Dublin to Belfast, carrying through coaches for Portrush. and Bangor, would leave Dublin on Saturdays during July and August, at 10.0 a.m. The return train leaving Belfast. at 2.45 p.m., the existing train leaving at this hour being altered to 2.55 p.m. on Saturdays. The up train had a fast timing between Drogheda and Dundalk, 22½ miles in 23 minutes. There is also a new train from Belfast to. Warrenpoint on Saturdays at 2.30, making the run of 50¾ miles without any intermediate stop, in 1 hour l0 min. The tramway between Dublin and Lucan was closed down. on April 13.

The Londonderry and Lough Swilly Railway (Burtonport Extension).. 195
Closed  on 18 May 1940; the line to Buncrana. would still function for goods and occasional summer passenger trains.

Obituary. 195
Death of D.A. Hendrie, former Chief Mechanical' Engineer of the South African Railways. Hendrie was responsible for many important developments connected with the. 3 ft. 6 in. gauge.

Southern Rly.195
The special' weed killing train, illustrated and described in our Sept. issue, 1937, had been converted into a mobile fire fighting unit to be used to deal with fires in places to which outside fire fighting units, cannot easily gain access.

No. 576 (15 August 1940)

The amenities of rail travel.  197-8

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XVI. John Chester Craven. 199-203. 5 illustrations (including portrait).

American streamliners for Portugal. 203.
Budd export of lightweight cars from Philadelphia to Portugal for service between Lisbon, Oporto and Irun.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 204-7. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations), table

G.W.R. railcars. 207-9. illustration, 2 tables.
Associated Equipment Co. (AEC) gets a great deal of attention including the six-cylinder diesel engines as used on London Transport buses: no mention of Swiudon,  nor chief mechanical engineer. Notes full streamlining discontinued and multiple unit or trailer operation. Test running of railcar No. 19 between Southall and Westbury.

Oil fired 2-10-4 locomotive with booster. Canadian Pacific Railway. 210-11. illustration, diagra (side elevation)
Designed H.B. Bowen, Chief of Motive Power and built at Montreal Locomotive Works.

L,T. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 212-14. 5 illustrations, diagram
Coil elliptic double truss freight car trucks, with cast frames and bolsters. Simplex Snubbers

2-4-0 locomotive. Rhymney Ironworks, Tredegar. 214-15
Designed by Moyle in about 1866 for 3ft gauge tramway using L-shape plates. The locomotive had inclined inside cylinders (8 x 16in) and 2ft 8in coupled wheels. The suspensin on the traing axle was unusual, ass was a steam brake. It was described in Engineering Volume 4 on pp. 173 and 329.

Southern Railway. 215.
Nos. 2221, 2226 and 2356 (0-4-2 T) and No. 185 (0-4-4 tank) scrapped, as well as No. 2034, the last of the 14 class of 4-4-2 tanks. No. 2526 is another 0-6-0 to be rebuilt into C2X class. The remainder of the E4 class (0·6-2 tanks) had been given new circular smokeboxes resting on saddles.

L.M.S. locomotive is named "Home Guard". 215
The first engine-naming ceremony since the outbreak of war took place at Euston Station, London, on 30 July 1940 when L.M.S. Patriot Class (5 XP) 4-6-0 No. 5543, which stationed at Carlisle, was christened Home Guard in honour of the Local Defence Volunteer Corps. The ceremony was performed by Lt.-General Sir Henry Pownall, K.B.E., C.B., M.C., Inspector-General of the Home Guard. A guard of honour more than forty strong was mounted by the Euston L.M.S. Section of the Home Guard, whilst both the enginemen in charge of No. 5543 for the occasion—Driver L.Y. Pile of Camden, and Fireman W.J. Osbourne of Willesden—were members of the Home Guard.
Presiding at the ceremony, Lord Stamp disclosed an "immediate and inspiring" response to the call for railwaymen to enrol in the Home Guard for the defence of vulnerable points on the railway, and mentioned that no fewer than 46,000 men of the L.M.S. had volunteered for Home Guard service. Stressing the value of the esprit de corps of the railway service as a war-time asset, Lord Stamp said that of the companies now formed in the L.M.S., 75,000 men joined the Forces in WW1; 65,000 of them returned of whom more than 40,000 are still in the service, and about half of these have so far joined the Home Guard. More than 15,000 L.M.S. employees were serving with the Armed Forces or in whole-time Civil Defence.
Drawing attention to the large number of L.M.S. express locomotives already named after famous regiments and corps, and after famous ships of the Royal Navy, Lord Stamp said that the Company was proud that No. 5543 Home Guard was joining this number.

