The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume  50 (1944)
Key file

Number 617 (15 January 1944)

The locomotive and research. 1.
Editorial inspired by Sir Harold Hartley's brochure Are you research-minded? Queries extent to which research can be extended to steam locomotive, altough mentions Bridge Stress Committee, the superheater and Chapelon's work.

2-4-2+2-4-2 "Beyer-Garratt" for the Leopoldina Railway (metre gauge). 2-3. illustration
Four locomotives supplied by Beyer Peacock for service on the Cantagallo branch which rose 1500 feet to a summit at Coreiro from Portella on the Parahyba River on 1 in 30 gradients with severe curvature. They had 11 x 20in cylinders; 3ft 4in coupled wheels; thermic syphons; 1103ft2 total heating surface; 30.3ft2 grate area and Belpaire fireboxes. They had large ash pans as the engines were intended to burn inferior coal.

The late Mr John George Robinson. 3

Special railway wagons for aircraft. 3
To handle imports of American aircraft received through ports. Aircraft delivered in 40ft crates which required special well wagons.

L.N.E.R. 3
George Dow, former Information Agent became Press Relations Officer. Notes diagrams produced by him for use in carriages on both LNER and LMS railways and his work on a history ofv the Great Central Railway and that he had been railway correspondent for Design for To-day.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 4-6. 2 illustrations
SNER 0-4-2 1859-1866 (table): supplied by Neilson (WN 478-82/1859); Peto, Brassey & Betts WN 48-50/1861-2; Vulcan Foundry (WN 490-3/1862); Neilson (WN 1161-6/1865 and 1202-7/1866). They had outside cylinders 17 x 20in; 5ft 1½ coupled wheels; 1073ft2 total heating surface; 14ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Illustration No. 65 0-4-2WT on p. 36

Ministry of Supply 2-8-0 tender locomotive. 9. illustration
No. 7199 supplied by North British Locomotive Co.

L.N.E.R. 9
New B1 type: Nos. 8303 Impala; 8304 Gazelle and 8305 Oryx.

L.M.S. 9
Villagers of Troutbeck use station waiting room as church on Sundays: their Vicar, Rev. Lawrence Nobbs cycles 3½ miles from Parish Church in Mungrisdale to conduct service. Press release added war freight trains rumbling by and John Peel Country.

The North London Railway. 9-11 4 illustrations (including 3 line drawings: side elevations)
Three 0-6-0 type were purchased from the Northumberland & Durham Coal Co.  No. 28 (with inside frames) had 16 x 20in cylinders; 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 1009ft2 total heating surface; 11.8ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Nos. 29 and 30 (with outside frames) had 15 x 22in cylinders; 4ft 7½in coupled wheels; 693.99ft2 total heating surface; 14.43ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Begins the long story of Adams 4-4-0Ts which had outside cylinders 17 x 24in; 5ft 6in coupled wheels; 1015ft2 total heating surface; 14.72ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressure..

C.M. Doncaster. GWR No. 197. 12-13. 4 illustrations (including 3 line drawings: side elevations)
Beyer Peacock 2-4-0 of 1862 originally supplied to the West Midland Railway for use between Wolverhampton, Worcester, Hereford and Neweport. They had 16 x 20in cylinders, and 6ft coupled wheels. In 1879-81 three were rebuilt as 2-4-0T for express services, but were rebuilt as 2-4-0 tender locomotives in "1882 and 1880". Photograph shows No. 197 in this form at Snow Hill station in Birmingham. Drawings show No. 197 as built and in final form and as 2-4-0T No. 201.

An old Belgian single locomotive. 13. illustration: line drawing: side elevation)
Crampton 0-2-4T used on Brussels to Tubize line of Belgian State Railways in 1841.

Number 618 (15 February 1944)

The braking of trains. 17
Although several brakes are in service throughout the railwayworld, only two are of prime importance: the air and the vacuum. In a more limited sphere the steam brake also operates successfully, but, as a rule, on locomotive stock only. Developments in air and vacuum brake design have been on an extensive scale the first including electro-pneumatic control for the more rapid application of the brake shoes, and the latter the Quick Service Application Valve. The real measure of any braking effort, however, is the adhesion between tyre and rail; when this is at a maximum, the brake effort should be similarly high. .
One factor which reduces the value of the brake power the driver has available is the friction in the rigging. On the majority of vehicles to-day the power is applied via the shaft, pull rods and cross-beams, all of which absorb their quota for operation. Were it possible to connect the source of power direct to the brake shoe and obtain the retardation with a fraction of the loss sustained to-day, more effective braking at a lower cost would be achieved. This is actually being accomplished on air-braked stock, but the latter is now virtually a "foreign" brake for new stock on British railways, and the vacuum unit does not appear to be quite so adaptable. .
Two directions in which layouts for the vacuum brake may be improved so far as their arresting potentiality is concerned, are the increasmg of the brake reservoir capacity, to minimise the fall in vacuum as the piston rises within the cylinder, and the raising of the vacuum to 24 or 28 inches. Pipe layouts also might be simplified with many of the bends eased, and not a few cut out altogether. If all the pivot pins could be provided with smaller clearance this would assist in eliminating much of the idie motion now so evident, and the fitting of self-lubricating bearings at each joint, if not too great a refinement, would result in a higher all-round gear efficiency. .
With the increased speed of pre-war long-distance express trains, the problem of stopping in a safe, or relatively safe, distance becomes acute, and the only solution available to-day is to ensure the maximum. pressure between tyre and shoe throughout the whole braking period, consistent with the adhesion of the tyre on the rail. The latter is recognised as a varying quantity, and the brake power applied should likewise change, a higher proportion of the train weight being thrown into the scales at speed, and gradually reduced as the velocity diminishes and the coefficient rises. A system which employs a special form of train retarder has been in operation on the London Underground Railways for several years past, and appears to function satisfactorily.
While all wheels on coaching stock are normally braked on locomotive stock the coupled wheels only have blocks fitted as a rule, and it would appear desirable to brake all wheels — bogie, coupled and truck, with, of course, all the tender wheels—for stock which is to service high-speed trains. The braking of bogies and trucks is .only carried out normally where the prospective duties of the engine justify this refinement, but for speeds exceeding 80 m.p.h. the fullest measure of brakmg is justified.
Engines of the double-ended type, i.e., 4-6-4, 4-8-4 and similar symmetrical wheel arrangements, are more effective stopping agents when both carrying units are braked, especially so where the coupled wheel 'blocks are pitched at some distance below the axle centre, and it has been found in practice that the application of the brake in such a design exerts a lifting component which raises the weight off the driving wheels and axles. Under such circumstances the adhesive load at the rail is sometimes seriously diminished, the wheels lock and skid, and a greater distance is .covered before the train comes to rest, unless terminal buffers achieve what the brake should have accomplished. The absence of brake power on the bogies .of such an engine is actually a reflection on the design, since the lifting effect of low-pitched brake blocks is purely a matter of calculation. See also letters from C.A. Branson and from Boneham & Turner Ltd.

New York Central 17.
Twenty-five 4-8-2 locomotives known as class L-4a have been delivered by the Lima Locomotive Works. These engines are the same as the class L-3a, illustrated on page 10 of Volume XLIX, but have driving wheels 72 in. dianieter and ·the diameter of the cylinders increased from 25½ in. to 26 in.

Southern Railway. 17
Of the110 standard 2-8-0 locomotives being built by the Southern Railway for the Ministry of War Transport, sixty-six had already been completed .. Lord Leathers recently inspected L.M.S. No. 8681 at Charing Cross Station

North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. 17
Three new directors had joined the board of the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. W. D. Lorimer, son of Mr. William Lorimer, chairman and managing director of the company; J. B. Mavor, nephew of the late Sam Mavor , is a director of Mavor & Coulson, Ltd., and Sir Frederick Stewart, chairman of Thermotank, Ltd., and of Kelvin, Bottomley & Baird, Ltd. For some time past the North British Loco. Works.production capacity has been engaged on normal and special work, including the 2-8-0 and 2-10-0 austerity locomotives.

50 years' progress in design. 18-19.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 20-1. diagram (side elevation)

L.N.E.R. re-railing exercise under gas conditions at Picketts Lock. 21. illustration
J15 No. 7857 partially derailed with train of wagons derailed and contaminated with mustard gas.

F.C. Hambleton. The first locomotive to be fitted  with Joy's valve gear. 22. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0 No. 2365 exhibited at Barrow in summer 1880 for Institution of Civil Engineers meeting. The locomotive also had a drumhead smokebox and a ¾in thick copper plate tubeplate. The firehole and ashpan were flanged. The hollow ashpan was arranged so that water from the firebox sides flowed across it.  No. 930 (also illustrated) was one of the main batch of Cauliflower 0-6-0s which did not feature the ashpan novelties.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 23-5. 6 tables

Edward H. Livesay. Across Canada in the cab. 25-8. illustration
Toronto to Winnipeg by Canadian Pacific Railroad on the footplate of the Hudson type locomotives hauling the Dominion. The start from Toronto involved the use of the booster. The cabs were luxurious and had seats for three.

Post-War design. 29
Problems identified included hammer blow, flange wear, untreated water and boiler inefficiency

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 29-31. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Holmes replaced Drummond but further Drummond types were built with relatively minor modifications: thus there were further Drummond 4-6-0Ts and 17in 0-6-0s, but with Stirling-type cabs and his own design of safety valves in place of the Ramsbottom-type. In 1884 Cowlairs built his first 4-4-0 design with 6ft 6in coupled wheels and 17in cylinders: they were numbered 574-9 and had no names. The Stroudley yellow was replaced by dark brown.  The 592 class 4-4-0s were introduced to replace the Paton Beyer Peacock 2-2-2s on the Edinburgh to Glasgow expresses. They had 18 x 24in cylinders and were built in 1886/7 and numbered 592-603. Two batches of an 0-4-4T were built: six (Nos. 586-91) in 1886 and six (Nos. 90-5) in 1888. The Holmes 18in 0-6-0 was constructed between 1888 and 1900. This class became numerically the largest ever owned by the North British. They had 5ft. 0in. wheels and 18in. x 26in. cylinders, and were somewhat larger than the Drummond 18in. engines. Tlhe Holmes engines were used throughout the system as the standard heavy goods locomotive, many being fitted with the Westinghouse brake, and proving themselves equally useful, on heavy excursion trains. One hundred and sixty-eight were built between 1888 and 1900. Fifteen, Nos. 663-677, came from Neilson in 1891, fifteen, Nos. 678-692 from Sharp, Stewart in 1892 and the remainder from Cowlairs.

L.M.S.R. 31
Mr. P.J. Fisher, Assistant District Controller at Chaddesden before the war, and now Lieut.-Colonel in the Royal Engineers, has been appointed Assistant Director of Transportation in Italy. Mr. Fisher has had a wide experience of rail transportation on the L.M.S.
187 L.M.S. men had earned decorations or awards since war began. Fifty-four of these were won in air attacks while on railway duty on the L.M.S., ninety- one by staff in the Forces and thirty-five for meritorious 'railway service. The decorations include a D.S.O., a Croix de Guerre, eight George Medals, forty-six B.E.M.s, nine D.F.C.s and ten Military Medals.

Correspondence. 31

Springs, a miscellany. C. F. Dendy Marshall.
Had read the second volume of the late T. H. Sanders' Springs, a Miscellany with very great interest. It is a wonderful book. He has said very kind things about my books, and I am duly grateful, but, on page 951, there is a statement intended to give my views on the subject of the early history of the bogie, which, at all events, does not represent them now. It is as follows: "On the authority of Dendy Marshall, the first bogie which was fitted to any locomotive was designed by ... John Jervis." In Two Essays I wrote practically those words, but they were preceded by these: "Apart from the possibility of Chapman having put his invention into practice in 1813." I afterwards discovered the drawings of Chapman's chain engine in the Derby Museum, and gave reproductions of them in Early British Locomotives, from which Sanders took his own illustrations on page 949. Considering that we know the chain engine was built, and that the drawings agree with those in his Patent Specification, there can now be no doubt that Chapman was the first man to put a bogie on a locomotive. It would still be true to say that the first bogie which was fitted to a successful locomotive was designed by Jervis.

