tLocomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Review
Volume 24 (1918)

Key file

Number 305 (15 January 1918)

4-cylinder 6-coupled loomotive, Great Central Railway. 1. illustration

Electric battery locomotive, North Staffordshire Ry. 2-3. illustration
See also paragraph on page 38

2-4-0 tank engine, Hoylake Ry. 3. illustrations
Yorkshire Engine Company WN 356/1877 and 357/1877 supplied whilst Jamieson was Locomotive Superintendent

Method and  system in the locomotive drawing office. 4.
J. Clayton ILocoE paper No. 57 Clayton, chief draughtsman of the S.E. & C. Ry. Locomotive Dept. took  the view that the best leadmg draughtsmen are made from men who have had expenence m the drawing office of a contractor's shops.. Here they obtain a variety of work under quite different conditions from those obtaining in the average railway drawing office. In the contract shop office, work has to be undertaken and finished competitively within a specified time, and consequently the pace is faster. This limits the time in which designs are prepared and finished, and while the best is always aimed at, it must be said fhat the result is apt to suffer from this fact of time being regarded as of first importance. Apart from the fundamental features of the design to be worked out, the arrangement of many locomotive parts offers much scope for the display of ingenuity and resource on the part of the draughtsman. In such an office, therefore, a draughtsn:an gets a useful. and varied experience in a short time and learns quickly the tricks of the trade.
'In the contractor's office, so soon as what appears to be a good straightforward scheme is revealed, it is adopted, and the work goes ahead without much further consideration.
In the railway office, however, the idea pervades that the responsibility will not cease when the engine is built, and turned out, but will continue every day afterwards throughout its life. In addition to this, the design is treated much more from the running department point of view. For these reasons the author is of opinion that greater care is likely to be displayed in the getting out of the various arrangements of parts, so that the draughtsman is not satisfied with the first feasible idea that strikes him, but tries scheme after scheme to obtain the same object in various ways. Each way will have some special feature, and gradually by the process of "correlation" and " elimination" the best will emerge good from first cost, from upkeep, from handling and from maintenance points of view. This all takes more time and is no doubt the reason for the commonly accepted idea that railway drawing offices are less efficient and slower in output than contractor's drawing offices. The author therefore recommends that the younger men of the railway drawing office should obtain two or more years of contract office experience before settling down to railway work.

The Egyptian State Rys. 4.
Ordered seventy six-coupled bogie express locomotives [4-6-0] from the Baldwin Locomotive Works.

London & North-Western Ry.. 4
A new series :of 0-8-0 superheater goods engines would shortly be turned out at Crewe, Nos. 94, 112, 360, 851, 2088, 2256, 2274, 2290, 2296 and 2423. These engines fitted with the vacuum brake throughout, and also with the pump for maintaining the vacuum when running. It is understood that the order for twenty similar engines placed some time back with Beyer, Peacock & Co. had been cancelled, the work to be carried out at Crewe.
A further two four-cylinder compound passenger engines, Nos. 1960 Francis Stevenson, and 1965 Charles H. Mason, had been converted to two-cylinder simples, Renown class. Nos. 1884 and 1885, four-cylinder compound goods engines, had also been converted to two-cylinder simples, but in this case provided with superheaters. Before conversion these engines were of the 2-8-0 type, but were now 0-8-0 type.
There are now two North London engines stationed at Chester, Nos. 21 and 127.

South Eastern & Chatham Ry.  4
0-6-0 tender goods engine No. 685 had been rebuilt as a saddle tank.

Cambrian Rys. 4
CR engines were working over the L. & N.W.Ry. to both Crewe and Stafford. No. 47 4-4-0 passenger engine was at Stafford sheds on several occasions.

Central Railway Station, Brest-Litovsk. 4
In view of the recent Peace negotiations between the Russian and Central Empire delegates at the town of Brest-Litovsk, the accompanying illustration of the Central Railway station and yard will be of interest. The fine station buildings can be seen on the left of the picture. Brest-Litovsk is an important junction on the Polish border on the Warsaw-Moscow main line, being 132½ miles east of the Praga Station, Warsaw, and 635¼ miles west of Moscow. Indebted to A.M.H. Solomon, of the Napier Motors, Ltd., for the loan of our picture. The locomotive seen in the foreground is an outside cylinder six-coupled yard shunter.

New "Decapod" freight locomotive: Pennsylvania Railroad. 5-6.  illustration

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 6-8. 3  illustrations, diagram (side & front elevations) 
2-6-0 designed R.G. Peckett were built in Germany and by Franco-Belge and 4-4-0 design with large boiler and cabs and narrow gauge 0-8-0T shunting locomotive for Luxor-Assouan (Asswan) line. Continued page 65

The lubrication of locomotives. 8-9. 3 diagrams
T.C. Thomsen of Vacuum Oil Co. Ltd patented atomizer and Wakefield's anti-carbonizer

Locomotive boiler cladding. 12.  illustration
Turner Bros. Asbestos asbestos blocks of white and blue asbestos

The relative value of railway signals. 12-13.
Distant signals and calling-on signals

Highland Ry. 13.
0-6-0T No. 49 and 4-4-0 No. 84 had been placed on A list. LNWR 0-6-0 No. 3166 was working on Highland Railway,.

Great North of Scotland Ry. 13
Some of the 6ft 6in tender engines had been fitted with Robinson superheaters.

Ambulance train for overseas service. Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 14-16.  4  illustrations
Sixteen coach train with steam heating, electric lighting and electric fans. Exhibition tour to major stations in Lancashire and Yorkshire.

Baldwin locomotives for the Norwegian Government Rys. 16-18. 3  illustrations
0-10-0T; 0-6-0T and 2-6-0 (the last for 3ft 6in gauge lines with sharp curvature.

Reviews. 17.

Charing Cross to Bagdad. London: United Newspapers,
Daily Chronicle publication promoting (1) Channel Tunnel and (2) Trans-Continental railway to Persian Gulf and thence to India. Contributions from P.C. Tempest, engineer of the Channel Tunnel Co., Sir Francis Fox, consulting engineer and Albert Sartiaux of the Nord Railwsay. Also propose removal of Charing Cross station to south of the Thames.

Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. 18-19. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
101 class 0-6-0 originated in 1866: Alexander McDonnell design.


Hot boxes.  W.J.T.
Re W.G. Landon letter in LM November Issue:, suggests that engines which fail with left axle-boxes are those in which the left crank leads, and that when right-hand boxes run hot the engine vould be one in which the right -crank leads. ' His diagrams appear at first sight to confiirm that view. But they are not quite convincing. He 'has put certain arrows against those of his cranks that are on the dead centre. At a given moment in the revolution of the shaft those arrows represent the true direction of the thrust on those patrticular cranks. But only an instant before those arrows on the dead-centre cranks would have had to be pointed in the reverse direction. It is quite possible to show, bv a diazrarn drawn on similar lines, as, for instance, in the liftle diagram below, that the maximum thrust is exerted on the right-hand box instead of on the left, even when the left crank leads :-