G.W.Ry. 215.
Nos. 5996 Mytton Hall, 5997 Sparkford Hall, 5998 Trevor Hall, 5999 Wollaton Hall, 6900 Abney Hall, 690I Arley Hall, 6902 Butler's Hall and 6903 Belmont Hall, fnrther 4-6-0 express engines completed at Swindon. Another 2-8-0 No. 3823 and ten more 0-6-0 goods engines, Nos. 2211, 2212, 2213, 22I4, 2215, 2216, 2217, 2218, 2219 and 2220 in service. Five more 0-6-0 tank engines, Nos. 3675, 3676, 3677, 3678, and 3679 at work.

Rhodesia Railways. 215.
Four Beyer-Garratt 4-6-4+4-6-4 type locomotives delivered, intended for passenger services between Mafeking and Bulawayo, a distance of 484 miles. .

Mastering momentum. 219-22.
Based on a publication by L.K. Sillcox, Vice President of the New York Air Brake Co. Notes manifestations such as flaming brake cast iron shoes, carbon inserts, composition materials containing asbstos based on those used by the automotive industry;m the Decelakron, friction, retardation. See also 236 et seq

Firegrates. 222-3.
Design, general design to cope with a variety of coal types, afford good air flow and combustion, avoiding clinker formation. Mention is made to rocking grates.

Southern Railway. 223.
A 60ft bogie coach had been adapted as a cinema coach seating 56 with a diesel generator to provide power.

G.E.C. heavy duty slipping motors. 223-4. illustration, diagram

Lubrication of locomotives and rolling stock in the U.S.A. 224
Grease was used to used to lubricate journals. Contractors were employed to lubricate rolling stock.

Centenary of Derby Works, L.M.S.R. 224
Robert Stephenson was appointed to manage the motive power in February 1839 and this agreement ended in August 1842. W.P.Marshall was Superintendent of the Locomotive Department from the opening of the line until 1843 and was succeeded by Thomas Kirtley until May 1844.

Tripple-deck sleeping cars. 224.
Pullman cars for service in USA. Air conditioned and accommodated 45 passengers.


No. 577 (14 September 1940)

Into the second year. 224
Sombre editorial reflecting the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from France, the loss of Narvik and the spread of war to the Middle East. 

2-6-4 tank locomotive, Mysore State Railway. 230. illustration
W.G. Bagnall

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 231-2. 2 illustrations
Nos. 62-6 Johnson standard MR 0-6-0 (No. 66 illustrated) with vacuum brake on engine. 4-4-0 introduced 1903 with 6ft coupled wheels and H type boiler and Ramsbottom safety valves: Nos. 69-71 (No. 71 illustrated)

J.L. Koffman. Railcar operation. 233-5. 5 diagrans (including elevations and plans)

G.W.R. 235
No. 6904 Charfield Hall and 6905 Claughton Hall and 0-6-0PT No. 3680 were new ex-Swindon Works. Ex Weston Clevedon & Portishead Railway Terriers taken into GWR stock. Nos. 2 and 4 became GWR Nos. 5 and 6 and were originally No. 43 Gipsyhill and 53 Ashstead.

Personal. 235
G.R.T. Taylor resigned from the Boards of Vickers Ltd and English Sreel Corporation, but retained his directorship of Taylor Brothers & Co. Ltd. a subsidiary of the English Sreel Corporation.

Mastering momentum. 236-8
Began page 219: cracking of wheel treads and shelling leading to failure.

