The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume  50 (1944)
Key file

Number 617 (15 January 1944)

The locomotive and research. 1.
Editorial inspired by Sir Harold Hartley's brochure Are you research-minded? Queries extent to which research can be extended to steam locomotive, altough mentions Bridge Stress Committee, the superheater and Chapelon's work.

2-4-2+2-4-2 "Beyer-Garratt" for the Leopoldina Railway (metre gauge). 2-3. illustration
Four locomotives supplied by Beyer Peacock for service on the Cantagallo branch which rose 1500 feet to a summit at Coreiro from Portella on the Parahyba River on 1 in 30 gradients with severe curvature. They had 11 x 20in cylinders; 3ft 4in coupled wheels; thermic syphons; 1103ft2 total heating surface; 30.3ft2 grate area and Belpaire fireboxes. They had large ash pans as the engines were intended to burn inferior coal.

The late Mr John George Robinson. 3

Special railway wagons for aircraft. 3
To handle imports of American aircraft received through ports. Aircraft delivered in 40ft crates which required special well wagons.

L.N.E.R. 3
George Dow, former Information Agent became Press Relations Officer. Notes diagrams produced by him for use in carriages on both LNER and LMS railways and his work on a history ofv the Great Central Railway and that he had been railway correspondent for Design for To-day.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 4-6. 2 illustrations
SNER 0-4-2 1859-1866 (table): supplied by Neilson (WN 478-82/1859); Peto, Brassey & Betts WN 48-50/1861-2; Vulcan Foundry (WN 490-3/1862); Neilson (WN 1161-6/1865 and 1202-7/1866). They had outside cylinders 17 x 20in; 5ft 1½ coupled wheels; 1073ft2 total heating surface; 14ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Illustration No. 65 0-4-2WT on p. 36

Ministry of Supply 2-8-0 tender locomotive. 9. illustration
No. 7199 supplied by North British Locomotive Co.

L.N.E.R. 9
New B1 type: Nos. 8303 Impala; 8304 Gazelle and 8305 Oryx.

L.M.S. 9
Villagers of Troutbeck use station waiting room as church on Sundays: their Vicar, Rev. Lawrence Nobbs cycles 3½ miles from Parish Church in Mungrisdale to conduct service. Press release added war freight trains rumbling by and John Peel Country.

The North London Railway. 9-11 4 illustrations (including 3 line drawings: side elevations)
Three 0-6-0 type were purchased from the Northumberland & Durham Coal Co.  No. 28 (with inside frames) had 16 x 20in cylinders; 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 1009ft2 total heating surface; 11.8ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Nos. 29 and 30 (with outside frames) had 15 x 22in cylinders; 4ft 7½in coupled wheels; 693.99ft2 total heating surface; 14.43ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Begins the long story of Adams 4-4-0Ts which had outside cylinders 17 x 24in; 5ft 6in coupled wheels; 1015ft2 total heating surface; 14.72ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressure..

C.M. Doncaster. GWR No. 197. 12-13. 4 illustrations (including 3 line drawings: side elevations)
Beyer Peacock 2-4-0 of 1862 originally supplied to the West Midland Railway for use between Wolverhampton, Worcester, Hereford and Neweport. They had 16 x 20in cylinders, and 6ft coupled wheels. In 1879-81 three were rebuilt as 2-4-0T for express services, but were rebuilt as 2-4-0 tender locomotives in "1882 and 1880". Photograph shows No. 197 in this form at Snow Hill station in Birmingham. Drawings show No. 197 as built and in final form and as 2-4-0T No. 201.

An old Belgian single locomotive. 13. illustration: line drawing: side elevation)
Crampton 0-2-4T used on Brussels to Tubize line of Belgian State Railways in 1841.

Number 618 (15 February 1944)

The braking of trains. 17
Although several brakes are in service throughout the railwayworld, only two are of prime importance: the air and the vacuum. In a more limited sphere the steam brake also operates successfully, but, as a rule, on locomotive stock only. Developments in air and vacuum brake design have been on an extensive scale the first including electro-pneumatic control for the more rapid application of the brake shoes, and the latter the Quick Service Application Valve. The real measure of any braking effort, however, is the adhesion between tyre and rail; when this is at a maximum, the brake effort should be similarly high. .
One factor which reduces the value of the brake power the driver has available is the friction in the rigging. On the majority of vehicles to-day the power is applied via the shaft, pull rods and cross-beams, all of which absorb their quota for operation. Were it possible to connect the source of power direct to the brake shoe and obtain the retardation with a fraction of the loss sustained to-day, more effective braking at a lower cost would be achieved. This is actually being accomplished on air-braked stock, but the latter is now virtually a "foreign" brake for new stock on British railways, and the vacuum unit does not appear to be quite so adaptable. .
Two directions in which layouts for the vacuum brake may be improved so far as their arresting potentiality is concerned, are the increasmg of the brake reservoir capacity, to minimise the fall in vacuum as the piston rises within the cylinder, and the raising of the vacuum to 24 or 28 inches. Pipe layouts also might be simplified with many of the bends eased, and not a few cut out altogether. If all the pivot pins could be provided with smaller clearance this would assist in eliminating much of the idie motion now so evident, and the fitting of self-lubricating bearings at each joint, if not too great a refinement, would result in a higher all-round gear efficiency. .
With the increased speed of pre-war long-distance express trains, the problem of stopping in a safe, or relatively safe, distance becomes acute, and the only solution available to-day is to ensure the maximum. pressure between tyre and shoe throughout the whole braking period, consistent with the adhesion of the tyre on the rail. The latter is recognised as a varying quantity, and the brake power applied should likewise change, a higher proportion of the train weight being thrown into the scales at speed, and gradually reduced as the velocity diminishes and the coefficient rises. A system which employs a special form of train retarder has been in operation on the London Underground Railways for several years past, and appears to function satisfactorily.
While all wheels on coaching stock are normally braked on locomotive stock the coupled wheels only have blocks fitted as a rule, and it would appear desirable to brake all wheels — bogie, coupled and truck, with, of course, all the tender wheels—for stock which is to service high-speed trains. The braking of bogies and trucks is .only carried out normally where the prospective duties of the engine justify this refinement, but for speeds exceeding 80 m.p.h. the fullest measure of brakmg is justified.
Engines of the double-ended type, i.e., 4-6-4, 4-8-4 and similar symmetrical wheel arrangements, are more effective stopping agents when both carrying units are braked, especially so where the coupled wheel 'blocks are pitched at some distance below the axle centre, and it has been found in practice that the application of the brake in such a design exerts a lifting component which raises the weight off the driving wheels and axles. Under such circumstances the adhesive load at the rail is sometimes seriously diminished, the wheels lock and skid, and a greater distance is .covered before the train comes to rest, unless terminal buffers achieve what the brake should have accomplished. The absence of brake power on the bogies .of such an engine is actually a reflection on the design, since the lifting effect of low-pitched brake blocks is purely a matter of calculation. See also letters from C.A. Branson and from Boneham & Turner Ltd.

New York Central 17.
Twenty-five 4-8-2 locomotives known as class L-4a have been delivered by the Lima Locomotive Works. These engines are the same as the class L-3a, illustrated on page 10 of Volume XLIX, but have driving wheels 72 in. dianieter and ·the diameter of the cylinders increased from 25½ in. to 26 in.

Southern Railway. 17
Of the110 standard 2-8-0 locomotives being built by the Southern Railway for the Ministry of War Transport, sixty-six had already been completed .. Lord Leathers recently inspected L.M.S. No. 8681 at Charing Cross Station

North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. 17
Three new directors had joined the board of the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. W. D. Lorimer, son of Mr. William Lorimer, chairman and managing director of the company; J. B. Mavor, nephew of the late Sam Mavor , is a director of Mavor & Coulson, Ltd., and Sir Frederick Stewart, chairman of Thermotank, Ltd., and of Kelvin, Bottomley & Baird, Ltd. For some time past the North British Loco. Works.production capacity has been engaged on normal and special work, including the 2-8-0 and 2-10-0 austerity locomotives.

50 years' progress in design. 18-19.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 20-1. diagram (side elevation)

L.N.E.R. re-railing exercise under gas conditions at Picketts Lock. 21. illustration
J15 No. 7857 partially derailed with train of wagons derailed and contaminated with mustard gas.

F.C. Hambleton. The first locomotive to be fitted  with Joy's valve gear. 22. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0 No. 2365 exhibited at Barrow in summer 1880 for Institution of Civil Engineers meeting. The locomotive also had a drumhead smokebox and a ¾in thick copper plate tubeplate. The firehole and ashpan were flanged. The hollow ashpan was arranged so that water from the firebox sides flowed across it.  No. 930 (also illustrated) was one of the main batch of Cauliflower 0-6-0s which did not feature the ashpan novelties.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 23-5. 6 tables

Edward H. Livesay. Across Canada in the cab. 25-8. illustration
Toronto to Winnipeg by Canadian Pacific Railroad on the footplate of the Hudson type locomotives hauling the Dominion. The start from Toronto involved the use of the booster. The cabs were luxurious and had seats for three.

Post-War design. 29
Problems identified included hammer blow, flange wear, untreated water and boiler inefficiency

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 29-31. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Holmes replaced Drummond but further Drummond types were built with relatively minor modifications: thus there were further Drummond 4-6-0Ts and 17in 0-6-0s, but with Stirling-type cabs and his own design of safety valves in place of the Ramsbottom-type. In 1884 Cowlairs built his first 4-4-0 design with 6ft 6in coupled wheels and 17in cylinders: they were numbered 574-9 and had no names. The Stroudley yellow was replaced by dark brown.  The 592 class 4-4-0s were introduced to replace the Paton Beyer Peacock 2-2-2s on the Edinburgh to Glasgow expresses. They had 18 x 24in cylinders and were built in 1886/7 and numbered 592-603. Two batches of an 0-4-4T were built: six (Nos. 586-91) in 1886 and six (Nos. 90-5) in 1888. The Holmes 18in 0-6-0 was constructed between 1888 and 1900. This class became numerically the largest ever owned by the North British. They had 5ft. 0in. wheels and 18in. x 26in. cylinders, and were somewhat larger than the Drummond 18in. engines. Tlhe Holmes engines were used throughout the system as the standard heavy goods locomotive, many being fitted with the Westinghouse brake, and proving themselves equally useful, on heavy excursion trains. One hundred and sixty-eight were built between 1888 and 1900. Fifteen, Nos. 663-677, came from Neilson in 1891, fifteen, Nos. 678-692 from Sharp, Stewart in 1892 and the remainder from Cowlairs.

L.M.S.R. 31
Mr. P.J. Fisher, Assistant District Controller at Chaddesden before the war, and now Lieut.-Colonel in the Royal Engineers, has been appointed Assistant Director of Transportation in Italy. Mr. Fisher has had a wide experience of rail transportation on the L.M.S.
187 L.M.S. men had earned decorations or awards since war began. Fifty-four of these were won in air attacks while on railway duty on the L.M.S., ninety- one by staff in the Forces and thirty-five for meritorious 'railway service. The decorations include a D.S.O., a Croix de Guerre, eight George Medals, forty-six B.E.M.s, nine D.F.C.s and ten Military Medals.

Correspondence. 31

Springs, a miscellany. C. F. Dendy Marshall.
Had read the second volume of the late T. H. Sanders' Springs, a Miscellany with very great interest. It is a wonderful book. He has said very kind things about my books, and I am duly grateful, but, on page 951, there is a statement intended to give my views on the subject of the early history of the bogie, which, at all events, does not represent them now. It is as follows: "On the authority of Dendy Marshall, the first bogie which was fitted to any locomotive was designed by ... John Jervis." In Two Essays I wrote practically those words, but they were preceded by these: "Apart from the possibility of Chapman having put his invention into practice in 1813." I afterwards discovered the drawings of Chapman's chain engine in the Derby Museum, and gave reproductions of them in Early British Locomotives, from which Sanders took his own illustrations on page 949. Considering that we know the chain engine was built, and that the drawings agree with those in his Patent Specification, there can now be no doubt that Chapman was the first man to put a bogie on a locomotive. It would still be true to say that the first bogie which was fitted to a successful locomotive was designed by Jervis.

Locomotive valve gears. Harold A. Akroyd
Re January issue reference to locomotives built by this company (Yorkshire Engine Co., Ltd.). Fuller particulars of the valve gears fitted to those for the Hull and Barnsley Railway 0-6-0 engines Nos. 70 to 78 and 91 to 96, and 0-6-0 side tank engines No. 111 to 116 had Stephenson link motion with the reversing shaft underneath. 0-8-0 engines Nos .117 to 131 were fitted with Allan straight link motion. and five later 0-6-0 engines, Nos. 157 to 161, also had Allan motion which differed slightly in dimensions from the 0-8-0. The valve gear on the two locomotives built for the Maryport and Carlisle Railway, already referred to in Montague Smith's letter, was exactly duplicate of these five.