Allowing for acceleration of pads, no eerious error will result if the thrust on the piston be taken as uniform through-out each stroke, and if the stresses upon the axle be worked out for a complete revolution of both the cranks, it will be found that the following statement is justified. It is of no importance, but only a matter of .. fashion" whether the right crank leads or whether the left leads. Each crank as it goes .. over the top" exerts in forward running a thrust on the frame through the leading face of both boxes; the nearer box gets the greater share of the thrust, of course, the right box as the right crank goes over, the left box as the left crank goes over. Taking the bottom semi-circle :-As each crank goes under, the frame drives the box (vide Vaughan Pendred's delightful book The Locomotive), and the rear face of both boxes takes the thrust, alwavs a lesser thrust than that on the front faces, but always shared by the right and left boxes (in backward running the rear face becomes the leading face and gets the most thrust). If the boxes are worn there will always be a great slam when the box shifts over froru fhe back horn-plate to the front horn- plate, and vice versa. When is it that the box thus shifts? If the engine had only one crank, the box would slam over just as the crank passed each dead-centre (leaving out of account the effect of compression which would cause the change to be a little earlier). So, as the engine has two cranks, one end shifts over with the corresponding crank, the other eud coming over a little later.
When two thrusts act on the two cranks in opposite senses, so that one thrust draws the crank-shaft towards the cylinder, and the other pushes it away from them, there is, as Mr. Landon shows, a tendency for one end of the crank-shaft to move forward and for the other end to move backward. The pistons are steam-borne, all the time, even for any crank that happens to be on the centre; so that the shaft slues in the horizontal plane, and the point about which it slues is nearest to the crank that at the moment pulls hardest on the shaft, and nearest also to the driving box adjoining that particular crank. The point of slue will therefore be nearest the left-hand box when that crank is uppermost, so that the left-hand box will then get the most of the pounding. But it will be nearest the right-hand crank when that is upper-most. When either crank is down, the point of slue will be nearest the companion that is not down.
But though in forward running with left crank leading the left box receives a great thrust as the left crank comes up, the right box gets just the same thrust when the right crank comes up. This happens to each box in every revolution, so if the maximum bumps in ten revolutions with the right crank leading are:
they will be
LR LR LR LR LR LR LR LR LR LR with the left crank leading.
So it all amounts to the same in the long run, whichever crank leads.
If the theory were correct that with the left crank leading, the left box gets the most battering, then on railways in which the engines are thus built the boxes which run hot ought consistently to be those on the left-hand side. Many of your correspondents can tell us whether the records support this notion or not.
Of course, it is very difficult to diagnose the true cause of a hot driving-axle-box; mal-adjustment of the wedges, inequality of lubrication, or grit on one side and not on the other, are disturbing factors which would mask the effect, if any, of the choice made as to which crank leads. It would be interesting to know whether drivers still main- tain, as they used to do, that starting .from rest the engine gets away more smartly when both big-ends are" down," than when they are both up, i.e., above the horizontal centre- line of the cylinders? Can some of your running-shed correspondents tell us ?-
Just one other query— I sometimes hear the famous copper-nobs spoken of as though the domed top of the outer firebox had been covered with copper sheet. I had rather assumed that the whole thickness of the outer box was of copper. Can some of your older readers tell us from personal knowledge the true facts of this case?-

Railway Club. 20
On 12 February. H. L. Hopwood tol read a paper on Early London Railways at the Club, 92, Victoria Street. S.W.l.

Number 306 (15 February 1918)

4-6-2 superheater tank locomotives, Caledonian Ry. 21-2.. illustration
Class 944. No. 950 illustrated. Pickersgill design with outside 19½n x 26in cylinders; 5ft 9in coupled wheels and 1516 ft2 total evaporative heating surface plos 200 ft2  superheat. The firegrate area was 21.5 ft2  and the boiler worked at 170 psi. Full leading dimensions given. They were intended for Glasgow to Clyde Coast traffic, but had been working heavy munitions traffic. Twelve had been built at the Hyde Park Works of the North British Locomotive Co.. 

New shunting engine, Glasgow and South Western Ry. 22. illustration
0-6-0T No. 5 illustrated: one of three outside-cylinder and valve gear locomotives designed for working on lines with sharp curves as in collieries and docks. Designed by Peter Drummond and built at the Hyde Park Works of the North British Locomotive Co.. 

North Eastern Ry. 22
Darlington Works had turned out 0-8-0 mineral engines Nos. 2213 and 2232

Fireless locomotives. 23-5. 3 illustrations
Theodore Scheffer design for Crescent City Railroad in New Orleans, Fowler's Ghost (illustrated by a 2-2-2) and reference to Alfred Rosling Bennett; and a 2-6-2 produced by Léon Francq and Mesnard.

Indian railways. 25
Owing to the desire to restrict the importation into India of white lead,and other ingredients for paint, the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. was experimenting with paints for the rolling stock made entirely from oxides and materials found in India. One of the through mail trains running between Bombay and Calcutta had been turned out of the Matunga shops, painted a dark drab colour, along the lower panels, with khaki on the upper. The lettering, numbers, etc., are all in different shades of the same colours. The train attracted much attention on its first run across India. The East Indian Railway has likewise gone in for a "home-made" paint for their goods wagons—a dark greyish compound made from Indian products, which are expected to prove very serviceable. Trains of new military cars have recently been put into service by the Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry., as well as the North-Western State Ry. The arrangements of these carriages are very similar to those originally built by the Great Indian Peninsula Ry., and which have been illustrated and described in these pages. Vestibuled sleeping cars for the officers had been provided by the last-named railway.

4-8-0 superheater engine for the Kadugannawa Incline, Ceylon Government Rys. 26-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
12 miles at 1 in 45 from Colombo to Kandy and Nuwara: 21 x 24in cylinders; 160 p-si boiler pressure; 2012 ft2 total heating surface and 42.5 ft2 grate area.

Superheater goods locomotive, Great Northern Ry. 27-9. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams.
Gresley J22 class 0-6-0 with patented feedwater heater in elongated dome and superheater

The lubrication of locomotives. 29-30.
Oil consumption statistics: cites Gresley in discussion on Fowler's ICE paper C.C. Wakefield stated that if the cylinder oil is of high grade then the quantity used by a superheater locomotive should not exceed 1 pint per 100 miles, and a non-superheater engine 1 pint per 100 miles. For goods engines the amounts may be increased to 1 and 11 pints respectively.The quality of the cylinder oil for superheater engines is, however, more expensive. On the Great Northern, Gresley (discussion on Fowler's paper) stated that the increased consumption of oil was 5 per cent. more for the superheater engines, but that the cost of the oil totalled to 29 per cent. more than that required for engines working on saturated steam..
For goods and mineral engines the quantities are naturally more uneven, owing to the amount of shunting and standing in sidings.
In the paper read by Hughes before the Inst. Mech. Engineers- in 1910, the total oil consumption of various types of goods engines over considerable periods was given, and from them the following particulars have been worked out:-
Six wheels coupled (0-6-0) non-superheater.
Engine oil ... 5.04 pints per 100 train miles.
Cylinder oil.... 4.41 pints per 100 train miles.
Engine oil... 3.02 pints per 100 engine miles.
Cylinder oil .. , 2.64 pints per 100 engine miles.
Total oil per 100 ton miles, ,0261 pint.
Six wheels coupled (0-6-0) superheater engines.
Engine oil ... 5.11 pints per 100 train miles.
Cylinder oil 3.55  pints per 100 train miles.
Engine oil ... 3 .12 pints per 100 engine miles
Cylinder oil ... 2.17 pints per 100 engine miles
Total oil per 100 ton miles, .0236 pint.
Eight wheels coupled (0-8-0), two cylinder non-superheater engines.
Engine oil... 6.94 pints per 100 train miles.
Cylinder oil 5.91 pints per 100 train miles.
Engine oil... 4.42 pints per 100 engine miles.
Cylinder oil 3.76 pints per 100 engine miles.
Total oil per 100 ton miles, .0277 pint
Eight wheels coupled four cylinder compound (non-superheater) engines. .
Engine oil ... 7 .16 pints per 100 train miles.
Cylinder oil 6.52 pints per 100 train miles.
Engine oil... 4.89 pints per 100 engine miles.
Cylinder oil 4.45 pints per 100 engine miles.
Total oil per 100 ton miles, ·0292 pint.
The above results, which include twenty -four months working for the eight coupled engines and about 6½ months for the six coupled engines, show somewhat unexpected figures, e.g., the cylinder oil used by the superheater goods engines was considerably less than that required by the non-superheater engines. Again in the case of the eight-coupled four-cylinder compound engines, for the first twelve months these used the same amount of cylinder oil per 100 train miles as the two cylinder non-compounds, though based upon engine mileage they used more-as would naturally be expected. For the twenty-four months' working the compounds, as shown by the figures, used more oil. It goes without saying that no basis of comparison lies with regard to similar engines on other railways. The work done by such engines is of too varied a character; moreover the Lancashire and Yorkshire gradients are excessively heavy, and the trains hauled by the eight wheels coupled engines in particular were of great weight.
The following oil consumptions of, French engines derived from Ed. Sauvage are also of interest, and refer to the Western (State) Railway in 1901. The figures give the total oil consumption
4-4-0 express engines (2 cyl.)., 17.6 lb. per 100  miles.
4-4-0  express engines (4-cyl. compound) 15.2 lb. per 100  miles.
4-6-0 goods engines (4-cyl. compound 17.9 lb. per 100  miles.
0-4-0 goods engines (2-cyl.) 9,9 lb. per 100  miles.
The above show consumptions for express engines considerably greater than those usual in this country, and the four-cylinder compound express engines used less oil than the two cylinder simple engines. No explanation is given of this, and the writer can only conclude that the human element may have had something to do with it. On the other hand, in the compound engines the work is divided over two driving axles instead of one. A great deal of course depends upon the quality of oil used.

