Journal of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers
Volume 7 (1917)

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Journal No. 13 (January 1917)

Mannering, Smith (Paper No. 50)
Locomotive fireboxes. 10-30. + Plates. Disc.: 36-62; 102 (correspondence).
Comment on cropped plates; copper backplates and fireholes; patching fireholes; copper tubeplates and repairs; renewing the top half of copper tubeplates; re-staying the firebox; and broken stays. J. Clayton (41-5) spoke about fusible plugs, steel stays, cracked tubeplates, internal feedpipes, water softening, and Weir feed pumps being choked on SECR. Refers back to Wilks (Metropolitan Railway) and the use of steel stays.
Ccorrespondence (page 102): Wilks (Loco. Dept., Metropolitan Railway) alluding to my recent paper on Locomotive Fireboxes, refers to steel fireboxes. A few of these are in service on the Brighton Railway. I made it quite clear that these fireboxes were fitted with only 28 flexible stay-bolts, the remaining stays (of which there are some 500) being made of steel and riveted over on the firebox plates. It is owing to the satisfactory performance and condition of these riveted stavs, after two years of service, that I ventured to express the opinion that these particular fireboxes might have done just as well without the flexible stay-bolts and stayed throughout with the solid steel stays. The reference by Mr. Wilks to a steel firebox put into a boiler to see the boiler itself out is rather puzzling. As a rule, when any firebox is put into a boiler for renewals, thc condition of the boiler should warrant such a procedure, and be in such a good state of repair to see the firebox out, or the very opposite of what Mr. Wilks says. I do not know under what conditions the 13 stays, to which Mr. W’ilks refers, came to be broken or where they were situated. As regards the re-riveting of a 100 copper stays during the period which Mr. Wilks mentions, this may pass without much comment, as all who are conversant with these matters fully know what re-riveting of copper stays in the running sheds means, and how frequently it occurs under normal conditions to running engines

Journal No. 16 (April 1917)

Jones, A.D. [Address by the President]
The locomotive running department. 87-95.
Railways south of the Thames were under a great disadvantage compared with other companies, due to the long distance coal had to be brought, not only increasing the price but causing greater uncertainty of arrival, in foggy weather especially. It was advisable to keep considerable stocks in reserve, but good hard Yorkshire steam coal could be stacked for twenty years yet give excellent results when burned.
Wheel drops versus sheerlegs, even if latter worked by electric or hydraulic power). Much more uncoupling has to be done before a lift can be made with sheerlegs, whereas with a drop wheels can be taken out while the engine is in steam.
Mechanical coaling plants: several kinds were at work and giving good results, greatly reducing the cost of coaling and enabling an engine to be coaled fully in less than five minutes by one man manipulating a lever. One of the difficulties to contend with, however, was the emptying of the loaded wagon, owing to the variety of wagon types in use, or rather the position of the doors; some have side doors, others only end doors, and again some have bottom doors only. 'The ideal system is to have a high level road for loaded coal wagons, so that the contents can be dropped straight into the large distributing bins of the plant.
An important section of the headquarters office was the one dealing with casualties or engine failures. By careful investigation and inspection of the part that has failed much can be learned which will be of use in preventing further casualties, or at any rate reducing the number
General pooling of locomotives is, an objectionable system both from the point of the men as well as from maintenance of economical use of fuel and oil. It can generally be arrmged for an engine to have the same two sets of enginernen booked to it. A locomotive is very similar to a horse — they nearly always differ in some slight respect from others in their class — a driver learns the peculiarities of a particular engine or horse and knows how to humour it and so get the best results
The breakdown train should be as short as possible, so that it can be put into short sidings or clear of fouling points when at an accident. A compact train consisting of a six-wheel van at each end, with a steam crane and its safety wagon in the middle, can be made up with an overall length of under 125 feet, exclusive of the engine. All such trains should have a van at each end as it saves much delay in not having to reverse the brake van.

Variable blast pipe and exhaust gear, Paris, Lyons, and Mediterranean Railway. 96-7.
Lucien Maréchal Pacifics: forty to fifty types of blast pipe were tested on engines running in service service on fast and heavy express trains, weighing from 500 to 700 tons. The best results were obtained with the échappement à trèfe that is clover type exhaust gear deriving its name from the three wings which have the shape of a clover leaf on the top. These triangular wings are fitted on a cylindrical core with tapering lower end, and the engineman could move this gear vertically in the nozzle of the blast pipe by means of a rod, to produce the variable exhaust.

Journal No. 17 (May 1917)

Kelway-Bamber, H. (Paper No. 51)
Thirty-five years' advance in Indian railway development. 107-37. Disc.: 137-55. 28 diagrs.
A major statistical review of the state of railway development in India, including its historical foundations under Dalhousie. In the discussion A.R. Bennett (139) queried the cost of transfer at break of guage..