Manx Northern Railway. Ian MacNab.
Re cover page xxix of The Locomotive Magazine for November, 1919, with an advertisement by the British Commercial Lorry Engineering Co., of Manchester, offering for sale a 3 ft. gauge locomotive built by Sharp, Stewart & Co., with cylinders 11 in x 18 in. stroke; an illustration of the engine concerned appears with the announcement. Although the illustration is not too clear in detail, the engine is in all probability No. 1 Ramsey of the late Manx Northern Railway. This engine was sold out of service in 1918 by its then owners, the Isle of Man Railway, but records at Douglas do not indicate what actually became the fate of this locomotive. I am anxious to obtain details of the final history of this Manx Northern Railway locomotive, and if any of your readers can give further information, I should be greatly obliged.

Cowlairs Commentary. C. Hamilton Ellis..
In common, I am sure, with many other readers, I am greatly enjoying "Cowlairs Commentary." I would like, however, to point out that the drawing of the Helensburgh tank engine No. 1391, previously 495, does not show her quite accurately in the aspect she bore in 1921. All three of' these beautiful locomotives were rebuilt with new boilers in 1905, many years before they were given duplicate numbers in the thirteen hundreds, but your contributor's otherwise admirable sketch shows the new number in conjunction with the old Drummond boiler. The latter was always recognisable at once by the spacing of the safety-valves. Between the old seatings there was space for the spring of the original Ramsbottom fitting, while in the Holmes and Reid boilers the lock-up .valves were close together. The 1905 boilers on the three Helensburgh tanks had 150 psi with a slight reduction in the grate area and the tube heating surface. Photographs of these engines are rare and I have never seen a photograph of one on a train. I enclose, however, a picture of mine showing No. 1390 (originally No. 494 Craigendoran) as she appeared in the last days of the North British Railway. I painted. the picture a few years ago and for the sake of old associations depicted her with a Helensburgh train, though this would have been unusual towards the end. One, I believe, finished up at Aberfoyle and another at St. Andrews.

Reviews. 31

British Railways in Peace and War.
New facts about the railways were revealed in latest publication. In addition to a comprehensive survey of facts, a special chapter gives a behind-the-scenes account of the big task of moving an army, and a double-page coloured plate provides a visual impression of the vast number of trains needed to haul a force of the size of that which went to North Africa. A review of the "Progress Between the Wars." shows that cheap fare journeys more than doubled, the figures in 1923 being 209,600,000 and, in 1938, 492,400,000. Other facts given show that the same number of miles were run in 1923 as in 1938, but with 4,300 less locomotives; between 1923 and 1938, 350 new stations and 40 new goods depots were provided; £7,000,000 was spent on new steamships, and a £40,000,000 programme for London was commenced. The "Total War Effort" of the railways reveals that the movement of troops to "invasion" stations required one railway to run 116 special trains spread over twenty-seven days; the first exports to Russia involved one railway running 132 special trains between August and November, 194 I. Another section of this booklet gives an account of the war effort of railway steamships and marine staffs. Ninety- two railway vessels have been chartered by the Government for service as, hospital carriers, transports, assault ships, minelayers and sweepers, ammunition carriers, ack-ack ships and rescue ships sailing with Atlantic convoys. The last section of the book gives an indication of the post-war services which are being planned.

Testing locomotive slide valves: ports and pistons. E.J. Nutty.
Thirty-two page booklet compiled with the assistance of Engineman W.H. Nutty, explaining the relative positions of cranks, coupling rods, eccentrics, pistons and valves, and glVlllg useful information for locating blows or defects in the steam chest or cylinders. The diagrams are clear and the text is neatly arranged.

Locomotives .of the Metropolitan Railway, 1863-1943. P. Densham. . 20pp.,
A list of all the steam and electric locomotives that have worked on this railway, together with dimensions and rough sketches of t.heir outlines, A useful record of the builders dates and ultimate disposal of the engines of a line that dunng eighty years had many interesting designs of tank locomotives, but no tender engines.

A.B.C. of L.M.S. locomotives. Ian Allan and A. B. MacLeod; 52 pp. and cover. The A..B.C. of·L.N.E.R. locomotives, Ian Allan; 64 pp. and cover.
The authors have already published lists of the locomotives of the Southern and G.W. systems and the two new booklets deal with the L.M.S. and L.N.E., so that the series now covers the locomotive studs of all four British groups. The booklets have been officially corrected and are well illustrated by official photographs. The first-mentioned contains dimensional diagrams of the standard classes, whilst the L.N.E. book has a full table of dimensions of all types. A list of running sheds and a few other interesting notes complete two well arranged and produced reference books.

Number 619 (15 March 1944)

The future of transport. 33-4
Major-General Gilbert Szlumper paper presented to the Engineeering Industries Association in which he outlined three future strategies: the earlier one of unlimited competition between road and rail, government limited competition and nationalization: the last not being favoured

Conversion of L.N.E.R. "04" class locomotive. 34-5. 2 illustrations.
Thompson conversion of Great Central O4 type to O1 using B1 cylinders and valve gear and boiler

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 35-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
SNER 0-4-2T and 2-2-2 Vulcan Foundry delivered four Crewe-type 2-2-2 designed by Yarrow. These had 7ft 1½ in driving wheels, 16 x 22in cylinders, 1301.75ft2 total heating surface, 12.75 grate area and 120 psi bouiler pressure. A further locomotive was constructed at Arbroath but with 16½ x 20in cylinders and 7ft 0½ driving wheels. Four more were ordered from Vulcan Foundry, but the SNER had been absorbed by the Caledonian before they were delivered In 1870 the Arbroath locomotive was overhauled at Perth and the Yarrow firebox was replaced and standard 22in stroke cylinders were fitted. Table gives rebuilding, renumbering and withdrawal date. Figures: SNER 0-4-0t No. 32 (line drawing); 0-4-2WT No. 65; 2-2-2 No. 461 and CR 2-2-2 No. 316 as rebuilt (ex SNER No. 27).
.

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 38-41. illustration, 4 diagrams.
The leading dimensions of the Star and Claughton classes are compared: the Claughtons had a higher superheat, but in other respects were smaller. On 2 and 4 November 1913 dynamometer car tests were performed between Euston and Crewe and between Crewe and Carlisle on No. 1154 Ralph Brocklebank hauling 435 tons to Crewe and 360 tons thereafter. The Engineer reported the results on 6 February 1914. 1500 horsepower was attained on Grayrigg bank and indicator readings taken on passing Tebay gave 1669 ihp.

Air attacks. 41.
"It can now be revealed" that the railways had experience over 10,000 incidents. A 3½ mile stretch of line near Coventry received forty high explosive bombs in one night.

Union Pacific R.R. 41
Five 4-8-8-4; ten 4-8-4 and twenty 4-6-6-4 locomotives had beeen ordered from the American Locomotive Company.

L.N.E.R. 41
J.S. Jones who had been engaged on special duties in the chief mechanical engineer's department, had been appointed assistant locomotive running superintendent Western Section, Southern Area. E.S. Bradley, district engineer Hull had been appointed district engineer York.

The North London Railway. 42-4. illustration, 2 tables
Adams resigned in 1873 and was replaced by J.C. Park as Locomotive Superintendent. He continued to build the 4-4-0T locomotives with slight modifications, notably the addition of cabs and the removal of the number and coppper cap to the chimneys. Tables list the running numbers, Bow Works numbers and rebuilding numbers with dates. Figurec 27 shows No. 48 at Alexandra Palace.

Review. 44

The evolution of railways, 2nd ed. Charles E. Lee.
Traces history back much further than might be expected.

C.M. Doncaster. Old banking engine, London and Croydon Railway. 44. illustration
G & J Rennie 0-4-2 locomotive of 1838/9.

Swiss Federal Railways. 44
Two electric locomotives were under construction for the Bern-Lotschberg-Simplon line. They had four driving axles and were intended for hauling express trains

Rapid repair of locomotives. 45; 46. 4 illustrations
One of photographs shows A8 No. 2162 being overhauled: main accent is on rapid stripping down with tanks of caustic soda being used to clean the motion and high pressure water being used to clean the frames, etc.

General Montgomery meets railway workers. 45

L.N.E.R. 45

Canadian National Railways. 45

F.C. Hambleton. The first 4-2-2 express loco. 47. 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Dean built Wigmore Castle as a 2-2-2 which broke its leading axle in Box Tunnel on 16 Septdember 1893 and led to it being rebuilt with a leading bogie: the remainder of the class was similarly rebuilt.

Obituary. 47.
Harold Hume Brindley, Fellow of St. John's College Cambridge and Keeper of the War Transport Collection,Cambridge Musuem of Archaeology and Ethnology. Also A.C. Stamer.

Wagons for American railways. 47
4000 hopper wagons under construction using timber for floors and sides  to save weight.

Correspondence. 48

Memories of Havre and Rouen. John Poole.
Re Norman Duncan's reminiscences of Rouen of exceptional interest, as writer was, at the time or which he writes, stationed at St. Etienne-du-Rouvray, the C.M.E. Base Workshops. I only made one visit to Petit Quevilly (then commanded by, if I remember correctly, a Capt. Lyddon, of the Hull & Barnsley) this being on the occasion of trouble with the brake ejector of a G.W.R. 43XX class recently turned out from wreck repairs. I do not remember the well tanks still bearing "Ouest" plates at Quevilly, and was under the impression that, except for one preserved at. the works at Sotteville, and another stationed at Pon de I' Arch on a "push and pull" service, this class was extinct.
There was a Pacific design still earlier than the 231,001 class—two engines of this type were turned out by the old Ouest—characterised by super-smokeboxes and a peculiar form of conjugated valve-gear. I could never discover what happened to these two; possibly as relative failures they were decently interred.
The engines seen by Mr. Duncan at the Gare d'Orleans were probably not ex-Ouest. but ex-Etat. One with a form of Corliss valve-gear used to work a mid-day train past Sotteville. Outside cylinder passenger engines were rare on the Ouest after the Buddicorn period.

Joseph Hamilton Beattie. C. Hamilton Ellis
By way of supplement to my article on Joseph Beattie, I enclose a copy of a picture recording my impression of Nine Elms running shed in the early 'sixties [1860s], showing three different types of Beattie locomotive: Havelock, built 1858, one of the second series of Beattie single expresses; Medusa, a 5 ft. goods built in 1863, with a single jet-condenser feedwater heater, and Ajax (1855), one of the double-framed passenger engines which formed Beattie's first design for the London &. South-Western Railway, and as running with another form of condenser. In the original picture, the first-named is painted chocolate, lined out in red, black and white; the second similar, but without the red lines, and the third Iridian red with black bands, as used up to the end of the 'fifties. On the extreme right I have endeavoured to reconstruct their designer from the old por- trait still at Nine Elms. He is conducting a distinguished visitor round the shed. Behind is the old roundhouse and the drawing office resplendent in its new yellow brick. Bereft of its tower, smothered in dirt and with its windows blown in, this building has survived everything else in the picture.

North London No. "51" class. H.R. Norman.
Can any reader state definitely if the cylinders were enlarged to 17½ in. and coupled wheels to 5 ft. 11 in. in the 1883 to 1890 rebuilding, or if these enlarged dimensions apply only to the three engines rebuilt between 1902 and I907? My personal opinion is that Nos. 103, 114 and 117 only were so treated, as the 17½ in. cylinder appears to have been introduced by Park, and the first new engine to have such cylinders was No. 81, built in 1896. Furthermore, No. 109, which was rebuilt at Crewe and not at Bow, seems to have retained 17 in. cylinders to the end.

The North London Railway. C. W. Williams.
Regarding the 4-4-0 tank engines introduced by Mr. Adams in 1868 and described in the January issue according to official information, Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 25 and 42 were rebuilt and not broken up at the dates shown. No. I was renumbered 125 in November 1906, when It was replaced by a new engine of similar. type. Details of the six engines noted above-all of which survived into L.M.S. service-are as set out below:

N.L.R

Date

L.N.W.

L.M.S

No.

Built

No.

No.

Withdrawn

1

4/70

2872

6443

6/25

5

9/70

2804

6444

6/28

6

11/70

2805

6445

6/29

7

9/71

2806

6449

6/29

25

4/69

2819

6442

7/26

42

8/74

2835

6456

6/28

It will be noted that these engines fit in, as far as the L.M.S. numbering is concerned, with those mentioned in the January article; also that the series became .L.M.S. Nos. 6439 to 6458, inclusive, in the same order in which the engines were built.

