Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 23 (1917)

Key file to other Volumes

Number 293 (15 January 1917)

1896-1917. 1
Examination of periodical's progress

Great Western Ry. 1.
Nos. 5300 -5304 entry into service.

New superheater locomotives, Highland Ry. 1. illustration
No. 73 Snaigow: piston valve locomotive with tail rods.

R.W. Murray Chairman Avonside Engine Co. 1
Died Falmouth 2 January 1917

Rebuilt express locomotive, G.N.R. of Ireland. 2. illustration
Great Northern Ry. of Ireland had re-built certain of their Class P 6-ft' 6-in four-coupled bogie passenger locomotives, an example of which, No. 72, illustrated courtesy of G. T. Glover, the Locomotive Engineer. The leading dimensions of this engine, as rebuilt, are as follow : Gauge, 5 ft. 3 in. Cylinders, 17 in. diam. by 24 in. stroke. Diameter of coupled wheels, 6 ft. 7 in., and of bogie wheels, 3 ft. 2 in. Wheelbase, rigid, 8 ft. ; total, 20 ft. 1½in. The boiler is 4 ft. 6 in. in diameter, with a barrel 10 ft. 2 in. in length. The firebox is 5 ft. long by 4 ft. 7 in. wide, and has a grate area of 16.6 sq. ft. Its heating surface is 101.4 sq. ft. The tubes are 240 in number, all 1¾ in. in diameter outside, and provided a heating surface of 1154 sq. ft.; the total being therefore 1255.4 sq. ft. The working pressure is 175 psi. Ross safety valves have been fitted to replace those of the Ramsbottom type originally employed. The weight in working order is 43 tons 10 cwt., of which 30 tons, equally divided, are available for adhesion. No. 72 is one of a class of four engines designed by J.C. Park, and built by Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., and is a development of his 4-4-0 mixed traffic engines with 6 ft. 7 in., instead of 5 ft. 7 in. wheels. These four engines were :

82 Daisy Beyer, Peacock & Co. 3455 1892
83 Narcissus Beyer, Peacock & Co. 3456 1892
72 Daffodil Beyer, Peacock & Co. 3664 1895
73 Primrose Beyer, Peacock & Co. 3665 1895

Originally none of them had names: these were added by C. Clifford in 1897. As built the boilers were 4 ft. 3 in. diameter and 10 ft. 3 in. long, with their centres 7 ft. 2 in. above rail level, while the total weight of the engines in working order was 39 tons.

American tank engines for the British Government. 2-3. illustration
Baldwin 0-4-0ST with bar frames, 14 x 22in cylinders. 3ft 6in coupled wheels, balanced slide valves, steel firebox, 760ft2 total heating surface and 180 psi boiler pressure.

Narrow-gauge locomotives for the French Government. 3-4. diagram (side & front elevations)
Kerr Stuart 0-6-0T 600mm gauge for working in Mauritius with 215 x 280mm cylinders.

Superheater tank locomotive, North Staffordshire Railway. 4. illustration
0-6-4T No. 114 designed J.H. Adams with 5ft 6in coupled wheels, 21ft2 grate area and 1274ft2  total heating surface.

A mixed gauge locomotive. 5. 2 illustrations
Built by Hunslet in 1870 for Oude & Rohilkund Railway to run on 2ft 6in, metre and 5ft 6in gauges

North Eastern Railway. 5.
Latest 4-4-2 Atlantics: Nos. 2205, 2206 and 2207.

London Brighton & South Coast Railway. 5
2-6-0 Nos. 342-6 entered service

The old locomotives of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. 5-7.
Previous part in Volume 22 pp. 200-2.Hirst 0-6-0 with 5ft coupled wheels, 17 x 24in cylinders, 140 psi boilr pressure. Originally with Naylor safety valves. Barton Wright added domes. Illustrations No. 527 domeless and 718 with dome.

The lubrication of locomotives. 7-9. 4 diagrams
Menno grease cups for eccentrics.

Clarence Becker. Combining indicator diagrams. 9-11. 2 diagrams
See also letter from J.E. Johnson on pp. 61-2

Pennsylvania R.R. — brake trials on modern passenger trains. 11.
In conjunction with the Westinghouse Brake Co., the Pennsylvania R.R conducted on their Atlantic City line an extensive series of brake tests with a train of twelve all-steel vestibule cars, weighing about 54 tons each, drawn by a Pacific type locomotive of the K28 clas. The weight of the train, including the locomotive, would be over 800 English tons, with a length of 1,040 ft. The introduction of heavier trains necessitated an improvement in the braking arrangements, if the speed standard was to be maintained. With this object in view most elaborate experiments were made, extending over a period of three months: 691 stops were made at various speeds up to 80 miles per hour. To apply the brake instantaneously throughout the 12-car train, an arrangement of electric control of the compressed air has been perfected, so that the application valves on all the vehicles are operated in two seconds after the driver turns his handle. It was to test also how the new brake compared with the. old under similar conditions that the P.R.R. made these trials. The shortest stop of the locomotive and train of twelve cars from a speed of 60 miles per hour was made in 1,021-ft. and at 80 miles per hour in 2,197-ft. The line over which the tests were made is level, approached by a slightly falling grade for some twenty-five miles and therefore very favourable for high speeds. An emergency stop of a 70-ft. car, with no locomotive attached, running at 60 miles per hour, was made in 725-ft. Four types of brakes were fitted, the equipment being designed to produce a service stop with 90 per cent, braking power and emergency stops with 150 per cent. The reports of the experiments fill a volume of 401 pages. Curves showing the building up of the pressure for each car, with the different brakes, are given, also diagrams comparing the length of stop with the various equipments tested at varying speeds and percentages of braking power. The co-efficient of rail friction was tested by a special machine, but the results obtained were not consistent. Deceleration curves showed that the brake block friction increased as the speed was reduced. A special machine was used for the tests and the temperatures were measured by thermo-junctions. It is argued that the principal resistance of the shoe being primarily due to the tearing away of particles, which is easier at high temperatures, the aim should be to keep the mean temperature of the shoe as low as possible, which would cause less warping

Building a locomotive boiler. 11-13. 2 illustrations.
Wicksteed plate sawing machine.

North Western State Railway of India. 13-14. 3 illustrations.
Ambulance train

Hygenic finishing for railway carriages. 14-15. illustration, diagram
Smoothness was sought

Train lighting notes. 15
American data

Liquid fuel for locomotives. 15-17.
1. Reduction in the cost and weight of fuel which, in the case of one Mexican railway, totalled a 40 per cent, reduction in cost and 30 per cent. reduction in weight during the year.
2. Saving in cost of handling with the absence of wastage of coal in transport.
3. Absence of smoke, ash, or clinker ; assuring cleanliness in passenger service.
4. Complete adjustment of fuel to load without arduous physical labour.
5. Elimination of camp fires with their consequent expensive claims for liabilities.
6. Rapidity in steam raising, which can be done inside 40 minutes.
7. Higher evaporative efficiency.
8. Increased mileage on one load of fuel.

Holden system mentioned, including use on Cromer run, but mainly American

Obituary. 17
R.H. Burnett on 13 December 1916: born Ardross Ross-shire

Reviews. 18

The Railway Signal and Permanent Way Engineer's Pocket Book. London: Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd., 18
In these days of higher technical and scientific education, this little volume should prove very useful. It is divided into three main sections, the first of which deals with signalling and the second with permanent way matters, while the third part contains pages of squared paper and tables of British measures with their metric equivalents ; these latter are sure to be in demand, if we are to make any serious endeavour to capture enemy trade in the near future. In the first section practically all details of construction and their application in actual daily working are enumerated and explained in clear phraseology. The second part gives useful data and stresses for track and engineering works, durability of materials, and so forth. Prominent place is given to the more important Board of Trade regulations and restrictions that affect railway engineers. We could wish that some mention had been made of the M.D.M. system of route signalling now in use in France, but perhaps this will be dealt with in subsequent editions. Altogether, the book may be recommended to Signal and Permanent Way Engineers and to others who are interested in these subjects. The paper, type and binding are alike excellent ; and the illustrations and diagrams, of which there are a large number, are well selected and clearly drawn. The book is of handy size and shape for the pocket, and has a serviceable binding.

Railway Map of the British Isles, published by George Philip & Son, Ltd. 18
Each railway system is shown in a distinct colour, while large scale insets show very clearly the system of the chief manufacturing and industrial districts, viz., London, Lancashire and Yorkshire, Midlands, Newcastle and Middlesbrough, Edinburgh and Glasgow. It measures 33 in. by 43 in., the scale being 18 miles to an inch.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 18
On 9 December a paper was read by Smith Mannering, member, Brighton, on Locomotive Fireboxes [Paper 79: no abstract],. W.A. Lelean, being in the chair. Numerous drawings were exhibited by the author, as well as specimens of stays, tubes, and portions of firebox plates, etc. Mr. R. P. C. Sanderson (Baldwin Loco. Works) opened the discussion, which was continued by J. Clayton (S.E. & C. Ry.), Henbrey (L.B. & S.C.), Vaughan (L. & S.W. Ry.) and the Chairman.
The Council have pleasure in announcing that A.D. Jones, M.I.Mech.E., Out-door Loco. Supt., S.E. & C. Ry., has accepted the invitation to become President for 1917. Owing to the sudden death of Mr. R. H. Burnett, a Vice- President, there will be no election of officers, and the Officers and Council will be as follows : Vice-Presidents.—H. Kelway Bamber, M.V.O. (The Leeds Forge Co., London) ; W. A. Lelean (Westminster); M. F. Ryan (Assist. Chief Mech. Eng., L. & S.W. Ry.); R. P. C. Sanderson (Baldwin Loco. Works, Westminster) ; C. A. Suffield and R. Wright (Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., Ltd., Manchester).
Council.—A. R. Bennett, Westminster ; G. F. Burtt (Loco. Dept., L.B. & S.C., Brighton); J. Clayton (S.E. & C. Ry., Loco. Dept.) ; A. C. C. Damant (C.M.E. Dept., G.E. Ry., Stratford) ; H. W. Dearberg (Loco. Dept., Beckton Chemical Works) ; R. Dougal (Messrs. Nasmyth, Wilson & Co., London) ; J. F. Gairns (The Railway News) ; A. T. Houldcroft (The Leeds Forge); J. M. Jackson (Loco. Dept., L.B. & S.C. Ry., Brighton) ; G. Mitchell (Vacuum Brake Co.) ; J. Rodgers (Loco. Dept, L.B. & S.C. Ry., Brighton) ; D. Sheppy (Loco. Dept, S.E. & C. Ry., Ashford) ; F. Turner (Mech. Eng. Dept, Royal Arsenal, Woolwich) ; and W. Vaughan (Loco. Dept., L. & S.W. Ry., Twickenham).
The annual general meeting will take place on Saturday, 27 January 1917, at 3-0 p.m., at Caxton Hall, Westminster, when the new President, Mr. A. D. Jones, will give an address.

Railway Club. 18
The next meeting will be held on Tuesday, 13 February , at 92, Victoria Street, Westminster, at 7 p.m., when H. L. Hopwood will read a paper, The Great Northern Ry. west of Grantham.

Number 294 (15 February 1917)

4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives, Caledonian Railway. 19. illustration.
R. & W. Hawthorn Class 938: Highland Railway not mentioned, although introduction of Belpaire firebox to Caledonian Railway is noted: six in service working passenger trains and fast goods between Glasgow and Carlisle.

Standardization of French rolling stock. 19.
New company, Le Matériel Roulant formed to manufacture rolling stock and locomotives quickly to meet post-war demands

New engines for the New Zealand Government Rys. 20. 2 illustrations.
4-6-4T built Hillside, South Island: superheated with 3ft 9in coupled wheels, 18¼ x 22in cylinders, 16.9ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure. 4-8-0 No. 627 built A. & G. Price of Thames with 3ft 6½in coupled wheels, 17 x 22in cylinders, 1166ft2 total heating surface, 16.8ft2 grate area and 175 psi boiler pressure. H.H. Jackson was CME of the New Zealand Government Railways.

Petrol-electric passenger car Dublin and Blessington Tramway. 20. illustration.
Designed  by J.P. Tierney, consultant electrical engineer to the company

American narrow-gauge works locomotive. 21-2. illustration.
H.K. Porter 2ft 6in gauge 0-4-0ST for Carnegie Steel with 3ft 4in coupled wheels, 17 x 20in cylinders, 945.7ft2 total heating surface, 18.75ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure.

Obituary. 22.
James Stirling: fifth son of Robert Stirling. Loaomotive Superintendent of South Eastern Railway between 1878 and 1898 (retired when SER and LCDR became jointly operated). Prior to that he had been employed on the Glasgow & South Western Railway where he rose to be Locomotive Superintendent, apart from a brief period early in his career with Sharp Stewart & Co.

Touring car converted to rail motor, Queensland Rys. 22. illustration.
Napier touring car converted at Ipswich Shops.

Narrow gauge goods locomotive. Indian State Rys. 23. diagram (side elevation)
2-8-2 for Kalabagh Bannu 2ft 6in gauge lines; built by North British Locomotive Co. under inspection of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

New express locomotives for the Holland Railway Co. 23-5. illustration, 3 diagrams
Powerful inside-cylinder 4-4-0 type with novel bogie and crank setting: see letter from P.C. Dewhurst on page 128

Great Central Ry. 25
No. 1016 (Robinson 4-4-0) and N0. 111 (573 class goods 0-6-0) had been rebuilt with larger boilers and superheaters

Great Northern Ry. 25
Nos. 1657-9 completed the 1650-9 batch of 2-6-0 express freight engines. Stirling 0-4-2 mixed traffic locomotive No. 502A had been rebuilt with a domed boiler. No. 1139, Ivatt 0-6-0 had been fitted with a larger boilers. Trains of eighty wagons were being hauled by the eight-coupled mineral engines, whilst 75 wagons was the new load limit for the 2-6-0s

4-6-2 compound superheater express locomotive, Paris Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. 26-9. table
See Volume 21 Issue 245 for description of loomotive. Test results of running between Laroche and Dijon

New 4-6-0 type express passenger engine, Great Southern & Western Railway. 29; 30-1. diagram
Detailed working drawing, plan and section. Watson design. Photograph in Issue for August 1916.

Indian Railway Conference Association. 29
Indian Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent' Committee held their annual meetings at Agra from 4 to 9 December 1916. Discussed application of vacuum brake to freight trains and also strenthening of couplings. A.C. Carr was elected Chairman.

Railway Club. 29
13 March meeting at 92 Victoria Street: C.H. Palmer to read paper on Single line working on British Railways.

The lubrication of locomotives. 32-5.
Figures 30-9. slidebars. Hainsworth Patent (GB 4761/1877) with Weatherburn pendulum lubricator; Threlfall's pendulum lubricator and Bramwell's trimmings for bogies;

North British Ry. 35
The latest 0-6-0 superheater goods engines were Nos. 433 to 437, built at Cowlairs Works. Five 0-6-2 tanks had been built at the Atlas Works of the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., Nos. 47, 54, 61, 65 and 69. They were similar to other engines of the same type which had been running for some years, having cylinders 18 ins. by 26 ins., and coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 ins. diameter. The following Holmes goods engines (18 ins. by 26 ins. cylinders) had been rebuilt:- Nos. 45, 623, 649, 652, 653, 664, 667, 669, 688, 692, as well as Wheatley goods (17 ins. by 24 ins.) Nos. 1122, 1132, 1140, 1142, 1189 and 1223. The whole of the fifteen 4-4-2 superheater tanks were at work-Nos. 438 to 452. The engines involved in the disastrous collision near Ratho, on the 3 January were No. 874 Dunedin on the Edinburgh and Glasgow train, and No. 421 Jingling Geordie (4-4-0), the light engine off the Dalmeny train.

Curious wheel fracture. 35. illustration
A correspondent sends us a photograph, which we reproduce, of an iron wheel skeleton. which failed in service. Evidently the front "washer" or "dab" of metal was never really welded on. The wheel apparently was manufactured some years ago, before hydraulic presse were employed for such work.

The Rhymney Ry. and its engines. 36-8. illustration, 5 diagrams (side elevations)
Nos. 4-6 were 0-6-2T type mainly itended for passenger work and were supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. (WN 3372-4/1909). They had 5ft coupled wheels and 18 x 26in cylinders and a total heating surface of 1373.5ft2. They did not have Belpaire fireboxes. They were subsequently modied with changes to the leading axle suspension. In 1910/11 a further series of 0-6-2Ts were supplied by R. Stephenson & Co. and by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. WN 3387-96 and 946-51, respectively. Four 0-6-0Ts were supplied by Hudswell, Clarke & Co. WN 846-9/1908. They shared the cylinder size of the larger locomotives but had a reduced heating surface (1268ft2). In 1907 Hudswell, Clarke & Co. supplied two engine units with 3ft 6in coupled wheels to power rail motors (steam railcars) built by Cravens. In 1910 No.1 was converted into an 0-6-0WT and fitted with a larger bunker. In 1914 Hudswell, Clarke & Co. supplied further 0-6-2Ts similar to the earlier locomotives but with Belpaire fireboxes: these were WN 1063-5.

Trade with Russia. 38
Basil Courtney & Co. aimed to enhance trade with Russia: KPJ: wonder what happened in October

New style of decoration for dining cars: Chicgo, Burlington and Quincy R.R. 38. 2 illustrations
Seemed to be moving toards art deco style

Caledonian Ry. 38
Six freight 4-6-0 with outside cylinders under construction at St. Rollox

Portable electric grinding machine. 39-40. 7 illustrations
Dumore supplied Canadian-American Machinery Co.

Number 295 (15 March 1917)

Six-coupled superheater express locomotives: Caledonian Ry. 41. illustration
Pickersgill Class 60 4-6-0. Mian dimensions: No. 62 illustrated.  See correction on page 66

Underground Electric Rys. of London. 41.
Bakerloo Tube to commence running over LNWR electrified lines between Willesden and Watford on 2 April

Great Northern Ry. 41.
Two 0-8-2T engines, Nos. 131 and 136, had been fitted with superheaters and were working between Colwick and New England (Peterborough) 47 miles.

