British Railways Standard classes
(& modifications to earlier designs)
9F Britannia Clan 5 (4-6-0) 4 (4-6-0) 4 (2-6-0) 3 (2-6-0) 2 (2-6-0)
Duke of Gloucester 4 (2-6-4T) 3 (2-6-2T) 2 (2-6-2T)
Princess Anne Merchant Navy light Pacifics Valve gear Modifications to earlier Home No. 1

Clan on freight in eruption on Neilston bank, summer 1960 (some saw the Standards as a cloud on the horizon). Sorry for the Gevaert "colour" and Scottish yellow/grey weather

General accounts

Duffy and Rutherford are the more important references listed (there must be several more which need to be added; notably the RCTS history) to condemn the absurd waste of effort in producing a range of "standard" locomotives which only added to the diversity of types running at the end of steam. As with the Stanier era boilers were designed and built with a readiness which made Gresley appear to be the arch standardizer. The 9F would never have been tolerated by the LNER where an unnecessary boiler design was introduced for a very marginal gain in adhesion (the original 2-8-2 outlined would have been more standard). The Clans were like Gresley's K4 class, but with one major difference the boiler was used on the excellent K1 class (this boiler must have been far cheaper than that used on the Class 3 2-6-0). The Clan boiler remained under-developed and was an absurd luxury: V2 or West Country class could have been evaluated on the handful of workings operated by the Clans. Langridge 2 p. 89: "For, as C.S. Cocks was fond of saying to me in later years, 'Eric, it is all tommy-rot to say that a new standard reduces the number of classes; it just adds one more'. Of course Cocks, being a staunch Bulleid lieutenant, considered that 'Merchant Navies' and 'West Countries' could work all BR traffic that existed then; he did not mention his solution for freight.".

Bonavia, Michael R. British Rail: the first twenty five years. 1981.
The LMS scored heavily in mechanical and electrical engineering, the Member for which was Robert A. ('Robin') Riddles, who had risen to be a Vice-President of the LMS. Handsome and well-dressed, and a first-rate technical officer, he was first and foremost a steam locomotive man; he had no use for main line diesel traction as a half-way house to electrification, which he saw as the ultimate solution, though for the time being it must be postponed. It was a strongly LMS-dominated department that RAR set up and almost at once set to work on the task of designing BR standard steam locomotives, probably the most criticised action that the Executive undertook during its lifetime. He could exercise considerable charm, and expounded his arguments forcefully. However he had too lively a temperament to be able completely to conceal his irritation at meetings between the Executive and the British Transport Commission, when he was asked to explain or defend his policies by men whose professional knowledge fell short of his own. He was always at odds with Oliver Bulleid, the brilliant but unconventional CME of the Southern.
Bonavia, Michael R. The birth of British Rail. London: Allen & Unwin, 1979,
E.S. Cox has written: 'It says much for human adaptability that they [the former Company's CME's staff] cooperated as well as they did, only shadowed by an often wooden demeanour when they faced us across the table at the monthly M and EE Committee meetings, and punctuated by occasional outbreaks of sheer naughtiness.' There is of course something fundamentally wrong about any organisation in which headquarters complains about 'sheer naughtiness' in those who are supposed to execute its policies. There has been a failure to communicate and establish any sense of common purpose.

Riddles and his team were meanwhile proceeding with gusto to develop the new 'standard' designs for BR locomotives. I have put 'standard' in inverted commas, because so-called standardisation schemes often act in reverse – they merely add to the total number of types in service for which spares have to be kept and knowhow acquired – unless certain conditions are fulfilled. First, the inspirer of standardisation must be reasonably certain of a long period in office, and that his successor will not prematurely discard his policies. This, for instance, was not the case when Edward Thompson formulated his 'standardisation' plan for the LNER as he had only a short expectation of years in office. Next, a continuing demand for the type of motive power involved must be predictable for at least a quarter of a century, preferably longer. Lastly, there must be the financial resources clearly in sight for large-scale scrap-and-build, quickly replacing non-standard by standard products – as when Stanier took office on the LMS.

None of these prerequisites was present when the Riddles team plunged into their task. Of course, for some time the only locomotives that could emerge from the erecting shop would have to be existing Company types. It was in fact not until 1951 that the first BR 'standard' locomotives appeared – 89 compared with 208 of Company designs in that year, although in the following year the 'standard' types began to predominate.
Bond, R.C. A lifetime with locomotives. 1975.
Cox, E.S. British standard locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1951, 41, 287-335.(Paper No. 502).
The discussion section included notable contribitions: Colonel O.S.M. Raw's are especially sharp, and Sir William Stanier's are not merely congratulatory. E.V.M. Powell's were hostile and Nock suggests led to his move away from BR.
Cox, E.S. British Railways standard steam locomotives. 1966.
Cox, E.S. Experiences with British Railways standard locomotives. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1954, 44, 212-54. Disc.: 254-305. + folding plate. 4 illus., 31 diagrs., 7 tables. (Paper No. 532).
Cox, E.S. Chronicles of steam. 1967.
Mainly autobiographical
Cox, E.S. Locomotive panorama. 2v.
Vital sources of internal information both relating to the Stanier period on the LMS and under Riddles on British Railways.
Duffy, M.C. Technomorphology and the Stephenson traction system. Trans. Newcomen Soc., 54, 55-74. Disc.: 74-8.
The author both confirms George Stephenson's original brilliance and soundly condemns "late" steam locomotive engineering (especially that of Riddles and Bulleid) to the dustbin of history.  "Riddles' greatest error was to make no systematic exploration of main-line diesel traction, despite the recommendation of the 1948 Hurcomb report." "Riddles grossly overquoted the diesel to steam capital cost ratio". "he failed to build on the pioneer diesel-electric work of Bulleid, Fairbairn [sic] and Ivatt".
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
Sadly not collectively regared as millstones: although several individual designs are dismissed.
Helm, John W.E. Track record: a financial history of British Railways 1948-1954: the steam railway. Part three: thr assets – capital improvements. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 584-92.
The Railway Executive took much criticism in later years for producing the twelve Standard classes but it is all too easy to make snap judgements of this sort with the benefit of hindsight. In the austere post-war world difficult decisions had to be taken and - to the administration in power - transport was not a priority. The RE's preferred option would have been electrification, but that was too costly and thus ruled out.
While there was limited scope for dieselisation (in the shunting yards and for secondary services), the RE had little experience of main line traction. The first examples were underpowered, unreliable and expensive. They also used imported oil, not much of a selling point when the country had foreign exchange problems (and the same went for the early coal-oil steam conversions as well). Electric trains at least had the advantage of using current generated by British coal.
Sticking with steam therefore seemed to be the cheapest (if not the best) option at the time. However, there were 448 different classes then in existence and, compared with other state owned systems across the Channel, that was a very large number indeed. Standardisation and rationalisation (on twelve new designs) was expected to realise large savings. It made common sense.
Riddles and his team were not clairvoyant and had no crystal ball. They could not possibly have envisaged the switch from famine to feast unleashed by the Modernisation Plan just a few years later. The man from the Ministry suddenly underwent transformation from Ebenezer Scrooge to Santa Claus overnight and BR enjoyed access to funds – which it could never have raised on its own account – to update the system. In addition, the worsening coal situation and the availability of cheaper fuel oil gradually began to tip the balance in favour of diesel traction as the decade wore on. That too was not foreseen.
When the first Standards arrived in 1951, steam was expected to be around for many years. Modernisation speeded things up, but the rapidity of the subsequent steam demise was unexpected. When Herbert Walker electrified the Southern in the inter-war years it was done on an orderly and phased basis spread out over many years (and there were still large steam-worked areas around in 1939). He did not try changing things overnight or go for crash conversion: evolution, not revolution, was the name of his game. The RE probably thought modernisation would follow a similar pattern. The Southern Railway spent its hard-earned money wisely and there was little wastage, though the same could not be said of the BTC.
Although straying beyond the time frame of this article, suffice it to say that steam locomotives had a book life value of 30 years, but some Standards lasted barely five – a shocking waste of resources involving massive write-offs. In a privately run company such incompetence would probably have constituted good grounds for dismissal, though it's unlikely that any BTC bureaucrat or BR manager suffered this fate. The Modernisation Plan was published in early 1955, yet steam construction continued right up to 1960. Over 500 new locomotives were added to stock long after the die had been cast." One could be forgiven for thinking that the left hand did not know what the right hand was up to.
It's a moot point, but had the Government been a bit less generous BR might have invested a bit more wisely. Some of the subsequent – and largely self-inflicted – financial wounds could have been avoided.
Joy, Stewart. The train that ran away: a business history of British Railways. London: Ian Allan, 1973. 157pp.
Whatever were the machinations between the BTC and the RE, Hurcomb had not counted on the strength of the personal ambitions of the successor to Stephenson, Webb, Churchward, Gresley and Stainer, who wished to design his own fleet of steam locomotives. (page 37)
In addition Joy is extremely critical of the total failure to invest any effort into developing diesel traction, especially in the form of multiple units.
Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. 1975.
Lowe paints a rather jaunticed picture of British Railways activity with its LMS bias in the design team. The telling "Were so many new or modified designs necessary with all the expence of design, tooling, manufacture and teething troubles? ... The only one which really justified itself was the 2-10-0 locomotive."
Modern locomotive practice. Rly Gaz., 1954, 100, 261.
A critical examination of the standard types.
Poultney, E.C. Proportions of British standard locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1952, 96, 237-9+. 5 illus., table.
The origin of the standard classes.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977. Chapter 13.
Critical of the draughty cabs and the location of many of the controls, especially the wheel on the reverser. Also critical of the lubricator controls which led to the cylinders being starved of lubricant (on the London Midland Region).
Railway Correspondence and Travel Society,
A detailed history of British Railways standard steam locomotives.
Vol. 1. background to standardisation and the Pacific classes. Paul Chancellor and Peter Gilbert. Lincoln: RCTS, 1994.
P.J. Chancellor contributed the Pacific classes (pp 45 et seq)
A detailed history of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. Vol. 5. The end of an era. Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. John Walford. 208pp.
Very well received in what is comparable to the concluding volumes in the LNER and GWR series: that is a tying-up of loose ends, but in this case the whole issue of building standard steam locomotives when other forms of traction should have been develeoped is considered.
Reed, Gordon. Boilersmith: a high-pressure job. Part 1. Steam Wld, 2002 (182) 18-23.
Noted that most LNER boilers were trouble-free: "you cannot beat a round-toped boiler with a copper firebox and stays", but the new BR designs with steel or monel stays were a constant source of trouble. On the climb to Stainmore the stay nuts used to burn off in no time.
Riddles, R.A. Nationalisetion and the mechanical engineer. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1950, 40, 675-92. (Presidential Address).
The main theme is standardization. A case for the retention of steam traction was also made.
Rutherford, Michael. Fifty years on: the 'glorious years' or heads-in-the-sand; the railways and steam after nationalisation.(Railway Reflections No. 44). Backtrack, 12, 445-53.
Rutherford is highly critical of the Bond, Cox, Riddles (and Rudgard) team, both for its LMS cant, and the attitudes of Cox and Riddles. "There is nothing in the Riddles, Bond, Cox triumvirate to confirm the general thesis of Alfred Chandler of the modern rational decision-making manager. He is critical of the failure to build Beyer Garratt locomotives to ease the problem of poor fuel and to obviate double-heading [some of which was routinely scheduled on the paradigm LMR - even at a time of shortages of both labour and materials, including fuel KPJ]. The neglect of modern traction is also castigated: the DMU was not developed until after the demise of the Railway Executive; GWR and NCC experience was ignored; no extensions to the Manchester-Sheffield-Wath electrification were sought in spite of calls for this from the operating side. Rutherford considers the EM2 class to be "one of the best designs to come out of the nationalised railways' drawing offices": the bogie design was based on Ivatt's 10000/10001 DE locomotives. Rutherford's Utopia would have been modern traction on the Great Central mainline due to its link with the electrified railway at Sheffield, and proxmity to AEC/BTH at Rugby. Notes success of Britannia class on Great Eastern, but considers that this could not have been sustained. Nevertheless, three locomotives exceeded 100,000 miles per annum. See original article for letters in response.
Summers, L.A. Was the Riddles BR team too conservative? Steam Wld, 2005 (211), 8-14.
Design has two meanings within the context of locomotive development:overall engineering development and style. The writer mixes both meanings and in this case is a strength rather than a weakness as Riddles, and his team, clearly wished to make a mark. In the first category Summers argues that the design team for the standard classes failed to apply all of Chapelon's principles; that an attempt should have been made to develop a long narrow firebox for a 4-8-0 with a mechanical stoker. Manual firing of a large boiler was inappropriate for the time, and recruitment was about to become difficult. The absence of trailing wheels would have improved hill-climbing: GWR locomotives tended to be superior in this respect. Summers was also disappointed at the appearance of the Britannia class and considers that a form of semi-streammlining should have been adopted: a colour illustration of an Australian Class 38 Pacific No. 3801 clearly demonstrates what Summers considered should have been designed. Sixteen references: so no complaints there, especially as one is to R. Lowey. See also response by Kevin Jones (Issue 219 p. 26).
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. 1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but a few are little better than decorative. some general arrangement diagrams are included and there is a diagram of the cab layout. The combination of lanscape format for the illustrations with overall portrait format makes the material difficult to consult..
Turner, A. Materials used in locomotive, carriage and wagon construction. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1954, 44, 659-73. Disc. : 674-709. 6 illus., 5 diagrs., table. (Paper No. 538).
British Railways materials specifications.