Locomotive handling. 238.

L.M.S.R. 238
No. 25348 Coronation withdrawn: originally LNWR No. 5000 and 5000th locomotive built at Crewe: latterly worked between Crewe and Holyhead

P. Ransome-Wallis. Federated Malay States Railways. 239-42. 10 illustrations.

D.S. Purdom. Locomotive development on the N.B.R. from 1910 to the Grouping. 242-5.
In 1910 fourteen Atlantics were in service and they handled the main services on the Aberdeen and Waverley routes aided by the Holmes 317 class. Six Scott class had been put into service on the Perth services Edinburgh to Glasgow services were in charge of Holmrs 18¼ x 26in 729 class 4-4-0s. In 1911 these services were taken over by new Scott class locomotives. One of these, No. 359 was fitted with a Weir feedwater pump. In 1911 a move was made to modernize the motive power. Six Atlantics were supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co. of Darlington: Nos. 901-906. These had wider cabs and the earlier series were brought into line when superheated. A modified version of the 883 class Intermediate 4-4-0 was introduced with a higher pitched boiler, similar to the Scott class.

R.B. Fellows. 100 years of railway inspection. 245-6.

Some apspects of railway progress as they affect the locomotive department. 247-9. 3 illustrations

Reviews. 250 .

The outdoor machinery department . J. Dalziel. London: The Railway Gazette. 250
The outdoor machinery of a railway is probably the least known by the public of its many different services. It is nevertheless an essential part of railway organisation, and the brief account compiled by Dalziel will throw light on a subject which has hitherto been almost ignored. In his position as Assistant Electrical Engineer to the L.M. & S.R. Railway the writer had many opportunities of studying the subject at first hand, and his conclusions, although merely expressing his personal views, carry considerable weight. The work is divided into six chapters and may be taken as illustrating quite up-to-date methods as practised on one of our largest systems.

Centenary of railway inspection. Reprinted from the Railway Gazette. London: The Railway Gazette. 250.
Now that a hundred years of Government supervision of our railways have passed, this little booklet describing the growth and extent of their official supervision is opportune. Although it is generally known that this supervision exists the various details of its operation are by no means common property, and the particulars of its working will be welcomed accordingly. The list of Inspecting Officers, first of the Board of Trade and latterly of the Ministry of Transport, is of much interest and has not been hitherto published.

Trade notes. 250

\Yalford Transport, Ltd., Calcutta. 250
Supplied four diesel locomotives to. Martin's Light Railways (2 ft. 6 m. gauge). Each unit powered by a Perkins P6 six-cylinder high-speed diesel engine developing 85 h.p., enabling a fast time-table service to be maintained over a 35-mile r un , The same firm had received orders to build a Diesel locomotive for the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway.

Correspondence. 250

British locomotives in North America. William T. Hoecker
Once again we are indebted to Dendy MIarshall for a useful contribution to early locomotive history. Possessors of his Two Essays will find much of interest in the article on page. 186 of your July number. His complaint regarding the difficulty of unravelling the tangled history of early American engines will no doubt meet with general sympathy_Locomotive names were altered frequently, with or without change of ownership, and not many official records have survived from those days. On page 188, a number of "English-built" engines belonging to the Lexington and Ohio R.R. are referred to. In his history of the locomotives of the Louisville and Nashville R.R., on page 45 of Baldwin Locomotives for October, 1929, . Paul T. Warner also mentions several of these engines. The following excerpt is quoted verbatim from Warner's article:-
"It should be noted, however, that Baldwin locomotives were in service on the two oldest of these roads—the Lexington and Ohio and the Ponchartrain. The former had in service three single-driver locomotives of the 4-2-0 type, that were built in 1842 and 1843, and were named Daniel Boone; Joe Davis, and Logan, respectively. Particulars as to their dimensions are very meagre; but they were small locomotives, even for their type, and it is probable that in no case did the weight exceed ten tons. They were of standard gauge.