Mogul goods engine, New South Wales Government Railways. 42. illustration
With 4ft 0½in coupled wheels and 20 x 26in cylinders built at Eveleigh workshops.

North Wales Narrow Gauge Ry. 42
Passenger service entirely withdrawn "last autumn".

Persia's first railway. 42, . illustration
Photograph of Teheran to Shah Abdul Azim line which covered 6 miles and text describes as a sort of tramway. Other lines, including link with Russia and work on line from India are also described.

Electrification of the North Eastern Ry. between Shildon and Newport. 43-4. illustration
1500V dc. Merz & McLellan consulting engineers.

Personal. 44.
New Year's Honours: Baronet: Sir Charles Wakefied, late Lord Mayor of London and head of C.C. Wakefield & Co; Knights: V.L. Raven chief mechanical engineer North Eastern Railway asnd superintendent of Royal Arsenal, Woolwich since 1915; William Lorimer, chairman North Britsh Locomotive Co. and Steel Company of Scotland.

Railway Club. 44.
S.Y. Knight to read two papers on Electric railways of London: the first on the deep level tube railways and the second on the District and Metropolitan Railways.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 44.
Annual General Meeting held on 27 January 1917 and Entertainment of Wounded Soldiers from Guy's and Westminsterv Hospitals on 3 March 1917 at Cannon Street Hotel. Also mentions address by A.D. Jones.

Safety First " Special Train of the United States Government: Baltimore and Ohio R.R. 45-6. 3 illustrations
United States by the Department of the Interior and other Government offices. Much has been written to teach the gospel of "Safety First," or self-protection to the people, but to educate them on the most graphic and practical lines it was arranged for the Baltimore and Ohio R.R. to prepare a train to be on view in the principal cities in the country displaying a comprehensive group of exhibits arranged by the Government officials. These illustrate the varied activities of the Federal Service in protecting lives and health, safeguarding the nation against outside attacks and developing the natural resource's. Ten new all-steel cars were built at the Mount Clare shops of the B. and O.R.R. and taken to Washington for the Government experts to arrange the exhibits.

Obituary. 46
It is with deep regret that we record the death of Henry Harford Battley, of Canterbury. He will be remembered by our readers in connection with the historical articles on the locomotives of the L.B. & S.C. and G. E. Railways. Living at Bow in the  1860s  he had many opportunities of observing the Eastern Counties, North London and Blackwall engines, and these he put on record by making small coloured drawings showing the differences in individual engines with great fidelity. Mr. Battley was a man of versatile tastes. Organs, their history, church music and mediaeval architecture were subjects in which he took a deep interest, and he was well skilled in music, frequently doing organist's duty in the churches of the city and surrounding villages. His death occurred on 24 December 1916 at the age of seventy

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 47-9
Fuuther series of main line passenger engines was constructed in 1886 by the Clyde Locomotive Company of Glasgow. They were the first locomotives built by this firm, which was afterwards taken over by Sharp, Stewart & Co., who transferred their business to the Clyde Locomotive Company's new establishment and renamed it Atlas Works, the old works of that name in Manchester being thereafter discontinued. This series consisted of eight locomotives (Fig. 27), now designated Class E, which, although generally of similar design to their predecessors, Class F, differed from them in the boiler, which had a larger firebox, but a shorter barrel. These eight engines were as follows : .

Eng. No Name WN
76 Bruce 1
77 Lovat 2
78 Lochalsh 3
79 Atholl 4
80 Stafford 5
81 Colville 6
82 Fife 7
83 Cadboll 8

Ample brake power was provided, both engine and tender being fitted with the automatic vacuum apparatus which was applied to all wheels of the tender and the coupled wheels of the engine, whilst, in addition, the tender brake could be operated by hand and the engine was fitted with the Chatelier counter-pressure water brake.
The names of most of this class had been previously adopted on earlier engines, the only new ones being Lochalsh and Colville, the former being the seat of Sir Kenneth J. Matheson and the latter representing Lord Colville of Culross, both of whom had been recently appointed to the directorate. Engine No. 76 was sent when new to the Edinburgh Exhibition of 1886, which accounts for it being the last of the series to be put into service, although the first to be constructed. In 1900 No. 82 was renamed Durn, after the residence at Perth of A. E. Pullar, the present Deputy Chairman, but in 1916 the name was removed and the engine is at present nameless. In 1902 No. 83 was renamed Monkland, after the Nairn residence of Wm. Whitelaw, who was at that time Chairman of the Board.
To replace the single-wheel tank engine No. 12 on the Strathpeffer branch, Jones designed a tank locomotive specially for this service, which was built at the Lochgorm Works and turned out in May, 1890. It was numbered 13 and named  Strathpeffer (Fig. 28), and was a front-coupled saddle tank with trailing bogie [0-4-4ST]. The cylinders were 14 in. in diameter by 20 in. stroke and 2 ft. 3 in. between centres, this being the only locomotive designed for the Highland Ry. by Jones having the cylinders in the inside position. The diameter of the coupled wheels was 4 ft. 3 in. and of the bogie wheels 2 ft. 7½ in. The distance between the centres of the bogie wheels was 5 ft. 6 in., but the bogie pin was not placed centrally between them, being 3 ft. behind the front bogie axle and 2 ft. 6 in. in front of the trailing. From the bogie pin to the centre of the driving axle was 9 ft. 6 in. and the coupled wheel centres were 6 ft. apart, the total wheelbase being thus 18 ft. The boiler from the old No. 13, which was then scrapped, was partly utilized for the new engine, the barrel being cut down and a dome together with a spring balance safety valve being put over the firebox casing. Its external diameter was 3 ft. 6½ in. and the height of its centre line 5 ft. 9 in. above the rails. It contained 158 tubes of 1¾ in. diameter and its heating surface was : tubes 578 ft2., firebox 62 ft2., total 640 ft2., the area of the firegrate being 12-5 ft2 The saddle tank contained 820 gallons of water, the total length over buffers was 29 ft. 6 in. and the total weight in working order 32 tons, of which 12 tons were on the bogie and 10 tons on each of the coupled axles. It was fitted with the automatic vacuum brake and stationed at Dingwall.  In June 1900 it it was renumbered 53 and in October 1901, was rebuilt at the Lochgorm Works, and the saddle tank replaced by side tanks (Fig. 29). The new boiler was of Drummond's design, having a dome on the barrel and a pair of safety valves on the top of the dome. Its working pressure was 140 psi., and it was placed with its centre line 6 ft. above rail level. Its heating surface was: tubes 623 ft2., firebox 67-5 ft2., total 690-5 ft2.., grate area 13 ft2. The capacity of the side tanks was 900 gallons and the weight of the engine was increased to 34 tons, of which 9½tons were on the leading axle, 10 tons on the driving and 14½ tons on the bogie.
The next addition to the Company's locomotive stock was a further series of mainline passenger engines, and in the design of these Jones took the opportunity of providing a considerable increase of boiler power without materially departing from his favourite pattern. This series, known as the Strath class (Fig. 30), consisted of twelve engines,  were built by Neilson & Co. in 1892: the list of running, works numbers and names follows


Sir George 4428


Tweeddale 4429


Strathspey 4430


Strathdearn 4431


Strathnairn 4432


Strathtay 4433


Strathcarron 4434


Glentilt 4435


Glenmore 4436


Glentruim 4437


Glentromie 4438
100 Glenbruar 4439

Again the cylinders, wheels, wheelbase, framing and Allan valve motion were the same as in classes E and F, but the boiler showed a marked advance on any of its predecessors, having a length of 9 ft. 9½in. and an external diameter of 4 ft. 6 in., the latter figure being probably the largest of any locomotive boiler in Scotland up to that period. The height of its centre line was 7 ft. 4 in. and the working pressure 160 psi. Other dimensions were tubes, number 242, length 10 ft. 2 in., outside diameter1¾in. ; heating surface, tubes 1,127 ft2.., firebox 115 ft2., total 1,242 ft2.., grate area ft2.sq. ft. The loaded weight was 45 tons, 15½i tons being on the bogie, 15 tons on the driving and 14½i tons on the trailing wheels. The tenders were identical with those of the No. 76 class, and in addition to the tender hand brake, the automatic vacuum was applied to all wheels of the tender and the coupled wheels of the engine. The total wheelbase was 44 ft., the total length over buffers 54 ft. 1½i in., and the total weight in working order 76½i- tons. Engines Nos. 89 and 90 were named after two of the Company's directors, Sir George Macpherson Grant and the Marquis of Tweeddale respectively. In 1897 engine No. 90 was renamed Grandtully, the residence of W. Steuart Fotheringham, who had recently joined the Highland Railway Board.

Train lighting notes. 49
Effect of low ambient temperature on lead cell batteries and on drive belts. Ebonite battery separators become brittle.

Improvements in buffers for rolling stock. 50-1. 3 diagrams.

Mr. J.B. Ball. 51.
Former Engineer-in-Chief of the Great Central Ry., appointed Chief Engineer of the L.B. & S.C. Ry. in succession to C.L. Morgan, who was joining the Board. Ball joined the staff of the G.N. Ry. in 1890, and subsequently assisted in the construction of the Lancashire, Derbyshire & East Coast Ry. Ball became Engineer to this line in 1899, which he held until it was absorbed by the G.C. Ry. In January 1906, he was appointed chief of the New Works Dept. of the G.C. Ry., and in 1911 succeeded C.A. Rowlandson as Engineer-in-Chief. During Ball's tenure of office on the G.C. Ry., he had been responsible for the equipment of Immingham Dock, the removal of two tunnels at Sheffield and consequent widenings, as well as widenings between Doncaster and Thorne, and Wrawby and Brocklesby; also the new Keadby Deviation Ry. with its lifting bridge over the River Trent

The lubrication of locomotives. 51-6.
Figures 40-3: Roscoe, Furness and Luard (last Locomotive & Carriage Superintendednt, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway)

Rotary shearing machiner for plates. 56.. illustration
H. Collier Smith American patent design.

North Staffordshire Ry. 56
0-6-4T Nos. 114, 116 and 117 into service

The work and organization of the locomotive carriage and wagon departments of a small railway. 57.
Steel underframes and constructional steel workshop design: flooring, machine tools

Roof-stay repairs. 58-9. 2 diagrams.

The Midland Railway ambulance train. 59-60. 2 illustrations
Each train had six ward cars; a pharmacy car, a kitchen car and accommodation for RAMC personnel. All vehicles were of clerestory type.

New goods brake vans: London, Brighton and South Coastt Ry. 60-1. 2 illustrations
15-ton and 20-ton vehicles: latter with six wheels

Metropolitan Railway. 61
Portland Road station renamed Great Portand Street

Correspondence.. 61

Lubrication of locomotives. J. H. Cherry.
In Victoria, we tried the ordinary cotton waste feed for big-ends and also the needles described and illustrated in the Nov. issue of the LOCOMOTIVE.  The waste feed proved a long way the best, as in the warm climate of Victoria there was a considerable quantity of oil wasted. In Tasmania the balance was about equal, but the extra cost turned the scale in favour of cotton waste feeds.

Early Stephenson locomotive. E.A. Forward
Re early Stephenson locomotive and the old drawing referred to: in those early days, no complete detail drawings of a new engine were made, but only a general drawing of perhaps one or two views. The engine itself was really designed and worked out, bit by bit, as it was under construction in the shops. If any part of the original design failed, it was altered to something else, and, by the time the engine was finished, it might be very different in detail from the original conception.
I imagine something of the kind occurred in the case under notice, as the drawing certainly shows an unworkable engine. With the sun and planet gear shown, the wheels could not be coupled by rods outside the wheels, but only by inside chain couplings, or cranked axles and rods, neither of which was likely to have been used at that date, seeing that Stephenson had probably tried both (he at least suggested both) and found them unsatisfactory. If the sun and planet gear was retained, the valve gear would certainly have been transferred to the driving axle. I rather think, however, that the engine would ultimately appear without the sun and planet gear, and with ordinary coupled wheels, several 6-coupled engines of the same general form having been turned out in the succeeding years. I believe this drawing has been, more or less, identified as one of the early locomotives in the Stephenson lists, but I am not sure that the identification is complete. I am inclined to regard it as an experimental design which led to the 6-coupled engines mentioned above.

Combining indicator diagrams. J. E. Johnson
Re article in  January lIssue. Becker states that in constructing combined diagram Fig. 3, the clearance volume of low-pressure cylinder should be set off from the high-pressure clearance line. This instruction is clearly an error. The maximum volume the steam in high-pressure cylinder at point of cut-off can expand to is fixed' by the capacity of the low-pressure cylinder, plus the clearance at one end of same. This maximum volume has no connection with the high- pressure clearance volume, and its vector quantity will accord- ingly be set off from the line A.B., the same as for the high- pressure volume.
The isothermal curve shown is drawn with A.B. and A.C. as its base lines, therefore to compare any expansion curve for a gas with this curve, the volume of the gas requires to be measured at any point from the same ordinate of zero volume, namely, A.B., as the abscissa: of the curve. Seeing that the final volume of the steam has been unduly increased by an amount represented by the high-pressure cylinder clearance, the diagram factor would also be modified, its effect being to show that a less ratio of actual to theoretical mean pressure is obtained by an engine than is actually the case.

Combining indicator diagrams. C. Becker. 62
I am glad your correspondent has raised the question regarding the position of the low-pressure curve on the combined diagram. For a long time I held the views he has stated, but having noticed that the low-pressure expansion curve always came well below the P.V. constant curve struck from the point of high-pressure cut-off, I concluded that probably owing to condensation taking place in the steam during its passage through the cylinders, it might to some extent perhaps give a truer relationship between the diagrams if spaced in the way I suggested. . As pointed out in the article I do not consider that a combined set of diagrams can ever represent more than an approximation, but they enable the diagram factors of different engines to be compared, and are a guide for determining the size of prospective engine cylinders. When used for this purpose, providing all the diagrams fall within the P.V. constant curve, the actual position of the diagrams relatively to each other will make no difference in the result.

Obituary. 62
Alfred Thomas Darby, formerly foreman of the loco. erecting shop at Stratford, died on  31 January 1917, in his seventy-third year. Darby served his apprenticeship at Stratford, and afterwards worked for a time at Reading, and under Martin Atock at the Waterford and Limerick Railway shops at Limerick. He re-entered the G.E. service in 1875, and was for some years in charge of the locomotive weigh-bridge. In 1888 he was appointed assistant foreman of the Round Shed repair shop, and in 1896 became head foreman of the erecting shop, a position he held until the close of 1905,when he retired.

Driver Fred Hubbard. 62
Driver Fred Hubbard, of Norwich, who stopped the up G.E. Cromer Express clear of the obstruction caused by the Witham accident in 1905, died on 24 February 1917 when he was only 57.

Great Western Ry. 62
4-4-0 Bulldog Class Passenger Engine No. 3368 Ernest Palmer name altered to Sir Ernest Palmer.

Canadian Northern Ry. 62
D.B. Hanna, Third Vice-President of the Canadian Northern Railway System, announced that delivery had been made to the Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific, one of the subsidiary railways of the Company, of 750 box cars, each of 40 tons capacity Other rolling stock received by the Canadian Northern included three electric locomotives, one of which was for the Mount Royal tunnel service, Montreal.

Paris-Orleans Ry. 62
Several 2-8-2 Mikado type tank locomotives had been built for this line by the North British Locomotive Co. These engines had outside cylinders, with piston valves, Walschaert gear and screw reversing gear. The boiler had a copper firebox of the Belpaire pattern and was fitted with steel tubes. The superheater was of the Schmidt type. The firegrate was of the rocking type,

Number 296 (16 April 1917)

New locomotives for the Paris-Orleans Ry. 63-4. 2 illustrations
Constructed by the North British Locomotive Co.: 4-6-0's had 300 x 650mm cylinders; 1760 mm coupled wheels; 132.9m2 total heating surface; 38.39m2 superheat and 2.73m2 grate area. The 2-8-2T's had 600 x 650mm cylinders; 1400mm coupled wheels; 135.6m2 total heating surface; 39.3m2 superheat and 2.73m2 grate area.

London & North Western Ry. 64
New Claughton class: Nos. 37 J.R. Jebb, 156 Captain Fryatt and 155 (without name); 4-6-2T Nos. 2273; 2292; 2298; 2384 and 2418; 0-8-2T Nos. 24; 92; 714; 1291; 1331; 2105; 2294; 2341; 2348; 2391. Precursor type fitted with superheaters: Nos. 300 Emerald and 1309 Shamrock (former also fitted with piston valves); 4-cylinder compound 0-8-0 No. 631 rebuilt as a simple. North London Railway No. 82 at Crewe North shed and operating between there and the Works.

Six-coupled radial tank locomotive: Brecon and Merthyr Railway. 65. illustration
Supplied by Robert Stephenson & Co., Darlington, to design of James Dunbar, Locomotive, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent. Known as 46 class (No. 46 illustrated). Some changes from earlier series: 5ft coupled wheels (larger); 18in diameter cylinders (smaller). Had to be able to cope with 1 in 38 gradients.

Armoured cars in the Irish Rebellion. 65
At the behest of Chairman Sir William Goulding Inchicore improvised some armoured vehicles using smokeboxes placed strong motor lorries to convey ad hoc volunteers armed with crowbars and sledge hammers to fight Sinn Fein.

Railway Exhibition at Sydney. 66.

Obituary. 66. illustration (portrait)
Robert Gordon Sharp died on 21 March 1917. Educated at Boat of Garten. Served apprenticeship in locomotive works of the Great North of Scotland Railway and later served as a draughtsman in the drawing office of Kitson & Co. Subsequently he served in the locomotive departments of the Great North of Scotland and Midland Railways. In 1904 he was appointed Works Manager at the Leeds Forge and in 1911 became General Manager.

