Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and  Wagon Review
Volume 20 (1914)

Key file to all Issues

Number 257 (15 January 1914)

Our supplement. 1
With this month's number was issued a specially prepared calendar for 1914. The information in regard to the mileage and rolling stock of our railways, as well as particulars of the fastest and longest non-stop runs, has been brought up to date. Illustrations in colour are also given of a Pacific type express engine of the Canadian Pacific Ry., and a four-coupled passenger engine of the Midland Ry.  

Consolidation engine for mineral traffic, Great Northern Ry. 1-2. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Gresley patented modified form of Walschaerts valve gear. No. 456 illustrated. The top and bottom bolsters are carried by swing links, thus equalising the weight on the leading wheels when passing round curves. The cylinders were 21-in. dia. with a stroke of 28-in. These engines have superheaters of 24 elements, giving 5707- ft2 of heating surface, while the tube heating surface 1,9227- ft2 and the firebox is 1627- ft2 thus making a total surface of 26547- ft2. The grate area is 27- ft2. Weir pumps and feed water fitted.

Six-coupled superheater tank engine, Furness Railway. 2. illustration
Pettigrew 0-6-2T Nos. 94 and 95 (former illustrated) for working Cleator & Workington Railway and built by Kitson & Co.

Great Western Ry. 3. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Works photograph of No. 4331 and side elevation: notes that heating surface had been rearranged as compared with the original see 17 p. 169. By then 43 of type were in service. First of new 4-4-2T class No. 4600 in service at Tyseley. No. 111 The Great Bear fitted with a Swindon superheater. Nos. 4221-32 (2-8-0T) in service.

Goods locomotive, Pingsiang-Siangtau Railway. 4. illustration
2-6-0 built Hohenzollern Locomotive Works and similar to those supplied to Prussian State Railways.

Three-cylinder goods locomotive — Grangesberg-Oxelosund Ry. of Sweden. 5-6. illustration
The first eight-coupled locomotives built by Nydquist & Holm, of Trollhattan, for the mineral traffic to Oxelosund in 1912, have now numerous followers on the Swedish Government and many of the private railways.
Last year two more powerful locomotives were required for the mineral trains, and the question arose as to whether the higher tractive force should be divided between three cylinders and so enable the crank axle to be lightened, as this has necessarily to be of large dimensions for such power.
Experience shows that large crank axles are the weak points with inside cylinders, evidently due to the fact that it is difficult to work the metal. It is also troublesome to get thoroughly sufficient and suitable bearings. Further advantages of three-cylinder locomotives are: easier starting, better acceleration of the train, and more uniform turning force on the driving wheels. With an ordinary two-cylinder locomotive the driving force on each revolution of the driving wheels varies from 28% above, to 35% below the mean driving force. For three-cylinder locomotives these figures are respectively 24% and 17%. It is remarkable, however, that with a three-cylinder compound locomotive this drivin g force is more uneven than with the two-cylinder engines, the variation being no less than 52% and 60% respectively. These figures refer to engines with the cranks set at an angle of 120°, which is nowadays generally used. To relieve the strain on the crank-axle it was decided to have separate axles tor the inside and outside cylinders, as if one driving axle only was used, the strain on this would be even greater than with the two-cylinder engines. Another advantage of adopting separate driving axles is that the ratio between the periphery force and the adhesion on the driving wheel, which of course will be more unfavourable the larger the number of coupled wheels, is more advantageous when divided between two driving axles. It is probable also that flat spots on the wheels, caused by slipping due to pressure changes in the bearings of the axles and coupling rods when worn, will be much reduced with this arrangement. The inside cylinder drives on to the second coupled axle, and the two outside on the third one. All three cylinders exhaust direct to the chimney. The leading coupled axle has a certain amount of side play in the horn blocks. Walschaerts valve gear is used for the three cylinders, coupled up to one reversing shaft.

4-4-2 superheater express locomotive, Egyptian State Rys. 6-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Berlin Locomotive Works to specification of R.G. Peckitt, chief mechanical engineer. See also letter from builder on page 138

H.T. Wright. The adjustment of valve gears and cylinders in locomotive workshops. 8-11. 4 illustrations, 5 diagrams

Caledonian Ry. 11
Announced that John Farquharson Mclntosh, M.V.O., after 52 years service with the Caledonian Ry., will retire from active service in May next. Mclntosh joined the Scottish North Eastern Ry. at Arbroath in 1862. He was made locomotive inspector of the northern section of the C. Ry. in 1876, and six years later district locomotive foreman at Aberdeen, from which he was promoted to Carstairs Junction, and eventually given charge of the Polmadie sheds. He was appointed chief inspector of the running department in 1891, and took up his present duties as locomotive, carriage and wagon supt. in February, 1895. In October, 1911, His Majesty King George honoured Mr. Mclntosh by creating him a Member of the Royal Victorian Order, and when returning from Scotland last autumn, Mr. Mclntosh, in obedience to a command, attended at the Royal saloon at Carlisle, where His Majesty wished him good-bye. W. Pickersgill, locomotive superintendent of the Great North of Scotland Ry., succeeds Mr. Mclntosh at St. Rollox.

The locomotive history of the Cambrian Rys.  12-13. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. 13-16.  6 diagrams (side elevations)
Acknowledgements include to Churchward, F.G. Wright, J.A. Robinson, John Armstrong, Robert Jones (retired superintendent of the Chester District), J. Phillips (retired superintendent of the Hereford District). Consideers locomotives acquired by Shrewsbury & Chester Railway.  No. 1 was a long boiler 0-6-0 purchased from Longridge with aa Gothic firebox: it was rebuilt as an 0-6-0ST No, 117 at Wolverhampton. Nos. 2-6 were long boiler passenger 2-4-0s or in the case of No. 3 a 2-2-2: all were rebuilt atv Wolverhampton. Nos. 7 and 8 were long boiler 2-4-0s supplied by Jones & Potts and possibly formed part of an order from the Eastern Counties Railway.

Railway rolling stock in Canada. 17-31. 37 illustrations

E.L. Ahrons. The utilization of waste heat in locomotives—Trevithick's system. 32-3. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams.

Railways of the Channel Islands. 33-5. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Jersey Railways and Tramways was orinally a standard guage line which ran between St. Helier and St. Aubyn which opened in October 1870. When the line to Corbiere was opened in 1884 metre gauge was adopted and the original was cenverted. The original locomotives were supplied by Sharp Stewart & Co. WN 2047-8 and were 2-4-0Ts named Haro-Haro and Duke of Normandy. A further Sharp Stewart WN 2241/1872 was acquired. When the line was converted to metre gauge Black, Hawthorn 0-4-2STs were acquired

Piston valves for lcomotives. 35-6. 3 diagrams

North Eastern Railway. Special wagons. 37-9. 3 illustrations, 4 diagrams (includin 3 side levations), 2 plans
Bogie trolley wagons of 40 tons and 50 tons capacity for carrying Admiralty components for warships, notably proellers.

Correspondence. 42

Charles Dickens and the railway. H.L. Hopwood. 42
Charles Dickens in his youth lived at two addresses in Chatham, firstly at 11, Ordnance Terrace (1817-1821), and afterwards at 18, The Brook (1821-1823). He went to school at Giles' Academy in Clover Lane, and it was near to this school that the "playing fields" were situated.
It is a pity that "the difficulty about the playground does not appear to have struck Mr. H.F. Dickens" (to quote from Mr. Bennett's letter) for, to me, the playground gives the all important clue to the spot. The following extract from Langton's Childhood and Youth of Dickens, also confirms my opinion :-" .... On leaving the Cnathan: Station, which is here purposely confounded with the terminus of'the S.E.R. at Strood, the first discovery is 'that the station had swallowed up the playing field' (which) was immediately in front of Ordnance Terrace, and the writer .... can speak to the perfect accuracy of this description, for it was at one time his playing field too." (The italics are mine.) Whilst I do not wish to dispute the statement of such all authority as H.F. Dickens, I claim that Charles Dickens took a scene he witnessed at Strood Station and transposed it in the tale to Chatham Station, as stated in the September issue.
I said that" Dullborough " referred to both Rochester and Chatham because I believed (and still believe) the playground itself was in Chatham, but the other incidents in the story certainly deal with Rochester.

Roman stone or military roads. Clement E. Stretton. 42
My statement, p. 219, is perfectly correct. Harrison Whitlock, p. 268, will find details of the Roman Stone or Military Roads in Wood on Rail-roads, 1838, p. 3. [KPJ: Nicholas Wood] From the 9 April to the 17 September, 1838, the London and Birmingham Railway Company ran coaches over the road from Denbigh Hall to the Rugby Road Station, a distance of 37 miles. It is quite correct that in 1837 the Turnpike Commissioners improved some of the gradients and put the old stone road in good repair and this was done at the request of'the railway company, by whom the old stone track was used for five months.
It is hardly possible to believe that the Road Commissioners would purchase new stones for the track when there were old ones ready to their hands, especially as they knew that as soon as the railway was finished the London & Birmingham Railway coaches would cease to run upon their road.

Fragmentary notes on North Eastern Ry. engines. John Kitching, Jr.
In your issue of last month on p. 282 you state that 16 goods engines with 4-ft. wheels were built at Middleshro' -on-Tees for the Stockton & Darlington Ry., the numbers of which were 83 to 85. 90 to 97 and 102 to 107. I shall be glad if you will allow me to draw attention to the fact that there were only 14 such engines, seeing that Nos. 93 and 94 were- six-wheel single passenger engines with outside-cylinders. They were purchased from another railway company at a time when' the Middlesbro' & Guisbro" line was nearly ready to be opened for passenger traffic. The Nunthorpe incline of 1 in 45 soon made it clear that "single" engines were quite unsuitable for this. service; and No. 55 Wolsingham, a very smart four-coupled passenger engine, which was designed and built by Alfred Kitching at the Hope Town Works. Darlington, was sent to take their place. This engine. driven by Ralph Coulson, of Guisbro', continued to perform the passenger service till 1869, when Elm Field, another Hope Town built engine, also driven by Coulson, took its place. I would also mention that the wheels of the 14 goods engines referred to above- were 4-ft. 2½-in. in diameter.

Locomotive Carlisle, Bishop's Castle Ry, G.F. Tyas.
In reply to H. Summers and others, the Carlisle was built by Kitson & Co., about 1869 or 1870, and supplied to the late Thomas Nelson. of Carlisle, a well-known railway contractor employed chiefly on extensions of the North Eastern Ry. As originally built the engine very much resembled the early Cambrian locomotives by Sharp, Stewart & Co. It was a six-coupled tender engine with cy1inders 16-in. diameter, 24-in. stroke, with wheels about 4-ft. 6-m. diameter. The original boiler had a raised firebox with spring balance safety valves covered by a brass funnel. There was a good deal of brass work about the splashers, the name, Carlisle being ,horne on those covering the driving wheels. The chimney was of the bell-mouthed type similar to Kirtley's Midland engines, as was also the weather board. The tender, which was four-wheeled, was also fitted with a weather board. The engine was got up in first class style painted green. and lined similarly to those of the North Eastern Ry. She was, I believe, afterwards working at the extension of New Street Station, Birmingham, somewhere in the 1880s and it would be interestinz to trace her subsequent history down to the time when she went to the Bishop's Castle Ry. I recollect a good photograph of this engine in a photographer's window in Leeds. I also remember the engme coming to Kitson's works for heavy repairs, repainting, etc. I may also state that there is a good illustration of the Carlisle as' she appears on the- Bishop's Castle Ry. in the Railway Magazine .for February, 1909, p. 127. This shows the engme with a cab over the footplate and a chimney of Great Western type, but otherwise she appears very little altered from her original state.

H. Carlton and H.E. Heath also send particulars of the Carlisle, from which we gather that the engine was built in 1869 (Kitson's, No. 1421), and was used first on the construction of the York and Doncaster line of the NER. It was, used later on the widening works of the L. & N.W. from Curzon Street to Aston Junction, Birmingham.

Reviews. 43

The history of the London & North Western Ry. Wilfred L. Steel. London: The Railway and Travel Monthly.
This history is intended for the non-technical reader, and from cover to cover he will find its pages interesting. The fact that the North Western has been built up by amalgamations, extensions and purchases has made the author's task a difficult one, but he details the particulars piecemeal and shows how the company possessed 420 miles of lines in 1846, when the L. & N. W. was formed, while to-day it has nearly 2,000 miles.
In many respects the history of the North Western is more interesting than other railways, for included in it are the Liverpool and Manchester, the first passenger line in the world, and the London and Birmingham, the first trunk line, as well as the Grand Junction, Chester and Holvhead and other lines. Details are given of the more notable locomotives, and a resume of the improvements in the train services, whilst the financial history of the company is also briefly dealt with. A number of the 100 illustrations have been provided by the L. & N. W. R., but some, we notice, are taken from the Locomotive Magazine, while the excellent views of modern trains are the work of H.G. Tidey, the well known photographer.

The theory of heat engines. W. Inchley. London: Longmans, Green & Co.
This work is a lucid exposition of the theory of heat engines for engineering- students. It should also prove useful to engineers desiring a thorough theoretical knowledge of the subject. The matter has been carefully collated and well arranged. After dealing with the general principles of thermodynamics, the author discourses on hot-air engines. Then there is a chapter on the properties of steam, and two devoted to the theory of the steam engine. Compound expansion and mechanical refrigeration are next noticed. Now that compressed air as a transmitter of power has increased so enormously, the chapter on the theory of air com- pressors is sure to be of interest. Other chapters are devoted to the steam turbine, gas engine, oil engine, internal combustion engine, valve diagrams and valve gears, governors, balancing, etc. Many numerical examples are worked out, and examples given for the student to work.

The microscopical analysis of metals. F. Osmond. Edited J.E. Stead. Revised and corrected by L. P. Sidney. London: C. Griffin & Co., Ltd.
This invaluable laboratory guide to metallography is now in its second edition. It is probably one of the most useful on the subject published in this language. Part I is devoted to the study of the structure of metals and alloys as a method of assay. Part 2 deals with the scientific methods of polishing specimens for examination under the microscope, while part 3 describes the apparatus for photo-micrography and practical applications for the micro-analysis of carbon steels. The conclusions to be obtained from microscopical investiga- tions are clearly explained with the aid of a large number of photo micrographs, diagrams, etc.

Boilers; marine and land; their construction and strength. Thos. W. Traill, Fourth edition reprinted. London: C. Griffin & Co., Ltd.
This handbook will be a help to those who have to settle the scantlings for all classes of boilers, and to determine safe working pressures. It is full of labour- saving tables of dimensions of various parts for different pressures and sizes, and these have been specially computed, and each calculation checked over by re-working to ensure accuracy. There are about 75,000 results given in the tables, but also there are simple formulae for those who have the time and inclination to get the results independently.

First number of the Hanomag Journal,
Issued by the Hannoversche Maschinenbau Actien-Gesellschaft of Hanover, is to hand. This issue is chiefly devoted to a history of the firm. The works were founded by George Egestorff as far back as 1835. In 1900 an extensive programme for the rebuilding of the whole of the works was taken in hand. These extensions and alterations will be completed during 1914. The new equipment will afford facilities for an output of 400 to 500 locomotives per annum. The firm have also taken up the manufacture of other specialities, such as the Stirling water tube boilers, wheels, etc. The next number will contain particulars of the firm's specialities.

Rail Anchors. 44.
The Railway Track Supply Co. (of Great Britain), had placed on the market a patent rail anchor for use with bull-headed rails, which is known as the " R.T.S." Rail Anchor. Tests, that have already been made with this device, prove that it will eliminate rail creep on bull-headed track. Prices and particulars can be obtained from the Railway Track Supply Co., who will also be pleased to .supply a few samples free of charge for trial purposes

Number 258 (14 February 1914)

The heaviest and most powerful tank locomotive in Europe: "Mallet" articulated 0-8-8-0 tank engine for the Bavarian State Rys. 45-6. illustration.
Built by Maffei of Munich as bankers for the inclines between Laufach and Heigenbrücken and between Probstzella and Rothernkirchen

4-6-0 superheated goods engine, Caledonian Railway. 46. illustration.
McIntosh superheater bogie engines for working express goods trains. No. 179 illustrated.

Great Central Rrilway. 46
Ihe new 429 class 4-4-0 express engines received names of directors of the railway: 429 Sir Alexander Henderson, 430 Purdon Viccars, 431 Edwin A. Beazley, 432 Sir Edward Fraser, 433 WaIter Burgh Gair, 434 Earl of Kerry, 435 Sir Clement Royds, 436 Sir Berkeley-Sheffield, 437 Charles Stuart Wortley, and 438 Worsley Taylor.

4-6-0 mixed traffic engine, London and South Western Ry. 47. illustration.
Urie simplified design as compared with Drummond designs. Schmidt and Robinson superheaters being evaluated. Two of ten to be left saturated. H15 class (but not mentioned intext)

London & North Western Ry. 47
The following additional Prince of Wales 4-6-0 passenger engines had been completed at Crewe: Nos. 307 R.B. Sheridan, 637 Thomas Gray, 979 W.M.· Thackeray, and 1400 Felicia Hemans. A new series of the same type is in course of construction, the first of which would bear the name Mark Twain." Another engine of the Queen Mary class (4-4-0 non-superheater) is now running equipped with the Schmidt superheater, No. 896 George Whale.
It is reported that the ten new Claughtons which are on order will have slightly larger boilers than those now running. These engines, however, will not be put in hand just yet, nor is it anticipated they will be ready for the coming summer traffic. The latest order for new engines includes a new series of superheater goods, which will probably follow the series of Prince of Wales engines above referred to. The vacuum brake was being fitted to most of the larger passenger engines as they  went through shops. It was not intended at present to so fit any of the Jubilee and Alfred the Great classes. The most recent engines to be turned out with the above-mentioned brake were Nos. 1452 Bonaventure and 1721 Defiance, both being of the Prince of Wales class (4-6-0 superheater)
Recent withdrawals included three more of Webb's four-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, viz, Nos. 307, 637 and 1400, the latter being the first of the type built.

Great Eastern Ry. 48. illustration
Rebuilding Holden's earlier four-coupled express engines, the 700 class, and fitting superheaters to increase their efficiency. By the courtesy of A.J. Hill, locomotive superintendent, able to reproduce a photograph of engine No. 775, which is one of the first completed of the fifteen engines of this class which are to be altered. The addition of the Schmidt superheater has necessitated a longer smokebox, and it will be noticed that the framing of the leading end has been altered, and is now shaped like the 1900 Class.

North Eastern Ry. 48
There were twelve of the new three-cylinder 4-4-4 tank engines running, Nos. 2143 to 2154, and eight more are under construction, numbered. up to 2162. These engines were illustrated and described in our December issue.
Ten more three-cylinder Atlantic express engines are on order at the Darlington shops. They will be numbered 2163 to 2172. Other work on hand includes ten electric locomotives for freight service. The electric equipment for these locomotives will be supplied by Siemens Bros., Dynamo Works, Ltd. The engines will be used on the Simpasture line when the electrification scheme is completed. This mineral line leads from the marshalling yard at Shildon (one of the largest in Great Britain} to the new Erimus hump yard at Newport, near Middlesborough, a distance of about 18 miles, It carries the whole of the heavy traffic passing from the south and south-west Durham coalfield to Teeside and the Cleveland district. The electric locomotives are to be able to start a 1,400 ton train load and to haul it on the level at a minimum speed of 25 miles an hour.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 48
An order had been placed with A. Borsig of Berlin, through their London agent, E. C. Amos, for 10 locomotives for the S.E. & C.R. Excepting some tram engines and a few contractors' locomotives used on the L. & S.W.R. (Amesbury branch), and the widening of the Barnstaple line, we believe these engines. will be the first German steam locomotives used in this country. We understand that 15 Great Northern locomotives are being loaned to this line. At the time of writing the following seven engines have been transferred Nos. 206, 699, 756, 759, 992, 1067 (not 1066· as stated in our December issue) and 1069; These are 2-4-0 tender engines with 6-ft. 7-in. driving wheels and 17½-in. by 26-in. cylinders, of Stirling's and Ivatt's designs.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 49
The 0-6-0 side tanks of the E2 class, Nos. 103 and 104, were working motor trains of six bogie coaches (three at each end of the engine) between London Bridge and the Crystal Palace, via New Cross. The control was by a compressed air system,

Personal. 49
C.G. Howsin has been appointed locomotive superintendent of the Brazil North Eastern Ry. Mr. Howsin served in the locomotive shops and drawing office at Crewe, and went to China in 1897 as assistant locomotive superintendent of the Imperial Rys. of North China .. He was afterwards assistant locomotive superintendent of the Rajputana Malwa metre gauge line of the B.B. & C.I. Ry., and was then transferred to Bombay as works manager at Parel and divisional loco. supt.
Wm. Pickersgill, who will succeed  J. F. McIntosh as locomotive superintendent of the Caledonian Ry. in May, served his time on the Great Eastern Ry. at Stratford. Heentered the service of the G. E: R. in 1876. and was appointed locomotive inspector in 1883. lie was given the post of district locomotive super- intendent at Norwich in 1891, and resigned in July, 1894, to succeed the late Mr. J. Johnson as locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent of the Great North of Scotland Ry.
W. Griggs has been appointed locomotive superintendent of the Jamaica Government Rys. in succession to Thornton. Griggs was formerly on the North London Ry., at Bow ..
G. H. Pearson, or the G.W.R. Carriage Department, Swindon, has been appointed assistant loco. supt. of the S. E. & C. Ry.