No. 1 Pilgrim, Canterbury Railway, New Zealand.  (photograph). 250
Gauge 5 ft. 3 in. Built by Slaughter Grunning in 1863. See . Leslie G. Poole's letter, p. 142, May, 1940.) (By courtesy of Mr. W. W. Stewart.)

No. 578 (15 October 1940)

Railways in war. 251-2

L.M.S. Railway rebuilt 4-4-0 Northern Counties Committee. 252. illustration
No. 87 Queen Alexandra

Locomotives for public miniature railways. 253-5. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Order placed with Twining Models of Northampton for 10¼in gauge 4-6-0 based upon GWR Star class, but with outside valve gear: boiler supplied by Goodhand of Gillingham in Kent. Locomotive expected to cope with 1 in 48 gradienets, had 125 psi boiler pressure. Also described a 15in gauge 0-4-0

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 256-8. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations), diagram

C.H. Koyl. Water softening for locomotives (the Clark-Porter Process). 258-9. diagram
Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific RR.

Protection of water tanks. 259
Red lead

Taff Vale Railway Centenary. D.S.B. 265-7. 2 illustrations
Trails Ottley 7409 published Oakwood Press: but article states "Locomotive Publishing Co.". See leter from W.G.S. Wike on p. 298 on reason TVR used tender locomotives and queried whether Cambrian and M. & S.W.J. were not "bigger"

Railcar conversion. 268-70. 6 diagrams (including plans)
Conversiion of existing carriages into railcars with internal combustion engines

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. VI. Storekeeping, distribution and consumption of fuels and lubricants. 271-3. 3 diagrams.
Storekeeping continued from page XXX. Figures 71-4 forms.

Great Western Railway. 273. illustration.
Includes photograph of Castle class No. 5071 Spitfire and list of other military aircraft names to be applied to Class: 5072 Hurricane, 5073 Blenheim, 5074 Hampden, 5075 Wellington, 5076 Gladiator, 5077 Fairey Battle, 5078 Beaufort, 5079 Lysander, 5080 Defiant, 5081 Lockheed and 5082 Swordfish

No. 579 (15 November 1940)

Seeing it through. 275-6.

"Lord Nelson" class, S.R.: improved blast pipe. 276. illustration
No. 851 Sir Francis Drake illustrated with large diameter chimney and Lemaitre exhaust system (although Lemaitre not mentioned in actual text)

The Texas Zephyr, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy R.R. 277. illustration
Two 2000 hp diesel electrics used to power Denver-Fort Worth-Dallas expresses

New third class coaches, Eastern Bengal Railway. 277-8. 3 illustrations
Fourteen coaches built at Kanchrapara Workshops; designed to accommodate 100 passengers

L.M.S.R. 277
4F 0-6-0 Nos. 4579 to 4606 abd diesel electric shunters No. 7090-9 nearing completion at Derby. Prince of Wales class Nos. 25787, 25802 and 25805 and LNWR 0-6-2T Nos. 7751, 77873 and 27555 reconditioned for further service.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 282-4.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers: the making of comparative efficiency test with locomotives on the road. 284-9.

C.R.H. Simpson. Some unusual locomotives.291-2. 5 illustrations.
Camden & Amboy locomotive of 1834 with four 18 x 30in cylinders, indirect drive and eight axles. The two front axles were driven separately from the two front axles. Baldwin locomotive of 1841: 4-2-0 with main drive at rear, but augmented by drive to bogie; Shaw anti-hammer blow locomotive of 1881 built by Hinkley Locomotive Works of Boston; Strong "Duplex" locomotive of 1886: marine type firebox and complex valve gear; Holman locomotive of 1897 (see also Locomotive Mag., 1936, 42, 61)

Appointments. 292.
Mervyn W. Shorter to be Assistant Sales Manager, Westinghouse Brake & Cylinder Co.

Coronation Scot. 292
Moved to Baltimore for storage

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 293-4.
Nos. 116 and 117 were Fairburn 0-4-0s with 4ft 9in wheels; 15 x 22in cylinders and 580ft2 total heating surface: (illustrated Fig. 8). No. 117 was rebuilt as a 0-4-2 with link motion substituted for gab gear. Both were withdrawn in 1863..