Number 620 (15 April 1944)

Steam or diesel. 49.
The apparently successful .operation of the Diesel engille in road service has led many engineers to anticipate that equally good results will be achieved ill the held of rail transport. Whether such an assumption is justified we are not prepared to say, but a comparison of the two forms of motive power ill relation to the spheres of servlce available to each, together with a brief review of the success already achieved by diesel rail units, may give a pointer to the possjhiljties in the post- war world. The chief gains claimed for the Diesel are lower cost of fuel consumption, and increased availability. As the engine unit usually runs but a fraction of the time dunng which the machine is in actual service; the first claim must be admitted so long as the relative costs of the two fuels is favourable to the Diesel. Should circumstances operate adversely to the price of fuel oil. and favourably to the cost of locomotive coal, it is not difficult to imagine steam becoming the cheaper motive power. So far as increased availability is concerned, the I.C. engine also gains a point here over most steal? locomotives burning coal fuel, but whether this is likely to be a permanent handicap against the steamer depends on present and future develop- ments. The operation of rail transport is capable. of resolution into several clearly defined fields:
(1) Long-distance passenger services.
(2) Local passenger services.
(3) Long-distance goods and heavy mineral traffic.
(4) Short-distance goods traffic.
(5) Shunting operations.
In the first-named, many streamlined light- weight Diesel trains are operating in the U.S.A. with a fair measure of success, but at a high initial outlay and a permanent disability of no mean importance, viz.: a lack of flexibility in the handling of traffic during peak hours. These train sets obviously accommodate only a limited number of passengers, and seats are frequently fully booked in advance. With a steam-hauled train, additional coaches may be provided, and the same locomotive will usually handle the heavier train.
Local passenger transport, however, should provide an excellent held in which the Diesel car, or twin-car, may operate, and the G.W.R. is using a considerable number of these to the mutual benefit of the public and the railway company. Many branch lines, at present dosed down, might afford excellent opportunities of proving the benefits of this form of traction in competition with road traffic' most travellers prefer the comfort and rela- tive steadiness of the rail vehicle, not to mention safety, as compared with the aver.age road c.ar, and a carefully prepared schedule, with attractive cars operating at reasonably high speeds dunng the busy hours, would seem to be a worthwhile expert- ment.
Goods traffic whether main line or local, seems to remain the peculiar province still of the steam engine, at any rate until such time as the heavy Diesel engine becomes a more dependable proposition for rail service than it has so far proved. A fundamental disadvantage under which this unit suffers is the big drop in tractive power as the rail speed rises; this alone gives a considerable advant- age to the steam engine, particularly on express goods traffic such as the Green Arrow handled in pre-war years.
In shunting yards the Diesel—of all powers up to approximately 500 b.h.p.—has done excellent work, and if properly handled there seems to be no reason why this held should not become the exclusive province of the Diesel locomotive. Some few years ago the Baldwin Locomotive Company designed and built an automatically oil-fired switching locomotive as a reply to the Diesel shunter, but the latter has done, and is doing, such good work in this direction that the reversal to steam is unlikely, unless the cost of repairs and maintenance of the Diesel proves unduly high.
A particularly serious drawback to any of the Diesel engine units, especially when equipped with electrical transmission, is the prime cost, and unless this can be reduced appreciably, its future does not seem to be particularly promising except in the two fields indicated. True, the increased service rendered per day of twenty-four hours justifies a somewhat higher capital cost, but hardly three times the price of the corresponding steamer, which was the average pre-war ratio.
From the foregoing, it would appear that the Diesel is too greatly handicapped at present in the haulage of ,goods traffic, as well as for long- distance passenger trains, excepting the limited capacity lightweight streamlined set with power house built in. For the handling of existing passenger coach stock the steam engine still holds the field, though in the matter of branch line traffic the Diesel car is clearly justified, as also is the Diesel locomotive for shunting operations,

Personal. 49.
Sir Wm. Stanier, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He is the second locomotive engineer to be made a Fellow of the Royal Society, the first being Robert Stephenson. -

Examination of locootives during Black-out. 50-1. illustration, diagram
LNER Light Tunnel constructed of corrrugated iron

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 51-
Continued from page 31. Since these articles are intended to be a commentary of Cowlairs affairs rather than a comprehensive history of the North British locomotives, it is not proposed to consider in detail the subsequent classes built by Holmes. The reason for this is not only that full particulars have often been given of all the engines concerned, but also that Cowlairs for some years became almost an appendage of St. Rollox, and there is more than a suspicion that two of the North British designs were directly based upon those of the Caledonian. At the end of 1890 McIntosh took over at St. Rollox and instilled new life into the Drummond tradition there, which was already virile enough in all conscience. Cowlairs until 1906 remained one step behind,producing a counterpart to each St. Rollox type just in time for Mclritosh to go one better.
In 1890 Holmes standardised on the 6ft. 6in. 4-4-0 with 18in. cylinders for main line work, twenty-four examples being built between 1890 and 1895 at Cowlairs, namely Nos. 36, 37, 211-218, 262, 293, 312, 404 and 633-642. So far so good. They were admirable engines of the accepted North British type, and they put in a great deal of useful work. For the new West Highland line he introduced a modified design with 5ft. 7in. coupled wheels, of which twenty-four were also built at Cowlairs, the first coming out in 1892, two years before the line was ready for traffic. These were Nos. 55, 227, 231, 232, 341-346, 394, 395 and 693-704.
McIntosh was also busy on the 6ft. 6in. 4-4-0, but with a difference. His machines, the first Dunalastairs, had 18½ in. cylinders and larger boilers than had ever previously been used on this type of locomotive. With their ample stearning capacity they were an immediate success, and the North British engines were completely outclassed. Cowlairs decided that nothing could compare with a Dunalastair but another "Dunalastair", and as a result the North British 729 class of 4-4-0 with 18¼-in. cylinders appeared, engines almost identical to those of the Caledoman. Eighteen of these were built in 1898 and 1899, namely Nos. 729-740 and 765-770. In appearance they followed the usual Holmes standard, having the Stirlinz cab and details according to Cowlairs, but the sandboxes were below the running plate instead of incorporated in the leading splasher as in earlier engines.
Unfortunately in the game of follow-my-leader the initiative is, of necessity, unequally divided, and McIntosh's reply was a further series of Dunalastairs, this time with 19 in. cylinders, which' left the Cowlairs people relatively where they had been before. In 1903 the North British responded with the 317 class, twelve 19 in. engines with the novelty, for Cowlairs, of piston valves. These machines, Nos. 317-328, were glven a new type of cab, angular in line, with a slightly cambered roof and one side window on either side. This cab became the standard for the company thereafter. Nevertheless alterations in appearance do not necessarily make a locomotive the more suocessful, and the 317 class, although possibly as good as, was never better than the comparable Caledonian engines from which they were expected to wrest the traffic on competitive routes. This type was produced at a time when Holmes was on a bed of sickness, and William Paton Reid, the Outdoor Locomotive Superintendent was virtually in oharge. The new type of cab was decided upon because of Reid's desire to give the enginemen better protection from the weather than the Stirling design provided.
The North British had built no six-coupled tank engines since the last of the Drummond Terriers came out in 1878. The time having come when a more modern machine was required, in 1901 Holmes produced an enlarged version of the Drummond engines. In the new type the 4ft. 6 in. wheels were retained, but 17 in. x 26 in. cylinders were used. and, of course, considerably larger boilers. These engines were contract-built, twenty, Nos. 795-814 coming from Neilson, and twenty, Nos. 815-834 from Sharp, Stewart. These engines were used for shunting and short distance goods traffic, while several replaced the Wheatley tanks on the station pilot duties at the Waverley, where they are still to be found.
Reid, when deputising for Holrnes prepared a design of small six-coupled shunting tank in which, for reasons of accessibility, the cylinders were placed outside. These light shunters had 3ft. 6in. wheels and 15in. x 22in. cylinders, and were for use in dock areas and industrial districts where there were sharp curves and weight restrictions. In view of. the nature of the work they were given dumb buffers. None of the engines came out until 1904. when Reid had succeeded Holmes, but it may be said that thirty-five were built at Cowlairs between 1904 and 1919. Their numbers were 66, 87,114,116-119,121,130,132, 152, 233-238, 271, 277, 279, 288-290 and 836-847.
During Holmes' term of office a few 0-4-0 pugs by outside contractors were received by the North British as a result of working agreements. In 1889 a Barclay machine with 3ft. 6in. wheels and 14in. x 22in. cylinders was taken over and numbered 611. It had been built in 1884. At the same time a Grant, Ritchie example, built in 1887 and similar in dimensions, was also acquired. This became No. 612. These came horn Methil Dock. Another engine was received from the Gartness Coal & Iron Co. at about the same time, but was almost immediately replaced. This was No. 610, and was also of the pug design. In 1901 a further Barclay engine of diminutive size with 2ft. 11in. wheels and 13in. x 20in. cylinders became North British property and was numbered 835.
Holmes' rebuilding programme, except in the case of one engine, followed strictly the lines laid down by Drummond. For example the remain- ing Edinburgh and Glasgow engines of the later main line types, when these had not already been dealt with by Drummond, were brought up to modern standards. In addition the  382 class of 2-4-0 and the majority of the 15½in. 0-6-0 locomotives of the North British were also rebuilt. The double-framed St. Margarets 0-6-0 engines' with the 4ft. 6 in. and 5 ft. Oin. wheels were taken in hand. Johnson's double-framed 0-4-2 No. 262 was rebuilt as a saddle tank. For some reason the 341 class of 2-4-0 was not rebuilt when the very similar 382 series were modernised, and the former were replaced when the original boilers wore out. They were somewhat smaller machines than the 382 class.

South African Railways. 52
Orders for 1,000 large wagons have been placed with a firm in the Union.

L.N.E.R. 52
With a view to providing stronger track at some places on their system, flat-bottom rails had been laid.

The late MR. R. E. L. Maunsell, C.B.E.  52
Death of Mr. Richard Edward Lloyd Maunsell, C.B.E., who was, until his retirement in 1937, chief mechanical engineer of the Southern Railway. Maunsell started his engineering career in 1888 as a pupil under H. A. Ivatt at the G.S. & W.R. works, Inchicore. In 1891 he joined the former Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway at Horwich and after serving as a pupil there became locomotive foreman at Blackpool. In 1894 he went to India as assistant locomotive superintendent of the East Indian Railway, and remained for two years. In 1896 he returned to Inchicore and held the post of works manager there until he succeeded R. Coey as locomotive engineer in 1911.
Maunsell was appointed chief mechanical engineer of the former South Easten & Chatham Railway in 1913, and after the grouping became chief mechanical engineer of the Southern Railway. He was President ,of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in 1918 and served as a member of the Council of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He was also a past member of the Council of the Institute of Transport.

Southern Railway.  52
The first of ten of a new design of four-wheeled passenger luggage vans had been put into service. A number of interesting features, including reinforced plastic panelling, had been introduced. The bodies were built of electrically-welded channel sections on frames of channel section steel.

Kitson & Co. , Ltd  52
Owing to the heavy demands for locomotives, the Locomotive Manufacturers' Association have temporarily suspended the 1938 agreement with Kitson & Co. to discontinue building locomotives.

"Shadow" trains for invasion armies. 52
A complete "shadow" service of freight trains which can be put on the line in a matter of hours has been built up by British railways in collaboration with the Fighting Services. Material from ordnance depots and stores, dispersed throughout the country, may be required at any of many ports. The total probable journeys, running into thousands, have all been classified, routed and timed, any of which can be put into operation at short notice. Each train in the "shadow" service has a code number which indicates to the railway operating experts that "ABC 4217',' for instance, means that a locomotive and forty trucks must be at Depot "A" to load up and be ready to leave at 15.00 hours on a given day and go, by a prescribed route, arriving at 06.00 hours the next morning.

L.M.S. 52
Instead of a number of platelayers removing worn points and crossings and replacing them with new, worn rails are now welded and resurfaced by an expert welder while the rail is in its original position, in the intervals between the passage of trains.

H.F. Hilton. "The White Horse of Kent". 53-5. diagram (side elevation)
Correspondence between the Croydon & Dover Railway and Robert Stephenson & Co. through E.F. Starbuck and E.J. or E.I. Cook. W. Pulford was the Secretary of the Dover Railway. The White Horse of Kent was shipped on the Ann which was lost off Whitby: its WN was 399. A replacement WN 435 may have been constructed by Nasmyth & Co.: it was delivered on 5 September 1844.  

Propeller railcars. 56-7. 2 diagrams including side elevation), plan
Mentions the Bennie railplane, the Rail Zepplin which achieved 145 mile/h between Hamburg and Berlin and more recent work in France and the Netherlands

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 57-9. illustration, map

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 60-1. illustration, 2 diagrams
No. 2221 Sir Francis Dent in 1924 between Hellifield and Aisgill with 350 tons and No. 6001 in 1930 between Leeds and Hellifield where a pilot engine was added

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 62-3
Rates of pay in Great Britain including London allowance and mileage payments and lodging allowances, etc.