The Late Mr. James Gresham. 49
We regret to have to record the death of James Gresham, of the firm of Gresham & Craven, of Salford, which occurred on the 13 January. at Woodheys Park, Ashton-upon-Mersey. Mr. Gresham was a member of the Institution of Civil Engineers, the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, past President of the Manchester Asso- ciation of Engineers, and a Justice of the Peace. A native of Newark, he was educated at the Grammar School of that town. He served as a draughtsman in the Manchester Works of Messrs. Sharp, Stewart & Co., and in 1865 started works in Manchester for the manufacture of sewing machines and injectors. New works were started in Salford a few years later for the injector business, which had increased enormously. Mr. Gresham took out many patents in connection with the vacuum brake. and had a large share in the success of this brake for railway work. He was also patentee of the steam sanding apparatus for locomotives so largely adopted on railways, and inventor of passenger communication apparatus. .

Controlled relief valves for locomotive service.  49-50..  2 diagrams
In connection with the new design of locomotive piston valves, illustrated and described on pages 35 and 36 of our last issue, the Knorr Brake Co. recommend the employment of their relief valves, either controlled mechanically, as in Fig. I, or by compressed air, as Fig. 2. It is claimed that piston valves have a disadvantage in not lifting in case of water entering the cylinder, and that, therefore, fracture of the steam cylinder is made possible. This short- coming, however, is entirely counterbalanced by the many advantages gained in using piston valves. In order to get rid of any water, safety valves. are placed on the cylinder covers as low as possible.

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines.  50-1. 4 illustrations (line drawings side elevations).
Sharp singles


WN Date driving wheels


400 Feb., 1847 5-ft 0-in


405 Marr. 1847 5-ft 6-in


441 Sept 1847 5-ft 6-in


July, 1848 5-ft 0-in


555 Nov. 1848 5-ft 6-in


July, 1849 5-ft 6-in

All the above when built had the Sharp dome of ornamental shape close to the chimney, and the following dimensions: cylinders 15-in. by 20-in., running wheels 3-ft. 6-in., wheelbase 5-ft. 9-in. boiler containing 174 tubes (except No. 14 which had 170); heating surface 878 ft2. Next part see page 75

Conference of Loco. and C. and W. Superintendents of Indian Rys. 51
At the meeting at Simla several very important decisions were arrived at concerning standardisation of rolling stock details; further, the retention of side lever hand brakes for all goods wagons (four-wheeled and bogie) was unanimously agreed to. The chairman of the present year is Mr. Biernacki (re-elected). Before adjourning the delegates visited the huge shops of the North Western State Ry. at Lahore.

Somerset & Dorset Ry. 51
The 2-8-0 Consolidation superheater goods locomotives under construction at Derby will have outside cylinders 21-in. diameter .and 28-in. stroke, with piston valves operated by Walschaerts valve gear, coupled wheels 4-ft. 7½-in. diameter, and leading truck wheels 3-ft. 3½-in. diameter. The total wheelbase (engine and tender) is 50-ft. 1-in.. The working pressure is to be 190 psi; heating surface 1681 ft2., grate area 28.4 ft2. Estimated weight on coupled wheels 62 tons, weight of engine in working order 70t tons, weight of tender loaded 45 tons 18 cwt. Mechanical lubricators for the cylinders and piston valves will be provided. The Schmidt superheater will be fitted to these engines.

Great Northern Ry. 51
Nos. 457-8-9, of the new O1 class 2-8-0 superheaters, were in service. Together with No. 456, they were all stationed at New England, Peterboro', working mineral trains between Peterboro' and London (Ferrne Park). Engine No. 420, 0-8-0 mineral, is being fitted with one of the O1 class boilers. but not quite so long. The firebox is sloping at the throat plate, something like the 251 class. Nos. 1633 and 1634, Mogul goods, had been transferred to Colwick, and Nos. 539. and 540, 0-6-0 superheaters, had taken their place at King's Cross.

Railway rolling stock in Canada. 52-6. 9 illustrations.
Photographs of Canadian Northern Ry.: Winnipeg Station the Rotunda; Hopettown station; freight train; Saskatoon marshalling yards; sleeping car; interior of second class car; 2-8-0 freight locomotivve No. 2407; caboose; Bridge over Pickard River, Ontario; .

Train ferry and ice-breaking steamer for the Transcontinental Ry. of Canada. 56-7. illustration
Built by Cammell, Laird & Co. of Birkenhead and launched on 17 January: intended for use on St. Lawrence River between Quebec and Levis.

Why a locomotive will not steam. 57-8
Apart from mechanical reasons, there is another and very important one the management of the engine and the method of firing. A judicious use of the expansion gear by a good driver over a road he knows well, and in similar manner systematic control of the feed, will make all the difference between a good and bad steaming locomotive. Some engines require a "light" fire, others a medium, and still others do best on a "thick" fire; but fuel, too, will influence this. There is a wide difference between firing with Welsh and Yorkshire coals. Whatever be the "thickness" of fire found best for either coal or engine, however, it may be taken for granted that the firebars should be kept evenly covered, and the fire kept as clean as possible. If a tendency is shown by the coal used to clinker, then the fire should be kept thin and on the move as much as possible. Coal should be thrown along the side and back of the firebox more than towards the centre, and the jolting of the engine may be relied on to shake it down towards the centre. Every effort, however, should be made to prevent holes in the fire developing and the engine drawing cold air through. The spacing of the bars naturally affects the question very much, and to secure good results the class and quality of the coal being used must be studied, but it is recommended by many experienced men to pack the bars closer at the sides, which can be done by grinding or chipping down the side lugs of a few standard bars. On some railways special "side" bars are provided. Warning should be given against the practice often adopted of cramming on more coal when an engine gets sluggish in steam; this only results in bad combustion, the manufacture of volumes of smoke, which coats the interior of the tubes with soot (a non-conductor of heat), and consequently a gradual dropping back from bad to worse so far as the making of steam is concerned. The far better procedure would be to maintain as thin, clean and bright a fire as possible and "nursing" the engine generally with the feed and expansion gear.

The locomotive history of the Cambrian Rys. 58-9. illustration
Sharp, Stewart 4-4-0 (designed by firm and four of same type supplied to Furness Railway)

No. Name WN Date
16 Beaconsfield 2789 1878
17 Hartington 2790 1878
20 3356 1886
21 3357 1886
50 3696 1891
60 3697 1891

In 1879 the LNWR supplied a Sharp Stewart 0-6-0 (WN 2510) with 4ft 6in coupled wheels which had been supplied to the Denbigh, Ruthin & Corwen Ry: it was given No. 18 Orleton

The railways of the Channel Islands. Jersey Rys & Tramways Ltd,. 59-61. 3 illustrations
The motive power consisted of five 2-4-0Ts: Nos. 1 St. Heliers and 2 St. Aubins (Manning Wardle 916 and 917 of 1884); Nos. 3 Corbiere and 4 St. Brelades (Bagnall WN 1418/1893 and 1466/1895); and No. 5 La Moye (Barclay WN 1105/1907). The last was larger and was fitted with Walschaers valve gear instead of Stephenson link motion. The locomotive livery was olive green.

The Valor syphon lubricator. 61. illustration, diagram

North Eastern Railway. Special wagons. 62-4. 4 illustrations, 4 diagrams (side elevations), plan
No. 6768 bogie well wagon capable of carrying 54 tons; well wagon with capcity of 20 tons; another for agricultural machinery and a four wheel well wagon

Wagons for conveying heavy guns, Caledonisan Ry. 64-5. illustration
McIntosh arrangement to carry 100 ton guns on twt 35-ton bogie ingot wagons fitted with cradles and a 35 ton bogie trolley wagon

Northern Ry. of France— new shed, 65. diagram, plan
La Chapelle in Paris: diagram of smoke extractor and plan showing electric traverser

All steel carriages. 65
Great Western Railway sets for Paddington to Windsor services: asbestos floors; electric lighting and first class compartments with four passengers per side. Also noted L&YR  fireproof train for Manchester to Southport service with gas lighting and extra means of escape.

Ball bearing eccentric sheave and strap. 66. diagram

Correspondence. 66

F.F. Hoyland.
With further reference to our reply on page 269 of the last volume,  F.S. Hennell informs us that the L. & N.W. Bloomer engines were painted vermilion only during the last few years of Mr. McConnell's superintendence. Previous to that they were painted bright green with red and yellow lines, and were without exception the handsomest engines then running.

Reviews. 67

The elements of railway operating economics, C. Travis, D.R. Lamb, and J.A. Jenkinson. London: The Boswell Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd.,
The authors, in their introduction to this work, state that though Great Britain was the pioneer of the world's railways, English literature is deficient in matters per- taining to transportation as compared with that of other countries, few attempts having been made to discuss the principles of railway operation from the economic standpoint. They have therefore endeavoured to fill the void by writing a short series of elementary papers on railway operating economics, and appear to have covered the ground pretty thoroughly. Passenger traffic is discussed at some length, then follow chapters on goods and mineral traffic and terminal operation. Chapter 7 deals with the con- struction and maintenance of the road, and chapters 8 and 9 with locomotive design and practice and locomotive operation respectively. Under the heading of " Statistics" the" ton mile" is fully discussed, and the authors' conclusions regarding this very debateable point are that though, superficially, ton mile statistics appear useful, their application to British railway conditions appears very questionable, the ton mile limit having been tested and found wanting.

An introductory manual and catechism on the automatic vacuum brake. Chas. H. Gilbanks. Ajmer : Scottish Mission Industries Co., Ltd.
This little work of 138 pages has been written to help those who wish to make themselves familiar with the working of the automatic vacuum brake. It appears to go rather fully into the rudimentary principles of the apparatus, although there is much of interest and value. The illustrations are not at all clear, and we are afraid they cannot be taken seriously. The absence of section lines will make it very difficult for a beginner to follow the descriptions, particularly as the handbook is likely to circulate among native railway employees in the East.

The inventors' adviser and manufacturers' handbook to patents, designs and trade marks. Reginald Haddan. London: Harrison and Sons.
This book provides the inventor with the fullest information regarding the commercial development of an invention, its protection by patent at home and abroad, and the valuation and disposal of patent rights. The chapters on foreign patents are particularly valuable, and the forms used in various countries are fully set out, The book will be invaluable to all who are engaged in industries affected by the patent laws. It has a good index.

The Jubilee of the Railway News. London: The Railway News.
The Railway News, in order to celebrate its 50th year of publicaticn, has issued a sumptuous volume of some 700 pages and 750 illustrations dealing with the growth and progress of the railway system during the period 1864-1914. The Railway News was founded jointly in 1864 by Dr. Smiles and Mr. E. McDermott, two well- known literary men, the former being at that time the secretary of the South Eastern Ry., and well known as the author of the Lives of the Engineers and other books. In the volume under review, practically all departments of railway administration are dealt with in nearly 100 articles, many of which are by prominent officials in the railway service. "Fifty years of Railway Engineering," "Fifty yearsof Locomotive Engineering," and" Railway Rolling Stock," will doubtless appeal to most of our readers. There are some 25 pages devoted to illustrations of early railway scenes, though it may be mentioned that many of these depict railways at a period prior to the year 1864.
In addition to the articles on British railways, there are others dealing with the railways of India, Canada, the United States, Africa. Australia, etc. In connection with the article on the "Railways of Cuba," we note with interest that the first Cuban railway—that from Havana to Guines—was opened so long ago as 1837. An interesting illustration of the earliest locomotive, a single driver with leading bogie, apparently built by Norris, of Philadelphia, is given. Our contemporary is to be congratulated on its 50 years' record and its remarkable commemorative issue. See also commentary

Number 259 (14 March 1914)

Four-cylinder compound locomotive  for the Upsala-Gafle Ry., Sweden. 69-70. illustration
Built by Nydquist & Holm at Trollhattan

Great Western Ry. 70
Niw 43XX class 2-6-0 Nos. 4347-53 completed at Swindon.

Six-coupled bogie tank loaomotive, North Staffordshire Ry. 70. diagram (side elevation)
Adams 0-6-4T

Pullman cars on the Caledoniain Ry. 70
For services between Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Glasgow and Aberdeen

New superheater express locomotives, South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 71. diagram (side elevation)
4-4-0 supplied by Borsig. Statement by H. Cosmo Bonsor that company would be strengthening its permanent way to take heavier locomotives in time for summer timetable. Notes that design was prepared by H. Wainwright and that supply of locomotives would be supervised by a "leading firm of consulting engineers" and by the new locomotive engineer, R,E,L. Maunsell.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 71
An additional eight 2-4-0 tender locomotives borrowed from Great Northern Railway.

Burry Port & Gwendraeth Valley Ry. 71.
Original railway beyond Ponytberem to Cwm Mawr had gradients of 1 in 14 and 1 in 16: this had been converted to a gradient of 1 in 40 by creating embankments. The work was performed under J. Eager, engineer of the line with H.F. Stephens, consulting engineer. Another tank engine had been purchased from Hudswell, Clarke & Co. and given No. 12.

Dingwall to Cromarty Light Ry. 71.
First sod cut by Lady Bignold of Loch Rosque in early February. 18 mile long line had substantial Treasury support.

2-10-0 goods engine, Gothard Section, Swiss Federal Rys.   72. illustration
Powerful engine built by the Swiss Locomotive Works, of Winterthur, for working goods trains over the heavy grades leading to the St. Gothard Tunnel. Five engines of this series, C 5/6, have been constructed, Nos. 2901 and 2902 being four-cylinder non-compounds, and three, Nos. 2951/2/3, four-cylinder compounds.

West Coast Joint Service. 72
Two new sleeping saloons (Nos. 450 and 451) running:: 68ft long; 9ft wide; six-wheel bogies; weight 45 tons

London & North Western Ry. 72
The first five of a new series of 4-6-0 Prince of Wales passenger engines (Schmidt superheater) completed at Crewe, Nos. 86 Mark Twain, 146 Lewis Carroll, 964 Bret Harte, 985 Sir W.S. Gilbert, and 1321 William Cowper.
No. 1559 Drake, is another of the Queen Mary class recently altered to a George the Fifth, by the addition of a Schmidt superheater. Altogether some five of the Queen Marys' have so far been converted into superheaters, leaving five still to be altered. All engines of the George the Fifth class, as they go through the shops, are now being fitted with the new type of sandboxes placed in front of the driving splashers. An engine of the same class, No. 1532 Bloodhound, was running provided with Lambert's patent water sanding gear. One of the 5-ft. 0-6-2 passenger tanks, No. 2028, had been altered for motor service in the same way as the 4-ft. 6-in. tanks.

Personal. 72
Thomas E. Heywood appointed locomotive superintendent of the G.N. of Scotland Ry., in succession to W. Pickersgill, who is succeeding . McIntosh as locomotive superintendent of the Caledonian Ry. Heywood had been assistant locomotive superintendent of the Taff Vale Ry. and formerly held a similar position on the Burma Rys.

Locomotive boiler tubes. 73-4. 8 diagrams
Fixing by expanding at firebox end with expanders nor bell-mouthing with a drift. Ferrules. Beading in the USA. Technique used in Russia

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines.  75; 77. 5 diagrams (line drawings side elevations).
Shrewsbury & Chester Railway Bury, Curtis & Kennedy rebuilds: No. 15 rebuilt at Wolverhampton as 0-4-0ST in 1866 and again in 1887 and lasted until 1904. No. 16 was a four-coupled shunter: Sharp Bros WN 580/1849. Beyer designed screw brake. Nos. 17 and 18 were Bury 0-4-2 bgoods engines built in 1848 and broken up in 1864.  No. 21 was a Sharp 2-2-2 of 1848 and named Victoria & Albert. Figure 15 see also page 102.

Railway rolling stock in Canada. 76; 77-82. 14 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side & cross sectional elevations, plan)
36ft long box cars for transporting grain. Corrugated steel hiopper box cars; palace horse csar; trucks for cattle, ballast (with ploughs), pitch and firefighting. R.W. Burnett general master car builder and Lewis Ord, chief car inspector, Canadian Pacific Railway.

The railways of the Channel Islands. (2) The Jersey Eastern Ry. Ltd. 83-5. 4 illustrations
Opened St. Helier to Grouville on 7 August 1873 and extended to Gorey Pier on 25 May 1891. Standard gauge line. The 0-4-2T locomotives were supplied by Kitson: Caeserea WN 1832/1871; Calvados WN 1833/1872; Mont Orgueil WN 2972/1886; Carteret WN 3800/1898 : the last did not feature outside frames. Naylor safety valves were fitted to some locomotives. H. Wakley was in charge of the locomotives for at least thirty years, and had come from the Great Western at Bristol. The railway formed part of the route to France from St. Helier

[St. Helier Harbour Works], 85
Started in 1872, but abandoned in 1877. The Fletcher, Jennings 3ft gauge locomotives were allowed to moulder until acquired by the Torrington & Marland Ry in August 1908: see 19 pp. 168-9

The locomotive history of the Cambrian Rys. 85-6.  2 diagrams (line drawings side elevations).
The Mid Wales Railway had its works at Builth with G.F. Ellis in charge. Kitson supplied six 0-4-2 for passenger work (WN 1235-40/1864) and 0-6-0 for freight (WN 1247-52/1864-5). WN 1236, 1240 and 1250 were sold to the M.S. & L. in 1868 becoming RN 269, 268 and 270. WN 1251 was sold to the Denbigh, Ruthin & Corwen Ry and became LNWR No. 2348 in 1878. In 1873 two Sharp locomitive WN 2339 and 2347 were purchhased as partial replacements.

North-Eastern Railway. Special wagons.  86-8.4 illustrations, 4 diagrams (side and end elevations, plans)
No. 9006 was a long bogie well wagon capable of carrying 35 ton traction engines which could be chocked. No. 12291 was designed to convey large Lancashire boilers; special runner for breakdown cranes

Electric drive in railway worshops. 89-91. 3 illustrations
Wood working machinery like band saws

The action of the Westinghouse ordinary brake. 91

Correspondence. 92

Charles Dickens and the railway. A.R. Bennett.
Re Hopwoocl's last letter and the quotation he gives from Langton that I was right in ascribing the scene depicted by Dickens to Strood. I reasoned on railway grounds only, assuming the playing field to be there as described. That it was not, entitles Hopwood to claim a hit also. Probably Dickens arrived from London at Strood, noted the scene and engine there, but wishing to bring in the playground, transferred that piece of land to Strood for the occasion. This explanation does less violence to the facts than shifting the S.E.R. station to Chatham. Then he may have desired to retain the South Eastern in the description owing to the conciseness and aptness of S.E.R. The name L.C. & D.R. was not adopted until 1859, the year before Uncommercial Traveller was published, and would not only have been clumsier for the text but not so readily understood by the average reader. Neither did the previous name, East Kent Railwav, lend itself very well to the required purpose.