Locomotive valve gears. Harold A. Akroyd
Re January issue reference to locomotives built by this company (Yorkshire Engine Co., Ltd.). Fuller particulars of the valve gears fitted to those for the Hull and Barnsley Railway 0-6-0 engines Nos. 70 to 78 and 91 to 96, and 0-6-0 side tank engines No. 111 to 116 had Stephenson link motion with the reversing shaft underneath. 0-8-0 engines Nos .117 to 131 were fitted with Allan straight link motion. and five later 0-6-0 engines, Nos. 157 to 161, also had Allan motion which differed slightly in dimensions from the 0-8-0. The valve gear on the two locomotives built for the Maryport and Carlisle Railway, already referred to in Montague Smith's letter, was exactly duplicate of these five.

Manx Northern Railway. Ian MacNab.
Re cover page xxix of The Locomotive Magazine for November, 1919, with an advertisement by the British Commercial Lorry Engineering Co., of Manchester, offering for sale a 3 ft. gauge locomotive built by Sharp, Stewart & Co., with cylinders 11 in x 18 in. stroke; an illustration of the engine concerned appears with the announcement. Although the illustration is not too clear in detail, the engine is in all probability No. 1 Ramsey of the late Manx Northern Railway. This engine was sold out of service in 1918 by its then owners, the Isle of Man Railway, but records at Douglas do not indicate what actually became the fate of this locomotive. I am anxious to obtain details of the final history of this Manx Northern Railway locomotive, and if any of your readers can give further information, I should be greatly obliged.

Cowlairs Commentary. C. Hamilton Ellis..
In common, I am sure, with many other readers, I am greatly enjoying "Cowlairs Commentary." I would like, however, to point out that the drawing of the Helensburgh tank engine No. 1391, previously 495, does not show her quite accurately in the aspect she bore in 1921. All three of' these beautiful locomotives were rebuilt with new boilers in 1905, many years before they were given duplicate numbers in the thirteen hundreds, but your contributor's otherwise admirable sketch shows the new number in conjunction with the old Drummond boiler. The latter was always recognisable at once by the spacing of the safety-valves. Between the old seatings there was space for the spring of the original Ramsbottom fitting, while in the Holmes and Reid boilers the lock-up .valves were close together. The 1905 boilers on the three Helensburgh tanks had 150 psi with a slight reduction in the grate area and the tube heating surface. Photographs of these engines are rare and I have never seen a photograph of one on a train. I enclose, however, a picture of mine showing No. 1390 (originally No. 494 Craigendoran) as she appeared in the last days of the North British Railway. I painted. the picture a few years ago and for the sake of old associations depicted her with a Helensburgh train, though this would have been unusual towards the end. One, I believe, finished up at Aberfoyle and another at St. Andrews.

Reviews. 31

British Railways in Peace and War.
New facts about the railways were revealed in latest publication. In addition to a comprehensive survey of facts, a special chapter gives a behind-the-scenes account of the big task of moving an army, and a double-page coloured plate provides a visual impression of the vast number of trains needed to haul a force of the size of that which went to North Africa. A review of the "Progress Between the Wars." shows that cheap fare journeys more than doubled, the figures in 1923 being 209,600,000 and, in 1938, 492,400,000. Other facts given show that the same number of miles were run in 1923 as in 1938, but with 4,300 less locomotives; between 1923 and 1938, 350 new stations and 40 new goods depots were provided; £7,000,000 was spent on new steamships, and a £40,000,000 programme for London was commenced. The "Total War Effort" of the railways reveals that the movement of troops to "invasion" stations required one railway to run 116 special trains spread over twenty-seven days; the first exports to Russia involved one railway running 132 special trains between August and November, 194 I. Another section of this booklet gives an account of the war effort of railway steamships and marine staffs. Ninety- two railway vessels have been chartered by the Government for service as, hospital carriers, transports, assault ships, minelayers and sweepers, ammunition carriers, ack-ack ships and rescue ships sailing with Atlantic convoys. The last section of the book gives an indication of the post-war services which are being planned.

Testing locomotive slide valves: ports and pistons. E.J. Nutty.
Thirty-two page booklet compiled with the assistance of Engineman W.H. Nutty, explaining the relative positions of cranks, coupling rods, eccentrics, pistons and valves, and glVlllg useful information for locating blows or defects in the steam chest or cylinders. The diagrams are clear and the text is neatly arranged.

Locomotives .of the Metropolitan Railway, 1863-1943. P. Densham. . 20pp.,
A list of all the steam and electric locomotives that have worked on this railway, together with dimensions and rough sketches of t.heir outlines, A useful record of the builders dates and ultimate disposal of the engines of a line that dunng eighty years had many interesting designs of tank locomotives, but no tender engines.

A.B.C. of L.M.S. locomotives. Ian Allan and A. B. MacLeod; 52 pp. and cover. The A..B.C. of·L.N.E.R. locomotives, Ian Allan; 64 pp. and cover.
The authors have already published lists of the locomotives of the Southern and G.W. systems and the two new booklets deal with the L.M.S. and L.N.E., so that the series now covers the locomotive studs of all four British groups. The booklets have been officially corrected and are well illustrated by official photographs. The first-mentioned contains dimensional diagrams of the standard classes, whilst the L.N.E. book has a full table of dimensions of all types. A list of running sheds and a few other interesting notes complete two well arranged and produced reference books.

Number 619 (15 March 1944)

The future of transport. 33-4
Major-General Gilbert Szlumper paper presented to the Engineeering Industries Association in which he outlined three future strategies: the earlier one of unlimited competition between road and rail, government limited competition and nationalization: the last not being favoured

Conversion of L.N.E.R. "04" class locomotive. 34-5. 2 illustrations.
Thompson conversion of Great Central O4 type to O1 using B1 cylinders and valve gear and boiler

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 35-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
SNER 0-4-2T and 2-2-2 Vulcan Foundry delivered four Crewe-type 2-2-2 designed by Yarrow. These had 7ft 1½ in driving wheels, 16 x 22in cylinders, 1301.75ft2 total heating surface, 12.75 grate area and 120 psi bouiler pressure. A further locomotive was constructed at Arbroath but with 16½ x 20in cylinders and 7ft 0½ driving wheels. Four more were ordered from Vulcan Foundry, but the SNER had been absorbed by the Caledonian before they were delivered In 1870 the Arbroath locomotive was overhauled at Perth and the Yarrow firebox was replaced and standard 22in stroke cylinders were fitted. Table gives rebuilding, renumbering and withdrawal date. Figures: SNER 0-4-0t No. 32 (line drawing); 0-4-2WT No. 65; 2-2-2 No. 461 and CR 2-2-2 No. 316 as rebuilt (ex SNER No. 27).

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 38-41. illustration, 4 diagrams.
The leading dimensions of the Star and Claughton classes are compared: the Claughtons had a higher superheat, but in other respects were smaller. On 2 and 4 November 1913 dynamometer car tests were performed between Euston and Crewe and between Crewe and Carlisle on No. 1154 Ralph Brocklebank hauling 435 tons to Crewe and 360 tons thereafter. The Engineer reported the results on 6 February 1914. 1500 horsepower was attained on Grayrigg bank and indicator readings taken on passing Tebay gave 1669 ihp.

Air attacks. 41.
"It can now be revealed" that the railways had experience over 10,000 incidents. A 3½ mile stretch of line near Coventry received forty high explosive bombs in one night.

Union Pacific R.R. 41
Five 4-8-8-4; ten 4-8-4 and twenty 4-6-6-4 locomotives had beeen ordered from the American Locomotive Company.

L.N.E.R. 41
J.S. Jones who had been engaged on special duties in the chief mechanical engineer's department, had been appointed assistant locomotive running superintendent Western Section, Southern Area. E.S. Bradley, district engineer Hull had been appointed district engineer York.

The North London Railway. 42-4. illustration, 2 tables
Adams resigned in 1873 and was replaced by J.C. Park as Locomotive Superintendent. He continued to build the 4-4-0T locomotives with slight modifications, notably the addition of cabs and the removal of the number and coppper cap to the chimneys. Tables list the running numbers, Bow Works numbers and rebuilding numbers with dates. Figurec 27 shows No. 48 at Alexandra Palace.

Review. 44

The evolution of railways, 2nd ed. Charles E. Lee.
Traces history back much further than might be expected.

C.M. Doncaster. Old banking engine, London and Croydon Railway. 44. illustration
G & J Rennie 0-4-2 locomotive of 1838/9.

Swiss Federal Railways. 44
Two electric locomotives were under construction for the Bern-Lotschberg-Simplon line. They had four driving axles and were intended for hauling express trains

Rapid repair of locomotives. 45; 46. 4 illustrations
One of photographs shows A8 No. 2162 being overhauled: main accent is on rapid stripping down with tanks of caustic soda being used to clean the motion and high pressure water being used to clean the frames, etc.

General Montgomery meets railway workers. 45

L.N.E.R. 45

Canadian National Railways. 45

F.C. Hambleton. The first 4-2-2 express loco. 47. 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Dean built Wigmore Castle as a 2-2-2 which broke its leading axle in Box Tunnel on 16 Septdember 1893 and led to it being rebuilt with a leading bogie: the remainder of the class was similarly rebuilt.

Obituary. 47.
Harold Hume Brindley, Fellow of St. John's College Cambridge and Keeper of the War Transport Collection,Cambridge Musuem of Archaeology and Ethnology. Also A.C. Stamer.

Wagons for American railways. 47
4000 hopper wagons under construction using timber for floors and sides  to save weight.

Correspondence. 48

Memories of Havre and Rouen. John Poole.
Re Norman Duncan's reminiscences of Rouen of exceptional interest, as writer was, at the time or which he writes, stationed at St. Etienne-du-Rouvray, the C.M.E. Base Workshops. I only made one visit to Petit Quevilly (then commanded by, if I remember correctly, a Capt. Lyddon, of the Hull & Barnsley) this being on the occasion of trouble with the brake ejector of a G.W.R. 43XX class recently turned out from wreck repairs. I do not remember the well tanks still bearing "Ouest" plates at Quevilly, and was under the impression that, except for one preserved at. the works at Sotteville, and another stationed at Pon de I' Arch on a "push and pull" service, this class was extinct.
There was a Pacific design still earlier than the 231,001 class—two engines of this type were turned out by the old Ouest—characterised by super-smokeboxes and a peculiar form of conjugated valve-gear. I could never discover what happened to these two; possibly as relative failures they were decently interred.
The engines seen by Mr. Duncan at the Gare d'Orleans were probably not ex-Ouest. but ex-Etat. One with a form of Corliss valve-gear used to work a mid-day train past Sotteville. Outside cylinder passenger engines were rare on the Ouest after the Buddicorn period.

Joseph Hamilton Beattie. C. Hamilton Ellis
By way of supplement to my article on Joseph Beattie, I enclose a copy of a picture recording my impression of Nine Elms running shed in the early 'sixties [1860s], showing three different types of Beattie locomotive: Havelock, built 1858, one of the second series of Beattie single expresses; Medusa, a 5 ft. goods built in 1863, with a single jet-condenser feedwater heater, and Ajax (1855), one of the double-framed passenger engines which formed Beattie's first design for the London &. South-Western Railway, and as running with another form of condenser. In the original picture, the first-named is painted chocolate, lined out in red, black and white; the second similar, but without the red lines, and the third Iridian red with black bands, as used up to the end of the 'fifties. On the extreme right I have endeavoured to reconstruct their designer from the old por- trait still at Nine Elms. He is conducting a distinguished visitor round the shed. Behind is the old roundhouse and the drawing office resplendent in its new yellow brick. Bereft of its tower, smothered in dirt and with its windows blown in, this building has survived everything else in the picture.

North London No. "51" class. H.R. Norman.
Can any reader state definitely if the cylinders were enlarged to 17½ in. and coupled wheels to 5 ft. 11 in. in the 1883 to 1890 rebuilding, or if these enlarged dimensions apply only to the three engines rebuilt between 1902 and I907? My personal opinion is that Nos. 103, 114 and 117 only were so treated, as the 17½ in. cylinder appears to have been introduced by Park, and the first new engine to have such cylinders was No. 81, built in 1896. Furthermore, No. 109, which was rebuilt at Crewe and not at Bow, seems to have retained 17 in. cylinders to the end.

The North London Railway. C. W. Williams.
Regarding the 4-4-0 tank engines introduced by Mr. Adams in 1868 and described in the January issue according to official information, Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 25 and 42 were rebuilt and not broken up at the dates shown. No. I was renumbered 125 in November 1906, when It was replaced by a new engine of similar. type. Details of the six engines noted above-all of which survived into L.M.S. service-are as set out below:








































It will be noted that these engines fit in, as far as the L.M.S. numbering is concerned, with those mentioned in the January article; also that the series became .L.M.S. Nos. 6439 to 6458, inclusive, in the same order in which the engines were built.