[R.K. Biernacki]. 66
A.J. Chase deputy locomotive superintendent in charge of North Western State Railway of India locomotive affairs whilst Biernacki was on leave of absence

Caledonian Ry. 66
See page 41: correction to tender capacity (6 not 5 tons)

[Interstate Commerce Commission], 66

Unusual type of locomotive. 67. 2 illustrations
Platt Bros & Co. Ltd of Oldham used outside-cylinder 0-4-0T locomotives supplied by D. Adamson & Co. of Hyde Junction.

The Railway Club. 67
Paper presented by H.L. Hopwood The G.N.R. West of Grantham

Alterations in Cambrian Railways locomotives. 68. illustration.
No. 36: 4-4-0 converted from Metropolitan Railway 4-4-0T: new cab, splashers, sandboxes, footplate and steel buffer beam and screw reverse.

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 69-70. illustration, 3 diagrams (side elevations)

Alderney Railway. 70. illustration
0-4-0ST Waverley: see also page 109.

A hint on facing-up valve seatings. 71. 2 diagrams

Train lighting notes. 71-2.
Statistics of passenger coaches fitted with electric lighting in England & Wales, Scotland, Ireland and India.

Liquid fuels. 72-3. 2 tables

[Statue of Richard Trevithick in Merthyr]. 73
Lady Rhondda presentation to town.

New patent rotary shaping apparatus. 73-5. ;3 illustrations, 3 diagrams

The "Liverpool" Liverpool and Manchester Ry. 76. illustration.
Bury type: reproduction of original drawing by Edward Bury with chimney decorated with Liver birds: drawing owned by R.E, Bury, grandson and Locomotive Superintendent Mysore State Rys.

Personal. 76
G.T. Glover locomotive, carriage & wagon superintendent of the Great Northern Ry of Ireland was Lieut. Colonel in the Royal Engineers serving in France on the Military Railways,.

[Ceylon Government Rys]. 76
E.W. Head had been appointed locomotive, carriage & wagon superintendent of the Ceylon Government Rys.in successsion to H.G. Unsworth who had retired. T.A. Whittaker, from Midland Railway succeeded Head as Assistant.

Control equipments for machine tools. 76-8. 4 illustrations

The lubrication of locomotives. 79-82. 6 diagrams
Sight-feed condensation displacement lubricators. The Roscoe lubricator previously described is of the condensation displacement type, in which there is only one connection to the steam pipe. The first improvement was the introduction of the sight feed, whilst retaining the single passage which served both for the incoming steam and the out-going oil, with the modification in some patterns that steam was also introduced into the bottom of the vessel containing the oil. Many lubricators of this type were and are still used. It will suffice to mention the No. 1 pattern of Messrs. C.C. Wakefield & Co., of which a sectional view is shown in Fig. 44. This No. 1 lubricator was superseded by the No. 2 lubricator, which with the improved and more modern hydrostatic displacement lubricators will be described later. Sight-feed displacement and hydrostatic lubricators were placed inside the cabs under the immediate view of the driver, who can therefore always see that the oil is feeding properly.
Atomization of oil. Before describing other forms of sight-feed lubricators the subject of atomizing the oil may be mentioned. Modern forms of water displacement lubricators deliver a mixture of oil and steam into the steam pipe or steam chest in a more or less intimate mixture, but the essential point is that the oil and steam should be thoroughly mixed, i.e., the oil should be atomized. The oil pipe from the lubricator should, if it delivers into a steam pipe, enter the pipe for some distance, and the oil should be delivered in the middle. On one foreign railway oil was introduced in the form of spray by being forced through a small nozzle by means of a very small pump or by gravity. It is then caught up by a steam jet and carried forward in a finely divided state to a three-way valve which serves to direct the oil spray (1) to the slide valves when the engine is running under steam, or (2) to the cylinders when the engine is coasting. A spoon-shaped atomizer (Fig. 45), due to T.C. Thornsen, of The Vacuum Oil Co., Ltd., has been successfully used on colliery and works locomotives.
Sight-feed hydrostatic displacement lubricators. The lubricators previously described are of the simple water displacement type, in which there is a single connection to the lubricator, through which the entering steam and the outgoing oil pass. In the modern hydrostatic lubricators there are two connections, one for the steam and a separate one for the oil. The force which operates this form of lubricator is the weight of a column of water, which displaces a lighter column of oil. The pressure of the steam exerts no effect since it is balanced, for there is nearly the same steam pressure on the top of the column of water as there is at the oil outlet. The pressure inside the oil reservoir is equal to the boiler pressure plus the weight of the column of water in the condenser, whilst the sight-feed chambers and oil pipes are under boiler pressure only. The water from the condenser therefore, under the pressure due to a constant head, enters the oil reservoir and displaces the oil drop by drop by forcing it through

New wagon label clip. 82-3

Correspondence. 83

[Lubrication]. C.M.
Re articles on lubrication concerning the action of compressed air grease cups: he was doubtful about the working of grease axle boxes on railway vehicles. Is the grease made to run by the heat caused by friction between the brass and journal, or has the latter what may be called a sucking or drawing action, causing the lubricant to feed through the feed holes ? The latter seems to be most likely, as many vehicles after a long run have the boxes nearly empty, but perfectly cool.
At various times some very curious North-Eastern coal wagons have worked on to the South-Eastern. In these trucks the ordinary axleboxes and plain bearings are not used. Their places are taken by a large wheel with a broad rim, which bears on the journals of the running wheels. The ordinary axle guards and laminated side springs are iised, but as a large plate covers all the parts, it is very difficult to see how all of it works. One of the greatest mysteries of the arrangement to me at present is how the bearing wheel maintains a central drive on to the running wheel journal. I believe the date of building on the trucks is 1904, but am not sure. The drawgear is rather singular, as well. If you would be so good as to give me a little information on the above subjects

Grease will work down a tube on to a bearing under either of two conditions. Either the bearing warms up slightly and renders the grease sufficiently fluid to flow, or pressure has to be applied to the grease, as is the case in the " Menno " lubricator described, in which air pressure is the means adopted, or as in the case of the well-known Stauffer form of lubricator for shafting, in which the pressure is supplied by a cap that is screwed down in the top of the lubricator. The warming of the bearing to enable the grease to flow is not, of course, sufficient to cause heating in the usual sense in which that expression is used. In winter most railways use a more fluid grease for wagons than in summer, thus showing that it is the melting of the grease that produces the desired effect. The sucking or drawing action of the journal is usually non-existent, as is proved by Beauchamp Towers' experiments on journals described on page 71 of Locomotive Mag, 1916, 22 70 in which it was shown that in a well-fitting journal there is a high pressure tending to force the lubricant out of the oil holes. In badly-fitting journals and where there is sufficient play this pressure is much less and is not great enough to prevent the melted grease from flowing down the hole on to the journal, and this is probably what takes place in most wagons fitted with grease lubrication.
The N.E.Ry. axlebox arrangement, mentioned by our correspondent, is doubtless that described on page 201 of our issue of November 1905.

Bakerloo Ry. 83
Great Central station renamed Marylebone and Westminster Bridge Road changed to Lambetrh (N). Aldwych closed on Sundays. Opening of Watford extension postponed until 16 April

Blue asbestos. 83-4

Number 297 (15 May 1917)

Triple articulated compound locomotive for the Virginian Railway. 85-6. 2 illustrations
Baldwin Locomotive Works 2-8-8-8-4 triplex No. 700. All six cylinders same size (34 x 32in), grate are 108.2 ft2, total heating surface 8120ft2 and 2059ft2 superheat. Intended to work between Elmore and Clark's Gap with 2% gradient for 14 miles.

Superheater express locomotives: Great Northern Ry. of Ireland. 86-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation) 
Glover S class 4-4-0,

A.H. Joscelyne. 87
Appointed Deputy Locomotive Superintendent  North Western Railway of India

London and North Western Railway. 87
Claughon class No. 155 named I.T. Williams; Nos. 162, 186, 713 and 1334 had been completed. Jubilee class No. 1925 Warrior had been converted to being a simple. 8ft 6in single No. 3020 Cornwall was working trains between Crewe and Northwich.

Narrow gauge tank locomotives for the British War Office. 88. illustration
4-6-0T supplied Hunslet Engine Co Ltd for 60cm (2ft) gauge

The Penryhn Quarry Railway. 89-93. 7 illustrations, map
Includes notes on the three De Winton vertical boiler locomotives: Lady Penrhyn, Georhe Henry and Kathleen which then were being used occasionally on the galleries; the Hunslet quarry locomotives and the larger locomotives used to convey the slate wagons to the port.

Running repairs to cocks and valves. 93; 95. diagram

American railways in the Civil War 1861-65. 94; 95-8. illustration
Photograph taken at Atlanta, Georgia in September 1864 of running sheds of Atlanta and West Point RR after occupation by the Federal troops.  Text briefly assesses railway communication on the conduct of the war.

The lubrication of locomotives. 96-9
Figs. 51-3: Detroit and Great Western Railway

Locomotive wheel lathes and tyre turning. 99-101. 2 illustrations

Highland Railway locomotives. 102-4
Figures 31-4. The two 4-4-0T locomotives built by Dubs for the Uruguay Eastern Railway, but not delivered WN 2778-9/1892 and three further of the same type: WN 3077-9/1893 were taken into HR stock. The first had the name Olmos and both of the eralier pair had cow-catchers and covers for the slide-bars, but these were removed. They were officially the P class but were known as Yankees. The Jones Goods type 4-6-0 is also considered.

The joints of locomotives and tenders. 104-6.
List of where and how to caulk

Obituary. 106
Anthony Knights aged almost 91: born 27 April 1826. Engine driver based at Colchester who regularly drove 07.50 to London. Obituary states retired "forty years ago"

[Presentation to J.B. Ball on 18 April]. 106
Silver dessert stand presentation by Sir Sam Fay.

Number 298 (15 June 1917)

4-4-0 metre-gauge superheater locomotives: Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway. 107; 109. 2 illustrations
Built in the Ajmer works; designed by W.T. Fraser, Locomotive Superintendent of the metre gauge section.

Opening of the Parsik Tunnel, G.I.P. Ry. 108; 109. illustration
Part of the works to widen the main line between Bombay and Kalyan

London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 109
All new main-line express and goods engines on the Brighton Ry. were fitted with the Weir feed pump with excellent results, the cost of the upkeep of these pumps in the sheds being, so far, practically nil. Billinton has also adopted an arrangement of external feed pipes, the delivery ends being connected to a special form of clack box placed on top of the boiler and mounted on a manhole seating in front of the dome. The feed pipes delivered water to a removable bucket, in which were fixed two vertical pipes through which it flowed to two perforated side trays, and thence in the form of spray through the steam space into the body of water in the boiler. By the new arrangement the feed pipe outlet and the trays were an easily accessible position so that deposits which accumulated could be readily cleared from time to time.

[Alderney Ry. tank loco.] 109
Corporal R. H. Inness, R.O.D., R.E., writes us that he is of opinion that the 0-4-0 Alderney Ry. tank loco. illustrated in our April issue was built by the firm of Henry Hughes & Son, of Loughborough (afterwards the Falcon Engine Works), with cylinders 9 in. by 10 in. and 36 in. wheels.

Swiss decapod locomotives in service on the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. 110. illus.
The Swiss Federal Railways had loaned a number of their locomotives with the necessary drivers and firemen, to the Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. to assist in the transportation of corn and other foodstuffs from the French ports to the Swiss frontier to ensure the revictualling of Switzerland. For working the heavy sections, such as that between Geneva and Amberieu, some of the 2-10-0 engines off the Gothard division have been requisitioned.
The leading characteristics of engine No. 2952 (used on this service), which was built by the Société Suisse of Winterthur in 1913, were: Four-cylinder compound, Series C 5/6 of the Swiss Federal Rys. Diameter of h.p. cylinders 18½ in.; l.p. 28 in. stroke of cylinders 25¼ in. Diameter of coupled wheels 4 ft. 43/8 in. Grate area 40 ft2. Total Heating surface 2,859.9ft2. Working pressure, 216 lb. psi. On the heavy grades leading to the St. Gothard Tunnel these engines dealt with a maximum load of 500 tons on a grade of about 1 in 40; on the P.L.M., however, they took a train of 650 tons up a gradient of 1 in 80. The tenders carry 7 tons of coal and 3,960 gallons of water. .

North-Eastern Ry. 110
This line seemed to be adopting the system of large numerals, like the North British and South-Eastern and Chatham Rys., on the side tanks or tenders for distinguishing their locomotives. The figures were in gilt, about 18 in. deep, with the name of the railway in smaller lettering on either side thus- NORTH 1187 EASTERN.

Caledonian Ry. 110
Twelve of the new 4-6-2 tank locomotives had been completed at the Hyde Park Locomotive Works of the North British Locomotive Co.: numbers 944 to 955 inclusive.

Great Northern Ry. 110.
Another of Stirling 0-4-2 tender engines, No. 565A, had been re-built with a domed boiler.

[The first locomotives built in Japan for export]. 110
Two shipped to Saigon, Cochin China, for the French Rys.

[Sir John Audley Frederick Aspinall]. 110
Amongst the recent recipients of the honour of Knighthood was Mr. John Audley Frederick Aspinall, General Manager of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry. since 1899, and formerly Chief Mechanical Engineer of that system.

Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. 111-15. 4 illustrations. (drawings: side elevations), diagram
In reviewing the development and progress of the locomotive practice of the Great Southern and Western Railway from 1891 to 1916, it may be stated at the outset that all serious progress really dates from the year 1900. For about twenty years previously the locomotive classes had become more or less stereotyped. Older engines of various designs had been broken up. The boilers and part of the motion of one or two of these, indeed, lingered on for some years at Inchicore Works and elsewhere in the form of stationary engines for special purposes. In 1891, however, there were, properly speaking, only three different classes of engines built as distinguished by the sizes of their cylinders and the interchangeability of their motion parts. There were only five standard boilers, and of these the only essential difference between two of them was that the barrel of one was three inches shorter than that of the other. The number of standards was thus brought to the irreducible minimum and this state of affairs was found quite sufficient for all the general purposes of the railway up to the year 1900. From that time forward the great extension of the system and the rapid increase in the weight of trains to be dealt with necessitated a large and progressive increase of locomotive power. Both express and goods engines have been enormously increased in size, weight and hauling capacity, so that, at the present time, the locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway will bear comparison with many of the finest on the railways of Great Britain.
In describing the locomotives in use on the line during the past twenty-five years, we propose separating the various engines into their respective groups, passenger, goods, passenger tank, shunting engines and special types. This will give a more vivid impression of the progressive advance made in each class than if the locomotives were described in the strict chronological sequence in which they were built. We shall commence in each case with a description of the older types existing in 1891. We shall also note the various additions and improvements made from time to time to these older engines, which have considerably increased the efficiency and extended the usefulness 01 those so altered. The earliest type of passenger locomotive now running on the railway is what is known as Class 21 (Fig. 1). This is a light engine of the 2-4-0 wheel arrangement which was almost universal in the British Isles twenty-five years ago. There are eight of these still at work, three having been condemned in recent years. At one time 1 hey dealt with a certain amount of the main line traffic, but during the period under notice their work has been confined to the light service on branches, such as that from Portarlington to Athlone and from Ballybrophy to Nenagh and Limerick. These engines were the design of Mr. Alexander Me Donnell, locomotive superintendent of the railway from 1864 to 1882. Nos. 21 to 26 were built by him in 1873. No. 17, which was built in 1872, was broken up in 1891. Four more, Nos. 66 to 69, were further constructed in 1876. These latter engines differed from the earlier ones in some unimportant details, such as the angle iron attachment of the splashers and cab to the platform, which is not exposed as shown in the diagram of No. 21.
During 1891 and subsequent years the alteration of the simple vacuum brake to the Great Southern and Western standard automatic brake was effected on all passenger and goods engines passing through the shops. No. 22 was the last passenger locomotive so altered, the new brake being fitted in 1893. After some preliminary experiments and trials conducted under the direction of Mr. H. A. Ivatt, a type of automatic vacuum brake was adopted on the railway, which was in many respects unique. It differed from that in use on all other lines in the provision of a double line of piping throughout the train. The arrangement is illustrated by Diagram IA. The great advantage of the system lay in the fact that the 1 ^-in. bore pipe connected to the top of the vacuum cylinders was always in direct communication with the ejector. By this means any leakage occurring in the engine or train fittings could be taken up by the ejector without the necessity of re-creating the vacuum on the underside of the pistons and thus taking off the brake. This second or 1½-in. pipe has, however, been discontinued for some years past on the coaching vehicles and is now only retained on the engines and tenders. The exhaust from the maintaining ejector is led through a pipe along the left side of the boiler to the smoke-box. The large ejector is situated near the base of the blastpipe. The air passages connecting with this ejector are cast in the top and side of the cylinders. A 2-in. diameter pipe is led along the left side from the cylinders, inside the wheels, and round or underneath the ashpan to connect with a pipe depending from the application valve stand on the footplate on the passenger engines. This pipe is provided with drip valves where necessary to drain off any condensed water which may be present. The various air passages required at the back of the engine to give connections to the tender and the vacuum cylinders are cast, as a rule, in the body of the footplate. In this way pipework is eliminated as much as possible. The diagram of locomotive No. 21 represents the engine as running in 1893. The cast-iron chimney shown was altered later from 4 ft. 0½ in. long to 3 ft. 5½in. This form of chimney, as will be described, has been superseded almost entirely by a coned chimney built up of steel plate with a flanged base and a cast-iron cap. The curved plate concealing the sandbox has been removed, but with these exceptions the appearance of the locomotives of this class has undergone practically no alteration. The tender shown is the old " standard " tender of 1864 gallons capacity. At first these tenders were provided with wrought-iron wheels. Later on, however, during Mr. Aspinall's term of office, castiron wheels were placed on all new tenders. These, in turn, are being replaced by cast-steel wheel centres. There are still a few tenders running of still older design, the water capacity of which is 1,500 gallons. The wheelbase of these tenders is 10 ft. 4 in. and the tank is shortened in proportion. Otherwise, however, their outward appearance is similar to that of the "1,800 gallon" tender. '
Since 1876 there have been no locomotives designed at Inchicore of the 2-4-0 wheel arrangement. In 1877, 1878 and 1880 Mr. McDonnell built the engines known as Class 2, illustrated by Fig. 2. This type, it will be seen, was a development of Class 21, the principal difference being the substitution of a bogie for the rigid leading wheels. The boiler, wheels, cylinders and motion were interchangeable with those of Class 21. The reversing rod was led through the driving splasher at the back, and there were superficial changes in the cab, splashers and platforms. The bogie is still running as first constructed.
It is of the swing-link type and up to 1900 was standard for all 4-4-0 engines. There were twelve of these locomotives built and they are all still in service. Their chief work has been on the long single line between Mallow and Tralee, and from this circumstance they are sometimes familiarly referred to as the "Kerry engines." During recent years a few of this class have been rebuilt with boilers made in two telescopic rings instead of the original three rings with butt circumferential joints. This has brought the dome a few feet back towards the firebox casing. A further change in the external appearance has resulted from the substitution of the new pattern built-up chimney.
For many years before 1891 much of the important main line passenger traffic had been worked by locomotives similar to No. 64 (Fig. 3). Two of these, Nos. 64 and 65, survived as pilot engines at Thurles and Limerick Junction up to 1897, 1898, when they were broken up. From the dimensions it will be seen that this was a very much more powerful type of engine than classes 21 and 2. The outside appearance was very handsome. The openwork driving splashers were picked out with the yellow and crimson lining on a dark green ground, which was the standard colouring of the Great Southern and Western locomotives up to 1901. The cast-iron reversing shaft bracket in front of the cab and the large motion balance weights somewhat detracted from the effect of their otherwise pleasing appearance. These engines were very economical in working. They were favourites with their drivers. They were found somewhat rigid on some of the more severe curves, but were on the whole very well adapted for the loads and conditions existing at the time.
In order to remove the rigidity referred to, Mr. J. A. F. Aspinall, who had succeeded Mr. McDonnell in November, 1882, designed and built in 1883 four engines of the 4-4-0 type, illustrated by Fig. 4, and which are known as Class 52. There were twenty engines of this class built up to 1891 and all of them are still at work. The cylinders, wheels, connecting and coupling rods corresponded in dimensions to those of the earlier or 2-4-0 type. They were indeed a development of the latter class, just as Class 2 was of Class 21. The boiler barrel was unchanged as regards length and diameter. The firebox was somewhat larger, due to the grate being made horizontal instead of sloped. The reversing gear was altered from the older arrangement. A sloping bracket was placed inside the cab. The rod was led direct from the end of the screw passing through the centre of this bracket to the arm of the reversing shaft, passing behind the driving splasher through a bracket stop. The absence of pipes and fittings not absolutely necessary, from the outside of these and subsequent locomotives designed under Mr. AspinalTs superintendence, gave them a neat and pleasing appearance. The number plates, which in older engines were of cast iron, were altered from that time on to white metal, which took a polish almost like silver. The cab roof was neatly panelled in wood and the side plates were painted white inside and picked out with crimson lining.
The engines of Class 52 did good work on the main line express trains for some years until they were supplanted by a larger type of locomotive. The boiler, however, was always rather small. With trains of even medium weight the engines required "coaxing" and careful firing. No. 52 figured in the Dublin Exhibition of 1882 and was awarded a bronze medal, which may still be seen in a circular receptacle in the number plate. No. 53 for some years was experimentally fitted with Serve flue tubes. There were 111 of these, 1½in. diameter with a heating surface of 716 ft2 With loads adapted to their capacity these engines ran economically at very high speeds and it was a common occurrence for No. 53 to run from Portarlington to Kingsbridge in 47 minutes, the distance being 42 miles.
The tender shown on the diagram was not originally attached to engines of this class. The "1,800-gallon" tender previously referred to was most commonly seen. The tender of 2,730 gallons capacity, usually termed the "2,700 gallon express tender," was designed for a larger type of locomotive to be described next, and which did not appear till 1885. This larger tender was attached to those engines of class 52, which worked the night mail and certain other main-line trains with fairly long non-stop running intervals. At the present day these engines have all got the old tenders of smaller capacity. They are now employed upon fast branch line passenger trains. Most of the branch lines in Ireland, it may be noted here, are single. They have consequently to be worked either on the train staff or train tablet system. In the case of important trains such as the Rosslare express and the summer Killarney express special tablet and staff exchangers are in use. All other trains, however, on the single lines have to stop at every staff station en route.
Figures: 1. 2-4-0 Passenger Loco., No. 21, Class 21 Great Southern and Western Ry. built 1873;. 1A. G.S. &W.R. two-pipe vacuum automatic brake system; 2. 4-4-0 Passenger Loco., No. 2, Class 2 Great Southern and Western Ry. built 1877.3. 2-4-0 Passenger engine No. 64, former class 64 Great Southern and Western Ry. built 1875. 4. 4-4-0 Passenger engine, No. 53, Class 52 Great Southern and Western Ry built 1883.
See also p. 131

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 115.
Addendum: coal capacity of tenders of bogie goods engines (Nos. 103-117) was 7 tons not 5 tons

Train lighting notes. 115-16
Maintenance of balata belting

A device for rotating driving wheels when setting valves. 116. diagram
Manufactured by Sherburne & Co. of Boston (Mass.)

South African Rlys. 116
Order for eight Mallet type locomotives placed with American Locomotive Co.

Running repairs to cocks and valves. 117. 2 diagrams

Locomotive wheel lathes and tyre turning. 118-21. 3 illustrations, 4 diagrams, 2 tables
Niles-Bement-Pond Co. of New York for wheels up to 7ft 2in in diameter

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 121-4. 4 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Trevithick 4-4-0 supplied by North British Locomotive Co. amd by a German Company and 4-4-2 supplied by Brooks  Locomotive Co. and by Dubs & Co. and three-cylinder compounds similar to those on the North Eastern Railway supplied by North British Locomotive Co.  His successor Peckett rebuilt on of the 4-4-0s with a large taper boiler (shown in Fig. 6)

Hot axle boxes. 124-5
Caused by wheel drag and bad joints in the rails. See also July Issue.

The problem of railway fog signalling. 125-6.
Criteria including robustness and ability to work in all weather conditions.

Jamaica Government Rys. 126
P.C. Dewhurst promoted to be assistant locomotive superintendent

New 40-ton goods brke van. 126-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation & plan)
Built at the Matunga workshops in Bombay of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway: bogie vehicle capable of carrying permanent way men and sheep or goats

Car cleaning. 127
From John A. Droege Passenger trains and terminals

Correspondence. 128

Crank-axle and couplixg rod centres. P.C. Dewhurst.
Re Locomotive of February 1917, in description of the new engines for the Holland Railway Co. an account of the unusual setting of the coupling rod crank pins, 45° in advance of the inside main cranks. This method manifestly gives good results whilst the engine is running forward, but it leads to a bad condition when the engine is required to run backward, as the positions of maximum effort on the inside crank and the dead centre of the outside crank pin on the same side come too close together.
This condition occurring four times for each revolution of the wheels, appears likely to lead to side rod troubles, and possibly straining of the crank axle on greasy rails. The fact of the horizontal bearing pressure being considerably augmented at the positions referred to, probably does not matter, as these engines presumably are not required to run backward to any extent, but the side rod or crank-axle difficulties might occur in shunting with a train and it would be interesting to know if such have been met with.
It would be very instructive for comparison, if a chart showing the actual resulting horizontal forces on crank axle bearings of an engine set on the "Stroudley method" (i.e., with coupling rod crank pins on the same centre as the main cranks on the respective sides of the engine) could be given. The results would probably not be very inferior to those given for the Holland Railway engines, and the engine would run equally well either forward or backword.
There is another point in connection with this subject, uie., the relative positions of main and coupling rod crank centres when the cylinders are inclined.
In such cases I consider that these centres should be set at an angle equal to the angle of the cylinder inclination to the horizontal. When so set, the dead-centre positions of main crank pins and coupling rod pms on the same side of the engine will occur together, and all the intermediate positions of the cranks will synchronize.
This setting is shown in the diagram, the full lines showing this "allowance for inclination of cylinders" producing a modified "Stroudley" method. The dotted lines indicate the position of the coupling rod when the same principle is applied to the usual "opposite centre" crank setting. It will be observed that in both cases there is no difference in running forward or backward.

Great Northern Railway of Ireland. 128
A Belfast reader informs us that the latest 4-4-0 type express engines, illustrated in our last issue, are fitted with Schmidt type superheaters, the tubes being connected to the header by bridge-bars and copper jointing rings, and not expanded directly into the header, as in the Robinson method.

[Railway Club]. 128
W. Parker, President of the Railway Club, presided at the 8 May Meeting. A Lantern Exhibition of Railway Slides being given. Upwards of 200 slides were shown, comprising the club collection and others of varied subjects contributed by Bell, Sherlock and Miller. The meeting was specially well attended, and proved very successful, explanations of the slides by H. L. Hopwood being much appreciated.

Number 299 (Monday 16 July 1917)

Compound locomotives for the Madrid, Saragossa & Alicante Ry. 129-30. illustration.
American Locomotive Co., Schenectady Works supplied 25 4-8-0 locomotives.

Duplex locomotives on the Southern Ry. U.S.A. 130-1. illustration, diagram
2-8-2 with eight coupled steam tender

Great Southern and Western Railway. 131
The second instalment of these articles will appear in the August issue of the Locomotive. The following are the numbers of the engines referred to in the June number : Class 21: No. 17, built 1872 (broken up in 1891) ; Nos. 21 to 26, built 1873 (No. 23 broken up 1912). and Nos. 66 to 69, built 1876 (No. 69 scrapped 1911). Class 2 : Nos. 2, 5, 6 and 7, built 1877 ; Nos. 10, 13 and 15, in 1880, and Nos. 43 to 46 in 1878. Class 52 : Built in 1883, Nos. 52 and 53, in 1884 No. 54, in 1886 Nos. 9 and 16, 1887 Nos. 97 and 98, 1888 Nos. 4, 11, 14. 18, 55, 56, 57, 58 and 59, and in 1890 Nos. 1, 3, 12 and 20.

Steel fireboxes on the London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. 131-2.
ILocoE Paper No. 52 presented by R.P.C. Sanderson

South Eastern & Chatham Railway. 132
First 2-6-4T No. 790 completed at Ashford Works. Large cab of Great Western pattern; painted  grey.

The East Kent Railway. 133-5. 4 illustrations, map
Built to serve Kent Coalfield, but due to WW1 only Tilmanstone Colliery open. Passenger service had begun on 16 October 1916. Locomotive stock at that time was 0-6-0ST No. 1 ex-GWR No. 1398, 0-8-0T. . Hecate (R. & W. Hawthorn WN 2587/1904) and No. 3 Walton Park (Hudswell Clarke 1908) built for Weston, Clevedon & Portishead. Written with assistance of Mr. H.F. Styephens M.I.C.E., engineer and general manager

Oil and gas-fired furnaces for locomotive workshops.135-6.
Advantages over solid fuels

Locomotive wheel lathes and tyre turning. 136-8. 5 diagrams
Tool setting

The Highland railway and its locomotives. 138-40. 4 illustrations
Continued from 102-4. Figures 35-7. Duke of Sutherland: his private station at Dunrobin, his 2-4-0T Dunrobin; its replacement 0-4-4T — Sharp Stewart WN 4085/1895. The original Duke's locomotive was taken into Highland Railway stock and enlarged and worked on the Fochabers Town branch and later at Invergordon Harbour

[Indian Railways: substitution of copper fireboxes by stteel]. 140
Steel fireboxes, made in England, being substituted

Superheater Mogul locomotives: Chinese Government Rys — Peking-Mukden Line. 141. illustration.

The lubrication of locomotives, 141-6. 5 diagrams
Figures 54-8: force feed, intensified, Intensifore lubricstor as applied to 2-6-4T and 4-4-0 locomotives

Derailment and breakdown appliances. 146-8. 8 diagrams
For recovery without using a crane.

New military trains in India. 148-9. 4 illustrations, plan
Soldiers travelled in troopship conditions, that is could lie down at night and sit during day and be fed. Officers travelled in conditions appropriate to their breeding. Vehicles built by Great Indian Peninsula Railway with Pullman vestibules

Carriage roofs. 150
Method adopted for securing roof covers on passenger cars having the usual American or Monitor type of roof, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, is as follows: after the roof boards are laid they are planed smooth along all the joints and care is taken to secure a good surface. They then receive a good thick coat of what is termed C.P.R. No. 5 mineral brown paint. This is often mixed with other paints of various colours left over from different jobs. After painting, the roof is eady for the canvas to be stretched on. The material used for this latter purpose is a heavy cotton canvas weighing about 1.5 lb. per yard, 40 in. wide, and before this is put on the roof the back of it receives a coat of canvas preserver. While this and the paint on the roof boards is wet, the canvas is laid on. One end of the canvas is securely tacked to the extreme end of the car roof and then stretched along the full length by means of a block and tackle fastened at the other end; this gear, in turn, is anchored to a ring in the shop floor. The canvas is then nailed along the roof eaves with l6oz, tacks about 1 in. apart, slightly staggered. The top roof requires two lengths 40 in. wide, and after the second length is stretched the lap joint along the centre of the roof is nailed. After stretching, the face of the canvas receives a coat of canvas preserver No. 1 grade, and then two more coats of the same material No. 2 grade, with twenty-four hours to dry between each coat. The canvas alongside the clerestory is applied in the same manner as along the top deck and is turned up behind the clerestory frame sheathing as much as the width of the canvas will permit. Great care is taken to apply plenty of pure white lead along the intersection of the side roof and the clerestory frame; copper flashings are used near the bottom of the framing for the sheathing to stand in and also at the extreme ends of the clerestory against the vestibule hood. It is the practice to paint the roofs of passenger cars every year, and it is found that if this maintenance is kept up the life of a canvas roof is ten years.

Alexandra (Newport ) Docks and Railway. 150
Since 1 January 1917, the Pontypridd, Caerphilly and Newport passenger trains (which are worked by the G.W.R for the A.D. & R) had been withdrawn, and in order to maintain a service between Pontypridd and Newport the A.D. &: R rail motor service between Pontypridd and Caerphilly had been extended to Machen to connect with Brecon and Merthyr trains to and from Newport. The A.D. & R motor service was worked by engine No 14, a 0-4-2 side tank acquired from the G.W.R. This engine takes the number of the old Craven 0-6-0 tank engine purchased by the A.D. & R from the LB. & S.C. Ry. in 1885 and broken up in 1906.

[Obituary notices]. 150
Death of W.J. Griggs, A.M.LC.E., M.LM.E., Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Supt. of the Jamaica Government Ry., on 20 May 1917. Griggs was in his 36th year [KPJ othere information suggests may have been older]. He was formerly in the Loco. Dept. of the North London Ry. at Bow.
Death of T.W. Ford, M.LC.E., M.I.M.E., one of the Managing Directors of Cravens, Ltd., Darnall, on 8 July 1917.
Henry Dove, died at Maida Vale, London, on Sunday, 24 June, at the age of ninety-three, began his working life as office boy to Robert Stephenson. while the London and Birmingham Ry, was under construction. In 1843 he was sent to France to assist in running locomotives on the Paris & Rouen Ry.

North London Ry. 150
4-4-0 tank engines, Nos. 21 and 44, used by the L. 8: N.W.Ry. for shunting duties at Crewe Station and Loco. sheds.

Hot axleboxes. 150
In connection with article on this subject last month, a reader on one of our largest railways, where a number of 0-8-0 inside cylinder superheater tender engines are in service, informs us they are continually giving trouble through the left driving axle-box running hot. The driving wheels of some are removed and examined after nearlv every trip of 150 miles or so. The trouble has been attributed to (1) Faulty valve setting, causing an excess or deficit of cushioning; (2) Incorrect balancing of the reciprocating and revolving parts; or (3) the frames not being set squarely, thus imparting a twist to the motion. All these have been investigated with little or no success, and although one or two pairs of driving wheels have been re-balanced and have slightly alleviated the trouble, it still continues. It is interesting to note that 95 per cent. fail with the lefl driving box only, about 5 per cent. fail with the right side and never the left. The trouble has so far defied all attempts at a satisfactory solution, and mars what is otherwise a useful class of engine. Possibly other railways have had similar trouble, and, if so, it would be interesting to hear what steps have been taken to effect a remedy.

East-West Transcontinental Railway of the Australian Commonwealth. 150
Announced will be opened for traffic in September. The line, which is standard 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, has been built in two sections, one commencing at Port Augusta, South Australia, and working westwards, and the other commencing at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, and working eastwards. The distance between these two points is 1,053 miles. and of these for at least 800 miles the country was quite uninhabited when construction was commenced. On the western division, where it crosses the Ullabor[sic] Nullabor Plain, there is a section of 330 miles of absolutely straight line, the longest stretch of on any railway in the world.

Number 300 (15 August 1917)

4-6-2 type express engine, New Zealand Governmnent Rys. 151. illustration
Designed H.H. Jackson, Chief Mechanical Engineer. 4ft 6in coupled wheels. Vanderbilt tender

New 4-6-2 type tank locomotives, Caledonian Railway. 151
Pickersgill Class 944 with 5ft 9in coupled wheels; 19½ x 26in cylinders; 1516ft2 plus 220ft2 superheater; 21.5ft2 grate area; 170 psi working pressure. Twelve being built at North British Locomotive Co's Hyde Park Works. Running numbers 944-955.