Charles Dickens and the railway. Clement Brewin.
May I venture to suggest that there is just a shadow of doubt whether Alfred R. Bennett is entirely justified in his criticism of Dickens' account of  "the boofer lady's" railway journey? My memory goes back almost to the date of the publication of Our Mutual Friend; and this was the condition at Settle (now Giggleswick) Station, on the Midland Railway, at that time: the two semaphore arms were mounted upon one post, and were painted red  on the obverse and black on the reverse sides. The lamps were revolved by means of a wheel or handle at the feet of the upright rods which supported them. The block system of course was not known. The normal position of the signals was at "all right"; they were set at "danger" only when a stopping-train was due, and for a certain number of minutes after a train (whether stopping or express) had passed. At night, therefore, they would actually shut their white eyes (green was unknown as an "all-right" signal on the Midland until 1890 or thereabouts) and open their red ones whenever a train was about to stop at the station. It is possible, therefore, that, with the substitution of green for white, this is exactly what Dickens saw. See also response from Rosling Bennett

Reviews. 92

Lectures on the working of locomotive engines. D. Drummond, M.LC.E. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
This book, which is now in its sixth edition, consists of a series of 13 lectures delivered by the author to the enginemen of the L. & S.W.R. with the intention of assisting them to get the best results into the performance of their duties on the footplate. The opening lecture naturally deals with the most important part of the Iocomotive:, the Boiler, whilst lectures 2 and 3 deal with "Combustion of Fuel" and "Steam the Working Agent" respectively. These are followed by chapters on "Distribution of Steam"-in which "lap and lead" are fully explained by full page diagrams- and "How the Slide Valves are controlled." The Vacuum and Westinghouse brakes and their working are described at some length, and finally the author speaks of "Ailments and Failures of Engines." The late D. Drummond was recognised as one of the leading authorities on the subject of the locomotive engine, and the volume under review will be read with avidity not only by enginemen, but also by students of the locomotive. The book contains 202 pages of matter with 75 diagrams, and an excellent portrait of the late Drummond forms the frontispiece.

Silent Electric Clock Co., Ltd., of Goswell Road, London. 92
Received an' order from the Central Argentine Ry. Co. for supplying electric clocks-some seventy dials controlled by one master clock-for the Retiro Station, -Buenos Ayres.

The Railway Track Supply Co. (of Great Britain). 93
Order from the Midland Ry. for one of their Buckwalter industrial trucks for use at the Derby Works .

T. E. Goodeve. 93
Assistant manager of Crewe Works, L. & N.W.R., since 1910, appointed works manager at Inchicore and assistant locomotive superintendent of the Great Southern & Western Ry. of Ireland.

Number 260 (15 April 1914)

Superheater goods engine, Great Southern & Western Ry. of Ireland. 95-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
0-6-0 designed by R.E.L. Maunsell: Nos. 257-260

London & North Western Ry. 96
The following additional 4-6-0 passenger engines (Prince of Wales class) complete the series referred to in the March issue. Nos. 2152 Charles Lamb, 2293 Percy Bysshe Shelley, 2377 Edward Gibbon, 2443 Charles James Lever and 2520 G.P. Neele. A new series of 0-8-0 goods engines (Schmidt superheater) was in hand at Crewe, of which the first, No. 20, was complete. A further five Precursors were being fitted with the Schmidt superheater. These engines will be provided with the ordinary flat valves, thus avoiding any alteration being made in respect of the smokebox , etc.: No. 513 Precursor was turned out in this way, superheated, in 1913. Of the five Precursors being superheated, No. 157 Dunrobin would be shortly running. No. 1186, ?--2 tank, had been altered to a superheater, while No. 2607 4-6-0 goods, was running without the Phoenix superheater, with which it was experimentally fitted in 1912. No. 1231, a four-cylinder compound mineral engine, had been converted to simple with 20½-in. cylinders and larger boiler. Another 4-ft. 6-in. 2-4-2 tank had been adapted for motor work, No. 791.

W. Pascall, L. & N.W.R. driver.  96. illustration
After 48 years' service on the L. & N. W. R., W. Pascall, of Crewe. had retired. He had been an engine driver for 42 years. Pascall was driver of the pilot which preceded the Royal train during King Edward's reign. He drove the Royal train during the first visit ot King George to Ireland and also on the occasion of the Investiture of the Prince of Wales at Carnarvon. On the return of the Royal party from Wales, driver Pascall, with the engine Coronation, had charge of the special, which came off the Cambrian system, from Whitchurch to Carlisle.

Royal Visit to Birkenhead. 96. illustration
On 25 March their Majesties the King and Queen paid a visit to the Shipbuilding Works of Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd., at Birkenhead. On entering the works their Majesties were received by W.L. Hichens, chairman, Col. W. Sidebottom, deputy chairman, and G.J. Carter, managing director. A handsome souvenir of the occasion, a gold tray showing in relief H.M. battleship Audacious, was presented to the Queen by Mrs. G. Carter. The Royal party accompanied by Hichens and Carter afterwards made a tour of the extensive shipyard, the route being lined by the workmen and members of the staff. Their Majesties also visited the extensive soap works of Lever Bros. at Port Sunlight, the serviceable little tank locomotive illustrated on this page being used to haul the special train made up for the use of the Royal visitors

Canada's shortest railway. 102. illustrtation
Possibly Canada's shortest railway is located in the Algonquin National Park District of Ontario. It is owned by the Huntsville Navigation Co. and operated by them in connection with their steamer service from Huntsville to Dwight. The line is one mile in length and crosses the portage between Fairy Lake and the Lake of Bavs. It is the only practicable way to connect the two, as there is a rise in the land which makes a canal impossible. There are two locomotives on the line, both four-wheeled saddle tanks built by the Porter Locomotive Works, of Pittsburg. They are not very powerful machines, and have some difficulty with a full train on the rising grades. There are about ten passenger cars in service, several being ancient tram cars formerly used in Toronto and Ottawa, and a luggage van which has been built by the staff of the railway. The permanent way is rough.

Electriciiy v gas for train lighting. 102
The superiority claimed for electric train lighting over its competitor gas, on the score of safety, has not been very satisfactorily demonstrated in India. Only recently a first-class carriage on the Oude & Rohilkund Ry., lighted by electricity was burnt out, due it is supposed to a short circuit, whilst on the South Indian Ry. some cars similarly lighted were destroyed at the Egmore terminus, Madras.

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. 102-
Continued from page 77. Two single engines, Nos. 27 and 29, were supplied to the S. & C. Ry by Messrs. Sharp Bros. & Co., No. 27 (December, 1853), and No. 29 (October, 1853), and which were WN. 744 '- and 743 of Sharp's build. They are illustrated in Fig. 15 (page 77). The cylinders were 15-in. dia. by 20-in. stroke; driving wheels, 5-ft. 6-in. dia. ; L. & T. wheels, 3-ft. 6-in. dia. The boilers were 3-ft. 10-in. dia., and contained 161 2-in. tubes. The total heating surface was 916 ft2., and weight, 21 tons 13 cwt., of which 10 tons 8 cwt. were on the drivers. Comparing these with the earlier engines of the No. 10 class, it will be seen that they were somewhat larger.
Four very interesting four wheels coupled goods engines [0-4-2] were constructed for the S. & C. Ry. by the Vulcan Foundry in 1853, as under, and are illustrated in Fig. 16 :-
No. 30, July WN342
No. 31, Aug.WN 343
No. 24, Sept.WN 344
No. 26, Sept.WN 345
For the period when they were built they were very modern engines. The outside frame was solid from end to end, as was also the inside frame, and the latter extended to the back buffer beam. The steam chests were inclined upwards, being placed below the centre line of the cylinders. They had copper-topped chimneys and brass safety valve covers. The wheels had balance weights when new, and the cast iron horn blocks were outside the frames with the spring pillars placed in front of the splashers. The latter were of cast-iron and of a heavy and clumsy looking pattern. The valve spindles were horizontal and placed on a level with the leading axle, to clear which, they had square frames which embraced the axles. The cylinders were 16-in. by 24-in. ; coupled wheels, 5-ft. dia., and trailing wheels, 3-ft. 6-in. dia. The boiller was 4-ft. dia., and contained 185 21/16 -in. tubes. Heating surface of tubes, 1125 ft2., of firebox 85 ft2.; total, 1211 ft2. ; total weight, 25 tons 14 cwt.
No. 30 exploded at Saltney in 1859, and was such a total wreck that the engine was scrapped. None of the others were rebuilt. Nos. 24 and 31 disappeared about 1872, and were the last to go, 26 having been broken up some years previously.
A very interesting express engine was built by Jones & Potts in November, 1852, and was numbered 32 on the S. & C. Ry. In Jones & Potts's records there is no mention of an engine for the S. & C. Ry., but they give one as ordered by the Shrewsbury and Birmingham Ry., so that it appears probable that No. 32 was originally intended for, If not actually delivered to the latter line. That this was actually the case appears to be borne out by the fact that the engine began work before the end of 1852, some months before the S. & C. Ry. possessed engines 24 to 31. But it appears that she did hardly any work on the S. & B. Ry. before coming into the possession of the Shrewsbury and Chester Ry.
Fig. 17 shows this engine, and has been prepared from detailed descriptions supplied by several of the old superintendents and drivers who remembered her (including one who fired on the engine in 1854-55). to whom the drawing was submitted for criticism. No. 32 was stationed at Shrewsbury and was usually known by the sobriquet of  "The Flying Flogger." It had inside cylinder~. 15½-in. by 20-in., but the steam chests and the valve gear were outside. The framing was inside the wheels, and the crank axle was extended outwards to form bosses to carry the eccentric sheaves. The eccentrics were covered with plates of polished brass. The driving wheels were 6-ft. 6-in. dia., and the splashers were adorned with the coat of arms of the Shrewsbury & Chester Ry. A peculiarly shaped dome was placed upon the raised firebox, and there was a polished brass safety val~e on the centre of the boiler barre], of the Trevithick old Crewe pattern, similar to the one on engine No. 8.
"The Flying Flogger" had but a short career, the chief incident in which appears to have been a collision with an itinerant horse, as a result of which, No. 32 sustained damage to the extent of one broken split pin on the outside valve gear. Structural alterations subsequently required by the horse were not stated.
During its short life No. 32 appPars to have taken a fair share in the working of the expresses from Shrewsbury to Chester and to Wolverhampton, but is stated to have been "shy of steam.'' Whether there was some other radical defect the writer does not know, but at the end of 1859, after only seven years' service, the "Flying Flogger'' went into Wolverhampton Works, and a new 32, which will be mentioned later, emerged in March, 186o, of totally different dimensions. In the old official lists it was made to appear as if this was the old 32 rebuilt, and it is possible that some unimportant parts of the old engine were incorporated into the new one.
The last engines to be described tor the Shrewsbury & Chester Ry., Nos. 34 and 35, are illustrated in Fig. 18, and present several remarkable features. They were built by the Vulcan Foundry (Nos. 316 and 317),the records of which firm give the date of construction as 1848, but those of the S. & C. Ry. give March, 1853, as the date on which they began work. As the mileage of No. 34 up to 31 December 1854, was only 34,819, and that of No. 35, 25,726 miles; the 1853 date is probably correct.
They were probably amongst the earliest examples of Crampton's dummy crank shaft pattern. The cylinders were 16-in. dia. by 24-in. stroke, and the four coupled wheels 5-ft. 3-in. dia., spread over a base of 11-ft. 5-in. The boiler barrel was 13-ft. 4-in. long, and of oval section, the vertical axis being 4-ft. 21/8-in., and the horizontal one 3-ft. 61/8-in. Total heating surface, 1,293 sq. ft., of which the tubes supplied 1220 sq. ft. The bearing springs consisted of four pairs of small elliptical springs over each inside and outside bearing, and were enclosed so as not to be visible. Like all the old Vulcan engines the dome was painted, but the safety valve cover was of polished brass. These two engines ran until the end of 1865, when they were broken up. The boiler of No. 35, modified to have a circular section, was, however, utilised for a new or reconstructed "short-coupled" long boiler mineral engine, built at Wolverhampton early in 1866.
Generally speaking, the S. & C. locomotives continued throughout their career, after they became G.W. Ry. property, on their old line, but of course frequently worked as far south as Birmingham, for the S. & C. and the S. & B. Rys. were merged by the G.W. Ry. into one main line. They occasionally went south of Birmingham, though it was unusual. It is, however, interesting to note, that old No. 2, before being rebuilt as a tank engine, was for a time stationed at Reading in 1864, and is said to have been the first standard gauge engine to have been quartered there. No. 117, six-coupled saddle tank (formerly No. 1), was also stationed at Reading as shunting engine at a somewhat later date. No. 16, as mentioned previously, must also have drifted into the southern division, as she was overhauled at Swindon in I870
Note.-The drawing for Fig. 17 may not be absolutely correct in every detail, but can be taken to be as near as it is possible to make it.

The locomotive history of the Cambrian Rys. 104-5. illustration
Conttinued from page 86. William Aston 4-4-0 introduced in 1893. Noa. 61 to 68 were built by Sharp Stewart & Co. in 1893 (WN 3901-8); 69-72 (WN 3976-9) by same firm in 1894 and Nos. 81-4 (WN 4070-3) in 1895. In 1897 R. Stephenson & Co. supplied  WN 2871-5 and these became RN 32, 47, 11, 85 and 86. No. 19 was built at Oswestry Works in 1901.

Alfred R. Bennett. The railways of the Channel Islands. 3 — The Guernsey Ry. 105-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Standard gauge tramway from St. Peter-Port to St. Samson's: opened on 9 June 1879 originally worked by Merryweather tram locomotives and later one from Brown & Co. of Winterthur. Line electrified in 1891 with elctric tramcars and trailers.

Personal. 106.
Arthur A. Shepherd had been appointed chief assistant to S. Warner, carriage & wagon superintendent of the LSWR at Eastleigh. Shepherd succeeded A.H. Panter as chief carriage draughtsman at Eastleigh in 1898. He was a student at Manchester Technical School, obtaining first class honours in carriage & wagon building in 1891 and had his early training on the L&YR.

A new locomotive fuel economiser. 107. diagram
Boyce device.which blew steam into the firebox when locomotive idling.

2-8-2 goods locomotives for the North Western State Ry. of India, Trans-Indus section, Kalabagh-Bannu line. 108-111. 5 diiagrams
2ft 6in gauge locomotive supplied by North British Locomotive Co. to supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton

Great Eastern Ry. 109
Ten further 4-6-0 express engines, numbers 1520-1529, to be ready for summer traffic. Three new 0-6-0Ts, Nos. 28, 29 and 30 in service

Locomotive boiler tubes. 111-12. 7 diagrams
Serve tubes and systems adopted for replacement of tubes and brazing on ends, including that of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway.

Industrial uses of coal gas. 113-14. 3 illustrations.
Lecture given by H.M. Thornton, Director of Richmond Gas Stove and Meter Co. Ltd on gas furnaces.

Electric drive indrive in railway workshops. 115-6. 3 illustrations
Continued from page 91 Next part.

Number 261 (15 May 1914)

Mineral engines for the Somerset and Dorset Joint Ry. 117. illustration
2-8-0: No. 80 illustrated with original tender cab. Leading dimensions.

Alpine rsailway tunnels. 117
Table showing length in miles and altitude

Superheater shunting locomotive, Great Northern Ry.  118. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Gresley J23 0-6-0T No. 167 fitted with Robinson superheater

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 118
New Pullman cars for Eastbourne and Newhaven services with namers Orpheus, Glencoe, Scotia and Hibernia. 4-6-4T No. 327 named Charles C. Macrae: painted grey with black bands and white lines.

North British Locomotive Co. recent locomotives. 119; 120. 2 illustrations
Works photograph of 2ft gauge Darjeeling Himalayan Railway 0-4-0ST posed in front of 3ft 6in gauge 2-6-6-0 Mallet type for South African Railways. The locomotive is shown with about 180 NBL employees posed on the Mallet in what is termed a "scramble" photograph.

London & North Western Ry. 119
New series of 0-8-0 fitted with Schmidt superheaters and vacuum brakes to work piped goods trains: Nos. 20, 1321, 329, 795, 1181, 1214, 1486, 1500,  2033 and 2200. Precursor No. 365 Alchymist fitted with superheater. No. 1181, 4ft 6in passenger tank sold to Cambrian Railways. 6ft 6in Jumbo No. 1745 John Bright running withou a name as name probably allocated to a Claughton class. Withdrawals included 1400 class 4-cylinder compounds: Nos. 1500 and 2033; and 6ft 6in Jumbos Nos. 1213 Prince Albert and 1486 Dalton. No. 1905 Black Diamond, damaged in collision at Rugby to be converted to single expansion.

New South Eastern & Chatham Ry. locomotives. 119.
New 4-4-0 type being built by Borsig to be equipped with Schmidt superheaters; those being supplied by Beyer Peacock to be fitted with Robinson type.

4-4-2 tank locomotive, Great Western Railway. 120. illustration
No. 4600 allocated to Tyseley: 5ft 8in coupled wheels; 17 x 24in cylinders; total heating area 1271.86ft2; grate area 16.6ft2; 200 psi working pressure. New 4301 class Nos. 4354-4360. No. 824, Armstrong 2-4-0, had been rebuilt with Belpaire firebox and top feed. 15 4-cylinder 4-6-0 under construction described as King and Queen class..

Six-coupled bogie express locomotive, Dutch Central Ry. 121-2. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams

Four-wheeled locomotive for the Islip Iron Co. 123. illustration
W.G. Bagnall, Ltd., of Stafford, supplied the Islip Iron Co., of Islip, near Thrapston. The limitations of the loading gauge and the maximum weight per axle it is a remarkably powerful engine. The total height is only 7-ft. 9-in. Total width, 5-ft. 9-in., and length over buffers, 18-ft. 6-in. The weight in working order 14 tons 7 cwt, distributed 7 tons 8 cwt. on drivers and 6 tons 19 cwt. on leaders. The side tanks are carried well forward to ensure equal distribution of weight, and the engine rides very steadily for a four-wheeled locomotive. The following are the other leading dimensions : cylinders 9-in. diameter by 14-in. stroke, driving wheels 2-ft. 7-in. diameter; gauge 3-ft. A spark arrester is fitted in the smokebox. Further dimensions given in article

Midland Ry. 123
The principal trains are worked by the 4-4-0 compounds, although it is stated that owing to the success which has attended the introduction of the simple superheater engines, no more compounds will be built. The first made its appearance in 1901, constructed to the designs of S.W. Johnson. It bore the number 2631, and four more were subsequently built, Nos. 2632-5.
In 1905 Deeley introduced a somewhat improved type of compound. Ten were built in that year, and were given the numbers 1000 to 1009. The following year saw another 20 put on the road, Nos. 1010 to 1029. When the general and drastic re-numbering took place, Nos. 2631-5 became 1000-4, and Nos. 1000-29 were altered to 1005-34. The last series were built in 1908-9, and were numbered 1035-44. To-day they have a large share of the fast main line service and perform some highly meritorious work. They are distributed over the system as follows: 1000-9 at Leeds, 1010-20 Manchester (Cornbrook), 1021-9 Nottingham, and 1030-44 London (Kentish Town). No. 1040 has been fitted with a Schmidt superheater.
The Midland now possesses more single-wheeled engines than any other line in the country, for 95 are still in active service. They are still seen on the fast trains and are often used as pilots.