Detail

"IDEAL footplate" sought by Railway Executive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1950, 56, 8.  illus.
Mock-up for the standard cab was produced to solicit footplate crews' suggestions.
LOCOMOTIVE organ recital. Trains ill., 1949, 2, 118.
Whistle recital was arranged to select standard types.
A Standard engine cab: the new British Railways design. Trains ill., 1950, 3, 4-5. 2 illus.
Description of the mock-up.
Standardisation of British Railways locomotive cabs and controls. Engineer, 1949, 188, 711-12. 3 illus. (REA 4704).
Standardisation of British Railways locomotive cabs and controls. Rly Gaz., 1949, 91, 709-10. 2 illus. (REA 4704).
Standardisation of British Railways locomotive cabs and controls. Rly Mag., 1950, 96, 112-14. 2 illus.

Boiler mountings

Cox (British Railways standard steam locomotives. 1966) notes that Swindon pressure and water gauges were accepted, the latter having a good feature in the form of a metal column which joined the top and bottom cocks behind the gauge glass proper, this maintaining the two parts of the gauge in perfect alignment, and making unit replacement easier. On the other hand, unlike other companies who fitted two gauges per engine, the GWR had fitted only one, and relied upon try-cocks on the hollow vertical column above mentioned to indicate the water level in the event of failure of the watergauge as a whole. On the BR locomotives two standard water gauges were specified.

Selection of live steam injectors was only made after a series of tests on the Swindon works steam fittings test plant in which both regional and proprietary instruments were tried out for range of working and for maximum delivery capacity. In this case the GW injector showed a marked superiority over all the others, and it was adopted in three sizes to cover the proposed fleet, giving maximum water deliveries of 34.800, 25.700 and 18.500 lb. per hour respectively, a useful range of adjustment of the quantity delivered being available in each case. It is interesting to recall that this injector design was one of the items which Stanier did not transplant to the LMS when he joined it in 1932, but the Derby injector which he retained for his new command was at this late hour found to be markedly inferior.

The only mildly controversial item on this standardisation of boiler mountings was the top feed clack valve fitted at the point where the injector delivery entered the boiler. The sub-committee put forward the Swindon type which had been a standard fitting on that line since Churchward's time. This was however one of the Western specialities which did not transplant well, and, in a number of successive versions in Stanier's time and after, the LMS had failed to get satisfaction for it was super sensitive to assembly by the ham-handed, and leakage of feed water inside the boiler clothing was an all too frequent occurrence. On the other hand nobody had ever seen the very simple straightforward clack valve used by the Southern Railway leak, whether applied to boiler side or top. The sub-committee was therefore over-ridden on this item, and the Southern design adopted. It can be said at this juncture that it never gave the slightest trouble or leakage on the standard engines whether assembled by experts or run of the mill fitters.

9F 2-10-0: 1954

This class was introduced for hauling either fast or heavy freight trains. The locomotives had 5 ft 0 in driving wheels and a modified version of the Britannia class boiler. For a short period some engines were employed on express duties, during which time high speeds were attained. The scientific tests performed on the class showed it to be both powerful and efficient. No. 92220 Evening Star was the last steam locomotive to be built for British Railways.

The BRITISH Railways 2-10-0. Trains ill., 1954, 7, 110-11÷. illus., diagr. (s.el.)
BRITISH Railways 2-10-0 heavy freight locomotive. Engineer, 1954, 197, 165-7.3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
BRITISH Railways 2-10-0 heavy freight locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1954, 100, 124-6. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
B.R. 2-10-0 heavy freight locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1954, 60, 15.
Editorial comment.
NEW class "9" 2-10-0 locomotives. Rly Mag., 1954, 100, 163-6. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW standard freight locomotive. Rly Wld, 1954, 15, 66-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
2-10-0 heavy freight locomotives for B.R.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1954, 60, 16-18. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)

1955 : Franco-Crosti boilers
A large scale experiment was made with Franco Crosti boilers. These incorporated heat exchangers for pre-heating the feed water. The experiment was unsuccessful and the equipment was eventually removed. See Chapelon's involvement (Rich below).See also Duffy and Cox's British Railways standard steam locomotives.

BRITISH Railways Franco-Crosti 2-10-0s. Trains ill., 1955, 8, 314-17. 3 illus., 2 diagrs. (incl. s. el.)
BRITISH Railways 2-10-0 class 9F Crosti engines. Rly Obsr, 1955, 25, 207-8. diagr., table.
BRITISH Railways 2-10-0 locomotives with Franco-Crosti boilers. Rly Mag., 1955, 101, 529-34.3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
CROSTI-BOILERED B.R. 2-10-0 locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1955, 61, 86-8. 4 illus., diagr.
The FRANCO-CROSTI boiler. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1953, 59, 80-4. illus., diagr., table, plan.
The "FRANCO-CROSTI" class "9". Rly Wld, 1955, 16, 155-7.3 illus.
Franco-Crosti type boiler. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1952, 58, 149.
Announcement that to be fitted to some 9F Class 2-10-0
PREHEATERS for increased efficiency of steam locomotives. Engineering, 1955, 179, 766-7. 3 illus., 2 diagrs., table. (REA 9486).
Standard class "9" locomotives fitted with Franco-Crosti boilers. Engineer, 1955, 199, 841-3. 2 illus., 4 diagrs., table. (REA 9486).

1958 : mechanical stokers :
To increase power output three locomotives were fitted with mechanical stokers. A number of difficulties were experienced in service, however.

BERKLEY mechanical stoker for three B.R. class "9" 2-10-0s. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1958, 64, 178-9. 3 illus.
B.R. freight locomotives fitted with mechanical stoker. Rly Mag., 1958, 104, 717-19.2 illus.
B.R. stoker experiment ended. Mod. Rlys, 1962, 15, 76-7.
The reasons for the termination of the experiment.
The CASE for mechanical stokers on B.R. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1957, 63, 41-2. illus.
CLASS "9" freight locomotives fitted with mechanical stoker. Rly Gaz., 1958, 109, 170.2 illus., (REA 12119).
CLASS "9" 2-10-0 with stoker. Trains ill., 1958, 11, 572. illus.
The first from Swindon. Rly WId, 1957, 18, 311.
Fitted with double chimneys.
MECHANICAL stokers for B.R.. Trains ill., 1957, 10, 457.
MECHANICAL stokers for B.R. 2-10-0 locomotives. Rly WId, 1957, 18, 225.
MECHANICAL stokers for 2-10-0 locomotives. Rly WId, 1958, 19, 307. 2 illus.
STOKER-FITTED 2-10-0s. Trains ill., 1958, 11, 458.
Experience in service.

1959 Giesl ejector:
A Giesl ejector was tested on No. 92250. The results showed only a marginal gain in economy.

GIESL ejector shows its advantages. Engineering, 1960, 190, 726. (R EA 13918).
The GIESL ejector : a review of its application and performance at home and abroad. Trains ill., 1961, 14, 548-54. 7 illus., 2 diagrs.
Includes the Rugby test plant results.

1959 : No. 92250-last steam locomotive built at Crewe.

LAST steam from Crewe. Trains ill., 1959, 12, 66.

1960: No.92220 Evening Star
Last new steam locomotive for British Railways.

"EVENING Star". Rly Mag., 1960, 106, 307-9. 3 illus.
The LAST steam locomotive built by British Railways: naming ceremony of class "9" 2-10-0 locomotive No. 92220 'Evening Star" at Swindon, 18th March, 1960. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1959/60, 49, 597-9. illus.

Oil firing: 1960
Atkins, Philip. Dropping the fire. 1999. pp 48-9.
Notes that in 1960 there was a proposal to equip some of this class with oil-firing for work on the Western Region..

Testing

BRITISH Railways British Railways standard class 9F 2-cyl. 2-10-0 freight locomotive. London: British Transport Commission, 1959. [iv], 4, [26] p. 3 illus. 25 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), 3 tables. (Performance and efficiency tests [with the] exhaust steam injector: Bulletin No. 13).
LOCOMOTIVE testing at Rugby: regulator tests. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev 1958, 64, 202-5. 5 diagrs.
NOCK, O.S. 2-10-0 standard freight locomotive performance and efficiency tests. Rly Gaz., 1959, 208, 383-6. 6 diagrs.
A review of the official report.

Performance :
For a short period in the summer of 1958 the 2-10-0s were used on express trains. One locomotive attained 90 mile/h.

DRIVING wheel diameter, coupled wheels, and speed. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1958, 64, 201-2.
NINETY with a "nine". Rly Mag., 1959, 105, 360-1. table.
An assessment of Tuplin's article (below).
Tuplin, WA. Ninety with a "nine". Rly Mag., 1958, 104, 823-5. 3 illus.