Great Northern Ry. 151
Single line between Cuffley and Hertford (6 miles) had been completed and half of the stretch from Hertford to Langley Junction had been laid

Obituary. 151
E.F. Innes had died aged 50: he had made a large collection of locomotive facts and history available to the Magazine.

4-8-0 four-cylinder goods locomotives, Norwegian State Rys. 152-4. 4 diagrams (including 3 side elevations)

Heavy tank locomotives, Bengal Nagpur Railway. 154. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Robert Stephenson &; Co. 2-8-2T with 20 x 26in cylinders; 4ft 3in coupled wheels; 1450.5ft2 total heating surface; 27.2ft2 grate area and 170 psi working pressure to requirements of A.C. Carr Chief Mechanical Engineer.

The Bagdad Railway. 155-7. illustration, map
Renewed interest in the above has naturally been awakened by the capture by the British of the Capital of the Caliphs, which has been looked upon as the pro tem terminus of the Berlin- Bagdad Railway. From accounts received in India, the British commander found the railway station or terminus practically intact, with large name boards on the platforms in English and Arabic, BAGDAD. It is stated that many of the victorious invaders in a holiday mood, made a rush for the booking office to secure " tickets for Constantinople and Berlin." How many were found we are unable to say. Apparently the railway was open and working to Samarra, some 90 miles north-west of Bagdad. At Bagdad five locomotives were found in good condition, besides passenger cars ; the last train prior to the British occupation had left the terminus at 2 a.m. on March AM IA\ ~ PERSIA probable it will turn out that the rails are laid as far east as Mosul (the site of ancient Nineveh), at any rate they are almost certain to have reached Nisibin, which is about 270 miles north-west of Samarra, for it is known that a considerable amount of material was conveyed for the Adana-Mosul section, via Mersina and Alexandretta. It would be a mistake to suppose that trains can run from Constantinople through to Nisibin. They can run there from Aleppo, which is on a branch and not on the Bagdad main line, although it is the locomotive headquarters for the southern section of the railway. There is a gap at the Taurus range, with a long tunnel to complete. It was reported that the tunnel had been pierced on November 15th last, but the neutral observer who visited the Taurus Mountains early in the year and contributed his observations to the Times, stated, on the authority of the Swiss engineers in charge of the work, that it would take two years to complete the tunnel. What has happened is that a small tunnel has been pierced for the navvies' hand trucks used on the construction railway. In the meantime the road over the mountains between Karapunar and Dorak, about 40 miles has been rebuilt and made passable for motor traffic. A continuous service of motor lorries connects the railheads on either side, for transporting arms and ammunition for the use of the Turkish forces in Mesopotamia, Arabia and Syria. As this involves transhipment by the laziest people in the world it is a slow business, so that the completion of the railway would expedite matters considerably. The distance between these two points by rail is about 20 miles, of which 11 miles are in tunnels. By means of the Aleppo branch the Bagdad line connected with 11th. General Maude followed up his success rapidly and early on Monday morning, April 24th, Samarra station was occupied by the British troops. The enemy had destroyed here what he could, but the captures included sixteen locomotives, 224 wagons, besides barges, etc. The material and rolling stock for this section of railway were impprted from Germany via Basra, being taken up the river Tigris in specially constructed barges, towed by paddle-wheel steamers.
The permanent way between Bagdad and Samarra was rapidly reconstructed and regular train; are now running.
Samarra is the present railhead north of Bagdad, and how far it is from Samarra to the Turkish end of the line coming from Constantinople, is, at the time of writing, a matter of conjecture, but it is very the existing Aleppo-Rayak Railway. At Rayak there is a break of gauge with the Beirut-Damascus line which is 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, and which connects at Damascus with the Hedjaz line of the same gauge.
It will be remembered that in the last week of December, 1916, just when the British forces were making their victorious advance on Kut, a squadron of British naval seaplanes attacked and destroyed the Chikaldir Bridge on the Bagdad Railway, and seriously affected the Turco-German means of communication. The great Chikaldir Bridge crosses the Djihan River, near the town of Adana, in the circular plain between the Taurus Mountains and the Amanus range. The railway has to cross both ranges, but the Amanus section through the Bagtche Pass (east of Adana) was tunnelled early in 1916, and it was expected that this section would be at work in October of that year. Seeing that the Bagtche tunnel, which is cut out of the solid rock, is only 16,028 ft. in length, this statement seems quite plausible. Adana is also the terminus of the Mersina-Tarsus-Adana Ry. (40 miles in length) which was constructed several years ago by a French company, joining it witli the port of Mersina on the Mediterranean opposite Cyprus. This line was bought by the Bagdad Ry. Co., and is included in their system, the junction being at a point called Yenidje, about half an hour's run from Adana. It is not perhaps generally known that the nucleus of the Bagdad Railway was the short length of 3 ft. 7¼ gauge line constructed in 1871 by British capital and engineers from Haidar Pasha, on the opposite side of the Bosphorus facing Constantinople to Ismidt, and the locomotives were built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. at their Meadow Hall Works, Sheffield. We illustrate one of the six-coupled goods engines built for this line. This had coupled wheels 3 ft. 6in. dia. and 15 in. x 18 in. cylinders.
German financiers obtained control of this railway, the Turkish Government appointing an engineer, Yon Pressel (who had built the Brenner Pass Railway in Austria), to extend the line into Asia Minor. The Porte began constructing the lines, on the standard gauge, but railhead had only reached Ada Bazar, when the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877 put a stop to further extension. In 1888 a German Company took over the Haidar Pasha-Ismidt Railway and extended it to Angora through Anatolia. In 1893 a further concession was granted to the Anatolian Railway Company to extend the Angora line to Sivas and "Dirbakr on to Bagdad, with a branch to Konia, as had been recommended by Yon Pressel. The line to Konia was opened for traffic in 1896, but the extension beyond Angora was not proceeded with. We then come to the Bagdad Railway Convention of March, 1903, which provides for the extension from the eastern terminus of the Anatolian Ry. at Konia by Eregli to Adana, thence over the Bagtche Pass to Killis, thence across the Euphrates at Berejik to Harran, Nisibin and Mosul. The first section of the Bagdad line from Konia through Eregli to Bugurlu, near the Taurus Mountains, was finished during 1904, a distance of 124 miles. From Mosul the line is to follow the right bank of the Tigris to Bagdad. Beyond Bagdad, according to the original scheme, it leaves the Tigris and re-crossing the Euphrates passes by Keibela and Nejef, the tombs of Hussain and Ali, and reaches the port of Basra. Meantime a metre-gauge line has been laid from Basra to Xasirayah and the Kurna-Amara line was converted to metre gauge by the British military. A line no longer required was taken up and brought to Bagdad and the establishment of a metre-gauge line from Kut to Bagdad was taken in hand. The total length of the Bagdad Railway from Haidar Pasha to Bagdad is 1,510 miles, but the Bagdad Railway proper, from Konia to Bagdad, is roughly 900 miles. From Bagdad to the port of Basra is about 350 miles. From Basra it was proposed to extend the line to Koweit, a port on the Persian Gulf about 120 miles from the mouths of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, a further 100 miles. The exact mileage that has yet to be completed between Ras-el- Ain, east of Aleppo, to which point the line was opened in June, 1915, and Bagdad is not exactly known, but, as before mentioned, the line has probably reached Nisibin, so that the gap does not much exceed 200 miles. When the standard gauge communications are established from Basra to Bagdad, it should not be a difficult matter to link up Samarra with Mosul, a distance of about 120 miles. (From Nisibin to Mosul is about 150 miles).
We believe oil fuel is to be used on the locomotives, as Bagdad is within easy reach of the Persian oil fields. Developments 'will be eagerly waited for by all railway men. As the present laws of Turkey do not permit of night travel, a train leaving Haidar Pa^ha in the early morning, stops at Eski-Shehir (the junction for Angora), for the night, 194 miles out. The work's of the Anatolian Railway are located here. There are about fifty locomotives on the Anatolian line of all nationalities and variety, with about 2,000 carriages and wagons. The Anatolian system, including the two branches to Ada Bazar and Angora, has a length of 650 miles.

Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. 157-9. 4 diagrams (side elevations)
In 1885, Aspinall designed a much more powerful 4-4-0 locomotive for working the mail and express trains which were growing in importance and size. The first four of these built were Nos. 93 to 96, but the class is more commonly known as Class 60. Fig. 5 illustrates No. 94 with the 2700 gallon tender first made for these new engines. There were altogether fifteen of these locomotives built, eleven of them being turned out during Ivatt's term of office at Inchicore. The motion was similar to that of the standard goods engines first designed by McDonnell. The cylincters were also of similar diameter and length of stroke. The boiler was, however, of new design and was the first in Inchicore practice to be constructed in telescopic rings with a. flush top casing. All previous boilers had had a raised casing attached to the barrel by a flanged plate. The rings of the boilers had been the same diameter throughout and were riveted together by means of butt joint strips. The coupling rods were at first of plain rectangular cross section, but were replaced by the new standard type of fluted rod. In Class 60 they were placed at 12 in. radius from the centres of the axles. The wheels were all of wrought iron. The bogie was  similar to that made for classes 2 and 52, but in later engines a steel casting was substituted for the original built-up cross frame stay. In some engines a larger bogie axle was provided with a corresponding larger wheel boss to receive it. On the four engines of this class, Nos. 93 to 96, built by Aspinall, and on Nos. 85 to 89, completed by Ivatt, special journals, 14 in. long were arranged on the trailing axles. The axle boxes were at first of cast iron. These were altered, subsequently, to bronze. The last six locomotives of this class,Nos. 60 to 65, had similar journals for both driving and trailing wheels. The frame plates were also strengthened as some of the earlier engines developed cracks from the top corners of the driving horn-blocks.
One of these engines, No. 87, was exhibited at Manchester in the Jubilee year, 1887. A sister engine, No. 89, was provided with a special cab with extended side phtes, sliding windows being arranged at either side. (Fig. 5A).
There are fifteen engines of Class 60, built as follows:—in 1885, Nos. 93 to 96; 1886, 85 to 89; 1891, 60 to 63, and in 1895, 64 and 65. In 1894, Ivatt rebuilt the first engine of this class, No. 93, as a compound. The general appearance is shown in Fig. 6. The boiler was of the same size as that of the simple engines, but there were only 179 tubes instead of the original 204. The slide valves were situated on top of the cylinder barrels and driven by Stephenson link motion and rocking shafts. The steam pressure was 150 psi. The frame was deepened to receive the cylinders. The distance between the frame plates at the cylinders was also increased from the standard 4 ft. 7 in. to 5 ft. ½ in. The bogie wheelbase had to be extended from the former 5 ft 3 in. to 5 ft. 8 in. At the left side of the locomotive there was provided a change valve of ingenious design actuated by steam. This was termed the triplex valve. Its function was to provide means for admitting boiler steam to the low-pressure cylinders should it be found necessary to do so, and thus revert temporarily to simple working. The rods and bell crank lever for starting this valve are shown on the left side of the smokebox towards the back. Owing to the crowding of the inside space of the smokebox with the large pipes required for conveying the exhaust steam from the high pressure to the low pressure steam chest, the Simplex lubricator, then the standard one in use, had to be transferred from the right to the left hand side of the smokebox. This compound express engine could scarcely be considered a success. Indeed it was hardly intended by Ivatt as anything more than an experiment. It never ran really free. The triplex valve was frequently out of order. This allowed an undue amount of boiler steam into the low-pressure cylinder, the exhaust was more or less choked and there was trouble in keeping up steam. In 1901 the compound cylinders were removed and replaced by a pair of simple cylinders 18 in. diameter. In this altered condition the engine was been a complete success and was still doing good work on the more important branch line services.
Another of these engines was fitted in 1896 with a smokebox superheater, or perhaps, more correctly, steam dryer. The number of this engine was 62 (Fig. 7). The apparatus consisted of two cast-steel boxes supported on brackets along the sides of the smokebox. One of these boxes was directly connected to the boiler steam pipe. A number of straight brass tubes crossed the middle of the smokebox to the other box, whence the steam was led to the cylinders underneath. A certain number of tubes had to be omitted in the middle to give clearance for the exhaust from the blast pipe. This rather primitive type of superheater certainly had some effect in drying the steam. This was evidenced by the excessive wear of the slide valves which were not provided with any special lubricating device other than the standard displacement lubricator. This wear of the valves and the port faces against which they worked must have neutralized any good effect from the superheating of the steam. The device did not produce any economy in working and was removed after about six months' trial.
Within recent years many of the locomotives of class 60 have been provided with new boilers and chimneys. The former wrought-iron wheels have now been almost entirely superseded by cast-steel centres. The coupling rod pins on these wheels are at 10 in. radius from the centres of the wheels as compared with the original 12 in. Their appearance with these changes is shown by Fig. 7 of No. 62. The last engines of this class were built in 1895. They were numbered 64 and 65, replacing the older type engines of these numbers previously described. A locomotive of this class, No. 85, was one of the first victims of the Sinn Fein rebellion on Easter Monday, 1916. The insurgents had removed some lengths of rail on the line near Abbeyleix with the result that the engine was thrown off the road and remained a casualty for several weeks before it could be got on the railway again. The engines of class 60 continued to work the important main line trains for five or six years after the last of them, No. 65, was placed in service.
The introduction of dining trains in 1899 and the rapid replacement of the former six-wheeled coaching vehicles by bogie coaches made an increase of locomotive power imperative. Robert Coey had succeeded H.A. Ivatt as locomotive superintendent in 1896, consequent upon the departure of the latter to the Great Northern Railway of England at Doncaster. During his term of office at Inchicore Coey added to the locomotive stock of the railway successive types of engines of new design, each showing a graduated increase of power and efficiency. In 1901, moreover, the Waterford, Limerick and Western Railway ceased to be a separate system consequent upon its amalgamation with the Great Southern and Western. A complete list of W.L. & W.Ry. locomotives taken over by the G.S. and W.Ry. appeared in THE LOCOMOTIVE Magazine, No. 61, Vol. vi., January, 1901. It is not proposed in this review to describe the W. and L. Railway locomotives added to the stock of the larger railway. These engines are still retained on their original work and are, for the most part, repaired in the shops at Limerick. According as they become worn out and broken up their places are, of course, taken by locomotives of Inchicore design.
Note.— In the list of numbers of engines of Class 2 on page 131 of our last issue we omitted No. 8, built in 1880. In Class 21, No. 17, built in 1872, was stated in error to have been broken up in 1891, this date, which escaped checking, should have been 1909. In connection with the fitting of the automatic brake on the G.S. & W.R. locomotives referred to in the June number of THE LOCOMOTIVE, page 113, the following additional particulars regarding the earlier history of the two-pipe continuous vacuum brake will be of interest. This system was originally designed by Mr., now Sir J. A. F. Aspinall. It was patented by him as far back as 1878, and in succeeding years the brake was fitted to practically all the locomotives and coaching stock of the company. In the years previous to his departure from Inchicore, Mr. Aspinall carried out an exhaustive series of experiments with a view to further improving the brake should the general adoption of an automatic system subsequently become necessary. During his term of office and up to 1890 an engine and special train of coaches were fitted with his double pipe automatic brake and this train worked regularly between Dublin, Kildare and Kilkenny. The particular engine was No. 46, similar to No. 2, Fig. 2. It was this brake which was finally adopted in 1891 when the provision of the automatic system became compulsory. After further trials Mr. Ivatt introduced some minor changes, notably the arrangement of the driver's application valve shown on the diagram of the brake, Fig. 1A, giving the "quick release," " running position/' and " full on " movements of the handle.

Figure: 5. 4-4-0 express engine, No. 94, Class 60, Great Southern and Western Ry. Built 1885;Figure 5a. 4-4-0 express loco., No. 89, class 60, Great Southern and Western Ry. Built 1886; . Figure 6. Compound express engine, No. 93, class 60, Great Southern and Western Ry. built 1869; Figure 7..4-4-0 rebuilt express engine, No. 62, class 60,Great Southern and Western Ry. built 1894

Listowel and Ballybunion Ry. 159
Owing to the high price of coal in Ireland, an effort is being made to use peat as fuel on the locomotives of this railway. In general, the experiments have been successful, a savirg of 10 per cent, in cost being claimed whilst steam can be raised in half the time taken by the more usual method of "firing up." Peat is similar to a low grade of coal, and has a heating value of 1,000 to 4.000 B.t.u. per pound.

Adjusting weights on locomotive wheels. 160-1. 2 diagrams
Locomotive weighing machine manufatured W. & T. Avery and portable weighing machine manufactured by Samuel Denison &; Son Ltd. See also letter from P.C. Dewhurst on p. 260

The lubrication of locomotives. 162-4
Figures 59-60: superheated locomotives

Railway shop notes. 164-5. 3 diagrams
Method for punching countersunk holes for screws in steel panel plate for wagons

Calculating the heating surface of locomotive boilers. 165.
Association of Railway Locomotive Engineers committee: tubes (outside surface); elements (inside surface); smokebox tube plate (excluded)

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 165-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (drawing: side elevation)

Locomotive wheel lathes and tyre turning. 167-8. 3 illustrations
Craven Brothers Ltd of Stockport machines and John Hetherington & Sons Ltd of Manchester: latter supplied a special grinding machine

An American hospital train. 168-71. 5 illustrations
Vehicles supplied by Pullman Company

Electric lighting notes. 171-2. table
Storage batteries. The useful life of negative plates.

The locomotive designer and design. 172
A most interesting paper was recently read before the Institution of Locomotive Engineers entitled The Locomotive Designer and Design, the author being J. Rodgers, of Brighton. The paper was of consideratle length, with a number of illustrations, and in view of the valuable information regarding the calculations and design of a new locomotive which cannot be found in the ordinary text-books on the subject.

Number 301 (15 September 1917)

New ten-wheeled express locomotives, Highland Railway. 173. illustration
4-6-0 No. 59 Foulis Castle illustrated: one of three supplied by North British Locomotive Co., Queen's Park Works to 1900 design at behest of C. Cumming, locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent: the others were No. 50 Brodie Castle and 58 Darnaway Castle. This series was fitted with screw reverse in place of steam reverser and with larger (6ft) coupled wheels.