New engines for the Northern Counties Committee, Ireland. 123-4.
The Midland Ry. had under construction at Derby Works two 4-4-0 type passenger superheated engines for their Northern Counties line, Ireland. The engines will be very similar to those at present in service there, but are non-compound, and have the addition of the Schmidt superheater and its special fittings. The superheater will have the patent header or collector and bypass valves invented by Fowler. On account of water difficulties brass tubes are found most satisfactory on this line, and these will be used in this instance; steel tubes will, however, be used for the superheater. The engines will have Laycock's system of carriage warming apparatus, Gresham & Craven's injectors and ejectors, and the Ross patent safety valves, thus following the usual practice on the line. The principal dimensions are as follows:—Boiler pressure 170  psi; cylinders, diameter 19-in., stroke 24-in.; wheels, driving 6-ft., bogie 3-ft. 8-in.; heating surface 986 ft2., superheater surface 275 ft2, grate area 18 ft2.; wheelbase 40-ft. 11-in.; tender, water capacity 2,090 gallons, coal capacity 5 tons. According to the present rate of progress the engines should be delivered about the middle of the summer.

Indo-Ceylon railway connection. 124-6. 2 illustrations, map
On 24 February the new route between India and Ceylon was jointly inaugurated by Lord Pentland, Governor of Madras, and Sir Robert Chalmers, Governor of Ceylon. The Governor of Pondicherry (French), the Rajahs of Puddakotta and Ramnad, and other notabilities, European and Indian, also attended the celebration on the sacred island of Rameswaram, when the new Indo-Ceylon connection was declared open, although through communication for public travel did not commence until 1 March. Hitherto the mainland terminus of the South Indian Ry. had been at Mandapam. The extension opened follows the Tonitoral promontory about 1%#190; miles to Point Raman, where it crosses the Pamban passage, first by a steel and cement viaduct, 1½ miles long, built on a partly submerged reef, and then by a Scherzer rolling lift bridge across the actual navigable channel to the Island of Rameswaram. The steel girder bridge is made up of 145 4O-ft. spans, while the rolling lift bridge consists of two cantilevers, each of 112½-ft., worked by high-geared hand-winches. The railway on Rameswaram Island to Dhanushkodi was built several years ago, for the pilgrim traffic to the great temple there. From Dhanushkodi a new line bifurcates to two new jetties—north and south—each 710-ft. long. The south pier is used in the north-east monsoon and the north pier in the south-west monsoon. On the Ceylon side piers have been constructed at Taliemanar on Manar Island to correspond with those at Dhanushkcdi.
At present the new route incurs changes from metre gauge railway cars to a steamer, and transfer thence to broad gauge rolling stock; the South Indian Ry. Line to the Indian terminal at Dhanushkodi is on the metre gauge, whilst the 66 mile branch which the Ceylon Government Rys. have built from the northern main line at Madawachi Junction to Talaimanaar is on the broad gauge (5-ft. 6-in.). The distance from Talaimanar to Colombo by rail is 208 miles. If the newly-established arrangement develops sufficient traffic to warrant the change, then it is understood a through physical connection of the broad gauge railways will be undertaken.
Already the South Indian Ry. is proposing to re-convert the section between Erode and Trichinopoly (see Locomotive Magazine, vol. 17, page 134), where large shops are to be built to accommodate both broad and metre gauge stock.
The next project is to link up Trichinopoly with Ranmad with a broad gauge railway, forming a chord line between the two places named. The map shows these lines. Conversion of the remaining- section recently opened will not offer serious difficulties. For the present, between the S.I. terminus at Dhanushkodi, and that of the C.G.R. at Talaimanaar, a distance of 23 miles, three geared turbine steamers named Elgin, Curzon, and Hardinge, in honour of the Viceroys in whose regime the scheme developed, will maintain the service, occupying about an hour.

Alfred R. Bennett. The railways of the Channel Islands. 4.—The Alderney Ry. 126-8.  3 illustrations
Concluded from page 106. The Alderney breakwater was inaugurated in 1847. The railway extended the whole length of the breakwater to its base at Fort Grosnez; then turned sharply south, skirted the harbour and continued south-east and then east as far as the Admiralty quarry at Mannez, at the east corner of the island, the total length of the line being rather over two miles. During the building of the breakwater a short western branch was laid from Fort Grosnez to Craby Bay to bring up shingle for the concrete blocks, intended for the service of the breakwater only. The existence of the railway fostered an export trade in granite.
The railway with its locomotives and rolling stock, is owned, worked and maintained by the Admiralty, although it runs chiefly on land belonging to, and leased from, the War Office. This was one of the few instances ol State-owned railways in this country. The Woods and Forests Department, which acquired the manorial rights in Alderney in 1825, charge harbour dues on shipping, and royalty on stone quarried by private individuals on Crown land. About one -sixth, at the eastern end, is of sandstone, the cleavage following an almost straight line extending roughly S.S.W. across the island from Corblets Bay. The Admiralty quarry at Mannez is consequently a sandstone one, and its output is used principilly for " foreshoring," that is, for protecting the foundations of the breakwater by depositing stone to seaward in order to compensate for the destructive scourage due to the prevailing tremendous currents. On the granite section of the island the railway served two quarries, the products of which were conveyed to several crushing mills at the harbour, where, after being reduced to road metal of different grades, and load ed onto small steamers and sailing barges for carriage to England. No official records of the original locomotives survived, but an old engine-driver still living on the Island says they were six-coupled engines with four-wheeled tenders, and named Veteran and Fairfield. Later, a small four-wheels coupled tank, named Waverley was added. They were succeeded at an unrecorded date by two six-coupled tank engines called  Bee and Spider, which in turn gave place to the present pair.
About 1893 a four-wheeled geared engine, named Gillingham, built by Aveling & Porter of Rochester (Figure 14), having cylinder and motion mounted on the top of the boiler was received and put to work, but for some reason not now remembered was returned to England after a time. Figurre 15 shows No. 1, an 0-6-0ST built by the Hunslet Engine Co., Leeds, in 1880 (Works No. 231), with inside cylinders 13-in. by 18-in., and wheels 3-ft. 1-in. in diameter. No. 2  (Figure 16), was built in 1898 by Peckett & Co., Bristol (No. 686) is a four-wheels coupled saddle tank, 0-4-0ST-with outside cylinders 12-in. by 18-in. and coupled wheels 2-ft. 9-in. in diameter. The engine came to Alderney in 1904 from Portland. On 28 November 1911, it was conveying a foreshoreing train along the breakwater in stormy weather when the driver found that he  could not prevent the locomotive f alling into the raging sea beneath with the whole of the train, the men jumping clear at the last moment. It lay submerged for several weeks and was at last fished out by a salvage company for a fee of £200. The chimney, dome cover, cab, side sheets and all exposed piping and fittings were lost, while the smokebox and tank were indented and perforated ; but all damage was made good in the Alderney railway workshops and she is now running as shown in our illustration, which is from a photograph taken in October, 1913. As a rule the two engines spent alternately a week in steam and a week in the shed.

The locomotive history of the Cambrian Rys. 128-9. 2 illustraions
Aston 0-6-0 class of 1894

Numbers. Makers Works numbers Date
73 to 77 Neilson & Co. 4691-5 1894
78  to 80 Vulcan Foundry 1445-7 1895
81 & 82 Neilson & Co. 5401-2 1898

The cylinders, inclined 1 in 10 were 18 by 26-in., and the diameter of the six coupled wheels was 5-ft 1½-in. The total wheelbase was 15-ft 3-in. The boiler barrel was 10-ft. 3-in. long, and contained 204 tubes of 1¾-in. external diameter, the heating surface being: tubes 986-2 ft2., firebox 98-3 ft2., total 1,084.5 ft2, grate area is 16½- ft2., and the working pressure 160 psi. The engines weighed 46 tons and the tenders 30 tons, the latter being similar to those of the passenger engines. Nos. 75 and 77 of this class were concerned in the fatal accident at Welshampton on 11 June 1897. In this case a return excursion train from Barmouth to Royton (L & YR.),
in 1895 seven 0-4-4 bogie side tank engines, were delivered from the works of Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. for working the newly-opened Ellesmere and Wrexham line, and three more from the same firm in 1899. They all took the place of old engines,

Number. Makers' No. Date
3 460 1895
5 461 1895
7 462 1895
8 558 1899
9 559 1899
23 560 1899

They had 17 x 24-in cylinders inclined at 1 in 9; 5-ft 3-in coupled wheels; 3-ft 1½-in bogie wheels; 1010ft2. total heating surface, 13.3 ft2. grte area and 150 psi boiler pressure.

The last of the Dandies in England.  129-32. 3 illustrations
North British Railway horse-drawn Dandy cars on Port Carlisle branch. See also letter from W.T. Thompson on page 184,

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines.  Section II — The Shrewsbury and Birmingham Railway. 131-2. 2 illustrations (line drawings side elevations).
States that Marlow was appointed locomotive superintendent of the Shrewsbury & Birmingham Railway at the Stafford Road works in Wolverhampton. Robert Stephenson & Co. received an order for five four coupled outside cyylinder locomotives and these were WN 711-12 and 747-9 (but only four were delivered), but these were rebuilt at Wolverhampton as inside cylinder 0-4-2 freight engines. One, by then No. 33, was further rebuilt. Figs. 19 and 20 show the Wolverhampton modified engines.

Swedish hospital car. 132-3. illustration, diagram (side elevation & plan)
Stockholm-Vesteras-Bergslagenes Ry. to reduce cost body formed from two old four-wheeled vehicles. Acetylene gas was used for lighting and water heating.

Personal. 133
Donald Fraser, who for the last 5 years has held the position of locomotive superintendent of the Taokou-Chinghua lines of the Chinese Government Railways, has been selected by the Director General of Railways for the position of locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent of the new Canton-Hankow line of the Chinese Government Railways. Fraser was a pupil of F.W. Webb, and went out to China  ten years ago superintending the erection of the first locomotives built in China.
Lapage, district locomotive superintendent of the L. & N. W. R., at Longsight, Manchester, had been appointed works manager at Atbara, on the Soudan Government Rlvs., and was succeeded bv Lawrence.
Dingley, district locomotive supt., Willesden, had been appointed road motor supt., and was succeeded by A. McLellan, of Shrewsbury. Firbank, of Nuneaton, took charge at Shrewsbury, and Alcock, from Rugby, went to Nuneaton.

Reviews. 134-5

Engineering workshop exercises. Ernest Pull. London : Whitaker & Co.
This small handbook provides a series of workshop exercises, using the tools and appliances found in the ordinary engineering shop. The author, as workshop instructor at the L.C.C. School of Engineering, is fully alive to the needs of students in this particular field, and his lessons are well adapted to their requirements. The plan followed is to select a simple example of general fitting or machine work and describe how it is to be worked up, with the aid of illustrations, so that an intelligent beginner can easily grasp the correct method of using tools. Attention is given to screw cutting both by machine and by hand. At the end of the book are various useful notes on materials, tables of weights of metals and alloys, physical properties of metals, etc. underlying the design of details. The book is illustrated with about 200 illustrations and four sheets of working drawings of the latest Midland 4-4-0 superheater express engine as well as North Eastern 4-4-4 three cylinder passenger tank locomotive.

The Newcastle and Gateshead Incorporated Chamber of Commerce Year Book and Commercial Review; edited by Herbert Shaw,. London: Sells, Ltd.
The new edition of this useful year book has just been issued. Within its 230 pages there is contained a mass of miscellaneous information likely to be of use to commercial people, concerning the extensive industries carried on in this district. Data regarding the resources of the locality, statistics, etc., and articles on the business carried on in coal mining, shipping, iron and steel manufacturing, shipbuilding and engineering, are given in the different sections, being accompanied by useful maps of Newcastle, Wallsend, and the Tyne from Newburn to the sea.

The development of British locomotive design. E.L. Ahrons, Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd. 222pp. diagram
The scope of this book is described by its title. In 1908-9 the author contributed a series of articles to this Magazine dealing with the development of locomotive details from an historical standpoint. These have been completely revised and a large portion re-written for publication in book form, while the modern details have received special attention, thus forming a most useful epitome of so many points of locomotive practice and design, which are omitted in English books of this kind. We feel sure this work will be welcomed by locomotive men in this country and elsewhere as a means of explaining the principles. The book is very well got up. Diagram of NER 4-4-4T from book included

Railroad surveying. G.W. Pickels and C.C. Wiley. London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd.
This little handbook gives the essentials of railroad surveying as practised in America, in a lucid and concise form. It was written primarily for the students at the University of Ilinois, but it should also appeal to the professional surveyor. Among the features included are the following :—Preliminary location and construction and maintenance surveys, maps, curvature and grades, curves, earthwork, location of track, crossings, etc. A number of useful tables are included. The book is printed on thin, strong paper and is well and neatly bound in leather

Modern railway working," vol. 7. London: Gresham Publishing Co. 135
The seventh volume of this work contains the conclusion of the railway mechanical and electrical engineering section, with chapters on signalling and train control. The fourth and final section deals with railway economics. The importance of this subject has now become recognised, and the twenty-two chapters given in this volume are a valuable introduction to it. The working of the goods department is described by H.W. Ede, the principles of goods rates by H. L. Lister, and the economics of passenger traffic by F.J.C. Pole (G.W.R.) and J. Holme. A description of the nature and growth of passenger traffic, and the train services to cope with it, is followed by a chapter on train operation, while the preparation of time tables, working arrangements and statistics are thoroughly dealt with. The commercial aspect of railway works considers the subjects of fares, cheap tickets, workmen's trains, etj., while the concluding section gives attention to advertising, canvassing and other forms of inducing traffic. Reproductions of railway posters in colour form the presentation plates. The volume, like its predecessors, is profusely illustrated.

Mexican fuel oil. London: Anglo-Mexican Petroleum Products Co., Ltd. 135
Increasing demand for fuel oil as a steam raiser for railway and marine purposes, as well as for industrial furnaces, gives this book present-day importance. It goes far beyond the ordinary limitations of an advertising publication. In the first chapter is given an account of the marvellous growth of the Mexican oil industry, with an analysis of the oil fuel. The next is devoted to its general advantages as fuel, with particulars of its calorific value, storage, etc., with a concise description of the many burners now on the market. Other chapters deal with the use of fuel oil in the Navy and the mercantile marine, liquid fuel on the railways, and for stationary boilers, with details of various oil furnaces. The appendix contains a number of useful tables, heating value of oils, etc. The book is profusely illustrated.

Westinghouse Brake Co., Ltd., Kings Cross. 135
Latest catalogue of silent, rocker-joint, chain drives (Morse Patents). This chain is of the inverted tooth type and runs on the wheels in the same manner as a belt, viz., over the face of the wheel. The special feature is the rockerjoint, made up of two pieces, the "seat-pin" and the " rocker-pin." As the chain passes on and off the wheels the rocker-pin rocks or rolls on the plane surface of the seat-pin, reducing wear to the minimum. It has a wide range of service, the drives ranging from £ h.p. to 1,000 h.p. It is now manufactured in ten different pitches, and in all widths up to 24-in. for individual chains. Illustrations of a large number of applications are given.

Electric drive indrive in railway workshops. 135-7. 2 illustrations
Continued from page 116. It has been found that for machines requiring 20 b.h.p. and upwards a motor for each machine is most economical. The factors contributing to the consumption of power in woodworking machines are the quantity of timber and its nature, the depth of the cut or operation, the speed of the feed required, and the condition of the saw tooth, planing irons, or other tools. In regard to the latter, it will be found where methodical and correct records are kept, of the power consumed by each machine, that not only will the figures serve as a record of the powers, but comparisons may be made which will indicate the speed on different timbers and operations, whether the machine is being worked at its greatest efficiency, and, incidentally, whether the cutting edges of the tools are in good condition. The importance of an early indication of the tools being in bad condition cannot be over estimated. The power required with a dull tool will rapidly increase, and frequently reaches 200 and 300 per cent, of the original power required by the machine when started with the tool in good condition. A ready method of ascertaining the electrical horse power consumption of any machine under load is to take the readings of the voltage and amperes from the ammeter and voltmeter and multiply the one by the other, subsequently dividing by the "constant" 746. To convert this into b.h.p. a proper allowance must be made for the losses in the motor. Generally, if a motor efficiency of about 85 per cent, is assumed, the result may be regarded as on the safe side. The subject of controlling gear is an extremely important one, though frequently ignored. It is not generally known that the success or failure of electric driving depends almost entirely upon the installation of suitable control gear. This lack of knowledge is partly accounted for by the highly technical character of the subject, which has prevented its essential details being much understood outside the shops where such gear is manufactured.  Illustration: John Pickles & Son, Hebden Bridge log cutting macine; Robinson's Type MMM, specially built for cross cutting heavy timbers in railway carriage and wagon shops.

Correspondence. 138

Charles Dickens and the railway. A.R. Bennett
I am inclined to agree with Clement Brewin that the described practice at Giggleswick. (Dickens would have liked that name!), if at all common, might account for the " boofer lady " incident. But the journey was in the neighbourhood of London where I cannot, with a memory going back to the 1850s, recollect a single instance of such a thing. Nor was it, I suspect, otherwise than exceptional in the North. Bella's train apparently passed many signals, so to justify the description it would be necessary to have a line on which not only all the station signals but all intermediate ones as well were allowed to be passed at danger ; and that, I feel pretty sure, never existed. Signals in the South were by no means elementary in Dickens'time. On the L.B: &S.C.R. they showed red, green and white—danger, caution and clear—the corresponding arms being horizontal, sloping and vertical, the last being used when the previous train was belled as past the box in advance. Even with permissive stops, when a train was signalled to pick up passengers, a green light was, according to my observation, waved to bring the driver past the red.

Atlantic type locos.— Egyptian State Rys. Vormals l. Schwartzkopff. (Berliner Mmaschinenbau-Actien-Gesellschaft)
In the article which appeared in the January issue on the Atlantic type superheated steam express locomotives supplied by our firm to the Egyptian State Railways we have said in the second paragraph that " these engines have been constructed by our firm from its own designs but to the specification of  R.G. Peckitt, chief mechanical engineer of ihe Egyptian State Railways." A third person now draws our attention to the fact that in England it is not customary to speak of a manufacture from one's own drawings if in the original enquiry the builder uas supplied by the mechanical department of the railway with a blue print showing the design of the locomotive in question, if he was also told the type of engine, type, dimensions and position of cylinders, gear required, sizes of wheels, total weight of-engine and weight of coupled wheels and size of tender, and if he was supplied, too, with a design of the boiler to be fitted with a Schmidt superheater. This point of view is something new to us, for in Germany the usual practice is to speak of a manufacture from one's own designs if the builder must prepare the working drawings himself and if he is not supplied with these by the railway
To avoid any misunderstanding and to hurt on no account, unintentionally, the mechanical department of the Egyptian State Railways, in particular its chief, Peckitt, vve hereby beg to ask you kindly to publish this letter in the next issue of  The Locomotive Magazine.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 138
Great Northern locomotives transferred to the South Eastern & Chatham Ry. had the initials of this line painted on the tenders, and where the numbers clash the letter " B" had been added.

A miniature locomotive. 139. illustration
The latest miniature locomotive—for we can no longer call them models—produced by the well-known firm, Bassett-Lowke, Ltd., of Northampton, is a splendid example of sound railway engineering -work. This little locomotive has been designed to deal with the heaviest loads on a 15-in. gauge railway, and performs its duties in an admirable manner, maintaining ample head of steam under full load at highest speeds. At present this engine is the most powerful is-in. gauge scale model locomotive in existence, and a few details and leading dimensions will no doubt interest our readers. The cylinders are best grain iron castings, 43/8-in. bore by 6¾-in. stroke. The motion work is of steel throughout with hardened parts. The wheels are steel castings with tyres shrunk on, the coupled wheels are 20-in. diameter, bogie wheels 9½-in., tender wheels 10¼-in. The boiler—constructed throughout in Bassett-Lowke's shops at Northampton was best mild steel plate; the barrel had a mean diameter of  19½-in., with 41 fire tubes, a grid superheater of ample capacity being situated in the smokebox. The tender is of the double bogie type, with capacity for 65 gallons of water and ample coal space. Hand brakes are fitted to the tender wheels, while vacuum brakes are provided on the engine, the ejector being specially arranged for braking throughout the train, and the tender is piped for the connections to the passenger vehicles. Boiler fittings are ample and of generous dimensions and include a "push and pull" steam regulator, water gauge, try cocks, steam gauge, vacuum gauge, blower, two injectors with check valves and regulators, while an automatic system of lubrication for the cylinders has been adopted. The engine works at a pressure of  150 psi, measures 18-ft. 2-in. in length, and weighs in running order approximately 3 tons. In service this engine will deal with loads of 120 adult passengers with ease, and being able to negotiate curves of 130-ft. radius can operate under restrictions of space with conspicuous success. The illustration shows the owner, J.E.P. Howey, and his locomotive John Anthony at his residence, Staughton Manor, near St. Neots.

