Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage
and Wagon Review
Volume 23 (1917)
Key file to other Volumes
Number 293 (15 January 1917)
Examination of periodical's progress
Great Western Ry. 1.
Nos. 5300 -5304 entry into service.
New superheater locomotives, Highland Ry. 1.
No. 73 Snaigow: piston valve locomotive with tail rods.
R.W. Murray Chairman Avonside Engine Co. 1
Died Falmouth 2 January 1917
Rebuilt express locomotive, G.N.R. of Ireland. 2. 2 illustrations
American tank engines for the British Government. 2-3. illustration
Baldwin 0-4-0ST with bar frames, 14 x 22in cylinders. 3ft 6in coupled wheels, balanced slide valves, steel firebox, 760ft2 total heating surface and 180 psi boiler pressure.
Narrow-gauge locomotives for the French Government. 3-4. diagram (side &
Kerr Stuart 0-6-0T 600mm gauge for working in Mauritius with 215 x 280mm cylinders.
Superheater tank locomotive, North Staffordshire Railway. 4
0-6-4T No. 114 designed J.H. Adams with 5ft 6in coupled wheels, 21ft2 grate area and 1274ft2 total heating surface.
A mixed gauge locomotive. 5. 2 illustrations
Built by Hunslet in 1870 for Oude & Rohilkund Railway to run on 2ft 6in, metre and 5ft 6in gauges
North Eastern Railway. 5.
Latest 4-4-2 Atlantics: Nos. 2205, 2206 and 2207.
London Brighton & South Coast Railway. 5
2-6-0 Nos. 342-6 entered service
The old locomotives of the Lancashire & Yorkshire
Previous part in Volume 22 pp. 200-2.Hirst 0-6-0 with 5ft coupled wheels, 17 x 24in cylinders, 140 psi boilr pressure. Originally with Naylor safety valves. Barton Wright added domes. Illustrations No. 527 domeless and 718 with dome.
The lubrication of locomotives. 7-9. 4 diagrams
Menno grease cups for eccentrics.
Clarence Becker. Combining indicator diagrams. 9-11.
See also letter from J.E. Johnson on pp. 61-2
Pennsylvania R.R. brake trials on modern passenger trains. 11.
In conjunction with the Westinghouse Brake Co., the Pennsylvania R.R conducted on their Atlantic City line an extensive series of brake tests with a train of twelve all-steel vestibule cars, weighing about 54 tons each, drawn by a Pacific type locomotive of the K28 clas. The weight of the train, including the locomotive, would be over 800 English tons, with a length of 1,040 ft. The introduction of heavier trains necessitated an improvement in the braking arrangements, if the speed standard was to be maintained. With this object in view most elaborate experiments were made, extending over a period of three months: 691 stops were made at various speeds up to 80 miles per hour. To apply the brake instantaneously throughout the 12-car train, an arrangement of electric control of the compressed air has been perfected, so that the application valves on all the vehicles are operated in two seconds after the driver turns his handle. It was to test also how the new brake compared with the. old under similar conditions that the P.R.R. made these trials. The shortest stop of the locomotive and train of twelve cars from a speed of 60 miles per hour was made in 1,021-ft. and at 80 miles per hour in 2,197-ft. The line over which the tests were made is level, approached by a slightly falling grade for some twenty-five miles and therefore very favourable for high speeds. An emergency stop of a 70-ft. car, with no locomotive attached, running at 60 miles per hour, was made in 725-ft. Four types of brakes were fitted, the equipment being designed to produce a service stop with 90 per cent, braking power and emergency stops with 150 per cent. The reports of the experiments fill a volume of 401 pages. Curves showing the building up of the pressure for each car, with the different brakes, are given, also diagrams comparing the length of stop with the various equipments tested at varying speeds and percentages of braking power. The co-efficient of rail friction was tested by a special machine, but the results obtained were not consistent. Deceleration curves showed that the brake block friction increased as the speed was reduced. A special machine was used for the tests and the temperatures were measured by thermo-junctions. It is argued that the principal resistance of the shoe being primarily due to the tearing away of particles, which is easier at high temperatures, the aim should be to keep the mean temperature of the shoe as low as possible, which would cause less warping
Building a locomotive boiler. 11-13. 2 illustrations.
Wicksteed plate sawing machine.
North Western State Railway of India. 13-14. 3 illustrations.
Hygenic finishing for railway carriages. 14-15. illustration, diagram
Smoothness was sought
Train lighting notes. 15
Liquid fuel for locomotives. 15-17.
1. Reduction in the cost and weight of fuel which, in the case of one Mexican railway, totalled a 40 per cent, reduction in cost and 30 per cent. reduction in weight during the year.
2. Saving in cost of handling with the absence of wastage of coal in transport.
3. Absence of smoke, ash, or clinker ; assuring cleanliness in passenger service.
4. Complete adjustment of fuel to load without arduous physical labour.
5. Elimination of camp fires with their consequent expensive claims for liabilities.
6. Rapidity in steam raising, which can be done inside 40 minutes.
7. Higher evaporative efficiency.
8. Increased mileage on one load of fuel.
Holden system mentioned, including use on Cromer run, but mainly American
R.H. Burnett on 13 December 1916: born Ardross Ross-shire
The Railway Signal and Permanent Way Engineer's Pocket Book. London:
Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd., 18
In these days of higher technical and scientific education, this little volume should prove very useful. It is divided into three main sections, the first of which deals with signalling and the second with permanent way matters, while the third part contains pages of squared paper and tables of British measures with their metric equivalents ; these latter are sure to be in demand, if we are to make any serious endeavour to capture enemy trade in the near future. In the first section practically all details of construction and their application in actual daily working are enumerated and explained in clear phraseology. The second part gives useful data and stresses for track and engineering works, durability of materials, and so forth. Prominent place is given to the more important Board of Trade regulations and restrictions that affect railway engineers. We could wish that some mention had been made of the M.D.M. system of route signalling now in use in France, but perhaps this will be dealt with in subsequent editions. Altogether, the book may be recommended to Signal and Permanent Way Engineers and to others who are interested in these subjects. The paper, type and binding are alike excellent ; and the illustrations and diagrams, of which there are a large number, are well selected and clearly drawn. The book is of handy size and shape for the pocket, and has a serviceable binding.
Railway Map of the British Isles, published by George Philip
& Son, Ltd. 18
Each railway system is shown in a distinct colour, while large scale insets show very clearly the system of the chief manufacturing and industrial districts, viz., London, Lancashire and Yorkshire, Midlands, Newcastle and Middlesbrough, Edinburgh and Glasgow. It measures 33 in. by 43 in., the scale being 18 miles to an inch.
Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 18
On 9 December a paper was read by Smith Mannering, member, Brighton, on Locomotive Fireboxes [Paper 79: no abstract],. W.A. Lelean, being in the chair. Numerous drawings were exhibited by the author, as well as specimens of stays, tubes, and portions of firebox plates, etc. Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson (Baldwin Loco. Works) opened the discussion, which was continued by J. Clayton (S.E. & C. Ry.), Henbrey (L.B. & S.C.), Vaughan (L. & S.W. Ry.) and the Chairman.
The Council have pleasure in announcing that A.D. Jones, M.I.Mech.E., Out-door Loco. Supt., S.E. & C. Ry., has accepted the invitation to become President for 1917. Owing to the sudden death of Mr. R. H. Burnett, a Vice- President, there will be no election of officers, and the Officers and Council will be as follows : Vice-Presidents.H. Kelway Bamber, M.V.O. (The Leeds Forge Co., London) ; W. A. Lelean (Westminster); M. F. Ryan (Assist. Chief Mech. Eng., L. & S.W. Ry.); R. P. C. Sanderson (Baldwin Loco. Works, Westminster) ; C. A. Suffield and R. Wright (Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., Ltd., Manchester).
Council.A. R. Bennett, Westminster ; G. F. Burtt (Loco. Dept., L.B. & S.C., Brighton); J. Clayton (S.E. & C. Ry., Loco. Dept.) ; A. C. C. Damant (C.M.E. Dept., G.E. Ry., Stratford) ; H. W. Dearberg (Loco. Dept., Beckton Chemical Works) ; R. Dougal (Messrs. Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., London) ; J. F. Gairns (The Railway News) ; A. T. Houldcroft (The Leeds Forge); J. M. Jackson (Loco. Dept., L.B. & S.C. Ry., Brighton) ; G. Mitchell (Vacuum Brake Co.) ; J. Rodgers (Loco. Dept, L.B. & S.C. Ry., Brighton) ; D. Sheppy (Loco. Dept, S.E. & C. Ry., Ashford) ; F. Turner (Mech. Eng. Dept, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich) ; and W. Vaughan (Loco. Dept., L. & S.W. Ry., Twickenham).
The annual general meeting will take place on Saturday, 27 January 1917, at 3-0 p.m., at Caxton Hall, Westminster, when the new President, Mr. A. D. Jones, will give an address.
Railway Club. 18
The next meeting will be held on Tuesday, 13 February , at 92, Victoria Street, Westminster, at 7 p.m., when H. L. Hopwood will read a paper, The Great Northern Ry. west of Grantham.
Number 294 (15 February 1917)
4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives, Caledonian Railway.
R. & W. Hawthorn Class 938: Highland Railway not mentioned, although introduction of Belpaire firebox to Caledonian Railway is noted: six in service working passenger trains and fast goods between Glasgow and Carlisle.
Standardization of French rolling stock. 19.
New company, Le Matériel Roulant formed to manufacture rolling stock and locomotives quickly to meet post-war demands
New engines for the New Zealand Government Rys. 20. 2 illustrations.
4-6-4T built Hillside, South Island: superheated with 3ft 9in coupled wheels, 18¼ x 22in cylinders, 16.9ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure. 4-8-0 No. 627 built A. & G. Price of Thames with 3ft 6½in coupled wheels, 17 x 22in cylinders, 1166ft2 total heating surface, 16.8ft2 grate area and 175 psi boiler pressure. H.H. Jackson was CME of the New Zealand Government Railways.
Petrol-electric passenger car Dublin and Blessington
Tramway. 20. illustration.
Designed by J.P. Tierney, consultant electrical engineer to the company
American narrow-gauge works locomotive. 21-2. illustration.
H.K. Porter 2ft 6in gauge 0-4-0ST for Carnegie Steel with 3ft 4in coupled wheels, 17 x 20in cylinders, 945.7ft2 total heating surface, 18.75ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure.
James Stirling: fifth son of Robert Stirling. Loaomotive Superintendent of South Eastern Railway between 1878 and 1898 (retired when SER and LCDR became jointly operated). Prior to that he had been employed on the Glasgow & South Western Railway where he rose to be Locomotive Superintendent, apart from a brief period early in his career with Sharp Stewart & Co.
Touring car converted to rail motor, Queensland Rys. 22. illustration.
Napier touring car converted at Ipswich Shops.
Narrow gauge goods locomotive. Indian State Rys. 23. diagram (side
2-8-2 for Kalabagh Bannu 2ft 6in gauge lines; built by North British Locomotive Co. under inspection of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.
New express locomotives for the Holland Railway
Co. 23-5. illustration, 3 diagrams
Powerful inside-cylinder 4-4-0 type with novel bogie and crank setting: see letter from P.C. Dewhurst on page 128
Great Central Ry. 25
No. 1016 (Robinson 4-4-0) and N0. 111 (573 class goods 0-6-0) had been rebuilt with larger boilers and superheaters
Great Northern Ry. 25
Nos. 1657-9 completed the 1650-9 batch of 2-6-0 express freight engines. Stirling 0-4-2 mixed traffic locomotive No. 502A had been rebuilt with a domed boiler. No. 1139, Ivatt 0-6-0 had been fitted with a larger boilers. Trains of eighty wagons were being hauled by the eight-coupled mineral engines, whilst 75 wagons was the new load limit for the 2-6-0s
4-6-2 compound superheater express locomotive, Paris Lyons and Mediterranean
Ry. 26-9. table
See Volume 21 Issue 245 for description of loomotive. Test results of running between Laroche and Dijon
New 4-6-0 type express passenger engine, Great Southern & Western
Railway. 29; 30-1. diagram
Detailed working drawing, plan and section. Watson design. Photograph in Issue for August 1916.