American locomotives for the Canton-Hankow Railway, China. 174-5. 3 illustrations
Baldwin Locomotive Co. 4-6-0, 2-8-0 and 0-6-0T: all with outside cylinders.

Side tank locomotive for the Port of London Authority. 175-6. illustration
Hudswell Clarke &Co. Ltd. outside-cylinder (18 x 24in). Devonport illustrated

Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern & Western Ry. 177-9. 5 diagrams (4 side elevations)
The first engines built to Mr. Coey's design were four of the 4-4-0 express type, known as Class 301. These are illustrated by Figure 8. These locomotives had cylinders 18 in. diameter with a stroke of 26 in. The bogie was enlarged in size, the wheelbase being 6 ft. 4 in. and the diameter of the wheels 3 ft. 6 in. The <<<trailing springs were elliptical. Washout plugs were provided above the level of the firebox crown. Radial steel stays were used for the top of the firebox instead of the customary girder and sling stays. A plunger with a coned plug end was introduced instead of the prevailing type of revolving sand valve. The smokebox door was formed of a single dished plate. The doors on all previous engines consisted of two semi-circular flat plates folding on to a flat vertical bar fixed in the smokebox opening. The platforms and splashers showed a departure from the older practice. The wheels were very much more enclosed. The cab sides were made flush with the driving splashers to which they were connected by a shallow housing where the coupling rod came through the platform. The first two of these engines wc-re provided with piston valves. These, however, after trial were not considered satisfactory and were replaced by flat valves as in the other two engines of this class. The chimneys were of cast iron 2 ft. 10 J in. long. Some difficulty was at first experienced in getting these engines to steam satisfactorily. Experimental chimneys and blastpipes of varying heights were tried for some time on No. 301 until the fault was remedied. A coned built-up chimney with an inside hood projecting to within one foot of the blastpipe was finally adopted. This type of chimney, as has been already stated, was subsequently decided upon for all other classes.
During the period of the South African War the four engines of this class had names as under placed in raised brass letters round the top side of the splashers :
No. 301 Victoria.
No. 302 Lord Roberts.
No. 303,Saint Patrick.
No. 304 Princess Ena
The last engine was so named on account of the visit of Princess Ena of Battenberg, row the Queen of Spain, to Inchicore Works in 1900. No. 304 was nearing completion at the time and attracted the interest of the young princess so much that she mounted on to the footplate.
The chimneys of these engines were provided for a short time with wind deflectors, but these were subsequently taken off. Further slight changes were introduced. The elliptical trailing springs proved too rigid and were replaced by laminated underhung springs. The brake air pipes were led to the leading buffer plate. Openings were made in the semicircular projections on the sides of the splashers to facilitate the oiling of the driving axle boxes. These openings on engine " Victoria " were at first of the ornamental, but rather old-fashioned "starred" type. Finally the engines were all provided with new fireboxes with wider water spaces. This reduced the nominal heating surface somewhat, but also greatly reduced the repairs. The altered fireboxes had girder crown stays instead of the original steel radial screwed stays. Figure SA represents the appearance of these locomotives in 1916. The tender shown was designed by Mr. Coey for this class. It is of 3,345 gallons capacity and is usually termed the "3,300 gallon express tender." It is the standard tender since 1900, none of any earlier type having been built for either passenger or goods service. With the exception of a slight change in the brake gear, and the subsequent provision of coal rails which will be noticed on later diagrams, these tenders have not been altered from the original design. The four engines of Class 301 proved so successful in working that in 1902 Mr. Coey built four more similar in cylinder power, but with boilers provided with larger fireboxes and increased heating surface and grate area. These engines were numbered 305 to 308, ar.d are illustrated by Fig. 9. They differed fiom Nos. 301 to 304 in several particulars. The height of the centre line of the boiler was raised to 7 ft. 1H in. from the rail level, an increase of 4 in. There were changes in the appearance due to re-arrangement of the lagging plates. The waste pipe from the maintaining ejector was led through a tube forming a har.drail, thus eliminatirg the separate handrail previously seen on all passenger engines. The platform was raised between the coupled wheels and footsteps were provided behind the bogie to facilitate access to the motion. Balanced slide valves of the Richardson type were introduced, the flat packing strips bearing against a cast-iron plate fixed vertically in the steam chest. The crown stays of the fireboxes were of the radial screwed type, riveted on the outside of the casirg. The flexibilitv of the firebox permitted by this arrangement entailed a certain amount of trouble with leaky tubes. This was aggravated by the ever-increasing weight of all the main line trains. Corridor coaches. 45 are 50 ft. long had replaced practically all the 30-ft. carriages. This, in turn, induced more passenger traffic, the volume of which soon reached the limit which the locomotives were capable of dealing satisfactorily with. The day mail train between Dublin and Queenstown had increased in weight from 90" tons, unloaded, to 190 tons. The Figure 9 A shows graphically the charge in the size of this important train between 1896 and 1902. The boiler pwver of the engines was rot sufficient for the constant demand of steam and undue forcing had to be resorted to. This difficulty was especially felt in the year 1902. During the summer of that year, moreover, a prolonged strike of fitters and turners suspended all locomotive building at Inchicore. Six new express engines had to be ordered from Messrs. Neilson, Reid & Co. (now North British Locomotive Co.), of Glasgow. These were delivered in 1903 and are known as Class 310. Their numbers ran from 309 to 314 inclusive, but 309 was afterwards rebuilt and added to another class to be described later on. The appearance of these engines is shown by Figure 10. From the dimensions it will be seen that the diameter of the cylinders was increased to 18| in. as compared with 18 in. in Classes 301 and 305. The length of the firebox was increased by 6 in., the wheelbase being extended by the same amount. Washout plugs were provided on the firebox casing above the handrail as in Class 305, but these have sir.ce been removed. These engines were very successful in dealing with the work. They are all still running on the main line where they deal at the present time with the night mail and other trains of secondary importance.
Figures:  8. 4-4-0 Express engine, No. 304 Princess Ena Class 391 as first built in 1900. . 8A. 4-4-0 Express engine, No. 304 Class 301 as altered Great Southern and Western Ry.. 9.  4-4-0 Express engine, No. 305, Class 305 Great Southern and Western Ry. built 1902. 9A,
Great Southern and Western Ry. diagrams of Dublin and Queenstown Mail trains 1896 & 1902. 10. 4-4-0 express engine, No. 314, Class 310, Great Southern and Western Ry. built 1903.

American locomotives for War service.  179
The British Government, which ordered somejtime back fifty Consolidation and seventy-five Prairie type locomotives from the Baldwin Locomotive Works, has recently placed with that Company an additional order for 100 Consolidation Icccmotives. Orders have also been placed by the United States Government for 300 80-ton Consolidation locomotives for service in France, 150 of which are to be built by the American Locomotive Company and 150 by the Baldwin Works.

The lubrication of locomotives. 180-3. 5 diagrams
Figures 61-5: Wakefield. Wakefield No. 1 Double-acting Mechanical Lubricator, a section of which is shown in Fig. 61. In this the design of the pumps is such that differential plungers force the oil forward on both strokes of the pump. This does not deliver double the quantity of oil, but the same quantity is spread equally over both strokes. A reciprocating motion is given to the crosshead by mear.s of the eccentric shaft. The large and small pump barrels are cross-conrected ; the right-hand large pump delivers into the chamber of the corresponding left-hand small pump and vice versa. The No. 7 lubricator without the footplate feed adjustment was fitted to some express and other engines on the London and North- Western, Brighton, and Great Central Railways, and the No. 8 with adjustment to engines on foreign and colonial railways working over heavy grades. Another form of drive in which the movement of the ratchet lever is derived from a-return crank on the coupling rod pins is shown in the illustration of the new Caledonian engines in Locomotive Mag., 1916, 22, 85. This gives a simple and direct motion. On the Midland engines the movement is derived from the lifting links, to which a forked rod is attached, which actuates a horizontal shaft. On the Great Northern 2-6-0 engines with outside cylinders and Walschaert valve gear the ratchet lever is driven direct by a long rod, the other end of which is actuated by the quadrant link of the valve gear.

2-8-2 tank locomotives, C. de F. de Paris Orleans. 183
With reference to these locomotives, which were described in April Issue, a correspondent in France informs that one of these engines, No. 4203, hauled during a trial a load of 355 tonnes at 60 km. per hour on a gradient of 10 mm. per metre. A load of 540 tonnes was taken up the same grade at a speed of 25 km. per hour.

Great Eastern Ry. 183
The latest additions to the stud of 4-6-0 express engines are Nos. 1539 and 1540, which have recently been put into service. Five superheater goods engines were '"in hand" at Stratford Works, numbered 1260 to 1264.

Oil and gas furnaces in railway workshops. 183-5. 5 diagrams
Continued page 201. Morgan oil-fired furnaces and crucibles for melting brass

A.R. Bennett. Locomotives of the Little Orme Quarry, Llandudno. 185-6. 3 illustrations
Manning Wardle outside cylinder 0-4-0ST Little Orme built by Manning Wardle WN 478/1873 (for Leeds Corporation Waterworks) and Kerr Stuart Brazil type Garth WN 1257/1914

"The Sunset Limited", Southern Pacific R.R. 186-9. 4 illustrations
Ran 2489 miles between New Orleans and San Francisco. The dining car was mounted on six-wheel bogies and had a clerestory roof.

Signalling arrangements on the Belfast & County Down Railway at Belfast terminus. 189-91. 5 illustrations

The old locomotives of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. 191-2. 3 illustrations
Continued from xxx: Figures 27-8

Improvements in screw couplings. 192-3. diagram

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. G.W. Reid [letter]. 194
Formerly locomotive superintendent of the Natal Government Rys., was very interested in description of the Dunrobin locomotives, given in July Issue and referring to the inscriptions on the weather board stated that these were a source of anxiety to him whenever the engine came to Inverness shops for repairs whilst he was works manager. No one was allowed on the footplate until the foreman painter had pasted strong white paper on the panel, on which no pencil or thumb mark must be seen, to ensure that no damage had been done whilst in the works. Mr. Reid also pointed out we omitted to mention an alteration made to the first Dunrobin, soon after it was put to work. Originally there was a water tank under the trailing footplate, but this was fitted with a door and then used for carrying lunch baskets, etc. Water was then carried in two tanks placed on each side of the footplate and extending from the front of the smokebox to the front of cab. These tanks were low and covered with teak wood boards to make comfortable seating accommodation for the Duke's guests. There were brass rails for back rests and also arm rests. We regret there is no photo available of the late Duke of Sutherland with his guests. on a "joy ride."

Reviews. 194

The locomotive designer and design
Paper read before The Institution of Locomotive Engineers by Mr. J. Rodgers, Member of Council, 28 April 1917. The Institution of Locomotive Engineers is to be congratulated upon the liberality of its policy in permitting the public issue of the papers read from time to time by its members. As they are written by practical locomotive men, these papers, and the discussions arising from them, are often of considerable value and importance to all interested in the locomotive engine and its working. This is especially the case with the present paper, which we regard as a most useful contribution to the not too copious literature of steam locomotive engineering. In his opening remarks the author draws attention to the difficulties under which the locomotive engineer labours, and, whilst pointing out the desirability of experimental and research work, pays a just tribute to what has already been accomplished in this direction. We are at one with him in regretting that in this country we have no public testing plant available similar to that of the University of Illinois, but we are not sure that he is altogether correct in stating that "the most scientific publications on the locomotive are American." Personally, we are of opinion that this claim would be more fully substantiated by Continental, in particular by French, engineering literature. The author lays stress, we think most properly, on the liason which should exist between the drawing office and the shops and running shed. Cases are all too familiar where this essential has been overlooked, with the unfortunate result that what appeared quite admirable on paper was far otherwise from the point of view of the building and operating staff.
From these general considerations Mr. Rodgers passes to the "governing factors" of design, and gives numerous formulae for determining resistances, tractive force, adhesion, etc., many of which are of considerable practical value, and not less so from being stated in the simplest terms. Space does not permit of our analysing this excellent paper to the length it merits, but we cannot conclude without expressing a hope that this will not be the last contribution Mr. Rodgers will make to the literature of the locomotive, with which he is obviously so well qualified to deal.

The design of railway location.. Clement C. Williams. London: Chaprnan & Hall, Ltd: New York: John Wilev & Sons, Inc.
The author of this book as Professor of Railway Engineering to the University of Kansas, U.S.A., has had excellent opportunities of collecting material, and he has the gift of explaining it to the best advantage and as simply as possible. The first chapter gives a condensed historic record way development in the United States. The twelve well-filled chapters which follow are divided into four (A) Railway Economics and Legislation, (B) Operating conditions affecting location, (C) special problems on location, and (D) Practical Location survey. Intended primarily as a text for classes the book ethe underlying physical and economic principles of location, rather than the practical procedure, and is, of based on transatlantic experience, although many conditions and problems are obviously common to r, in all parts of the world, and particularly our colonies. The general principles of railway economics are full: with, so that the student may appreciate the situation Jing the relation of fixed charges to the location of a lins With given traffic conditions the author shows the ob of securing the greatest amount of business, with plc transportation designed to handle the traffic safely and economically. The complex classification of operating expenses and charges on a railway is carefully analysed, as well determination of railway rates and revenues, both as di producers and in relation to commerce. Without giving minute mechanical details, the especial characteristics of locomotive practice are gone into, as governing element in deciding the alignment of a railway. Features of locomotive design, fuel, heating area,supply, boiler losses, cylinders, mechanical stokers,heated steam, driving mechanism, locomotive classifying the power of a locomotive and tractive effort are discussed in turn. Electric traction with its advantages, disadvantage possibilities, are set forth in a separate chapter. An appendix gives the detailed specifications for form of roads, while the last eleven pages furnish a complete index to the work.

Superheater Corporation, Ltd. 194
Owing to the War the offices at Palace Chambers had been commandeered by Government Authorities, the Superheater Corporation being compelled to obtain temporary accommodation at New Burlington Street, W.l.

Cravens, Ltd. 194.
C.F. Minett has been appointed London representative of this firm in succession to . T.W. Ford. Mr. Minett had acted as assistant to Ford for a number of years at the offices at 68, Victoria St. Westminster, S.W.1.

Number 302 (15 October 1917)

New locomotives: South Eastern and Chatham Ry. 195-6. 2 illustrations
Class K 2-6-4T No. 790 and Class N 2-6-0 No. 810: the former had 6ft coupled wheels; the latter 5ft 6in. Both had large numerals; either on the tanks or on the tender.

2-8-2 locomotives: Paris, Lyons and Mediterranean Ry. built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. 196-7. illustration
Four-cylinder compounds with the inside high pressure cylinders driven through rocking shafts. Baldwin supplied the locomotives without tenders

The Highland Railway and its locomotives. 197-8. illustration
Jones Loch class: fifteen built by Dubs & Co.: WN 3392-3406/1896. No. 127 Loch Garry illustrated. Jones retired on 31 October 1896. Next part Volume 24 page 30.

The Lynton and Barnstaple Railway.199-201. 4 illustrations
Illustrations include 2-6-2T Exe and Baldwin (1900) 2-4-2T Lyn. Charles E. Drewett General Manger and J.H. Pearce in charge of locomotives.