Number 620 (15 April 1944)

Steam or diesel. 49.
The apparently successful .operation of the Diesel engille in road service has led many engineers to anticipate that equally good results will be achieved ill the held of rail transport. Whether such an assumption is justified we are not prepared to say, but a comparison of the two forms of motive power ill relation to the spheres of servlce available to each, together with a brief review of the success already achieved by diesel rail units, may give a pointer to the possjhiljties in the post- war world. The chief gains claimed for the Diesel are lower cost of fuel consumption, and increased availability. As the engine unit usually runs but a fraction of the time dunng which the machine is in actual service; the first claim must be admitted so long as the relative costs of the two fuels is favourable to the Diesel. Should circumstances operate adversely to the price of fuel oil. and favourably to the cost of locomotive coal, it is not difficult to imagine steam becoming the cheaper motive power. So far as increased availability is concerned, the I.C. engine also gains a point here over most steal? locomotives burning coal fuel, but whether this is likely to be a permanent handicap against the steamer depends on present and future develop- ments. The operation of rail transport is capable. of resolution into several clearly defined fields:
(1) Long-distance passenger services.
(2) Local passenger services.
(3) Long-distance goods and heavy mineral traffic.
(4) Short-distance goods traffic.
(5) Shunting operations.
In the first-named, many streamlined light- weight Diesel trains are operating in the U.S.A. with a fair measure of success, but at a high initial outlay and a permanent disability of no mean importance, viz.: a lack of flexibility in the handling of traffic during peak hours. These train sets obviously accommodate only a limited number of passengers, and seats are frequently fully booked in advance. With a steam-hauled train, additional coaches may be provided, and the same locomotive will usually handle the heavier train.
Local passenger transport, however, should provide an excellent held in which the Diesel car, or twin-car, may operate, and the G.W.R. is using a considerable number of these to the mutual benefit of the public and the railway company. Many branch lines, at present dosed down, might afford excellent opportunities of proving the benefits of this form of traction in competition with road traffic' most travellers prefer the comfort and rela- tive steadiness of the rail vehicle, not to mention safety, as compared with the aver.age road, and a carefully prepared schedule, with attractive cars operating at reasonably high speeds dunng the busy hours, would seem to be a worthwhile expert- ment.
Goods traffic whether main line or local, seems to remain the peculiar province still of the steam engine, at any rate until such time as the heavy Diesel engine becomes a more dependable proposition for rail service than it has so far proved. A fundamental disadvantage under which this unit suffers is the big drop in tractive power as the rail speed rises; this alone gives a considerable advant- age to the steam engine, particularly on express goods traffic such as the Green Arrow handled in pre-war years.
In shunting yards the Diesel—of all powers up to approximately 500 b.h.p.—has done excellent work, and if properly handled there seems to be no reason why this held should not become the exclusive province of the Diesel locomotive. Some few years ago the Baldwin Locomotive Company designed and built an automatically oil-fired switching locomotive as a reply to the Diesel shunter, but the latter has done, and is doing, such good work in this direction that the reversal to steam is unlikely, unless the cost of repairs and maintenance of the Diesel proves unduly high.
A particularly serious drawback to any of the Diesel engine units, especially when equipped with electrical transmission, is the prime cost, and unless this can be reduced appreciably, its future does not seem to be particularly promising except in the two fields indicated. True, the increased service rendered per day of twenty-four hours justifies a somewhat higher capital cost, but hardly three times the price of the corresponding steamer, which was the average pre-war ratio.
From the foregoing, it would appear that the Diesel is too greatly handicapped at present in the haulage of ,goods traffic, as well as for long- distance passenger trains, excepting the limited capacity lightweight streamlined set with power house built in. For the handling of existing passenger coach stock the steam engine still holds the field, though in the matter of branch line traffic the Diesel car is clearly justified, as also is the Diesel locomotive for shunting operations,

Personal. 49.
Sir Wm. Stanier, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. He is the second locomotive engineer to be made a Fellow of the Royal Society, the first being Robert Stephenson. -

Examination of locootives during Black-out. 50-1. illustration, diagram
LNER Light Tunnel constructed of corrrugated iron

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 51-
Continued from page 31. Since these articles are intended to be a commentary of Cowlairs affairs rather than a comprehensive history of the North British locomotives, it is not proposed to consider in detail the subsequent classes built by Holmes. The reason for this is not only that full particulars have often been given of all the engines concerned, but also that Cowlairs for some years became almost an appendage of St. Rollox, and there is more than a suspicion that two of the North British designs were directly based upon those of the Caledonian. At the end of 1890 McIntosh took over at St. Rollox and instilled new life into the Drummond tradition there, which was already virile enough in all conscience. Cowlairs until 1906 remained one step behind,producing a counterpart to each St. Rollox type just in time for Mclritosh to go one better.
In 1890 Holmes standardised on the 6ft. 6in. 4-4-0 with 18in. cylinders for main line work, twenty-four examples being built between 1890 and 1895 at Cowlairs, namely Nos. 36, 37, 211-218, 262, 293, 312, 404 and 633-642. So far so good. They were admirable engines of the accepted North British type, and they put in a great deal of useful work. For the new West Highland line he introduced a modified design with 5ft. 7in. coupled wheels, of which twenty-four were also built at Cowlairs, the first coming out in 1892, two years before the line was ready for traffic. These were Nos. 55, 227, 231, 232, 341-346, 394, 395 and 693-704.
McIntosh was also busy on the 6ft. 6in. 4-4-0, but with a difference. His machines, the first Dunalastairs, had 18½ in. cylinders and larger boilers than had ever previously been used on this type of locomotive. With their ample stearning capacity they were an immediate success, and the North British engines were completely outclassed. Cowlairs decided that nothing could compare with a Dunalastair but another "Dunalastair", and as a result the North British 729 class of 4-4-0 with 18¼-in. cylinders appeared, engines almost identical to those of the Caledoman. Eighteen of these were built in 1898 and 1899, namely Nos. 729-740 and 765-770. In appearance they followed the usual Holmes standard, having the Stirlinz cab and details according to Cowlairs, but the sandboxes were below the running plate instead of incorporated in the leading splasher as in earlier engines.
Unfortunately in the game of follow-my-leader the initiative is, of necessity, unequally divided, and McIntosh's reply was a further series of Dunalastairs, this time with 19 in. cylinders, which' left the Cowlairs people relatively where they had been before. In 1903 the North British responded with the 317 class, twelve 19 in. engines with the novelty, for Cowlairs, of piston valves. These machines, Nos. 317-328, were glven a new type of cab, angular in line, with a slightly cambered roof and one side window on either side. This cab became the standard for the company thereafter. Nevertheless alterations in appearance do not necessarily make a locomotive the more suocessful, and the 317 class, although possibly as good as, was never better than the comparable Caledonian engines from which they were expected to wrest the traffic on competitive routes. This type was produced at a time when Holmes was on a bed of sickness, and William Paton Reid, the Outdoor Locomotive Superintendent was virtually in oharge. The new type of cab was decided upon because of Reid's desire to give the enginemen better protection from the weather than the Stirling design provided.
The North British had built no six-coupled tank engines since the last of the Drummond Terriers came out in 1878. The time having come when a more modern machine was required, in 1901 Holmes produced an enlarged version of the Drummond engines. In the new type the 4ft. 6 in. wheels were retained, but 17 in. x 26 in. cylinders were used. and, of course, considerably larger boilers. These engines were contract-built, twenty, Nos. 795-814 coming from Neilson, and twenty, Nos. 815-834 from Sharp, Stewart. These engines were used for shunting and short distance goods traffic, while several replaced the Wheatley tanks on the station pilot duties at the Waverley, where they are still to be found.
Reid, when deputising for Holrnes prepared a design of small six-coupled shunting tank in which, for reasons of accessibility, the cylinders were placed outside. These light shunters had 3ft. 6in. wheels and 15in. x 22in. cylinders, and were for use in dock areas and industrial districts where there were sharp curves and weight restrictions. In view of. the nature of the work they were given dumb buffers. None of the engines came out until 1904. when Reid had succeeded Holmes, but it may be said that thirty-five were built at Cowlairs between 1904 and 1919. Their numbers were 66, 87,114,116-119,121,130,132, 152, 233-238, 271, 277, 279, 288-290 and 836-847.
During Holmes' term of office a few 0-4-0 pugs by outside contractors were received by the North British as a result of working agreements. In 1889 a Barclay machine with 3ft. 6in. wheels and 14in. x 22in. cylinders was taken over and numbered 611. It had been built in 1884. At the same time a Grant, Ritchie example, built in 1887 and similar in dimensions, was also acquired. This became No. 612. These came horn Methil Dock. Another engine was received from the Gartness Coal & Iron Co. at about the same time, but was almost immediately replaced. This was No. 610, and was also of the pug design. In 1901 a further Barclay engine of diminutive size with 2ft. 11in. wheels and 13in. x 20in. cylinders became North British property and was numbered 835.
Holmes' rebuilding programme, except in the case of one engine, followed strictly the lines laid down by Drummond. For example the remain- ing Edinburgh and Glasgow engines of the later main line types, when these had not already been dealt with by Drummond, were brought up to modern standards. In addition the  382 class of 2-4-0 and the majority of the 15½in. 0-6-0 locomotives of the North British were also rebuilt. The double-framed St. Margarets 0-6-0 engines' with the 4ft. 6 in. and 5 ft. Oin. wheels were taken in hand. Johnson's double-framed 0-4-2 No. 262 was rebuilt as a saddle tank. For some reason the 341 class of 2-4-0 was not rebuilt when the very similar 382 series were modernised, and the former were replaced when the original boilers wore out. They were somewhat smaller machines than the 382 class.

South African Railways. 52
Orders for 1,000 large wagons have been placed with a firm in the Union.

L.N.E.R. 52
With a view to providing stronger track at some places on their system, flat-bottom rails had been laid.

The late MR. R. E. L. Maunsell, C.B.E.  52
Death of Mr. Richard Edward Lloyd Maunsell, C.B.E., who was, until his retirement in 1937, chief mechanical engineer of the Southern Railway. Maunsell started his engineering career in 1888 as a pupil under H. A. Ivatt at the G.S. & W.R. works, Inchicore. In 1891 he joined the former Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway at Horwich and after serving as a pupil there became locomotive foreman at Blackpool. In 1894 he went to India as assistant locomotive superintendent of the East Indian Railway, and remained for two years. In 1896 he returned to Inchicore and held the post of works manager there until he succeeded R. Coey as locomotive engineer in 1911.
Maunsell was appointed chief mechanical engineer of the former South Easten & Chatham Railway in 1913, and after the grouping became chief mechanical engineer of the Southern Railway. He was President ,of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers in 1918 and served as a member of the Council of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. He was also a past member of the Council of the Institute of Transport.

Southern Railway.  52
The first of ten of a new design of four-wheeled passenger luggage vans had been put into service. A number of interesting features, including reinforced plastic panelling, had been introduced. The bodies were built of electrically-welded channel sections on frames of channel section steel.

Kitson & Co. , Ltd  52
Owing to the heavy demands for locomotives, the Locomotive Manufacturers' Association have temporarily suspended the 1938 agreement with Kitson & Co. to discontinue building locomotives.

"Shadow" trains for invasion armies. 52
A complete "shadow" service of freight trains which can be put on the line in a matter of hours has been built up by British railways in collaboration with the Fighting Services. Material from ordnance depots and stores, dispersed throughout the country, may be required at any of many ports. The total probable journeys, running into thousands, have all been classified, routed and timed, any of which can be put into operation at short notice. Each train in the "shadow" service has a code number which indicates to the railway operating experts that "ABC 4217',' for instance, means that a locomotive and forty trucks must be at Depot "A" to load up and be ready to leave at 15.00 hours on a given day and go, by a prescribed route, arriving at 06.00 hours the next morning.

L.M.S. 52
Instead of a number of platelayers removing worn points and crossings and replacing them with new, worn rails are now welded and resurfaced by an expert welder while the rail is in its original position, in the intervals between the passage of trains.

H.F. Hilton. "The White Horse of Kent". 53-5. diagram (side elevation)
Correspondence between the Croydon & Dover Railway and Robert Stephenson & Co. through E.F. Starbuck and E.J. or E.I. Cook. W. Pulford was the Secretary of the Dover Railway. The White Horse of Kent was shipped on the Ann which was lost off Whitby: its WN was 399. A replacement WN 435 may have been constructed by Nasmyth & Co.: it was delivered on 5 September 1844.  