Retrospective and critical

Atkins, C.P. The BR Standard 2-8-0s. Rly Wld, 1988, 49, 222-3.
The Western Region was far from happy with the decision to have 2-10-0 locomotives supplied to it instead of the 2-8-0s which it wished, preferably of the 28xx design. K.W.C. Grand, the CRO argued that such 2-8-0s could be supplied for £14,150 as against £23,500 for the 2-10-0s, and would be cheaper to run. The Railway Executive was prompted to design a 2-8-0 version of the class 5 4-6-0 but with the boiler pressure raised to 250 psi and Derby designed a 2-8-0 version of the 2-10-0 with a wide firebox and various cylinder dimensions and boiler pressures. Neither design was built as the policy decision to phase out steam traction had by then been taken..
Atkins, Philip. The British Railways standard 9F 2-10-0. Pinner: Irwell Press, 1993.
Atkins, Philip. British Railways Standard steam locomotive boilers, Rly Wld, 1990, 51, 290-1; 501-503.
Includes costs and proposed modifications
Atkins, C.P. Minutiae from the Minutes: changing Standards. Rly Wld, 1988, 49, 89-91.
Reiterates the story of the 2-8-2 in preference to 2-10-0 before history was rewritten (there were ten points in favour of 2-8-2, as against three for 2-10-0) and that rear coupling rods for 9F were redesigned at Swindon along County class lines to avoid fracture. Originally a multiple valve had been intended, but this was dropped due to cost and lack of need. Nevertheless, regulators sticking was a problem on Western Region. A special tender with increased coal and water capacity was designed for the 9F type to be operated on the Eastern and Southern Regions.
Chacksfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland compound to the HST. 2004.
Jarvis was responsible for the small design team at Brighton Works which produced some of the detailed arrangements for the 9F class, notably the balancing.  The book notes that a special boiler had to be designed for the class and that yet another boiler had to be evolved for the Franco-Crosti variant (in which Jarvis was also involved).
Duffy, M.C. Waste heat recovery and steam locomotive design. Trans Newcomen Soc., 1989, 61, 15-30. Disc.: 30-1.
Reviews the Franco-Crosti experiment and does not dispute British Railways finding that the economy achieved was slight and not worth the additional complexity.
Franco-Crosti 2-10-0s — some comments. Rly Wld, 1955, 16, 207.
Photographs taken by Philip J. Kelley at Elstree on 16 July 1955 of No. 92026 with Franco-Crosti boiler and No. 92018 without. Drivers and firemen at Cricklewood found the exhaust fumes blackened the cab, and criticised the poor draughting and difficulty in burning large coal.
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"The main success of the fleet was undoubtedly the Class 9F 2-10-0, because it filled a niche": there is no doubt about the success of the design, but it would have been more useful if it had appeared ahead of the trivial collection of "standard" 2-6-0s, 4-6-0s, etc, even if it had had to be a more standard 2-8-2..
Hunt, John. 1,2,3... heave! [9F haulage/bankage of Tyne Dock to Consett iron ore trains]. Steam Wld, 2007 (235) 13-21.
Mixture of words and wonderful black & white and colour photographs of last of these workings. The 9Fs were modified with air compressors to work the hopper doors which discharged the iron ore at Consett (a description of the regulations relating to this highly specialised traffic is given in Backtrack, 2007, 21, 15).
Landau, D.H. Later days of the LMS double chimneys. Backtrack, 2004, 18, 188.
See Rutherford page 38: suggests reason for divergent chimneys on Ivatt double-chimney 2-6-0s as Doncaster had prepared drawing for double-chimney for 2-6-4T (BR Standard) and this showed that there was insufficient space for any other arrangement (nozzles would have been too close). Doncaster also schemed a double chimney system for the BR class 5 (two for LMR and two for WR), this would have been similar to the type fitted to the Castle class. Enginemen considered that the 9F class fitted with double chimneys were in a different class from the remainder.
Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. 1975.
Lowe considered this to be the only really worthwhile standard design.
Powell, A.J. [45671], pseud. Heavy freight — or express passenger: the B.R. class "9" 2-10-0. Trains ill. Ann., 1960, 89-96. 3 illus., 3 tables.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977. Chapter 13.
Covers basic design noting that 2-8-2 would have had a better [and KPJ more standard] boiler and it should have been possible to fit brakes onto the rear truck to increase braking. Nevertheless, the locomotives were fast and efficient. Notes the problems encountered with the use of mechanical stokes which were mainly due to a lack of a suitable coal supply. The Franco-Crosti boiler experiment is thoughly condemned due to the poor conditions inflicted upon the footplate crews and the corrosion of the smokebox due to the formation of sulphuric acid.
Ransome-Wallis, P. The British Railways class "9" 2-10-0s. Trains ill., 1959, 12, 418-25; 555-9. 8 illus., table.
Rich, Fred. "You'll go to jail, young man...". Part 1. Steam Wld, 2005 (215), 8-14.
Concerns Rugby Locomotive Testing Station. On 26 November 1957 Carling (Superintendent of the station) met Chapelon in London where Chapelon congratulated Carling concerning the tests of the Crosti boiler: "These tests of yours are the most accurate and consistent that I've ever seen". Chapelon had been called in to adjudicate between Crosti and British Railways over the savings which had been expected from the use of the Crosti boiler.
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. 1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Tuplin, W.A.  Regrettable emphasis on foreign failure. J. Stephenson Loco. Soc., 1962, 38, 338-40.
This, and the subsequent reference, consider the Giesl ejector experiment.
Walford, John and Paul Harrison. A detailed history of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. Vol. 4. The 9F 2-10-0 Class.Railway Correspondence & Travel Society.  317pp,
Winding, P. Prolonging the life of steam : the Giesl ejector – a survey, 1951-1966. Rly Mag., 1966, 112, 437-41.6 illus.

4-6-2

7 Britannia: 1951:
The Britannia class locomotives were the first British Pacifics to be built with less than three cylinders. Bond A lifetime with locomotives hints (page 209) that it might have been one too few (KPJ in counter-factual mode: presumably rebuilt West Country Pacifics would have been well-received on the Great Eastern section). The main purpose of this move away from multi-cylinder designs was to ease maintenance. In relation to the total evaporative area (2474 ft2) the cylinder volume was small: there were two 20 in x 28 in cylinders. The locomotives were efficient on test and in service, especially on the Great Eastern section of the Eastern Region. They were not well received on the Western Region where the left-hand driving position was at variance with standard practice on that Region, a point overlooked by the locomotive's designers.

British Railways standard "Britannia" class 4-6-2 locomotives. Rly Mag., 1951, 97. 184-8. illus., diagr. (s.el.).
British Railways standard class 7 4-6-2 locomotive and standard locomotive tender. Rly Gaz., 1951, 94, 468 + folding plate. 2 diagrs., plans.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.
British Railways standard 4-6-2 locomotive. Engineering, 1951, 171, 126-7 + plate. 8 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
British Railways standard 4-6-2 locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 57, 22-3 + col. plate. f.p. 22. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
British Railways standard locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1951, 94, 126-9; 134.5 illus., diagr. (s. el.) (REA 6047)-
First Standard locomotive named and driven by Minister. The Times, 1951, 31 January, p. 3. illus.
On 30 January 1951 the Minister of  Transport, Barnes, named No. 70000 Britannia at Marlebone station and then drove the locomotive with Lord Hurcomb, Sir Eustace Missenden and Riddles on the footplate. Feature gives extensive technical details and noted the unisual location of the tri-tone chime whistle.
Introducing No. 70000 : first standard design of British Railways. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 74-5+. illus., diagr. (s. el.),table.
McArd, G.W. Welding applied to the standard locomotives on British Railways. Weld. Metal Fabric., 1954, 22, 258-60. illus., 3 diagrs., (REA 8847).
Frame cross stretchers, smokebox saddle and other details.
Roller bearing axleboxes in the standard locomotives. Engineer, 1951, 192, 633. 3 illus. (REA 6874).
Standard British mixed traffic locomotive, No. 70,000. Engineer, 1951, 191,164; 199-201.7 illus.

No. 70050 et seq. :
These locomotives were fined with larger tenders.
Reynolds, W.J. The lastest "Britannias'. Rly Wld, 1956, 17, 79. illus.

Coupling rod failures;
A number of coupling rod failures were cperienced through the driving wheels working loose on the axles. These were quickly rectified.
BRITANNIA class locomotives reinstated. Rly Mag., 1952, 98, 69.
STANDARD locomotives temporarily withdrawn. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 856.

Accidents due to locomotive defects

Accident at Milford in November 1955
Noted by C.J. Allen in British Pacific locomotives (page 207): 70026 Polar Star working an excursion from Treherbert to Paddington failed to observe a speed restriction when being diverted from fast to slow roads at Milton led to eleven deaths on the train. It was partly due to the inexperience of the driver and fireman, and not being used to left hand drive locomotives. Poor visibility was also blamed. This led to the removal of the handrails on the smoke deflectors of Western Region locomotives.
Ministry of Transport. Report on the Derailment which occurred on 20th November 1955 at Milton (near Didcot) in the Western Region British Railways. Published 26 March 1956. Inspecting Officer Brigadier C.A. Langley. HMSO
Accident near Blea Moor on 21 January 1960
70052 Firth of Tay when working an overnight sleeping car service fromm Glasgow to Leeds, suffered the collapse of its crosshead and this led to the collapse of its motion which collided with a freight train which in turn led to damage to the coaches in the pssenger train and five fatalities. This was due to poor maintence on the Britannia which in turn reflected poor detailed design. The crosshead type had given exemplary service on the LNER where the bolts were simple to tighten, but on the Britannias the bolts were tucked underneath a very large rearward steam chest. See Nock Historic railway disasters. 3rd ed. 1983 Chap. 12
Ministry of Transport. Report on the Accident which occurred on 21st January 1960 near Settle in the London Midland Region British Railways. Published 19 April 1960. Inspecting Officer. Brigadier C.A. Langley. HMSO.  
Nock, O.S. Historic railway disasters, 3rd ed.. London: Ian Allan, 1983. 294p.
Includes very full diagrams of the slide bar and its fixings (presumably taken from Official Report).

Testing :
The testing was carried out in two parts, namely traditional road testing (see Nock and Quicksilver) and tests on the Rugby test plant.

British Railways. British Railways standard-class 7 2 cyl., 4-6-2 mixed traffic locomotive. London, British Transport Commission, 1953. [3], 11, [39] sheets. 2 illus., 48 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.), 3 tables- (Performance and efficiency tests with exhaust steam injector. Bulletin No. 5).
Metcalfe (page 127) noted that K type exhaust steam injector produced water saving of 6% and coal consuption saving of from 6½% to 9% depending upon rate of working.
Mobile and stationary tests of locomotives. Engineering, 1951, 171, 631-3. illus., 2 diagrs.
Nock, O.S. The "Britannia" class locomotives on test. Engineer, 1951, 191, 691-3. 2 illus., diagr., 2 tables.
Poultney, E.G. Locomotive cylinder performance. Rly Gaz., 1954, 101, 123-4; 150-1; 178. 3 diagrs., 4 tables.
Analysis of the test results for this class and the class 4 (LMS) 2-6-0s.
"Quicksilver" pseud. Testing a "Britannia" Pacific. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 228-9.
Tests of the new "Britannia" class Pacifics. Rly Gaz., 1951, 94, 584-5. illus., table. (REA 6347).

Retrospective and critical

Tuplin's comparitive assessment that although an immense amount of information about design and performance of major and minor components of British locomotives was studied in preparing the BR standard designs, and although the indisputably expert officials responsible for them were on their mettle to avoid any ground for criticism of them by the other technical experts of the four former railway groups, defects nevertheless showed up. Although the boilers of the 'Britannias' were originally fitted with steam collectors specially intended to minimize the possibility of picking up water besides steam, this happened soon after 'Britannias' went into service and cylinder-ends were knocked out and pistons broken by trapped water. Later on, coupling-rods were broken when driving wheels slipped at high running speeds. In this condition resonant rotational vibration of coupled wheels and coupling-rods could produce so great a compressive load in a rod as to cause it to fail by bending horizontally away from the wheels. This it did because its I-section was very weak in that direction. The operation of forming the I-section by milling away material from a rectangular slab threw away 80 per cent of its strength in this direction. The remedy was to omit the milling operation and to use the rectangular section. The Great Western had found this out in 1906. Slide-bars in 'Britannias' were attached in a way that made it difficult to tighten the securing nuts properly. This was altered after loss of a bottom slide-bar from a 'Britannia' led to failure of the piston rod and connecting-rod, which fell and deformed the adjacent track at just the moment that caused a train on it to be derailed into the coaches behind the Britannia' (Settle, January 2lst, 1960, Bib. 33). Less drastic, but very disappointing after the comfort of the enginemen had been specially considered in laying out the controls in the cab, was the circumstance that the noise in the cabs was much worse.