Indian Railway Conference Association. 29
Indian Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent' Committee held their annual meetings at Agra from 4 to 9 December 1916. Discussed application of vacuum brake to freight trains and also strenthening of couplings. A.C. Carr was elected Chairman.
Railway Club. 29
13 March meeting at 92 Victoria Street: C.H. Palmer to read paper on Single line working on British Railways.
The lubrication of locomotives. 32-5.
Figures 30-9. slidebars. Hainsworth Patent (GB 4761/1877) with Weatherburn pendulum lubricator; Threlfall's pendulum lubricator and Bramwell's trimmings for bogies;
North British Ry. 35
The latest 0-6-0 superheater goods engines were Nos. 433 to 437, built at Cowlairs Works. Five 0-6-2 tanks had been built at the Atlas Works of the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., Nos. 47, 54, 61, 65 and 69. They were similar to other engines of the same type which had been running for some years, having cylinders 18 ins. by 26 ins., and coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 ins. diameter. The following Holmes goods engines (18 ins. by 26 ins. cylinders) had been rebuilt:- Nos. 45, 623, 649, 652, 653, 664, 667, 669, 688, 692, as well as Wheatley goods (17 ins. by 24 ins.) Nos. 1122, 1132, 1140, 1142, 1189 and 1223. The whole of the fifteen 4-4-2 superheater tanks were at work-Nos. 438 to 452. The engines involved in the disastrous collision near Ratho, on the 3 January were No. 874 Dunedin on the Edinburgh and Glasgow train, and No. 421 Jingling Geordie (4-4-0), the light engine off the Dalmeny train.
Curious wheel fracture. 35. illustration
A correspondent sends us a photograph, which we reproduce, of an iron wheel skeleton. which failed in service. Evidently the front "washer" or "dab" of metal was never really welded on. The wheel apparently was manufactured some years ago, before hydraulic presse were employed for such work.
The Rhymney Ry. and its engines. 36-8. illustration, 5 diagrams (side
Nos. 4-6 were 0-6-2T type mainly itended for passenger work and were supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. (WN 3372-4/1909). They had 5ft coupled wheels and 18 x 26in cylinders and a total heating surface of 1373.5ft2. They did not have Belpaire fireboxes. They were subsequently modied with changes to the leading axle suspension. In 1910/11 a further series of 0-6-2Ts were supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. and by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. WN 3387-96 and 946-51, respectively. Four 0-6-0Ts were supplied by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. WN 846-9/1908. They shared the cylinder size of the larger locomotives but had a reduced heating surface (1268ft2). In 1907 Hudswell, Clarke & Co. supplied two engine units with 3ft 6in coupled wheels to power rail motors (steam railcars) built by Cravens. In 1910 No.1 was converted into an 0-6-0WT and fitted with a larger bunker. In 1914 Hudswell, Clarke & Co. supplied further 0-6-2Ts similar to the earlier locomotives but with Belpaire fireboxes: these were WN 1063-5.
Trade with Russia. 38
Basil Courtney & Co. aimed to enhance trade with Russia: KPJ: wonder what happened in October
New style of decoration for dining cars: Chicgo, Burlington and Quincy R.R.
38. 2 illustrations
Seemed to be moving toards art deco style
Caledonian Ry. 38
Six freight 4-6-0 with outside cylinders under construction at St. Rollox
Portable electric grinding machine. 39-40. 7 illustrations
Dumore supplied Canadian-American Machinery Co.
Number 295 (15 March 1917)
Six-coupled superheater express locomotives: Caledonian
Ry. 41. illustration
Pickersgill Class 60 4-6-0. Mian dimensions: No. 62 illustrated. See correction on page 66
Underground Electric Rys. of London. 41.
Bakerloo Tube to commence running over LNWR electrified lines between Willesden and Watford on 2 April
Great Northern Ry. 41.
Two 0-8-2T engines, Nos. 131 and 136, had been fitted with superheaters and were working between Colwick and New England (Peterborough) 47 miles.
Mogul goods engine, New South Wales Government Railways. 42.
With 4ft 0½in coupled wheels and 20 x 26in cylinders built at Eveleigh workshops.
North Wales Narrow Gauge Ry. 42
Passenger service entirely withdrawn "last autumn".
Persia's first railway. 42, . illustration
Photograph of Teheran to Shah Abdul Azim line which covered 6 miles and text describes as a sort of tramway. Other lines, including link with Russia and work on line from India are also described.
Electrification of the North Eastern Ry. between Shildon and Newport.
1500V dc. Merz & McLellan consulting engineers.
New Year's Honours: Baronet: Sir Charles Wakefied, late Lord Mayor of London and head of C.C. Wakefield & Co; Knights: V.L. Raven chief mechanical engineer North Eastern Railway asnd superintendent of Royal Arsenal, Woolwich since 1915; William Lorimer, chairman North Britsh Locomotive Co. and Steel Company of Scotland.
Railway Club. 44.
S.Y. Knight to read two papers on Electric railways of London: the first on the deep level tube railways and the second on the District and Metropolitan Railways.
The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 44.
Annual General Meeting held on 27 January 1917 and Entertainment of Wounded Soldiers from Guy's and Westminsterv Hospitals on 3 March 1917 at Cannon Street Hotel. Also mentions address by A.D. Jones.
Safety First " Special Train of the United States Government: Baltimore
and Ohio R.R. 45-6. 3 illustrations
United States by the Department of the Interior and other Government offices. Much has been written to teach the gospel of "Safety First," or self-protection to the people, but to educate them on the most graphic and practical lines it was arranged for the Baltimore and Ohio R.R. to prepare a train to be on view in the principal cities in the country displaying a comprehensive group of exhibits arranged by the Government officials. These illustrate the varied activities of the Federal Service in protecting lives and health, safeguarding the nation against outside attacks and developing the natural resource's. Ten new all-steel cars were built at the Mount Clare shops of the B. and O.R.R. and taken to Washington for the Government experts to arrange the exhibits.
It is with deep regret that we record the death of Henry Harford Battley, of Canterbury. He will be remembered by our readers in connection with the historical articles on the locomotives of the L.B. & S.C. and G. E. Railways. Living at Bow in the 1860s he had many opportunities of observing the Eastern Counties, North London and Blackwall engines, and these he put on record by making small coloured drawings showing the differences in individual engines with great fidelity. Mr. Battley was a man of versatile tastes. Organs, their history, church music and mediaeval architecture were subjects in which he took a deep interest, and he was well skilled in music, frequently doing organist's duty in the churches of the city and surrounding villages. His death occurred on 24 December 1916 at the age of seventy
The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 47-9
Fuuther series of main line passenger engines was constructed in 1886 by the Clyde Locomotive Company of Glasgow. They were the first locomotives built by this firm, which was afterwards taken over by Sharp, Stewart & Co., who transferred their business to the Clyde Locomotive Company's new establishment and renamed it Atlas Works, the old works of that name in Manchester being thereafter discontinued. This series consisted of eight locomotives (Fig. 27), now designated Class E, which, although generally of similar design to their predecessors, Class F, differed from them in the boiler, which had a larger firebox, but a shorter barrel. These eight engines were as follows : .
Ample brake power was provided, both engine and tender being fitted
with the automatic vacuum apparatus which was applied to all wheels of the
tender and the coupled wheels of the engine, whilst, in addition, the tender
brake could be operated by hand and the engine was fitted with the Chatelier
counter-pressure water brake.
The names of most of this class had been previously adopted on earlier engines, the only new ones being Lochalsh and Colville, the former being the seat of Sir Kenneth J. Matheson and the latter representing Lord Colville of Culross, both of whom had been recently appointed to the directorate. Engine No. 76 was sent when new to the Edinburgh Exhibition of 1886, which accounts for it being the last of the series to be put into service, although the first to be constructed. In 1900 No. 82 was renamed Durn, after the residence at Perth of A. E. Pullar, the present Deputy Chairman, but in 1916 the name was removed and the engine is at present nameless. In 1902 No. 83 was renamed Monkland, after the Nairn residence of Wm. Whitelaw, who was at that time Chairman of the Board.
To replace the single-wheel tank engine No. 12 on the Strathpeffer branch, Jones designed a tank locomotive specially for this service, which was built at the Lochgorm Works and turned out in May, 1890. It was numbered 13 and named Strathpeffer (Fig. 28), and was a front-coupled saddle tank with trailing bogie [0-4-4ST]. The cylinders were 14 in. in diameter by 20 in. stroke and 2 ft. 3 in. between centres, this being the only locomotive designed for the Highland Ry. by Jones having the cylinders in the inside position. The diameter of the coupled wheels was 4 ft. 3 in. and of the bogie wheels 2 ft. 7½ in. The distance between the centres of the bogie wheels was 5 ft. 6 in., but the bogie pin was not placed centrally between them, being 3 ft. behind the front bogie axle and 2 ft. 6 in. in front of the trailing. From the bogie pin to the centre of the driving axle was 9 ft. 6 in. and the coupled wheel centres were 6 ft. apart, the total wheelbase being thus 18 ft. The boiler from the old No. 13, which was then scrapped, was partly utilized for the new engine, the barrel being cut down and a dome together with a spring balance safety valve being put over the firebox casing. Its external diameter was 3 ft. 6½ in. and the height of its centre line 5 ft. 9 in. above the rails. It contained 158 tubes of 1¾ in. diameter and its heating surface was : tubes 578 ft2., firebox 62 ft2., total 640 ft2., the area of the firegrate being 12-5 ft2 The saddle tank contained 820 gallons of water, the total length over buffers was 29 ft. 6 in. and the total weight in working order 32 tons, of which 12 tons were on the bogie and 10 tons on each of the coupled axles. It was fitted with the automatic vacuum brake and stationed at Dingwall. In June 1900 it it was renumbered 53 and in October 1901, was rebuilt at the Lochgorm Works, and the saddle tank replaced by side tanks (Fig. 29). The new boiler was of Drummond's design, having a dome on the barrel and a pair of safety valves on the top of the dome. Its working pressure was 140 psi., and it was placed with its centre line 6 ft. above rail level. Its heating surface was: tubes 623 ft2., firebox 67-5 ft2., total 690-5 ft2.., grate area 13 ft2. The capacity of the side tanks was 900 gallons and the weight of the engine was increased to 34 tons, of which 9½tons were on the leading axle, 10 tons on the driving and 14½ tons on the bogie.
The next addition to the Company's locomotive stock was a further series of mainline passenger engines, and in the design of these Jones took the opportunity of providing a considerable increase of boiler power without materially departing from his favourite pattern. This series, known as the Strath class (Fig. 30), consisted of twelve engines, were built by Neilson & Co. in 1892: the list of running, works numbers and names follows
Again the cylinders, wheels, wheelbase, framing and Allan valve motion were the same as in classes E and F, but the boiler showed a marked advance on any of its predecessors, having a length of 9 ft. 9½in. and an external diameter of 4 ft. 6 in., the latter figure being probably the largest of any locomotive boiler in Scotland up to that period. The height of its centre line was 7 ft. 4 in. and the working pressure 160 psi. Other dimensions were tubes, number 242, length 10 ft. 2 in., outside diameter1¾in. ; heating surface, tubes 1,127 ft2.., firebox 115 ft2., total 1,242 ft2.., grate area ft2.sq. ft. The loaded weight was 45 tons, 15½i tons being on the bogie, 15 tons on the driving and 14½i tons on the trailing wheels. The tenders were identical with those of the No. 76 class, and in addition to the tender hand brake, the automatic vacuum was applied to all wheels of the tender and the coupled wheels of the engine. The total wheelbase was 44 ft., the total length over buffers 54 ft. 1½i in., and the total weight in working order 76½i- tons. Engines Nos. 89 and 90 were named after two of the Company's directors, Sir George Macpherson Grant and the Marquis of Tweeddale respectively. In 1897 engine No. 90 was renamed Grandtully, the residence of W. Steuart Fotheringham, who had recently joined the Highland Railway Board.
Train lighting notes. 49
Effect of low ambient temperature on lead cell batteries and on drive belts. Ebonite battery separators become brittle.
Improvements in buffers for rolling stock. 50-1. 3 diagrams.
Mr. J.B. Ball. 51.