Correspondence. 65

The braking of trains. C.A. Branston.
As none of your readers appear to have gone in on the matters raised in vour editorial on Brakes, I hope you will permit me to make one or two remarks on the subject.
Your placid acceptance of the present-day use of the steam brake is, frankly, disappointing. For locomotive brakes steam has long ago been replaced by air except in this country, where in certain cases a steam brake is employed in conjunction with the atmospheric brake on the train. This is presumably in order to avoid the difficulty of suitably locating the large number of bulky vacuum brake cylinders which the present-day weight of the locomotive demands; thus, on the London & North Eastern Railway, a locomotive weighing 165 tons is equipped with six 21 in. vacuum brake cylinders.
It is obvious that with such an arrangement the synchronisation of the initiation of an application and of the pressure rise in the brake cylinders on locomotive and train respectively must be very imperfect, as the build-up of pressure in the steam brake cylinders is erratic both in incidence and in degree, due to the initial condensation; to suggest that such irregularities can be smoothed out by a suitable design of brake valve is to envisage a mechanism of quite unheard-of precision and delicacy of control. Some experiments carried out on the Nord Railway in France showed that with a boiler nressure of 114 psi. it required I2 seconds to raise the pressure in the brake cylinders to l100 psi; when the cylinders were warm, i.e., immediately after a preceding application, the time was 4.2 seconds. There can be but little doubt that accidents, such as that at Oakley Junction in I938, have, to a considerable extent, been due to insufficient braking as a result of this feature of the peculiar brake equipment employed. As a matter of possible interest, I may perhaps add that, to actuate a train brake, steam has been tried seriously only once, as far as I know; this was Goodale's patent on the Chicago & Canada Southern R.R. about 1872; the experiment failed signallv.
To increase the efficiency of the brake you suggest reducing the frictional losses by simplifying the foundation brake gear. This expedient was actually employed in two of the brakes which participated in the Newark brake trials in 1875. in. the Clark hydraulic brake one brake cylinder was provided for each braked axle, while the Barker hydraulic brake comprised a separate brake cylinder for each braked wheel; both these equipments provided what amounts to a clasp brake. The brake or rocker shaft to which you allude is, of course, a feature peculiar to the normal foundation brake gear of the atmospheric brake only. It should be emphasised, however, that a simplification of the connections, however effected, is desirable, not so much on account of the consequent reduction of the frictional losses, but as lowering the amount of lost motion, which in a fluid pressure brake is the worst dissipator of brake power, as it increases the piston travel and thus lowers the final pressure of the air or degree of vacuum (as the case may be) in the brake cylinders. As an historical detail I may add that the use of locomotive truck brakes originated in the U.S.A. on the Old Colony R.R. about 1890, and has been general practice ever since.
To adjust the actual retardation of the brake in keeping with the adhesion of the wheels is a problem to which George Westinghouse found an ingenious solution in the course of the experiments carried out by Capt. (later Sir) Douglas Galton and himself on the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway in 1878-9. The air pressure in the brake cylinder is reduced as the coefficient of friction between shoe and tyre rises with the falling speed. However, as the adhesion between wheel and rail and the coefficient of friction between shoe and tyre are dependent on other considerations as well (e.g., atmospheric conditions, duration of application, etc.) Westinghouse considered that in service use the advantages derived from this torque- controlled brake cylinder pressure relief valve did not justify the necessary complications; the device appears to have been used for the last time to control the driver brakes on the locomotive which hauled the Westinghouse trial train in the second Burlington brake trials in 1887.
The device was, however, definitely revived in 1923 by Knorr in Germany for use with the Kunze-Knorr brake, type Kksbr, and eight years later with the Hildebrand-Knorr brake, type Hiksbr. In the latest German brake equipment for high-speed trains, type Hikssbr, a more elaborate arrangement has been adopted, comprising i.e., a centrifugal governor located on the end of the car axles. In this case, however, the pressure reduction in the brake cylinder is not effected gradually as the speed drops, but abruptly the moment the speed falls below the rate of 31 m.p.h., the braking ratio. being thereby reduced from 200 per cent. to 75 per cent. of the empty weight of the vehicle. Though irrelevant to ,the present point, it may be of interest to note that this particular brake equipment comprises yet another device originally the subject of a Westinghouse patent, viz., the remarkable accelerator with which the transmission of an application along the major portion of the length of the train is effected by means of wires, in which way the amazing rate of propagation of 3,000 ft. per sec. has been attained in a complete train.
Your editorial clearly reflects the difficulties which await or are even now already troubling brake engineers in Britain with a brake which would appear to have reached the highest development of which it is capable. We are, in fact, placed squarely before the question: Was the choice wise when in 1923 the atmospheric brake was selected as the common standard equipment for all steam trains of this country? At that time this brake was already fitted to approximately 2/3 of the power-braked rolling stock of the roads involved, so that, viewed from the standpoint of immediate outlay, the decision is intelligible. In order to judge of the general soundness of such a choice it is necessary, however, to consider other circumstances, existing or anticipated, when this step was taken.

British Railways. 64
A survey taken towards the end of last year revealed that over the busiest section of double-track line 284 trains passed in 24 hours. These included 120 passenger trains, 12 parcels trains and 144 freight trains composed of a total of 7,200 wagons.

The braking of trains.  Boneham & Turner, Ltd.  64
Re Braking of Trains: we have introduced a range of hardened and ground pins and bushes which reduce much of the idle brake movement which you mention. Due to the hardened surfaces, very little wear takes place, and the efficiency of the brakes is maintained over much longer periods. At the moment, these pins normally have a clearance of 1/32nd in. but if positive means of lubrication could be used together with methods for keeping out foreign matter, etc., this clearance could be considerably reduced.

Reviews. 64

Descriptive diagrams of the locomotive, including diesel rail cars. A.F. Hunt.
Illustrating the different valves and how they take steam from the boiler. Other sketches (not to scale) include Jumper blast-pipe, Swindon superheater, Cylinder lubrication, Slide valves, Piston valves, Stephenson and Walschaerts valve gears, Exhaust injector, Vacuum brake pump and Retaining valve. The Diesel Railcar Notes refer to the G.W.R. units supplied by the Associated Equipment Co.: Oswestry Mutual Improvementt class. Landscape format

The Railway Handbook, 1943-1944. Railway Publishing Co., Ltd.
Many of the sections in this useful handbook have been revised. New sections relate to the Railway Companies' Association, Railways and the War, and Express Traffic in North America.

Electrical Year Book, 1944. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
New matter has been added on induction motors, commutators, frequency changers for high-speed drives, and in the Measurement and Testing Section there is new matter on D.C. and A.C. potentiometers.

Mechanical World Year Book, 1944. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
This useful volume has been revised to keep it up to date. Workshop and factory processes, detailed particulars of the newer materials and present-day data are presented in a readily available form

G.E.R. locomotives, by C. Langley Aldrich. 55 pp.
A well-illustrated booklet in which is gathered together interesting details of all the locomotive types that existed on the old Great Eastern Railway when that company lost its separate identity in 1923, together with particulars of the changes that have taken place since then.

Locomotives of the Taff Vale Railway,  M. C. V. Allchin. , 14 pages,
A complete. list of the Taff Vale locomotive stock at the grouping, together with builders' dates and the numbers allotted when they were incorporated in the G.W.R. list. A number of illustrations, mostly of older types, are included. No dimensions are given.

Trade catalogues. 64

Elastomeric Engineering
Contains useful information about rubber-bonded-to-metals and may be obtained on .request from T. B. Andre Rubber Co., Ltd., Kingston By- pass, Surbiton , Surrey.

Number 621 (15 May 1944)

Locomotive power. 65-6.
Editorial examination of some of the formulae available: F.J. Cole (of Alco), E.C. Poultney (as stated in ILocoE Paper 445) and W.F. Kiesel. The significance of grate area was considered

South Australian 520 class engines. 66-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Streamlined 4-6-4 with light green livery. Two 20½ x 28in welded cylinders with 12in piston valves, Cast steel bar frame. 45ft2 grate area; thermic syphones; 2163ft2 total evaporative heating surface; 651ft2 superheat and boiler set at 215 psi. Locomotive marked a return to Walschaerts gaer from Baker. F. Harrison, CME..

C.M. Doncaster. Sturrock's condensing tank, Great Northern Railway. 68. illustration
In 1865 Avonside supplied fifteen 0-4-4T: a further five were obtained from Neilson; and fourteen further were supplied to the London, Chatham & Dover Railway. In 1866 a further five given running numbers 270-4 were supplied by Neilson. They had 16½ x 22in cylinders and 5ft 6in coupled wheels. They tended to oscillate at high speed.

W.F. Wegener. Performance of class 19c engines on the South African Railways. 68-70. 2 illustrations
4-8-2 fitted with poppet valves working on severe gradients with heavy loads and capable of high speeds.

James McEwan . Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.71-3. 5  illustrations (including 1 line drawing: side elevation)
Two 2-4-0 type assembled at Perth from parts collected from SNER Arbroath Works. They had 17 x 22in outside cylinders; 1040 ft2 total heating surface; midfeathers and 120 psi boiler pressure. Their running numbers were 472-3; renumbered 123-4 in 1876. The Number 1 class 2-4-0 came into service during 1869-71 and were supplied by Neilson and Dubs. They had 16½ x 22in cylinders; 6ft 2in coupled wheels; 914 ft2 in the tubes; 68.2ft2 in the firebox and 14.3ft2 grate area. The boiler pressure was 140 psi. Several later worked on the Portpatrick Railway..

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 73-6. illustration, 2 diagrams

C.M. Doncaster.  An old Rennie single. 76. illustration (drawing: side elevation)

Locomotive power. 77-9. 2 diagrams.

L.N.E.R. 79
One of the GWR diesel railcars was at work in the Newcastle district.

Solving a reclamation problem. 79. illustration
Use of electro-magnet to reclaim metal from the Thames lost during the demolition of the old Rennie Waterloo Bridge from a crane based on the new bridge.

Correspondence. 80

Class 19c engines on the S.A.R. "Firebox."
As letters on the relative merits of the R.C. poppet valve gear as against conventional valve gears appear from time to time, perhaps the following short account might be of interest to vou. The writer made a trip several years ago, on the footplate of a class 19C engine (which are fitted with .the R.C. gear) on the Cape Town-Caledon line,' during the most exacting portion of the run, viz ,; that between Sir Lowry Pass Station and Steenbras Siding. This portion, about nine miles in length, involves the Pass itself, a formidable climb having grades of 1 in 40 and 1 in 44, against the engine, and severe curves. The line rises 1,100 feet from Sir Lowry Pass Station to the highest point of the climb, just before Steenbras Siding. On this occasion the train consisted of seven bogies (225 tons)-the usual load-and the weather was fine. Starting from Sir Lowry Pass Station (post 14¼) at the foot of the Pass, the acceleration was rapid. I do not remember the cut-off at starting, but at post 14½ the speed was 23 m.p.h. on a 1 in 40 grade. At about this point the cut-off was set at 40 per cent., the regulator being about full open, and the driver did not touch either cut-off or regulator again during the whole ascent, except to ease the engine down on some of the curves. This, to me, was a pretty good show. The fireman fired regularly, but not heavily, and there was no suggestion of the engine labouring. So much for hill climbing. On the level, their accelerating powers are remarkable, and a 19c can always be distinguished by its snappy exhaust, which is noticeable even when notched up. I do not know how a similar engine having, say, Walschaerts gear would perform, but such a comparison would be very interesting. My own feeling is that the excellent performance of the 19C class is due in a large measure to their valve gear, and that this is not sufficiently recognised.

Miniature railways. Robin D. Butterell.
Re Wells' recent letter on the Dreamland Miniature Railway. The builder of Billie was Albert Barnes, of Rhyl, who also built the locomotives in use in latter years on the Rhyl Miniature Railway. I can shed no light on the identity of Prince Edward of Wales; it would be interesting to have a table prepared of all the Little Giants and their ultimate "fates." Another Miniature Railway. which I do not think has been mentioned in your articles. is the 15 in. gauge line in Belle Vue Park. Manchester. Although only a pleasure line. and a few hundred yards long. it is of a rohust nature. and is at present undergoing overhaul for the summer season. It has been down about fifteen years. and has had three locomotives. The present one was built by Barnes, and is an "Atlantic"; it is a well-proportioned design and bears quite a close resemblance to the "improved" Little Giant type. as used to run on the Sand Hutton Miniature Railway. It draws a train of open coaches. There is also a train of closed bogie coaches. but this is at present under repair. It might also interest you to know that the Eaton Hall line is still flourtshing, I visited it about a week ago and discovered that trains. drawn bv the four-wheel petrol locomotive. still run every day except Sundays. It is interesting to find sleepers stamped "E.R. 1895 B" and "D B R. 1897 B." The good condition of the permanent way is no doubt due to these cast steel sleepers. The Cuckoo's Nest branch was removed recently.