Propeller railcars. 56-7. 2 diagrams including side elevation), plan
Mentions the Bennie railplane, the Rail Zepplin which achieved 145 mile/h between Hamburg and Berlin and more recent work in France and the Netherlands

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 57-9. illustration, map

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 60-1. illustration, 2 diagrams
No. 2221 Sir Francis Dent in 1924 between Hellifield and Aisgill with 350 tons and No. 6001 in 1930 between Leeds and Hellifield where a pilot engine was added

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 62-3
Rates of pay in Great Britain including London allowance and mileage payments and lodging allowances, etc.

Correspondence. 65

The braking of trains. C.A. Branston.
As none of your readers appear to have gone in on the matters raised in vour editorial on Brakes, I hope you will permit me to make one or two remarks on the subject.
Your placid acceptance of the present-day use of the steam brake is, frankly, disappointing. For locomotive brakes steam has long ago been replaced by air except in this country, where in certain cases a steam brake is employed in conjunction with the atmospheric brake on the train. This is presumably in order to avoid the difficulty of suitably locating the large number of bulky vacuum brake cylinders which the present-day weight of the locomotive demands; thus, on the London & North Eastern Railway, a locomotive weighing 165 tons is equipped with six 21 in. vacuum brake cylinders.
It is obvious that with such an arrangement the synchronisation of the initiation of an application and of the pressure rise in the brake cylinders on locomotive and train respectively must be very imperfect, as the build-up of pressure in the steam brake cylinders is erratic both in incidence and in degree, due to the initial condensation; to suggest that such irregularities can be smoothed out by a suitable design of brake valve is to envisage a mechanism of quite unheard-of precision and delicacy of control. Some experiments carried out on the Nord Railway in France showed that with a boiler nressure of 114 psi. it required I2 seconds to raise the pressure in the brake cylinders to l100 psi; when the cylinders were warm, i.e., immediately after a preceding application, the time was 4.2 seconds. There can be but little doubt that accidents, such as that at Oakley Junction in I938, have, to a considerable extent, been due to insufficient braking as a result of this feature of the peculiar brake equipment employed. As a matter of possible interest, I may perhaps add that, to actuate a train brake, steam has been tried seriously only once, as far as I know; this was Goodale's patent on the Chicago & Canada Southern R.R. about 1872; the experiment failed signallv.
To increase the efficiency of the brake you suggest reducing the frictional losses by simplifying the foundation brake gear. This expedient was actually employed in two of the brakes which participated in the Newark brake trials in 1875. in. the Clark hydraulic brake one brake cylinder was provided for each braked axle, while the Barker hydraulic brake comprised a separate brake cylinder for each braked wheel; both these equipments provided what amounts to a clasp brake. The brake or rocker shaft to which you allude is, of course, a feature peculiar to the normal foundation brake gear of the atmospheric brake only. It should be emphasised, however, that a simplification of the connections, however effected, is desirable, not so much on account of the consequent reduction of the frictional losses, but as lowering the amount of lost motion, which in a fluid pressure brake is the worst dissipator of brake power, as it increases the piston travel and thus lowers the final pressure of the air or degree of vacuum (as the case may be) in the brake cylinders. As an historical detail I may add that the use of locomotive truck brakes originated in the U.S.A. on the Old Colony R.R. about 1890, and has been general practice ever since.
To adjust the actual retardation of the brake in keeping with the adhesion of the wheels is a problem to which George Westinghouse found an ingenious solution in the course of the experiments carried out by Capt. (later Sir) Douglas Galton and himself on the London, Brighton & South Coast Railway in 1878-9. The air pressure in the brake cylinder is reduced as the coefficient of friction between shoe and tyre rises with the falling speed. However, as the adhesion between wheel and rail and the coefficient of friction between shoe and tyre are dependent on other considerations as well (e.g., atmospheric conditions, duration of application, etc.) Westinghouse considered that in service use the advantages derived from this torque- controlled brake cylinder pressure relief valve did not justify the necessary complications; the device appears to have been used for the last time to control the driver brakes on the locomotive which hauled the Westinghouse trial train in the second Burlington brake trials in 1887.
The device was, however, definitely revived in 1923 by Knorr in Germany for use with the Kunze-Knorr brake, type Kksbr, and eight years later with the Hildebrand-Knorr brake, type Hiksbr. In the latest German brake equipment for high-speed trains, type Hikssbr, a more elaborate arrangement has been adopted, comprising i.e., a centrifugal governor located on the end of the car axles. In this case, however, the pressure reduction in the brake cylinder is not effected gradually as the speed drops, but abruptly the moment the speed falls below the rate of 31 m.p.h., the braking ratio. being thereby reduced from 200 per cent. to 75 per cent. of the empty weight of the vehicle. Though irrelevant to ,the present point, it may be of interest to note that this particular brake equipment comprises yet another device originally the subject of a Westinghouse patent, viz., the remarkable accelerator with which the transmission of an application along the major portion of the length of the train is effected by means of wires, in which way the amazing rate of propagation of 3,000 ft. per sec. has been attained in a complete train.
Your editorial clearly reflects the difficulties which await or are even now already troubling brake engineers in Britain with a brake which would appear to have reached the highest development of which it is capable. We are, in fact, placed squarely before the question: Was the choice wise when in 1923 the atmospheric brake was selected as the common standard equipment for all steam trains of this country? At that time this brake was already fitted to approximately 2/3 of the power-braked rolling stock of the roads involved, so that, viewed from the standpoint of immediate outlay, the decision is intelligible. In order to judge of the general soundness of such a choice it is necessary, however, to consider other circumstances, existing or anticipated, when this step was taken.

British Railways. 64
A survey taken towards the end of last year revealed that over the busiest section of double-track line 284 trains passed in 24 hours. These included 120 passenger trains, 12 parcels trains and 144 freight trains composed of a total of 7,200 wagons.

The braking of trains.  Boneham & Turner, Ltd.  64
Re Braking of Trains: we have introduced a range of hardened and ground pins and bushes which reduce much of the idle brake movement which you mention. Due to the hardened surfaces, very little wear takes place, and the efficiency of the brakes is maintained over much longer periods. At the moment, these pins normally have a clearance of 1/32nd in. but if positive means of lubrication could be used together with methods for keeping out foreign matter, etc., this clearance could be considerably reduced.

Reviews. 64

Descriptive diagrams of the locomotive, including diesel rail cars. A.F. Hunt.
Illustrating the different valves and how they take steam from the boiler. Other sketches (not to scale) include Jumper blast-pipe, Swindon superheater, Cylinder lubrication, Slide valves, Piston valves, Stephenson and Walschaerts valve gears, Exhaust injector, Vacuum brake pump and Retaining valve. The Diesel Railcar Notes refer to the G.W.R. units supplied by the Associated Equipment Co.: Oswestry Mutual Improvementt class. Landscape format

The Railway Handbook, 1943-1944. Railway Publishing Co., Ltd.
Many of the sections in this useful handbook have been revised. New sections relate to the Railway Companies' Association, Railways and the War, and Express Traffic in North America.

Electrical Year Book, 1944. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
New matter has been added on induction motors, commutators, frequency changers for high-speed drives, and in the Measurement and Testing Section there is new matter on D.C. and A.C. potentiometers.

Mechanical World Year Book, 1944. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
This useful volume has been revised to keep it up to date. Workshop and factory processes, detailed particulars of the newer materials and present-day data are presented in a readily available form

G.E.R. locomotives, by C. Langley Aldrich. 55 pp.
A well-illustrated booklet in which is gathered together interesting details of all the locomotive types that existed on the old Great Eastern Railway when that company lost its separate identity in 1923, together with particulars of the changes that have taken place since then.

Locomotives of the Taff Vale Railway,  M. C. V. Allchin. , 14 pages,
A complete. list of the Taff Vale locomotive stock at the grouping, together with builders' dates and the numbers allotted when they were incorporated in the G.W.R. list. A number of illustrations, mostly of older types, are included. No dimensions are given.

Trade catalogues. 64

Elastomeric Engineering
Contains useful information about rubber-bonded-to-metals and may be obtained on .request from T. B. Andre Rubber Co., Ltd., Kingston By- pass, Surbiton , Surrey.

Number 621 (15 May 1944)

Locomotive power. 65-6.
Editorial examination of some of the formulae available: F.J. Cole (of Alco), E.C. Poultney (as stated in ILocoE Paper 445) and W.F. Kiesel. The significance of grate area was considered

South Australian 520 class engines. 66-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Streamlined 4-6-4 with light green livery. Two 20½ x 28in welded cylinders with 12in piston valves, Cast steel bar frame. 45ft2 grate area; thermic syphones; 2163ft2 total evaporative heating surface; 651ft2 superheat and boiler set at 215 psi. Locomotive marked a return to Walschaerts gaer from Baker. F. Harrison, CME..

C.M. Doncaster. Sturrock's condensing tank, Great Northern Railway. 68. illustration
In 1865 Avonside supplied fifteen 0-4-4T: a further five were obtained from Neilson; and fourteen further were supplied to the London, Chatham & Dover Railway. In 1866 a further five given running numbers 270-4 were supplied by Neilson. They had 16½ x 22in cylinders and 5ft 6in coupled wheels. They tended to oscillate at high speed.

W.F. Wegener. Performance of class 19c engines on the South African Railways. 68-70. 2 illustrations
4-8-2 fitted with poppet valves working on severe gradients with heavy loads and capable of high speeds.

James McEwan . Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.71-3. 5  illustrations (including 1 line drawing: side elevation)
Two 2-4-0 type assembled at Perth from parts collected from SNER Arbroath Works. They had 17 x 22in outside cylinders; 1040 ft2 total heating surface; midfeathers and 120 psi boiler pressure. Their running numbers were 472-3; renumbered 123-4 in 1876. The Number 1 class 2-4-0 came into service during 1869-71 and were supplied by Neilson and Dubs. They had 16½ x 22in cylinders; 6ft 2in coupled wheels; 914 ft2 in the tubes; 68.2ft2 in the firebox and 14.3ft2 grate area. The boiler pressure was 140 psi. Several later worked on the Portpatrick Railway..

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 73-6. illustration, 2 diagrams

C.M. Doncaster.  An old Rennie single. 76. illustration (drawing: side elevation)

Locomotive power. 77-9. 2 diagrams.

L.N.E.R. 79
One of the GWR diesel railcars was at work in the Newcastle district.

Solving a reclamation problem. 79. illustration
Use of electro-magnet to reclaim metal from the Thames lost during the demolition of the old Rennie Waterloo Bridge from a crane based on the new bridge.

Correspondence. 80

Class 19c engines on the S.A.R. "Firebox."
As letters on the relative merits of the R.C. poppet valve gear as against conventional valve gears appear from time to time, perhaps the following short account might be of interest to vou. The writer made a trip several years ago, on the footplate of a class 19C engine (which are fitted with .the R.C. gear) on the Cape Town-Caledon line,' during the most exacting portion of the run, viz ,; that between Sir Lowry Pass Station and Steenbras Siding. This portion, about nine miles in length, involves the Pass itself, a formidable climb having grades of 1 in 40 and 1 in 44, against the engine, and severe curves. The line rises 1,100 feet from Sir Lowry Pass Station to the highest point of the climb, just before Steenbras Siding. On this occasion the train consisted of seven bogies (225 tons)-the usual load-and the weather was fine. Starting from Sir Lowry Pass Station (post 14¼) at the foot of the Pass, the acceleration was rapid. I do not remember the cut-off at starting, but at post 14½ the speed was 23 m.p.h. on a 1 in 40 grade. At about this point the cut-off was set at 40 per cent., the regulator being about full open, and the driver did not touch either cut-off or regulator again during the whole ascent, except to ease the engine down on some of the curves. This, to me, was a pretty good show. The fireman fired regularly, but not heavily, and there was no suggestion of the engine labouring. So much for hill climbing. On the level, their accelerating powers are remarkable, and a 19c can always be distinguished by its snappy exhaust, which is noticeable even when notched up. I do not know how a similar engine having, say, Walschaerts gear would perform, but such a comparison would be very interesting. My own feeling is that the excellent performance of the 19C class is due in a large measure to their valve gear, and that this is not sufficiently recognised.