The Van Railway. 294.
To be closed. Railway opened in 1871 for freight and on 1 December 1873 for passengers, but closed in 1893 and reopened in 1896. Two Manning Wardle 0-6-0Ts were the original motive power.

Sierra Leone Government Railways. 294
W.S. Venner appointed CME

Waterloo and City Tube. 294.
12 new coaches brought into service.

Resilient wheels. 295-6. 2 diagrams.
The Haerter and Buchli systems.

The "John Wilkes," Lehigh Valley Railroad. 296. illustration.
Streamlined 4-6-2 painted in black and red with narrow white bands and used to haul nine cars between New York and Wilkes Barre in Pennsylvania.

Correspondence. 297

Crowthorne Light Railway. V. Burgoyne

Locomotives for public miniature railways. J.N. Maskelyne

Taff Vale Railway centenary. W.G.S. Wike. 298
Response from author page 322.

No. 580 (15 December 1940)

Timetables. 299.
Disruptive effect of fliers; and attempt to arrange tham in groups, like the 18.00 deparures from Euston to Liverpool and Manchester

The Centenary of the Birningham and Gloucester Railway.  300-1. illustration
Cofton Hill to Camp Hill opened on 17 December 1840. Incorporated in 1836 for 50¼ miles from Gloucester to Birmingham plus a further 2¼ miles for a branch to Tewkesbury. Bromsgrove to Cheltenham had opened on 24 June 1840. On 17 August 1841 the line was extended from Camp Hill 1½ miiles to Curzon Street to form a junction with the London & Birmingham Railway. How the Great Western failed to acquire the line is outlined as its absorption by the Midland Railway on 1 July 1845. The Norris locomotives acquired to work the Lickey Incline were described in Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14, p. 70 [citation not traced: possibly due to incomplete Volume inspected].

Obituary. 301
E.F. Lang of Beyer Peacock

British-built broad gauge locomotives in Canada. 301-2. illustration
The Great Western Railway of Canada adopted the 5ft 6in gauge in an attempt to hinder invasion nfrom the USA. It was converted to standard gauge between 1867 and 1873 and there was brief use of mixed gauge. Article based on Bulletin of the Railway & Locomotive Historical Society No. 51. Twenty 0-6-0 inside cylinder (16 x 24in) with 5ft coupled wheels were built between 1854 and 1856 by Stothert & Slaughter of Bristol. Ten were converted to standard gauge and the remainder werre either sold or scrapped. Twelve passenger 2-4-0 engines were suppllied by W. Fairbairn of Manchester: these had 6ft coupled wheels. Names included Spitfire, Fireking and Firefly. Richard Eaton was tthe Locomotive Superintendent. These were rebuilt as 4-4-0 in 1859-60. Spitfire was scrapped in 1871. Peto, Brassey & Jackson of the Canada Works in Birkenhead supplied six 4-4-0s with 16 x 24in cylinders and 5ft 6in coupled wheels. Robert Stephenson supplied locomotives to the Grand Trunk Railway, but not to the Great Western Railay according to W.M. Spriggs, an authority on Robert Stephenson & Co.
Great Western Railway of Canada operated 800 miles of 5ft 6in gauge railway which reflected Canada's fear of invasion from the USA.This was converted to standard gauge between 1867 and 1873. The main source of information was Railway & Locomotive Historical Society Bulletin No. 51
A photograph of No. 55 is of particular interest as showing the engine (rebuilt by the Great Western in 1870) with the "Crewe" type of front end made famous by Alexander Allan; in appearance this engine looks not unlike an early Highland 4-4-0, save for the raised splashers to the coupled wheels and the distinctive Canadian boiler fittings, cab and cowcatcher. There is some mystery as to the engines stated to have been supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co. to the Great Western of Canada; the firm's records show no engines as having been built for that line, but three for the Grand Trunk Railway which the authority, W.M. Spriggs, cannot trace in Grand Trunk records. The three G.W. engines credited to Robert Stephenson & Co. are 2-4-0s Nos. 83-85 (later 50-52) built in October and December, 1856, having the usual 16 in. x 24 in. cylinders, and 6 ft. coupled wheels.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 302
The opening general meeting of the current-session was held at the Royal Empire Society, Northumberland Avenue, on 10 December. The President, O.V.S. Bulleid , was in the chair. The following members were elected: Members: G. E. Cockburn, Consulting Mechanical Engineer; A.F. Collins, Technical Officer (Rys.), L.P.T.B.; J. Douglas, Asst. Director of Transportation Equipment, Ministry of Supply, F.H.B. Harris, Chief Draughtsman, Messrs W.G.. Bagnall, Ltd.; F. Munns, Loco. Works Manager, Southern Ry., Eastleigh; J. Shaw, Loco., Carriage & Wagon Supt.; Darjeeling-Himlayan Ry. Associate Members: G.E. Berry, Drawing Office, Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd.; W. R. Craig, District Loco. Supt., B.B. & C.I. Ry. India; J. D. Hodgkiss, Messrs. Livesey & Henderson, South Place, E.C.2.; T. E. Green, The English Electric Co. Ltd.; J. K. Mehra, B.B. & C.I. Ry., India; W. Vaughan-Jenkins, Loco. Dept., L.M.S. Ry., Bristol; A. L. Wallace, Loco. Works, Eastleigh.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XVII. Sir Daniel Gooch, Bt.. 303-8. 3 illustrations (including portrait).