London & North Western electrification. 139
Electric trains commenced running regularly between Earl's Court and Willesden (High Level) on 1 May. Pending completion of the L. & N.W. stock, the cars had been borrowed from the District Ry., but the drivers and conductors were L. &N.W. men. Current is taken from the District and G.W. Rys., as the L. & N.W. generating station at Stonebridge Park was not yet ready. Four trains per hour were run in each direction.

Catalogues received and trade notices. 139

The European agents of the Titanium Alloy Manufacturing Co., Messrs. T. Rowlands & Co., Ltd., Sheffield, have sent us a series of sulphur prints of railway sections showing the elimination of excessive segregation in Titanium treated open hearth rails as compared with Standard open hearth rails. This excessive segregation dangerously weakens the rails, as breakage records of many railways corroborate. The increased wear of Titanium treated rails has been demonstrated by many practical service tests in America.

Number 262 (15 June 1914)

Six-cylinder Mallet locomotive, Erie Railroad. 141. illustration
2-8-8-8-2 compound with high pressure cylinders set in middle

New 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines, Great Northern Ry. 142. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
H3 class with larger boiler

New side tank engine, Great Northern Ry. (Ireland). 145-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Five 4-4-2Ts with inside cylinders supplied by Beyer Peacock to Glover design

Consolidation locomotive, Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 146. illustration
2-8-0 supplied by Vulcan Foundry

Early tank engines of the Western of France Railway. 148. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
2-4-0T No. 329

Midland Ry. 141
In issue of February, 1913; was illustrated Midland engine No. 483, rebuilt with superheater. The following engines of this class had since been turned out with superheaters, and the particulars which were the given are practically the same for the whole of these engines: Nos. 483, 485 to 522, 525 to 530, 532 to 537, 539, 541 to 543, 546, 548, 549, 551 to 558, 560 to 562. These engines were giving such satisfactory results that we understand the Midland Ry. are contemplating fitting more engines of this same class with superheaters, the Nos. of which will be 428 to 482. When the whole of the engines of this class down for superheating are fitted, the numbers will run consecutivel the from 403 to 562. In addition to these engines the Midland have fitted compound engine No.. 1040 with superheater; and have at present order for fitting compounds No. 1000 to 1004. Belpaire engines Nos. 700-709 also to be equipped (four already done). Only freright lccomotives Nos. 3835 and 3836 fitted with superheaters.

Some fragmentary notes on N.E. Ry. engines, old and new. No. IV.  149. 2 illustrations
Fletcher 2-4-0 Nos. 548 and 0-6-0 No. 119

2-6-4 tank locomotive, Berne-Neuchatel Railway. 150. illustration
Swiss Locomotive Works, Winterthur

Wallace Bentley. Locomotive boiler shop machine tools. 150-6. 8 illustrations

Cheshire Lines Committee. 156
Nine five coach trains built to Robinson design for express services between Manchester and Liverpool: 50ft long coaches

The 7,000th locomotive, Hanover Locomotive Works. 157-8. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Decapod 0-10-0 for Prussian State Railways: one diagram shows 0-10-0 alongside 2-2-2 Ernst August (the first locomotive built at the Works).

E.L. Ahrons. Feed water purifier, Hungarian State Railway locomotives. 158. diagram

Great Central Ry. 158
Fitting one of 4-6-2T with top feed apparatus to remove impurities from feedwater

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. Section II—The Shrewsbury and Birmingham Ry. 159-61. 7 diagrams (side elevations)
Stephenson WN 754/1849: 2-2-2 No, 3, later GWR No. 37 (Fig. 21). Fig. 22 shows Longridge & Co. 0-4-2 S&B No. 6 as running as 0-4-2ST No. 40 and as later renewed at Wolverhampton in 1862. Fig. 24 shows Longridge 0-4-2 (formerly S&B Nos. 7-10) as GWR No.41 with Gothic firebox. Fig. 25 shows one of the Longridge 0-6-0s of 1850 as GWR No. 46. Figs. 26 and 27 show Longridge locomotive No. 47 as rebuilt as 0-6-0ST at Wolverhampton in 1868 and again in 1875..

P.C. Dewhurst. Locomotive practice on the Chilian Transandine Ry. 161-9. 13 illustrations, map, table
Shows the railway when working with rack & adhesion locomotives and rotary snowplughs. Interesting that a significant point on the former line is Portillo (now a ski resort).. The Summit Tunnel was opened in 1910. Table lists leading dimensions of locomotive stock.

Electric traction notes.  169-70.

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 170-3.
Includes a management chart and notes on organization of forms

Earlier holidays on the East Coast. 173-4. illustration
Enhancements to Great Eastern Railway services to Yarmouth and Hunstanton with dining car trains, including a late supper train to Clacton on Saturday nights

The Casey-Cavin air or steam reversing gear. 174-5. diagram
Canadian Locomotive Company

Correspondence. 184

Last of the Dandies. W.B. Thompson
In your account of the" Last of the Dandies," on p. 129 of the "Locomotive Magazine" for May, you say the Port Carlisle line was constructed on the bed of an old canal which was opened as far back as 23 March 1793. On 6 April 1819, an Act of Parliament (;9 Geo. IlL, c. 13) was passed authorising the "making and maintaining of a navigable canal from the City of Carlisle to the Solway Frith"; and the later Act of 1853 (16 and 17 Vic. c. 119), by which "for the benefit of the mortgagees and of the public" leave was given to convert the canal to a railway, and expressly refers to the canal as having been made under the powers granted in 1819. Possibly there was some earlier and smaller canal made as early as 1793; if so, I should be much obliged for any information with regard to it, as I have not been able to trace it.

Reviews. 184

Modern railway working. VoL 8. Edited by John Macaulay, A.LC.E., assisted by Cyril Hall. London: The Gresham Publishing Co. In 8 vols.
This volume completes the series. The section dealing with Railway Economics is concluded by the Editor's article on the" Economics of Dock Administration." Mr.A. D. Lomas, assistant land and rating surveyor of the L. & Y. R. writes on " Railway Rating and Valuation." Then follows a treatise on foreign, Indian, and colonial railways, based on researches made by the Assistant Editor. This includes a quantity of statistical information gathered from official sources .. An appendix at the end of the book on "The Care of the Locomotive" includes a table of the time limits for the examination of various parts of engines and tenders, as well as mileage limits.
The articles in the foreign section include Germany, France, Belgium, and Switzerland. Separate chapters are also devoted to the railways of the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa, and India. There are numerous illustrations of rolling stock and bridges as well as diagrams. A complete index is also included. No less than 27 practical contributors have written the various sections of this comprehensive work which is issued in eight volumes.

Railways of the world. Ernest Prothero. London: George Routledge & Co. .
The versatile author of this book has collected a large amount of interesting information regarding the locomotives and railways of the world and has compiled his notes in a comprehensive style suitable for the general reader. Sixteen coloured plates and 419 other illustrations accompanying the 734 pages of matter, leaving very few phases of railway work without attention.
It is impossible to give more than a general outline of the contents. The opening chapters deal with the evolution of the locomotive. rolling stock past and present, construction of the line, passenger and goods. traffic, and the staff generally. Separate chapters are devoted to the leading home railways and to the Scottish and Irish lines, as well as a section on railway ships and docks. The remainder of the book comprises six chapters on the railways of Europe, Asia, Africa, North and South America, Australia and New Zealand, with a concluding review on electric railways. There is also a very complete index. The book is very well got up and would make a fascinating and instructive present for the rising generation.

Pigs is pigs. E.P. Butler. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
This little work is a humorous satire on the red-tape methods of some American Express Companies. The story is well written, and concerns a dispute regarding the charges for carriage on guinea pigs, between the official representative of the Inter-urban Express Co., Mike Flannery, and the consignee, Mr. Morehouse .. The question arose as to their correct classification, either as "domestic pets" or "animals." Mr. Morehouse left the pigs in charge of the Express Co. pending the lengthy investigations, with the result that they multiplied to such an extent that they had to be dealt with in "wagon loads," when the decision was arrived at.

The Great Western Railway Company. 184
Further order for six Edison-Buckwillter electric trucks with the Railway Track Supply Co. (of Great Britain), This is the fourth order placed by this railway for these economical machines. We understand that the G. W. R. intend employing the trucks just ordered for railway platform service; they have four in use at the Swindon works.

Number 264 (15 July 1914)

Superheater express locomotive, South Eastern & Chatham Ry. 185. illustration
Nos. 772-781 built by Borsig of Berlin: No. 779 illustrated

The King's journey to Nottingham, June 24th 1914. 185
Engine used was Midland Railway No. 502: a 7ft superheated 4-4-0, but with the number removed and replaced by the Royal cypher and "to be known as the King's engine". The Midland Royal train aand pilot engines were distinguished by a broad white band painted above the vermillion buffer plank.

Midland Ry. 185
Name Princess of Wales restored to No. 685, the Johnson 4-2-2 shown at the Paris Exhibition of 1900

Port of London Authority. 185
Six tank locomotives were under construction at the Hohenzollern Works in Dusseldorf.

Midland & Great Northern Joint Ry. 185.
No. 24, an outside-cylinder 4-4-0 supplied by Beyer Peacock had been rebuilt at Melton Constable Woarks with a larger boiler and new cab.

London & North Western Ry. 186
A new series of 0-8-0 superheater goods would shortly be turned out from the Crewe Works, Nos. 108, 175, 351, 965, 1142, 1485, 2058, 2237, 2336 and 2337. Like the previous ten engines of the same type, these were fitted with the automatic vacuum brake and piston valves.
Nos. 310 Achilles, 1469 Tantalus (Precursor class), had been altered to superheaters and provided with piston valves. No. 2151 Newcomen (Queen Mary class) had also been altered to a superheater.
Among recent engines to be altered for motor train working was No. 597, a 4-ft. 3-in. 0-6-2 coal side tank engine.
The 6-ft. 6-in. Jumbo, No. 1745 (previously named John Bright) new name Glowworm.
The 4-ft. 6-in. passenger tank, No. 1181, was sold to the Cardiff Ry., not the Cambrian, as stated in the May issue of the Locomotive. One of the 6-ft. Jumbos, No. 2156 Sphinx, was to take the place of the old 6-ft. passenger engine Engineer, Manchester, which had been broken up.

Great Western Ry. 186
New 4-6-0 four-cylinder express engines completed at Swindon shops were Nos. 4053 Princess Alexandra, 4054 Princess Charlotte, 4055 Princess Sophia,4056 Princess Margaret, 4057  Princess Elizabeth, 4058 Princess Augusta. No. 3412 (formerly 3702) 4-4-0 tender engine had been named John G, Griffiths, and No. 3413 (formerly 3703) had been named James Mason. Both names were formerly on the 7-ft. 8-in. singles. The engines concerned in the recent accident at Reading, when driver Young was killed, were 3816 County of Leicester on the Worcester express, and 3387 Reading (formerly 3449) on the race special. On  16 June five specials (four passenger and one mail) were run from Fishguard Harbour to Paddington off the new Cunard Liner Aquitania.

Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 186
Five new side tank engines were numbered 185-189: Beyer, Peacock WN 5737-5741 of 1913.

Canadian Pacific Ry. 186
LocomotiveNo: 1.— In front of the C.P.R. station at Winnipeg was placed the first locomotive that came to that city. This interesting engine was built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, and brought by barge up the Red River from the Northern Pacific Ry. and landed on the east bank of the river at Winnipeg. It was used in the construction of the Canadian Pacific line in the late 1870s, and was then used on light trains by the railway for several years. It was sold later to the Mackenzie & Mann Co., and then used in the lumbering business in British Columbia. The Winnipeg Municipality bought the engine in 1909, and placed it in its present position in William Whyte Park, opposite the C.P.R. depot.

Great Eastern Ry. 186
The following 4-4-0 engines (T19 class) rebuilt with superheaters: 707, 718, 719, 728, 735, 748, 751, 775, 777, 1016 and 1023.

Taff Vale Ry. 186
Contracted with the Hanover Locomotive Works, Linden, Hanover, for six tank locomotives .

Railway Club Visit, Blakesley Hall. 186
By the invitation of C.W. Bartholomew, Vice-President, on Saturday, 20 June, a party of about 40 members and friends were enabled to inspect the interesting 15-in. gauge railway in the grounds of Blakesley Hall, near Towcester. The locomotive used was the fine 4-4-4 petrol driven side tank Blacolvesley, built by Bassett-Lowke, Ltd. There were also a small 4-4-0 American steam loco. and another petrol loco.

Compound passenger tank locomotive, Chemin de Fer de P.L.M. 187. diagram (side elevation)

Indian notes. 188. illustration
Great Indian Peninsular Railway had provided a ten vehicle ambulance train for a military exercise involving 20,000 British and Indian troops at Kirkee (Poona).

Baltic Exhibition, Malmo. 188.
Catalogue, in German, of railway exhibits, both full size and models.

Metropolitan District Ry. 188
The 08.50 Ealing to Mansion House had been extended to ten cars to accommodate season ticket holders

New engines for the Uganda Railway. 189-90. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side & front elevations)
Supplied by North British Locomotive Co. for metre gauge: 0-6-6-0 Mallet compound with 3ft 3in coupled wheels; and by Nasmyth, Willson & Co.: three 2-6-2Ts anf five 2-6-4Ts

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. Section II — The Shrewsbury and Birmingham Ry. 190-2. 5 diagrams (side elevation drawings)
Stephenson & Co. WN 716-20 0-6-0 were built in 1849: one was sold to the Shrewsbury & Chester and eventually became GWR No. 28. The others became GWR Nos. 50 to 53. Three express engines Passed from the S&BR to the GWR: an E.B. Wilson Jenny Lind type 2-2-2 originally named Salopian. It became No. 54 and had 6ft 6in driving wheels. Fairbairn double-frame 2-2-2 had smaller (5ft 6in or 8im) driving wheels and was an enlarged Sharp type named Vulcan and became No. 55. No. 56 Wrekin was amongst the final output from Bury, Curtis & Kennedy in July 1850. It had bar frrames and a complex arrangement of feed pipes from the pumps. The last locomotive described was an 0-4-0T supplied by Sharp Stewart WN 756/1853 and was identical to one built for th Monkland Railway: it appears to have been ordered by the Shrewsbury Carriage Co...

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 192-4.
Drawing office; stock books, ledgers of drawings, duties of chief draughtsman

The locomotive history of the Cambrian Rys. 194-5.. 2 illustrations
H. Jones designs: 0-6-0 with Belpaire fireboxes built by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1903 (WN 3089-93) and given running numbers 89-93. In 1908 a further five were supplied by Beyer Peacock (WN 5029-33): their initial running numbers were quickly changed to 99-102 and 38 (but not in sequence with their Works numbers. This series had minor modifications compared with the original: No. 31 (subsequently No. 100) is shown in Fig. 25.. Five expressac 4-4-0 with 6ft coupled wheels were supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1904 (WN 3131-5. In 1911 the moribund Mawddwy Railway was taken over. Two Manning Wardle 0-6-0STs were taken over: Mawddwy (WN 140/1864) and Disraeli (WN 268/1868): the former received CR No. 30; the latter was broken up. The livery was black lined with gambodge bands edged with vermillion. The wheels were picked out with vermillion lines. Passenger engines and a few goods engines had the Company's arms on the driving splahers.

The West Somerset Mineral Railway. 196-8.  2 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
During construction on 22 August 1857 there was a very serious fatal accident involving a head-on collision on the single track between Washford and Watchet. There was a 1 in 4 incline at Brendon to take the line up tto the iron ore mines at Gupworthy. The line was owned by the Ebbw Vale Co. Locomotives included Sharp Stewart 0-6-0ST WN 995-6/1857: these were fitted with steam driers. Two further Sharp Stewart 0-6-0ST were obtained to a different design and were named Atlas and Pontypool. The line closed in 1898

E.L. Ahrons. An early German "top feed" for boilers. 198-9. illustration
Designed by Wagner in 1863 on locomotives of the Berdisch-Markischer Rly and illustrated on 2-4-0 Havel

First railway in Iceland. 199
Proposal for narrow gauge railway to run from Reykjavik to Rangavalle through fertile Thingvalla districct

Great North of Scotland Ry. 199
Two tank locomotives to handle fish traffic at Aberdeen Harbour ordered from Manning Wardle & Co.

Wallace Bentley. Locomotive boiler shop machine tools. 199-203. 6 illustrations
Massive four roll plate bending machines manaufactured by Scriven & Co. of Leeds and Craig & Donald Ltd. of Johnstone; vertical bending rolls from Thomas. Shanks & Co. of Johnstone; radial drilling and tapping machines from William. Asquith of Halifax and boiler shell drilling machine from Campbells & Hunter Ltd. of Leeds

Grinding. 203-4.  illustration
Kendal & Gent Ltd. Manchester

North Eastern Railway. Quintuple bolster wagon. 205. illustration, diagram, plan
Bogie wagon designed to transport rail from the rolling mills in the Middlesbrough district

Electric drive in railway workshops. 206-7. illustration

Presentation to Mr. W.J. Galloway. 207. illustration
In respect of conducting concert at Royal Albert Hall for Railway Benevolent Fund

Correspondence. 207

[Pacific type express engines]. Eugene Teleki
Letter writer was a Hungarian Count. In the November 1913 issue of the Locomotive Magazine, the Count read with interest an article about the new Pacific type express engine of the Roumanian State Railways, built by Maffei, Munich. It is stated that the boiler of this locomotive has the largest heating surface of any European Pacific engines. May I draw your attention to the fact that this is not so, for the Pacific type engines of the Royal Hungarian State Railways have a total heating surface of 333.54- sq. metres (3,590 sq. ft.), thus surpassing the heating surface of the Roumanian locomotives by 217 sq. ft.
Here I must correct two errors I detected in the publication about these Hungarian Pacific locomotives on p. 33, vol. 19 of the" Locomotive Magazine." Where the total heating surface of the boiler is said to be 2,819 sq. ft., this is right, but it means only the surface of firebox and tubes, without superheater. The heating surface of the superheater is an extra 7 I .64 sq. metres (771 sq. ft.}, which makes the total of 3,590 sq. ft. . The grate area of these locomotives is not 4.7 sq. metres as stated in the description, but 4.84 sq. metres (52.15 sq. ft.). It is interesting to note that this superheater has 32 smoke tubes of 5-in. dia., as far as I know, the largest number yet in use on any European locomotive. A short time ago a new type of 2-6-6-0 heavy Mallet locomotives left the workshops of the Royal Hungarian State Railways at Kobanya, which are the heaviest and most powerful locomotives in Europe. Some of the leading particulars are: Weight, empty, 96.39 tonnes; weight in working order, 106.54 tonnes; total wheel-base, 45 ft.; diameter of low pressure cylinders, 31½-in. The boiler is fitted with a water tube firebox of Brotan type, a most effective feed-water cleaner and heater combined, the invention of Cornelius Petz, mechanical engineer of the Royal Hungarian Satate Railways, and a Schmidt superheater with 36 smoke tubes. These locomotives were destined to haul heavy passenger and goods trains over the steep gradients between Fiume-Skad on the Fiume-Zagrab-Budapest line of the R.H.St. Rys.

Reviews. 207

Practical calculations for engineers. C.E. Larard, and H. A. Golding. London: Charles Griffin & Co., Ltd.
This simply written and practical manual is intended primarily for engineering students, but of course its usefulness is by no means confined to such.