Miniature railways. Robin D. Butterell.
Re Wells' recent letter on the Dreamland Miniature Railway. The builder of Billie was Albert Barnes, of Rhyl, who also built the locomotives in use in latter years on the Rhyl Miniature Railway. I can shed no light on the identity of Prince Edward of Wales; it would be interesting to have a table prepared of all the Little Giants and their ultimate "fates." Another Miniature Railway. which I do not think has been mentioned in your articles. is the 15 in. gauge line in Belle Vue Park. Manchester. Although only a pleasure line. and a few hundred yards long. it is of a rohust nature. and is at present undergoing overhaul for the summer season. It has been down about fifteen years. and has had three locomotives. The present one was built by Barnes, and is an "Atlantic"; it is a well-proportioned design and bears quite a close resemblance to the "improved" Little Giant type. as used to run on the Sand Hutton Miniature Railway. It draws a train of open coaches. There is also a train of closed bogie coaches. but this is at present under repair. It might also interest you to know that the Eaton Hall line is still flourtshing, I visited it about a week ago and discovered that trains. drawn bv the four-wheel petrol locomotive. still run every day except Sundays. It is interesting to find sleepers stamped "E.R. 1895 B" and "D B R. 1897 B." The good condition of the permanent way is no doubt due to these cast steel sleepers. The Cuckoo's Nest branch was removed recently.

The "White Horse of Kent." C. F. Dendy Marshall
The letters which have been brought to light by Mr. Hilton will be much appreciated by all who are interested in locomotive history. There is one passage in the article which conveys a wrong impression as it stands, viz., "there is no evidence that the second engine was named White Horse of Kent. The author doubtless meant that there was none in the papers he had been examining, but omitted to say so. There is plenty of such evidence elsewhere. For example, there are numerous references to the engine of that name in the Gauge Commissioners' Report (e.g., vol. 1, page 148, etc.). Warren distinctly says she was not built by Robert Stephenson & Co. It is well known that they often employed other firms as sub-contractors. .


The thermal technics of steam boilers. J. Webster.
This monograph deals with the sequence of problems, from the heat aspect only, as they occur with orthodox boilers. Much useful information is given in a style calculated to appeal to the busy reader. The calculations and rules are presented in a readily understood manner. As is only to be anticipated, water-tube boilers are chiefly dealt with, but the booklet is none the less interesting to those dealing with other types, as fundamental principles are the same.

White metalling. H. Warburton,
Apart from the firms who specialise in such work, most engineering shops, at some time or other, are called upon to line bearings, and it is upon such occasions that many have discovered that it is not such a simple procedure as might be supposed--or perhaps it has been left to the customer to make the discovery, at a later date, when shell and lining parted company. This monograph gives much valuable information upon the subject and deals with the operations and considerations involved in the metalling of bearings up to large sizes. It is a useful contribution to the literature of a subject not sufficiently understood by some of those who practise it.

L.M.S. Chief Mechanical Engineer. 80
C. E. Fairburn, M.IC.E., M.I,M.E., M.I.Loco.E., the recently appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.M.S. had been acting in that capacity since 1942, when Sir William Starrier was seconded to the Ministry of Production. He was born in 1887 and educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, entering the Derby locomotive works under Sir Henry Fowler in 1912. Afterwards he joined Siemens Bros. & Co., Ltd., being engaged in their railway department. During the period of the first world war he was with the R.F.C.-later the R.A.F.-and left this to join the English Electric Co. in 1919. In 1926 he was appointed general manager of Dick Kerrs, also presiding over the English Electric Co.'s car works, and rose to the position of chief engineer and manager of the traction department at the Stafford establishment. He entered the L.M.S. as electrical engineer in 1934, becoming deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer in 1937.

The "Railway Mania". 80
During 1844 a remarkable change in the railway world came about and spread rapidly. It was attributed to the improvement in trade activity following a severe depression. The total railway mileage at the time in Great Britain was approximately 3,000, owned by 118 companies. Sixty-six applications, involving 900 miles of new railway, were received by the House of Commons at the beginning of the 1844 session. The companies incorporated during the session were: the Chester & Holyhead; Fumess; Lancaster & Carlisle; Leeds & Bradford; Manchester. Bury & Rossendale; Preston & Blackburn: North Wales Mineral: South Devon; North British; Eastern Counties & Thames Junction: Eastern Union; Norwich & Brandon: Guildford Junction: Brighton & Chichester; and the Brighton, Lewes & Hastings.

Number 622 (15 June 1944)

British steam locomotives. 81-2. table

F.C. Hambleton. "Lord of the Isles", G.W.R. 83. illustration (drawing: side elevation)

L.N.E.R. 83.
Remaining four of 25 V2 type modified to Pacific type and classified as A2/1.

[Ministry of Supply 2-10-0 No. 3701]. 84
Photograph of locomotive in LNER Scottish Area

The North London Railway. 84-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0T. Continued p. 120

O.J. Morris. Railmen's holiday. 86-7. illustration
Annual excursions to Eastbourne of the LBSCR Stationmasters' and Inspectors' Mutual Aid Society. Locomotives hauling these trains were decorated and there was competition between Battersea and New Cross sheds.

Boiler repairs. 88-9. 2 illustrations, plan
Progressive system of boiler repair introduced at the LNER Gorton Works involving purpose-built gantries

Commonwealth Railways of Australia. 89.
Eight 4-6-0 type locomotives had been taken over from the Canadian National Railways and a further two 4-6-0s had been acquired from the New York, New Haven & Hartford RR.

Locomotive power. 90-2. 2 diagrams.
Locomotive resistance

G.E.C. mobile sub-stations. 92. illustration
Mounted on a well wagon intended to accept a 11 or 6.6 kv, three-phase ac supply and output 1000 kw, 500 volt dc.

L.N.E.R. 92
Experiments in radio transmission between footplate crews and guards en route. Equipment from Rediffusion Ltd. Sir Ronald Matthews, chairman of the LNER spoke to Sir Charles Newton, general manager, as he travelled north by train (seems a long way before the quiet coaches now provided to switch off such chit chat)

L.M.S.R. 92
On 30 December 1943 cthe LMS ran its hundred thousandth OHMS train since the outbreak of WW2. Total included 52,603 troop trains, 25,288 stores trains, 6799 ammunition trains and 15,310 petrol trains.

L.N.E.R. 92
A.G. Minty, assistant district locomotive superintendent, Newcastle had been appointed acting district locomotive superintendent, Sunderland.

South Australian "520" class engines. 92
Further information about superheated fitted.

L.N.E.R. class Y8 0-4-0T No. 560. 92. illustration
Fitted with chime whistle off A4 No. 4469 Sir Ralph Wedgwood destroyed in Baedeker raid on York

New passenger luggage vans, Southern Railway. 93-5. illustration, 2 diagrams (including plans)
Four wheel vehicle where light weight was combined with added protection for the contents through isolating the body of the vehicle from the frame using suspension elements consisting of spiral springs with rubber elements. Plastic panels and welded components reduced the weight. Designed by O.V.S. Bulleid. Livery was black due to WW2 conditions.

R.B. Fellows. By train to the Eton Montem, 1838-1844. 95-6.
On Whit Tuesday 1844 the last Eton Montem was held. Was the Mortem killed by the railway? The Montem, which had been held for three, if not four hundred years, was essentially a school pageant, a feature being the procession of. the school from Eton to Salt Hill, near Slough, many of the boys being in "fancy dress", usually of historical type, then, the collection of money from the spectators, and indeed from all travellers on the road nearby, a custom open to criticism. The donations, often considerable, were called "salt", and after all expenses were paid the balance was handed over to the captain of the school for his use at the University. It is well known that the Eton governing body got a clause inserted in the Great Western Company's Act to prevent the building of a station within three miles of Eton College—this, of course, ruled out any station at Slough. James Wyld, the well-known compiler of early railway guides, states in his Guide to the G.W.R., published in 1839, that "the enraged Provost of Eton", having discovered that the company intended to convey passengers to Slough for the Montem, which in 1838 was held on 5 June, the day after the opening of the railway, applied to the Court of Chancery to restrain them from setting down or picking up passengers within three miles of the College, but the application was dismissed with costs. The Company's Act merely prohibited the building of a station. John Herapath, the editor of The Railway Magazine, travelled to Maidenhead and back on Montem Day, 5 June 1838, and in his magazine for July wntes an account of his journey. The 10 o' clock train from Paddmgton by which he travelled was made up of eight carriages headed by the North Star, and carried some 400 passengers; he rode in an open carriage and complained of the jolting. Returmng from Maidenhead by the 5 o'clock train—engine Eolus—the train he wrote, stopped at Slough and took up an enormous load of Montem gentry, who defied police and everything else to keep them out . . ." The Times stated that a special train of ten carriages was run late in the evening to bring people back to Paddington from the Montem.
The next Montem was held in 1841 when there was a station at Slough. In The Annals of Eton College published in 1898, Sir Wasey Sterry states that in 1841 the Great Western Railway brought down a crowd of most undesirable sight-seers and the next Montem of 1844 was the last." Perhaps this was as well, for according to the Telegraph Book kept at Paddington, some notorious thieves travelled down on that occasion. The telegraph had not been long extended to Slough, and It was on Montem Day of 1844 (May 28) that the instrument was used for police purposes for the first time. The entries show how the police at Slough were warned of the departure from Paddington by the various trains of these notorious characters. Extracts were given in the booklet Brunel and after published by the company about twenty years ago, and are amusing reading. From the Telegraph Book entries and from other contemporary sources we learn that special trains were run to Slough for the Montem of 1844, including a Royal special—for the company carried some very distinguished persons—which left Paddington shortly after 10 a.m. and returned from Slough about 2 p.m., conveying H.R.H. Prince Albert (the Prince Consort), and we also learn that part of the "A" Division of the London Police were on duty at Eton and Salt Hill.

Correspondence. 96

Condensing locomotives. W.O. Skeat.
You will doubtless have had notice of the very interesting paper on condensing locomotives by Professor Lomonossoff and Captain Lomonossoff presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on Friday, May 19· This paper gives a most interesting world survey of condensing locomotives at the present time. It must be admitted that this country's contributions in that direction have not been particularly outstanding, but that may well be, as the authors suggest, because in such a climate as ours the advantages of condensing are much less than they would be in other parts of the world.
The authors give some space, however, to two very interesting experimental efforts by the North British Locomotive Company, the first being the Electro-Turbo-Locomotive of 1910, and the second the Reid-MacLeod Turbo-Locomotive which was exhibited in 1924 at Wembley. The authors make the interesting observation that the second locomotive was possibly a rebuilt version of the first, and Professcr Lomonossoff, in personal conversation with me, has pointed out that the arrangement of the bogies and also of the wheelbase was the same in both these engines thus supporting the authors' contention. I think it will be generally agreed that the authors, in their statement that the history of the first, known as the 'Reid-Rarnsay' locomotive, is somewhat obscure" are not guilty of exaggeration very much to be hoped that someone may come forward with further information about these two extremely interestinng and, from the national pomt of view, most important expenments.
Although in this case private locomotive-building firms were concerned, there is a tendency among the railways of this country, which seems regrettable, to suppress the publication of details of any experiments which they do not deem to be briliantly successful; thus engineers the world over are depnved of all means Of finding out just how much work has been done and what results have been achieved during the expenmental stages of any novel idea or principles m railway locomotion. Unfortunately, this outlook is extremely deep-rooted and is always instinctively bound up with the .idea that an unsuccessful experiment would impair the prestige of the administration concerned. In this direction one is sorely tempted to apply the old saying "The man who never made a mistake never made anything" and so it is with feelings of regret that we find so little information on these two notable experimental types has been allowed to be published. It is hoped, however, that after so many years have elapsed a more enlightened outlook on the matter may prevail and that someone may be ermitted to come forward with additional authoritative information.

Reviews. 96

The First Railway in Norfolk. George Dow.
The author, who will be known to most of our readers as the Press Relations Officer of the L.N.E.R., has produced an excellent booklet, the publication of which coincides wi th the centenary of the Yarmouth & Norwich Railway. . Many people will regard this booklet as a model of its kind; it traces the history of the Y. & N.R. from its inception to its ultimate inclusion in the Eastern Counties fold and later the G.E.R. The salient historical points are given Without an encumbrance of detail, and there are included, inter alia, a map of the line, illustrations of rolling stock and a complete list of the locomotive stock of the Norfolk Railway. In congratulating the writer upon the production of such an interesting contribution to the literature of railways, readers will add the hope that similar works will follow from his pen.

Number 623 (15 July 1944)

Articulated locomotives. 97.