Former Engineer-in-Chief of the Great Central Ry., appointed Chief Engineer of the L.B. & S.C. Ry. in succession to C.L. Morgan, who was joining the Board. Ball joined the staff of the G.N. Ry. in 1890, and subsequently assisted in the construction of the Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Ry. Ball became Engineer to this line in 1899, which he held until it was absorbed by the G.C. Ry. In January 1906, he was appointed chief of the New Works Dept. of the G.C. Ry., and in 1911 succeeded C.A. Rowlandson as Engineer-in-Chief. During Ball's tenure of office on the G.C. Ry., he had been responsible for the equipment of Immingham Dock, the removal of two tunnels at Sheffield and consequent widenings, as well as widenings between Doncaster and Thorne, and Wrawby and Brocklesby; also the new Keadby Deviation Ry. with its lifting bridge over the River Trent
The lubrication of locomotives. 51-6.
Figures 40-3: Roscoe, Furness and Luard (last Locomotive & Carriage Superintendednt, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway)
Rotary shearing machiner for plates. 56.. illustration
H. Collier Smith American patent design.
North Staffordshire Ry. 56
0-6-4T Nos. 114, 116 and 117 into service
The work and organization of the locomotive carriage and wagon departments
of a small railway. 57.
Steel underframes and constructional steel workshop design: flooring, machine tools
Roof-stay repairs. 58-9. 2 diagrams.
The Midland Railway ambulance train. 59-60. 2 illustrations
Each train had six ward cars; a pharmacy car, a kitchen car and accommodation for RAMC personnel. All vehicles were of clerestory type.
New goods brake vans: London, Brighton and South Coastt Ry. 60-1.
15-ton and 20-ton vehicles: latter with six wheels
Metropolitan Railway. 61
Portland Road station renamed Great Portand Street
Lubrication of locomotives. J. H. Cherry.
In Victoria, we tried the ordinary cotton waste feed for big-ends and also the needles described and illustrated in the Nov. issue of the LOCOMOTIVE. The waste feed proved a long way the best, as in the warm climate of Victoria there was a considerable quantity of oil wasted. In Tasmania the balance was about equal, but the extra cost turned the scale in favour of cotton waste feeds.
Early Stephenson locomotive. E.A.
Re early Stephenson locomotive and the old drawing referred to: in those early days, no complete detail drawings of a new engine were made, but only a general drawing of perhaps one or two views. The engine itself was really designed and worked out, bit by bit, as it was under construction in the shops. If any part of the original design failed, it was altered to something else, and, by the time the engine was finished, it might be very different in detail from the original conception.
I imagine something of the kind occurred in the case under notice, as the drawing certainly shows an unworkable engine. With the sun and planet gear shown, the wheels could not be coupled by rods outside the wheels, but only by inside chain couplings, or cranked axles and rods, neither of which was likely to have been used at that date, seeing that Stephenson had probably tried both (he at least suggested both) and found them unsatisfactory. If the sun and planet gear was retained, the valve gear would certainly have been transferred to the driving axle. I rather think, however, that the engine would ultimately appear without the sun and planet gear, and with ordinary coupled wheels, several 6-coupled engines of the same general form having been turned out in the succeeding years. I believe this drawing has been, more or less, identified as one of the early locomotives in the Stephenson lists, but I am not sure that the identification is complete. I am inclined to regard it as an experimental design which led to the 6-coupled engines mentioned above.
Combining indicator diagrams. J. E.
Re article in January lIssue. Becker states that in constructing combined diagram Fig. 3, the clearance volume of low-pressure cylinder should be set off from the high-pressure clearance line. This instruction is clearly an error. The maximum volume the steam in high-pressure cylinder at point of cut-off can expand to is fixed' by the capacity of the low-pressure cylinder, plus the clearance at one end of same. This maximum volume has no connection with the high- pressure clearance volume, and its vector quantity will accord- ingly be set off from the line A.B., the same as for the high- pressure volume.
The isothermal curve shown is drawn with A.B. and A.C. as its base lines, therefore to compare any expansion curve for a gas with this curve, the volume of the gas requires to be measured at any point from the same ordinate of zero volume, namely, A.B., as the abscissa: of the curve. Seeing that the final volume of the steam has been unduly increased by an amount represented by the high-pressure cylinder clearance, the diagram factor would also be modified, its effect being to show that a less ratio of actual to theoretical mean pressure is obtained by an engine than is actually the case.
Combining indicator diagrams. C. Becker. 62
I am glad your correspondent has raised the question regarding the position of the low-pressure curve on the combined diagram. For a long time I held the views he has stated, but having noticed that the low-pressure expansion curve always came well below the P.V. constant curve struck from the point of high-pressure cut-off, I concluded that probably owing to condensation taking place in the steam during its passage through the cylinders, it might to some extent perhaps give a truer relationship between the diagrams if spaced in the way I suggested. . As pointed out in the article I do not consider that a combined set of diagrams can ever represent more than an approximation, but they enable the diagram factors of different engines to be compared, and are a guide for determining the size of prospective engine cylinders. When used for this purpose, providing all the diagrams fall within the P.V. constant curve, the actual position of the diagrams relatively to each other will make no difference in the result.
Alfred Thomas Darby, formerly foreman of the loco. erecting shop at Stratford, died on 31 January 1917, in his seventy-third year. Darby served his apprenticeship at Stratford, and afterwards worked for a time at Reading, and under Martin Atock at the Waterford and Limerick Railway shops at Limerick. He re-entered the G.E. service in 1875, and was for some years in charge of the locomotive weigh-bridge. In 1888 he was appointed assistant foreman of the Round Shed repair shop, and in 1896 became head foreman of the erecting shop, a position he held until the close of 1905,when he retired.
Driver Fred Hubbard. 62
Driver Fred Hubbard, of Norwich, who stopped the up G.E. Cromer Express clear of the obstruction caused by the Witham accident in 1905, died on 24 February 1917 when he was only 57.
Great Western Ry. 62
4-4-0 Bulldog Class Passenger Engine No. 3368 Ernest Palmer name altered to Sir Ernest Palmer.
Canadian Northern Ry. 62
D.B. Hanna, Third Vice-President of the Canadian Northern Railway System, announced that delivery had been made to the Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific, one of the subsidiary railways of the Company, of 750 box cars, each of 40 tons capacity Other rolling stock received by the Canadian Northern included three electric locomotives, one of which was for the Mount Royal tunnel service, Montreal.
Paris-Orleans Ry. 62
Several 2-8-2 Mikado type tank locomotives had been built for this line by the North British Locomotive Co. These engines had outside cylinders, with piston valves, Walschaert gear and screw reversing gear. The boiler had a copper firebox of the Belpaire pattern and was fitted with steel tubes. The superheater was of the Schmidt type. The firegrate was of the rocking type,
Number 296 (16 April 1917)
New locomotives for the Paris-Orleans Ry. 63-4. 2 illustrations
Constructed by the North British Locomotive Co.: 4-6-0's had 300 x 650mm cylinders; 1760 mm coupled wheels; 132.9m2 total heating surface; 38.39m2 superheat and 2.73m2 grate area. The 2-8-2T's had 600 x 650mm cylinders; 1400mm coupled wheels; 135.6m2 total heating surface; 39.3m2 superheat and 2.73m2 grate area.
London & North Western Ry. 64
New Claughton class: Nos. 37 J.R. Jebb, 156 Captain Fryatt and 155 (without name); 4-6-2T Nos. 2273; 2292; 2298; 2384 and 2418; 0-8-2T Nos. 24; 92; 714; 1291; 1331; 2105; 2294; 2341; 2348; 2391. Precursor type fitted with superheaters: Nos. 300 Emerald and 1309 Shamrock (former also fitted with piston valves); 4-cylinder compound 0-8-0 No. 631 rebuilt as a simple. North London Railway No. 82 at Crewe North shed and operating between there and the Works.
Six-coupled radial tank locomotive: Brecon and Merthyr Railway. 65.
Supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co., Darlington, to design of James Dunbar, Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent. Known as 46 class (No. 46 illustrated). Some changes from earlier series: 5ft coupled wheels (larger); 18in diameter cylinders (smaller). Had to be able to cope with 1 in 38 gradients.
Armoured cars in the Irish Rebellion. 65
At the behest of Chairman Sir William Goulding Inchicore improvised some armoured vehicles using smokeboxes placed strong motor lorries to convey ad hoc volunteers armed with crowbars and sledge hammers to fight Sinn Fein.
Railway Exhibition at Sydney. 66.
Obituary. 66. illustration (portrait)
Robert Gordon Sharp died on 21 March 1917. Educated at Boat of Garten. Served apprenticeship in locomotive works of the Great North of Scotland Railway and later served as a draughtsman in the drawing office of Kitson & Co. Subsequently he served in the locomotive departments of the Great North of Scotland and Midland Railways. In 1904 he was appointed Works Manager at the Leeds Forge and in 1911 became General Manager.
[R.K. Biernacki]. 66
A.J. Chase deputy locomotive superintendent in charge of North Western State Railway of India locomotive affairs whilst Biernacki was on leave of absence
Caledonian Ry. 66
See page 41: correction to tender capacity (6 not 5 tons)
[Interstate Commerce Commission], 66
Unusual type of locomotive. 67. 2 illustrations
Platt Bros & Co. Ltd of Oldham used outside-cylinder 0-4-0T locomotives supplied by D. Adamson & Co. of Hyde Junction.
The Railway Club. 67
Paper presented by H.L. Hopwood The G.N.R. West of Grantham
Alterations in Cambrian Railways locomotives. 68. illustration.
No. 36: 4-4-0 converted from Metropolitan Railway 4-4-0T: new cab, splashers, sandboxes, footplate and steel buffer beam and screw reverse.
E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 69-70. illustration, 3 diagrams (side elevations)
Alderney Railway. 70. illustration
0-4-0ST Waverley: see also page 109.
A hint on facing-up valve seatings. 71. 2 diagrams
Train lighting notes. 71-2.
Statistics of passenger coaches fitted with electric lighting in England & Wales, Scotland, Ireland and India.
Liquid fuels. 72-3. 2 tables
[Statue of Richard Trevithick in Merthyr]. 73
Lady Rhondda presentation to town.
New patent rotary shaping apparatus. 73-5. ;3 illustrations, 3 diagrams
The "Liverpool" Liverpool and Manchester Ry. 76.
Bury type: reproduction of original drawing by Edward Bury with chimney decorated with Liver birds: drawing owned by R.E, Bury, grandson and Locomotive Superintendent Mysore State Rys.
G.T. Glover locomotive, carriage & wagon superintendent of the Great Northern Ry of Ireland was Lieut. Colonel in the Royal Engineers serving in France on the Military Railways,.
[Ceylon Government Rys]. 76
E.W. Head had been appointed locomotive, carriage & wagon superintendent of the Ceylon Government Rys.in successsion to H.G. Unsworth who had retired. T.A. Whittaker, from Midland Railway succeeded Head as Assistant.
Control equipments for machine tools. 76-8. 4 illustrations
The lubrication of locomotives. 79-82. 6 diagrams
Sight-feed condensation displacement lubricators. The Roscoe lubricator previously described is of the condensation displacement type, in which there is only one connection to the steam pipe. The first improvement was the introduction of the sight feed, whilst retaining the single passage which served both for the incoming steam and the out-going oil, with the modification in some patterns that steam was also introduced into the bottom of the vessel containing the oil. Many lubricators of this type were and are still used. It will suffice to mention the No. 1 pattern of Messrs. C.C. Wakefield & Co., of which a sectional view is shown in Fig. 44. This No. 1 lubricator was superseded by the No. 2 lubricator, which with the improved and more modern hydrostatic displacement lubricators will be described later. Sight-feed displacement and hydrostatic lubricators were placed inside the cabs under the immediate view of the driver, who can therefore always see that the oil is feeding properly.