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 30-2. illustration
Continued from Volume 23 page 198, . To fill the vacancy caused by the retirement of David lones; the directors selected Peter Drummond for the important position of locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent. Drummond served. his apprenticeship with Forrest & Moor,. engineers, of Glasgow, and on its completion in 1870 obtained employment with the L.B. & S.C.R. under the Wm. Stroudley, but in 1875 he migrated with his elder brother, Dugald, to the Cowlairsj Works of the North British Ry. Here he remained for seven years, when, Dugald Drummond having transferred his services to the Caledonian Ry., the younger brother followed and eventually became works manager of the latter Company's St. Rollox Works, Glasgow, the position he was holding at the time of his appointment to the Highland Ry. in November, 1896. At this time the fifteen engines of the Loch class had only just been delivered, so that the Highland Ry. were well stocked with locomotives, whilst for the replacement of old engines four of the Skye bogies, class L, had been put in hand at Lochgorm Works, where they were regarded more or less as stock jobs and turned out at intervals by Drummond as already related.
In these circumstances the new chief was not called upon for some time to make any further provision in the matter of locomotive power, was consequently nearly two years after his accession to the superintendency that the first engines built to his design were put into service. These were the Ben class 4-4-0 constructed by Dubs & Co., at Lochgorm and by the North British Locomotive Co. These are tabulated together with Works Numbers, dates and names. No. 1 Ben-y-Gloe is illustrated with a photograph taken by S.A. Forbes

Locomotive boiler cladding. 32-3. 3 diagrams
Notes the risk of corrosion to the boiler, especially the firebox, from salts in the blue or white asbestos supplied ny Cape Asbestos Co. and J.W. Roberts. This had been investigated by Arthur G. Marshall for the Indian railways.

The railway signal colour problem. 33-4
From the foregoing, it will, therefore, be readily. seen that the problem of true colour distinction is one that must be scientifically treated from all standpoints, owing to the advent of the three-position signal, and the question of the third light-orange glass being usually adopted for this. Yellow being a middle colour in the spectrum it is theoretically a distinctive colour to use, and does give fairly good results in some instances, but there is one fact to be borne in mind, and that is that orange is a secondary colour, being produced by the mixture of yellow and red; therefore, there is the great possibility of the orange light being indistinguishable from red-of which it is largely composed-so therefore the question of an absolutely distinguishable third colour is far from having been satisfactorily solved up to the present. However, as practically the whole of British signalling is of the two-position type, the problem of the third colour, does not enter, and perhaps when one takes into consideration the possibilities of prospective colour blindness that might at any time overtake engine-drivers, signalling engineers and the railway authorities in general should hesitate before adopting any means whereby more differentiation in colour has to be studied by the drivers; especially when the additional colour proposed to. be adopted is one that is nearer in the. spectrum to those already in use, viz., red and green. The above remarks apply equally to the suggestion often put forward for an orange light for distant signals. .. However, the subject is a very fascinating one, and is a problem that gives good scope for optical rese

E E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western. Ry.  34-6
Continued from page 19   In 1888 one of the standard goods engines of the 101 class, No. 165, was altered to a compound locomotive with cylinders 18 and 26 in. diameter respectively, the stroke of the piston remaining 24 in. This compound was more successful than the passenger engine No. 93. The engine proved economical in coal and water. The same tractive power, however, was not obtained as from the simple engines .. Finally, owing to the development of a crack in the cylinders, the latter were removed in 1896 and replaced by a pair of simple cylinders of the standard type. The appearance of No. 165 as a compound is shown by Fig. 20. The only external changes were in the smokebox, which was widened at the bottom to provide space for the extra steam pipes, also~in the frame plates, which had special stiffening pieces attached to support the additional weight imposed by the heavier cylinder casting.
The maximum load which class 101 is permitted to haul is forty-five loaded wagons. On a dry rail and with fairly normal conditions the engines described were able to deal satisfactorily with trthis size. The adhesion weight was; however, decidedly on the low side for the diameter of the cylinders and the tractive force. The same remark applied to the boiler, which, from its dimensions, did not provide any reserve power. On damp nights owing to slipping and defective steaming much time was lost. Coey accordingly determined to increase the size of the boiler, and in 1902 four engines, Nos. 240 to 243, were built with boilers 4 ft. 4 in. internal diameter with grate area and heating surface increased in proportion. This gained about 3 tons for the adhesion weight and added very considerably to the general efficiency as compared with engines fitted with the original boilers. Several more boilers of this type were at once put in hand. Some of these were ordered from the Vulcan Foundry and they were substituted for the former "4-feet" boilers during repairs and renewals. About 60 per cent. of the total number of engines of class 101 are now so altered. Fig. 22 of No. 160 shows the appearance of an earlier engine as rebuilt. Fig. 21 of No. 240 illustrates the latest built new "standard" goods engines. It will be seen that the wheelbase remained unaltered, but there were subsidiary changes in addition to the altered boiler. Single slidebars were fitted on all goods engines of this class built during Coey's. regime. Cast-steel wheels with balance weights replaced the earlier cast or wrought-iron centres. The sandboxes were enlarged in capacity. The appearance of the cab was altered and the reversing rod was led directly from the screw bracket on the footplate to the arm of the reversing shaft. The tenders placed behind these engines were usually either of 2730 or 3300 gallons capacity. The last new engines of this type were completed in 1903. During 1916, No. 240 and other engines of the class were fitted with a special smokebox air valve. the invention of Mr. Landry, a fireman on the southern district of the railway. This valve may be seen on Fig. 22 of engine No. 160 immediately beneath the blower on the right side of the smokebox. The arrangement consists of a circular facing containing three radial, slots or ports, over which a circular disc valve with corresponding slots is rotated tby means of a short arm operated by a push-and-pull rod from the cab. Through the openings thus produced air is led direct from the atmosphere to the .top part of the smokebox, where a suitable pipe directs it up the chimney. It will be seen at once that by this means the amount of air passing upwards through the fire bars may be checked by admitting air through the valve at the smokebox end. The advantages resulting from the use of this:simple appliance and which have led to its adoption are economy of fuel and spark arresting. The principal parts of the products of combustion. in the ordinary course, pass through the upper rows of tubes. The admission of air to the smokebox at the top damps down or retards the excessive draught through the upper tubes and the hot gases are induced to pass more through those at the bottom. This causes a more equable distribution of the heat throughout the portion of the heating surface represented by the tubes. At the same time the combustion in the firebox is improved owing to the action of the exhaust being more evenly felt over the grate, the usual tendency being for the fire to burn more intensely in front. The diminution of the excessive draught through the top tubes reduces the tendency to sparking caused by incandescent particles of.fueI rushing direct into the blast. The saving of coal, which on trial has resulted from the use of this air valve, has reached 4 lb. per mile.
Engine No. 160 has one of the old 1800 gallon tenders attached. An additional plate has been placed along the top coping and across the back. This arrangement is being added to these tenders during repairs, as it provides much more coal space and leaves a clear place for the water trough at the rear.
Altogether 111 standard goods engines of the 101 class were built as under :
1866. Nos. 112, 113 and 115 at Inchicore.
1867. 148, 150, by Beyer, Peacock & Co.,
1868. 151 to 154. by Beyer, Peacock & Co.
1871. 155. 156 and 159 to 162, at Inchicore.
1872. 157, 158 at Inchicore, and 163 to 166. by Sharp. Stewart & Co.
1873. 102. 104, 167 and 168 at Inchicore, 175 and 176 by Sharp, Stewgrt & Co., and 177 and 178 by Beyer, Peacock &. Co.
1874. 106,117,169 to 174 at Inchicore.
1875. 108, 142, 179, 180 at Inchicore.
1877. 109.119.120. 121 and 143 at Inchicore.
1878. 144. 145. 146 at Inchicore.
1879. 181. 182 at Inchicore, 185 and 186 by Sharp. Stewart & Co.
1880. 183. 184 at Inchicore.
1881. 107. 139. 140. 141 at Inchicore, 189 and 190 by Beyer, Peacock & Co. -
1882. 101. 122 to 128. 130. 131. 187. 188 at Inchicore.
1885. 133. 134. 135. 191 at lnchicore.
1888. 132. 136. 137. 138 at lnchicore
1889. 103. 114. 129. 149 at lnchicore
1890. 110. 111. at lnchicore
1891. 118. 147. at lnchicore
1896. 105. 116. at lnchicore
1898. 192. 193. 194. 195 at lnchicore
1902. 240, 241. 242. 243 at lnchicore.
1903. 200. 223. 229, 232. 253 to 256 at Inchicore.