Number 264 (15 August 1914)

New engines for the Furness Ry. 209-10. 3 illustrations.
North British Locomotive Co. 0-6-0 Nos. 27-8 working between Barrow and Workington; Kitson 0-6-2T Nos. 92-3 working on the Cleator & Workington Junction Railway; NBL 4-4-0 Nos. 132-3 working from Carnforth to Whitehaven. 0-4-0 tender locomotives built by Sharp Stewart renumbered 27A and 28A; Nos. 92-3 (16in goods engines renumbered 75 and 77. The new locomotives listed shared the same boilers and cylinders.

Rebuilt passenger enginges for the Somerset and Dorset Joint Ry. 210

London & North Western Ry. 210
The latest 0-8-0 mineral engines (Schmidt superheater) built at Crewe are Nos. 48, 62, 72, 99 and 2156. A new series of 4-6-0 four-cylinder passenger engines (Claughton class) were in hand, the first of which was No. 250 J.A. Bright. The latest engines to be altered to superheaters were No. 301 Leviathan (Precursor class), and 2507 " Miles Mac Innes " (" Queen Mary" class). Only three of the Queen Mary class remained, viz., Nos. 238, 1195, and 2512. A further series of George the Fifths would be put in hand at Crewe.
The new engines constructed at the Crewe Works during the half-year ended 30 June comprised 14 Prince of Wales passenger engines, and 21 0-8-0 superheater goods. The total out-put for the year would be 70 new engines. No. 1131 was latest 4-6-0 four-cylinder goods engine to be withdrawn from service.

Highland Ry. 210
Nos. 60 Ben Bhreac Mohr and 64 Ben Mholach,  Drummond's large 4-4-0 engines, had been fitted with Smith's arrangement of feed water heater.

Railway exhibits at the Anglo-American Exposition, White City, Shepherd's Bush. 211

Reviews. 211

Train lighting bv electricity. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.

First notic2-8-2 tank locomotives for the Dutch State Railways. 213. illustration
Supplied by Hohenzollern Locomotive Works of Dusseldorf to design of S.E. Haagsma, Locomotive Superintendent, Dutch State Railways.

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. Section III. 1855-1859. 213-15. 5 diagrams (side elevation drawings)
The 56 engines taken over from the Shrewsbury & Chester and the Shrewsbury & Birmingham railways were found to be insufficient in number to work the traffic satisfactorily, so that an increase in the narrow gauge locomotive stock was found to be almost immediately necessary. It was decided that as the G.W.R. had their own locomotive building establishment at Swindon, a portion at least of the new engines should be built there. When ready for delivery they were loaded on to special broad gauge trucks and despatched to Wolverhampton. A narrow gauge engine in those days was anathema to the Swindon people, so that, having loaded up and sent off their engine, they did not wish to see it again, and as there were no standard gauge rails into Swindon until 1870, it was many years before they did so. The first to be built there were goods engines Nos. 57 to 68 (Fig. 33), of which 57 to 66 were turned out between May and December, 1865, and 67 and 68 in January, 1856.
The general dimensions were as follows: Cylinders  15½-in. by 22-in.; coupled wheels 5-ft. dia. ; wheelbase L to D 8-ft, D to T 7-ft. 6-in.; boiler  11-ft. long by 4-ft. dia., with 193 2-in. tubes. Total heating surface 1111.8 ft2., of which the tubes supplied 1002 ft2. Total weight 29 tons 12 cwt.
From Fig. 33 it will be seen that these engines nad all the features of Gooch's design, such as the well-known slotted sandwich frames, Gooch's stationary link motion, and the domeless boiler with the Gooch pattern of brass safety valve cover on the firebox. These latter were popularly known in the early Swindon days as "squashed bonnet boxes."
Strictly speaking only one of these engines was "rebuilt," viz., No. 57 at Wolverhampton in November, 1870, when the cylinders were enlarged to  16-in. by 24-in. The boiler was 4-ft. dia., and contained 164 2-in. and 14 1¾-in. tubes.
The other engines were renewed, i.e., although possessing the principal outward features of the old engines, the frames, motion, etc., were new, and in their later condition they are illustrated as No. 58 in Fig. 34. No. 63 came out in 1873, Nos. 59 and 68 in 1874, and Nos. 58, 61, 62, 64, 65 and 66 in 1875. The cylinders were 17-in. by 24-in. The wheelbase was increased from 15-ft. 6-in. to 15-ft. 8-in., necessitating new frames which were of a slightly different shape. The motion was entirely new, and Stephenson's link was substituted for Gooch's motion. The boiler was of the standard Wolverhampton pattern with flush firebox, and contained 248 15/8-in. tubes, giving a heating surface of 1188 ft2, to which 99 ft2. of firebox surface has to be added, making a total of 1287 ft2 The weight was 32½ tons.
Engines Nos. 60 (1876) and 67 (1877) were renewed as saddle tank engines, and not as tender engines. Their appearance was very similar to that of the 119 class to be illustrated later, except that Nos. 60 and 67 had 5-ft. wheels. Moreover these two engines were supplied with cylinders 18-in. dia. by 24-in. stroke, and larger boilers 4-ft. 5-in. dia., which, however, had only 24015/8-in. tubes. The total heating surface was 1212 ft2., of which the tubes gave 1100 ft2
No. 67 was altered to a tender engine in November, 1886, and No. 60 was similarly treated in January, 1887. Of the other 1873-75 renewals, six were rebuilt at Wolverhampton with boilers almost exactly similar to their previous ones, viz., Nos. 63 (1884), 58 (1886), 59 and 61 (1888), 62 (1890), and 64 (1891), and No. 57 was also renewed in January, 1890, the same as the rest of the class.
The rebuilds of later date present a diversity of boilers. No. 66, rebuilt in 1892, had a Swindon built boiler with flush firebox and a very large dome. Nos. 65 and 68 (1893), 60 and 62 (1894), had the later pattern of Wolverhampton boilers, with the raised fireboxes introduced at that time, as also had No. 67 (rebuilt 1896). No. 57 was afterwards rebuilt as in Fig. 35, with a large boiler and Belpaire firebox. The wheels of this (and also of the others) were increased to 5-ft. 2-in. dia. by the substitution of thicker tyres, and the frames were at the same time strengthened by the use of deep tie bars in place of the old circular tie rods connecting the horn plates. The Belpaire boiler was pitched with its centre 7-ft. from the rails, and had 249 1¾-in. tubes, the heating surface of which was 1285.6 ft2., and the firebox added 107.7 ft2, total 1393.3 ft2. The grate area was increased from 16.5 ft2 to 17.33 ft2, and the weight became 39 tons 3 cwt. Pressure 150 psi. Of the Nos. 57 to 68 class only three remained at work in the spring of 1913, Nos. 58, 60 and 65. The others were broken up as follows : No. 61 in 1908, Nos. 62, 64, 67 and 68 in 1911,. and Nos. 57, 59, 63 and 66 in 1912.
Whilst the above engines were under construction at Swindon eight express passenger engines (Fig. 36) were at the same time constructed by Beyer, Peacock & Co.. of Manchester. These were as follows :
No. 69 WN 1/1855: July
No. 70 WN 2/1855: August
No, 71 WN 3/1855: August
No. 72 WN 4/1855 September
No. 73 WN 15/1856 March
Nos. 74-6 WN 16-18/April 1856
Nos. 69 to 72 are noteworthy as being the first engines constructed by Beyer, Peacock & Co., and they were also the first standard gauge passenger engines built to the G.W.R. Company's own designs, The cylinders were 15½-in. by 22-in., driving wheels 6-ft. 6-in., leading and trailing wheels 4-ft.; wheelbase, leading to driving 8-ft., driving to trailing 7-ft. 6-in., total 15-ft. 6-in. ; the boiler, 4-ft. dia., contained 193 2-in. tubes, and had a total heating surface of 1112 ft2. They had Gooch's link motion, and broad brass bands round the driving splashers- For a time these engines ran between Wolverhampton and Chester, and No. 72 was the train engine, which with No. 5 as leading engine, ran off the road in 1865, near Rednal. When the third or narrow gauge rail was laid into London, Nos. 69 to 76 were put to work on the fast trains between Wolverhampton and Paddington. The first standard gauge train was worked out ot Paddington to Oxford on  1 October ist, 1861, by No. 75, and the train was taken on thence to Birmingham by No. 76.
These engines remained at work as originally built until 1872 to 1875, when they were completely renewed at Wolverhampton, as shown in Fig. 37. Nothing of the original engines remained. The cylinders were enlarged, the wheelbase lengthened considerably, which increase in length involved new frames. The Gooch link motion disappeared and Stephenson's shifting link motion was substituted for it. Even the wheel centres, which the writer thought had been used again, he finds were entirely new, and had a different number of spokes. Hence the No. 69 to 76 class must be taken as built at Wolverhampton in 1872 to 1875, though owiner to some early clerical misunderstanding the official lists gave the renewed engines as if they had been the Beyer, Peacock engines of 1855-56. The dates of the new engines were as follows :

No. of Engine Date of Construction Date of Rebuild
75 April 1872 September 1893
70 August 1872 (203)* January 1889
74 September 1872 (204)* July 1888
71 November 1873 March 1889
69 January 1874 December 1885
72 April 1874 December 1887
76 July 1874 August 1893
73 January 1875 July, 1891

* Nos. 70 and 74 bore Wolverhampton Works Nos. 203 and 204.
As renewed they had the following dimensions : Cylinders 17-in. by 24-in., driving wheels 6-ft. 6-in., leading and trailing wheels 4-ft.; wheelbase, leading to driving 9-ft., driving to trailing 8-ft., total 17-ft. The boiler was of very generous proportions, and this accounts to some extent for their great success, as they were always favourites with the drivers There were 252 15/8-in. tubes giving a heating surface of 1,206 ft2, the total heating surface being 1304 ft2 Weight in working order on leading wheels 9 tons 14 cwt, on driving wheels 14 tons, on trailing wheels 8 tons total 31 tons 14 cwt.

Highland Railway. 215
Traffic over the Carr Bridge direct line was resumed on July i3th. This line was closed on June i8th owing to the total destruction of the arch bridge over the Baddengorm Burn, near Carr Bridge, by a cloud burst. The foundations and abutments for the new bridge were at once put in hand, and work proceeded continuously day and night. The steel work for the new bridge, 26-ft. 6-in. span, was constructed and loaded up at Motherwell in one week, the girders placed in position on 6 July, and everything completed a few days after.

4-8-0 two-cylinder simple tank locomotive, Chemin de Fer du Midi. 216-17. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Electric traction notes. 217-18
Tests conducted by Murray on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad had shown that electric traction was better for shunting than steam due to the high proportion of standing (37%)

Electrification of the Gothard Ry. 218
A start was being made with the 68 mile section from Erstfeld to Bellinzona which includes 1 in 40 gradients. The work included the construction of hydraulic power stations with Pelton wheels

The locomotive history of the Cambrian Rys. 221-2. 3 illustrations
The narrow gauge lines: Welshpool and Llanfair (No. 1 The Earl illustrated) and the Vale of Rheidol: latter with Davies & Metcalfe 2-6-2Ts (Edward VII illustrated) and Bagnall 2-4-0T WN 1497 Rheidol (illustrated on train at Aberystwyth

Great Central Ry. 222
Superheated 2-8-0 Nos. 385-99 werer being built at Gorton; work on a powerful 2-6-4T was in hand. Three Glenalmond class Nos. 439, 440 and 441. Six coupled tank enine No, 2177

Recent colliery locomotives. 222-3. 3 illustrations
Manning Wardle six-coupled: 0-6-0ST for Frodingham Iron & Steel Co. at Scunthorpe; WN 1813 side tank for J. Lancaster & Son of Cardiff for Blaina Collieries fitted with vacuum brake for hauling colliers' trains; and WN 1814 saddle tank for Walter Scott's Leeds Steel Works                         

Great North of Scotland Ry. 223
Two standard 4-4-0 locomotives nearing completion at Inverurie Works: No. 32 nearly ready. Sliight modification to livery: wheels black without lining and leading footsteps also black. Shunting at Keith still performed by outside-cylinder four wheeled well-tank No. 13A built to D.K. Clark 1855 design. Claimed oldest locomotive still at work, but see 233

Wallace Bentley. Locomotive boiler shop machine tools. 224-6. 3 illustrations

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 227-8

Steel carriages. 228-32. 3 illustrations, 3  diagrams
Illustrations: alll built by the Leeds Forge Co., Ltd: all-steel motor car for Bakerloo Tube, Underground Electric Rys. of London; all steel third class car for the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. and.metre gauge steel framed carriage, South Indian Ry. The diagrams relate to the Bakerloo Line car.

No. 265 (15 September 1914)

Consolidation goods locomotive. Begal Nagpur Ry. 233. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Sir John Wolfe Barrry & Partners prvided details of 75 locomotives supplied by North British Locomotive Co. and Robert Stephenson & Co. of superherated 2-8-0 with large (32ft2) firebox.

Midland Ry. 233
See 223: 0-6-0 Nos. 2300-2307 and 2309-2316, built in 1850, 8152, 1853 and 1854 were older than GNoSR and Waterford & Tramore Ry. engines mentioned  

Steam tender locomotive, Cordoba & Belmez Railway, Spain. 237. diagram (side elevation)
Built by Neilson & Co., Glasgow in 1869 for 5ft 6in line with 1 in 33 gradients: 0-6-0 with 0-6-0 tender (both with outside cylinders): main dimensions given.

Narrow gauge loco. for Ceylon. 237-8. illustration
W.G. Bagnall 0-4-0T supplied through Crown Agents for the Colonies. Fitted with Bagnall & Price valve gear.

Great Northern Railway. Cuffley to Stevenage new line. 240-2. 4 illustrations
Work was under way on this line and it states that entry to the route at Wood Green "would be via a burrowing junction" and that four tracks would have been provided from there to Gordon Hill for which Parliamentary powers were being sought". The contractors for the works in progress were H. Arnold & Son for the section to Hertford and R. MacAlpine for the northern section. The locomotives being used by both contractors are listed:

RN or name type manufacturer date

0-6-0ST o/c Hudswell Clarke & Rogers 1878

0-4-0ST o/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1899


0-4-0ST o/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1899


0-4-0ST o/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1901


0-6-0ST i/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1909r

0-6-0ST i/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1903

0-6-0ST i/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1905

0-6-0ST i/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1909


0-6-0ST i/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1912*


0-6-0ST i/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1913


0-6-0ST i/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1913


0-6-0ST i/c Hudswell Clarke & Co. 1913

0-6-0ST i/c Manning, Wardle & Co. 1890

Gerrards Cross

0-6-0ST i/c Manning, Wardle & Co. 1902

H. Arnold locomotives:

RN or name type manufacturer date

0-6-0ST o/c Black, Hawthorn & Co 1890


0-4-0ST o/c Peckett & Co, 1900


0-4-0ST o/c Hudswell Clarke & Co.


0-6-0ST i/c Hunslet Engine Co. 1912r*

0-4-0ST o/c Manning, Wardle & Co. 1895


0-4-0ST i/c Manning, Wardle & Co. 1901*

0-4-0ST i/c Manning, Wardle & Co. 1903

0-4-0ST i/c Manning, Wardle & Co. 1913

where o/c implies outside cylinders and i/c inside cylinders and an asterisk in date column means photograph of locomotive and an r implies a rebuilding date. Further information see next volume page 215 

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 242-4. diagram, plan

Car ferry steamer. 244
Speed trials completed for Cammell, Laird & Co. of Birkenhead for train-ferry and ice-breaking steamer to be supplied to the Trans-Continental Railway of Canada tgo opersate on St. Lawrence River between Quebec and Levis. Deck could be raised or lowered to cope with tide.

Electric traction on the Spiez-Brigue Division of the Berne-Lötschberg-Simplon line. 245-6. 2 illustrations
Operating at 15,000V supplied from a pair of hydro-electric power stations the 1-E-1 locomotives fitted Oerlikon motors.

Great Eastern Railway hospital ambulance train. 246-50. 4 illustrations, diagram (side elevation), plan
Converted from corridor passenger stock

Brake vans for goods trains, Belgian State Railways: "Type Flamme". 251. diagram (side & front elevations), plan

Wallace Bentley. Locomotive boiler shop machine tools. 251-4. 3 illustrations

No. 266 (15 October 1914)

New locomotives, Great Southern & Western Ry. of Ireland. 258-9. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Watson four-cylinder 4-6-0 and inside cylinder 4-8-0T

New mineral tank engine, G.C.R. 258-9. diagram (side elevation)
Robinson 2-6-4T designed to haul heavy coal ttraffic from North Nottighmashire to docks at Grimsby and Immingham.

[Central Essex Light Ry.]. 259
Contract signed for construction which would have formed an extension of Ongar branch.

Great Western Ry. express engines, "Princess" class. 260. diagram (side elevation)
Churchward Star class: Nos. 4046 Princess Mary, 4047 Princess Louise, 4048 Princess Victoria, 4049 Princess Maud, 4050 Princess Alice, 4051 Princess Helena, 4052 Princess Beatrice, 4053 Princess Alexandra, 4054 Princess Charlotte, 4055 Princess Sophia, 4056 Princess Margaret, 4057 Princess Elizabeth, 4058 Princess Augusta, 4059 Princess Patricia, 4060 Princess Eugenie. Also new 2-8-0T Nos. 4232-9. No. 4017 Knight of the Black Eagle renamed Knight of Liége  . 4-4-0 No. 3415 named George A. Wills        

London and North Western Ry. 260
A further three engines of the four-cylinder Claughton class have been completed at Crewe: Nos. 209 J. Bruce Ismay, 668 Rupert Guinness, and 856 E. Tootal Broadhurst. The remaining two engines of the series were also nearly complete, the last of which to bear the name Lord Kitchener. Nos. 2094 and 2224 were the latest 0-8-0 mineral engines (Schmidt superheater) to be turned out. No. 372 Germanic, of the Experiment class, was running with the additional name Belgic, .which is affixed above the old name-plates on the driving-wheel splashers. The old name, however, appears with a thick red line drawn across same, obviously indicating that it is now cancelled. A new series of 4-4-0 passenger engines of the George the Fifth class was to have shortly been put in hand at the Crewe Works, but are not to be proceeded with, all new work being for the present cancelled. No. 1905 Black Diamond (Jubilee class) had been converted to simple, with two inside cylinders 18½-in. stroke by 24-in. diameter, and No. 2515, 4-ft. 6-in. passenger tank had been altered for motor train work.

Tank locomotive, Bombay Port Trust. 261. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
2-6-0T for Indiaan standard gauge (5ft 6in) supplied by Nasmyth, Wilson & Co,

Swedish State Rys. 261
Using pulverised peat on one locomotive working between Stockholm and Upsala.

Recent locomotives for the Bone-Guelma Ry. 262-3. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
North African railway partly in Algeria and partly in Tunisia: 2-10-0 for standard gauge freight trains. Metre gauge 4-6-2 for passenger work

Escalators. 263
Between Metropolitan and Bakerloo Railways at Baker Street

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 263-5.
Cleaning sheds where motion parts were sent for cleaning in hot detergent to remove grease. Locomotive erecting shops.

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. Section III — 1855—1859. 265-7. 8 diagrams (side elevation drawings)
Goods engines Nos. 77 and 78 supplied in May 1857 by Beyer Peacock WN 66-7. Fig. 43. they had 5ft. coupled wheels; 16 x 24in cylinders, 1250ft2 total heating surface and operated at 140 psi. They were rebuilt at Wolverhampton with larger boilers and cylinders (Fig. 44). They were withdrawn in 1901/3.

Modern particulars of Midland Ry. locomotives. 267-70. 3 diagrams, 3 tables
Tables list 10 tender passenger classes (3 of which existed in unrebuilt and rebuilt forms), four tank engines and four freight types. A diagram shows the tablet fixed to the cabside giving the name of the driver and the shed to which it was allocated. Other diagrams shows the cabside arrangement and the smokebox door where the number of the locomotive and its shed werer displayed. Sheds and their numbers are listed.

Steam versus electric locomotives: a comparison by a correspondent. 270-1
Mostly based on New York Central developments.

Wallace Bentley. Locomotive boiler shop machine tools. 271-6. 11 illustrations

The War and British trade. 276-7.