Atomization of oil. Before describing other forms of sight-feed lubricators the subject of atomizing the oil may be mentioned. Modern forms of water displacement lubricators deliver a mixture of oil and steam into the steam pipe or steam chest in a more or less intimate mixture, but the essential point is that the oil and steam should be thoroughly mixed, i.e., the oil should be atomized. The oil pipe from the lubricator should, if it delivers into a steam pipe, enter the pipe for some distance, and the oil should be delivered in the middle. On one foreign railway oil was introduced in the form of spray by being forced through a small nozzle by means of a very small pump or by gravity. It is then caught up by a steam jet and carried forward in a finely divided state to a three-way valve which serves to direct the oil spray (1) to the slide valves when the engine is running under steam, or (2) to the cylinders when the engine is coasting. A spoon-shaped atomizer (Fig. 45), due to T.C. Thornsen, of The Vacuum Oil Co., Ltd., has been successfully used on colliery and works locomotives.
Sight-feed hydrostatic displacement lubricators. The lubricators previously described are of the simple water displacement type, in which there is a single connection to the lubricator, through which the entering steam and the outgoing oil pass. In the modern hydrostatic lubricators there are two connections, one for the steam and a separate one for the oil. The force which operates this form of lubricator is the weight of a column of water, which displaces a lighter column of oil. The pressure of the steam exerts no effect since it is balanced, for there is nearly the same steam pressure on the top of the column of water as there is at the oil outlet. The pressure inside the oil reservoir is equal to the boiler pressure plus the weight of the column of water in the condenser, whilst the sight-feed chambers and oil pipes are under boiler pressure only. The water from the condenser therefore, under the pressure due to a constant head, enters the oil reservoir and displaces the oil drop by drop by forcing it through
New wagon label clip. 82-3
Re articles on lubrication concerning the action of compressed air grease cups: he was doubtful about the working of grease axle boxes on railway vehicles. Is the grease made to run by the heat caused by friction between the brass and journal, or has the latter what may be called a sucking or drawing action, causing the lubricant to feed through the feed holes ? The latter seems to be most likely, as many vehicles after a long run have the boxes nearly empty, but perfectly cool.
At various times some very curious North-Eastern coal wagons have worked on to the South-Eastern. In these trucks the ordinary axleboxes and plain bearings are not used. Their places are taken by a large wheel with a broad rim, which bears on the journals of the running wheels. The ordinary axle guards and laminated side springs are iised, but as a large plate covers all the parts, it is very difficult to see how all of it works. One of the greatest mysteries of the arrangement to me at present is how the bearing wheel maintains a central drive on to the running wheel journal. I believe the date of building on the trucks is 1904, but am not sure. The drawgear is rather singular, as well. If you would be so good as to give me a little information on the above subjects
Grease will work down a tube on to a bearing under either of two
conditions. Either the bearing warms up slightly and renders the grease
sufficiently fluid to flow, or pressure has to be applied to the grease,
as is the case in the " Menno " lubricator described, in which air pressure
is the means adopted, or as in the case of the well-known Stauffer form of
lubricator for shafting, in which the pressure is supplied by a cap that
is screwed down in the top of the lubricator. The warming of the bearing
to enable the grease to flow is not, of course, sufficient to cause heating
in the usual sense in which that expression is used. In winter most railways
use a more fluid grease for wagons than in summer, thus showing that it is
the melting of the grease that produces the desired effect. The sucking or
drawing action of the journal is usually non-existent, as is proved by Beauchamp
Towers' experiments on journals described on page 71 of
Locomotive Mag, 1916, 22 70 in which it
was shown that in a well-fitting journal there is a high pressure tending
to force the lubricant out of the oil holes. In badly-fitting journals and
where there is sufficient play this pressure is much less and is not great
enough to prevent the melted grease from flowing down the hole on to the
journal, and this is probably what takes place in most wagons fitted with
The N.E.Ry. axlebox arrangement, mentioned by our correspondent, is doubtless that described on page 201 of our issue of November 1905.
Bakerloo Ry. 83
Great Central station renamed Marylebone and Westminster Bridge Road changed to Lambetrh (N). Aldwych closed on Sundays. Opening of Watford extension postponed until 16 April
Blue asbestos. 83-4
Number 297 (15 May 1917)
Triple articulated compound locomotive for the Virginian
Railway. 85-6. 2 illustrations
Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-8-8-8-4 triplex No. 700. All six cylinders same size (34 x 32in), grate are 108.2 ft2, total heating surface 8120ft2 and 2059ft2 superheat. Intended to work between Elmore and Clark's Gap with 2% gradient for 14 miles.
Superheater express locomotives: Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 86-7.
illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Glover S class 4-4-0,
A.H. Joscelyne. 87
Appointed Deputy Locomotive Superintendent North Western Railway of India
London and North Western Railway. 87
Claughon class No. 155 named I.T. Williams; Nos. 162, 186, 713 and 1334 had been completed. Jubilee class No. 1925 Warrior had been converted to being a simple. 8ft 6in single No. 3020 Cornwall was working trains between Crewe and Northwich.
Narrow gauge tank locomotives for the British War Office. 88.
4-6-0T supplied Hunslet Engine Co Ltd for 60cm (2ft) gauge
The Penryhn Quarry Railway. 89-93. 7 illustrations,
Includes notes on the three De Winton vertical boiler locomotives: Lady Penrhyn, Georhe Henry and Kathleen which then were being used occasionally on the galleries; the Hunslet quarry locomotives and the larger locomotives used to convey the slate wagons to the port.
Running repairs to cocks and valves. 93; 95. diagram
American railways in the Civil War 1861-65. 94; 95-8. illustration
Photograph taken at Atlanta, Georgia in September 1864 of running sheds of Atlanta and West Point RR after occupation by the Federal troops. Text briefly assesses railway communication on the conduct of the war.
The lubrication of locomotives, 96-9
Figs. 51-3: Detroit and Great Western Railway
Locomotive wheel lathes and tyre turning. 99-101. 2 illustrations
Highland Railway locomotives. 102-4
Figures 31-4. The two 4-4-0T locomotives built by Dubs for the Uruguay Eastern Railway, but not delivered WN 2778-9/1892 and three further of the same type: WN 3077-9/1893 were taken into HR stock. The first had the name Olmos and both of the eralier pair had cow-catchers and covers for the slide-bars, but these were removed. They were officially the P class but were known as Yankees. The Jones Goods type 4-6-0 is also considered.
The joints of locomotives and tenders. 104-6.
List of where and how to caulk
Anthony Knights aged almost 91: born 27 April 1826. Engine driver based at Colchester who regularly drove 07.50 to London. Obituary states retired "forty years ago"
[Presentation to J.B. Ball on 18 April]. 106
Silver dessert stand presentation by Sir Sam Fay.
Number 298 (15 June 1917)
4-4-0 metre-gauge superheater locomotives: Bombay, Baroda and Central
India Railway. 107; 109. 2 illustrations
Built in the Ajmer works; designed by W.T. Fraser, Locomotive Superintendent of the metre gauge section.
Opening of the Parsik Tunnel, G.I.P. Ry. 108; 109. illustration
Part of the works to widen the main line between Bombay and Kalyan
London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 109
All new main-line express and goods engines on the Brighton Ry. were fitted with the Weir feed pump with excellent results, the cost of the upkeep of these pumps in the sheds being, so far, practically nil. Billinton has also adopted an arrangement of external feed pipes, the delivery ends being connected to a special form of clack box placed on top of the boiler and mounted on a manhole seating in front of the dome. The feed pipes delivered water to a removable bucket, in which were fixed two vertical pipes through which it flowed to two perforated side trays, and thence in the form of spray through the steam space into the body of water in the boiler. By the new arrangement the feed pipe outlet and the trays were an easily accessible position so that deposits which accumulated could be readily cleared from time to time.
[Alderney Ry. tank loco.] 109
Corporal R. H. Inness, R.O.D., R.E., writes us that he is of opinion that the 0-4-0 Alderney Ry. tank loco. illustrated in our April issue was built by the firm of Henry Hughes & Son, of Loughborough (afterwards the Falcon Engine Works), with cylinders 9 in. by 10 in. and 36 in. wheels.
Swiss decapod locomotives in service on the Paris, Lyons and
Mediterranean Ry. 110. illus.
The Swiss Federal Railways had loaned a number of their locomotives with the necessary drivers and firemen, to the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. to assist in the transportation of corn and other foodstuffs from the French ports to the Swiss frontier to ensure the revictualling of Switzerland. For working the heavy sections, such as that between Geneva and Amberieu, some of the 2-10-0 engines off the Gothard division have been requisitioned.
The leading characteristics of engine No. 2952 (used on this service), which was built by the Société Suisse of Winterthur in 1913, were: Four-cylinder compound, Series C 5/6 of the Swiss Federal Rys. Diameter of h.p. cylinders 18½ in.; l.p. 28 in. stroke of cylinders 25¼ in. Diameter of coupled wheels 4 ft. 43/8 in. Grate area 40 ft2. Total Heating surface 2,859.9ft2. Working pressure, 216 lb. psi. On the heavy grades leading to the St. Gothard Tunnel these engines dealt with a maximum load of 500 tons on a grade of about 1 in 40; on the P.L.M., however, they took a train of 650 tons up a gradient of 1 in 80. The tenders carry 7 tons of coal and 3,960 gallons of water. .
North-Eastern Ry. 110
This line seemed to be adopting the system of large numerals, like the North British and South-Eastern and Chatham Rys., on the side tanks or tenders for distinguishing their locomotives. The figures were in gilt, about 18 in. deep, with the name of the railway in smaller lettering on either side thus- NORTH 1187 EASTERN.
Caledonian Ry. 110
Twelve of the new 4-6-2 tank locomotives had been completed at the Hyde Park Locomotive Works of the North British Locomotive Co.: numbers 944 to 955 inclusive.
Great Northern Ry. 110.
Another of Stirling 0-4-2 tender engines, No. 565A, had been re-built with a domed boiler.
[The first locomotives built in Japan for export]. 110
Two shipped to Saigon, Cochin China, for the French Rys.
[Sir John Audley Frederick Aspinall]. 110
Amongst the recent recipients of the honour of Knighthood was Mr. John Audley Frederick Aspinall, General Manager of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. since 1899, and formerly Chief Mechanical Engineer of that system.
Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern
and Western Railway. 111-15. 4 illustrations. (drawings: side elevations),
Alexander McDonnell Class 21 2-4-0 (Fig. 1 No. 22); Class 22 (Fig. 2) 4-4-0 of 1877 known as Kerry engines and used on long sigle line between Mallow and Tralee. also Fig. 3 Class 64 2-4-0 No. 64 and Fig. 4 Aspinall 4-4-0 Class 52 (No. 53 illustrated). Diagram of two-pipe automatic vacuum brake system
The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 115.
Addendum: coal capacity of tenders of bogie goods engines (Nos. 103-117) was 7 tons not 5 tons
Train lighting notes. 115-16
Maintenance of balata belting
A device for rotating driving wheels when setting valves. 116.
Manufactured by Sherburne & Co. of Boston (Mass.)
South African Rlys. 116
Order for eight Mallet type locomotives placed with American Locomotive Co.
Running repairs to cocks and valves. 117. 2 diagrams
Locomotive wheel lathes and tyre turning. 118-21. 3 illustrations,
4 diagrams, 2 tables
Niles-Bement-Pond Co. of New York for wheels up to 7ft 2in in diameter
E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 121-4. 4
illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Trevithick 4-4-0 supplied by North British Locomotive Co. amd by a German Company and 4-4-2 supplied by Brooks Locomotive Co. and by Dubs & Co. and three-cylinder compounds similar to those on the North Eastern Railway supplied by North British Locomotive Co. His successor Peckett rebuilt on of the 4-4-0s with a large taper boiler (shown in Fig. 6)
Hot axle boxes. 124-5
Caused by wheel drag and bad joints in the rails. See also July Issue.
The problem of railway fog signalling. 125-6.
Criteria including robustness and ability to work in all weather conditions.
Jamaica Government Rys. 126
P.C. Dewhurst promoted to be assistant locomotive superintendent
New 40-ton goods brke van. 126-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation
Built at the Matunga workshops in Bombay of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway: bogie vehicle capable of carrying permanent way men and sheep or goats
Car cleaning. 127
From John A. Droege Passenger trains and terminals
Crank-axle and couplixg rod centres. P.C.
Re Locomotive of February 1917, in description of the new engines for the Holland Railway Co. an account of the unusual setting of the coupling rod crank pins, 45° in advance of the inside main cranks. This method manifestly gives good results whilst the engine is running forward, but it leads to a bad condition when the engine is required to run backward, as the positions of maximum effort on the inside crank and the dead centre of the outside crank pin on the same side come too close together.