The "White Horse of Kent." C. F. Dendy Marshall
The letters which have been brought to light by Mr. Hilton will be much appreciated by all who are interested in locomotive history. There is one passage in the article which conveys a wrong impression as it stands, viz., "there is no evidence that the second engine was named White Horse of Kent. The author doubtless meant that there was none in the papers he had been examining, but omitted to say so. There is plenty of such evidence elsewhere. For example, there are numerous references to the engine of that name in the Gauge Commissioners' Report (e.g., vol. 1, page 148, etc.). Warren distinctly says she was not built by Robert Stephenson & Co. It is well known that they often employed other firms as sub-contractors. .

Reviews

The thermal technics of steam boilers. J. Webster.
This monograph deals with the sequence of problems, from the heat aspect only, as they occur with orthodox boilers. Much useful information is given in a style calculated to appeal to the busy reader. The calculations and rules are presented in a readily understood manner. As is only to be anticipated, water-tube boilers are chiefly dealt with, but the booklet is none the less interesting to those dealing with other types, as fundamental principles are the same.

White metalling. H. Warburton,
Apart from the firms who specialise in such work, most engineering shops, at some time or other, are called upon to line bearings, and it is upon such occasions that many have discovered that it is not such a simple procedure as might be supposed--or perhaps it has been left to the customer to make the discovery, at a later date, when shell and lining parted company. This monograph gives much valuable information upon the subject and deals with the operations and considerations involved in the metalling of bearings up to large sizes. It is a useful contribution to the literature of a subject not sufficiently understood by some of those who practise it.

L.M.S. Chief Mechanical Engineer. 80
C. E. Fairburn, M.IC.E., M.I,M.E., M.I.Loco.E., the recently appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.M.S. had been acting in that capacity since 1942, when Sir William Starrier was seconded to the Ministry of Production. He was born in 1887 and educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, entering the Derby locomotive works under Sir Henry Fowler in 1912. Afterwards he joined Siemens Bros. & Co., Ltd., being engaged in their railway department. During the period of the first world war he was with the R.F.C.-later the R.A.F.-and left this to join the English Electric Co. in 1919. In 1926 he was appointed general manager of Dick Kerrs, also presiding over the English Electric Co.'s car works, and rose to the position of chief engineer and manager of the traction department at the Stafford establishment. He entered the L.M.S. as electrical engineer in 1934, becoming deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer in 1937.

The "Railway Mania". 80
During 1844 a remarkable change in the railway world came about and spread rapidly. It was attributed to the improvement in trade activity following a severe depression. The total railway mileage at the time in Great Britain was approximately 3,000, owned by 118 companies. Sixty-six applications, involving 900 miles of new railway, were received by the House of Commons at the beginning of the 1844 session. The companies incorporated during the session were: the Chester & Holyhead; Fumess; Lancaster & Carlisle; Leeds & Bradford; Manchester. Bury & Rossendale; Preston & Blackburn: North Wales Mineral: South Devon; North British; Eastern Counties & Thames Junction: Eastern Union; Norwich & Brandon: Guildford Junction: Brighton & Chichester; and the Brighton, Lewes & Hastings.

Number 622 (15 June 1944)

British steam locomotives. 81-2. table

F.C. Hambleton. "Lord of the Isles", G.W.R. 83. illustration (drawing: side elevation)

L.N.E.R. 83.
Remaining four of 25 V2 type modified to Pacific type and classified as A2/1.

[Ministry of Supply 2-10-0 No. 3701]. 84
Photograph of locomotive in LNER Scottish Area

The North London Railway. 84-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0T. Continued p. 120

O.J. Morris. Railmen's holiday. 86-7. illustration
Annual excursions to Eastbourne of the LBSCR Stationmasters' and Inspectors' Mutual Aid Society. Locomotives hauling these trains were decorated and there was competition between Battersea and New Cross sheds.

Boiler repairs. 88-9. 2 illustrations, plan
Progressive system of boiler repair introduced at the LNER Gorton Works involving purpose-built gantries

Commonwealth Railways of Australia. 89.
Eight 4-6-0 type locomotives had been taken over from the Canadian National Railways and a further two 4-6-0s had been acquired from the New York, New Haven & Hartford RR.

Locomotive power. 90-2. 2 diagrams.
Locomotive resistance

G.E.C. mobile sub-stations. 92. illustration
Mounted on a well wagon intended to accept a 11 or 6.6 kv, three-phase ac supply and output 1000 kw, 500 volt dc.

L.N.E.R. 92
Experiments in radio transmission between footplate crews and guards en route. Equipment from Rediffusion Ltd. Sir Ronald Matthews, chairman of the LNER spoke to Sir Charles Newton, general manager, as he travelled north by train (seems a long way before the quiet coaches now provided to switch off such chit chat)

L.M.S.R. 92
On 30 December 1943 cthe LMS ran its hundred thousandth OHMS train since the outbreak of WW2. Total included 52,603 troop trains, 25,288 stores trains, 6799 ammunition trains and 15,310 petrol trains.

L.N.E.R. 92
A.G. Minty, assistant district locomotive superintendent, Newcastle had been appointed acting district locomotive superintendent, Sunderland.

South Australian "520" class engines. 92
Further information about superheated fitted.

L.N.E.R. class Y8 0-4-0T No. 560. 92. illustration
Fitted with chime whistle off A4 No. 4469 Sir Ralph Wedgwood destroyed in Baedeker raid on York

New passenger luggage vans, Southern Railway. 93-5. illustration, 2 diagrams (including plans)
Four wheel vehicle where light weight was combined with added protection for the contents through isolating the body of the vehicle from the frame using suspension elements consisting of spiral springs with rubber elements. Plastic panels and welded components reduced the weight. Designed by O.V.S. Bulleid. Livery was black due to WW2 conditions.

R.B. Fellows. By train to the Eton Montem, 1838-1844. 95-6.
On Whit Tuesday 1844 the last Eton Montem was held. Was the Mortem killed by the railway? The Montem, which had been held for three, if not four hundred years, was essentially a school pageant, a feature being the procession of. the school from Eton to Salt Hill, near Slough, many of the boys being in "fancy dress", usually of historical type, then, the collection of money from the spectators, and indeed from all travellers on the road nearby, a custom open to criticism. The donations, often considerable, were called "salt", and after all expenses were paid the balance was handed over to the captain of the school for his use at the University. It is well known that the Eton governing body got a clause inserted in the Great Western Company's Act to prevent the building of a station within three miles of Eton College—this, of course, ruled out any station at Slough. James Wyld, the well-known compiler of early railway guides, states in his Guide to the G.W.R., published in 1839, that "the enraged Provost of Eton", having discovered that the company intended to convey passengers to Slough for the Montem, which in 1838 was held on 5 June, the day after the opening of the railway, applied to the Court of Chancery to restrain them from setting down or picking up passengers within three miles of the College, but the application was dismissed with costs. The Company's Act merely prohibited the building of a station. John Herapath, the editor of The Railway Magazine, travelled to Maidenhead and back on Montem Day, 5 June 1838, and in his magazine for July wntes an account of his journey. The 10 o' clock train from Paddmgton by which he travelled was made up of eight carriages headed by the North Star, and carried some 400 passengers; he rode in an open carriage and complained of the jolting. Returmng from Maidenhead by the 5 o'clock train—engine Eolus—the train he wrote, stopped at Slough and took up an enormous load of Montem gentry, who defied police and everything else to keep them out . . ." The Times stated that a special train of ten carriages was run late in the evening to bring people back to Paddington from the Montem.
The next Montem was held in 1841 when there was a station at Slough. In The Annals of Eton College published in 1898, Sir Wasey Sterry states that in 1841 the Great Western Railway brought down a crowd of most undesirable sight-seers and the next Montem of 1844 was the last." Perhaps this was as well, for according to the Telegraph Book kept at Paddington, some notorious thieves travelled down on that occasion. The telegraph had not been long extended to Slough, and It was on Montem Day of 1844 (May 28) that the instrument was used for police purposes for the first time. The entries show how the police at Slough were warned of the departure from Paddington by the various trains of these notorious characters. Extracts were given in the booklet Brunel and after published by the company about twenty years ago, and are amusing reading. From the Telegraph Book entries and from other contemporary sources we learn that special trains were run to Slough for the Montem of 1844, including a Royal special—for the company carried some very distinguished persons—which left Paddington shortly after 10 a.m. and returned from Slough about 2 p.m., conveying H.R.H. Prince Albert (the Prince Consort), and we also learn that part of the "A" Division of the London Police were on duty at Eton and Salt Hill.

Correspondence. 96

Condensing locomotives. W.O. Skeat.
You will doubtless have had notice of the very interesting paper on condensing locomotives by Professor Lomonossoff and Captain Lomonossoff presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on Friday, May 19· This paper gives a most interesting world survey of condensing locomotives at the present time. It must be admitted that this country's contributions in that direction have not been particularly outstanding, but that may well be, as the authors suggest, because in such a climate as ours the advantages of condensing are much less than they would be in other parts of the world.
The authors give some space, however, to two very interesting experimental efforts by the North British Locomotive Company, the first being the Electro-Turbo-Locomotive of 1910, and the second the Reid-MacLeod Turbo-Locomotive which was exhibited in 1924 at Wembley. The authors make the interesting observation that the second locomotive was possibly a rebuilt version of the first, and Professcr Lomonossoff, in personal conversation with me, has pointed out that the arrangement of the bogies and also of the wheelbase was the same in both these engines thus supporting the authors' contention. I think it will be generally agreed that the authors, in their statement that the history of the first, known as the 'Reid-Rarnsay' locomotive, is somewhat obscure" are not guilty of exaggeration It.is very much to be hoped that someone may come forward with further information about these two extremely interestinng and, from the national pomt of view, most important expenments.
Although in this case private locomotive-building firms were concerned, there is a tendency among the railways of this country, which seems regrettable, to suppress the publication of details of any experiments which they do not deem to be briliantly successful; thus engineers the world over are depnved of all means Of finding out just how much work has been done and what results have been achieved during the expenmental stages of any novel idea or principles m railway locomotion. Unfortunately, this outlook is extremely deep-rooted and is always instinctively bound up with the .idea that an unsuccessful experiment would impair the prestige of the administration concerned. In this direction one is sorely tempted to apply the old saying "The man who never made a mistake never made anything" and so it is with feelings of regret that we find so little information on these two notable experimental types has been allowed to be published. It is hoped, however, that after so many years have elapsed a more enlightened outlook on the matter may prevail and that someone may be ermitted to come forward with additional authoritative information.

Reviews. 96

The First Railway in Norfolk. George Dow.
The author, who will be known to most of our readers as the Press Relations Officer of the L.N.E.R., has produced an excellent booklet, the publication of which coincides wi th the centenary of the Yarmouth & Norwich Railway. . Many people will regard this booklet as a model of its kind; it traces the history of the Y. & N.R. from its inception to its ultimate inclusion in the Eastern Counties fold and later the G.E.R. The salient historical points are given Without an encumbrance of detail, and there are included, inter alia, a map of the line, illustrations of rolling stock and a complete list of the locomotive stock of the Norfolk Railway. In congratulating the writer upon the production of such an interesting contribution to the literature of railways, readers will add the hope that similar works will follow from his pen.

Number 623 (15 July 1944)

Articulated locomotives. 97.

Canadian National Railways. 97
Ten diesel electric shunting locomotives delivered from American Locomotive Co. for use on Grand Trunk Western RR: 1000b hp; capable of 60 mile/h running: 0-4-4-0

Personal. 97
H.R. Carver, sales manager with Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd., Leeds had been made a director

Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range Ry. 2-8-8-4 type locomotives. illustration
Duluth is an iron ore port on Lake Superior and locomotives intended to haul long trains to port. They had 5ft 3in coupled wheels of the Boxpok type; 26 x 32in cylinders; 9528ft2 total heating surface; 125ft2 grate area

New Pacific locomotives for the L.N.E.R. 99-100. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
A2/1: four from final batch of V2 built as Pacifics with divided drive and three independent sets of Walschaerts valve gear. No. 3696 photographed in workshop livery.

Personal. 100
Frederick Hall, Works Manager of the Superheater Co. Ltd. had been awarded an MBE

The Battle of the Gauges. 100
Kenneth Brown spoke at a Railway Club Meeting. Refered to the Gauge Act of 1846 and to the Gauge Commissioners. Argued that the difficulties at Gloucester were deliberately exaggerated

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.101-3. 4 illustrations
In 1867 the Caledonian Railway purchased the Forth & Clyde Navigation with its docks at Grangemouth. There is confusion in the records with the locomotives aquired with the General Terminus Railway. Two locomotives were acquired which spent their lives at Grangemouth: they bore the names Carron and Grange, but received the numbers 116 and 117; 668 and 669 in 1875 and were sold in 1876 and 1877. Class 98 2-4-0

Tanganyika Railways. 103
War related work performed in the workshops.