Personal. 308.
J.F. Spear: General Manager GM Fischer Bearings Co. Ltd. Had beem apprenticed at Metropolitan Railway Neasden Works.

J.F. Vickery. Famous Kings Cross engines. 308-9. illustration
240A illustrated: Sturrock 2-2-2 with 7ft driving wheels and 17 x 22in inside cylinders

New shunting locomotives, Roumanian State Railways. 309-10. 2 diagrams (including side & front elevations)
80 hp diesel-mechanical with Ganz-Jendrassk six-cylinder engine and mylius CV2 transmission with final jackshaft drive.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 311-14.
4-4-0 Nos.69-71 were described in Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14 p. 45 [44]. G7 boilers were fitted to No. 78 in 1921 (illustrated) and No. 77 in 1926.
The 2-8-0 type was described in Locomotive Mag., 1914, 20 p. 117. Design criticised for its long wheelbase.

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic.  314-15.
Toolboxes and their contents.

Individual axle drive for steam locomotives. 316-19. 9 diagrams (including plans & sectional elevations))
Vertical engines driving individual axles, notably as in Buchli-Brown Boveri designs with rapid response steam genertors, such as those by La Mont, Velox and Rasmin [Razmin].

L.N.E.R. 319.
Brockley Whins viaduct on Pontoop & South Shields Railway had been demolished

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 319
The Institution had received a bequest from T.A. Common of a silver loving cup presented to Robert Stephenson by Robert Allcard. The cup had been owned by Alfred Common, the donor's father

New cabooses, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific R.R. 320. 2 illustrations
Welded construction: both interior and exterior illustrated

Salvage on the G.W.R. 320. illustration
Van No. 47305 with special paintwork: intended to collect salvaged paper, metal, cloth, etc for the War Effort

Fourteen wheel tender. 321. 2 diagrams (including elevation)
Constructed by ALCO for Union Pacific Railroad: wheels arranged 4-10-0 fashion and designed to carry 25 tons of coal and 25,000 gallons (US) of water

U.S.A. bogie milk car.  321. illustration
Bordon Company of New York: designed to convey fresh milk into city from the company's farms: conveyed 35 short tons or 6000 US gallons

Reviews. 321-2

Locomotive valves & valve gears. C.S. Lake and A. Reidinger. Percival Marshall
Eleven short chapters; 128 illustrations; "very clear studies"