This condition occurring four times for each revolution of the wheels, appears likely to lead to side rod troubles, and possibly straining of the crank axle on greasy rails. The fact of the horizontal bearing pressure being considerably augmented at the positions referred to, probably does not matter, as these engines presumably are not required to run backward to any extent, but the side rod or crank-axle difficulties might occur in shunting with a train and it would be interesting to know if such have been met with.
It would be very instructive for comparison, if a chart showing the actual resulting horizontal forces on crank axle bearings of an engine set on the "Stroudley method" (i.e., with coupling rod crank pins on the same centre as the main cranks on the respective sides of the engine) could be given. The results would probably not be very inferior to those given for the Holland Railway engines, and the engine would run equally well either forward or backword.
There is another point in connection with this subject, uie., the relative positions of main and coupling rod crank centres when the cylinders are inclined.
In such cases I consider that these centres should be set at an angle equal to the angle of the cylinder inclination to the horizontal. When so set, the dead-centre positions of main crank pins and coupling rod pms on the same side of the engine will occur together, and all the intermediate positions of the cranks will synchronize.
This setting is shown in the diagram, the full lines showing this "allowance for inclination of cylinders" producing a modified "Stroudley" method. The dotted lines indicate the position of the coupling rod when the same principle is applied to the usual "opposite centre" crank setting. It will be observed that in both cases there is no difference in running forward or backward.
Great Northern Railway of Ireland. 128
A Belfast reader informs us that the latest 4-4-0 type express engines, illustrated in our last issue, are fitted with Schmidt type superheaters, the tubes being connected to the header by bridge-bars and copper jointing rings, and not expanded directly into the header, as in the Robinson method.
[Railway Club]. 128
W. Parker, President of the Railway Club, presided at the 8 May Meeting. A Lantern Exhibition of Railway Slides being given. Upwards of 200 slides were shown, comprising the club collection and others of varied subjects contributed by Bell, Sherlock and Miller. The meeting was specially well attended, and proved very successful, explanations of the slides by H. L. Hopwood being much appreciated.
Number 299 (Monday 16 July 1917)
Compound locomotives for the Madrid, Saragossa & Alicante Ry.
American Locomotive Co., Schenectady Works supplied 25 4-8-0 locomotives.
Duplex locomotives on the Southern Ry. U.S.A. 130-1.
2-8-2 with eight coupled steam tender
Steel fireboxes on the London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 131-2.
ILocoE Paper No. 52 presented by R.P.C. Sanderson
South Eastern & Chatham Railway. 132
First 2-6-4T No. 790 completed at Ashford Works. Large cab of Great Western pattern; painted grey.
The East Kent Railway. 133-5. 4 illustrations, map
Built to serve Kent Coalfield, but due to WW1 only Tilmanstone Colliery open. Passenger service had begun on 16 October 1916. Locomotive stock at that time was 0-6-0ST No. 1 ex-GWR No. 1398, 0-8-0T. . Hecate (R. & W. Hawthorn WN 2587/1904) and No. 3 Walton Park (Hudswell Clarke 1908) built for Weston, Clevedon & Portishead. Written with assistance of Mr. H.F. Styephens M.I.C.E., engineer and general manager
Oil and gas-fired furnaces for locomotive workshops.135-6.
Advantages over solid fuels
Locomotive wheel lathes and tyre turning. 136-8. 5 diagrams
The Highland railway and its locomotives. 138-40. 4 illustrations
Continued from 102-4. Figures 35-7. Duke of Sutherland: his private station at Dunrobin, his 2-4-0T Dunrobin; its replacement 0-4-4T Sharp Stewart WN 4085/1895. The original Duke's locomotive was taken into Highland Railway stock and enlarged and worked on the Fochabers Town branch and later at Invergordon Harbour
[Indian Railways: substitution of copper fireboxes by stteel]. 140
Steel fireboxes, made in England, being substituted
Superheater Mogul locomotives: Chinese Government Rys Peking-Mukden Line. 141. illustration.
The lubrication of locomotives, 141-6. 5 diagrams
Figures 54-8: force feed, intensified, Intensifore lubricstor as applied to 2-6-4T and 4-4-0 locomotives
Derailment and breakdown appliances. 146-8. 8 diagrams
For recovery without using a crane.
New military trains in India. 148-9. 4 illustrations, plan
Soldiers travelled in troopship conditions, that is could lie down at night and sit during day and be fed. Officers travelled in conditions appropriate to their breeding. Vehicles built by Great Indian Peninsula Railway with Pullman vestibules
Carriage roofs. 150
Method adopted for securing roof covers on passenger cars having the usual American or Monitor type of roof, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, is as follows: after the roof boards are laid they are planed smooth along all the joints and care is taken to secure a good surface. They then receive a good thick coat of what is termed C.P.R. No. 5 mineral brown paint. This is often mixed with other paints of various colours left over from different jobs. After painting, the roof is eady for the canvas to be stretched on. The material used for this latter purpose is a heavy cotton canvas weighing about 1.5 lb. per yard, 40 in. wide, and before this is put on the roof the back of it receives a coat of canvas preserver. While this and the paint on the roof boards is wet, the canvas is laid on. One end of the canvas is securely tacked to the extreme end of the car roof and then stretched along the full length by means of a block and tackle fastened at the other end; this gear, in turn, is anchored to a ring in the shop floor. The canvas is then nailed along the roof eaves with l6oz, tacks about 1 in. apart, slightly staggered. The top roof requires two lengths 40 in. wide, and after the second length is stretched the lap joint along the centre of the roof is nailed. After stretching, the face of the canvas receives a coat of canvas preserver No. 1 grade, and then two more coats of the same material No. 2 grade, with twenty-four hours to dry between each coat. The canvas alongside the clerestory is applied in the same manner as along the top deck and is turned up behind the clerestory frame sheathing as much as the width of the canvas will permit. Great care is taken to apply plenty of pure white lead along the intersection of the side roof and the clerestory frame; copper flashings are used near the bottom of the framing for the sheathing to stand in and also at the extreme ends of the clerestory against the vestibule hood. It is the practice to paint the roofs of passenger cars every year, and it is found that if this maintenance is kept up the life of a canvas roof is ten years.
Alexandra (Newport ) Docks and Railway. 150
Since 1 January 1917, the Pontypridd, Caerphilly and Newport passenger trains (which are worked by the G.W.R for the A.D. & R) had been withdrawn, and in order to maintain a service between Pontypridd and Newport the A.D. &: R rail motor service between Pontypridd and Caerphilly had been extended to Machen to connect with Brecon and Merthyr trains to and from Newport. The A.D. & R motor service was worked by engine No 14, a 0-4-2 side tank acquired from the G.W.R. This engine takes the number of the old Craven 0-6-0 tank engine purchased by the A.D. & R from the LB. & S.C. Ry. in 1885 and broken up in 1906.
[Obituary notices]. 150
Death of W.J. Griggs, A.M.LC.E., M.LM.E., Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Supt. of the Jamaica Government Ry., on 20 May 1917. Griggs was in his 36th year [KPJ othere information suggests may have been older]. He was formerly in the Loco. Dept. of the North London Ry. at Bow.
Death of T.W. Ford, M.LC.E., M.I.M.E., one of the Managing Directors of Cravens, Ltd., Darnall, on 8 July 1917.
Henry Dove, died at Maida Vale, London, on Sunday, 24 June, at the age of ninety-three, began his working life as office boy to Robert Stephenson. while the London and Birmingham Ry, was under construction. In 1843 he was sent to France to assist in running locomotives on the Paris & Rouen Ry.
North London Ry. 150
4-4-0 tank engines, Nos. 21 and 44, used by the L. 8: N.W.Ry. for shunting duties at Crewe Station and Loco. sheds.
Hot axleboxes. 150
In connection with article on this subject last month, a reader on one of our largest railways, where a number of 0-8-0 inside cylinder superheater tender engines are in service, informs us they are continually giving trouble through the left driving axle-box running hot. The driving wheels of some are removed and examined after nearlv every trip of 150 miles or so. The trouble has been attributed to (1) Faulty valve setting, causing an excess or deficit of cushioning; (2) Incorrect balancing of the reciprocating and revolving parts; or (3) the frames not being set squarely, thus imparting a twist to the motion. All these have been investigated with little or no success, and although one or two pairs of driving wheels have been re-balanced and have slightly alleviated the trouble, it still continues. It is interesting to note that 95 per cent. fail with the lefl driving box only, about 5 per cent. fail with the right side and never the left. The trouble has so far defied all attempts at a satisfactory solution, and mars what is otherwise a useful class of engine. Possibly other railways have had similar trouble, and, if so, it would be interesting to hear what steps have been taken to effect a remedy.
East-West Transcontinental Railway of the Australian Commonwealth.
Announced will be opened for traffic in September. The line, which is standard 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, has been built in two sections, one commencing at Port Augusta, South Australia, and working westwards, and the other commencing at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, and working eastwards. The distance between these two points is 1,053 miles. and of these for at least 800 miles the country was quite uninhabited when construction was commenced. On the western division, where it crosses the Ullabor[sic] Nullabor Plain, there is a section of 330 miles of absolutely straight line, the longest stretch of on any railway in the world.
Number 300 (15 August 1917)
4-6-2 type express engine, New Zealand Governmnent Rys. 151. illustration
Designed H.H. Jackson, Chief Mechanical Engineer. 4ft 6in coupled wheels. Vanderbilt tender
New 4-6-2 type tank locomotives, Caledonian Railway. 151
Pickersgill Class 944 with 5ft 9in coupled wheels; 19½ x 26in cylinders; 1516ft2 plus 220ft2 superheater; 21.5ft2 grate area; 170 psi working pressure. Twelve being built at North British Locomotive Co's Hyde Park Works. Running numbers 944-955.
Great Northern Ry. 151
Single line between Cuffley and Hertford (6 miles) had been completed and half of the stretch from Hertford to Langley Junction had been laid
E.F. Innes had died aged 50: he had made a large collection of locomotive facts and history available to the Magazine.
4-8-0 four-cylinder goods locomotives, Norwegian State Rys. 152-4. 4 diagrams (including 3 side elevations)
Heavy tank locomotives, Bengal Nagpur Railway. 154. illustration, diagram
Robert Stephenson &; Co. 2-8-2T with 20 x 26in cylinders; 4ft 3in coupled wheels; 1450.5ft2 total heating surface; 27.2ft2 grate area and 170 psi working pressure to requirements of A.C. Carr Chief Mechanical Engineer.
The Bagdad Railway. 155-7
Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western
In 1885, Aspinall designed a much more powerful 4-4-0 locomotive for working the mail and express trains which were growing in importance and size. The first four of these built were Nos. 93 to 96, but the class is more commonly known as Class 60. Fig. 5 illustrates No. 94 with the 2700 gallon tender first made for these new engines. There were altogether fifteen of these locomotives built, eleven of them being turned out during Ivatt's term of office at Inchicore. The motion was similar to that of the standard goods engines first designed by McDonnell. The cylincters were also of similar diameter and length of stroke. The boiler was, however, of new design and was the first in Inchicore practice to be constructed in telescopic rings with a. flush top casing. All previous boilers had had a raised casing attached to the barrel by a flanged plate. The rings of the boilers had been the same diameter throughout and were riveted together by means of butt joint strips. The coupling rods were at first of plain rectangular cross section, but were replaced by the new standard type of fluted rod. In Class 60 they were placed at 12 in. radius from the centres of the axles. The wheels were all of wrought iron. The bogie was similar to that made for classes 2 and 52, but in later engines a steel casting was substituted for the original built-up cross frame stay. In some engines a larger bogie axle was provided with a corresponding larger wheel boss to receive it. On the four engines of this class, Nos. 93 to 96, built by Aspinall, and on Nos. 85 to 89, completed by Ivatt, special journals, 14 in. long were arranged on the trailing axles. The axle boxes were at first of cast iron. These were altered, subsequently, to bronze. The last six locomotives of this class,Nos. 60 to 65, had similar journals for both driving and trailing wheels. The frame plates were also strengthened as some of the earlier engines developed cracks from the top corners of the driving horn-blocks.