Journal No. 18/19 (June & July 1917)

Sanderson, R.P.C. (Paper No. 52)
Steel as a material for locomotive fireboxes. 161-236.
Second Ordinary General Meeting held Caxton Hall, Westminster, on Wednesday,  18 April at 7 p.m.; the President (A. D. Jones.) in the chair. On the conclusion of the reading the discussion was opened by the President, and continued by Messrs. Clayton (S.E. & C. Rly.), Hicks (S.E. & C. Rly.), Mannering (L.B. & S.C. Rly.), Jacltson (L.B. & S.C. Rly.), Stanier (G.W. Rly.), Vaughan (L. & S.W. Rly.), Dearberg, Lelean, and A. R. Bennett. Written communications were received from Messrs. W. J. Bennett (L.B. & S.C Rly.), Ahrons, Asselin (Nord, Paris), and Marechal (P.L.M., Paris).
Several speakers in discussion observed that British steel might not be suitable in this application

Journal No. 20/1

Rodgers, J.  (Paper No. 53)
The locomotive designer and design. 240-84. Disc.: 285-308.
Second Ordinary Meeting of the 1917 Session held Caxton Hall, Victoria Street, Westminster, on Saturday, 28 April 1917.
Practical aspects of locomotive design, such as getting the correct axle loadings. Includes design for correct weights for LBSCR 0-6-0 and 2-6-0 classes. Includes side elevations (weight diagrams) for GCR Director 4-4-0 and 0-8-0 classes; NER Z class 4-4-2 and D class 4-4-4T; LNWR Claughton and LBSCR J class 4-6-2T; L class 4-6-4T and K class 2-6-0.
The following summary appeared in Locomotive Magazine, 1917, 23, 194: In his opening remarks the author draws attention to the difficulties under which the locomotive engineer labours, and, whilst pointing out the desirability of experimental and research work, pays a just tribute to what has already been accomplished in this direction. We are at one with him in regretting that in this country we have no public testing plant available similar to that of the University of Illinois, but we are not sure that he is altogether correct in stating that "the most scientific publications on the locomotive are American." Personally, we are of opinion that this claim would be more fully substantiated by Continental, in particular by French, engineering literature. The author lays stress, we think most properly, on the liason which should exist between the drawing office and the shops and running shed. Cases are all too familiar where this essential has been overlooked, with the unfortunate result that what appeared quite admirable on paper was far otherwise from the point of view of the building and operating staff.
From these general considerations Mr. Rodgers passes to the "governing factors" of design, and gives numerous formulae for determining resistances, tractive force, adhesion, etc., many of which are of considerable practical value, and not less so from being stated in the simplest terms. Space does not permit of our analysing this excellent paper to the length it merits, but we cannot conclude without expressing a hope that this will not be the last contribution Mr. Rodgers will make to the literature of the locomotive, with which he is obviously so well qualified to deal.

Clayton, J. (Paper No. 54)
The bridge curve. 311-15. Disc.: 315-20. folding diagrs.
Fourth Ordinary General Meting held at Caxton Hall, on Saturday 26 May at 2.30 p.m., . A.R. Bennett, Member of Council, in the chair. This paper was supplementary to Paper 53: The Locomotive Designer and Design.
Based on 2-6-0 and its tender (presumably that designed for SECR). In response to discussion by Ahrons on high speeds, Clayton recorded that engineers design for average speeds.

Journal No. 22/23 (October & November 1917)

Dunn, J. Maxwell. (Paper No. 56)
Locomotive blast pipes and chimneys. 328-51. Disc.: 352-71. 12 diagrs.
Two-part paper covering the blast pipe and the chimney and petticoat pipe respectively. Summarises history, object and design of the blast pipe. According to D. K. Clark, in Railway Machinery 1855, the area of the blast orifice is regulated by the following four items:-
(1) Grate area.
(2) Heating surface of the tubes.
(3) Cross sectional area of the chimney.
(4) Cubic capacity of the smokebox.
The first two of the above are of paramount importance, but the others are generally neglected.

Journal No. 24 (December 1917)

Clayton, J. (Paper No. 57)
Method and system in the locomotive drawing office. 375-406. Disc.: 406-37.
Seventh Ordinary General Meting held at Caxton Hall, on Saturday, 31 I)ecember 1917, at 2.30 p.m.., the President, A.D.. Jones, in the chair.. Calculations and Weights. important that proper records kept of all important calculations such as weight and distribution, strength of boilers, connecting, coupling rods, and motion generally, springs, balancing, etc. The book containing the record of these should be in the custody of one of the chief assistants who will see that this is maintained for future reference by the draughtsman responsible for making the calculations, and as far as possible uniformity of method should be adopted
Material Tests. in the absence of a testing department these are usually the concern qf the Drawing Office, and one of the leading hands will be appointed to see that these are properly performed in accordance with the specification,
Shop Tools:. design of special tools, jigs and fixtures for accurately and economically machining the various parts will be entrusted to a qualified leading draughtsman with special knowledge of the works machinery and its possibilities.
Traccrs: every draughtsman used to trace his own drawing, but it was customary to employ persons specially for tracing the drawings, many of these are women.
Photographer.electric copier is indispensable.
Recorder a recorder should be employed to classify, index, record, and keep all the office drawings in order.
Brief summary in Locomotive Mag,, 1918, 24, 4..