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
This is mainly of importance for locomotive performance.
Atkins, Philip. British Railways Standard steam locomotive boilers, Rly Wld, 1990, 51, 290-1; 501-503.
Includes costs and proposed modifications
Atkins, Philip. It had already been done!. Steam Wld, 1999, (143) 54-7.
Atkins considers that J.F. Harrison's claim made in 1961 that the A1 class achieved a mileage of 202 miles per day has not withstood close scrutiny and was probably nearer 184.9, as compared with 184.7 achieved by Duchess class. The class 91 electric locomotives achieve 740 miles per day. Britannia class Nos. 70036 achieved 104,549, 70039 104,226 and 70040 102,748 miles in 1953 or 19/4 in the case of the latter pair.
Atkins, Philip. New boilers for old... Steam Wld, 2003, (194) 8-14.
70021 Morning Star received a new boiler in June 1953 having been in service for only 22 months, but no second-hand boilers were yet available..
Balmore, pseud. Hardy, R.H.N. Living with the "Britannias". Trains Ann., 1958, 90-5. 2 illus.
A shed official's impressions of the design.
Atkins, Philip. Britannia: birth of a Pacific. Pinner: Irwell Press. 1991.
Ottley 15811: Essery only allocated three stars Backtrack, 5, 243 and stated that approach was "clinical"
B.R. No. 70000 : an engineman's impressions. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 57, 44-6. illus., 2 diagrs. (incl. s. el.), plan.
Includes sectionalized diagrams.
Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. Part 2. RCTS, 1975.
Quotes locomotive repair costs per mile (excluding boiler) 2.97p and boiler repair costs (0.39p) and coal consumption per train mile (42.3 lb) for 1955. Original source not quoted.
Clarke, David. Locomotives in detail 5: Riddles class 6/7 standard Pacifics. Ian Allan, 2006. 96pp.
Lives up to its title: a great amount of detail shown mainly by photographs and short sections of text. 4mm scale drawings. Some of the photographs suffer from being poor originals or through poor reproduction. Reviewer in Steam Wld 2006 (234) p 57 critical of text.
Clothier, Alan C. GWR troughs [letter]. Gt Western Rly J., 7 (50), 119.
Problems were encountered with Britannia class picking up water from former-GWR troughs which required modification to the tenders and experiments (described) to ensure modification worked.
Cox, E.S. British Railways standard steam locomotives. 1966.
Very full treatment of all the Standard types, and especially the Britannia class, where all of the faults encoutered in service (with the exception of the late fault of the slide bar failure) are handled in considerable depth.
Epton, R. The power of the Riddles 'Britannia' 4-6-2s. Steam Wld, 2006 (223) 41.
Claimed that 70038 Robin Hood reached 103 mile/h at Three Counties on 16.15 Kings Cross to Cleethorpes in 1962.
Evans, M. Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. London, 1961.5 tables.
Everard, S. A matter of pedigree. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 272-4. illus., table.
Indicates pre-nationalization influences and compares the class with similar designs.
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"very successful class", but questions the distribution, especially to the Southern and Western Regions: the London Midland needed them far more and initially received only eleven.
Hardy, R.H.N. A stranger strolls down Stewart's Lane. Part 18. Steam Wld, 2002 (182) 24-7.
The two pampered Britannia Pacifics Nos. 70004 William Shakespeare and 70014 Iron Duke used on the Golden Arrow Pullman service were kept in spotless condition. Hardy regarded the class as first class engines in every way. Hard work did not disturb the firebed or darw the fire up to the tubeplate. He did not consider the locomotives to be prone to slipping. They were light on coal, water and oil. Some trouble was experienced with wear and breakage of piston and piston valve rings. The locomotives tended to be hard riding. One minor problem was that the head lamps tended to extinguish and this led to the train being delayed (a serious problem on the Southern) and the problem was solved by Horace King, the Foreman Fitter by fitting extra-long lamp-irons (the illustrations show these non-standard items and the French and British flags carried.
Hardy, R.H.N. Stratford forever! Part 11. Steam Wld, 2005 (221) 36-41.
The arrival of the 'Britannias' in 1951 removed Ipswich's top-class passenger work, much to the disappointment of the shed master at the time. However, four years later when he returned to Eastern Region, the class was acknowledged as masters of their task, although not without occasional problems. Described how 70002 Geoffrey Chaucer had suffered uncontrolled slipping with the regulator barely open and this led to a broken trailing side rod. This happened near Newport on a train for Norwich in 1956. Another incident involved a drawbar pin fracture on 70012 John of Gaunt on a Norwich (via Ipswich) train: this led to the tender and train being left behind.. Also notes that the firing technique employed at Stewarts Lane was quite different: a very big fire at the back of the grate, whereas a thin fire was employed on the Great Eastern
Harvey, D.W. Bill Harvey's 60 years in steam. Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1986.
Chapter 13: The Britannias as experienced by him as shedmaster at Norwich, where the class probably did  its best work and where some of the problems encountered with the class were recorded and corrected, including the failure of the elegant drawgear springs which employed rubber springs as used on LNER three-cylinder locomotives could not cope with the violent oscillations induced by a powerful two-cylinder locomotive. Simpler, drawgear as employed on the GWR and LMS had to be substituted..
Johnson, Martin. Western Standards. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 61.
Britannia class suffered from snatching which could be experienced from the passenger coaches through a fore and aft motion and from stopping dead centre which required the assistance of another locomotive and long delays. The writer criticises the lack of a prototype.
Langridge, Eric. Under ten CMEs, V. 2. Chap. 5. Problems with the "Britannias".
Shuttling between the engine and the tender was caused by the adoption of that employed on the Bulleid Pacifics which enjoyed near perfect balance that was impossible on a two-cylinder design and the inferior LMS system had to be substituted. A collapsed cast iron cylinder head led to repalcement by Kryn & Lay steel, but the cause was traced to carry over of water from the dome which had to be modified; furthermore, the position of the water gauges led to over-filling of the boiler. Finally there was a problem with bent coupling rods caused by the movement of the coupled wheels on their axles. This was traced to the Timken roller bearings and was also manifest in the LMR Class 5 4-6-0s similarly fitted. Appendixes 3 and 4 cover this topic: the latter considers the failure of No. 70011 on the Eastern Region.
Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. 1975.
Lowe reflects the Great Western view, but did accept that the class "revolutionized the running on the East Anglian expresses"
Nock, O.S. British locomotives of the 20th century. Volume 2. 1930-1960. 1984 . page 198
In September and October 1951, [Nock] rode a total of 645 miles on the footplate of six different locomotives of the 'Britannia Class, to such diverse destinations as Norwich, Penzance and Dover. All the locomotives concerned performed well, particularly No 70019, Lightning, on the up 'Cornish Riviera Express' between Penzance and Plymouth and No 70022, Tornado, between Newton Ahhot and Bristol. The Festival of Britain exhibition engine No 70004, William Shakespeare, with no more than a moderate load of 395 tons on the outward hound 'Golden Arrow' Pullman boat train, made a rather shaky start out of London, and throughout the long adverse stretch to the crest of the North Downs at Knockholt the engine was not steaming well.

The boiler pressure varied between 170 and 190 lb per square inch, instead of 250, and despite the use of cut-offs between 30 and 40 per cent we could not manage a better average than 35 mph over the 15.8 miles from Wandsworth Road to Knockholt. It was not until the downhill stretch from Sevenoaks to Tonbridge was reached, and taken under easy steam, that full boiler pressure was attained. All engines of the class ran freely when opportunity offered. The best example was an attained maximum of 80 mph on dead level track between Bridgwater and Bristol, with a load of 350 tons behind the tender. The working conditions were, cut-off 25 per cent, steam chest pressure 215 lb square inch. No driver with whom I rode in 1951 worked at less than 20 per cent cut-off, but most preferred 25. The harsh and noisy riding was present in varying degrees in all six engines, but those on the Norwich run were perhaps the worst and most tiring in their personal effect.

On the strength of these experiences I wrote a leading article in The Engineer entitled 'Britannia Locomotive Prowess'. After referring to the inevitable comparisons that would be made between the new engines and established favourites on some routes I continued:

'More interesting perhaps than the comparisons between the ''Britannias" and their predecessors are the comparisons to be made between the work of the new engines themselves over different routes. Previously, in those arguments of a strongly partisan character that occur so frequently among railway enthusiasts, discussions upon the relative difficulty of express trains schedules had little solid basis of fact, as the coal consumption of, say, a Great Eastern engine in hauling the Hook of Holland boat train down to Parkeston Quay each night was no criterion when comparing that duty with that of a Churchward 4-6-0 of the Great Western in working a two-hour express from Paddington to Bristol. Even now, with "Britannia" Class engines operating on both these routes, one has to make allowance for different qualities of coal, and different degrees of skill in driving and firing. But at least the basic machine is now the same, and is moreover one expressly designed to suit the widest possible variety of coal, and to be generally acceptable and welcome to the vast majority of footplate men.
Peacock, D.W. Railway wind tunnel work. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1951, 41,.606-31. Disc.: 631-61. (Paper No. 506)
Includes details of experimental work on the cab design.
Poultney, E.G. Characteristics of the first standard locomotives for British Railways. Engineer, 1951, 191, 653-5. 7 diagrs., 3 tables. (REA 6346).
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977. Chapter 13.
"The big boiler was indefatigable, and relatively easy to fire once the technique of keeping the back corners of the firebox well filled had been mastered. They could be driven really hard without distress and could produce some very fine results.... Nevertheless, they were regarded by some men as somewhat inferior to the rebuilt 'Royal Scots'", but as Powell showed they had to be driven in a different manner.
Rimmer, Alan. Testing times at Derby: a 'Privileged' view of steam. Usk: Oakwood, 2004. 120pp. (RS14)
Was involved in the first official journey of No. 70000 (that is other than running-in) from Crewe to Carlisle and back with the dynamometer car on 12/13 January 1950. Rimmer's book contains photographs of the locomotive painted plain black without nameplates.
Skeat, W.O. Discussion on Tuplin, W.A. Some questions about the steam locomotive. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1953, 43, 679-81. (Paper No. 528).
A great volume of water was frequently blown off with the steam when Pop safety valves were in action on (say) the Standard Class 7 Pacifics; the valves usually lifted at 250 psi and reseated at 240 psi. Here, surely, the actual waste of heat was not merely that contained in the escaping steam, but the difference between the total heat stored in the boiler at the higher pressure and that stored in the boiler at the lower pressure. Moreover, because the temperature of saturated steam varied directly with its pressure, considerable evaporation of the boiler water took place as the pressure (and consequently the temperature) fell.
Standard locomotives on British Railways—estimated boiler performance. Mod. Transp., 1951, 65, (1689), 5-6. 6 diagrs., 2 tables. (REA 5696).
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives.
1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Tester, Adrian. A defence of the Midland/ LMS Class 4 0-6-0. Aberystwyth: Crimson Lake, 2013. pp. 87-8.

Cites D.W. Harvey's 60 years in steam (above) which recorded framne cracking on the class whilst working Norwich to London expresses.
Tuplin, W.A
. British steam since 1900. 1969.