One of these engines, No. 87, was exhibited at Manchester in the Jubilee year, 1887. A sister engine, No. 89, was provided with a special cab with extended side phtes, sliding windows being arranged at either side. (Fig. 5A).
There are fifteen engines of Class 60, built as follows:in 1885, Nos. 93 to 96; 1886, 85 to 89; 1891, 60 to 63, and in 1895, 64 and 65. In 1894, Ivatt rebuilt the first engine of this class, No. 93, as a compound. The general appearance is shown in Fig. 6. The boiler was of the same size as that of the simple engines, but there were only 179 tubes instead of the original 204. The slide valves were situated on top of the cylinder barrels and driven by Stephenson link motion and rocking shafts. The steam pressure was 150 psi. The frame was deepened to receive the cylinders. The distance between the frame plates at the cylinders was also increased from the standard 4 ft. 7 in. to 5 ft. ½ in. The bogie wheelbase had to be extended from the former 5 ft 3 in. to 5 ft. 8 in. At the left side of the locomotive there was provided a change valve of ingenious design actuated by steam. This was termed the triplex valve. Its function was to provide means for admitting boiler steam to the low-pressure cylinders should it be found necessary to do so, and thus revert temporarily to simple working. The rods and bell crank lever for starting this valve are shown on the left side of the smokebox towards the back. Owing to the crowding of the inside space of the smokebox with the large pipes required for conveying the exhaust steam from the high pressure to the low pressure steam chest, the Simplex lubricator, then the standard one in use, had to be transferred from the right to the left hand side of the smokebox. This compound express engine could scarcely be considered a success. Indeed it was hardly intended by Ivatt as anything more than an experiment. It never ran really free. The triplex valve was frequently out of order. This allowed an undue amount of boiler steam into the low-pressure cylinder, the exhaust was more or less choked and there was trouble in keeping up steam. In 1901 the compound cylinders were removed and replaced by a pair of simple cylinders 18 in. diameter. In this altered condition the engine was been a complete success and was still doing good work on the more important branch line services.
Another of these engines was fitted in 1896 with a smokebox superheater, or perhaps, more correctly, steam dryer. The number of this engine was 62 (Fig. 7). The apparatus consisted of two cast-steel boxes supported on brackets along the sides of the smokebox. One of these boxes was directly connected to the boiler steam pipe. A number of straight brass tubes crossed the middle of the smokebox to the other box, whence the steam was led to the cylinders underneath. A certain number of tubes had to be omitted in the middle to give clearance for the exhaust from the blast pipe. This rather primitive type of superheater certainly had some effect in drying the steam. This was evidenced by the excessive wear of the slide valves which were not provided with any special lubricating device other than the standard displacement lubricator. This wear of the valves and the port faces against which they worked must have neutralized any good effect from the superheating of the steam. The device did not produce any economy in working and was removed after about six months' trial.
Within recent years many of the locomotives of class 60 have been provided with new boilers and chimneys. The former wrought-iron wheels have now been almost entirely superseded by cast-steel centres. The coupling rod pins on these wheels are at 10 in. radius from the centres of the wheels as compared with the original 12 in. Their appearance with these changes is shown by Fig. 7 of No. 62. The last engines of this class were built in 1895. They were numbered 64 and 65, replacing the older type engines of these numbers previously described. A locomotive of this class, No. 85, was one of the first victims of the Sinn Fein rebellion on Easter Monday, 1916. The insurgents had removed some lengths of rail on the line near Abbeyleix with the result that the engine was thrown off the road and remained a casualty for several weeks before it could be got on the railway again. The engines of class 60 continued to work the important main line trains for five or six years after the last of them, No. 65, was placed in service.
The introduction of dining trains in 1899 and the rapid replacement of the former six-wheeled coaching vehicles by bogie coaches made an increase of locomotive power imperative. Robert Coey had succeeded H.A. Ivatt as locomotive superintendent in 1896, consequent upon the departure of the latter to the Great Northern Railway of England at Doncaster. During his term of office at Inchicore Coey added to the locomotive stock of the railway successive types of engines of new design, each showing a graduated increase of power and efficiency. In 1901, moreover, the Waterford, Limerick and Western Railway ceased to be a separate system consequent upon its amalgamation with the Great Southern and Western. A complete list of W.L. & W.Ry. locomotives taken over by the G.S. and W.Ry. appeared in THE LOCOMOTIVE Magazine, No. 61, Vol. vi., January, 1901. It is not proposed in this review to describe the W. and L. Railway locomotives added to the stock of the larger railway. These engines are still retained on their original work and are, for the most part, repaired in the shops at Limerick. According as they become worn out and broken up their places are, of course, taken by locomotives of Inchicore design.
Note. In the list of numbers of engines of Class 2 on page 131 of our last issue we omitted No. 8, built in 1880. In Class 21, No. 17, built in 1872, was stated in error to have been broken up in 1891, this date, which escaped checking, should have been 1909. In connection with the fitting of the automatic brake on the G.S. & W.R. locomotives referred to in the June number of THE LOCOMOTIVE, page 113, the following additional particulars regarding the earlier history of the two-pipe continuous vacuum brake will be of interest. This system was originally designed by Mr., now Sir J. A. F. Aspinall. It was patented by him as far back as 1878, and in succeeding years the brake was fitted to practically all the locomotives and coaching stock of the company. In the years previous to his departure from Inchicore, Mr. Aspinall carried out an exhaustive series of experiments with a view to further improving the brake should the general adoption of an automatic system subsequently become necessary. During his term of office and up to 1890 an engine and special train of coaches were fitted with his double pipe automatic brake and this train worked regularly between Dublin, Kildare and Kilkenny. The particular engine was No. 46, similar to No. 2, Fig. 2. It was this brake which was finally adopted in 1891 when the provision of the automatic system became compulsory. After further trials Mr. Ivatt introduced some minor changes, notably the arrangement of the driver's application valve shown on the diagram of the brake, Fig. IA, giving the " quick release," " running position/' and " full on " movements of the handle. (To be continued).
LISTOWEL AND BALLYBUNiox RY.Owing to the high price of coal in Ireland,
an effort is being made to use peat as fuel on the locomotives of this railway.
In general, the experiments have been successful, a savirg of 10 per cent,
in cost being claimed whilst steam can be raised in half the time taken by
the more usual method of " firing up." Peat is similar to a low grade of
coal, and has a heating value of 1,000 to 4.000 B.t.u. per pound.
Includes Ivatt compound
Listowel and Ballybuniion Ry. 159.
Using peat as fuel
Adjusting weights on locomotive wheels. 160-1. 2 diagrams
Locomotive weighing machine manufatured W. & T. Avery and portable weighing machine manufactured by Samuel Denison &; Son Ltd. See also letter from P.C. Dewhurst on p. 260
The lubrication of locomotives. 162-4
Figures 59-60: superheated locomotives
Railway shop notes. 164-5. 3 diagrams
Method for punching countersunk holes for screws in steel panel plate for wagons
Calculating the heating surface of locomotive boilers. 165.
Association of Railway Locomotive Engineers committee: tubes (outside surface); elements (inside surface); smokebox tube plate (excluded)
E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 165-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (drawing: side elevation)
Locomotive wheel lathes and tyre turning. 167-8. 3 illustrations
Craven Brothers Ltd of Stockport machines and John Hetherington & Sons Ltd of Manchester: latter supplied a special grinding machine
An American hospital train. 5 illustrations
Vehicles supplied by Pullman Company
Number 301 (15 September 1917)
New ten-wheeled express locomotives, Highland Railway. 173.
4-6-0 No. 59 Foulis Castle illustrated: one of three supplied by North British Locomotive Co., Queen's Park Works to 1900 design at behest of C. Cumming, locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent: the others were No. 50 Brodie Castle and 58 Darnaway Castle. This series was fitted with screw reverse in place of steam reverser and with larger (6ft) coupled wheels.
American locomotives for the Canton-Hankow Railway, China. 3 illustrations
Baldwin Locomotive Co. 4-6-0, 2-8-0 and 0-6-0T: all with outside cylinders.
Side tank locomotive for the Port of London Authority. 175-6. illustration
Hudswell Clarke &Co. Ltd. outside-cylinder (18 x 24in). Devonport illustrated
Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern &
Western Ry. 177-9. 5 diagrams (4 side elevations)
Coey 4-4-0 classes 301 and 304
The lubrication of locomotives. 180-3. 5 diagrams
Figures 61-5: Wakefield
Oil and gas furnaces in railway workshops. 183-5.
Continued page 201. Morgan oil-fired furnaces and crucibles for melting brass
A.R. Bennett. Locomotives of the Little Orme Quarry, Llandudno. 185-6.
Manning Wardle outside cylinder 0-4-0ST Little Orme built by Manning Wardle WN 478/1873 (for Leeds Corporation Waterworks) and Kerr Stuart Brazil type Garth WN 1257/1914
"The Sunset Limited", Southern Pacific R.R. 186-9. 4 illustrations
Ran 2489 miles between New Orleans and San Francisco. The dining car was mounted on six-wheel bogies and had a clerestory roof.
Signalling arrangements on the Belfast & County Down Railway at Belfast terminus. 189-91. 5 illustrations
The old locomotives of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. 191-2. 3
Continued from xxx: Figures 27-8
Improvements in screw couplings. 192-3. diagram
The Highland Railway and its locomotives. G.W. Reid
Formerly locomotive superintendent of the Natal Government Rys., was very interested in description of the Dunrobin locomotives, given in July Issue and referring to the inscriptions on the weather board stated that these were a source of anxiety to him whenever the engine came to Inverness shops for repairs whilst he was works manager. No one was allowed on the footplate until the foreman painter had pasted strong white paper on the panel, on which no pencil or thumb mark must be seen, to ensure that no damage had been done whilst in the works. Mr. Reid also pointed out we omitted to mention an alteration made to the first Dunrobin, soon after it was put to work. Originally there was a water tank under the trailing footplate, but this was fitted with a door and then used for carrying lunch baskets, etc. Water was then carried in two tanks placed on each side of the footplate and extending from the front of the smokebox to the front of cab. These tanks were low and covered with teak wood boards to make comfortable seating accommodation for the Duke's guests. There were brass rails for back rests and also arm rests. We regret there is no photo available of the late Duke of Sutherland with his guests. on a "joy ride."
The locomotive designer and
Paper read before The Institution of Locomotive Engineers by Mr. J. Rodgers, Member of Council, 28 April 1917. The Institution of Locomotive Engineers is to be congratulated upon the liberality of its policy in permitting the public issue of the papers read from time to time by its members. As they are written by practical locomotive men, these papers, and the discussions arising from them, are often of considerable value and importance to all interested in the locomotive engine and its working. This is especially the case with the present paper, which we regard as a most useful contribution to the not too copious literature of steam locomotive engineering. In his opening remarks the author draws attention to the difficulties under which the locomotive engineer labours, and, whilst pointing out the desirability of experimental and research work, pays a just tribute to what has already been accomplished in this direction. We are at one with him in regretting that in this country we have no public testing plant available similar to that of the University of Illinois, but we are not sure that he is altogether correct in stating that "the most scientific publications on the locomotive are American." Personally, we are of opinion that this claim would be more fully substantiated by Continental, in particular by French, engineering literature. The author lays stress, we think most properly, on the liason which should exist between the drawing office and the shops and running shed. Cases are all too familiar where this essential has been overlooked, with the unfortunate result that what appeared quite admirable on paper was far otherwise from the point of view of the building and operating staff.
From these general considerations Mr. Rodgers passes to the "governing factors" of design, and gives numerous formulae for determining resistances, tractive force, adhesion, etc., many of which are of considerable practical value, and not less so from being stated in the simplest terms. Space does not permit of our analysing this excellent paper to the length it merits, but we cannot conclude without expressing a hope that this will not be the last contribution Mr. Rodgers will make to the literature of the locomotive, with which he is obviously so well qualified to deal.