Oil and gas furnaces in railway workshops. 201-2. diagram
Previous part see 183-5. Monometer tilting furnace (shown in diagram) was made by the Monometer Manufacturing Co. of Birmingham and enabled molten metal to be poured into several moulds on a revolving table. Also describes the American Scwartz furnace and the Charlier furnace

Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting in locomotive works. 202-4. 2  diagrams;

Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern & Western Ry. 205-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
In 1903 Mr. Coey made a bold departure from previous practice at Inchicore. A boiler with a coned back ring was designed and substituted for the original boiler in locomotive No. 308. This at once provided a very considerable augmentation of firebox and tube heating surface. The construction, moreover, offered the advantage of a greatly increased area of water and steam space where such was most valuable, above and around the firebox. The heating s urface of this boiler was as follows:
Firebox ... ... 128 ft2
Tubes ... ... 1,366 ft2
Total ... ... 1,494 ft2
The grate area was 21 ft2. There were 301 brass tubes, 15/8 n. outside diameter, 10 ft. 8 in. long between tube plates. The front tube plate was of the drumhead type, the smokebox top and sides being flush with the lagging sheets. The boiler plates were of steel 5/8in. thick. The working pressure was 160 psi.
The introduction of this type of boiler brought into prominence a difficulty regarding weight which was felt for some years and which necessitated certain restrictions and modifications both on express passenger and goods engines designed and built. The existing permanent way was not at first adapted for the heavier locomotives demanded by the increasing traffic requirements. The relaying of the main line with heavier rails and the concurrent strengthening of bridges had necessarily to be spread over some time. Until this important matter had been put in order the load per pair of wheels at the rail was restricted to 16 tons. To meet this limitation No. 308 with the new coned boiler had to be " cheesepared " where possible. Spring brackets were cut down. A light built up footplate was substituted for the previous casting. Large holes were drilled in the back part of the frame plates and every piece of unnecessary weight was removed. The success of the engine rebuilt with the enlarged boiler was manifest from the start. The steaming ceased to be a source of worry to the enginemen. The locomotive handled the loads with ease and there was always a margin of power to fall back upon. The improvement was so marked that Mr. Coey forthwith proceeded with the design of a new type of express engine provided with a coned boiler. This is known as Class 321, represented by Diagram 11. Twelve engines of this type were turned out from 1904 to 1906. In 1913, No. 309 also was rebuilt with a coned boiler, rendering it similar in all essential respects to the engines of Class 321, the cylinders, wheelbase, motion parts, etc., being interchangeable. Classes 301, 305 and 310, however, were provided with only one brake cylinder, 20 in. diameter, the pull rods being situated inside the wheels. Class 321 pull rods both inside and outside the driving wheels. The first eight locomotives of the class had 301 boiler tubes, or eighteen more than those built later, the heating surface being:
Firebox ... ... 145 square feet.
Tubes ... ... 1,366 ,, ,,
Total ... ... 1,511
The boiler was made of steel plates 9/16 in. thick. The frame plates were 1 in. thick instead of 11/8 in., the previous standard. A built-up footplate was used instead of an iron casting, and the weights of other parts were brought to the irreducible minimum. By these means the 16 tons limit was not exceeded, but, as might be expected, the engines during repairs gave evidence of the strain to which the comparatively light frames were subjected under the overhanging weight of the boiler pitched at a height of 8 ft. 5 in. from the rail level. Some of the frame plates developed cracks at the corners of the hornblocks and all bolts and rivets showed a tendency to become slack. After a time, however, the relaying of the permanent way and the strengthening of the bridges having been completed, the weight restrictions were relaxed. Cast-iron foot-blocks were then substituted for the steel plate structures. The back part of the engine was thus stiffened up and a ton or so was added to the adhesion weight, the ratio of which to the tractive force was low on this class. Crank axle failures occasionally occurred and many of the engines had the original solid forgirgs replaced by built-up cranks. The engines, on the whole, have proved a very successful effort to secure the maximum boiler power within the very limited restrictions as to weights on the rail. The tenders used were of similar size and capacity to those described in connection with Class 301. (The diagram shows the raised coal rail ard a modification in the position of the brake pull rods which were dropped to keep them at a greater distance from the wheel tyres).
The remaining three engines of Class 305 were next rebuilt with coned boilers. The barrels of these were similar in every respect to those of Class 321, but the fireboxes were 6 in. shorter, corresponding with the shorter rigid wheelbase. Class 305 as altered in this manner is illustrated by Diagram 12. In designing the boilers for these engines special attention was given to the spacing of the tubes. Care was taken to leave ample spaces for the escape and ascent of the steam liberated from the front and sides of the firebox. A group of tubes in the centre of the boiler was arranged with a clear passage at the sides. The top tubes were pitched with gradually increasing water spaces towards the corners of the firebox, and all bottom tubes or stays that might impede the free circulation of the water or the escape of the steam were kept well above the bottom of the boiler barrel. This, while it slightly reduced the nominal heating surface, greatly enhanced the efficiency of the boiler as a steam generator.
One engine of this class, No. 332, was fitted for some years with Marshall's valve gear. One of the earlier class, No. 307, had also been similarly fitted. Both engines did very good work whilst so altered, but the results obtained were not considered sufficient to warrant the continuance of this special departure from the prevailing and familiar Stephen son type of motion.
Figure 11. 4-4-0 Express engine, No. 321, Class 321, Great Southern and Western Railway built 1904; Figure 12. 4-4-0 EExpress engine, rebuilt 1905, No. 305, Class 305,Great Southern and Western Railway

Philadelphia and Reading Railroad (U.S.A.). 206
55½ miles between Camden and Atlantic City accomplished in 43 minutes with engines Nos. 334 with 5 cars and 343 with 6 cars. &nbsp;No. 344 claimed a speed of 117.7 mile/h between Elwood and Egg Harbour.

Train lighting notes. 207. illustration
Illustration shows balata driving belt after running 27,600 miles.

South Eastern & Chatham Railway. 207.
New 2-6-0 No. 180 stationed at Tonbridge. 2-6-4T No. 790 had been working Cannon Street to Reading services, but was stationed at Ashford.

Glasgow & South Western Railway. 207
New 0-6-2T engines in service: Nos. 99, 100, 101, 102, 142, 143, 145, 147.

The lubrication of locomotives. 207-8. 2 diagrams, table
Figures 66-7: oil feed from Wakefield No. 1 mechanical lubricator.

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Egyptian State Railways. 209. 2 illustrations
German-built 0-6-0 RN 459-78 fitted with inside Walschaerts valve gear (No. 465 illustrated) and 0-8-0T RN 515-34 supplied by Franco-Belge and Nos. 545-64 supplied by a German firm (No. 575 illustrated)

Rolled steel disc railway wheels. 210-11. diagram
Taylor Brothers & Co. Ltd new plant at Trafford Park, Manchester

60-ton machinery wagons, North British Railway. 211. illustration
Bogie well wagon supplied by Leeds Forge to requiremnts of W.P. Reid.

Elastic packing for axle boxes. 211-12. diagram
Horse-hair and wool supplied by Messrs. Beckett, Laycock and Watkinson Ltd of Willesden

An old Indian locomotive. 212. illustration
Oude & Rohilkund State Railway 0-6-0 built by Dubs & Co. from 1880: B class. It had 14 x 20in cylinders, 4ft diameter coupled wheels, 667 ft2 total heating surface and 12.7 ft2 grate area.

RN Builder WN Date
7-10 Sharp, Stewart 1937-40 1869
11-31 Sharp, Stewart 2003-2023 1870
32-9 Sharp, Stewart 2105-2112 1871
40-5 Sharp, Stewart 2132-2137 1871
46-60 Avonside 813-827 1870
61-70 Sharp, Stewart 2633-2642 1876
71-6 Avonside 1159-60; 1163; 1165; 1167-8 1877
77-80 D&uuml;bs 1073-6 1877
81-90 D&uuml;bs 984-93 1876

The old locomotives of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway. 213-14.
Concluded from p. 192. Barton Wright rebuilding of Jenkins 0-6-0 goods engines. Nos. 25, 327 and 345 were rebuilt as 0-4-4Ts with 4ft 10in coupled wheels and 16 x 24in cylinders and were a smaller version of the5ft 8in 0-4-4Ts. They had Naylor safety valves. The second conversions were to 0-6-2Ts and were the first British examples of this wheel arrangement. THe numbers and dates were: 333 (1879); 22, 26, 30 (1880); 320, 348, 364, 365, 368, 372 (1881); 343, 344, 349, 682 (1882); and 24, 38, 347, 354 (1883). Frame lengthening was involved and was probably expensive.Eight were rebuilt as 0-6-0STs for passenger work: Nos. 33, 331, 342, 352 (1883) and 332, 353, 685, 699 (1884). Further rebuilds were to 0-6-0STs for shunting with 4ft 0in wheels: No. 690 illustrated in this form. Another illustration shows a Bury single and a table lists Bury-type singles, which company they were supplied to (Manchester & Bolton or Manchester & Leeds) and builder: Bury; Benjamin Hick; Haigh Foundry; Jones, Turner & Evans.&nbsp;

The problem of railway signal lighting. 214-15. illustration.
Welch patent long burning oil lamp

Improved tarpaulin support for wagons. 215-16. 2 diagrams

Victorian Government Rys. 216
W.M. Shannon, the chief mechanical engineer, in giving evidence at the enquiry into the working of the Victorian Rys., stated that the adoption of superheaters should save 12½% of the fuel consumption, and had 200 of their engines been so fitted there would have been a saving last year, when coal was 15/10 per ton, of £11,378. Recently the price had gone up to 21/1 per ton, and, therefore, the saving would have been £163;17,000.

Reviews, 216

Electric traction. A.T. Dover. London: Whittaker & Co. 667 pp. 518 illustrations and five folding plates. ;216
Lecturer on Electric Traction at the Battersea Polytechnic. Engineers and advanced students will find in this work a most exhaustive record of recent progress in electric traction and its problems. The subject matter covers the wide field in a very successful manner, and those seeking a thoroughly practical and up-to-date treatise on the electrical working of railways and tramways will find this book meets their requirements. It has been arranged as follows :&#151;Mechanics of train movement; motors; control; auxiliary apparatus; rolling stock; detailed study of train movement; track and over-head construction; distributing systems and sub-stations. It will be noticed that generating stations and transmission lines have not been included, as the generation of electrical energy is now recognised as a special subject and has little bearing on the utilization of the energy for traction purposes, moreover it could hardly have been adequately dealt with in a work of this size. Sub-station converting machinery is dealt with in a long chapter. Separate chapters deal with rolling stock for electric tramways and for railways (motor coach trains) and their electric equipment, brakes, etc. Descriptions and data are given of electric locomotives in service on the Metropolitan and North-Eastern (Tyneside) lines, while the Continental and American examples include the Lotschberg-Simplon; Rhaetian, Italian State, Simplon Tunnel, Norfolk and Western, Detroit River Tunnel; Butte; Anaconda and Pacific, New York Central, Pennsylvania and New York; New Haven and Hartford. In the chapter devoted to overhead construction on railways details will be found relating to the installations on the Lancashire & Yorkshire (Holcombe Brook section), L. B. & S.C., Midland, New York, New Haven and Hartford; Norfolk and Western, Italian State and Simplon Tunnel lines, but detailed accounts of electrifications have been omitted, as they have been already treated fully in the technical press.

Railway Club. 216
A.W. Bartlett, read a paper at the Club, on the 9 October entitled " The Drummond engines of the London and South Western Railway."

Number 303 (15 November 1917)

0-8-2 superheater tank locomotives, Great Northern Ry. 217-19. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Gresley modifications

New locomotives: South Eastern and Chatham Ry. 219. 2 diagrams
Detailed working diagrams of leading truck for both 2-6-0 and 2-6-4T designs.

New six-coupled locomotives, London and South Western Ry. 220. diagram (side elevation)
Urie 6ft 7in diameter coupled wheels: order for ten. Clearly N15 class, but this is not stated. Table list dimensions of this and its freight equivalent with 5ft 7in coupled wheels.

Great Northern Ry. 220
No. 1170, 0-6-0 tender engine had received a larger boiler. We understand the twenty Mogul engines ordered some time back from Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., are to be completed at Doncaster.

Furness Ry. 220
Four trains per day are being worked through by this railway from Barrow-in-Furness to Carlisle and back, in addition to two which run if required. They also work two from Barrow to Tebay and back. The Maryport and Carlisle Ry. work one train each way between Carlisle and Barrow, and the North-Eastern two between Carlisle and Millorn and back. In addition to these the L. & N.W.R. work two trains between Tebay and Millom and two between Tebay and Barrow.

French Railways. 220
The 4-6-4 express Baltic locomotive of the Northern of France Railway (No. 3.1,102) is credited with having hauled 1,200 tons at 110 km. per hour (68.4 miles) at her trials. In regular service this engine hauled twenty-four cars, 800 tons, at 125 km. per hour (77.1 miles). The 4-6-2 new superheater express engines of the Paris- Orleans Ry. (type 4501-4570) haul in regular service 1,400 tons at 60 km. (37,27 miles) on the level. It is said the superheater engines have 25 per cent. more hauling capacity. On the Southern Ry. of France the 4-6-2 non-superheater express engine No. 3,004 (series 3,001-3,020) hauls 520 tons at 115 km. per hour (71.5 miles).

The electric rolling stock: Chemin de Fer d'Etat Français. 221-2. illustration
All-metal construction and running on six-wheel bogies

Ernest E. Joynt. Modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway. 222-4. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
In 1907 Mr. Coey built another class of express engine illustrated by Figure 13, and known as Class 333. The coned boiler designed for Nos. 305 to 308 was utilized, and it will be noted that the wheelbase of the new engines was also similar to that of Class 305. The motion, couplirg rods and other essential parts were also interchangeable. The slide bars, however, were single for each cylinder instead of being in groups of four, as in the older engines. The bogie wheels were only 3 ft. diameter, and the coupled wheels 5 ft. 8£ in. as in the small engines of Classes 21 and 22. The centre line of the boiler was pitched 8 ft. 2| in. from the rail level or 2\ in. less than in Classes 305, 321. The smaller wheels being lighter than those 6 ft. 7 in. diameter, it was possible to make the frame plates of these locomotives very much stronger and heavier than in the larger class, thus eliminating the trouble experienced due to the want of rigidity in the frames. It was found difficult at first to get the journals of the bogie wheels to run cool at high speeds, and, in order to avoid this tendency to heat, four further engines of this class, Nos. 337 to 340, built in 1908, had the bogie frames on the outside of the wheels, with outside journals and axleboxes of the tender type. Advantage was also taken of the design to utilize laminated springs instead of the customary volute or spiral springs used on other bogies (Figure 14). This type of bogie was not perpetuated. The adoption of a suitable oil pad with a removable lid on the axlebox keep to permit of cleaning and replacing, at once cured the trouble previously experienced with inside bogie axleboxes. The use of oiling pads almost entirely of the "Armstrong" pattern followed for the axleboxes of all important engines. This, with the provision of oilboxes on the footplate with pipes leading to the various axleboxes, has practically done away with troublesome journal bearings. The locomotives of Class 333 have a sturdy and powerful appearance. They are indeed fine hill climbers, their most important work being on the boat expresses between Cork and Rosslare Harbour. The line between Waterford and Rosslare is single, 38½| miles long. There are many sharp curves varying in direction. The worst gradients are 1 in 71 and 1 in 72. The time allowed for the journey, 60 minutes, is a fairly severe test for the locomotive hauling the train, which usually consists of eight coaches, 66 ft. long, with seven parcel vans. Class 333 has proved very successful in dealing with this important service and with other trains necessitating fast speed between frequent stops.
Other locomotives, goods and tank, built by Mr. Coey, will be described in their respective places. Owing to impaired health he had to relinquish his position as locomotive superintendent in June, 1911. He was succeeded by Mr. R.E.L. Maunsell, who, as works manager, had been associated with Inchicore during all Mr. Coey's term of office.
Some time before he left, Mr. Coey had arranged to fit an engine of Class 321 with a superheater of the well-known Schmidt type. The actual locomotive chosen for this improvement was No. 326 (Figure 15), completed early in 1912 under Mr. Maunselll's supervision. The diameter of the cylinders was increased to 20 in. The steam was distributed by means of 8-in. piston valves driven by the original eccentrics through rocking shafts. The smokebox was extended in front, circular in cross section and supported in a saddle extension of the cylinder casting. A damper was arranged inside the smokebox for automatically closing the ends of the superheater smoke tubes when the regulator was shut. The cylinder for actuatirg this damper is shown on the side of the smokebox in the diagram. A " snifting " valve was provided for admittirg air to the steam chests when running with steam shut off. The lubrication was effected. by means of a Wakefield lubricator which was worked by a lever and rods driven from a return crank forming an extension of the leading coupling lod pin washer. A Scraffer and Budenberg mercury pyrometer registered the degree of superheat. Coale pop safety valves were experimentally substituted for the standard Ramsbottcm pattern. There^were two vacuum brake cylinders of a new design, 18 in. diameter. The pistons in these cylinders were rendered! 'airtight byr means of rubber bands 2 in. deep, which pressed outwards against the cylinder walls, forming their own nonreturn valves for the exhausted air. Amongst other new features introduced were a "Dreadnought " ejector. The action of this appliance was found to be improved by the addition of vacuum reservoirs, two of which were placed under the well of the tender. This practice was subsequently extended and most of the 3,300 gallon tenders have been provided with these reservoirs whilst under repairs in the shops. After No. 326 had been at work for a short time an alteration in the piston valves necessitating new eccentric sheaves greatly increased the efficiency of the locomotive. Owing to an accident resulting in the fracture of the cylinders, these were changed early in 1916, and the engine is now running for the present in its original condition with the superheating apparatus removed.
Figure 13. 4-4-0 Express engine No. 333, Class 333, Great Southern and Western Railway built 1907. Figure 14. 4-4-0 Express engine, No. 340, Class 333, Great Southern and Western Railway built 1908. Figure 15. 4-4-0 Superheater Express locomotive, No. 326, CLASS 321, Great Southern and Western Railway built 1912.

Great Western Railway. 224
Handrails, etc on goods brake vans were painted white to asssit stff in the hours of darkness.

Universal wood planing and moulding machines for railway carriage and wagon works. 224-7. 2 illustrations, 5 diagrams.

Old mineral engines, Taff Vale Ry. 227-9. 2 illustrations, table
0-6-0 with 5ft 3in coupled wheels; 17½ x 26in cylinders designed by Hurry Riches.

Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting in locomotive works. 229-32. 6 diagrams, 2 tables

Electrification of the Manchester and Bury Line, Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. 232-4. 5 illustrations.
Photographs include interior and exterior of all-metal, fireproof cars and interior of Clifton Junction Power Station.

The lubrication of locomotives. 234-5. 2 diagrams
Figures 68-9: Ross mechanical lubricator manufactured by R.L. Ross & Co. of Stockport and Wakefield mechanical lubricator.

L.P. Parker. A note on the use of jacks for rerailing. 235-6. diagram

Canadian Pacific Ry. 236
All the Mallet type locomotives on the C.P.R. had been rebuilt at the Winnipeg shops, and converted to the 2-10-0 type. A number of new 2-10-0 engines had also been built at the Angus shops, Montreal. These, like all other locomotives in the Rocky Mountain division, were fitted to burn oil fuel

Transcontinental Ry. of Australia. 236
The first train from Port Augusta, over the East-West Transcontinental line arrived at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, on 20 October 1919, with Sir John Forrest and other distinguished persons on board. Like all Australian railways, the new line was State-owned, but, unlike most of them, it had been built directly lly by the Commonwealth Government. It is 1,053 wn miles long and runs through what is at present, for 800 miles, mostly uninhabited country, so that its construction was attended with considerable difficu1ty. It cost £6,000,000, and was begun  in 1914. Construction progressed from both ends, the workmen at each railhead being fed, watered, clothed and housed under direct Government control. The line is of standard gauge, and it is intended to lay an additional rail of standard gauge on the West Australian 3 ft. 6 in. gauge track from Ka1goorlie to Perth, so that through trains from Port Augusta can be run. The South Australian line at Port Augusta is also 3 ft. 6 in. gauge. At present the speed of the trains will be 30 miles per hour, covering so the distance in 35 hours, but it is expected to reduce this to 24 hours, an average speed of 44 miles per all hour being quite practicable.