See extract in opening to this section.
Tuplin, W.A. Reflections at Norwich. Railways, 1951, 12, 240-1.
Caustic comment.
van Riemsdijk, J.T. Compound locomotives: an International survey. 1994.
Any two-cylinder engine, then, but especially any engine with two outside cylinders only, has to have its balancing designed to some sort of compromise. If there is little balance of reciprocating masses, then the pull at the drawbar will fluctuate widely with each rotation of the wheels, once a reasonable speed has been attained. If, on the other hand, a high proportion of the reciprocating masses is balanced, then the result will be a lack of rotative balance and at high running speeds the wheels will pound the track and may even lift clear of it for some part of every revolution. This latter phenomenon was clearly demonstrated in trials of the LMS Class 5 which have been fully reported. It should also be pointed out that this phenomenon of pounding, known as 'hammer-blow, is 'a material factor to the bridge engineer. As for the fluctuation in draw bar pull produced by two small a degree of reciprocating balance, it is worth recording that a fluctuation as great as twelve tons per revolution was measured in high speed running by BR 'Britannia' Pacifics and Class 9F 2-10-0s.... The trouble was apparently cured by changing the coupling between engine and tender and allowing the tender to reduce the effect on the train, but it is none the less clear that large two-cylinder locomotives should not be allowed to run as fast as modern valve gear design permits.
Vaughan, Adrian. Obstruction danger: significant railway accidents, 1890-1986. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens, 1989.
Two serious accidents involved the class which could be partially attributed to design failures. The first at Milton took place on 20 November 1955 and was due to the driver failing to see the anachronistic signals on the wrong side of the track and failure to keep the GWR AWS apparatus clean. The location of the AWS apparatus could be faulted and the handrails on the smoke deflectors made signal observation difficult on the Western Region. Some consideration might have been given to equipping some standard locomotives with right hand drive. The other near Settle on 20 January 1960 was due to poor maintenance of the outside valve gear and not to the type of slide bar as stated by Vaughan: the slide bar was far less cumbersome than the GWR type and reduced weight was essential for wide route availability.
Vaughan, Adrian. Railway blunders. 2003. The Britannias did experience some teething troubles, and Vaughan elects to take a Great Western stance, rather like most of its former enginemen. The failure of the LNER type of slide bar was due to poor design and maintenance by British Railways and was not an inherent fault: there were no problems with it on the LNER. His observations on the draw-bar problems might lead the casual reader to think that the locomotive was attached to its train by a rubber band. Rubber is not a 'squidgy' material when used in high performance engineering applications. The failures caused by loose driving wheels are well known, but to categorize the class as a blunder is inept. The looseness is in that of the author's writing.
White, Malcolm. The Yarmouth train. 2005. p. 82.
No. 70034 Thomas Hardy with handrails on smoke deflector plates removed and indented hand grips fitted as per Western Region on East Suffolk line.

Names

Chief Scout names a Britannia. Rly Wld, 1957,18, 261.
No. 70045 Lord Rowallan.
Second standard Pacific named. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 285.
No. 70001 Lord Hurcombe.

Dow, Andrew. No puzzle on unused 'Britannia' names. Steam Wld, 2008 (280) 50.
See Steam Wld (278) page 8: names considered by the London Midland Region for Nos 70045-70049 included constituent companies of the LMS, famous Britons from history, chief mechanical engineers, Irish connections (proposed to Dow by H.C. Casserley), Dukes, live famous Britons, and famous historical horses. The CMEs were: Samuel W. Johnson, John Ramsbottom, Sir John Aspinall, George Hughes and Sir Henry Fowler. "F.W. Webb" listed by Peteer Whitaker was not listed.
Dow, Andrew. What was wrong with 70047? Steam Wld, 2008 (251) 8-14.
The activities of the British Railways Naming Committee whose membership included Derek Barrie, E.S. Cox and George Dow. Its benign or malign influence first extended to the Peppersorn A1 Pacifics (where no particular problems appear to have been encontered) and then stretched to cover the new 70XXX Pacifics where the initial batch of sixty names was based upon William Shakespeare and nine of his characters; Charles Dickens and nine of his characters; John Bunyan and nine other authors; Oliver Cromwell and nine other somewhat dubious British statesmen; Boadicea and nine other British women and Geoffrey Chaucer and nine other poets. Only the characterizing characters and several of the poets made any progress towards being cast in bronze. Barrie subsequently submitted  a further nine categories, many of which failed to reach the smoke deflectors: the empire group; saints group; national names ending in -ia (as in Anglia); dogs; birds; British women; poets and playwrights; British heroes and classical names. The last three clearly moved forward. The next problem was to agree a class name for the 70XXX and the initial suggestion was Great Britain which fitted in well with the Festival of Britain. On 23 August 1948 the Railway Executive indicated that it wished the first locomotibve to be named Sir Cyril Hurcomb. Riddles favoured the name Britannia for the class (the only problem was that an existing locomotive carried this name (45700 of the Jubilee class), but it was suggested that this should be renamed Amethyst (KPJ it would have been an ideal candidate for conveying the Olympic torch). The production of further batches reignited the problem and one solution envisaged a series of classical names beginning with the letter "A" for the London Midland Region (George Dow used Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable: Atalanta was an attractive possibility, but came to nought). The final batch included the Firths for the Scottish Region, but those for the LMR caused problems: again George Dow was involved and also Freddie Harrison, the Regional CME and S.T. Clayton, the Motive Power Superintendent. Many suggestions were rejected and these nearly included the names of famous locomotive engineers, but these were rejected by the British Transport Commission. Thus, the residue remained without names until they were named on an adhoc basis which left No. 70047 without one.
Lawrence, Graham. Cromwell's Masonic links. Steam Wld, 2008 (252) 21. 21
Questions the significance of number 13 within No. 70013 and Oliver Cromwell as a Masonic figure.

Clan Class: 1952:
The Clan class locomotives were similar to the Britannia Pacifics in many respects. The boiler, firebox and cylinder dimensions were smaller in the Clans, however. The design may not have been entirely successful as orders for a further fifteen locomotives were cancelled (see "Clans" for the Southern"). C.J. Allen was very critical of their performance in service (British Pacific locomotives)., but E.S. Cox has corrected this impression by outlining some satisfactory general performance (see p. 161 et seq, in his British Railways standard steam locomotives"). The ten locomotives constructed were used mainly on services between Lancashire and Scotland. Shortly before being withdrawn they found a niche in hauling the Stranraer boat trains over the difficult line from Stranraer, having taken over the trains at Carlisle (see VV). It appears that Clan Buchanan naming ceremony was attended by Robin Riddles.

British Railways class 4-6-2 locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1952, 58, 20-1. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
British Railways standard "class 6" locomotive. Engineer, 1952. 193, 150. illus., table. (REA 7009).
British Railways standard class "6" locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1952, 96, 101-2. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
McArd, G.W. Welding applied to the standard locomotives on British Railways. Weld. Metal Fabric., 1954, 22, 258-60. illus., 3 diagrs. (REA 8847).
Frame cross stretchers, smokebox saddle and other details.
A NEW light Pacific. Trains ill., 1952, 5, 82-3. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
The STANDARD "Clan" class Pacifics. Rly Mag., 1952, 98, 184-5. illus.,
diagr. (s. el.)
STANDARD mixed-traffic 4-6-2 locomotive. Engineering, 1952, 173. 108-9. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.) (REA 7009).

Visit ro the Willans Works, the English Electric Company, Rugby, 8th April 1952. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1952, 42, 28-30.
Special train provided from Euston which arrived at 14.00 hauled by Clan Campbell

Hengist and Horsa
"CLANS" for the Southern. Trains ill., 1954,7, 406.
The names were chosen for fifteen further locomotives, but the order was later cancelled: there were also further Clan names.

Accidents

Reed, Gordon. Wrong place – wrong time. National Rly Mus. Rev., 2008-9 (126) 18-20.
Fatal boiler defect manifested itself at Gleneagles in 1954 (via J. Rly Canal Hist. Soc. Bibliographical Supplement 2009)

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
This is mainly of importance for the dismal locomotive performance.
Atkins, Philip. British Railways Standard steam locomotive boilers, Rly Wld, 1990, 51, 290-1; 501-503.
Includes costs
Atkins, Philip. The enigma of the BR 'Clans'. Steam Wld, 1992 (65),  6-10.
Notes criticism by Bond of Riddles' proposed class 5 4-6-2 design and suggested increasing dimension to produce a class 6 4-6-2 which was really a Britannia class with a smaller boiler. Intended for Highland line but Atkins suggests that not sent there as required tablet catchers to be fitted which seems odd as some of the illustrations show locomotives fitted with brackets for working over Dumfries to Stranraer road (but do not show apparatus fitted). Article mentions proposed rebuilding of Patriot with 2A boilers at low cost and at reduced pressure in exchange for not building more Clans. Notes movement of coupled wheels on axles (a fault also evident on Britannia class), attempts to improve steaming, their sluggishness when sent to Haymarket and their appreciation on the "Port road". The class were clearly Riddles' P2 class.
Barnes, Robin. Salute to the Scottish standard - Part 1. Backtrack, 1996, 10, 235-41
British Railways Clan class Pacifics: Barnes seems to have developed a Hamilton Ellis sort of affection for the class: they certainly looked good..
Barnes, Robin. Salute to the Scottish standard - Part 2.  Backtrack, 1996, 10, 284-90.
Unlike many writers Barnes claims that the Class performed well, especially in their last few years in service when some of them had been fitted with modified darughting arrangements. Their best work was probably done on the Dumfries to Stranraer trains where the crews held the class in high esteem. One very fast climb to Ais Gill and descent to Leeds is included. On the other hand a trial on the Great Eastern Section in an attempt to dsiplace Britannia Pacifics led to the conclusion that the locomotives were no better than B1 4-6-0s.
Clarke, David. Locomotives in detail 5: Riddles class 6/7 standard Pacifics. Ian Allan, 2006. 96pp.
Lives up to its title: a great amount of detail shown mainly by photographs and short sections of text. 4mm scale drawings. Some of the photographs suffer from being poor originals or through poor reproduction. Reviewer in Steam Wld 2006 (234) p 57 critical of text.
Cox, E.S. British Railways standard steam locomotives. 1966.
See p.161 et seq. based on information supplied by K.R.M. Cameron
Cox, E.S. Locomotive panorama. Vol. 2 page 22
The Class 6 4-6-2 locomotives turned out to be the least effective of all the standard types, consisting as it did simply of a somewhat smaller boiler on a 'Britannia' chassis. Although intended for the Highland section, it was principally used for the Glasgow to Liverpool and Manchester service, on which it performed adequately but in an undistinguished manner. I have myself taken the controls from the outskirts of Carlisle up to Shap Summit and have to confess to experiencing a ' wooliness ' quite absent in the other types. Certainly the draughting proportions were not quite right, and these were subsequently rectified, but what was called for was a searching analysis on the Stationary Test plant of the whole air, gas, steam cycle. We never got around to this, however, due to pressure of other work and there was no demand for further engines of this kind to make it worth while.
Evans, M. Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. London, 1961.5 tables.
[EXPERIMENTAL use of the Clan class on the Liverpool Street-Clacton service]. Loco. RIy Carr. Wagon Rev., 1958, 64, 218. illus.
The experiment was not successful.
Farr, Keith. 'Clans' Highland and Lowland. Backtrack, 2001, 15, 714-23.
An appreciation of the class: some observations on their failings; their duties (noting that some of their best work was performed on both routes to Stranraer) and observations on their names. Illustrations include No. 72001 Clan Cameron at Ardlui on West Highland Line on 16 June 1956 and No. 72007 Clan Mackintosh at Inverness on 21 August 1952..
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"There was no justification for such a small class and it served no purpose"
Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. 1975.
"The Clans were a poor lot and it is puzzling to try and justify the building of these ten locomotives".
DWM Review of A Cumbrian railway album – from the cameras of Ian and Alan Pearsall; compiled by Leslie R. Gilpin. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 443.
Includes the following observation: "and a refreshing number of BR Clans which were recently described to the reviewer by a former fitter from Inverurie as 'not really a 'Pacific' but a darn sight better than a Jubilee!
[McKillop, N.] Toram Beg, pseud. Highland interlude a footplate commentary. Trains ill., 1957, 10, 429-30 +  illus.
McKillop admired the cab layout (but not the draughts), and deprecated the indifferent locomotive performance: he was not impressed with climbing Shap at 20 mile/h..
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives.
1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Welborn, L.C. Locomotive diagramming and utilisation with special reference to British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1954, 44, 364-415. Disc.: 415-24. (Paper No. 534)
Five new “ Clan ” class locomotives were allocated to Polmadie Motive Power Depot, Scottish Region, at the beginning of 1952. During the first twelve months of the two years at the depot they achieved an availability of 82.8 per cent. and over the whole period an availability of 81.3 per cent. This does not include days in workshops – the engines returned to the shops on odd occasions for minor adjustments and modifications, also repairs as the result of mishaps. The overall availability for the two years amounted to 70.12 per cent. Four booked turns were allocated for the five engines leaving one spare, the diagrammed turns being Glasgow to Manchester and Liverpool and back. The mileage for each booked turn was 229 and the average miles per day per engine in use over this period was 273, the actual average mileage per engine for the two years amounting to 112,036. It will be noted that the mileage for each engine per day exceeded the booked diagrammed work which indicated that use was made of the engine between rostered workings. The Author wishes to emphasise that these figures are in no way claimed to be exceptional and are doubtless exceeded by many classes of engines at many depots.