The design of railway location.. Clement
C. Williams. London: Chaprnan & Hall, Ltd: New York: John Wilev &
The author of this book as Professor of Railway Engineering to the University of Kansas, U.S.A., has had excellent opportunities of collecting material, and he has the gift of explaining it to the best advantage and as simply as possible. The first chapter gives a condensed historic record way development in the United States. The twelve well-filled chapters which follow are divided into four (A) Railway Economics and Legislation, (B) Operating conditions affecting location, (C) special problems on location, and (D) Practical Location survey. Intended primarily as a text for classes the book ethe underlying physical and economic principles of location, rather than the practical procedure, and is, of based on transatlantic experience, although many conditions and problems are obviously common to r, in all parts of the world, and particularly our colonies. The general principles of railway economics are full: with, so that the student may appreciate the situation Jing the relation of fixed charges to the location of a lins With given traffic conditions the author shows the ob of securing the greatest amount of business, with plc transportation designed to handle the traffic safely and economically. The complex classification of operating expenses and charges on a railway is carefully analysed, as well determination of railway rates and revenues, both as di producers and in relation to commerce. Without giving minute mechanical details, the especial characteristics of locomotive practice are gone into, as governing element in deciding the alignment of a railway. Features of locomotive design, fuel, heating area,supply, boiler losses, cylinders, mechanical stokers,heated steam, driving mechanism, locomotive classifying the power of a locomotive and tractive effort are discussed in turn. Electric traction with its advantages, disadvantage possibilities, are set forth in a separate chapter. An appendix gives the detailed specifications for form of roads, while the last eleven pages furnish a complete index to the work.
Superheater Corporation, Ltd. 194
Owing to the War the offices at Palace Chambers had been commandeered by Government Authorities, the Superheater Corporation being compelled to obtain temporary accommodation at New Burlington Street, W.l.
Cravens, Ltd. 194.
C.F. Minett has been appointed London representative of this firm in succession to . T.W. Ford. Mr. Minett had acted as assistant to Ford for a number of years at the offices at 68, Victoria St. Westminster, S.W.1.
Number 302 (15 October 1917)
New locomotives: South Eastern and Chatham Ry. 195-6.
Class K 2-6-4T No. 790 and Class N 2-6-0 No. 810: the former had 6ft coupled wheels; the latter 5ft 6in. Both had large numerals; either on the tanks or on the tender.
2-8-2 locomotives: Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. built by the Baldwin
Locomotive Works. 196-7. illustration
Four-cylinder compounds with the inside high pressure cylinders driven through rocking shafts. Baldwin supplied the locomotives without tenders
The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 197-8.
Jones Loch class: fifteen built by Dubs & Co.: WN 3392-3406/1896. No. 127 Loch Garry illustrated. Jones retired on 31 October 1896. Next part Volume 24 page 30.
The Lynton and Barnstaple Railway.199-201. 4
Illustrations include 2-6-2T Exe and Baldwin (1900) 2-4-2T Lyn. Charles E. Drewett General Manger and J.H. Pearce in charge of locomotives.
Oil and gas furnaces in railway workshops. 201-2.
Previous part see 183-5. Monometer tilting furnace (shown in diagram) was made by the Monometer Manufacturing Co. of Birmingham and enabled molten metal to be poured into several moulds on a revolving table. Also describes the American Scwartz furnace and the Charlier furnace
Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting in locomotive works. 202-4. 2 diagrams;
Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great
Southern & Western Ry. 205-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Coey 321 class built with a coned boiler with a total heating surface of 1511ft2 and a grate area of 21ft2. Three of the 305 class were rebuilt with the same boiler. No. 332 was fitted with Marshall valve gear, as had No. 307 of the earlier class.
Philadelphia and Reading Railroad (U.S.A.). 206
55½ miles between Camden and Atlantic City accomplished in 43 minutes with engines Nos. 334 with 5 cars and 343 with 6 cars. No. 344 claimed a speed of 117.7 mile/h between Elwood and Egg Harbour.
Train lighting notes. 207. illustration
Illustration shows balata driving belt after running 27,600 miles.
South Eastern & Chatham Railway. 207.
New 2-6-0 No. 180 stationed at Tonbridge. 2-6-4T No. 790 had been working Cannon Street to Reading services, but was stationed at Ashford.
Glasgow & South Western Railway. 207
New 0-6-2T engines in service: Nos. 99, 100, 101, 102, 142, 143, 145, 147.
The lubrication of locomotives. 207-8. 2 diagrams,
Figures 66-7: oil feed from Wakefield No. 1 mechanical lubricator.
E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 209. 2
German-built 0-6-0 RN 459-78 fitted with inside Walschaerts valve gear (No. 465 illustrated) and 0-8-0T RN 515-34 supplied by Franco-Belge and Nos. 545-64 supplied by a German firm (No. 575 illustrated)
Rolled steel disc railway wheels. 210-11. diagram
Taylor Brothers & Co. Ltd new plant at Trafford Park, Manchester
60-ton machinery wagons, North British Railway. 211. illustration
Bogie well wagon supplied by Leeds Forge to requiremnts of W.P. Reid.
Elastic packing for axle boxes. 211-12. diagram
Horse-hair and wool supplied by Messrs. Beckett, Laycock and Watkinson Ltd of Willesden
An old Indian locomotive. 212. illustration
Oude & Rohilkund State Railway 0-6-0 built by Dubs & Co. from 1880: B class. It had 14 x 20in cylinders, 4ft diameter coupled wheels, 667 ft2 total heating surface and 12.7 ft2 grate area.
|71-6||Avonside||1159-60; 1163; 1165; 1167-8||1877|
The old locomotives of the Lancashire & Yorkshire
Concluded from p. 192. Barton Wright rebuilding of Jenkins 0-6-0 goods engines. Nos. 25, 327 and 345 were rebuilt as 0-4-4Ts with 4ft 10in coupled wheels and 16 x 24in cylinders and were a smaller version of the5ft 8in 0-4-4Ts. They had Naylor safety valves. The second conversions were to 0-6-2Ts and were the first British examples of this wheel arrangement. THe numbers and dates were: 333 (1879); 22, 26, 30 (1880); 320, 348, 364, 365, 368, 372 (1881); 343, 344, 349, 682 (1882); and 24, 38, 347, 354 (1883). Frame lengthening was involved and was probably expensive.Eight were rebuilt as 0-6-0STs for passenger work: Nos. 33, 331, 342, 352 (1883) and 332, 353, 685, 699 (1884). Further rebuilds were to 0-6-0STs for shunting with 4ft 0in wheels: No. 690 illustrated in this form. Another illustration shows a Bury single and a table lists Bury-type singles, which company they were supplied to (Manchester & Bolton or Manchester & Leeds) and builder: Bury; Benjamin Hick; Haigh Foundry; Jones, Turner & Evans.
The problem of railway signal lighting. 214-15. illustration.
Welch patent long burning oil lamp
Improved tarpaulin support for wagons. 215-16. 2 diagrams
Victorian Government Rys. 216
W.M. Shannon, the chief mechanical engineer, in giving evidence at the enquiry into the working of the Victorian Rys., stated that the adoption of superheaters should save 12½% of the fuel consumption, and had 200 of their engines been so fitted there would have been a saving last year, when coal was 15/10 per ton, of £11,378. Recently the price had gone up to 21/1 per ton, and, therefore, the saving would have been £163;17,000.
Electric traction. A.T. Dover. London: Whittaker
& Co. 667 pp. 518 illustrations and five folding plates. ;216
Lecturer on Electric Traction at the Battersea Polytechnic. Engineers and advanced students will find in this work a most exhaustive record of recent progress in electric traction and its problems. The subject matter covers the wide field in a very successful manner, and those seeking a thoroughly practical and up-to-date treatise on the electrical working of railways and tramways will find this book meets their requirements. It has been arranged as follows :—Mechanics of train movement; motors; control; auxiliary apparatus; rolling stock; detailed study of train movement; track and over-head construction; distributing systems and sub-stations. It will be noticed that generating stations and transmission lines have not been included, as the generation of electrical energy is now recognised as a special subject and has little bearing on the utilization of the energy for traction purposes, moreover it could hardly have been adequately dealt with in a work of this size. Sub-station converting machinery is dealt with in a long chapter. Separate chapters deal with rolling stock for electric tramways and for railways (motor coach trains) and their electric equipment, brakes, etc. Descriptions and data are given of electric locomotives in service on the Metropolitan and North-Eastern (Tyneside) lines, while the Continental and American examples include the Lotschberg-Simplon; Rhaetian, Italian State, Simplon Tunnel, Norfolk and Western, Detroit River Tunnel; Butte; Anaconda and Pacific, New York Central, Pennsylvania and New York; New Haven and Hartford. In the chapter devoted to overhead construction on railways details will be found relating to the installations on the Lancashire & Yorkshire (Holcombe Brook section), L. B. & S.C., Midland, New York, New Haven and Hartford; Norfolk and Western, Italian State and Simplon Tunnel lines, but detailed accounts of electrifications have been omitted, as they have been already treated fully in the technical press.
Railway Club. 216
A.W. Bartlett, read a paper at the Club, on the 9 October entitled " The Drummond engines of the London and South Western Railway."
Number 303 (15 November 1917)
0-8-2 superheater tank locomotives, Great Northern Ry.
217-19. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
New locomotives: South Eastern and Chatham Ry. 219. 2 diagrams
Detailed working diagrams of leading truck for both 2-6-0 and 2-6-4T designs.
New six-coupled locomotives, London and South Western Ry. 220. diagram
Urie 6ft 7in diameter coupled wheels: order for ten. Clearly N15 class, but this is not stated. Table list dimensions of this and its freight equivalent with 5ft 7in coupled wheels.
Great Northern Ry. 220
No. 1170, 0-6-0 tender engine had received a larger boiler. We understand the twenty Mogul engines ordered some time back from Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., are to be completed at Doncaster.
Furness Ry. 220
Four trains per day are being worked through by this railway from Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and back, in addition to two which run if required. They also work two from Barrow to Tebay and back. The Maryport and Carlisle Ry. work one train each way between Carlisle and Barrow, and the North-Eastern two between Carlisle and Millorn and back. In addition to these the L. & N.W.R. work two trains between Tebay and Millom and two between Tebay and Barrow.
French Railways. 220
The 4-6-4 express Baltic locomotive of the Northern of France Railway (No. 3.1,102) is credited with having hauled 1,200 tons at 110 km. per hour (68.4 miles) at her trials. In regular service this engine hauled twenty-four cars, 800 tons, at 125 km. per hour (77.1 miles). The 4-6-2 new superheater express engines of the Paris- Orleans Ry. (type 4501-4570) haul in regular service 1,400 tons at 60 km. (37,27 miles) on the level. It is said the superheater engines have 25 per cent. more hauling capacity. On the Southern Ry. of France the 4-6-2 non-superheater express engine No. 3,004 (series 3,001-3,020) hauls 520 tons at 115 km. per hour (71.5 miles).
The electric rolling stock: Chemin de Fer d'Etat Français.
All-metal construction and running on six-wheel bogies
Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western
Railway. 222-4. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Coey conical boiler 4-4-0 333 class; the bogie axleboxes tended to overheat and a further series had outside axleboxes and laminared springs, but the provision of Armstrong pattern oiling pads and oilboxes on the footplate with pipes to the various axleboxes largely cured the problem. Their most imprtant work was performed on the Cork to Rosslare Harbour boat expresses which were worked over a mainly single track line with sharp curves and steep gradients. A 321 class 4-4-0, No. 326 was fitted with a Schmidt superhheater and larger (20 in) diameter cylinders. Leading dimensions tabulted
Great Western Railway. 224
Handrails, etc on goods brake vans were painted white to asssit stff in the hours of darkness.
Universal wood planing and moulding machines for railway carriage and wagon works. 224-7. 2 illustrations, 5 diagrams.
Old mineral engines, Taff Vale Ry. 227-9. 2 illustrations, table
0-6-0 with 5ft 3in coupled wheels; 17½ x 26in cylinders designed by Hurry Riches.
Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting in locomotive works. 229-32. 6 diagrams, 2 tables
Electrification of the Manchester and Bury Line, Lancashire and Yorkshire
Ry. 232-4. 5 illustrations.
Photographs include interior and exterior of all-metal, fireproof cars and interior of Clifton Junction Power Station.
The lubrication of locomotives. 234-5. 2 diagrams
Figures 68-9: Ross mechanical lubricator manufactured by R.L. Ross & Co. of Stockport and Wakefield mechanical lubricator.