Cylinder, low pressure, diameter 26 in.
Cylinder, lhigh pressure, diameter 18 in.
Stroke of piston 24 in.
Tractive force per lb. pressure 125.9 lb.
Tractive force total 5 tons.
Wheels, diameter 5 ft. 1¾ in.
Wheelbase 15 ft. 6 in.
Working pressure 150 lb. per sq. in.
Boiler, length of barrel 9 ft. 10 in.
Boiler, ldiameter inside 4 ft.
Firebox casing, length 5 ft. 1 in.
Heating surface, firebox 96 sq. ft.
Heating surface, tubes 764 sq. ft.
Grate area 17.5 sq. ft.
Total   860 sq. ft.
Tubes, outside diameter 1¾ in.
Tubes, number  165
Weights-Leading  13 tons 2 cwt
                Driving    12 tons 2 cwt
                Trailing       9 tons 6 cwt
      Total                    34 tons 10 cwt

Cylinders, 18 in x 24in.
Wheels, diameter 5 ft. 1¾ in. .
Tractive force per lb. pressure 125.9 lb.
Tractive force total at 110 lb average pressure 6.1 tons.
Working pressure 160 lb. per sq. in.
Wheelbase 15 ft. 6 in.
Boiler, length of barrel 9 ft. 10 in.
Boiler, diameter inside 4 ft 3in..
Heating surface, firebox 116 sq. ft.
Heating surface, tubes 925 sq. ft.
Total   1041 sq. ft.
Grate area 19.3 sq. ft.
Tubes, outside diameter 1¾ in.
Tubes, number  200
Weights-Leading  13 tons 0 cwt
                Driving    12 tons 8 cwt
                Trailing      10 tons 8 cwt
      Total                    35 tons 16 cwt

Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting in locomotive works. 36-7. 4 illustrations
Mentions frame  cutting machine at Andrew Barclay & Co. of Kilmarnock where several frame plates could be cut simultaneously

Furness Railway. 37
Work had begun on renwing Foxfield Viaduct and all traffic was being being worked over the down line.

Stratford and Moreton Tramway, Great Western Ry.  38
G.W.R. was taking up the metals of the old tramway from Stratford-on-Avon to Langston Road, on the Shipston-on-Stour branch, in consequence of the Government requirements for material that can be used in the production of munitions of war. The permanent way comprises the original rails and chairs laid down about 1826, as part of William James' scheme for a railway and canal from the Midlands to London. The fish-bellied cast- iron rails were mostly on stone block sleepers. The ,tramway was always used for horse traction. As William James was a native of Henley-in-Arden, the Lord of the Manor (Mr. W. J. Fieldhouse, C.B.E., the well-known designer of hospital trains for the British Red Cross Society) offered a site on the Guild House premises there, and now we hear that the G.W.R. are presenting the town with two lengths of rail, chairs and stone sleepers, to be preserved as a memento of the old tramroad.

Midland Ry. 38
Serious accident on Saturday 19 January 1918 on Settle & Carlisle Section cutting about 1 mile north of Little Salkeld Station, and about 18 miles south of Carlisle, at about 16.00. The train consisted of 4-4-0 Compound engine No. 1010 and eleven coaches, and was running down the long grade from Langwathby with steam shut off, when it struck the landslip. The engine and tender were derailed, the leading van and next coach telescoped, and the next seven vehicles were derailed and but little damaged. Six passengers were killed and two seriously injured. It was not until late on the Monday evening that the engine was re-railed ; meanwhile all Midland through traffic was diverted over the L. and N.W. main line between Carlisle and Low Gill, and joining the Midland ine again at Clapham Junction via their Ingleton branch.

Review. 38

Questions and answers on the locomotive and Locomotive failures.
Since the last edition of these books became exhausted we have had so many applications for copies, particularly from men in the Railway Operating Department of the Army, that we have had a new edition printed, which is now ready. In spite of the increased cost of production, both books are still published at 4d. each, postage Id. .

Correspondence. 38

Railway signal lighting. J. H. Cherry
Re article on the above problem, published in the December issue of your journal, the writer lays great stress on the necessity of placing the signals in such a position as to make them easily visible to the drivers. In many of the engines the driver is placed on the right side of the cab. This means the driver has the boiler of the engine between him and the signals. To give the drivers the greatest ease in seeing the signals it would therefore appear to be necessary to place all down signals on the side of the up track, and vice versa. I have also noticed on the London & South-Western svstem many signals do not drop more than ten or fifteen degrees from the horizontal; and that at night the light shows. half red and half reen. This must be a common occurrence in warm weather when the wires get slack. The remedy seems to me to lie in the adoption of the •• somersault" pattern of arm and there can be no mistaking whether the signal is at danger or not.

[Electric battery locomotives]. 38
Re article on the North Staffordshire Ry. electric battery locomotive in the January issue, a reader reminds us ofthe description of a battery locomotive of similar type belonging to the Midland Railway Co., which we published in our issue of January 15th, 1915, and points out that this has now been working for four years at their coal depot at the West India Dock, Poplar, for shunting coal wagons. It has given very satisfactory results

Railway Club. 38
At the meeting fixed for Tuesday, 12 March at 19.30 J. B. Sherlock will read a paper on The Highland Railway, and on 9 April Major N. B. Foster on Methods of Handling Exceptional Traffic. Both meetings will be held at the Club, 92, Victoria Street, Westminster.

Number 307 (15 March 1918)

American locomotives in Japan. 39-41. 6 illustrations
American Locomotive Co. and Baldwin Locomotive Co. products: 4-4-0 No. 1315;  4-6-2 No. 8934; 0-4-4-0 Mallet  compound No. 4600; 0-6-6-0 Mallet  compound No. 9800 all for the Imperial Railways of Japan and 2-cylinder compound 4-4-0 No, 104 for the Kansei Railway and a 2-6-2T for the Kiyushiu Railway.

Great Northern Ry. (Ireland). 41
Special train took Lord Pirrie [KPJ: Chairman of Harland & Wolff and the White Star Line] from Belfast to Dublin in 107 minutes and returned in 109 minutes for the 112½ miles. It was not clear if the runs were non-stop.

Great Western Railway. 41
New 43XX 2-6-0 Nos. 5332-41.

Rebuilt express locomotive No. 1300 Great Northern Railway. 42-3. 2 illustrations
Vulcan compound rebuilt to two-cylinder simple: inside cylinders removed and outside valve gear replaced with that used on K2 class 2-6-0

4-cylinder 6-coupled locomotive, Great Central Railway.  43-4. diagram (side elevation)
Robinson design

Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. 44-7. 5 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0: 351 class No. 351; 0-6-0 355 class No. 356. 4-6-0 362 class Nos. 367 and 363 (the latter with extended smokebox; 2-6-0 as altered 356 class No. 361

Hardening cobaltcrom high speed steel. 47

The lubrication of locomotives. 47-50. diagram
Knowles & Wollaston graphite lubricator

Locomotive boiler cladding. 50-1. 2 diagrams
Keasbey & Mattison Co. system of magnesia blocks manufactured by Newall's Insulation

Fireless locomotives. 51-4. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Andrew Barclay Co. products: diagrams show haulage capaity and charging time

Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting for locomotive works. 54-5. diagram
Carbic acetylene generator

London & South-Western Ry. 55
Eastleigh superheaters have been fitted to 4-4-0 engines Nos. 421 and 463 to 472, and 4-6-0 engines 443 to 447, 458 to 462 and 491.

10-ton covered goods wagon for the Caledonian Railway. 55. illustration
Supplied by Clayton & Shuttleworth Ltd of Lincoln for transport of explosives

Obituary, 56.
J.F. McIntosh died 6 February 1918: very brief. Also death of Stephen Dewar Holden on 7 February

Changeable signs for railway work. 2 illustrations
Ubiquitous changeable sign had not been adopted by railway companies, for without question it serves a very useful purpose, saving labour and what is so important now paper. In addition, the announcements do not deteriorate, while bills for printing are markedly decreased. Another advantage is that various methods can be adopted in accordance with the length of the purse. Once installed, they do not incur further expense, while alterations, announcements and regulations can be displayed at once instead of waiting for the printer. There are two methods which have special advantages for railways, and they are detailed to show the simplicity of working, while the illustrations will amply present their appearance to the reader if the letterpress fails. Both syystems used individual letters hald in place by metal rails or slots into wood.