8 Duke of Gloucester: 1954:
Duke of Gloucester was intended to act as the prototype for a class of express passenger locomotives. To save initial cost the boiler fitted was a modified version of the Britannia type, but the firebox was larger. To achieve a higher tractive effort three cylinders were incorporated and these were activated by Caprotti valve gear. Its introduction coincided with the decision to introduce diesel power and no further locomotives were constructed. It was condemned to be scrapped, but a group of enthusiasts rescued the remains and rebuilt them into what is in effect an improved version of the original.

B.R. class 8 4-6-2 locomotive No. 71000. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1954, 60, 88-90. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
British Railways class "8" locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1954, 100, 6636. 4 illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
British Railways class "8" Pacific. Trains ill., 1954, 7, 297-8. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
British Railways prototype class '8" express passenger locomotive. Rly Mag., 1954, 100, 490-3. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
British Railways standard class "8" locomotives. Engineer, 1954, 197, 81 8-19. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Cylinder fixing with shear strips. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1954, 60, 119. 2 illus., diagr.
Express passenger locomotive for British Railways. Engineering, 1954, 177, 729-30. 2 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
Prototype class "8" Pacific for British Railways. Rly Wld, 1954, 15, 157. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Testing :
Although the class was restricted to a single unit, it was thoroughly tested.

BRITISH Railways. British Railways standard 3 cyl. 4-6-2 express passenger steam locomotive No. 71000. London, British Transport Commission, 1957. [iv], 29, [58] p. + front. + 5 plates. 5 illus., 59 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)., 5 tables. (Performance and efficiency tests. Bulletin No. 15).
Nock, O.S. Performance and efficiency tests on B.R. class 8 locomotive. Engineer, 1957, 204, 258-61; 292-4. illus., 15 diagrs., 5 tables. (REA 11425).
A review of the official test report.
Poultney, E.C.  The B.R. class 8 Pacific locomotive on test. Mod. Transp., 1957, 77, (2004), 5; 10; (2005), 11-12. illus., 2 diagrs., 6 tables. (REA 11425).

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
The "DUKE" is condemned. Mod. Rlys, 1963, 17, 90.
Atkins, C.P. No.71000 Duke of Gloucester 30 years on: a new appraisal of its design and performance, Rly Wld, 1984, 45, 230-5.
Atkins, Philip.  State of the Art Quintet, Br. Rlys Ill., January 1996, 191-196
Comparisons of ultimate US, French, British and German 4-6-2/4-6-4 express passenger steam locomotive designs, 1948-1957.
Clay, J.F.  and Cliffe, J. The West Coast Pacifics. London: Ian Allan, 1976. 208pp
Gives very brief details of locomotive and its disappointing performance.
Cliffe, Joseph. It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 637.
Latter-day BR opinion, however, favoured Caprotti valve gear, mainly on account of much reduced valve examination periods rather than thermodynamic advantage. A disadvantage with poppet valve gears is the higher clearance volume due to the less direct steam ports and passages resulting from the valve disposition. The very low steam consumptions measured on No.71000 at 90mph are dubious. Tony Sterndale, a member of the Swindon test team, told me that the figures were based on sand, as the high speed powers were obtained by untrustworthy heat drop measurements and not by indicators. At similar steam rates, temperatures and exhaust pressures there was little advantage over the BR Class 7.
Cullen, David . It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 402-6.
Also includes Princess Anne
Evans, M. Pacific steam : the British Pacific locomotive. London, 1961. 5 tables.
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"an extravagance"
Notable recent L.M.R. withdrawals. Rly Obsr, 1963, 33, 36-7.
Includes a note on Duke of Gloucester.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977. Chapter 13.
Notes the extremely high piston ring wear recorded from the Rugby Test Plant: 4000 miles. This was due to the poor location of the entry for the atomised oil into the cylinders. Also the extremely high coal consumption.
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. 1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.

4-6-0

5: !951:
This type was based on the Stanier class 5, but the design was modified to conform with the standard specifications.

British Railways class "5" standard locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1951, 94, 497-8.  illus., diagr. (s. el.) (REA 6348).
British Railways standard class "5" 4-6-0 locomotives. Rly Mag., 1951, 97. 399-400. diagr. (s. els.)
British Railways standard locomotives: mixed traffic 4-6-0 class 5. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 57, 86-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
The new standard class '5MT" 4-6-0. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 182-3. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
Standard 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive. Engineer, 1951, 191, 576-7. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Caprotti 5: 1956:
Nos. 73125-73154 were fitted with Caprotti valve similar to that applied to the 8P locomotive.

British Railways class "5" locomotives : thirty engines fitted with British Caprotti valve gear. Rly Gaz., 1956, 105, 609+. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
The Caprotti standard "5" 4-6-0s. Trains ill., 1957, 10, 20-1. illus. ..
Class "5" locomotives with British.Caprotti valve gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1956, 62, 212-13. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Standard class "5" locomotives with British.Caprotti valve gear. Engineer, 1956. 202, 708. illus. (REA 10664).
Standard class "5" locomotives with British.Caprotti valve gear. Rly Mag., 1957, 103, 112-13. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Testing

 
BRITISH Railways. British Railways standard-class 5 2 cyl. 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive. London, British Transport commission, 1953. [iv] , 12, [48] sheets. 2 illus., 61 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.) 3 tables. (Performance and efficiency tests with exhaust steam injector. Bulletin No. 6).
Poultney, E.C. British Railways class "5" locomotive tests. Rly Gaz., 1954, 101, 625-9; 681-8. 21 diagrs., 7 tables.

Retospective

Atkins, Philip. British Railways Standard steam locomotive boilers, Rly Wld, 1990, 51, 290-1; 501-503.
Includes costs and proposed modifications: notes that Doncaster which had never built a 4-6-0 before had the boilers constructed at Darlington.
Clay, J.F. and Cliffe, J. The Stanier 'Black Fives'. London: Ian Allan, 1972. 96pp.
Usual mixture of description of design and its variants (including the British Railways 73XXX series), locomotive performance and overall assessemnt wherein it is questionned whether the tapered boiler and Belpaire firebox were justifiable when the cheaper Doncaster/Darlington type performed as well.
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"very successful development of the LMS Class 5"
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977. Chapter 13.
Whilst having to concede that the BR class 5 could perform extremely well elsewhere, notably on the Scottish Region, he found that they were not popular on the London Midland Region in spite of their similarity to the later LMS types. He noted that piston ring wear was very heavy: at St Rollox piston rings were changed every 11-12,000 miles on the piston valve engines and every 8,000 miles on the Caprotti fitted locomotives.
Rowledge, J.W.P. and Brian Reed. The Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS. (the Jubilees, class 5s and the BR Standard class 5s). Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1977.
Rich source of concise information.
White, Les. Eastleigh apprentice. Part 2. Steam Wld, 1999 (146). 54-8.
Noted the repair of fractures on rear covers for cylinders of BR-type class 5s.
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. 1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Walford, John. A detailed history of British Railways standard steam locomotives.Volume 2 The 4-6-0 and 2-6-0 Classes. Peterborough: RCTS,  280pp

4:1951:
This was a 4-6-0 version of the LMS class 4 2-6-AT. It was intended for duties on which the class 5 would be too heavy.

BRITISH Railways class "4" standard locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1951, 94, 722-3. illus., diagr. (s. elj (REA 6441).
BRITISH Railways' standard class "4" 4-6-0. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 57, 103. 4. illus.
BRITISH Railways standard class "4" 4-6-0 locomotiws. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 542-3. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
The STANDARD class "4MT" 4-6-0. Trains ill., 1954, 4, 255. diagr (s. el.), table.
STANDARD class "4" mixed-traffic locomotives. Engineer, 1951, 191, 825-6. illus. (REA 6441).

1957 double blast-pipes and chimneys (a Swindon modification).

DOUBLE-CHIMNEY class "4". Trains ill., 1957, 10, 677. illus.
Double-DRAUGHTING on BR. class 4 4-6-0s. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1957, 63, 202. illus.
DOUBLE-DRAUGHTING trials at Swindon. Rly Mag., 1957, 103, 812.

Testing

BRITISH Railways. British Railways standard.class 4 2 cyl. 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotive. London, British Transport Commission, 1952. [3] ,9, [37] sheets. 2 illus., 44diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.), 2 tables. (Performance and efficiency tests with live steam injector. Bulletin No. 4.)

Retrospective and critical

Atkins, Philip. British Railways Standard steam locomotive boilers, Rly Wld, 1990, 51, 290-1; 501-503.
Includes costs and notes problems with steaming which led to double chimneys being fitted to some locomotives.
Chacksfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland compound to the HST. 2004.
Jarvis was responsible for the small design team at Brighton Works which produced the detailed arrangements for this class and the type 4 2-6-4T
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"It was hard to justify this class, except as part of a long-term plan"
Poultney, E.C. Locomotive valve gears. Engineer, 1953, 196, 762-3. 2 diagrs., 3 tables.
A comparative analysis (based on the B.R. test results) of the "Hall" class and the class 4.
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977. Chapter 13.
"I can only wonder why this design was ever built, except to put something in the place of the GWR 'Manors', and there were enough of those to serve the few weight-restricted lines that needed them.". Footplate experience on the Manchester to Southport services showed that steaming was poor in the extreme, especially with one fitted with a double chimney. Similar poor steaming was reported from the St Pancras to Bedford semi-fasts when worked by the class..
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. 1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Walford, John. A detailed history of British Railways standard steam locomotives.Volume 2 The 4-6-0 and 2-6-0 Classes. Peterborough: RCTS,  280pp

2-6-0

4: 1952
The lvatt class 4 design was slightly modified to conform with the standard principles. It should be noted that the LMS class was the subject of full-scale tests.

B.R. standard class 4 2-6-0 loco.. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1953, 59, 11-12. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
BRITISH Railways standard class "4" 2-6-0 locomotives. Rly Mag., 1953, 99,108-9. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
BRITISH, Railways 2-6-0 standard class "4" locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1953, 98, 17-18. illus.,diagr. (s. el.)
NEW British Railways class "4" loco.. Rly Wld, 1953, 14, 48. illus., diagr.. (s.& f.els.)
STANDARD class "4" 2-6-0 locomotives. Engineer, 1952, 194, 833. illus., (REA 7734).
The STANDARD class "4" 2-6-0 of British Railways. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 62. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective

Atkins, Philip. British Railways Standard steam locomotive boilers, Rly Wld, 1990, 51, 290-1; 501-503.
Includes costs and note on classification as BR7
Beavor, E.S. Steam was my calling. 1974).
The BR Class 4 Standard 2-6-0s, with their fully-enclosed cabs, were ideal for local goods and pick-up working covering ex-LNER traffic out to Princes Risborough and other stations on 'The New Line', as well as London Transport Metropolitan freight traffic to stations as far out as Quainton Road. It is doubtful whether many people ever knew that London Transport ran freight services. These locomotives, like most of the BR Standard range, were relatively trouble-free, and this was by no means due mainly to their being fairly new. In my view the combination of a choice of pre-nationalization designs had resulted in a remarkably reliable series of engines
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"This was a useful development of the LMS Class 4 2-6-0": KPJ but why did it need to be "developed"
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. 1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Tester, Adrian. A defence of the Midland/ LMS Class 4 0-6-0. Aberystwyth: Crimson Lake, 2013. 274pp.
Reviewed in depth by Phil Atkins in Backtrack, 2013, 27, 574. Tester is highly critical of this design, especially in terms of economic value.
Walford, John. A detailed history of British Railways standard steam locomotives.Volume 2 The 4-6-0 and 2-6-0 Classes. Peterborough: RCTS,  280pp

2 :1953:
This, like the class 4 2-6-0, was directly based on the equivalent LMS. design.