L.N.E.R. 103
The last remaining D13 class 4-4-0, No. 8039 had been withdrawn. It had begun as a Holden T19 2-4-0 but had been rebuilt with a bogie and fitted with a superheater. 

H.F. Hilton. Stephenson letters of 1844. 104-6. illustration
In connection with supply of locomotives to the Norwich & Yarmouth Railway and involving the contractor Messrs Grissell & Peto, and Morton Peto the resident engineer at that time with an office at St. Michael-at-Plea in Norwich.

Institution of Loco. Engineers. Locomotive axleboxes. 106-8.
Very extensive precis of Paper 447 in Volume 34; continued pp. 122-4.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 108-111. 3 tables

Correspondence. 111-12

The North London Railway. James F. Vickery.
Re C.W. Williams' letter, page 48, I am somewhat surprised at his statement: Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 25 and 42 were rebuilt and not broken up at the dates shown." From my own copious notes and recollection I agree that Nos. 1 and 25 were rebuilt (No. 1 In 1882 and 1895, and. No. 25 in 1883) but I always was under the firm impression that the others were scrapped in the.years when, apparently, new engines appeared bearing their numbers, viz., Nos. 5 and 7 in 1890, No. 6 in 1894; and No. 42 in 1893. I well remember six all apparently new in shop grey coming out in 1890, viz., 5, 7, 23, 24, 26 and 27. At the end of that year old Nos. 26 and 27 stood awaiting scrapping at Devons Road. To the end they were almost in their original condition, in green livery, but fitted with cabs. But whereas No. 27 still had a brass dome, No. 26 had a plain round top dome painted green. Both retained their sandboxes on top of boiler, and No. 26 still had a copper cap to chimney. Of course, I am not contradicting  Williams' statement, as there was very little difference between a so-called rebuilt engine and a brand new one, but the number plates showed the engines as rebuilt or just Bow Works as I have enumerated above. The information on the date plates cannot always be regarded as actual fact in this matter, as, for instance, in the case of the first ten L.T.S. type 4-4-2Ts built new subsequent to the Midland absorption of that very progressive little line, Nos. 2110-2119 built in 1923, although the date plates stated "rebuilt Derby" 1923, they were of course new machines. As a youth I often noticed "new" N.L.R. engines in shop grey with the wheel centres of old locomotives, and: on the other hand, "rebuilt" ones, also in shop grey, with new cast steel wheel centres with the more graceful crescent-shape balance weights.

British locomotive builders. R. Abbott
Re The Locomotive for 1927 there appeared a list of British locomotive builders past and present; SInce then additional makers have been mentioned in various journals, and I have come across others in correspondence with friends. Additional notes are available about the firm of Dick & Stevenson; their address was Airdrie Engine Works, Bel! Street, Airdrie. Established 1790, closed down 1890, and buildings dismantled soon after. Said to have built exactly 100 locomotives, mostly to a standard design, 0-4-0ST, with 14 in. cylinders; some went to SIngapore and one to Poland. I am indebted to Mr. Pearce Higgins for this information, which he gathered. locally.
The following fourteen makers were not noticed In the 1927 article:
Blackie & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Carrett Marshal! & Co., Sun Foundry, Leeds. built for the Kendal & Windermere Railway.
Clayton & Shuttleworth, Lincoln. Built a few locomotives of traction engine type for industrial railways.
R. Daglish & Co.. Wigan. Built for the St. Helens Rly.
Gibb & Hogg, Airdrie. Built industrial locos.
Gourlay, Mudie & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Leeds Foundry Co., Leeds. Built for the Blyth & Tyne Railway. [KPJ: difficult to identify]
McHendrick & Ball, Glasgow. Built industrial locos. with vertical boilers.
Mills Forge Co. Built for the St. Helens Railway.
J. M. Rowan & Co.., Glasgow . Built for the Pollok & Govan and Wishaw & Coltness Railways.
Sandys, Carne & Vivian, Copperhouse Foundry, Hayle. Built for the Hayle Railway.
W. Sisson & Co., Ltd., Gloucester. Built the engine- bogies for the Cardiff Railway rail-motors,
Simpson & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Joseph Smith. Built for the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway. I have not been able to fix the location of the works of the Mills Forge Co., or of Joseph Smith, but perhaps Joseph Smith is the same firm as J. Smith of Bradford who, on page 104 of "The Locomotive" for 1927 were said to. have ordered the Tantalus from the Haigh Foundry .and supplied it to. the Grand Junction Railway.

"Railmen's holiday." W.G. Tilling. 112
Re. Morris's article, "Railmen's Holiday:", in which he mentions No. 203 Henry Fletcher working one of the specials from London Bridge. My father was a personal friend of Mr. Pierpoint, the stationmaster at London Bridge, and went to. Eastbourne as a guest, and I well remember, as a schoolboy. asking him to. make a note of the name of the engine. When he told me, on his return home, that it was a brand new engine named Henry Fletcher , I was quite excited. The date would be about June, 1897.

Reviews. 112

Who, wrecked the Mail? By C. Hamilton Ellis. Humphrey Milford
The author describes in considerable detail an imaginary railway in Spain. The hero is appointed locomotive superintendent and the story deals with a plot to sabotage the line so. that the British company working it would lose its concession through inefficiency and German interests take over: this plan is, of course, discovered and foiled by the locomotive supermtendent. As might be expected of the author. the technicalities of railway working are described in a convincing manner, and the interest and excitement is well sustained to. the end. One of the best railway yarns we have read. A word of praise might be added for the well-drawn and very attractive dust-cover.

James Watt and the Industrial Revolution. H.W. Dickinson and H. P. Vowles.
Published for the British Council, deals with the life and achievements of James Watt, and paints a background of the conditions prevailing during his time. Such background is essential to enable one to. fully appreciate his achievements, the difficulties to. be overcome m attarmng them and his influence upon the industrial era. The matter is presented in a more condensed and easily digested manner than some previous accounts of the life of Watt, and will, no. doubt, be read by those m search of information both upon James Watt and the industrial and economic conditions which his work so largely affected.

Early railways in Surrey. Charles E. Lee. London: The Railway Gazette. 112
Works of this well-known writer on early railway matters exemplify much painstaking research, and the booklet under review-which is the text of a paper presented to. the Newcomen Society in 1940. and reproduced by the courtesy of that Society's Council is no exception. The raiilways concerned are the Surrey Iron Railway and its continuation, the Croydon, Merstham & Godstone Iron Railway. To. what length the author is prepared to. go. in pursuance of facts is well demonstrated by his chartering a 'plane to. carry out an aerial survey of the more important town sections of the route traversed by this first example of a public railway, which was also the first of any kind in the neighbourhood of the Metropolis. It is gratifying to be able to add that from the air a nearly continuous track may be traced. The Surrey Iron Railway has received a large amount; of notice and publicity, much of a contradictory nature, but there is no. doubt that the subject has never been so. fully investigated or so. lucidly dealt with as it is in the present publication. The work is well annotated and the authoratably assisted, as he acknowledges, by his wife and father- has succeeded in bringing to light much information hitherto. overlooked. Among the Iittle-known matters may be mentioned the part that both the S.I.R. and the C.M. & G.R. played in the series of quarrels that the old Brighton Railway had with its Eastern and Western neighbours, The illustrations are of interest and the whole forms a complete work of reference which all students of early railway history will wish to. add to. their collection.

Locomotives of the Somerset & Dorset Railway and the Irish narrow gauge railways. M.C.V. Allchin. 12pp.
List of the numbers, types and building dates of the railways mentioned in the title, together with the number allocated to. the individual engines when absorbed by the larger groups. Twelve illustrations add to. the booklet's interest.

G.E.R. detailed loco stock list. C. Langley Aldrich. 32 pp.
A list of the numbers, classes and dates of the Great Eastern Railway locomotive stock compiled from an official register dated 1April, 1921, with some notes on subsequent additions..

Historical models. 112
W.H. Smith, of Bingley, has offered his valuable collection of engine models to. the Bingley Urban Council. The collection includes locomotives. mill engines, portable and semi-portable engines—all working models. Many readers will remember the magnificent North Eastern model shown at the Railway Centenary Exhibition at Darlington.

Sierra Leone Railways. 112
The pioneers who built Sierra Leone's single track in 1896 could never have imagined the work the railway is doing to-day, and the way in which the problems created by the demand for the Colony's iron ore have been solved is a tribute to. the versatility of the workshop men. One of the most notable achievements has been to. rebuild locomotives to. give greater pulling power, and Sierra Leone now boasts the only eight-coupled Garratt of standard gauge. Another rebuilding job is a tank engine that now has ten coupled driving wheels. It was necessary to convert these locomotives because supplies from Britain could be sent only to standard specifications, while replacements of any kind were virtually unobtainable. Parts that would normally be scrapped are being reconditioned by welding. Parts beyond repair are being replaced by castings made from scrap metal. At the same time the greatly increased traffic has meant a much higher rate of wear and tear, and every aspect of locomotive and rolling stock repair work has been stepped up.

L.N.E.R..
Three further class B1 4-6-0. engines were in service, No. 8307 Black Buck, No.. 8308 Klipspringer and No.. 8309 Kudu,

Number 624 (15 August 1944)

Locomotive design and train operation in the future. 113.
Proposed 2-8-2 version of V2, but with smaller coupled wheels, but larger than those fitted to P1 to operate faster mineral trains. Express locomotive design would depend on whether a policy of fast frequent services were required or heavy, but infrequent services. The former could be met by 4-6-0s, but the latter required Pacifics.

Modified 4-6-0 "Hall"-class engine. 114. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 6959 illustrated painted in unlined black without a name

Baldwin 2-8-0 locomotive built for Russia. 115. illustration
Loaded onto a bogie flat car for transport to docks: named Stalingrad.

Review. 115.

The steam locomotive, its theory, operation and economics. R.P. Johnson. New York: Simmonds-Boardman Publishing Co. 564pp.
The author of this work was the Chief Engineer of The Baldwin Locomotive Works, and he states that this book has been written to present in convenient form certain fundamental facts regarding locomotive theory and operation—the object has been admirably achieved. The information has been gained from many sources, most of which would be inaccessible to residents here [in UK]; the convenience resulting from having this collected in one book is enormous. There are 29 chapters dealing comprehensively— and, of course, accurately—with the many sides of the subject. Some of the headings will be familiar enough, e.g., Combustion, Superheat, Valve Gears, Horse Power, Resistance, etc., but each theme is treated in a refreshingly explicit and very practical form. We say refreshingly explicit because, for example, the derivation of formulae (and their use) is explained; writers too frequently assume that their readers are more familiar with such matters than is actually the case.
Many of the chapters deal with subjects which previously have been omitted from the literature of the subject; in some instances due to their being problems of comparatively recent advent. Included in this category are High Speed Trains, Streamlined and Light Weight Trains, and Motive Power for High Speed Service.
There is an excellent chapter on Locomotive Testing and another valuable one on Dynamometer Cars. Among chapters relating to the economics of the subject may be mentioned The Relation of Locomotive Operating Expense to Net Operating Income, and Economic Life. Locomotive Testing Apparatus, the Derivation of Economic Life Formula, and Typical Locomotive Dimensions form the subjects of appendices. The author has most carefully compared diesel-electric and steam power, the characteristics of both being fully and fairly presented.
From what has been said it will be apparent that the author has collected- a wealth of most useful information and by incorporating this in one volume has bridged some of the gaps previously existing in locomotive literature. This book, well illustrated where necessary, will be of great value to the rnany between the locomotive builder and designer at one end of the scale and the student at the other.

Illumination of engines undergoing repairs. 115-16. 2 illustrations
Air raid precautions led to the Home Office demanding restrictions on illumination. The LNER overcame this by constructing light tunnels where work could continue and inside these mobile illuminants could be used using heavy duty batteries on trolleys. Illustrations show these trolleys and a B12/3 replete with electric lighting fitted to its boiler.

J.C.M. Rolland. An episode in locomotive history. Victorian Railways. 117. illustration
Richard Speight, the Assistant General Manager of the Midland Railway became Chief Commissioner of the Victorian Government Railways in 1884. He pursued a policy of standardisation aiming to limit locomotive types to: main line passenger, main line goods, light line passenger, light line goods, suburban tank and a six-coupled shunting engine. Jeffreys, an iron founder from Leeds,  got Kitson's to draw up designs. This led to a six-coupled locomotive WN 3089 and a 2-4-2T WN 3088 being exhibited at the Melbourne Centenial Exhibition: they were named Victoria and Tasmania. These were followed by twenty D class 4-4-0 locomotives fromn the Phoenix Foundry at Ballarat in 1887-8; thirty Y class heavy 0-6-0, 25 E class 2-4-2T and 15 A class express passenger 4-4-0. Robinson Brothers, Campbell & Sloss of South Melbourne supplied 25 R class light freight 0-6-0 in 1890-1. 25 further E class were supplied by Phoenix plus a further 25 from David Munro & Co. of Melbourne. The final 5 standard locomotives were 0-6-2T shunters.