Canadian National Railways. 97
Ten diesel electric shunting locomotives delivered from American Locomotive Co. for use on Grand Trunk Western RR: 1000b hp; capable of 60 mile/h running: 0-4-4-0

Personal. 97
H.R. Carver, sales manager with Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd., Leeds had been made a director

Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range Ry. 2-8-8-4 type locomotives. illustration
Duluth is an iron ore port on Lake Superior and locomotives intended to haul long trains to port. They had 5ft 3in coupled wheels of the Boxpok type; 26 x 32in cylinders; 9528ft2 total heating surface; 125ft2 grate area

New Pacific locomotives for the L.N.E.R. 99-100. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
A2/1: four from final batch of V2 built as Pacifics with divided drive and three independent sets of Walschaerts valve gear. No. 3696 photographed in workshop livery.

Personal. 100
Frederick Hall, Works Manager of the Superheater Co. Ltd. had been awarded an MBE

The Battle of the Gauges. 100
Kenneth Brown spoke at a Railway Club Meeting. Refered to the Gauge Act of 1846 and to the Gauge Commissioners. Argued that the difficulties at Gloucester were deliberately exaggerated

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.101-3. 4 illustrations
In 1867 the Caledonian Railway purchased the Forth & Clyde Navigation with its docks at Grangemouth. There is confusion in the records with the locomotives aquired with the General Terminus Railway. Two locomotives were acquired which spent their lives at Grangemouth: they bore the names Carron and Grange, but received the numbers 116 and 117; 668 and 669 in 1875 and were sold in 1876 and 1877. Class 98 2-4-0

Tanganyika Railways. 103
War related work performed in the workshops.

L.N.E.R. 103
The last remaining D13 class 4-4-0, No. 8039 had been withdrawn. It had begun as a Holden T19 2-4-0 but had been rebuilt with a bogie and fitted with a superheater. 

H.F. Hilton. Stephenson letters of 1844. 104-6. illustration
In connection with supply of locomotives to the Norwich & Yarmouth Railway and involving the contractor Messrs Grissell & Peto, and Morton Peto the resident engineer at that time with an office at St. Michael-at-Plea in Norwich.

Institution of Loco. Engineers. Locomotive axleboxes. 106-8.
Very extensive precis of Paper 447 in Volume 34; continued pp. 122-4.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 108-111. 3 tables

Correspondence. 111-12

The North London Railway. James F. Vickery.
Re C.W. Williams' letter, page 48, I am somewhat surprised at his statement: Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 25 and 42 were rebuilt and not broken up at the dates shown." From my own copious notes and recollection I agree that Nos. 1 and 25 were rebuilt (No. 1 In 1882 and 1895, and. No. 25 in 1883) but I always was under the firm impression that the others were scrapped in the.years when, apparently, new engines appeared bearing their numbers, viz., Nos. 5 and 7 in 1890, No. 6 in 1894; and No. 42 in 1893. I well remember six all apparently new in shop grey coming out in 1890, viz., 5, 7, 23, 24, 26 and 27. At the end of that year old Nos. 26 and 27 stood awaiting scrapping at Devons Road. To the end they were almost in their original condition, in green livery, but fitted with cabs. But whereas No. 27 still had a brass dome, No. 26 had a plain round top dome painted green. Both retained their sandboxes on top of boiler, and No. 26 still had a copper cap to chimney. Of course, I am not contradicting  Williams' statement, as there was very little difference between a so-called rebuilt engine and a brand new one, but the number plates showed the engines as rebuilt or just Bow Works as I have enumerated above. The information on the date plates cannot always be regarded as actual fact in this matter, as, for instance, in the case of the first ten L.T.S. type 4-4-2Ts built new subsequent to the Midland absorption of that very progressive little line, Nos. 2110-2119 built in 1923, although the date plates stated "rebuilt Derby" 1923, they were of course new machines. As a youth I often noticed "new" N.L.R. engines in shop grey with the wheel centres of old locomotives, and: on the other hand, "rebuilt" ones, also in shop grey, with new cast steel wheel centres with the more graceful crescent-shape balance weights.

British locomotive builders. R. Abbott
Re The Locomotive for 1927 there appeared a list of British locomotive builders past and present; SInce then additional makers have been mentioned in various journals, and I have come across others in correspondence with friends. Additional notes are available about the firm of Dick & Stevenson; their address was Airdrie Engine Works, Bel! Street, Airdrie. Established 1790, closed down 1890, and buildings dismantled soon after. Said to have built exactly 100 locomotives, mostly to a standard design, 0-4-0ST, with 14 in. cylinders; some went to SIngapore and one to Poland. I am indebted to Mr. Pearce Higgins for this information, which he gathered. locally.
The following fourteen makers were not noticed In the 1927 article:
Blackie & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Carrett Marshal! & Co., Sun Foundry, Leeds. built for the Kendal & Windermere Railway.
Clayton & Shuttleworth, Lincoln. Built a few locomotives of traction engine type for industrial railways.
R. Daglish & Co.. Wigan. Built for the St. Helens Rly.
Gibb & Hogg, Airdrie. Built industrial locos.
Gourlay, Mudie & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Leeds Foundry Co., Leeds. Built for the Blyth & Tyne Railway. [KPJ: difficult to identify]
McHendrick & Ball, Glasgow. Built industrial locos. with vertical boilers.
Mills Forge Co. Built for the St. Helens Railway.
J. M. Rowan & Co.., Glasgow . Built for the Pollok & Govan and Wishaw & Coltness Railways.
Sandys, Carne & Vivian, Copperhouse Foundry, Hayle. Built for the Hayle Railway.
W. Sisson & Co., Ltd., Gloucester. Built the engine- bogies for the Cardiff Railway rail-motors,
Simpson & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Joseph Smith. Built for the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway. I have not been able to fix the location of the works of the Mills Forge Co., or of Joseph Smith, but perhaps Joseph Smith is the same firm as J. Smith of Bradford who, on page 104 of "The Locomotive" for 1927 were said to. have ordered the Tantalus from the Haigh Foundry .and supplied it to. the Grand Junction Railway.

"Railmen's holiday." W.G. Tilling. 112
Re. Morris's article, "Railmen's Holiday:", in which he mentions No. 203 Henry Fletcher working one of the specials from London Bridge. My father was a personal friend of Mr. Pierpoint, the stationmaster at London Bridge, and went to. Eastbourne as a guest, and I well remember, as a schoolboy. asking him to. make a note of the name of the engine. When he told me, on his return home, that it was a brand new engine named Henry Fletcher , I was quite excited. The date would be about June, 1897.

Reviews. 112

Who, wrecked the Mail? By C. Hamilton Ellis. Humphrey Milford
The author describes in considerable detail an imaginary railway in Spain. The hero is appointed locomotive superintendent and the story deals with a plot to sabotage the line so. that the British company working it would lose its concession through inefficiency and German interests take over: this plan is, of course, discovered and foiled by the locomotive supermtendent. As might be expected of the author. the technicalities of railway working are described in a convincing manner, and the interest and excitement is well sustained to. the end. One of the best railway yarns we have read. A word of praise might be added for the well-drawn and very attractive dust-cover.

James Watt and the Industrial Revolution. H.W. Dickinson and H. P. Vowles.
Published for the British Council, deals with the life and achievements of James Watt, and paints a background of the conditions prevailing during his time. Such background is essential to enable one to. fully appreciate his achievements, the difficulties to. be overcome m attarmng them and his influence upon the industrial era. The matter is presented in a more condensed and easily digested manner than some previous accounts of the life of Watt, and will, no. doubt, be read by those m search of information both upon James Watt and the industrial and economic conditions which his work so largely affected.

Early railways in Surrey. Charles E. Lee. London: The Railway Gazette. 112
Works of this well-known writer on early railway matters exemplify much painstaking research, and the booklet under review-which is the text of a paper presented to. the Newcomen Society in 1940. and reproduced by the courtesy of that Society's Council is no exception. The raiilways concerned are the Surrey Iron Railway and its continuation, the Croydon, Merstham & Godstone Iron Railway. To. what length the author is prepared to. go. in pursuance of facts is well demonstrated by his chartering a 'plane to. carry out an aerial survey of the more important town sections of the route traversed by this first example of a public railway, which was also the first of any kind in the neighbourhood of the Metropolis. It is gratifying to be able to add that from the air a nearly continuous track may be traced. The Surrey Iron Railway has received a large amount; of notice and publicity, much of a contradictory nature, but there is no. doubt that the subject has never been so. fully investigated or so. lucidly dealt with as it is in the present publication. The work is well annotated and the authoratably assisted, as he acknowledges, by his wife and father- has succeeded in bringing to light much information hitherto. overlooked. Among the Iittle-known matters may be mentioned the part that both the S.I.R. and the C.M. & G.R. played in the series of quarrels that the old Brighton Railway had with its Eastern and Western neighbours, The illustrations are of interest and the whole forms a complete work of reference which all students of early railway history will wish to. add to. their collection.

Locomotives of the Somerset & Dorset Railway and the Irish narrow gauge railways. M.C.V. Allchin. 12pp.
List of the numbers, types and building dates of the railways mentioned in the title, together with the number allocated to. the individual engines when absorbed by the larger groups. Twelve illustrations add to. the booklet's interest.

G.E.R. detailed loco stock list. C. Langley Aldrich. 32 pp.
A list of the numbers, classes and dates of the Great Eastern Railway locomotive stock compiled from an official register dated 1April, 1921, with some notes on subsequent additions..

Historical models. 112
W.H. Smith, of Bingley, has offered his valuable collection of engine models to. the Bingley Urban Council. The collection includes locomotives. mill engines, portable and semi-portable engines—all working models. Many readers will remember the magnificent North Eastern model shown at the Railway Centenary Exhibition at Darlington.

Sierra Leone Railways. 112
The pioneers who built Sierra Leone's single track in 1896 could never have imagined the work the railway is doing to-day, and the way in which the problems created by the demand for the Colony's iron ore have been solved is a tribute to. the versatility of the workshop men. One of the most notable achievements has been to. rebuild locomotives to. give greater pulling power, and Sierra Leone now boasts the only eight-coupled Garratt of standard gauge. Another rebuilding job is a tank engine that now has ten coupled driving wheels. It was necessary to convert these locomotives because supplies from Britain could be sent only to standard specifications, while replacements of any kind were virtually unobtainable. Parts that would normally be scrapped are being reconditioned by welding. Parts beyond repair are being replaced by castings made from scrap metal. At the same time the greatly increased traffic has meant a much higher rate of wear and tear, and every aspect of locomotive and rolling stock repair work has been stepped up.

Three further class B1 4-6-0. engines were in service, No. 8307 Black Buck, No.. 8308 Klipspringer and No.. 8309 Kudu,

Number 624 (15 August 1944)

Locomotive design and train operation in the future. 113.
Proposed 2-8-2 version of V2, but with smaller coupled wheels, but larger than those fitted to P1 to operate faster mineral trains. Express locomotive design would depend on whether a policy of fast frequent services were required or heavy, but infrequent services. The former could be met by 4-6-0s, but the latter required Pacifics.

Modified 4-6-0 "Hall"-class engine. 114. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 6959 illustrated painted in unlined black without a name

Baldwin 2-8-0 locomotive built for Russia. 115. illustration
Loaded onto a bogie flat car for transport to docks: named Stalingrad.

Review. 115.

The steam locomotive, its theory, operation and economics. R.P. Johnson. New York: Simmonds-Boardman Publishing Co. 564pp.
The author of this work was the Chief Engineer of The Baldwin Locomotive Works, and he states that this book has been written to present in convenient form certain fundamental facts regarding locomotive theory and operation—the object has been admirably achieved. The information has been gained from many sources, most of which would be inaccessible to residents here [in UK]; the convenience resulting from having this collected in one book is enormous. There are 29 chapters dealing comprehensively— and, of course, accurately—with the many sides of the subject. Some of the headings will be familiar enough, e.g., Combustion, Superheat, Valve Gears, Horse Power, Resistance, etc., but each theme is treated in a refreshingly explicit and very practical form. We say refreshingly explicit because, for example, the derivation of formulae (and their use) is explained; writers too frequently assume that their readers are more familiar with such matters than is actually the case.
Many of the chapters deal with subjects which previously have been omitted from the literature of the subject; in some instances due to their being problems of comparatively recent advent. Included in this category are High Speed Trains, Streamlined and Light Weight Trains, and Motive Power for High Speed Service.
There is an excellent chapter on Locomotive Testing and another valuable one on Dynamometer Cars. Among chapters relating to the economics of the subject may be mentioned The Relation of Locomotive Operating Expense to Net Operating Income, and Economic Life. Locomotive Testing Apparatus, the Derivation of Economic Life Formula, and Typical Locomotive Dimensions form the subjects of appendices. The author has most carefully compared diesel-electric and steam power, the characteristics of both being fully and fairly presented.
From what has been said it will be apparent that the author has collected- a wealth of most useful information and by incorporating this in one volume has bridged some of the gaps previously existing in locomotive literature. This book, well illustrated where necessary, will be of great value to the rnany between the locomotive builder and designer at one end of the scale and the student at the other.