BRITISH Railways class "2" standard locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1953, 98, 184-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
BRITISH Railways standard class "2" 2-6-0 locomotives. Rly Mag., 1953, 99, 255-6. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
BRITISH Railways 2-6-0 class 2 locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1953, 59, 16-17. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
NEW British Railways class "2" loco.. Rly Wld, 1953, 14, 50. illus., diagr. (s.& f.els.)
STANDARD class "2" locomotives for British Railways. Engineer, 1953, 195, 207. illus., table. (REA 7864).
The STANDARD class "2" 2-6-0 of British Railways. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 148. illus.,diagr. (s. el.)

Retrospective
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives.
1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Walford, John. A detailed history of British Railways standard steam locomotives.Volume 2 The 4-6-0 and 2-6-0 Classes. Peterborough: RCTS,  280pp

3:1954:
This type was intended for use on lines from which the class 4 was barred by reason of weight. To save capital expenditure, the Swindon type 2 boiler was employed.

British Railways class "3" standard engines. Rly Gaz., 1954, 100, 496-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
British Railways standard class "3" 2-6-0 locomotives. Rly Mag., 1954, 100, 418-19. illus., diagr. (s.el.)
B.R. class 3 standard 2-6-0 locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1954, 60, 71-2. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
New B.R. class "3" standard tender engine. Rly Wld, 1954, 15, 138-9. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Critical

Atkins, C.P. Minutiae from the Minutes: changing Standards. Rly Wld, 1988, 49, 89-91.
Minor changes sought but not implemented in Class 3 2-6-0: Cox had hoped for an improvement in appearance and Civil Engineer in Scotland had originally requested a shorter chimney for working through Glasgow Central Low Level,
Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"No justification for such a small class"
Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. 1975.
Lowe castigates this and the corresponding tank engine as being "superfluous"
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives.
1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Walford, John. A detailed history of British Railways standard steam locomotives.Volume 2 The 4-6-0 and 2-6-0 Classes. Peterborough: RCTS,  280pp

Tank engines

2-6-4T


4: 1951
The LMS (Fairburn) and British Railways class 4 tank engines were similar, but some re-design of the former was necessary to meet the conditions of wider usage. The cylinders had to be smaller and this demanded a higher boiler pressure.

BRITISH Railways class "4" standard tank engines. Rly Gaz., 1951, 95, 129-30. illus., diagr. (s. el.) (REA 6599).
The B.R. standard class "4MT" 2-6-4 tank. Trains ill., 1951, 4, 290-1. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
BRITISH Railways standard class "4" 2-6-4 tank locomotives. Rly Mag., 1951, 97, 686-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
B.R. standard mixed traffic 2-6-4. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1951, 57, 134-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
MIXED traffic 2-6-4 tank locomotives, British Railways. Engineering, 1951, 172, 138-9. illus.,diagr. (s. el.) (REA 6599).
STANDARD 2-6-4 tank locomotives. Engineer, 1951,192,148. illus., table. (REA 6599).

Retrospective & critical

Atkins, Philip. British Railways Standard steam locomotive boilers, Rly Wld, 1990, 51, 290-1; 501-503.
Includes costs and proposed modification with double chimneys to improve steaming.
Chacksfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland compound to the HST. 2004.
Jarvis was responsible for the small design team at Brighton Works which produced the detailed arrangements for this class and the type 4 4-6-0.
Chancellor Paul. A detailed history of British Railways Standard Steam Locomotives, Vol. 3: The Tank Engine Classes. Long Stratton (Norfolk), 1997. 164pp. 183 photographs
Churcher, Colin J. The L.T. & S. 2-6-4 tanks. Rly Wld, 1962, 23, 179.
Re L.M.S. and B.R. 2-6-4 tank engines. In summer of 1961 writer worked at Shoeburyness (L.T.S.) motive power depot and fired the Stanier three-cylinder and Fairburn two-cylinder varieties of the L.M.S. and also the standard type. The following notes may be of interest.
In general, the older L.T. & S. drivers seemed to prefer the three-cylinder engines, while the younger drivers and firemen preferred the standard engines. It is easy to see why the firemen like the standards. The rocking grates take much of the hard work out of cleaning the fire (he once put one away in 10-15min, with the driver's help) but difficulties may arise if a broken piece of brick arch gets stuck in the bars. Another advantage is that both steam and water controls for the two injectors are conveniently placed so that the fireman can set either injector without leaving his seat. On the other hand the standard engines have several disadvantages. Drivers complain that these engines are very hot. Several controls, blower, brakes, etc. are placed in between the drivtng position and the fire. The driver is further protected by a metal sheet which extends from the back-plate into the cab. It seems that these must absorb the heat from the fire to make the driver's position almost unbearable in summer, but he did not notice this from the fireman's side.
Another disadvantage was that the lookout was so placed that one had to crane one's neck all the time; this is paniculurly bad for the shorter drivers.
Perhaps the worst part of the standard 2-6-4 tanks was that there was an exposed steam pipe fixed to the boiler barrel in such a position as to appear to be a continuation of the hand railing. He had seen several nasty burns sustained by firemen when filling the tanks of these engines.
The L.M.S. engines did have their disadvantages. Only a few were fitted with rocking bars and so all the clinker has to come out through the firehole and the ash pan had to be emptied by hand, However, the general opinion seemed to be that a Starrier three-cylinder in good condition was equal, if not superior. to the other types. It seems sirmificnnt that as far as he knew the fastest train in between Southend and London, the 09.05. was never hauled by a standard. He personally preferred the Fairburn engines; the Staniers tended to throw the heat back more.

Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. A detailed history of British Railways Standard Steam Locomotives, Vol. 3: The Tank Engine Classes.
Reviewed in Backtrack, 1998, 12, 174: ."...worthy addition to any modeller's or enthusiast's bookshelf. Miss it at your peril!"
Rich, F. Some details of steam-locomotive design affecting the footplate man. J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1958, 48, 590-613. Disc.: 613-22. (Paper No. 589).
Two other requirements of a cab, not always fulfilled, are that it should be draught-free and weather proof. In this respect an unforeseen shortcoming of serious proportions arises in the case of BR Standard Class 4, 2-6-4T when running bunker-first. In this direction of running, the driver is protected by the glazed screen behind his seat, but the fireman is completely exposed to the elements; and in a downpour of rain or sleet, especially if a cross-wind is blowing, matters can become so intolerable as to compel the fireman to leave his position and seek shelter in the centre of the cab. On the somewhat similar ex-LMS 4P, 2-6-4T, these effects are largely mitigated by the presence of an angle plate behind the fireman’s seat.
Specht, John E. Steam on the misery line [London, Tilbury and Southend line]. Backtrack, 1998, 12, 588-93.
Steam working on the LTSR section with particular attention being made to the Stanier three-cylinder 2-6-4Ts. The Standard 2-6-4Ts were prone to slipping when running bunker-first and the cabs were very cold. They also lacked the acceleration provided by the three-cylinder locomotives. Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. A detailed history of British Railways Standard Steam Locomotives, Vol. 3: The Tank Engine Classes.
Reviewed in Backtrack, 1998, 12, 174: ."...worthy addition to any modeller's or enthusiast's bookshelf. Miss it at your peril!"
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. 1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.

2-6-2T

3:1952:
Tank engine version of the class 3 2-6-0.

British Railways class "3" standard tank engine. Rly Gaz., 1952, 96, 577-8. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.), table. (REA 7293).
British Railways standard class "3" 2-6-2 tank locomotives. Rly Mag., 1952, 98, 474-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
B.R. standard class "3" 2-6-2T. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1952, 58, 93-4. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
Standard class "3" tank engine. Engineer, 1952, 193,710-11. illus., table. (REA 7293).
Standard class "3" tank engine for British Railways. Railways, 1952, 13, 186. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)
The Standard 2-6-2 tank of British Railways. Trains ill., 1952, 5, 234-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.)

Critical

Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"Nearly all of them went to the Southern and Western Regions which had presumably indicated a need for them"
Lowe, James W. British steam locomotive builders. 1975.
Lowe castigates this and the corresponding tender engine as being "superfluous"
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives.
1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Chancellor Paul. A detailed history of British Railways Standard Steam Locomotives, Vol. 3: The Tank Engine Classes. Long Stratton (Norfolk), 1997. 164pp. 183 photographs

2:1953:
Tank engine version of the class 2 2-6-0.

B.R. class 2 2-6-2 mixed traffic tank locomotive. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1953, 59, 142-3. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
British Railways class "2" tank engine. Rly Gaz., 1953, 99, 324-5. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
The B.R. standard class "2" 2-6-2 tank. Trains ill., 1953, 6, 409. diagr. (s. el.)
British Railways standard class "2" 2-6-2 tank locomotives. Rly Mag., 1953, 99, 776-7. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
New standard mixed traffic tank locomotive. Rly Wld, 1953,14, 240. illus.
Standard class "2" tank locomotives for British Railways. Engineer, 1953, 196, 301. illus. (REA 8293).

Retrospective

Hall, Stanley. Railway milestones and millstones: triumphs and disasters in British railway history. 2006.
"another class that was difficult to justify in the circumstances"
Talbot, Edward. A pictorial record of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. 1982.
Excellent selection of diagrams and excellent captions. Some of the photographic illustrations are highly informative, but some are little better than decorative.
Chancellor Paul. A detailed history of British Railways Standard Steam Locomotives, Vol. 3: The Tank Engine Classes. Long Stratton (Norfolk), 1997. 164pp. 183 photographs

Unfulfilled project:
A number of departures from the designs constructed were suggested, but not acted upon in terms of fabrication. A 2-8-2 was originally proposed instead of the 9F 2-10-0 and S.F. Harrison drew up a Pacific design owed which owed much to Gresley practice. These are outlined in several works by E.S. Cox, especially his British Railways standard steam locomotives. One other variant (a class 5 with a Franco Crosti boiler) is described in a later work by the same author (below). One of the interesting minor projects undertaken by Jarvis (see Chacksfield below) was to design a snowplough for the "standard" class 5 as it was impossible to use the standard LMS snowploughs with them..

Atkins, C.P. Minutiae from the Minutes: changing Standards. Rly Wld, 1988, 49, 89-91.
Minor changes sought but not implemented in Class 3 2-6-0: Cox had hoped for an improvement in appearance and Civil Engineer in Scotland had originally requested a shorter chimney for working through Glasgow Central Low Level, Reiterates the story of the 2-8-2 in preference to 2-10-0 before history was rewritten and that rear coupling rods for 9F were redesigned at Swindon along County class lines to avoid fracture. Originally a multiple valve had been intended, but this was dropped due to cost and lack of need. A special tender with increased coal and water capacity was designed for the 9F type to be operated on the Eastern and Southern Regions.
Cox, E.S. Chronicles of steam. 1967.
See pp.141-2.
Chacksfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland compound to the HST. 2004.
Jarvis was responsible for the small design team at Brighton Works. One of the projects with which he was associated was the Franco-Crosti boiler.