An improved draw bar plate. 277. illustration, diagram
Taite & Carlton

South Shields & Marsden Ry. 277
Armoured train constructed at Whitburn Colliery shops consisting of tank engine No. 11 and several wagons

Obituary. 278
Robert B. Longridge died at Over Tabley in Cheshire aged 94. Educated Edinburgh University. Head of the Longridge Locomotive Works in Bedlington and Chairman of the British Engine, Boiler and Electrical Insurance Co.

No. 267 (14 November 1914)

Tank locomotive for suburban traffic, Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 281. illustration
P class 2-6-2T to design of S.J. Sargant, Locomotive Superintendent and supplied by Vulcan Fountry under supervision of Robert White

Superheater loco. for the Midland Ry., Northern Counties Committee. 282. illustration
4-4-0 express locomotive (No. 70 illustrated) was one of two built at Derby Works for service on the Northern Counties Committee system of the Midland Railway, designed by Bowman Malcolrn, Locomotive Superintendent and Engineer of Belfast. The cylinders were 19-in diameter, with a stroke of 24-in., fitted with inside admission 8-in. piston valves. The working pressure was 170 psi. coupled wheels 6-ft. in diameter. Ross pop safety valves fitted. The extended smokebox, carried on a saddle and raised footplate, were features of Midland Ry. design. The vacuum brake fitted.

Tank locomotive for the Bombay Port Trust. 282
In our last issue in describing this engine we should have stated that the locomotives were built under the supervision of Messrs. Sir John Wolfe Barry, K.C.B., Arthur J. Barry, Sir WaIter C. Hughes, C.I.E., and K. A. Wolfe Barry, of Dartmouth House, Westminster, who are the Consulting Engineers to the Bombay Port Trust.

London Underground Electric Railway. 282
Extension of the Bakerloo line from Paddington to Queen's Park to open on 15 December. New stations provided at Warwick Avenue, Maida Vale, Kilburn Park and Queen's Park. At Queen's Park the platforms adjoin the L. & N.W.R.

London & North Western Ry.  282
The remaining two engines of the four-cylinder Claughton class had been finished, but not painted: they bore the Nos. 1567 Charles J. Cropper and 2401 Lord Kitchener. A further five engines of the Precursor type were being fitted with the Schmidt superheater and piston valves, one of which, No. 1395 Harbinger, would soon be at work. Another of the Queen Mary class had also been provided with a superheater, No. 1195 T.J. Hare. It is reported that No. 2583 Teutonic (Precursor class) is to have its name changed to The Tsar. No. 1015, a 4-ft. 3-in. side-tank coal engine, has been fitted up for motor train work.

Great Eastern Railway. 283
The 1500 class, 4-6-0 express engines, up to 1529, were in service, and eleven more were being built. No. 1506 had not yet been replaced. Two more 0-4-0 side tanks have been frnished-Nos. 226 and 228. They had the top-feed arranged on the domes. The following engines had been fitted with Robinson superheaters: 1792, 1797, 1807, 1813, 1844, 1845, 1855, while the Schmidt apparatus had been fitted to engines of the T 19 class: Nos. 704, 707, 718, 719, 728, 735, 742, 748, 751, 772, 775, 777, 1016, 1020, 1023 and I025. No. 1311, one of the small 2-4-2 tanks, had been fitted up for an auto-train, on the system adopted on the L.B. & S.C. Ry. Two main line bogie composites had been arranged for it.to work the service on the Cambridge to Mildenhall branch.

Great Central Railway. 283
We notice our draughtsman has made an error in preparing the diagram of the new 2-6-4 tank locomotive shown on page 259 of our last number. The diameter of the cylinders is incorrectly frgured as 22-in. They are 21-in. as stated in the description.

S.E. & C. Ry. locomotive working through to Brighton. 283
Since 1 October a train from Ashford, via Hastings, arriving at 11.25 and departing at 13.55 p.m. for Ashford. No. 156, a Stirling 4-4-0 rebuild, fitted with the Westinghouse brake, was on the service.

Kent & East Sussex Ry. 283
No. 1380, Ringimg Rock, Great Western Ry., an old 0-6-0 saddle tank, had been purchased by this line.

War notes. 283. illustration
A French reader sends us the photograph of Senlis station on the Chemin de fer du Nord, showing the damage done during .he German occupation. The Germans held the town for three days, generally ill-using every-body, when a detachment of France's famous Colonials, the Turcos, came to the rescue. They dashed up in taxi-cabs, and charged furiously at the Germans, expelling the enemy from the town in very quick time (sounds like May on Brexit).

Dover Town Railway Station. 283
Converted into an ambulance station, and all traffic diverted to the Harbour Station.

Uganda Ry. 283
At the Nairobi Shops of the Uganda Ry. a completely armoured train was fitted up in less than a week, the staff working night and day. On the sides of the wagons ½-in. steel plates had been riveted, further protected with a thickness of wood, affording a screen 6-ft. high. The locomotive was also armoured.

Russians converting some standard gauge of the Austrian lines in Galicia. 283,
To run broad gauge stock on them.

British Army Medical Corps. 283 
In conjunction with the International Sleeping Car Co., organised two trains for the conveyance of wounded soldiers from the front to the base hospitals. Each train composed of three sleeping cars, two dining cars, with the niecessary baggage vans There are 54 beds in each train, and one of the dining cars is fitted up as an operating room for the surgeons. The other dining cars were used by the staff and the slightly wounded.

[Railway volunteers for military service]. 283
By end of October over 56,000 railwaymen of the United Kingdom had joined the colours. The frgures for the L. & N.W. were, 9.400; G.W., 7,600; Midland, 6,700; N.E., 5,000; G.E., 3,000; G.C., 2,700; G.N., 2,500.

Obituary. . 283.
George. Copus, who was Manager and Engineer of the Colne Valley Ry. from 1882 to 1903, died on 27 October at his home at Southampton, where he had lived since his retirement. Copus put on the line the three 2-4-2 tanks built by Hawthorns and now numbered 2, 3 and 4.

New locos. Pennsylvania Railroad. 284- 2 illustrations, 5 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
Class L.1.s 2-8-2 for freight and Class K.4.s 4-6-2 passenger locomotives to work between Altoona and Pittsburgh with Belpaire wide fireboxes. Screw reverse was fitted on the Pacific,

New express engines. South Eastern & Chatham Railway. 287
In addition to the 10 German-built engines, Nos. 772 to 781, a further 12 to the same designs had been supplied by Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., of Manchester, numbered 760 to 771 inclusive. They are known as the K class. In issues of March and July gave a diagram and photographic reproduction of one of the Borsig engines, together with a few of the leading particulars. We can now add a few further details bv the courtesy of R.E.L. Maunsell, locomotive engineer of the S.E. & C. Ry. The Borsig engines are fitted with Schmidt superheaters, having a draught retarder instead of the usual damper arrangements. They have the S.E. & C. Ry. standard steam reversing gear, bogie, etc. The engines built by Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., were fitted with the Robinson superheater. These engines are not fitted with a brass capped chimney.

North Eastern Ry. 287
There were still in service a few of the long-boiler, six-coupled goods engiines of the 1001 class. As far as we have been able to ascertain the following is the list: Nos. 1079, 1255, 1259, 1263, 1272, 1275, 1277, 1281, 1282, 1286, 1287, 1289 and 1290. Three were working on the Rosedale Mineral line, while the others were located at Waskerley, Pickering and Whitby.

Dublin and South Eastern Ry. .287
The latest rebuilt engine is No. 2 Glenageary, a 2-4-0 side tank engine, built at Grand Canal Street Works in. 1885. This engine now had a large boiler similar to that supplied to No. 47 Stillorgan.

London, Brighton and South Coast Ry. 287
Radial tank engines, Nos. 467 and 500 had been rebuilt in the latest style. No. 319 (late Leconfield) had also been rebuilt.' No. 77A had been renumbered 347. No. 328, the second of the Baltic tanks, was in service.

The Niligiri Mountain Ry. 288-90. 6 illustrations
Metre gauge partly rack and pinion worked from Mettapollium to Coonooor with an extansion to Ootacamund. Rack section included gradients of 1 in 12.5. Illustration of Fairlie type which was being withdrawn from service.

Modern particulars of Midland Ry. locomotives. 290-2.
Concluded 313

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. Section IV — the Birkenhead engines. 292-4. 6 diagrams (side elevation drawings)
The locomotive stock of the Chester & Birkenhead Railway was 42 and this was shared equally between the GWR and LNWR. 2-2-2 locomotives included No. 3 Touchstone which became GWR No. 1. This originated at Mather, Dixon & Co. in 1840 but had been rebuilt in 1853: it had 5ft 6in driving wheels and 13 x 18in cylinders. Tayleur & Co. of the Vulcan Foundry supplied Nos. 9 Victoria and No. 10 Albert in 1845: they had 5ft 1in drivers and 13 x 18in cylinders; were rebuilt in 1857/8 and became GWR Nos. 115/116. 0-6-0 supplied by Benjamin Hick & Son of Bolton in 1848 are considered to be signifant by Ahrons as introducing the inside frame six-coupled type: they beame GWR Nos. 108-9. Benjamin Hick also supplied six outside-cylinder 2-2-2 Nos. 15-20 of which Nos. 16 to 19 became GWR Nos. 110-13. Robert Stephenson & Co.2-4-0 WN 871-2/1853 became Nos. 25 Birkenhead and 26 Weaver then GWR Nos. 99 and 100.

Notes on stayinmg and tubing a locomotive boiler. 294-6. illustration
Methods employed: illustration of Wicksteed portable apparatus

Locomotive piston heads. 296-7
Alfred Herbert turret llathe designed for manufaturing locomotive details.

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 297-8
The mechine shop and wheel lathes

L. Lynes. The construction and inspection of 10-ton open goods wagons. 298-301. 5 diagrams.
Paper read at Swindon Engineeering Society.

Electrification of the L. & S. W. Ry. 301. illustration
Progress on the installation ofthe third rail (about 75% complete) and on the power house at Durnford Road Wimbledon. Three car multiple unit converted from seam stock illustrated

Electric drive in railway workshops. 302-3. 2 illustrations

Reviews. 303

Electric traction. L. Calisch, London: Locomotive Publishing Co. 303
This work, which is a reprint of a series of articles which appeared in the G.E.R. Magazine, treats of electric traction as applied to railways. There are nine chapters in which the author deals with the subject, taking first the progress of electric traction from the years 1835 and 1842, when some crude experimental systems were tried and exhibited. Chapter 2 deals with acceleration, which is probably the greatest advantage that electricity has over steam power. In chapter 3 are considered the technical features of the three systems now in use, viz, direct current, single phase alternating current, and three-phase alternating current. Overhead equipment and the different types of third rail contact are dealt with in chapter 4. Chapter 5 goes fully into the classification of electric locomotives. Among the examples described are the New York Central, Detroit River Tunnel, and New York, New Haven and Hartford locomotives, with particulars of the results obtained on the New York Central. The European examples include the locomotives of the Valtelina line, Simplon Tunnel, and the German State Rys. The multiple unit system of train operation is next discussed. The author reviews the economic aspect of electric working and its advantages over steam in chapter 7, while the next chapter is devoted to the problems of main line electrification, with notes on mountain railway working and shunting services. The concluding chapter gives a summary of the advantages, with conclusions as to the future of electric traction. The book is well illustrated with numerous diagrams and photo-reproductions, and is. printed on art paper.

Up-to-date air brake catechiism. Robert H. Blackall. New York: Norman W. Henley Publishing Co.
That this work has reached a twenty-sixth edition is in itself sufficient testimony of its usefulness. Written in the style of question and answer, it contains a complete description of everything pertaining to the design, construction and application of the air brake. Many diagrams are included, a number of which being coloured to show air and steam at different pressures, are particularly clear and instructive. The latest forms of Westinghouse quick-acting and high-speed brakes are fully described, and a chapter is also devoted to the air signal system. Although primarily intended for the use of enginemen and others preparing to pass an examination on the subject of air brakes, this will be found a useful handbook for all who are concerned with this most skilfully devised mechanical contrivance.

Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Convention of the International Railway Fuel Association. Chicago.
The papers of which the full text and the subsequent discussion by the members are given in the report of the proceedings include "Honeycomb and clinker formation," "The relation of front end design and air openings to fuel consumption and sparks," "Uniform methods of computing fuel consumption," "Sizing of coal for locomotive use," "Coal space and adjuncts of locomotive tenders," "Re-heating locomotive boiler feed water," etc. A number of tables, diagrams and illustrations are included in the papers, whilst the opinions of experts on the subjects dealt with form both interesting and instructive reading.

Locomotive Magazine Souvenir No. 24. Rolling stock built by the Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd. Price 3/6.
This, the latest souvenir, contains 48 plates representing typical examples of recent rolling stock built by the Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd., for various railways at home and abroad. This well- known Gloucester firm has supplied rolling stock to railways in various parts of the five Continents, as a glance through the present volume will reveal. British practice is represented by a rail motor vehicle for the Great Western Ry. and two bogie coaches for the Taff Vale Ry. Space will not admit to give details of all the other stock illustrated, but it may be mentioned that several of the rail ways in Africa: Australia, India and South America are included, and amongst the most interesting examples are those of an accident or break- down van for the Central South African Rys., and of a saloon car for the Sudan Government Ry. This vehicle has an extreme length of 68-ft. 7½-in., and a width overall of 9-ft. 11¼-in., although only built to the. 3-ft. 6-in. gauge. .

Trade Nonces and Catalogues received. 304

Locomotive cab signalling. 304
H. von Kramer, of Birmingham, sends us a pamphlet summarising the various' systems for transmitting signals to trains' in motion, and setting forth the merits of electro- magnetic induction which is the special feature of the "Railophone." Byt he adoption of this apparatus he suggests that when a train approaches a distant signal one or more short signals should be given, whether the signal is "on" or "off." If the home signal is "off" no further signal would be given, but should It be "on" a further danger signal would follow, and the train automatically stopped.

Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co., ,Ltd., Caledonia Works, Kilmarnock, N.B, 304
Catalogue in which they illustrate and give particulars of the various designs of locomotives they build. Tank engines are their speciality, suitable for industrial work, collieries, ironworks, quarries, etc., although examples of passenger tank locomotives are included. Some exceptionally heavy tank and tender engines for mineral traffic and shunting duties are illustrated, as well as rather unusual designs for special conditions of working. Fireless locomotives on the thermal storage system, articulated locomotives and crane-locomotives may be mentioned. An illustration is given of a.small locomotive built sixty years ago by Barclay for the River Wear Commissioners, and which had been working all that time and was still running.

Railway Club. 304
The West Highland section of the North British Railway was the subject of the paper to be read on December 8th by J. B. Sherlock. Lantern views by the author will be shown.

No. 268 (15 December 1914)

Auto train for the Cambridge and Mildenhall branch, Great Eastern Ry. 305-6. illustration, diagram, plan
Photograph of very small 2-4-2T with two clerestory coaches, one of which was labelled for first class operated in push & pull mode. Plan showed that coaches were vestibuled and provided with a side corridor. A.J. Hill credited with conversion which exploited Westinghouse brake. Locomotive appears to be No. 1311 of 1300 class: see 16, 42

Heavy tank engine, Buenos Ayres and Pacific Ry., Argentine G.W. Line. 307. illustration
Baltic 4-6-4T built to design of F.C. York, Locomotive Superintendent by North British Locomotive Co. under supervision of Fox and Mayo. 5ft 1in coupled wheels; 21 x 26in cylinders; Belpaire boiler with Robinson superheater operating at 175 psi. Total evaporative heating surface 1178ft2 plus 285ft2 superheat. 24ft2 grate area. 5ft 6in gauge.

London & North Western Ry. 307
Nos. 238 F.W. Webb and T.J. Hare (Queen Mary class) fitted with Schmidt superheaters as had Precursor class No. 2513 Levens (which had also been fitted with piston valves). Four-cylinder compound No. 1946 Diadem converted to inside-cylinder simple. 4ft 6in 2-4-2T No. 895 had been adapted for motor train work (by then nesarly 100 locomotives fitted for push & pull operation)

North British Ry. 307
Five new superheated Scott class 4-4-0 completed at Cowlairs Works: Nos. 419 The Talisman, No. 420 The Abbot; No. 421 Jingling Geordie, No. 422 Kenilworth and No. 423 Quentin Durward. Six rebuilt Holmes 0-6-0 type: Nos. 608, 612, 614, 622, 630 and 666.

2-ft. 6-in. gauge loco. for the United Alkali Co. Ltd. 308. illustration
W.G. Bagnall Ltd 0-4-0ST of very restricted height to work in underground mines in Spain. Valve gear Bagnall and Price's patent

Consolidation type locomotive, North Western State Ry. of India. 310-11. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)

The Durant and Lencauchez valve gear. 312-13. 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Fitted to express 2-4-2 locomotives on the Paris Orleans Railway with encouraging results: gear became inefficient in reverse. Used on other railways in France and in Belgium.