New railway network principles. F. Pownall. Birmingham: Cotterell & Co
After perusing this booklet, which is apparently only a resume of a larger work the author has in hand, one is tempted to regret that Mr. Pownall was not here armed with the necessary authority, before the railway network of this country developed, then we should no doubt have had a much more scientific and satisfactory system than actually exists. Unfortunately the railways of this country, like those of most of the older countries were developed piecemeal, and for better or worse' must be operated as they are. Mr. Pownall's system of hour sections to be covered by fast trains at hourly intervals and served by slow trains feeding into and collecting from these, sounds a very ideal proposition. Unfortunately Mr. Pownall estimates it would require the construction of about 1,300 miles of additional line and the expenditure of about £300,000,000 so that there does not seem to be the remotest probability of it being carried through within any period of time that can be visualised. Nevertheless some of our readers, who have in their leisure hours evolved schemes for the re-organisation of our railway system may like to have these notes on Mr. Pownall's for comparison with their own [Ottley 3771].

Correspondence. 322

Miniature public railways. John W. Smith
I fear that the Technical Editor of the Model Engineer has been rather severe in his strictures on the 0-4-2 type miniature passenger carrymg locomotive. There are a considerable number of small lines whose motive power could be held up to question. The railway at Scarborough, the Dudley Zoo Line and the pleasure park railway at the 1938 Glasgow Exhibition. The latter for example had two L.N.E.R. "Pacific" type at work, one in L.M.S. red and both "Diesel" powered; what could be more unreal-fire risks apart? . I have' seen the drawings of one of these 0-4-2 locomotives, and although in 1 in. scale, there cannot be much material change for 15 in. gauge. The design is very well thought out, and credit is due to Mr. E. W. Twining, for a well balanced arrangement. I see no reason why engines of this design should not prove a good draw, be easy and economical in maintenance, and return something on their investment, coupled with moderate first cost.

New South Wales Governemt Railways. A.V. Green
There is a matter of interest I wish to investigate Original Nos. 8 and 9 locos. N.S.W.G. Rys. had makers Nos. 634 and 635, E.B. Wilson & Co.; they were the only engmes by Wilson's for N.S.W. In Kitsons of Leeds by E. Kitson Clark, page 34, ~t states that the last engine built by WIlson's was numbered 625. Should this not be 635? But further than this, it is alleged by some record (very obscure) in the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Office, N.S.W. Rys., that No. 10, a 2-4-0 engine built in 1870, Redfern Shops, Sydney, was built up on the framing of an E.B. Wilson loco numbered 636. This is interesting; I had concluded that the first No. 9 N.S.W.G. Rys., was the last engine built by Wilsons. I take the opportunity of enclosing a photograph of the Sydney-Melbourne express, N.S.W. portion, taken at Albury during the summer of 1892-93. The engine No. 255 was built by Beyer, Peacock & Co., in 1882. Makers No. 2150. Cylinders 17 in. x 26 in.; coupled wheels 6 ft. 0 in.; boiler pressure 140 psi.: coal 4 tons; water 2,000 gallons. Six of these engines, Nos. 255 to 260 were received from Beyer, Peacock specially to inaugurate the running of the Sydney-Melbourne express. The train is made up of a Cleminson Postal van, 2nd. class carriage, 1st class carriage with coupe ends, a Pullman sleeper and a bogie brake-van. If any of your readers recognise this picture and can tell me who took the photograph I shall be glad to know.

Taff Vale Railway centenary. D.S. Barrie
In letter published 'vV.G.S. Wike suggests, apropos of my recent article on the Taff Vale Railway, that both the Cambrian and M. & S.W.J. Railways had a greater route mileage. Certainly the Cambrian Railways had a much greater mileage (295 m. 24 ch.) than the Taff Vale (124 m. 42 ch., including where applicable in each case joint, leased, and worked lines), but on the basis of traffic handled, capital involved, and the general volume of its railway activity the Taff Vale easily justified my description of it as "the largest of the constituent" (not "subsidiary") "Companies, other than the Great Western itself, merged into the Great Western group." The M. & S.W.J. Railway had little more than half the route mileage of the Taff Vale.