O.J. Morris. By rail to the Devil's Dyke Hotel. 118-20. 3 illustrations (including diagram/plan)
The Brighton & Dyke Railway Co. built a branch line which rose at 1 in 40 to 500 feet above sea level, about 200 feet below the summit. This was worked by the LBSCR: push & pull working was rarely employed because of difficulty with water supply at the summit. The Southern Railway used a Sentinel railbus for a time. The gap between the railway terminus and the summit was closed by the 3ft gauge Dyke Steep Grade Railway which opended on 24 July 1897 and closed in about 1908. This was designed by Charles Blaber (who may not have been an engineer) and built by Courtney & Birkett. It was powered by a Hornsby Akroyd oil engine. The ravine was also crossed by a cable car.

Obituary. 120.
Frank Dudley Docker and R.M. Deeley

The North London Railway. 120-2. 2 illustrations
Previous part pp. 84-6

Institution of Loco. Engineers. Locomotive axleboxes. 122-4
Previous part of precis pp. 106-8. Very extensive precis of Paper 447 in Volume 34

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 125-7. 2 illustrations

Number 625 (15 September 1944)

Light weight rolling stock. 131
Bulleid welded underframe without sole bars and a plastic superstructure.

Jamaica Government Railways. 131
Canadian Locomotive Co. supplying six 4-8-0 locomotives

Institute of Transport. 131
Opening meeting of Siver Jubilee session to be held 3 October at Institution of Electrical Engineers when Robert Kelso to deliver Presidential Address (mainly on road transport into Europe.

The Portstewart Tramway. 138-9. illustration
Locomotive No. 3 illustrated

G.W.R. 139
Oldest steam engine still at work: Crofton Pumping Station on Kennet & Avon Canal: Boulton & Watt engine instaalled in 1820

L.M.S.R. 139
Barassie wagon repair shops where overhead crane had been replaced by machine which could raise wagons

L.M.S. appointments. 139
Ashton Davies retired on 31 August and T.W. Royle became a Vice President: he had previously been chief operating manager; and his post was filled by T.H. Fisher, the former deputy. also retirement of A.F. Bound and replacement by his Deputy W. Wood as Signal & Telegraph Engineer.

Tapered roller bearings L.M.S. 4-6-2 "Turbomotive" No. 6202. 139. illustration
British Timken Ltd: noted that still in perfect condition and cited Cox's Paper on axleboxes

O.S. Nock. Automatic train control in Great Britain. 140-2. illustration

West Highland Railway—Jubilee. 142
Opened 7 August 1894: notes achievement of crossing boggy Rannoch Moor

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 142-6.  6 illustrations, 2 tables
Six 0-4-0ST, five from A. Barclay & Co. and one from Neilson & Co. Two of the Barclay locomotives came from John MacKay the bankrupt contractor of the Callander & Oban Railway. A third locomotive may have been acquired, but this was not taken into stock and was sold to a colliery. Two outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST were purchased from Neilson becoming Nos. 139 (illustrated) and 140: these were WN 1559 and 1560.  0-4-2 tender belonging to Solway Junction Railway

Number 626 (14 October 1944)

The rehabilitation of motive power. 147.

Southern Railway. 147
Additional Merchant Navy class locomotives under construction at Eastleigh.

Mallet locomotives for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 148. illustration
Baldwin Locomotive Co. 2-8-8-4 with 24 x 32in cylinders, 5298ft2 evapourative heating surface, 2118ft2 superheat and 117.6ft2 grate area.

Diesel electric locomotive LNER. 148-9. illustration
Built at Doncaster with 350hp diesel electric equipment supplied by English Electric; similar to that supplied to LMS. Capable of working as mobile power stations: four on order. No. 8000 illustrated.

Nose-suspended v. fixed motors. 150-3. 5 diagrams
Costs, ease of maintenance and track damage are considered for nose-suspendended, jackshaft and cardan shaft drives. Some attention is paid to resilient wheels with rubber inserts.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 153-5. 2 diagrams (side elevations)

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 155-7. 2 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)

Condensing locomotives. 157-8.

The first locomotive in Russia. 159. illustration

Automatic train control in Great Britain. Part II.  160-2. 2 illustrations

F.C. Hambleton. Great Western goods engines. Class 2361. 162-3. 2 illustrations (line drawings: side elevations)

Correspondence. 164

Number 627 (15 November 1944)

Economic life of locomotives. 165
Editorial:

Automatic train control in Great Britain. Part III.  165-8. illustration, 2 diagrams

Examination of locomotives on a mileage basis. 168-70

The locos of the Buenos Aires Northern Railway. 171-3. 6 diagrams (side elevations)

The North London Railway. 173-6.. 2 illustrations

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 177-8.   2 illustrations, table
Continued  from page 146. As these engines were beginning to wear out, McIntosh considered replacing them. The cost was considered too great, and the engines were brought in turn to St. Rollox and reboilered with standard boilers as fitted to the 0-6-0 side tanks. These boilers had a heating surface of 1,086 ft2, of which the tubes provided 975 ft2. and the firebox 111 ft2t. The grate area was 17 ft2 and . the working pressure 150 lb. The weight was scarcely altered. After the reboilering, which was done in March, 1898 (No. 542) and November, 1897 (543) respectively, the engines returned to their old job. In 1897 both had been taken from the duplicate list and riumbered 381 and 382 respectively. No. 381 was brought in for rebuilding in March, 1902, and No. 382 followed in February, 1903. Some time subsequent to this both engines got other tenders to replace their own, which had worn out. No. 382 got a rebuilt passenger one with a footboard for the shunter added, whereas No. 381 acquired a four-wheeled one adapted for passenger working and also provided with a footboard for the shunter. No. 382 had a mishap which subsequently deprived it of its leading and trailing wheels, and these were replaced with cast iron wheels fitted with, steel tyres. The change was noted about 1920,. but the cause was apparently unknown to anyone. Both of the 0-6-0 type engines lasted to become L.M.S. stock in 1923 with the numbers 17101 and 17102 respectively. They continued to work on the now shortened S.]. section between Annan and Kirtlebridge until withdrawn in 1927 and 1928 respectively. These were the oldest C.R. engines to have L.M.S. numbers.
After working on the S.]. section for some years the 0-4-2 well tanks were sent to Glasgow (South Side sheds) to work on the Rutherglen to London Road section, then for a short period were sent to v work on the Dundee & Arbroath Joint Line. Both returned to Glasgow. No. 540 went to Perth and shortly afterwards was sent to work the Millisle Branch (about 1890) and finished its days there. No. 541 went to Grangemouth for the Larbert & Grahamston trains, and finally finished up at Perth as the Methven branch engine. The 0-4-2 engines were taken from the Solway Junction section when the are traffic began to decline rapidly, (and worked between Carstairs, Lanark and Muirkirk. Later, one went to Lockerbie and the other to the Brechin to Bridge of Dun section.
The seventh engine of the Solway Junction Railway was destined to appear more than once in a railway stock list. It was an 0-6-0 type saddle tank of Manning Wardle's standard design, being their No. 196 of 1866. It was supplied new to Eckersley & Bayliss at Chesterfield, but in the following year was sold to Brassey & Co., who were the contractors for the Solway Junction Railway. It had inside cylinders 11 in. diam. by 16 in. stroke, and coupled wheels 3 ft. 0 in. diameter. After the completion of the line the S.J.R. took, the engine over as previously arranged, as they expected to have a use. for it as the yard shunting engine. On coming to the Caledonian Railway it. was given the number. 539.. In January,1872 it was disposed of to the contractor for ,the Wigtownshire Railway, and is fully creferred to in the articles on the Wigtownshire. Railway: which appeared in THE LOCOMOTIVE for 1943.
Before leaving the Solway Junction section. reference must be rnade to a story which has been perpetuated, but of which no evidence of fact can be produced, and supporters of the Maryport & Carlisle Railway must suffer disillusionment. The myth is that M. & C. No. 5 was lent to the Caledonian Railway by request and did such good work that the CR. people wanted to buy it for their line; but that the M. & C. people in turn were so proud of their handiwork that they refused to sell. No. 5 was a 2-2-2 type, tender engine built at Maryport in 1857, and was inside-cylindered. The M, & C. and Caledonian railways were, generally speaking, on fairly friendly terms, and both Mr. Connor, of the CR., and Mr. George Tosh, of the M. & C.R., agreed to try the M. & C. engine out art the C.R. metals if their respective directors would agree. Connor was an outside cylinder exponent, while the M. & C. engineer favoured inside cylinders. No. 5 was tried out on the C.R. main line about 1859 between Carlisle and Beattock, and forward later to Carstairs with a regular train. Indicator cards were taken when the test ; was made, and it was generally agreed that while the engine had done well it was not made for the C.R. route. The boiler failed to supply sufficient steam while ascending the Beattock incline, but could generate plenty for the level parts of the line. The other drawback was the light loading of the driving axle compared with the Conner passenger engines. The conclusion.reached by the M. & C, engineer was that for his own line 6 ft. diameter wh'eels would be: large enough for future construction. The M. & C. were entitled to run over the  S.J. section and lfor ,a short space of time in 1870 sent No. 5 over the section.
In 1870 Neilson & Co. delivered a further batch of goods engines, intended primarily for use on the former Scottish Central and Scottish North Eastern  sections. The design was mainly a. repeat of the one used for the ScottIsh Central engmes of 1863, with the adoption of double frames and outside: bearings. for ilie leading wheels. Also the flush-topped boiler was used. The engines were of the 2-4-0 type with outside cylinders 17 in. diameter by 24 in. stroke, coupled wheels 5 ft., 2 in. and leading wheels 3 ft. 2 in. diameter respectively. The dome was placed in the middle of the boiler barrel and had Salter type safety valves. The wheel centres were 6 ft. 2½ in. plus 8 ft. 9in., total 14 ft. 11½ in. The heating surfaces were: Tubes, 783.2 ft2..; firebox, 85.6 ft2.; total, 868.8 ft2.. Grate area, 15.0 ft2.. Working pressure, 120 lb. The weight per axle was: Leading axle, 10 tons 18 cwt. 2 qrs.; driving, 11 tons 18 cwt. 1 qr.; rear coupled, 11 tons 6 cwt.; total, 34 tons 2 cwt. 3 qrs. The tenders were standard four-wheeled type carrying 1,540 gallons of water and 2½ tons of coal. Eight of these engines were allocated to each section, those for the S.C. being renewals and those for the S.N.E. being additions to capital account. These engines were never rebuilt, although some of them in later years received good second-hand boilers with the Rarnsbottom type safety valves over the firebox. The last survivors of the class were generally to be found around Perth and Dundee, the exception being 1377, which was to be seen anywhere between Stranraer and Lockerbie.

No. WN Renumbered Withdrawn
372 1502 372A in 1891, 1283- in 1899, 1372 in 1900 1904
373 1503 373A in 1891 1893
374 1504 374A in 1891, 1284 in 1899, 1374 in 1900 1902
375 1505 375A in 1891, 1285 in  1899, 1I375 in 1900; 1544 in I904, 1375 in 1906   1908
376 1506 376A in 1891, 1286 in 1899 1899
377 1507 377A in 1891, 1287 in I899, 1377 in 1901 1911
378 1508 378A in 1891 1896
379 1509 379A in 1891 1898
544 1510 544A in 1892, 1288 in 1899, 1544 in 1900, 635 in 1902, 1375 in 1904, 1544 in 1905 1905
545 1511 545A in 1892 1894
546 1512 546A in 1892, 1289 in 1899 1900
547 1513 547A in 1892, 1290 in 1899, 1547 in 1900 1905
548 1514 548A in 1892, 1291 in 1899,  1548 in 1900 1905
549 1550 549A in 1892, 1292 in 1899,1549 in 1900 1901
550 1551 550A in 1892, 1293 in 1899. 1550 in 1900 1910
551 1552 551A in 1892, 1294 in 1899, 1551 in 1900, 639 in 1904, 1551 in 1904 1908

NOTE.-Nos. 544 and 551 got old close-coupled 0-6-0 engine boilers to wear out, hence the renumbering to 635 and 639 respectively. ( To be continued)

In tabulated list on page 143, for third engine read No. 15 built 1867, makers' number 71, and thereafter as printed.

L.M.S. 6252 "City of Leicester". 178. illustration
Caption: showing the latest development of the "6235" class as introduced for series 6249 to 6252 completed during 1944.