Modern particulars of Midland Ry. locomotives. 313-16.
Concluded from page 292. 4-4-0 type Belpaire engines.—This is a type of engine designed to meet the ever increasing requirements of the numerous services of express trains on the heavy sections of the Midland Railway, and the first batch, Nos. 700 to 709 (old Nos. 2606 to 2610 and 800 to 804) was turned out of the Midland shops from September, 1900 to June, 1901. Full particulars of No. 701 (old No. 2607) will be found in Engineering 24 May 1901. These engines are down for fitting with superheaters, and all except Nos. 706, 707 and 708 had already been so equipped. Subsequent engines were turned out as follows: Nos 710 to 719, 1902; Nos. 720 to 729, 1902; Nos. 730 to 739, 1903; Nos. 740 to 749, 1904; Nos. 750 to 759, and Nos. 760 to 769 from June, 1904 to April, 1905; and Nos. 770 to 779 in September 1905- Nos. 700 to 769 were all designed for 180lb. pressure, and had 19½-in. by 26-in. cylinders and 6-ft. 9-in. driving wheels. Nos. 770 to 779, when first turned out, worked at 200 lb. pressure, but this was reduced after a few months working to 180 lb.
A considerable gap now intervenes between the numbers till we come to Nos. 990 to 999. No. 999 was designed by R.M. Deeley, in 1907, and was fitted with the Deeley valve gear (a modification of the Walschaerts). A full description of this gear appeared in our issue of January, 1910. After this engine had run for a considerable time, and given entire satisfaction, other nine engines were built from April to October, 1909, and these form a distinct class. Engine No. 998 was fitted with a superheater in May, 1910, and the other engines were also fitted as follows: No. 999, May, 1911; No. 995, March, 1912; Nos. 992 and 993, August, 1912; No. 991, January, 1913; No. 990, March, 1913; No. 997, July, 1913; No. 994, September, 1913; and No. 996, January, 1914. The tabulated statement gives particulars of engine No. 999 before and after superheating, and an illustration of this engine before superheating is shown at bottom of page 179 in October, 1907 issue. These engines are all stationed at Carlisle, and used on the heavy gradients between Carlisle and Leeds.
4-4-0 type compound engines.— Nos. 1000 to 1004 (old Nos. 2631 to 2635) were the first of the compounds to be built on the Midland, and were designed by S.W. Johnson, and turned out in 1902 and 1903. Full particulars of the trial of these engines appeared in Engineering for 6 February and 27 March 1903. These trials showed where various improvements could be effected, and subsequent engines embodied the results of these experiments. R.M. Deeley continued the policy of his predecessor, and further engines were built as follows: Nos. 1005 to 1015 in 1905; Nos. 1016 to 1034 in 1906; and Nos. 1035 to 1044 in 1908 and 1909. Engine No. 1044 had been fitted with a superheater, and sufficient saving in coal and water consumption had been shown to warrant other compounds being superheated, and Nos. 1000 to 1004 were being equipped as they pass through the shops.
These engines are stationed at Leeds, Belle Vue, London and Nottingham. For fuller details of these engines, and comparison with the compounds of other companies, our readers are referred to the article by G.C. Schultz, commencing in our issue of October, 1911. At the close of this article the writer remarks that it would be interesting to see whether the compounds would be in any way improved by the introduction of superheating, but at that time he feared it would be unlikely the experiment would be made. Henry Fowler is to be congratulated on his forward policy with regard to superheating generally, and we believe the Midland takes front rank in this respect. When Fowler gave his paper before the Institution of Civil Engineers the results of the trials in connection with superheating were exhaustively dealt with.
0-4-4 type passenger tank engines.— This is a numerous class, and consists of 230 engines. Nos. 1200 to 1209 were duplicates in the old numbering, Nos. 690a to 695a, and 780a to 783a. Nos. 1200 to 1205 were built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. in 1869, Nos. 1206 to 1225 by Dubs & Co. in 1870, and 1225 to 1235 were built by the Midland in 1875; Nos. 1236 to 1265 were built by Neilson & Co. in 1875 and 1876; Nos. 1266 to 1350 were built by the Midland in batches of 10 and 20 at various dates between 1881 and 1892; Nos. 1351 to 1370 in 1892; Nos. 1381 to 1385 in 1895; Nos. 1386 to 1400 in 1895; and Nos. 1411 to 1430 in 1900, were all built by Dubs & Co. Nos. 1401 to 1410 were built by the Midland in 1898. All the engines up to No. 1350 worked at 140 psi, and the subsequent engines work at 150 psi., all having 18-in. by 24-in. cylinders.
0-4-0 type tank engines.— These engines were all built by the Midland at their works, and are used for shunting purposes in yards and docks.
Nos. 1500 to 1507 were built in 1885, and Nos. 1508 to 1517 in 1888, all working at 140 psi, and carrying 400 gallons of water and 8 cwt. of coal.
Nos. 1518 to 1527 were built in 1897., and work at 150 psi, and carry 650 gallons of water and 8 cwt. of coal.
Nos. 1528 to 1532 were built in 1907, and embody considerable improvements over the other engines of this class. They were designed by R.M. Deeley, and fitted with Walschaerts motion, have double cabs for the protection of the drivers, and in place of saddle tanks have side tanks having a capacity of 650 gallons of water, and the coal bunkers carry 10 cwt. of coal. Engine No. 1532 was illustrated in our issue of November, 1907.
Those engines working at the docks have bell gearing attached to the driving cranks in order to give continuous warning of their approach.
0-6-0 type goods tank engines.— This is another type of which the Midland possess a large number, consisting altogether of 360 engines. Nos. 1600 to 1608 are a miscellaneous collection; No. 1600 was built by Kitson in 1847; Nos. 1601 and 1602 by Wilson in 1848; and Nos. 1603 and 1604 by the Midland Jn 1855 and 1862. Nos. 1605 to 1608 were engines taken over from the old Severn and Wye Railway in 1895, and bore the names of Friar Tuck, Sharpness, Sabrina and Forester. No 1605 was built by the Avonside Co., at Bristol, and was broken up in 1911. Nos. 1606, 1607, 1608 were built by the Vulcan Co. in 1880, 1882, and 1886. Nos. 1620 to 1659 are all very similar, except that No. 1620 to 1644 were built by Neilson in 1875, and the remainder by the Vulcan Foundry Co. in 1876. Nos. 1660 to 1824 were all built by the Midland in batches of 10 and 20 from 1878 to 1891, and Nos. 1845 to 1853 in 1895. Nos. 1825 to 1844 were built by Vulcan in 1892; Nos. 1854 to 1859 by Sharp, Stewart in 1895; Nos. 1860 to 1899 by Stephenson in 1899; Nos. 1900 to 1919, 1920 to 1929, 1930 to 1939, and 1940 to 1959 by the Vulcan Co., from 1898 to 1902. All these engines had 4-ft. 7-in driving wheels, with the exception of Nos. 1600 to 1608, which had 4-ft. 3-in. wheels.
0-6-4 type tank engines.— This is a type of engine first introduced into England by the Midland Railway, and consisted of 40 engines, Nos. 2000 to 2039. They were constructed to the designs of R.M. Deeley, and built at the Company's Works in 1907 and 1908. The engines were used on fast passenger trains, and are fitted with water pick-up apparatus, which is designed to work when the engine is running in either direction, the scoop being lowered by hand gear, while a flap valve closed the mouth when not in use. The water is delivered by a Y pipe to the hind tank, while large equilibrium pipes connect to the side tanks. The total water capacity of the tanks was 2,250 gallons, and the coal capacity of the bunkers is 3½ tons. The leading axle has a total side play of 1¼-in., obtained by a modification of the Cortazzi axlebox so designed that the spring gear is placed below the journal. Since the introduction of this type several other railways have adopted this wheel notation for tank engines, and many other engines were now running.
London, Tilbury and Southend engines.— These engines were now numbered with the Midland, but it is not proposed to give particulars of these further than to give the type and the present M.R. number. Fuller particulars will be found in the February 1913 issue page 28. We understand that when repairs and renewals of various details are required the Midland standard is worked in as far as possible.
All the engines are tanks, with the exception of Nos. 2898 and 2899, which  were 0-6-0 tender engines.
4-6-4 type, Nos. 2100 to 2107.
4-4-2 type, Nos. 2110 to 2179.
0-6-2 type, Nos. 2180 to 2193.
2-6-0 type American engines.—Thirty of these engines were built in 1899 by Burnham Williams & Co., and ten by the Schenectady Co., both of America, and bore Nos. 2200 to 2230,. There is now only one of these engines running, No. 2233, and as this will doubtless share the fate of the others very shortly, it is needless to give particulars of this type.
0-6-0 goods engines, double-framed.—Engine Nos. 2300 to 2867 are known as Kirtley's double-framed goods engines. It would be tedious to give these in any detail, and we propose to merely group together those built by the same maker, and just give the year in which they were built.
Hawthorn, Nos. 2300 and 2301 in 1850 and 1853. Stephenson, 2302 to 2308 in 1853; 2322 to 2340 in 1856; 2398 to 2458 in 1863-1866. Sharp, Stewart & Co., 2317 and 2318 in 1855 and 1857; 2532 to 2549 in 1867 and 1868. Kitson, 2309 to 2316 in 1852-1854; 2319 to 2321 in 1856 and 1857; 2498 to 2531 in 1866 to 1868; 2652 to 2661 in 1869. Beyer Peacock, 2341 in 1860. Midland Railway, 2342 to 2365 in 1858 to 1860; 2387 to 2398 in 1861; 2459 to 2497 in 1863 to 1867; 2568 to 2582 in 1868; 2672 to 2695 in 1869 and 1871; 2790 to 2804 in 1872. Fairbairn & Sons, 2366 to 2386 in 1860-1861; 2712 in 1860. Dubs & Co., 2550 to 2567 in 1868; 2592 to 2631 in 1869-1870; 2716 to 2769 in 1871-3; 2841 to 2867 in 1873 and 1874; 2716 to 2769 in 1871 and 1873. Yorkshire Engine Co., 2583 to 2591 in 1868. Neilson & Co., 2632 to 2651 in 1869; 2770 to 2789 in 1871. J. Fowler & Co., 2662 to 2671 in 1870. Vulcan Foundry Co., 2693 to 2711 in 1870 and 1871. 2713 to 2715 in 1871, and 2805 to 2843 in 1872 to 1874. We understand the following engines have been broken up since the new numbering was adopted: 2308, 2317, 2321, 2329, 2341, 2346, 2374, 2378, 2387, and 2394.
0-6-0 type goods engines, single-framed.— It will be noticed that the following engines, Nos. 2900 to 3834, are all single-framed, those previous to this date being double-framed. Kitson, 2900 to 2929 in 1875 and 1876; 3300 to 3339 in 1891 and 1892; 3570 to 3599 in 1899 and 1900; 3670 to 3689 in 1900-1. Dubs & Co., 2930 to 2959 in 1875; 3020 to 3039 in 1878; 3340 to 3369 in 1891; 3410 to 3459 in 1892 and 1894; 3630 to 3649 in 1900. Neilson, 2990 to 3019 in 1876; 3200 to 3249 in 1890; 3250 to 3299 in 1891; 3470 to 3544 in 1896 and 1897; 3600 to 3629 in 1899 and 1900; 3710 to 3764 in 1901 and 1902. Midland, 3040 to 3049 in 1880; 3130 to 3199 in batches of 10 and 20 in 1885 to 1888; 3460 to 3469 in 1894; 3765 to 3774 in 1903; 3775 to 3784 in December, 1903; 3785 to 3794 in 1904; 3795 to 3804 in September, 1904; 3805 to 3814 in January, 1907; 3815 to 3834 in May, 1908; and Nos. 3835 and 3836 in October and November, 1911, were both fitted with superheaters. Stephenson, 3050 to 3079 in 1880 to 1881 Engine No. 3069 (old No. 1451) was exhibited by the firm at Newcastle in 1881. Beyer Peacock, 2960 to 2989 in 1876; 3080 to 3129 in 1882 and 1884. Sharp, Stewart, 3370 to 3409 ,in 1892; 3545 to 3569 in 1897; 3690 to 3709 in 1901. Vulcan Foundry Co., 3650 to 3669 in1900.

E.L. Ahrons. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. Section IV. The Birkenhead engines. 316-18. illustration, 8 diagrams (side elevations)
G.W.R. Nos. 104 and 105 were 0-4-2 mixed traffic engines, originally Birkenhead engines 28 and 29, and were constructed by Sharp, Stewart & Co., in April and May, 1854 (S.S. Nos. 783 and 784). These are shown in Fig. 57. The cylinders were 16-in. by 22-in. Coupled wheels, 5-ft. 0-in. diameter; trailing wheels, 3-ft. 6-in. Wheelbase, L to D, 7-ft. 3-in; D to T, 7-ft 5-in. The boiler, 3-ft. 8-in. diameter, contained 145 2-in. tubes. Total heating surface, 866 ft2. Both engines were rebuilt at Wolverhampton as illustrated in Fig. 58. The cylinders were reduced to 15-in. by 22-in. The boiler was almost a Wolverhampton standard one, 4-ft. 0-in. diameter, with 260 15/8-in. tubes. No. 104 was rebuilt in December, 1875, and No. 105 in December, 1874. They were broken up about 1888-9.
G.W.R. Nos. 106 and 107 (Birkenhead Nos. 30 and 31) were 2-4-0 single-framed passenger engines by W. Fairbairn and Sons, Manchester, and were delivered in January, 1855 (see Fig. 59). The cylinders were I5~in. by 22-in. Coupled wheels, 5-ft. 0-in. diameter; leading wheels, 3-ft. 4-in. diameter. Wheelbase, L to D, 6-ft. 4½-in.; D to T, 7-ft. 81/8i-in. The other dimensions in their original condition are not known to the writer.
Both were rebuilt at Wolverhampton, No. in July, 1875, and No. 107 in October, 1873, rebuilding consisting merely in the addition of a new boiler (Fig. 60) exactly the same as that supplied to Nos. 104 and 105. Both engines had a very long career, for after many years' work in the Chester district, they were again rebuilt at Wolverhampton (107 in 1896), and considerably altered in appearance. The wheelbase was extended to 15-ft. 1-in. by placing new leading wheels, 4-ft. 0-in. diameter, further forward and adding an outside framing at the leading end (see Fig. 61). The boiler was of the raised firebox pattern. No. 106 was then transferred to Worcester, and No. 107 to Shrewsbury, and for a number of years they worked the service between these towns via the Severn Valley line In January and February, 1856, Stcphcnson & Co. supplied two 2-4-0 side-tank engines (WN 1049 and 1050), which were Birkenhead No. 32 Volante and No. 33 Voltigeur (Fig. 62) , and became G.W.R. Nos. 97 and 98. The cylinders were 14-in. by 20-in. Coupled wheels, 5-ft. 3-in.; leading wheels, 3-ft. 8-m.; wheelbase, 14-ft. 3-in., of which the coupled wheels were 7 ft.. 0-in. apart. There were 137 tubes, 17/8-in. diameter, giving a heating surface of 727 ft2. The total heating surface was 791½ ft2, and the tanks had a capacity of 600 gallons.*
The brake gear was peculiar, only the trailing wheels in the engines as originally built being fitted with brake blocks on both the front and back of the wheels.
Two goods engines, with outside cranks and double frames, were also supplied in August and September, 1856, by Stephenson & Co. (WN. 1055 and 1060). They really formed part of an order which this firm was at the time executing for the Midland Railway. The Birkenhead Nos. were 37 Thunderer, and 40 Dreadnought and they became G.W.R. Nos. 101 and 102. The cylinders were 16-in. by 24-in. Coupled wheels, 5-ft. 1½-in. Wheelbase, 8-ft. 0-in. L to D and 8-ft. 3-in. D to T. They are shown in Fig. 63. The hornplates were bolted on and connected by deep tie-bars instead of the frame being slotted out of a single plate. There was no safety valve column over the firebox, but only a whistle mounting (similar to that of the 2-4-0 tank engines, Nos. 97 and 98), a characteristic of the old Midland engines. No. 101, originally the Thunderer," did not belie its name, for in 1865 it exploded at Chester. Fig. 63A shows the engine shortly after the explosion. It was afterwards rebuilt in 1886 at Wolverhampton, with a boiler having a somewhat small painted dome, and Armstrong's then standard large brass safety valve cover over the firebox Fig. 64). The cylinders became 17-in. by 24-in., and the new boiler had 189 2-in. tubes, which gave a heating surface of 1128 ft2, and the firebox added 96 ft2.,making a total of 1224 ft2. No. 102 had its cylinders enlarged subsequently to  17-in. diameter, but was never rebuilt.
Two small four-wheeled shunting saddle tanks were supplied by Sharp, Stewart & Co. (Fig. 65). These were No. 39 Grasshopper, built in September, 1856, which became G.W.R. No. 96, and No. 6 Cricket, built in January, 1857 (G.W.R. No. 95). Sharp, Stewart WN 964 and 1026 respectively. They had 14-in. by 18-in cylinders and 4-ft. 0-in. coupled wheels. The wheelbase was 7-ft. 2-in. Boiler, 3-ft. 4-in. diameter, with 116 2-in tubes. Total heating surface, 662| ft2.
Like engines Nos. 16, 45, and 91, they were arranged so that admission to the footplate was obtained on the left hand side only, and the illustration of No. 96 shows the full length side panel on the opposite or right hand side. Engines Nos. 95 and 96 were still at work in 1914. No. 96 was rebuilt at Wolverhampton in December, 1888, and is very similar to engine No. 92 (Fig. 49). No. 95 was rebuilt in 1890, and more recently has been modified by having wheels 3-ft. 6-in diameter substituted for the previous 4-ft. wheels. The roof of the cab was removed, the outside platform was modified, and a very short chimney and flat-topped dome in the centre of the boiler were added (as shown in Fig. 66), to enable it to work through a low tunnel near Croes Newydd Wrexham district), to obtain access to the Westminster Colliery. The tunnel had since been closed, and the coal wagons sent down to Croes Newydd via Moss Valley Junction. As a result No. 95 now had a standard chimney and cab somewhat similar to that of engine No. 92.
There  were now 190 15/8-in. tubes, with a total heating surface of 889 ft2, of which the firebox supplied 60 ft2. The pressure is 140 psi, and the tanks held 490 gallons. Two more engines which became G.W.R., Nos. 103 and 118, were ordered by the Birkenhead Railway, but as they were not delivered until nearly two years after the amalgamation, a description of them is deferred until later.
*Note Since this was written, the writer has heard from Frank Hennell, formerly Chief Loco. Assistant of the District Ry., that both 97 and 98, during several years subsequent to 1864, were stationed at Longhedge (L.C.& D.R. Sheds to run from Victoria (Pimlico) to Southall

H.T. Wright. The action of rail depressions on locomotives. 318-19. 2 diagrams
Slacks are very liable at water troughs an may cause rolling and pitching.

J. Lynes. The construction and inspection of 10-ton open goods wagons. 319-23. 9 diagrams
Paper read before Swindon Engineering Society. Wheels could be wrought iron open spoke, solid spoke and cast steel, tyres, axleboxes (made of cast iron), bearing springs, wheeling of wagons, buffing and drawgear; testing of the hook and couplings is of importance, and it is the practice to submit all to a proof load or to take a percentage of them usually two per cent. and test to destruction.The load required by the Clearing House Specifications was 50 tons for 1½-in. diameter link, but some Railway Companies required a higher minimum load,

Non-return valve for automatic vacuum brake. 323. diagram
When an air pump is employed on the locomotive instead of a small ejector for maintaining the continuous vacuum necessary for operating the Automatic Vacuum Brake, a valve similar to that illustrated is introduced at the loco, brake cylinder to enable the pump to continue to exhaust that portion of the apparatus after the brake has been applied by admission ot air through the train pipe. The action of the valve is extremely simple, and can be readily followed from the drawing. When the brake is applied the air pressure will lift the valve, closing "A" on to its seating, whilst "B" will be raised. This establishes direct connection from the pump to the vacuum chamber and the upper side of the brake cylinder.

L. & N.W. Ry. 323
Placed some of its new electric rolling stock in service on the Willesden-Earls Court section. The District Ry. stock, which had been in use on this line since May, hadbeen withdrawn.

The work and organization of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 324-5. 2 illustrations
Wheel lathes and planing machines

Obituary. 325

Sir Alfred M. Watkin.
Died at Folkestone on 30 November 1914. Apprenticed in the locomotive department of the West Midlands Railway; from 1865 qualified as a driver on the M.S. & L. R.; became a locomotive inspector on the L.C. & D.R. in 1867 and joined the S.E.R. in 1868. MP for Grimsby 1877 to 1880

[John Wilton Williams]. 325-6. illustration (portrait)
Died 19 November 1914 aged 61. Pupil in the locomotive department of the Brecon & Merthyr Railway. In charge of locomotive department at St. Pancras, Midland Railway until 1902 when he joined Bell's United Asbestos Co. Played a very prominent part in the Railway Men's Convalescent Homes; was a Freemason and member of several Friendly Socities.

An early American locomotive. 326. illustration
Lion of the Boston & Salem Railroad originally built by Hinklry & Drury of Boston in 1839 for the Eastern Railroad. Possibly locomotive included in Bailey's Loco motion page 193 who suggests a later date of 1846. See also letter from B. Thomas on page 68 of Volume 21.

Aluminium. 326
Report of talk presented by H.M. Munro to the Junior Institution of Engineers on its use for high tension electricity distribution and its extraction from bauxite.

Reviews. 327

Oil fuel, its supply, composition and application. Edward Butler, London: Chas. Griffin & Co., Ltd.
This work presents a record of the development and successful application of oil fuel for steam raising, as well as metallurgical and other industrial process work for which it can be used. The fuels principally employed are petroleum residuals, and the very important subject of supply is discussed at length, while some very instructive tables of statistics show the increase in the production of petroleum in the chief oil producing countries. Attention is drawn to the fact that recent discoveries of oil wells are nearly all of heavy oils, which make ideal fuel. A large diversity of makes of burners are illustrated and described steam, air and pressure jet, both British and foreign, and attention is given to the relative advantages of steam, compressed air and mechanical action as atomizers. A chapter is devoted to the application of oil fuel for locomotives, recalling the successful development of the Holden apparatus, first introduced on the Great Eastern Ry., and now extensively adopted wherever suitable fuel is obtainable at a reasonable figure. Other interesting applications include road vehicles, fire engines, etc., and installations for metal furnaces. Of course the many advantages of oil fuel for naval and marine purposes are dealt with. It is a most useful book for all who are interested, and is quite up to date

Firewood & firelighter machinery. 328
A leaflet received from M. Glover & Co., of Leeds, describes a complete installation, just supplied, of firewood machinery, in which this enterprising firm are well-known specialists. The plant consists of saw bench, splitting machine, sifting appliance, picking up and arranging machines, and the firm's belt-driven bundling machinery. In carriage and wagon works, collieries, and timber-yards, or any industries where timber is employed, the conversion by machinery of the waste wood into firewood is a question worth attention. Glover also make a speciality of firelighter machinery for the utilization of saw-dust, peat, workshop and various kinds of waste. They have also designed special contrivances for bundling all classes of material, including electric carbons, etc.