Illumination of engines undergoing repairs. 115-16. 2 illustrations
Air raid precautions led to the Home Office demanding restrictions on illumination. The LNER overcame this by constructing light tunnels where work could continue and inside these mobile illuminants could be used using heavy duty batteries on trolleys. Illustrations show these trolleys and a B12/3 replete with electric lighting fitted to its boiler.

J.C.M. Rolland. An episode in locomotive history. Victorian Railways. 117. illustration
Richard Speight, the Assistant General Manager of the Midland Railway became Chief Commissioner of the Victorian Government Railways in 1884. He pursued a policy of standardisation aiming to limit locomotive types to: main line passenger, main line goods, light line passenger, light line goods, suburban tank and a six-coupled shunting engine. Jeffreys, an iron founder from Leeds,  got Kitson's to draw up designs. This led to a six-coupled locomotive WN 3089 and a 2-4-2T WN 3088 being exhibited at the Melbourne Centenial Exhibition: they were named Victoria and Tasmania. These were followed by twenty D class 4-4-0 locomotives fromn the Phoenix Foundry at Ballarat in 1887-8; thirty Y class heavy 0-6-0, 25 E class 2-4-2T and 15 A class express passenger 4-4-0. Robinson Brothers, Campbell & Sloss of South Melbourne supplied 25 R class light freight 0-6-0 in 1890-1. 25 further E class were supplied by Phoenix plus a further 25 from David Munro & Co. of Melbourne. The final 5 standard locomotives were 0-6-2T shunters.

O.J. Morris. By rail to the Devil's Dyke Hotel. 118-20. 3 illustrations (including diagram/plan)
The Brighton & Dyke Railway Co. built a branch line which rose at 1 in 40 to 500 feet above sea level, about 200 feet below the summit. This was worked by the LBSCR: push & pull working was rarely employed because of difficulty with water supply at the summit. The Southern Railway used a Sentinel railbus for a time. The gap between the railway terminus and the summit was closed by the 3ft gauge Dyke Steep Grade Railway which opended on 24 July 1897 and closed in about 1908. This was designed by Charles Blaber (who may not have been an engineer) and built by Courtney & Birkett. It was powered by a Hornsby Akroyd oil engine. The ravine was also crossed by a cable car.

Obituary. 120.
Frank Dudley Docker and R.M. Deeley

The North London Railway. 120-2. 2 illustrations
Previous part pp. 84-6
In 1894 Pryce resumed the construction, at Bow, of the standard 4-4-0 type passenger tank engine which class had by this time become regarded as the most suitable type of locomotive for working North London services. Twenty-four more of these engines were built, details of which are given below

72 1894 240
36 1894 241
44 1894 246
71 1894 247
6 1894 248
1 1895 249
68 1895 250
69 1895 251
2 1896 252
25 1896 253
81-84 1896 254-257
85-87 1897 258-260
88 1898 261
89/90 1899 262/263
1/2 1906 322/323
3/4 1907 324/325

It will be observed that two of these locomotives carried the same numbers as earlier engines of the same type, which were, as a consequence, renumbered. No. 4 had the distinction of being the last of locomotive to be built by the North London Railway. This last batch of engines had the same dimensions as those built during Park's regime in their rebuilt condition. Some of them were rebuilt at Bow, and the dates thereof, together with new Works numbers then allocated to them, are as follows
: Vorks TO. on Rebuilding 3II 320 36 1905 44 1906 71 1910 6 1909 337

Running No. Date of rebuilding Works number on rebuilding
36 1905 311
44 1906 320
71 1910
6 1909 337

All of them except No. 2 (of 1896) lasted until the passing of the North London Railwa) as a separate entity and the followmg paragraph gives details of the fate of the individual engmes concerned.
No. 72 became 2858 in the L.N.W. list in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6470 in November, 1926, and was broken up at .Crewe in 1928. No. 36 became 2829 in the L. & W. list in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6465 in May, 1927, and was scrapped in 1928. No. 44 became 2837 in the L. N . W. list in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6468 in April, 1926, and was scrapped at Crewe in 1929. No. 71 became 2857 in the L.N.W. list in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6469 in February, 1927, and was scrapped at Crewe in 1929. No. 6 was to have become L.N.W. No. 2805 but never carried that number. In March, 1927, it became L.M.S.R. No. 6445 and in 1929 was withdrawn from traffic and sent to Derby for prervation, but was eventually broken up there in September,1932. No. 1 (of 1895) was renumbered 125 in 1906 and became L.N.W. No. 2872 in 1923, and was allocated L.M.S.R. No. 6443 but the last mentioned number it never carried, beining broken up in 1925. No. 68 was allocated L.N.W. No. 2854, but never carried it and became L.M.S.R. No. 6462 in December, 1923, and shared with N.L.R. No. 5 (L.M.S.R. 6444) the distinction of being painted in the red livery of the amalgamated Company. It was broken up  inI 1925. No. 69 became 2855 in the L.N.W. list in 1923, and was allocated L.M.S.R. No. 6463, but never carried it and was broken up in 1926. No. 2 (of 1896) was renumbered 126 in 1906 and was withdrawn from traffic in 1909 and scrapped in the following year. No. 25 became L.N.W. No. 2819 in 1923 and was allocated L.M.S.R. No. 6442, but was scrapped in 1926 without carrying the latter number, No. 81 became L.M.S.R. No. 6499 in June, 1927, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. It was to have become L.N.W. No. 2861, but it never ran in this guise. No. 82 was broken up in March, 1923, as L.N.W.R. No. 3650. It was allocated L.N.W. No. 2862 and L.M.S.R. No. 6500, but never carried either of these. No. 83 was broken up in September, 1923, as L.N.W.R. No. 3629. It was allocated.L.N.W. No. 2863 and L.M.S.R. No. 6501, but did not run in either condition. No. 84 became L.N.W. No. 2864 in 1923 and was allocated L.M.S.R. No. 6502, but was withdrawn in 1926 without carrying the latter number. No. 85 became L.N.W. No. 2865 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6503 in January, 1927, and was scrapped at Crewe in 1928. No. 86 was scrapped in February, 1924 without bemg renumbered, although it had been allocated L.N.W. No. 2866 and L.M.S.R No. 6504. No. 87 became L.N.W. No. 2867 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6505 in July, 1926, and was broken up at Crewe in 1928. No. 88 became L.N.W. No. 2868 in 1923 and L.M.S.R No. 6506 in January, 1927, and was broken up at Crewe in 1928. No. 89 became L.N.W. No. 2869 in 1923 and was broken up in 1926 without being numbered in with the L.M.S. stock, although it had been allocated the No. 6507 by that Company. No. 90 became L.N.W. No. 2870  in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6508 in May, 1926, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. No. 1 (of 1906) became L.N.W. No. 2800 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6509 in May, 1926, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. No. 2 (of 1906) became L.N.W. No. 2801 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6510 in June, 1927, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. No. 3 became L.N.W. No. 2802 in 1923 and L.M.S.R. No. 6511 in October, 1926, and was broken up at Crewe in 1929. No. 4 became L.N.W. No. 2803 in 1923 and was broken up in 1926 without being renumbered by the L.M.S., although it had been allocated the No. 6512 in that Company's list. Fig. 30 shews No. 1 of this class, whilst Fig. 31 shews No. 88 at the head of a N.L. passenger train on the Alexandra Palace branch of the G.N.R.