Number 308 (15 April 1918)

Superheater express locomotive, Midland Gt. Western Ry. of Ireland. 57, illustration.
W.H. Morton C Class 4-4-0 built at Broadstone. No. 6 Kylemore illustrated

Converted goods locomotive, S. E. & C. Ry. 58. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
0-6-0ST No. 685 converted under R.E.L. Maunsell from Wainwright C class 0-6-0

The Whittingham Asylum Railway. 59-60.  4 illustrations
Locomotives No. 1 (0-4-0) and No. 2 (0-4-2) illustrated. Both supplied by A. Barclay, Sons & Co.: WN 304/1888 and WN 1026/1904

H.C. Webster. The arrangement of tubes in locomotive boilers. 60-2. 4 diagrams

Signalling notes. 63-4. 5 illustrations
One wire three-indication block instruments, permissive block instruments, single line electric tablet instruments and metal tablet carriers with hoops

E.L. Ahrons. The locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 65-6. table
Began on page 6. Table sources of standard gauge locomotives decade by decade from 1852 (Britain — majority, France, Germany and USA), 1861 (Britain — majority, France and Belgium), followed by decline from Britain and Germany, Austria and USA taking over. Jingoistic in tone!

Oil and gas furnaces in railway workshops. 67-8
Continued from page 11. Portable rivet forge made by Taite and Carlton is shown in Fig. 17 and consisted of a furnace with upper and lower chambers, similar to those in Fig. 16, but arranged one above the other to economize space. The oil fuel tank was at one end and the burner below it is of the Holden type, which atomized the oil with compressed air. Oil-burning furnaces for all classes of work were made by Burden's, Ltd., Caldervale Works, Bellshill, near Glasgow. They were equipped with an oil gas burner. The arrangements for gasifying the oil were much more complete than in the simple one shown in Fig. 17. Each furnace consists of a combined generator and heating chamber. The oil is led to the atomizer by gravity from the tank and thence to the hot carburettor, into which air is led for a complete combustion. The mixture of gas and oil is then passed on to the heating chamber, where it is ignited, and heats the material placed therein. The waste gases from this chamber pass up through flues to the upper chamber and thus provide heat for the proper gasification of the oil in the carburettor. The temperature of the heating chamber could be regulated at will by the proper manipulation of the oil and air supply. A non-luminous Bunsen flame is secured with complete combustion and entire absence of smoke, and by proper regulation of the relative proportions of air and oil fuel the flame may be reducing, oxidizing or neutral as may be required. A paper on Fuel Oil and its Applications" was presented at a meeting of the Gloucester Engineering Society by A.F. Baillie, who gave data and statistics relative to the use of liquid fuel for steam-raising purposes

Great Northern Ry. 68
The single line of track between Langley Junction, near Stevenage, and Cufney via Hertford, affording an alternative route to London as between Langley Junction and Wood Green was brought into regular use on 4 March for up goods and mineral traffic only, to provide relief to the main line. The distance is 14¾ miles, and as the speed limit over the new line at present was 25 miles per hour, the time allowed for the run was 56 minutes. Four trains per night are worked by this route, Tyer's tablet system of absolute and permissive block for single line working being in operation, the first instance of its adoption in  Britain. A preliminary trial trip by this line was made on the afternoon of 28 February with a train of fifty-seven loaded coal wagons, headed by 0-8-0 engine No. 424 from New England to Ferme Park, and since then an experimental trip has been run with an eighty wagon train. There are two tunnels on the new line, the Ponsbourne, which is 2684 yards in length, about a mile north of Cuffley station, and the Molewood, 347 yards in length, north of Hertford. Ponsbourne is now the longest tunnel on the Great Northern system, the Queensbury tunnel on the Keighley branch having been the longest hitherto.
One of the 0-6-2 radial tanks, No. 1598, used in the suburban service, has been equipped with the Gresley superheater, and is also fitted with the Wakefield mechanical lubricator and anti-carbonizer, by which the oil is delivered into the centre of the strum pipe immediately above the steam chest and there atomized

Fireless locomotives. 68-9. 4 illustrations
Andrew Barclay Caledonia four and six-wheel products for standard gauge; also one four-wheel type in service at Imperial Paper Mills, Gravesend.

The lubrication of locomotives. 70.diagram
Dry graphite lubricator as used on Delaware, Lackawanna and Western RR.

A new vertical band sawing machine. 71. illustration
Advantages of thin blade of the band saw, as compared with circular saw, have led to its adoption for almost every kind of timber sawing, and is one of the main reasons why the band saw is so much in favour to-day and growing in popularity. Illustration shows a new type of vertical band mill which Thomas Robinson & Son, Ltd., woodworking engineers, of Railway Works, Rochdale, have designed to meet the requirements of the railway wagon and carriage building shops

Midland Ry.  71
One of the 2-8-0 goods locomotives of the Somerset & Dorset Ry., No. 85, was stationed at Wellingborough, M.R., and had been working mineral trains to London.

Bagdad Railway. 71. illustration
Photograph of trophy of war which had been placed in the main hall of the Victoria Terminus of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. at Bombay. This is the number and nameplates of the first locomotive of the German Bagdad Railway, captured from the Turks on 11 March 1917, on taking of Bagdad.

London & North Western Ry. 71
New series of 0-8-0 superheater goods engines was being turned out from Crewe, as follows : Nos. 83, 720, 750, 943, 1121, 1313, 2082, 2167, 2172 and 2412. Another series of the same type was in hand, of which the first two would bear Nos. 1129 and 1614.
No. 1949 King Arthur was latest four-cylinder Alfred the Great compound to be converted to Renown class. No. 1066, four-cylinder compound mineral engine, had been converted to simple with superheater. Several others are also being converted in the same way. Nos. 16 and 235, 5-ft. 0-in. 0-6-2 tanks, had been fitted with slide valves. Two of the three L. & N.W. locomotives lent to the Highland Ry. had been returned to Crewe, viz., Nos. 1173 The Auditor (2-4-0), and 3082 (DX goods), both of which were stationed at Elgin. No. 3166 (DX goods) has been working on the H.R. since October 1915, and was still there. The three Cambrian locos, which were working on the L. & N.W. had been returned to Oswestry. These were 4-4-0 engines Nos. 47 and 85 and 0-6-0 No. 73.

Great Western Ry. 72.
We understand some L. & Y. 0-6-0 goods engines were working at Pontypool Road, including Nos. 698 and 715. Several L.B. & S.C. Ry. 0-6-2 tanks were stationed at Swindon. New engines of the 4301 class (43XX 2-6-0) completed at Swindon shops were Nos. 5343 to 5349.

Ambulance train built by the Great Central Ry. for the United States Armies in France. 72-4. 2 illustrations
Illustrations: interiors of sitting sick officer's car and kitchen/dispensar y at end of ward car

The only one-man railroad in America. 74. illustration
Photograph sent by C.W.Young, of Jerome, Idaho, U.S.A. When the railway between Gooding and Jerome, a distance of 24 miles, was closed down through traffic dropping off, Young obtained a lease of the line. Purchasing a road automobile, which he fitted with flanged wheels, he ran the railway entirely by himself, until the lease was terminated by the railway company selling the rails. A four-wheeled trailer was used for carrying goods. Young helped to build the Idaho Southern R.R. and was a conductor on the line for eight years after.

Laxcashire & Yorkshire Ry. 74
During 1917 twenty 0-8-0 coal engines were built at Horwich, fitted with Hughes' arrangement of superheater top and bottom headers, and twenty-eight elements. Previous engines had only twenty elements. The numbers of this last class are 216, 235, 241, 265, 312, 493, 503, 507, 601, 603, 626, 631, 640, 660, 673, 694, 697, 698, 789 and 915. The engines were fitted with two-feed Detroit lubricators and two Ross pop safety valves. A further series of twenty 0-8-0 engines were building. These were not superheaters and had 20-in. diameter cylinders by 26-in. stroke, with a similar size of boiler and firebox as the superheated engines. The following five engines are already in traffic :— Nos. 927and 1357 at Wigan and 1351, 1354 and 1356 at Newton Heath.

Francis J. Blight. 74. illustration (portrait)
Election as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, was linked to the brilliant and genial architect of the Great Northern Railway, E.M. Whitaker as Blight was one of his pupils and responsible assistant in his extensive private practice, which included the ironwork schemes for many notable London buildings, i.e., the Holborn Viaduct Hotel, the Holborn Town Hall, etc. He had previous experience of iron and steel works in the north of England and was prizeman in drawing (all subjects). Science and Art, South Kensington. This technical training and a strong bent for literature gave him the high position in the publishing world which he has occupied for some years as chairman and managing director of Charles Griffin & Co., Ltd., whose standard works in pure and applied science are held in such high repute.