High-capacioty car for mineral traffic: Pennsylvania Railroad. 237. illustration
H-24 bogie Gondola cars had five hoppers. They were built at the Altoona works of the Pennsylvania Railroad.

Correspondence. 237-8

[Steel fireboxes]. W.G. Landon
American method of boiler washing out when hot water not available: steam blown off, then connection is made to injector feed pipe and cold water run in until boiler full, then plug taken out at bottom of firebox. Critices firing up by natural draught: in USA blower used via connection to steam or compressed air

[Hot axleboxes]. W.G. Landon 238. diagram
Re query about hot axle boxes. Suggests that trouble is due to loose driving boxes, which should be fitted with wedges to take up wear, as in American practice. [conjecture that engines which fail with left axle boxes are" left lead" engines, i.e., the left crank leads and that those with right hot boxes are right lead. Referring to the sketch, the arrows show direction of force in four different positions. In (1) the tendency is to force L A back and R A forward, but on account of the left being on dead centre, it offers a more rigid fulcrum than right and greater force is exerted on LA. The same applies in (3). In (2) and (4), however, the forces are acting of Loco. in the same direction and both ends of the axle are pushed accordingly. It is evident, therefore, that the left box will get the greatest pounding and will run hot. On right lead engine conditions are reversed and the right side will run hot. Of course, above would only happen when the boxes are well worn, A method to test my theory would be to run a loco with full tonnage train backward over the division and see whether same or opposite side would run hot. .

The Mechanics' Institution, Swindon. 238
New catalogue of books in the lending and reference department of the Great Western Ry. Mechanics' Institution at Swindon, comprising about 40,000 volumes. These are arranged under authors' names and subject headings in alphabetical sequence, works of fiction appearing under their author's names only, and serious works under both author and subject. The entries under subject headings are very complete, descriptive notes being added to show the scope or character of the books, particularly in regard to those dealing with engineering and railway work. The librarian, W. Hildon Bagguley, F.L.A., who has had large experience in municipal libraries, has reorganized the Institution on modern public library lines and anyone, whether in the employ of the G.W.R. or not, who has been elected and paid the subscription, may enjoy all the privileges of the Institute. G.W.R. employes pay the modest subscription by scale, ranging from 2d. to 10d. per month, while persons not engaged on the railway pay from 1/3 to 3/- per quarter. For this small subscription a member has this fine library and its central and branch reading rooms and recreation rooms always at his service, with other advan- tages in connection with the lectures and concerts which are frequently held in the Institute Hall. From the fact that the membership is now over 11,000 men and women, it is evident the unique opportunities afforded are not being neglected. The Institution has been practically self-supporting since its foundation seventy years ago by Sir Daniel Gooch, as it is run on co-operative lines and owned by the members and not by the Great Western Railway Company. It is the largest Railway Mechanics' Institute in this country, so that its members may well be proud of it.

Personal.. 238
Thomas Easton Allan, of South Park, Lincoln, appointed to seat on the board of Robey & Co., Ltd., Lincoln. Mr. Allan for several years has been connected with the management and is intimately acquainted with the working of all departments.

Obituary. 238
Death of locomotive inspector John Williarns, of the Great Central Ry., which took place suddenly on 25 September. Williams commenced to work for the M.S. & L. Ry. in 1881, and was made fireman in 1883 and driver in 1891. He was stationed at Staveley and Colwick, then Gorton and finished driving at Leicester. He was promoted to locomotive inspector 28 December 1901, and eventually brought to Gorton on the headquarters staff of the loco. running department. Mr. Williams was joint author of the book on Locomotive Management from Cleaning to Driving,for the production of which he collaborated with Mr. Hodgson, of the Manchester School of Technology.

[Major George H. Spittle]. 238
Distinguished Service Order conferred upon Major George H. Spittle, R.E., Commandant of the 1st Army Signalling School (Assistant to the Electrical Engineer of the Great Western Ry., Paddington). The investiture at the hands of H.M. the King took place at Buckingham Palace.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 238
A meeting of the Institution was held at Caxton Hall, Westminster on 20 October, when a paper entitled Some notes on the working of superheater locomotives, with special reference to lubrication, was read by the Secretary, on behalf of the author, J. H. Rea, member, locomotive department, F.C.O. de Buenos Aires, Mechita. The President (A. D. Jones) opened the discussion, which was continued by J. Clayton (S.E. & C.Ry.), S. Mannering (L.B.S.C.Ry.), J. W. Bliss (C. C. Wakefield & Co.), T. C. Thomsen (Vacuum Oil Co.), J. M. Dunn (L. & N.W. Ry.), R.P.C. Sanderson (Baldwin Loco. Works), J. Rodgers (L.B. & S.C.Ry.). The next meeting will be held at Caxton Hall on 24 November 1917, at 2 p.m., when a paper on Blast pipes and chimneys will be read by J. Maxwell Dunn, graduate, L. & N.W. Ry.

Railway Club. 238
B.M. Bazley will read a paper at the meeting arranged for 11 December 11 at the Club, 92, Victoria Street, Westminster.

Number 304 (15 December 1917)

Consolidation locomotives for overseas military railways. 239. illustration
British War Office Orders 2-8-0s; built North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. at Queen's Park Works with steel fireboxes and Westinghouse brake

London & North-Western Ry. 239
Claughton class Nos. 116, 159, 171, 986, 1085, 1103, 2122, 2368, 2416 nnd 2426: new series, probably to be built without names. Webb four-cylinder compound No. 1448 mineral engine converted to simple and fitted with superheater.

New locomotives, South Eastern and Chatham Railway. 240-1; 242.. 4 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
Maunsell N class 2-6-0 and K class 2-6-4T, Includes detailed diagram of valve gear and top feed: last on p. 342.

Standard gauge tank locomotive for the British Government. 242. illustration
Outside-cylinder (17 x 24in) 0-6-0T supplied by Kerr Stuart & Co. Ltd with 4ft coupled wheels and Belpaire boiler

Great Northern Ry. 242
The four-cylinder compound Atlantic, No. 1300, built by the Vulcan Foundry in 1905, had been rebuilt at Doncaster and converted to a two-cylinder simple engine. The cylinders, which are outside the frames, are 20 in. diameter by 26 in. stroke and drive on to the front pair of coupled wheels. The original boiler which carries a working pressure of 200 lb. per sq. inch has been retained. The valve gear, which is of the Walschaerts type, is also external. The engine has been fitted with a Gresley superheater, and also the Wakefield mechanical lubricator with anti-carbonizing. device. On several occasions recently No. 1300 had been working the 5.30 p.m. express out of King's Cross, through to Doncaster.

Great Western Railway. 242
New 2-6-0 tender locomotives of the "430 I" class, constructed at Swindon Works, bear numbers 5309 to 5333. Several 0-60 Glasgow and South-Western Ry. goods engines are now working on the Great Western main line, among them beng Nos. 300A and 309. Three of the G. & S.W. engines are stationed at Swindon, as well as two tank engines belonging to the South-Eastern and Chatham Ry

The Coalbrookdale Tramroad. 243-5. 5 illustrations.
Illustrations include 0-4-0 shunting locomotive No. 6 and tramway in road at Ironbridge.

Ernest E. Joynt. The modern locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Ry.  246-8. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
The succes s attending the experimental alteration of No. 326 encouraged Mr. Maunsell to enter upon the construction of new locomotives fitted with Schmidt superheaters. Some of these, which will be described later on, were six-coupled goods engines. The most important engine completed during his term of office was, however, an express of the 4-4-0 type, No. 341, named Sir William Goulding, in compliment to the chairman of the Company. This fine engine is illustrated by Figure 16. Many interesting features were introduced showing a decided departure from former practice at Inchicore. The coned type of boiler was discarded. Mr. Coey had already built four goods engines with Belpaire boilers, but No. 341 was the first passenger locomotive to be so fitted. The bogie wheels were 3 ft. diameter. The cylinders were made 20 in. diameter, the stroke of the pistons being 26 in. The piston valves were 8 in. diameter actuated direct by means of Walschaerts link motion. The radius rods were continued through the back of the closed expansion links, where they were controlled by the reversing shaft. This shaft is not moved directly by the reversing rod, but by a short link which returns backwards from the arm on the end of a short shaft led through one side of the main frame. The crank axle is of the built-up type. The coupling rod is 9 ft. 11 in. long between centres. The platform is raised well up between the coupled wheels. This gives easy access for examination of the axleboxes. The closed-in platforms seen on Classes 301, 305, 310 and 321 were never very popular with the drivers, owing to the difficulty thus placed in the way of getting at the axleboxes from the outside. A Robinson draught retarder was adopted in connection with the superheater. Amongst other details of interest are Ross muffled "pop" safety valves, steam sanding gear, Wakefield mechanical lubricator and Dreadnought ejector. Snifting valves are fitted on either side of the cylinders. A large cab is provided with end pillars supporting the back of the roof. No. 341 has proved a very powerful locomotive, and handles the heaviest express trains on the main line. The boiler provides steam freely and with a consumption of coal which compares very favourably with that of Class 321.
Towards the end of 1913 Mr. Maunsell severed his connection with the Great Southern and Western Railway consequent upon his appointment to the position of chief mechanical engineer to the South- Eastern and Chatham Railway. He was succeeded by Mr. E.A. Watson, who had been associated with Inchicore in the capacity of works manager since 1911. Within some months from the'time of his appointment as locomotive superintendent the great European war had commenced. Unprecedented difficulties were thus created, involving the partial reconstruction of  Inchicore Works for munitions purposes. This, in turn, required the withdrawal of draughtsmen and workmen for this special work, in addition to the loss of reservists and others who joined the colours. The delivery of necessary material was delayed, and there were other serious obstacles in the way of locomotive construction, includirg the Sinn Fein rebellion, during which the works were shut down. It should be said, however, that only a very insignificant number of Inchicore employes were involved in this rising. In spite of these disabilities, Mr. Watson has added locomotives of two new and powerful classes to the working stock of the railway. The first of these was a shunting tank engine built in 1915 and which will be described in its proper place. The next was an express locomotive of dimensions far exceeding anything previously attempted in Inchicore. This engine is numbered 400 and is represented by Figure 17. It will be seen that the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement has been adopted and that there are four cyLnders 14 in. diameter, with a piston stroke of 26 in. Amongst other consideraticns prompting the choice of this particular design the severe gradients at DubLn and Cork were predominant. Immediately upon starting from the Kingsbridge terminus rising gradients of 1 in 117, 1 in 84, 1 in 100, 1 in 135 are successively encountered. The general characteristic of the gradient profile shows a rise to the Curragh and Kildare, where a fall takes place. At the Cork end the conditions are very much worse. The trains here start on a very sharp curve and at once enter the tunnel under the city on a risirg gradient of 1 in 78. Upon leaving the tunnel which sui generis is always damp and drippng, with greasy rails rendering sand as indispensable as steam to the men on the footplate, the rise sharpens to 1 in 64. This in turn changes at Kilbarry to 1 in 60. The engines have to climb for about twelve miles, when a sharp fall to Mallow Junction occurs. All passenger trains are double headed through the tunnel and as far as Blarney. This immobilizes an engine or engines continually at Cork for this one purpose, and causes an otherwise unnecessary delay to the mail and other first-class express trains. Mr. Watson felt that the adhesion of a four-coupled engine was not sufficient to start heavy trains on these gradients without undue slipping and loss of steam and time. He therefore decided upon a six-coupled locomotive for fast mainline passenger work. The well-known advantages of the four-cylinder arrangement were also embodied in the design of the new class. The boiler was made of generous proportions and the whole combination resulted in an engine unique in size and appearance as regards Irish railways. The outside cylinders are placed over the trailing bogie wheels and drive on to the middle coupled wheels. The Walscjiaerts valve gear is on the outside actuating piston valves, 8 in. diameter. The valve spindle is continued through the front steam chest cover and connects by means of a short Lnk with a horizontal rocking shaft pivoted to a bracket on the side of the frame. This rocking shaft passes through a large slot in the frame plate and communicates its motion to the valve spindle of the inside steam chest. The inside cylinders are in one casting placed over the leading bogie axle. The pistons drive on to the leading coupled axle. The outside and inside adjacent cranks are at an angle of 180° with each other. The superheater contains twenty-four elements. Bye-pass and steam circulating valves are provided for preventing the superheat from being lost whilst steam is shut off. At the same time the arrangement secures the superheater steam tubes against overheating and it establishes communication between the front and back ends of each cylinder. The boiler is fed by means of 10 m/m. injectors delivering on to a perforated tray situated in front of the dome, which causes the feed to be discharged in the form of spray clear of the steam pipe. A small manhole is provided on top of the barrel to facilitate inspection and to enable the tray to be cleaned. There are two 3-in. Ross muffled "pop" safety valves on top of the firebox casing which is of the Belpaire type. The cylinder lubrication is effected by means of two vacuum Detroit lubricators. The oil pipes leading to the cylinders and steam chests are secured next the boiler barrel underneath the lagging plates. The centre line of the boiler is pitched 8 ft. 11 in. from the rail level. The smokebox rests in a steel saddle casting containing passages forming connections to which the inside and outside steam and exhaust pipes are jointed. The brake cylinders are situated between the leading and middle coupled axles. The leading coupled wheels have the brake blocks in front. The other blocks pull on to the backs of the wheels. It will be noticed that both the rigid and total wheelbase of 15 ft. 3 in. and 27 ft. 1 in. respectively are comparatively short for a locomotive of the type and size. There are two sandboxes of ample dimensions inside the frames on each side, the sanding gear being worked from a hand lever on the footplate. The engine, although differing so much in appearance from the other locomotives of the Great Southern and Western Railway, is really of very simple and straightforward design. The outside motion at once commended itself to the enginemen owing to its easy accessibility for oiling purposes. During the short period in which the locomotive has been at work it has more than realized the expectations formed of its capabilities. It handles the heaviest loads with ease and it " lifts " express trains through the Cork tunnel and on to Blarney without assistance. In course of time, as engines of this class replace those of older design, the enforced stop at the latter station to cut off the pilot engine will be eliminated from the time-tables of all fast trains. Full dimensions ar e givenn, but not repeated herein.
Figure 16. 4-4-0 Express engine Sir William Goulding No. 341, Great Southern and Western Railway built 1913. Figure 17. 4-6-0 Express engine, No. 400, Great Southern and Western Railway. BUILT 1916.

The lubrication of locomotives. 248-9. 4 diagrams
Vacuum Oil Company lubricants and mechanical sight feed lubricators.,

Locomotive boiler clothing,  250-2. .diagram
Timber painted with asbestos had been used but was replaced by felt and asbestos or silicate cotton (slag wool) and asbestos mattresses. Mentions Fisher's patent and paper by Edwin Kenyon presented to the South Wales Institute of Engineers in 1911.

Oxy-acetylene welding and cutting in locomotive works. 252-4. 2 illustrations, 6 diagrams

The problem of railway signal sighting. 254-5.
LNWR set signals high with sky as background: in contrast the Midland set them low. See also letter from J.H. Cherry

Oil and gas-fired furnaces in locomotive workshops. 255-7. 5 illustrations
Gas fired tyre heating furnaces

North-Eastern Railway Company's ambulance train for France. 257-60. 3 illustrations
Sixteen bogie vahicles

Correspondece. 260

Adjusting weights on locomotive wheels. P.C. Dewhurst
In the article on Adjusting weights on locomotive wheels, page 160, August, 1917, paragraph 8 reads, " ... the idea underlying the equalizing gear is that the engine is supported on three points . . . etc. '. etc." .. This is hardly a correct descnption of the principles governing the application of equalizing and compensating to long and many-wheeled locomotives to-day.
It may be generally said that equalizing and compensating is applied in order to maintain an equal or definite proportion of weight distributed on or over a number of wheels, notwithstanding inequalities and soft places in the track, and also to a great extent to overcome variations in .indi,vidual sprin.gs. Definite proportions of weights are maintained by usmg "proportional" compensating beams.
An instance wIll make this very clear. Take a 4-8·0 engme of which in the first case only the two bogie axles are equalized, all the coupled axles being isolated. If this engine encounters a sharp curve with a rather excessive super-elevation, say, 4 or 5 inches in the outer rail near the centre of the curve in the form of a "hump," the two middle axles of the engine will become very heavily overloaded, especially on the side of the outer rail. This naturally releases weight off the bogie and also the trailing wheels, again, mostly on the side of the outer rail. It will at once be seen that a dangerous condition arises; if moving bogie end first the engine will probably pass all right, but if moving with the trailing coupled axle first it is almost certain to derail.
In the second case, a 4-8-0 engine of similar construction but compensated in two groups, the two bogie axles equalized together and all the coupled wheels compensated, will pass over such a" humped" curve safely, owing to the compensation allowing for the track inequality without much variation from the designed loads on the various axles. .
With regard to paragraph 9, re breaking of springs. It is rare for a spring to break altogether; most cases are of one to four plates giving out.
When this happens on a compensated engme the levers will adjust themselves to the alteration of the camber of the failing spring and keep the weight m approximately correct distribution until the spring can be dealt with. '. With regard to paragraph 10, I have had no ex:perience with portable weighing machines, but it would be mteresting to have the makers' views on the application of such machines to compensated locomotives. ,

Reviews. 260

Great Western Railway Engines, 1917. A. J. L. W. London: The Great Western Railway Magazine.
Any work dealing with current locomotive practice necessarily soon becomes out of date and although the first edition of that under notice was published as recently as 1914, many new locomotives have since been added to the G.W.R. stock. In order to include these and make the publication representa- tive of the stock as at present constituted, a new edition has become necessary and advantage has been taken of this to include several new features; among these may be mentioned a chapter on the standardization of locomotives, a diagram with leading dimensions of The Great Bear and a chart of the nine standard types of loconotives n.ow constructed at Swindon Works. The list of all named engmes on the G.W.R. has been revised up to the time of publication, but we regret that the opportunity has not been taken .to add to its interest by the inclusion of the dates and original numbers of the engines.