4-6-0

Landau, D.H. Later days of the LMS double chimneys. Backtrack, 2004, 18, 188.
See Rutherford page 38: suggests reason for divergent chimneys on Ivatt double-chimney 2-6-0s as Doncaster had prepared drawing for double-chimney for 2-6-4T (BR Standard) and this showed that there was insufficient space for any other arrangement (nozzles would have been too close). Doncaster also schemed a double chimney system for the BR class 5 (two for LMR and two for WR), this would have been similar to the type fitted to the Castle class. Enginemen considered that the 9F class fitted with double chimneys were in a different class from the remainder.

Modifications to earlier designs

4-6-2

London Midland Region

8P Princess Anne: 1952:
In 1952 the Stanier turbine locomotive was rebuilt as a reciprocating engine. It retained its Princess Royal class boiler, but the cylinders were similar to those fitted to the Princess Coronation locomotives. After no more than a few weeks in service, the locomotive was irreparably damaged in the Harrow accident of 8 October 1952. No official information, apart from photographs, appears to have been published at the time. See also letter from KPJ in Backtrack, 2012, 26, 701 wherein he quotes his father's opinion on the reason for the scrapping of No. 46202; namely pressure from the Royal Household.

[Rebuilt "turbomotive, No.46202, "Princess Anne"]. Loco. Rly Carr Wagon Rev., 1952, 58, 152. illus.
It is difficult to believe that this was the only contemporary reference.

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives.1962.
The section on Princess Anne occupies no more than a paragraph on page 131.
Allen, C.J. Lone locomotives. Trains Ann., 1956, 67-79; 82-4. 25 illus.
Cliffe, Joseph. It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 637.
The very low steam consumptions measured on No.71000 at 90mph are dubious. Tony Sterndale, a member of the Swindon test team, told  writer that the figures were based on sand, as the high speed powers were obtained by untrustworthy heat drop measurements and not by indicators. At similar steam rates, temperatures and exhaust pressures there was little advantage over the BR Class 7.
Cullen, David . It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 402-6.
Includes turbine locomotive No. 46202's replacement No. 71000 Duke of Gloucester

Southern Region

All the Bulleid Merchant Navy class and most of the light Pacifics (West Country/Battle of Britain) class Pacifics were rebuilt by the Southern Region. The modifications included substitution of three sets of Walschaerts gear for the Bulleid gear, new inside cylinders and front frame strengthening, a cylindrical smokebox (but retaining the original smokebox door), removal of the external casing and the substitution of normal boiler cladding and a running plate. Ron Jarvis was responsible for the design work. The valve gear  was based on that used for the BR class 4 4-6-0.

Merchant Navy: 1956

The FIRST rebuilt "Merchant Navy". Trains ill., 1956, 9, 155-9. illus., diagr. (s. el.), table.
MERCHANT Navy" class locomotives modified. Rly Gaz., 1956, 104, 269-70. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
"MERCHANT Navy" class Pacific modified. Rly Mag., 1956, 102, 207-12. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
MODIFIED "Merchant Navy" class engines. Rly Gaz., 1956, 104, 254.
Editorial comment.
MODIFIED "Merchant Navy" 4-6-2 locomotives. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1956, 62, 21-4. 3 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
The REBUILT "Merchant Navy" class locomotive. Rly Wld, 1956, 17, 91-2. 2 illus.

Testing

BRITISH Railways. Southern Region modified Merchant Navy class 3 cyl. 4-6-2 express passenger steam locomotive No. 35020. London, British Transport Commission, 1958. various pagination incl 8 folding p. + 3 plates. 2 illus., 36 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.), 9 tables.

Retrospective and critical
Clan Line preservation group
Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
Allen, C.J. On the footplate of a rebuilt "Merchant Navy" 4-6-2. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1957, 63, 203-5. 2 illus.
Atkins, Philip. Rebuilding the Bulleid 4-6-2s. Backtrack, 2011, 25, 644-6.
Colour photographs by S.C. Townroe in Colour-Rail Collection were taken in Eastleigh Works in mid-1950s during the reconstruction of the Merchant Navy class Pacifics:  No. 35014 with new inside cylinder (cast at Crewe) and smokebox saddle; No. 35014 with fully clad boiler and new cylindrical smokebox; frames  from No. 34005 and new fabricated smokebox saddle on 8 June 1957 also on 8 June 1957 boiler with new cylindrical smokebox for No. 34005; on 12 June 1957 frames and smokebox saddle combined with reversing mechanism visible, and on 16 June partially clad and lined boiler in position.
Boocock, Colin. The rebuilt Bulleid 'Pacifics' – were they value for money? Steam Wld, 1994 (79), 6-11.
Short answer was "yes": Boocock was required by the General Manager of the Southern Region through the Works Manager at Brighton, A.E. Hoare, to establish a retospective economic case for the value of rebuilding (at that time Boocock was working under John Click).
Chacksfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland compound to the HST. 2004.
Jarvis was responsible for the brilliant design work which enabled this class and sixty of the light Pacific to be modified at a reasonable cost, and yet combined the best of the Bulleid features whilst eliminating those of questionnable value, such as the thinly constructed smokebox and the oil-bath.
Evans, M. Pacific steam the British Pacific locomotive. London, Percival Marshall, 1961. viii, 80 p. 35 illus., 5 tables.
Winkworth, D.W. Bulleid's Pacifics. 1974.
Highly critical: contains a considerable amount of information about running in service.

"West Country": 1957

MODIFICATION of the "West Country" class locomotive. Engineer, 1957, 204, 236. illus. (REA 11353).
MODIFICATION of "West Country" class Pacific. Rly Mag., 1957,103, 727-31. 2 illus., diagr. (s. el.)
MODIFICATIONS to "West Country" Pacifics. Rly Gaz., 1957, 107, 277-9. illus., diagr. (s. el.)
MODIFIED "West Country" class locomotive. Rly Gaz., 1957, 107, 207.
Editorial comment.
The REBUILT B.R. "West Country" class 4-6-2. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1957, 63, 161. diagr. (s. el.)
The REBUILT "West Country". Trains ill., 1957, 10, 514. diagr. "
WEST Country" modification. Rly Wld, 1957, 18, 302. illus.

Retrospective and critical

Allen, C.J. British Pacific locomotives. 1962.
Atkins, Philip. Rebuilding the Bulleid 4-6-2s. Backtrack, 2011, 25, 644-6.
Colour photographs by S.C. Townroe in Colour-Rail Collection were taken in Eastleigh Works in mid-1950s during the reconstruction of the Merchant Navy class Pacifics:  No. 35014 with new inside cylinder (cast at Crewe) and smokebox saddle; No. 35014 with fully clad boiler and new cylindrical smokebox; frames  from No. 34005 and new fabricated smokebox saddle on 8 June 1957 also on 8 June 1957 boiler with new cylindrical smokebox for No. 34005; on 12 June 1957 frames and smokebox saddle combined with reversing mechanism visible, and on 16 June partially clad and lined boiler in position.
Boocock, Colin. The rebuilt Bulleid 'Pacifics' -- were they value for money? Steam Wld, 1994 (79), 6-11.
Short answer was "yes"
Bradley, D.L. Locomotives of the Southern Railway. Part 2. RCTS, 1975.
Quotes locomotive repair costs per mile (excluding boiler) 2.94p and boiler repair costs (0.20p) for 1960/61 as reduced to 1955 standard. . Original source not quoted.
Chacksfield, J.E. Ron Jarvis: from Midland compound to the HST. 2004.
Jarvis was responsible for the brilliant design work which enabled the Merchant Navy class and sixty of the light Pacific to be modified at a reasonable cost, and yet combined the best of the Bulleid features whilst eliminating those of questionnable value, such as the thinly constructed smokebox and the oil-bath.
Evans, M. Pacific steam the British Pacific locomotive. London, Percival Marshall, 1961. viii, 80 p. 35 illus., 5 tables.
Winkworth, D.W. Bulleid's Pacifics. 1974.
Highly critical: contains a considerable amount of information about running in service.

2-6-0

5 (Hughes/Fowler 1926 type) :1953:  Reidinger
Five locomotives of this class had been rebuilt with Lentz Rotary Cam (RC) valve gear in 1931. In 1953 the Reidinger infinitely variable valve gear was used in substitution for the earlier type. See also the D49 class (below).

BRITISH Railways locomotives fitted with cam poppet valve gear. Engineer, 1953, 195, 326. 2 diagrs. (REA 7863)
"R.R." poppet-valve gear for locomotives. Engineering, 1953, 175, 299-300. illus., 3 diagrs. (REA 7863).
R.R. poppet type valve gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1953, 59, 54-6. illus., 3 diagrs. (incl. s. el.)
ROTARY valve gear for L.M.R. locomotives. Rly Mag., 1953, 99, 283-4.
ROTARY valve gear for L.M.R. locomotives. Rly Gaz., 1953, 98, 226.
Editorial.
ROTARY valve near for L.M.R. locomotives: Reidinger R.R. poppet valve gear fitted to five British Railways engines. Rly Gaz., 1953, 98, 319-22. 2 illus., 4 diagrs.

Retrospective and critical

Cliffe, Joseph. It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 637.
The Rugby plant tested a 'Crab' 2-6-0 No. 42824 in 1954, fitted with RR infinitely variable rotary cam gear, and in comparison with the piston valve No.42725 It was found there was no economy in coal or water with the RC gear; in fact they were somewhat worse.
Langridge, Eric. Under ten CMEs, V. 2. Chap. 5. Problems with the "Britannias" pp. 141; 143.
"About this time we were looking into E.C. Poultney's persistent request that a Horwich 2-6-0 'Crab' should be fitted with Reidinger infinitely variable cut-off poppet valve gear: Poultney seemed to come into the matter on the marketing side and utimately persuaded the powers that be to fit five engines. Poultney had previously been interested in Lentz rotary valve gear which the LNER had fitted to several engines from new, but not with great success, owing to the few positions one could set the cut-off at, and also so the expensive pieces making up the gear."
Powell, A.J. Living with London Midland locomotives. 1977. Chapter 13.
Chapter 7: Pony trucks to the fore: passing reference to further modification

4-4-0

D49: 1949 :

Equipment of No. 62764 with the Reidinger infinitely variable rotary cam valve gear.
INFINITELY variable poppet valve gear. Loco. Rly Carr. Wagon Rev., 1949, 55, 146-8. illus., 2 diagrs., plan.
INFINITELY VARIABLE R.C. poppet valve gear. Rly Gaz., 1949,91, 354-5. illus.,2 diagrs., plan.
INFINITELY variable rotary cam poppet valve gear : 4-4-0 locomotive No. 62764 (class D49). Rly pict., 1949, 2, 174-5. illus., 4 diagrs.
LOCOMOTIVE poppet-valve gear with independently variable events. Engineering, 1949, 168, 291. (REA 4392).
LOCOMOTIVE variable cam poppet valve gear. Engineer, 1949, 188, 288-9. 3 diagrs. (REA 4392)

Retrospective and critical

Carling, D.R. Locomotive testing on British Railways. J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1950, 40, 496-530. Disc.: 530-9 1 (Paper No. 497).
Includes some comments on the testing of this type.
Cliffe, Joseph. It began with 'Turbomotive'. Backtrack, 2012, 26, 637.
The Rugby plant tested D49 No. 62764 and in comparison with the piston valve locomotive was found there was no economy in coal or water with the RC gear.
Hoole, K. The class "D49" 4-4-0s of the L.N.E.R. Trains ill., 1957, 10, 97-102. 9 illus., 2 tables.

No. 1 Hercules

British Railways No. 1 was an oddball: it was placed at the beginning of the former Great Western engines, but lacked a brass numberplate and had never been in GWR ownership. It was a standard Peckett 0-4-0ST (WN 810/1900) and was acquired from the liquidator of Ystalyfara Tinplate Works by the Western Region in 1948. It has its own page (K268) in the RCTS Locomotives of the Great Western Railway. Part 10.

2013-11-10