Correspondence. 179

The North British Atlantics. W.B. Thompson.
Your interesting account of the origin of the North British Atlantic engines illustrates once more the insularity of British railway. practice. The fact that the directors would not allow a six-coupled passenger engllle on the Waverley route may perhaps be excused on the ground that directors are not generally engineers and cannot be expected to know much about. contemporary locomotive work in other lands. But the attitude of W.P. Reid seems inexplicable. You say (on page 157) that when he found himself obliged to use an engine of the Atlantic type he contemplated building compounds on the three-cylinder system introduced on to British railways by the North Eastern engine 1619, but that the stakes were too high to trust the expresses to experimental machines, and he accordingly decided to build simple engines.
At that date the French compound Atlantics were doing consistently brilliant work; they had long been world-famous and there was nothing "experimental" about them; and if in any other country an Atlantic compound had been required, the French system 'would have been adopted as a matter of course. But there is nothing in your article to show that Reid ever gave it a thought, or even was aware of its existence.
In an earlier generation, F W. Webb rejected the Westinghouse brake because he was not going to be taught his business by a Yankee, and we have suffered from his folly ever since; the use of French compounds on the Waverley route might have given a very beneficial stimulus to British loccmotive design.

Our Railway History-Part I .(Rixon Bucknall). W. Beckerlegge.
In the review published on page 164 are two items calling for comment. The G.W.R. Atlantic Quentin. Durward. was No. I79, dated April, 1905. When first put into traffic it was named Magnet (see The Locomotive, Vo!. 11, p. 73). About the end of 1906 it was decided to name all the Atlantics after characters in Scott's novels, and 179 was accordingly renamed Quentin Durward . In August, 1912, the engine was converted to 4-6-0 type and in December, 1912, was renumbered 2979, but the name was retained and it is understood that the engine is still in 'service (with this name).
With regard to L.N.W.R. Coronation, this engine left the erecting shop as No. 1800. A photograph was reproduced in The Locomotive, Vol. 17, p. 119, showing the engine with this number, but without name plates. When painted and named, the number-plates were altered to 5000 (the Crewe number) and the engine never ran again as 1800 (although entered as such in the Company's records) and retained the number 5000 till the L.M.S. renumbered the engine 5348 in June, 1927.

[The rehabilitation of motive power]. R.S. Guinness
I have read with much interest your leading article in the October issue on page 147, and though doubtless those responsible for the commercial and technical operation of the railways are giving careful thought to the future, one sometimes wonders if they fully realise the advantages they have at their disposal, such as unrestricted rights of way and none other than, broadly speaking, self-imposed speed limits. Judging, however, from what one sees and what one experiences, I cannot help thinking that the word "speed" is by any means written to the extent it might be on the railway brow, and that if the railways are to regain anything approaching their premier position (under normal conditions) speed is the essence of the matter. As to· how they are to achieve this is a matter for themselves, but I am particularly glad to see your reference to the braking of goods stock, for the railways have as yet devised no general means of enabling fast traffic to overtake slow, without causing great delay to the latter and, in causing this, they get to cross purposes with their freight customers, who, quite often, find things so that they have to resort to other means of conveyance. Logically the solution should be for all railway traffic to move at the same speed, but if that is a practical impossibility, it surely could be made less so by discarding relics of antiquity in the shape of the modern goods train.
Though not touched on in your article, it sometimes occurs to me that London is looked on as a centre to perhaps too great an extent; that day and night travel under comfortable conditions might be extended so as to enable other centres to be better linked, and that synchronized departure times would save the present generation from telephoning for information, when they find the railway timetables, as they well may, something they cannot afford the time to study the complexities of.
In conclusion, your query of more frequent running is "best perhaps answered in that these Islands are not a Continent, so that the vast distances incidental to the latter and the necessary conditions to meet them hardly apply.

British locomotive builders. S.H. Pearce Higgins
Although the last locomotive built by Dick & Stevenson carried the works number "1'00", the total output of the firm was probably exactly half that number, as it was-in later years at least-the practice to allot two numbers to each engine, and only the even number appeared on the plate. This firm built three narrow-gauge locomotives for Spain; several locomotives were sent to Singapore, and possibly one to Holland. Dick and Stevenson were also numbered among the select, and long extinct generation of builders whose works were never served by a siding to a railway; and when completed the engines were driven under their own steam through the streets of Airdrie: in earlier days the locomotives were taken to Hallcraig Station, but most of the later engines were driven down the hill to a siding at Airdrie South Station. I think it is unlikely that McKendrick & Ball built any locomotives: this firm were at one time the London agents of A. Chaplin & Co., of Glasgow, and no doubt several of Chaplins once familiar vertical-boiler engines were supplied through these agents.
The claim of Lennox, Lange & Co. as builders of locomotives seems yet to be proved. The firm is known to have obtained at least once locomotive from Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co.; and although the earliest Snailbeach District Railways locomotive Fernhill is attributed to Lennox, Lange & Co., it would not be surprising to find that this 2 ft. 4¼ in. (or 2 ft. 4½ in.) gauge locomotive was only supplied by Lennox, Lange. The Glasgow directories of the period show a City address for this firm, and I have been unable to discover any reference to their yard or works.

[Bramah & Fox]. H.F. Hilton.
It is' recorded in "The History of the G.E.R. Locomotives" that one of the engines of the Eastern Union Railway taken over by the Eastern Counties Railway when the two lines were amalgamated was built by Bramah & Fox. The name of this firm does not appear in the list of builders published in "The Locomotive" for 1927, and I have been unable to trace it in other publications. It would be interesting to have some further information about the firm in question, and thus add to the completion of the list. .

The inventor of the steam superheater. H. F. Hilton. 180
.It has been stated that Timothy Hackworth invented the steam superheater in 1839. In order to correct this statement and place the credit for the idea with the rightful person, I would state on the authonty of Luke Herbert, who was a patent agent and editor of The Journal of Patent Inventions at that time, that "The last invention of Richard Trevithick, of Camborne in Cornwall, was for improvements in the steam engine and in their application to navigation and locomotion, for which he obtained a patent on 19 March 1833. The first of these improvements consisted in interposing between the boiler and the worrking cylinder, in a situation to be strongly heated,. a long pipe, formed of a compact series of curved plates, in which .the steam, after it has left the boiler, passes with great velocity, and is further expanded in volume before it enters the cylinder. And in order still further tu augment this volume of steam, he placed the working cylinder within a case constituting a part of the chimney, where the cylinder was kept hotter than the steam employed in it, and by these means employed the otherwise waste heat in augmenting the power of the engine." It is not recorded whether this invention was ever applied to a boiler or engine. Timothy Hackworth fitted a superheater to a locomotive constructed by Hawthorns in 1839.

Reviews. 180

British railways facts and figures:
Simplicity is the keynote of this official publication which contains 16 pages and has for simple and ready reference all the facts arranged alphabetically. Three pages are devoted to a chronological table of outstanding events dating from the opening of the first public railway in 1825. The story of the Railways and London Transport, their work and progress, equipment and achievements, both pre-war and during the past five years, is told factually under 48 separate headings covering subjects as wide apart as railway bridges and workmen's travel
One learns that 10,000 air attacks have been made on railway property; track repairs are generally completed within 12 hours; shelter accommodation has been provided for over 500,000 people, and 1,000 carriages have been con- verted into ambulance and casualty evacuation trains. During the first evacuation of London the railways ran 4,349 trains carrying 1,428,425 civilians to safer areas, and 620 special trains were run in 16 days for 3I9,II6 troops evacuated from Dunkirk.
Since the outbreak of war to the end of June last over 300,000 special trains have been operated for the movement of troops and equipment, whilst in connection with the North Aftica expedition over a period of a month 185,000 men, 20,000 vehicles and 220,000 tons of stores were carried to the ports in 440 troop trains, 680 freight trains and 15,000 wagons attached to ordinary goods trains.
Paragraps are also included giving much useful information about railways, docks, electrification and Government control, rolling stock, staff, stations, and track, whilst for the serious student of railway affairs a ten-page folder giving a summary of the latest available financial and other statistics in handy form is appended. These statistics tell their own story and reveal the magnitude of the war-time task the railways have had to perform, and the efficiency and economy with which it has been accomplished. A glossary of railway terms is also included, together with a diagrammatic illustration of railway operating statistics for 1943 compared with pre-war.

The story of the .West Highland. George Dow.
In this all-embracing history of one of .the most interesting lines of the British Isles the author has lived up to the high standard which he set in his previous book, recently reviewed in this column. The first of the four chapters relates to an historical survey and amongst other matters refers to the skirmishes which the North British had with the Highland and Caledonian railways, together with the history of the unlucky Invergarry & Fort Augustus Railway. The second chapter deals with engineering features, of which it can certainly be said that the line had its fair share; possibly the best known of these is the snowshed north of Rannoch, but a number of the bridges, and especially the Glenfinnan Viaduct, are of considerable interest. Next the subject of locomotives receives detailed attention, full particulars being given of all the various types .which have worked over the line dunng the fifty years It has been open.. Finally, train services and other features are dealt with. An outstanding feature of this publication is its illustrations, they are copious and good; in fact, although it is a minor criticism, one cannot help thinking that in some cases they are unnecessarily complete. There are four appendices consisting of elevations and plan of the typical station buildings, a gradient profile, a sectional view of a coach and the principal dimensions of locomotives. This excellent book will be valued by the many who have traversed the railway and will attract many who have not yet travelled the metals to what is one of the great scenic lines of Scotland.

Our railway history. Part II. R. Bucknall. 48 pages 8vo.,
This is the .second of three parts in which the author plans to epitomise the history of the railways of Great Britain. It deals with the Great Eastern, L. & Y., Great. Central, L.S.W., L.B, & S.C. and South Eastern & Chatham railways, Excellent illustrations add to the interest.

L.N.E..R.
The medal of the London & North Eastern Railway has' been presented by Sir Ronald 'Matthews to Driver Gimbert, G.C., and the mother of the late Fireman Nightall, G.C for gallantry in saving from complete destruction a burning ammunition train.

Newcomen Society. 180
At a meeting held on 18 October a paper was presented, Stephenson Locomotives for the St. Etienne & Lyon Railway, by E. A. Forward, M.I.Mech.E,

Institute of Transport. 180
On 3 November a luncheon was held in London to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Institute. The President, Robert Kelso, was supported by Sir William Wood, Vice-President of the L.M,S., Herbert Morrison, the Home Secretary, and Lord Woolton, as well as many other distinguished visitors. Mr. Morrison, in proposing the continued success of the Institute, congratulated the members on its work, and while keeping clear of controversial aspects, emphasised that transport was a basic industry and that it was essential to the country's welfare that all forms of it should work together in a "streamlined" fashion. In celebration of this anniversary the Institute of Transport has issued in pamphlet form a paper prepared by D. R. Lamb, one of its members, reciting the beginning and achievements of this latter-day scientific society. The record bears witness to the power of the technical Press, not only in arousing interest in a worthwhile object, but also in setting it in motion, for the author explains how the Institute owes its origin to the enterprise of Modern Transport in successfully soliciting the support of the leaders of the industry towards the founding of a society which to-day enjoys Royal Patronage.

New Zealand Govt. Rlys. 180
The conversion of the class A 4-6-2 four-cylinder compounds to two-cylinder simples was proceeding. Of the 57 engines built between 1906 and '1914 over 30 had been converted since 1941.

Southern Railway. 180
A. Cobb, the Locomotive Running Superintendent, had retired, and as from 1 November T,E. Chrimes had been appointed Superintendent of Motive Power attached to the Office of the Superintendent of Operation.

Number 628 (15 December 1944)

The British 4-6-0. 181-2
Broad survey: partly history (Highland Raiway Jones Goods to GWR Kings..

4-8-2 Mountain type locomotive Canadian National Rlys. 182. illustration.
Built by Montreal Locomotive Works: first of batch of 20: No. 6060. Inspected by E.R. Battley, Chief of Motive Power; W.N. Townsend. Works Manager of Montreal Locomotive Works, Francis Williams, Chief Mechanical Engineer and R.F. Walker mechanical engineer (locomotoves)

Dynamometer car Victorian & S. Australian Rlys. 183-4. 2 illustrations, diagram (elevation & plan).;
Fitted with Amsler equipment and constructed at the Islington workshops of the South Australian Railways in 1932. Illustrations include view of instrument table.

F.C. Hambleton. G.W.R. saddle tank engines Class 1661. 185. 2 illustrations
Drawings of Nos. 1695 with saddle tank and and 1685 as pannier tank. Withdrawn locomotives were sold to the Cardiff Railway, Alexandra Docks Cp. and to the Brecon & Merthyr Railway. See below

L.N.E.R. 185.

Londonderry & Lough Swilly Ry. 185.
4-6-2T No. 12 had been scrapped leaving only 10 locomotives in stock. Passenger services still ran between Derry and Buncrana and freight ran to Gweedore.

L.M.S.R. 185.

White Horse of Kent. 194