Number 309 (15 May 1918)

Eight-coupled superheater goods engine, Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 75. illustration

Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. 77
Figures 27-30

The West Lancashire Line and its locomotives. 79-82. map.
No locomotives in this introductory part

Fireless locomotives. 82-4. 4 illus., diagr.
Includes photograph of Royal Train hauled by Barclay fireless locomotive at a munitions factory (photograph had been subjected to Soviet style retouching). Mainly about narrow gauge locomotives for exploives factories

Old locomotives, Caledonian Ry.. 87
0-4-2 mineral engine with four-wheel tender: illustrated as No, 367A: Benjamin Connor design built by Neilson in 1872 with 16 x 20in cylnders. 0-4-2BT No. 540 illustrated (but there was also No. 541) acquired from Neilson (locomotives built in 1872) as built for |Northampton & Banbury Railway which had become insolvent.

Number 310 (15 June 1918)

Paper shortage. 93.
Caused by WW1.

New three-cylinder 2-8-0 for mineral traffic, Great Northern Railway. 93-4. illustration, diagram. (side elevation)

Redruth and Chasewater Ry. 94.
Sale of equipment including the locomotives Miner, Smelter and Spitfire. See Volume 7 p. 141 for detailed description

The West Lancashire Line and its locomotives. 95-7. 7 illus., 2 diagrs.

Number 311 (15 July 1918)

The West Lancashire Railway and locomotives. 115-17. 6 illus. (including 1 drawing)
See also addenda p. 135

Redington's patent locomotive valve gear. 118-19. 4 diagrams.
Reproduced below:

Benzo-electric rail motor car: Henri Pieper system. 119. diagram (side, front, rear elevations and plan)
Reproduced above: first used om Belgian Société Nationale des Chemins de fer Vincinaux in 1908 and subsequently in France on Compagnie des Chemins de fer Banlieue between Poissy and St Germain-en-Laye. The vehicles used a dynamotor to store electricity when descending and used this to assist this in climbing.

United States ambulance train constructed at Swindon Works. 122. illus.
Ward car reminiscent of Maunsell designs.

Number 312  (15 August 1918)

New superheater tank engine No. 686, New Zealand Govt. Rys. 125. illustration.

New consolidation locomotive for goods and mineral traffic, Great Central Ry. 126-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
No. 412 with large boiler

Electric accumulator shunting locomotive, Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway. 130. illustration.

Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. 130-3. 6 diagrams (side elevations)
Figures Nos. 36-9: Includes 4-4-2Ts Nos. 32, 2 and 317; and 0-6-4Ts Nos. 201, Negro and 204.

West Lancashire Ry. 135
Addenda: 0-6-2T with Belpaire firebox; total heating surface 1278ft2; grate area 18.6ft2; boiler pressure 170 psi.

The safe working of railway switches. 139-40. 2 diagrams
Including connecting the locking bar to the point lever for facing points

London & North-Western Ry. 140
A further series of 0-8-0 mineral engines (Schmidt superheaters) was in hand at Crewe-Nos. 230, 264, 880, 1071, 1657, 1693, 2066, 2199, 2235 and 2253. They replace engines of the special tank class, now transferred to the duplicate list. Of another series of similar engines the first five will bear Nos. 757, 829, 894, 1107 and 1435. The following Precursor class locomotives had been turned out with superheating apparatus and flat valves, but without extended smokeboxes: Nos. 469 Marmion, 683 Hecate, 802 Gaelic, 1363 Brindley, 1439 Tiger and 2064 Jason. Nos. 1043 and 1883 four-cylinder compound goods engines had been converted to simple and provided with superheaters. The name of 1093 Guy Calthrop (Claughton class) had been changed to Sir Guy Calthrop. Five of the L. & N.W. engines O.A.S. in France were sent to Crewe for repairs: of these Nos. 881, 1098, 1634 and 3334 had been returned, and No. 3408 remained.

North British Ry. 140
The latest five of the Glen class of superheater 4-4-0 superheater passenger engines were Nos. 100 Glen Dochart, 153 Glen Fruin, 241 Glen Ogle, 291 Glen Quoich and 298 Glen Shiel. These were built at Cowlairs in 1917. A series of 0-6-0 superheater goods engines, similar to No. 8 was in course of construction at the Atlas Works of the North British Locomotive Co. Of these the following were out-Nos. 88, 89, 123, 139, 151, 157, 161 and 167. Engines scrapped included No. 1241, Wheatley 4-4-0, and 1148, 2-4-0 with 6 ft. wheels.

Caledonian Ry. 140
Some new 0-6-0 goods engines had been completed at St. Rollox Works: Nos. 300 to 311,. not superheated, but had piston valves above the cylinders, and were fitted with Wakefield mechanical lubricators.

Highland Ry. 140.
Four goods engines of the 4-6-0 type had been supplied by Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. and were dated 1917; bearing Nos. 75 to 78 inclusive. They had superheaters, outside cylinders, with Walschaert valve gear, and mechanical lubricators to the cylinders, valve chests and axle-boxes. Nearly all the locomotives lent to this line by other railway companies had now been returned, but among those still at work lncluded N.B.R. No. 614, 0-6-0, and C.R. No. 56, 4-6-0.

Obituary. 140
Death took place at Inverness on 12 July of J. F. Robinson, M.I.C.E., M.I.M.E., a director of the North British Locomotive Co. Mr. Robinson was for many years managing director of Sharp, Stewart & Co., Ltd., prior to the amalgamation.

British Government approved appointment by the Persian Government of J.A. Hill, to be Consul at Sheffield. The new Consul had wide commercial experience in England and foreign countries, and had valuable knowledge of mining and railway work, which will be of service to him in handling Persian commercial interests and undertakings. Mr. Hill is head of the well-known firm, J. & P. Hill, Ordnance Works, Sheffield, who have rendered great service in producing war material for the British Government and our Allies during WW1.

Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd., of Sheffield. 140.
Returned to them as a matter of special interest a railway wagon bearing spring as a sample of a number made by the Company as far back as 1894, and although these springs had been in constant use, they were still as effective as when new, and still retained in commission. On testing this sample spring at their Grimesthorpe Works it was found to be standing at precisely the original camber and had not taken the slightest permanent set 'in the twenty-four years' service. It was scragged home several times and again came back to the same camber as when first supplied.

Trade publications. 140

Edgar Allen & Co., Ltd., of Sheffield,
Two nicely printed folders descriptive of varieties of special tool-steel of their manufacture. That known as Alleri's Red Label is a tungsten alloy crucible steel in which the tungsten and carbon contents are so proportioned that qualities of great hardness and toughness areimparted to tools, etc., made from this material. It is specially recommended for twist-drills, taps, milling cutters, reamers, etc.
Where extreme accuracy is demanded, as for instance, in dies, gauges, punches, and master-tools, the maker's "K9 Oil-hardening steel" is recommended. This steel is remark- able for uniformity both as to chemical and physical constitu- tion, and for great fineness of grain. These qualities practically eliminate all contraction and expansion ordinarily set up by the hardening process, and tools of the highest accuracy may therefore be hardened and tempered to any extent without danger of variation in size or contour.
Simple directions are given for heat treatment, the proper temperatures being stated in both the Centigrade and Fahrenheit scales. There are also good photographs of typical fractures which well illustrate the remarkable homogeneity of grain throughout the specimen.

Number 313  (14 Septeber 1918)

New 4-6-0 superheater goods locomotives, Highland Railway. 141. illustration.
No. 75 illustrated: sometimes, incorrectly, called Clan goods

Obituary. 141.
Henry James Pryce

Light locomotives for service in France. 143-4. illustration
60cm gauge 0-6-0T with 6.75 x 10.75 cylinders and 1ft 10in coupled wheels manufactured by Barclay under supervision of Palmer, Rendel & Tritton

The "Ruston" oil locomotive. 144-5. 3 illustrations
Includes one in a powder factory

Sparks. 149-51 6 diagrs.
Saprks and means to arrest them: no invntors mentioned

The Freshwater, Yarmouth and Newport Railway. 152-3. 5 illustrations
From 20 July 1889 when the railway opened it was worked by the Isle of Wight Central Railway, but in 1913 the agreement was terminated and new motive power and rolling stock had to be obtained. No. 1 was a Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST (WN 1555/1902) and No. 2 was an ex-Brighton Terrier No, 46 Newington which had been sold to the LSWR and given a Drummond boiler. Four wheeled carriages were obtained from the Manchester South Junction & Altringham Railway: these were brought to St. Helen's Harbour by brage (Photograph depicts this event). There was also a Drewry rail motor car.