L.P. Parker. A note on the use of jacks for rerailing. 235-6. diagram
Canadian Pacific Ry. 236
All the Mallet type locomotives on the C.P.R. had been rebuilt at the Winnipeg shops, and converted to the 2-10-0 type. A number of new 2-10-0 engines had also been built at the Angus shops, Montreal. These, like all other locomotives in the Rocky Mountain division, were fitted to burn oil fuel
Transcontinental Ry. of Australia. 236
The first train from Port Augusta, over the East-West Transcontinental line arrived at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, on 20 October 1919, with Sir John Forrest and other distinguished persons on board. Like all Australian railways, the new line was State-owned, but, unlike most of them, it had been built directly lly by the Commonwealth Government. It is 1,053 wn miles long and runs through what is at present, for 800 miles, mostly uninhabited country, so that its construction was attended with considerable difficu1ty. It cost £6,000,000, and was begun in 1914. Construction progressed from both ends, the workmen at each railhead being fed, watered, clothed and housed under direct Government control. The line is of standard gauge, and it is intended to lay an additional rail of standard gauge on the West Australian 3 ft. 6 in. gauge track from Ka1goorlie to Perth, so that through trains from Port Augusta can be run. The South Australian line at Port Augusta is also 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. At present the speed of the trains will be 30 miles per hour, covering so the distance in 35 hours, but it is expected to reduce this to 24 hours, an average speed of 44 miles per all hour being quite practicable.
High-capacioty car for mineral traffic: Pennsylvania Railroad. 237.
H-24 bogie Gondola cars had five hoppers. They were built at the Altoona works of the Pennsylvania Railroad.
[Steel fireboxes]. W.G. Landon
American method of boiler washing out when hot water not available: steam blown off, then connection is made to injector feed pipe and cold water run in until boiler full, then plug taken out at bottom of firebox. Critices firing up by natural draught: in USA blower used via connection to steam or compressed air
[Hot axleboxes]. W.G. Landon
Re query about hot axle boxes. Suggests that trouble is due to loose driving boxes, which should be fitted with wedges to take up wear, as in American practice. [conjecture that engines which fail with left axle boxes are" left lead" engines, i.e., the left crank leads and that those with right hot boxes are right lead. Referring to the sketch, the arrows show direction of force in four different positions. In (1) the tendency is to force L A back and R A forward, but on account of the left being on dead centre, it offers a more rigid fulcrum than right and greater force is exerted on LA. The same applies in (3). In (2) and (4), however, the forces are acting of Loco. in the same direction and both ends of the axle are pushed accordingly. It is evident, therefore, that the left box will get the greatest pounding and will run hot. On right lead engine conditions are reversed and the right side will run hot. Of course, above would only happen when the boxes are well worn, A method to test my theory would be to run a loco with full tonnage train backward over the division and see whether same or opposite side would run hot. .
The Mechanics' Institution, Swindon. 238
New catalogue of books in the lending and reference department of the Great Western Ry. Mechanics' Institution at Swindon, comprising about 40,000 volumes. These are arranged under authors' names and subject headings in alphabetical sequence, works of fiction appearing under their author's names only, and serious works under both author and subject. The entries under subject headings are very complete, descriptive notes being added to show the scope or character of the books, particularly in regard to those dealing with engineering and railway work. The librarian, W. Hildon Bagguley, F.L.A., who has had large experience in municipal libraries, has reorganized the Institution on modern public library lines and anyone, whether in the employ of the G.W.R. or not, who has been elected and paid the subscription, may enjoy all the privileges of the Institute. G.W.R. employes pay the modest subscription by scale, ranging from 2d. to 10d. per month, while persons not engaged on the railway pay from 1/3 to 3/- per quarter. For this small subscription a member has this fine library and its central and branch reading rooms and recreation rooms always at his service, with other advan- tages in connection with the lectures and concerts which are frequently held in the Institute Hall. From the fact that the membership is now over 11,000 men and women, it is evident the unique opportunities afforded are not being neglected. The Institution has been practically self-supporting since its foundation seventy years ago by Sir Daniel Gooch, as it is run on co-operative lines and owned by the members and not by the Great Western Railway Company. It is the largest Railway Mechanics' Institute in this country, so that its members may well be proud of it.
Thomas Easton Allan, of South Park, Lincoln, appointed to seat on the board of Robey & Co., Ltd., Lincoln. Mr. Allan for several years has been connected with the management and is intimately acquainted with the working of all departments.
Death of locomotive inspector John Williarns, of the Great Central Ry., which took place suddenly on 25 September. Williams commenced to work for the M.S. & L. Ry. in 1881, and was made fireman in 1883 and driver in 1891. He was stationed at Staveley and Colwick, then Gorton and finished driving at Leicester. He was promoted to locomotive inspector 28 December 1901, and eventually brought to Gorton on the headquarters staff of the loco. running department. Mr. Williams was joint author of the book on Locomotive Management from Cleaning to Driving,for the production of which he collaborated with Mr. Hodgson, of the Manchester School of Technology.
[Major George H. Spittle]. 238
Distinguished Service Order conferred upon Major George H. Spittle, R.E., Commandant of the 1st Army Signalling School (Assistant to the Electrical Engineer of the Great Western Ry., Paddington). The investiture at the hands of H.M. the King took place at Buckingham Palace.
The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 238
A meeting of the Institution was held at Caxton Hall, Westminster on 20 October, when a paper entitled Some notes on the working of superheater locomotives, with special reference to lubrication, was read by the Secretary, on behalf of the author, J. H. Rea, member, locomotive department, F.C.O. de Buenos Aires, Mechita. The President (A. D. Jones) opened the discussion, which was continued by J. Clayton (S.E. & C.Ry.), S. Mannering (L.B.S.C.Ry.), J. W. Bliss (C. C. Wakefield & Co.), T. C. Thomsen (Vacuum Oil Co.), J. M. Dunn (L. & N.W. Ry.), R.P.C. Sanderson (Baldwin Loco. Works), J. Rodgers (L.B. & S.C.Ry.). The next meeting will be held at Caxton Hall on 24 November 1917, at 2 p.m., when a paper on Blast pipes and chimneys will be read by J. Maxwell Dunn, graduate, L. & N.W. Ry.
Railway Club. 238
B.M. Bazley will read a paper at the meeting arranged for 11 December 11 at the Club, 92, Victoria Street, Westminster.
Number 304 (15 December 1917)
Consolidation locomotives for overseas military
railways. 239. illustration
British War Office Orders 2-8-0s; built North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. at Queen's Park Works with steel fireboxes and Westinghouse brake
London & North-Western Ry. 239
Claughton class Nos. 116, 159, 171, 986, 1085, 1103, 2122, 2368, 2416 nnd 2426: new series, probably to be built without names. Webb four-cylinder compound No. 1448 mineral engine converted to simple and fitted with superheater.
New locomotives, South Eastern and Chatham Railway.
240-1; 242.. 4 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
Maunsell N class 2-6-0 and K class 2-6-4T, Includes detailed diagram of valve gear and top feed: last on p. 342.
Standard gauge tank locomotive for the British
Government. 242. illustration
Outside-cylinder (17 x 24in) 0-6-0T supplied by Kerr Stuart & Co. Ltd with 4ft coupled wheels and Belpaire boiler
Great Northern Ry. 242
The four-cylinder compound Atlantic, No. 1300, built by the Vulcan Foundry in 1905, had been rebuilt at Doncaster and converted to a two-cylinder simple engine. The cylinders, which are outside the frames, are 20 in. diameter by 26 in. stroke and drive on to the front pair of coupled wheels. The original boiler which carries a working pressure of 200 lb. per sq. inch has been retained. The valve gear, which is of the Walschaerts type, is also external. The engine has been fitted with a Gresley superheater, and also the Wakefield mechanical lubricator with anti-carbonizing. device. On several occasions recently No. 1300 had been working the 5.30 p.m. express out of King's Cross, through to Doncaster.
Great Western Railway. 242
New 2-6-0 tender locomotives of the "430 I" class, constructed at Swindon Works, bear numbers 5309 to 5333. Several 0-60 Glasgow and South-Western Ry. goods engines are now working on the Great Western main line, among them beng Nos. 300A and 309. Three of the G. & S.W. engines are stationed at Swindon, as well as two tank engines belonging to the South-Eastern and Chatham Ry
The Coalbrookdale Tramroad. 243-5. 5 illustrations.
Illustrations include 0-4-0 shunting locomotive No. 6 and tramway in road at Ironbridge.
Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great
Southern and Western Ry. 246-8. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Includes Fig. 16 Sir William Goulding (Maunsell 4-4-0 and Fig. 17 No. 400 Watson four-cylinder 4-6-0.
The lubrication of locomotives. 248-9. 4 diagrams
Vacuum Oil Company lubricants and mechanical sight feed lubricators.,
Locomotive boiler clothing, 250-2. .diagram
Timber painted with asbestos had been used but was replaced by felt and asbestos or silicate cotton (slag wool) and asbestos mattresses. Mentions Fisher's patent and paper by Edwin Kenyon presented to the South Wales Institute of Engineers in 1911.
Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting in locomotive works. 252-4. 2 illustrations, 6 diagrams
The problem of railway signal sighting. 254-5.
LNWR set signals high with sky as background: in contrast the Midland set them low. See also letter from J.H. Cherry
Oil and gas-fired furnaces in locomotive workshops. 255-7. 5 illustrations
Gas fired tyre heating furnaces
North-Eastern Railway Company's ambulance train for France. 257-60.
Sixteen bogie vahicles
Adjusting weights on locomotive wheels. P.C.
In the article on Adjusting weights on locomotive wheels, page 160, August, 1917, paragraph 8 reads, " ... the idea underlying the equalizing gear is that the engine is supported on three points . . . etc. '. etc." .. This is hardly a correct descnption of the principles governing the application of equalizing and compensating to long and many-wheeled locomotives to-day.
It may be generally said that equalizing and compensating is applied in order to maintain an equal or definite proportion of weight distributed on or over a number of wheels, notwithstanding inequalities and soft places in the track, and also to a great extent to overcome variations in .indi,vidual sprin.gs. Definite proportions of weights are maintained by usmg "proportional" compensating beams.
An instance wIll make this very clear. Take a 4-8·0 engme of which in the first case only the two bogie axles are equalized, all the coupled axles being isolated. If this engine encounters a sharp curve with a rather excessive super-elevation, say, 4 or 5 inches in the outer rail near the centre of the curve in the form of a "hump," the two middle axles of the engine will become very heavily overloaded, especially on the side of the outer rail. This naturally releases weight off the bogie and also the trailing wheels, again, mostly on the side of the outer rail. It will at once be seen that a dangerous condition arises; if moving bogie end first the engine will probably pass all right, but if moving with the trailing coupled axle first it is almost certain to derail.
In the second case, a 4-8-0 engine of similar construction but compensated in two groups, the two bogie axles equalized together and all the coupled wheels compensated, will pass over such a" humped" curve safely, owing to the compensation allowing for the track inequality without much variation from the designed loads on the various axles. .
With regard to paragraph 9, re breaking of springs. It is rare for a spring to break altogether; most cases are of one to four plates giving out.
When this happens on a compensated engme the levers will adjust themselves to the alteration of the camber of the failing spring and keep the weight m approximately correct distribution until the spring can be dealt with. '. With regard to paragraph 10, I have had no ex:perience with portable weighing machines, but it would be mteresting to have the makers' views on the application of such machines to compensated locomotives. ,
Great Western Railway Engines, 1917. A. J. L. W. London: The Great
Western Railway Magazine.
Any work dealing with current locomotive practice necessarily soon becomes out of date and although the first edition of that under notice was published as recently as 1914, many new locomotives have since been added to the G.W.R. stock. In order to include these and make the publication representa- tive of the stock as at present constituted, a new edition has become necessary and advantage has been taken of this to include several new features; among these may be mentioned a chapter on the standardization of locomotives, a diagram with leading dimensions of The Great Bear and a chart of the nine standard types of loconotives n.ow constructed at Swindon Works. The list of all named engmes on the G.W.R. has been revised up to the time of publication, but we regret that the opportunity has not been taken .to add to its interest by the inclusion of the dates and original numbers of the engines.