Presentation at Barrow to Mr. W.F. Pettigrew. 156.
A large gathering of Furness Ry. officials and employees assembled in the Board Room at the General Offices, Barrow, on Tuesday, 13 August 13, for a presentation to W F. Pettigrew, M.LCE., M.LM.E., the late locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent, who retired on 31 March 2018 after twenty-one years' service with the Company. F.J. Ramsden, J.P. (chairman of the Board of Directors) presided. The presentation consisted of an antique sideboard and furniture, the plate bearing the recipient's monogram, the date of his service -1897-1918, and the following inscription: "Presented to Mr. William Frank Pettigrew, M.LC.E., M.LM.E., as a token of esteem by the directors, officers and staff on his retirement from railway service, March; 1918."
The Chairman, in making the presentation, stated "We are met here to-day on a very interesting occasion, although perhaps rather a sorrowful one. In speaking of the locomotive department one's mind naturally goes back to the first loco. superintendent, the late Mr. Richard Mason, and also to the late Mr. T. Sutton, carriage and wagon superintendent, the two departments at that time being separate, When Mr. Pettigrew was appointed it was decided to combine the two departments. Mr. Pettigrew found all sorts of interesting old engines working on the line when he came to Barrow, and it was not very long before one of the first locomotives they had found its place near Barrow Central Station. To meet the increasing demands of traffic, it was necessary to design larger and more powerful locomotives and great progress had been made in this direction under Mr. Pettigrew's supervision. Similar improvements had also been accomplished in the coaching stock, the old six-wheeled, and in many cases four-wheeled, vehicles had been replaced by bogie stock with all refinements. In addition Mr. Pettigrew was subsequently put in charge of the mechanical department of the harbour department, taking the place of the late Admiral Barnett, and under his superintendence steamers were built for the Barrow and Fleetwood service which were always satisfactory and a source of pleasure to a large number of the travelling public during the summer months.
The speaker also referred to the excellent work Mr. Pettigrew had done outside the railway on the Higher Education Committee of the Town Council, he being the F.R. representative on that committee. Quite recently he (Mr. Pettigrew) was placed on a sub-committee of the Technical School and his advice had been most valuable. Mr. Pettigrew had also done and is doing very excellent work in connection with the North Lonsdale Hospital, with which institution he had been connected for a considerable period, having been for many years chairman of the House Committee.
Although Mr. Pettigrew is leaving Barrow shortly for Somersetshire, they all hoped he would never forget the many happy years he had spent in this district, as they in Barrow would not forget, and all wished him the best of health and every happiness during his well-earned retirement and that the same good wishes be extended to the whole of his family. Mr. Pettigrew, who was cordially received, thanked the Chairman and those present for the kind remarks and the manner in which they had been received. He found great difficulty in finding words to express his gratitude and felt that he would just have liked to have said thank you and sat down. He also thanked the directors, officers and staff for their valuable testimonial, which would ever remind him of the many happy times he had spent amongst them.
Looking back to the time he joined the service of the Furness Railway he was reminded that although the Company had been in existence for fifty years there had only been one locomotive superintendent, and now, with an existence of over seventy years, there have only been two locomotive superinten- dents, and he thought no other railway company could boast of such a record. Referring to the many improvements which had been carried out during his tenure of office, Mr. Pettigrew spoke of the increase in the number of locomotives and the increased haulage capacity of the various types, which in most cases had practically doubled.
Again, in the way of coaching stock they had kept up with the times; in fact, they were one of the first railway companies to adopt the use of electric light in their carriages. The wagon stock had also been very much modernized and brought up to date, thus increasing the carrying capacity to deal with the much heavier traffic now dealt with. In conclusion, he again thanked the directors, officers and staff who had very kindly subscribed to the testimonial. The proceedings terminated with a hearty vote of thanks to the Chairman, proposed by Mr. T. Jackson, goods manager and dock superintendent, to which Mr. Ramsden replied.

Messrs. John I. Thornycroft & Co., Ltd., 156
Notified that in consequence of the Government having commandeered their offices at Caxton House, Westminster, they are removing to new offices at 10, Grosvenor Place, London, S.W.1. The action of certain Government Departments in this, and in other similar instances, creating delay and inconvenience to firms engaged in urgent work of national importance on behalf of other Departments, casts an interesting sidelight on the administrative methods characteristic of our Government.

Spring making. 156. diagram
A correspondent writes :-" Referring to vour interesting article in the May issue, I would point out that the best way of making the 'eye' of the top plates is thus: The end of the plate brought round should not be allowed to touch the top plate at the point A, but be left quite clear with a space of at least 1/16-in. . It is found, when the plates do touch, there is a tendency lto fracture along the line of contact."

Institution of Locomotive Engineers.156
On 3 September 1918 members visited the works of the Leeds Forge Co., Ltd. On the 24 September H. Kelway Bamber, M.V.O., sceduled to read his paper, " Coal and mineral traffic on the railways of the United Kingdom," before the members of the Leeds Centre at the Philosophical Hall, Park Lane, Leeds.

Number 314  (15 October 1918)

Consolidation locomotives for the French Midi & State railways. 157-8. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (including side elevation).
American Locomotice Co. 2-8-0

Great Central Ry. 158.
4-4-0 No. 429 Sir Alexander Henderson renamed Sir Douglas Haig. Sacré 2-4-0 No. 213B at Anneesley working on shunting and on colliers' trains.

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 159-60. illustration
Drummond Castle class

Preparing an engine for the road. 160-1
Dutiers performed by driver and fireman tgo ensure that locomotive is fit to haul its train, including oiling, fire, water, fuel and locomotive are correct.

Indian Rys. standard wagons. 161.
Indian Railway Board recommended that all future broad and metre gauge open and covered wagons should conform to designs aprroved by the Indian Railway Conference Association.

Through service. 161
Penang to Bangkok started 1 July 1918.

Cast iron piston road packing. 161. illustration
Martell Packing Co. of Elyria, Ohio

Radial drilling machines for locomotive boiler shops. 162-4. 4 illustrations
Asquith Ltd of Halifax

Military workshop trains for use overseas. 164-7. 4 illustrations, plan
Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. 60 cm gauge train for Ministry of Munitions. Included a generator car.

Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. 166; 168-9. 5 diagrams (side elevations).
0-6-0T and 0-6-2T : Ivatt 207 class  introduced in 1887 (used at Cork mainly for shunting); Ivatt Nos. 201 and 202, similar to previous but introduced in 1895 and caopable of working passennger trains at North Wall and Amiens Street; and Coey version of design iontroduced in 1902. Also 0-6-2T built by North British Locomotive Co. Nos. 211-214.  Nos. 211 and 212 were converted to 0-6-0 tender locomotives. Mausell rebuilt a class 203 0-6-4T No. 204 to an 0-6-0T in 1814.

Valve gear for three-cylinder mineral engine No. 461, G.N.R. 169-71. 2 diagrams.
Reproduction from patent for Gresley derived valve gear and includes comments made by Dalby in Engineer, 26 July 1918.

Breakdown van and crane, Jamaican Governmeent Rys. 172. illustration
Built by Industrial Works of Bay City, Michigan

Wagons for live stock and chilled meat traffic for the South African Rys. 172
W.S. Sim, advisory engineer for the Union of South Africa, sends us a copy of a letter received from D.H. Hendrie, chief mechanical engineer of the South African Rys., explaining the reason for the somewhat unusual cross section of the cattle wagons described and illustrated in our May issue. He points out that from certain parts of the Union and Rhodesia, cattle of unusual size are being despatched and it has been found impossible to load these beasts crosswise in the older type of cattle wagon, which had a maximum width of 7 ft. 9½ in. inside. Owing to the restrictions imposed by the standard adopted for fixed structures; such as goods platforms, it was found impossible to increase the width. over solebars and headstocks, and consequently it was only possible by adopting the sloping sides to give the additional width inside. By the new arrangement, shown in LM May 15th, the vehicles will accommodate the largest beasts offering, giving as it does an inside width of 8 ft. 3 in. at 3 ft. 6 in. above floor level.

Great Western Ry. 172
Nos. 2856-2865 were new 2-8-0 mineral locomotives. A new shed code was recently adopted consisting of letters representing the shed, which painted inside the cab on the driver's side of the footplate. Amongst the sheds so far noted were the following: PDN, Paddington; SHL, Soutball; RDG, Reading; DID, Didcot; PLY, Plymouth; NA, Newton Abbot; BL, Bristol; OXF, Oxford; NPT, Newport; PPL, Pontypool Road; EXE, Exeter; ADR, Aberdare; CHR, Chester, and WOS, Worcester. No. 3434 of the Bulldog class (formerly 3724) has been named Joseph Shaw: this engine had the Westinghouse brake.

North Staffordshire Ry. 172
There were twelve 0-6-4 tank engines in service. Of these four are of the new F class—numbered 114-117—the remainder were class C, bearing Nos. 4, 5, 30, 31, 53, 70, 173 and 174. During the summer the North Stafford resumed through running over the L. & N.Ry. to North Wales, and on the Saturday before August Bank Holiday three large 4-4-0s—Nos. 38, 87 and 170 were seen at Llandudno Junction.

North-Eastern Railway. 172
The following 4-4-0 engines of the 38 class had been scrapped: Nos. 38, 112, 186, 231, 234, 385, 426, 1492, 1494, 1495, 1498 and 1503. There were still some sixteen or seventeen of them in service.

Number 315  (15 November 1918)

Mallet locomotives for the South African Railways. 173-4. illustration
2-6-6-0 Mallet compounds supplied by several companies. No. 1673 (illustrated) and seven others supplied by American Locomotive Company's Montreal works.

Contractors' locomotive for the Yorkshire Iron & Coal Co. 174. illustration 
Several locomotives are owned by the Yorkshire Iron & Coal Co. for use at their collieries at Ardsley, near Leeds, and we illustrate herewith their most recent acquisition. This is a large four-wheeled saddle tank engine of the latest standard design of Messrs. Peckett & Sons, Ltd., of Bristol, the well-known builders of tank locomotives adapted for contractors' work and industrial purposes and for small and private railways. The engine illustrated indicates most of the standard features of Peckett engines, with copper firebox and brass tubes. War-time conditions have, however, necessitated the adoption of a cast-iron chimney top instead of copper, and other improved details are the pop safety valves on the dome cover. 0-4-0ST

Great Northern Rly. 174
All the famous Ivatt Singles had been removed from service and broken up, and thus another line has ceased to use Single wheeled engines. It is interesting to note that four old 0-4-2 tanks are still at work—Nos. 116a, 117a, 502 and 632.

Midland Rly. 174
New 0-6-0 superheated goods were running, Nos. 3867-3871, and stationed at Toton. Nos. 88 and 91, Johnson 2-4-0, had been broken up. It is reported that a new series of 2-8-0 mineral locomotives are on hand at Derby. No. 754 (Johnson 4-4-0) has been rebuilt with superheater and extended smokebox. Nos. 561-2 (superheater 4-4-0's) had been transferred front London to Nottingham and 401 (4-4-0) was stabled at York.

Midland & Great Northern Rly. 174
No. 46 (large 4-4-0) was working on the Midland Rly., being stationed at Leicester.

South-Eastern & Chatham Rly. 174
Several old Kirtley 4-4-0s had been removed from service.

London & South-Western Ry. 174
No. 0161—an old Adams 0-6-0 goods—was recently observed in Mesopotamia by a correspondent painted in quite a gay medley of colours.

Number 316  (14 December 1918)

Rebuilt mineral locomotive, Great Nortrhern Railway. 189. illustration
Gresley modified Ivatt 0-8-0 (No. 420 illustrated) with larger boiler of type fitted to 2-6-0

New goods locomotive for the Caledonian Railway. 190-1. illustration, diagram.
Pickersgill Class 300 0-6-0: photograph of No. 303; diagram of piston valves.

Four-cylinder express locomotive, Dutch State Railways. 191-2. illustration
Werkspoor series of 4-6-0

Small tank locomotives, Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 192. 2 illustrations
Two small locomotives were both used in the construction of the branch line from Armagh to Keady, and on completion of the contract were purchased by the Great Northern Ry. of Ireland from the contractors and put to work at Belfast. The nameplates Kells and Mullingar were removed, and both engines painted the standard colours, black with vermilion lining, and numbered respectively 203 and 204. The four-wheeled engine was used with a train of ten or twelve tip wagons at the cuttings and clay-banks, while No. 204 was usually on ballasting and permanent way work for the engineer's department. Both engines were built by the Hunslet Engine Co., of Leeds—the Kells in 1904 and Mullingar about 1889. The apparatus to the rear of the nameplate on Kells was a water supply leading to the wheels for cleansing the wheel flanges and rails.

London & North-Western Ry. 192.
Twenty new 0-8-0 superheater goods engines completed at Crewe: Nos. 230, 264, 880, 1071, 1657, 1693, 2066, 2199, 2235, 2253, 757, 829, 894, 1107, 1435, 1495, 1785, 2054, 2160 and 2236, and a further ten were in hand, the numbers of the first five of which were given in our last issue. No. 1261, 18-in. goods, had been scrapped, this being the first of the class to go. Its number has been allotted to a new 0-8-0 superheater goods. Several four-cylinder compound (0-8-0) goods engines were being .converted to simple, including Nos. 437, 1094 and 1883, all of which would be, provided with superheaters. No. 1937 Superb had been converted to simple, i.e., to Renown class.

London & South-Western Ry. 192. 
The description of the new 4-6-0 express locomotive No. 736, in our last issue, the cylinder dimensions by a misprint were given as 22 in. by 26 in. stroke. The figures for the stroke should have been 28 in. A reader also draws our attention to the fact that these engines are about 2 tons less in weight than the 482-491 class, but this is due no doubt to the smaller boiler fitted-5 ft. and 5 ft. 43/8 in., instead of a uniform 5 ft. 6 in. diameter.

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry.192.
Work has been suspended on the further series of five Baltic type tank engines for some time now, and we understand ten 2-6-0 tender engines will be finished at Brighton works before any other new engines are constructed.

R.W.A. Salter. The Central Argentine Railway. 193-5. 5 illustrations
Rosario Express was the premier train in terms of speed and comfort. Large dining car took advantage of broad gauge. Also picture and brief description of suburban electric trains to Retiro from Tigre.

Wood burning locomotive, Philippine Railway. 196. illustration
The cost of coal imported from China, Japan or Australia had escalated because of WW1 and the railway turned to local timber and found that it was less injurious to boilers.

Superheated steam troubles. 196-8.
Leakage from the superheater elements, lower steam pressures claimed as advantage, piston valves, but problems with rings, essential lubrication.

A machine for testring spring buckles. 198-9. diagram

Spark arrester, Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway. 199. diagram.
Designed A. Whitaker: patent-type diagrams.

Shunting locomotives. 199
Indian experiences: use of old locomotives; increasing use of hump yards, screw couplings.

Improved suspension gear for train lighting dynamos. 200. diagram.

Locomotives of three gauges in one shop. 200. illustration.
2ft 6in, metre gauge and 5ft 6in in India

Boiler of Bagdad Ry locomotive captured from the Germans after dismantling. 201. illustration.
Sent to Parel shops of Great Indian Peninsular Railway for repair following damage by dynamite.

North-Eastern Ry. — Waskerley. 201
On Stanhope and Tyne line between Burnhill Junction and Parkhead Junction. At 1474ft above sea-level was highest point on NER

Train disaster in Holland on 13 September 1918. 201
Following heavy rain the morning express from Benthein to Amsterdam was derailed as the embankment beneath the train collapsed and the train ran into the bridge crossing the Merwede Canal near Weesp. Fifty paasengers were killed and more than seventy injured. The footplate crew escaped alive, but injured.

Pulverized coal fuel. 201
Great Indian Peninsular Railway experimenting in use of pulverized coal as oil difficult to obtain in India.

North London Ry. 201.
4-4-0T No. 127 shunting at Chester General station. Nos. 82 and 90 were working at Crewe.

[Repair of Belgian locomotives]. 201
Belgian State Railways 0-6-0 locomotives being repaired at Stratford, Crewe and Swindon.

[Elswick Works]. 201
Elswick Works of Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. to build locomotives and rolling stock.

Steam road vehicles: the underlying elements of theory and practice in the use of the steam wagon. L.M. Meyrick-Jones. Iliffe & Sons.