Institution of Loco. Engineers. Locomotive axleboxes. 122-4
Previous part of precis pp. 106-8. Very extensive precis of Paper 447 in Volume 34. The four types of coupled axleboxes in use on L.M.S. locomotives were illustrated and the following comments made on them.
The steel with pressed in brass was standard on the old L.N.W., but bearing performance was below standard due to insufficient size, excessive loads and inadequate oiling arrangements. The box of this type, now standard on all new L.M.S. construction since Sir William Stanier's advent, derived more from G.W. design and contained features which have 'raised locomotive bearing performance to a very high level. These are:
Generous bearing and radiation surfaces and low unit loading.
Thin white metal lining unbroken by brass strips or oil grooves.
Deep underkeep with large oiling pad.
The liability of anyone of the engines so fitted to run a hot coupled bearing is once in ten years per locomotive, so that the bogey of the hot bearing has been practically exorcised.
When. however, this design of box has been applied to engines having high loads with inadequate bearing size, it has not been especially successful.
The steel or wrought iron box with loose brass was a specialitv of the old Midland Railway: it has little virtue. The additional surfaces increase the places where wear can and does occur. and the heat transfer away from the bearing is poor.
The object of the manganese bronze box was to obtain good thermal conductivity without the disadvantages of the solid brass box. After many years of experience, however, its disadvantages seem to outweigh its advantages. As the manganese bronze is too soft to take a pressed in brass and is not itself a bearing metal. it is necessary to confine the white metal by bronze strips dove-tailed into the parent metal. These strips, even if carefully fitted into their grooves, and suitably located with pegs, tend to come loose in time and disturb the white metal. Where inside collars are fitted to the axles, this is particularly likely to happen, and where an engine is a heavy one with big sIde thrusts on the boxes disintegration is inevitable. '
The example may be quoted in this respect of the 70 Royal Scot engines, built with this type of box in 1927-30. In 1932 there were no less than 102 hot boxes. They were replaced by steel boxes WIth pressed m brasses to the original overall dimensions and to the same design as the Stanier engines m 1934, the collars being at the same time turned off the axles. In 1939 'the total number of hot boxes was six. The conversion was thus successful where unit loading was low. Where heating occurs manganese bronze boxes often become deformed, and in such circumstances they have to be scrapped.
In the case qf solid bronze boxes, since this is a bearing metal no strips or white metal are needed on the flat surfaces when the box is new, and it gives also most excellent thermal conductivity. It has been stated that such a box will run at 10°F lower temperature than a non-ferrous box otherwise identical. 'Where high bearing pressure is inevitable this may offer real advantage. On the other hand, high capital value is permanently locked up by its use, and after a few reboring's from a higher centre line the whole box must be scrapped and replaced, which is a waste of man hours even although the bulk of the material is recoverable. It is also weak mechanically unless it is made very heavy.
After referring to the composition of the white metal used on the L.M.S. in peace-time conditions, * the author dealt with the disposition of the bearing metal. Whatever the general design -of the box, the arrangement of the bearing surface itself regarding the extent and thickness of the white metal lining can be independently varied. For many years the deep pocket shrouded with brass all round held the field. This deep pocket allowed the brass to be rebored from successively higher centres a considerable number of times be- fore the white metal eventually became too thin . -On the other hand, it was not customary to machine the bottom of the deep cast-in pockets, so that bondmg of the white metal to the brass was -often poor, with subsequent failure of the bearing.
In 1932, Sir William Stanier brought on to the L.M.S. the conception of the thin layer of white metal not shrouded at the sides, but only at the ends, thus allowmg the brass to be machined before the metal was applied to ensure a perfect bond. To give increased surface for effective bonding this machining took the form of serrations, six to the inch.
The shrouding all round previously necessary to prevent the thick white metal from spreading under load was no longer necessary since tendency to :spread almost vanishes if the metal lining is made sufficiently thin.
This arrangement brought with it the further advantage that with suitable adjustment of the oil supply arrangements the actual bearing surface could be made to consist of an unbroken white metal surface. This design has proved entirely satisfactory where bearing pressures have. been reasonable, although at the cost of increased machining hours.
Some controversy has, however, surrounded its application to the heavily loaded bearings, the claim bemg made that as the metal wore thin under the constantly repeated blows of the piston load effect, the presence of the serrations initiated disintegratlon of the metal. This, however, is very difficult to prove or disprove, many white metal surfaces '.'caught m the act" showing crumbling in lines at right angles to the serrations.
Improvements in bonding due to research in methods and control do, however, seem to avoid the need for serrations altogether, and the latest L.M.S. arrangement is with 1/8 in. thick metal bonded to a plain machined surface.
Actually it is necessary to allow an upwards tolerance on this value. There are practical reasons why this upper limit should be as high as possible, and a point on which information is still sought is what is the maximum thickness such an unshrouded lining can attain before the metal begins to flow and extrude along the length of the bearing under the effect of load.
Dealing with lubrication, the author stated that the main points are: ~
(a) Quality of oil.
(b ) Method of supply, i.e., trimming feed or mechanical lubricator.
(c) Method of application to journal. .
Particulars were then given of the five oils used on the L.M.S. in recent years.
The first of these oils was and still is the general standard which has proved satisfactory with all. normally loaded bearings, and is the oil associated with the good bearing performance given by the modern steel boxes with pressed in brasses. The use of this oil compounded with free fatty acid instead of rape was undertaken as a precautionary measure so as to have a ready alternative should there be any interruption in supply of rape under war-time conditions. With mechanical lubrication it can be said to have given fairly satisfactory results, but with trimming feed some adjustment in the number of trimmings was found desirable since this compound has not in general such good syphoning properties.
The next two oils described were attempts to deal with the problem of the overloaded bearing where a greater film strength and degree of that elusive property "oiliness" was obviously desirable to withstand the pulsating and heavy loads on the large inside cylinder engines.
The use of superheater cylinder oil may seem an unusual approach. Although open to criticism as a bearing oil, it was, introduced on to the 0-6-0 Cl. 4 freight engine at a time when heated bearings were becoming especially troublesome arising from a variety of factors. It was in fact successful in arresting the upward trend, although it produced no actual improvement. It could, of course, only be used with a mechanical lubricator, and has now been superseded.
A welcome reduction in hot boxes on overloaded bearings has, however, resulted from the introduction of oil which not only was compounded with 15 per c~nt. of rape, but was specially produced by the oil companies to meet the particular conditions of the case, and was based on investigations onginally carried out by the L:N.E.R. This oil is now standard for certain classes of engine, but is more expensive than the other oils. Straight mineral oil is used on engines wholly engaged on shuntmg where runs are very short and average box temperature are probably low, even although with a high degree of full gear working , resultant box loadings are high.
Without going any further into this very controversial subject, it seems probable that beanng performance improves within limits with improvement in quality of oil, and indeed provision of the best oil obtainable seems to be the only palliative in the case of overloaded bearings. Rape oil is the most satisfactory compounding medium and is especially desirable when trimming feeds are used because it promotes ready syphoning. It also undoubtedly assists in providing continuity of lubrication where the oil film tends to become broken down by reciprocating loads. Whether the modern moderately loaded bearings would run satisfactorily on straight mineral oil is a debatable point. There seems no reason why they should not.
In dealing with the pros and cons of mechanical and trimming feeds, the author pointed out that two railways employ the former in their latest designs, one employs the latter, and the remaining company uses neither, nor indeed any type of feed external to the axlebox itself. The G.W.R. has dispensed with upper feed entirely on its modern engines and relies solely on underkeep and pad for coupled axlebox lubrication, the pad in this case being of felt. That railway has, however, a preponderance of outside cylinder engines with generous-sized bearings. The felt or worsted underpad, like the trimming, is subject to variation of feed depending on vis- cosity and any variations in quality of oil and textile as delivered. If this .is relied on alone to lubricate the bearing it is probable that a higher standard of control and periodic inspection of these items is necessary than in the case of the mechanically-fed engine.
A possibility which has not been explored very far is that of conducting heat away from the bearing by circulation of an excess volume of oil, by means of an axle-driven pump contained within the keep itself. There is a proprietary brand of American axlebox which takes this idea a certain distance.
The maintenance of boxes was dealt with at some length, and mileages between shoppings quoted for various classes, after which bogie, pony truck and tender bearings came in for notice. As the author pointed out, the only available alternative to the plain bearing is the roller bearing, and locomotive engineers are viewing this with considerable interest, having regard to its increasing use in the U.S.A. in all types of axle box, both carrying, coupled and tender. The bearings of this type fitted to the L.M.S. Turbomotive were then illustrated and described.
The paper, which was well illustrated by drawings and photographs, and contained many useful tables and graphs, was summed up by six conclusions as follows:
(1) Bearing pressure arising from combination of static weight; piston thrust and the area of bearing surface is the most important factor in performance and should be as low as. possible.
(2) The large inside cylinder engine as normally designed is the most unfavourable type from this point of view. Moving the coupling rod crankpins on such engines through 180 deg. will give improvement at a certain cost in other directions. The outside cylinder arrangement allows of the lowest unit pressures obtainable for given conditions of piston thrust and static weight.
(3) The design of axle box should include generous dimensions, thin white metal lining and well lubricated underkeep. Above all it must provide for rigidity, as loose strips and loose brasses give trouble whatever the axlebox size and loading.
(4) Given the conditions in (1) and (3) above, considerable variations in class of oil and white metal, and in method by which oil is fed to the bearing seem possible without much variation in performance.
(5) By suitable design in new engines the hot box problem for the plain bearing can be said to have been solved, with a recorded liability of not more than one hot box per engine in ten years. The potential mileage of such boxes before wear requires shopping is about 70,000 miles on the average, with in- dividual performance both above and below under different conditions of service.
(6) There seems little hope of bringing the bearing performance of the inherently over-loaded types anywhere near the above level, whatever design of plain bearing is, adopted. Use of the best quality of oil procurable with a 15 per cent. rape content is the best palliative so far discovered.

U.S.A. railways. 124
Several locomotive sheds on the New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R. were having ordinary glass windows removed and glass bricks built in to take their place, The Denver  & Rio Grande Western Railway had completed the continuous welding of 17,000 ft. of track through a single-track tunnel. The New York Central R.R. had ordered an experimental locomotive with a 4-8-4 wheel arrangement. The Pennsylvania R.R. installed an automatic coach washer capable of cleaning the exteriors of 200 cars per day. The plant was erected in the Philadelphia coach yards

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 124
Recent lectures and papers have been the Presidential address in London by J.N. Maskelyne, entitled "What of the Future?"; "Newcastle and the Locomotive," by J.W. Hobson, General Manager of Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns, Ltd., at Newcastle; and a practical address on "Engine Failures," by A.G. Dunbar at Glasgow, where, by courtesy of the L.M.S. Company, the Society's meetings are held in the Board Room, Buchanan Street.

L.M.S.R.. 124
Ceremony at Lichfield where 4-6-2 locomotive No. 6250 was named City of Lichfield by The Mayor.

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 125-7. 2 illustrations
Continued from page 59).The D. W. & W. Railway obtained powers in 1877 to construct a branch line to New Ross from Palace East, a point an the newly-acquired line 2¼ miles short of Ballywilliam; it was opened far traffic on 19 September 1887, and it was intended ta carry it on to Waterford, fifteen miles beyond, but this did not come about far same time. In the meantime the company was now left with the unremunerative short branch from Palace East to Ballywilliam, where an end-an junction was made with the G.S. & VV. Railway; after some years of working, terms were arranged to lease this short line to the G.S. & W. Railway, who took over the working from 1 October 1902; since this date G.S. & W. Railway trains worked through from Bagnalstown to Palace East, but this section is now in use for goods traffic; only.
The main part of the receipts of the D. W. & W. Railway were derived from the suburban traffic at the Dublin end of the line which is the most intensive of its kind anywhere in Ireland; the main suburban development of Dublin has been an the south along the coast as far as Greystones, a distance of seventeen miles, and the company had two routes serving this district. The main line, from Harcourt Street terminus, united with the coast route from Westland Row at Shanganagh Junction, 1½ miles from Bray. Both these routes had generally an hourly service throughout the day, with extras in the morning and evening, certain trains proceeding to Greystones, though the service beyond Bray was by no means so frequent. Between Dublin and Kingstown there was an half-hourly service of stopping trains, in addition to the through trains proceeding to Bray, which generally made but one stop, at Blackrock, between these points. .
The company also handled the important cross-channel mail traffic between Dublin and Kingstown, the boat trains running alongside the steamers at Carlisle Pier. Westland Raw station was, however, unconnected by rail with the other Dublin termini, and several schemes were put forward, at various times, to remedy this defect. Eventually, in 1887, the City of Dublin Junction Railway, jointly guaranteed by the D.W. & W. Railway, G.N Railway (I) and the City of Dublin Steam Packet Co. (the holders of the mail contract}, was authorised to construct, 1¼ miles of   line connecting Westland Row and Amiens Street stations and continuing to make a junction with the Midland Great Western Railway Northwall branch at Newcornen Junction .. By means of the latter access was obtained to the G.S. & W. Railway system, so making it possible to run through carriages to and from Kingstown Pier and the three main Irish railway systems.
Though the connecting line was but a short one, the construction was very expensive, as it ran an the high level, and included several viaducts, the largest of which crosses the River Liffey. It was opened for traffic on 1 May 1891, and was worked by the D.W. &-W. Railway, and the latter company also provided the engine power for working the G.S. & W. Railway mail trains between Kingstown Pier and Kingsbridge. A new station, known as Amiens Street Junction, was provided adjoining the G.N. Railway (I) terminus at Amiens Street,
and has three through platforms; from this date most of the local trains to Kingstown and Bray were altered to start from Amiens Street Junction. In connection with the new line, Westland Row station was rebuilt; previously it had been a somewhat dark shed with three platforms; as reconstructed, it was considerably lengthened and provided with five platforms, two of which have through lines for trains proceeding to the Loop Line; though not too well situated, it handles the largest traffic of any station in Dublin, and has somewhat overgrown its accommodation; since the ·closing of Broadstone station from January 17, 1937, the main line trains to the M.G.W. section of the G.S. Railways have also used it as a terminus.
Following the construction of the Loop Line, the War Department laid cfown a siding to the Victoria Wharf, Kingstown, in order to facilitate the conveyance of troops and luggage from the interior of the country; it was completed in 1892. The Royal Dublin Society, in the year following, built, at their own expense, a short branch line connecting their show premises at Ballsbridge with the D.W. & W. Railway at Lansdowne Road, the latter company. agreeing to work the line; during the show periods, a special shuttle train service was run over the line, connecting with the ordinary trains at Lansdowne Road.
In connection with the proposed establishment of .a new short steamship crossing from Rosslare to South Wales, a separate company, the Waterford & Wexford Railway, had built a line from Wexford to Rosslare, which was opened for traffic on June 24, 1882; it made an end-on junction with the D.W. & W. Railway at Wexford, and' was worked by the latter company up to May 17, 1889, when it was practically closed, being only in occasional use after. This line was reopened on 6 August 1894, in connection with the Fishguard & Rosslare Railways and Harbours scheme, but the D.W. .& W. Railway had no further hand in the working. This latter scheme was indirectly the cause of the construction of the last portion of the D.W. & W. Railway. As already mentioned, the line ended at New Ross, and the remaining fifteen miles to Waterford remained unbridged. The London & North Western Railway, who controlled the Holyhead route to Ireland, feared that their South of Ireland traffic would be adversely affected by the new Rosslare scheme, as this was guaranteed by the Great Western Railway of England and the G.S. & W. Railway of Ireland.
The L. & N.W. Railway had already some financial interest in the D.W. & W. Railway, and they now urged the latter company to complete their line to Waterford, so as to provide access to that port independent of the G.S. & W. Railway. Actually a new company, the New Ross & Water- ford Extension Railway, was incorporated on August 6, 1897, to construct the line, which was opened for goods traffic on 15 February 1904, and for passenger traffic on 27 April. This line joined the new line from Waterford to Rosslare at Abbey Junction, half a mile from Waterford, where the G.S. & W. Railway station was used by the D.W. & W. Railway trains; until the opening of the new station in 1906, the D.W. & W. trains had to run round the old terminus, which faced west, and then reverse into a bay provided for their special use.
Under the terms of the G.S. & W. and Waterford,. Limerick & Western Railways Amalgamation Act of 1900, the D.W. & W. Railway had been granted running powers between Waterford and Limerick, and these they now proceeded to exercise; a daily goods train was run between Waterford and Limerick Junction, and although a certain amount of traffic was obtained, the venture proved unremunerative, and came to an end about 1908. For a time, however, there was considerable competition between the two companies for the Waterford to Dublin traffic. The D.W. & W. route was six miles longer, and considerably harder, having long banks of 1 in 60 between Macmine and Waterford, so after a few years the passenger service was reduced; this company was, however, the first to provide refreshment cars on the Waterford to Dublin service, a facility which has been continued up to the present day on this route.
Under the terms of the lease of the Dublin & Kingstown Railway, the D.W. & W. Railway had been paying a rent of £36,000 for the use of the line between Dublin (Westland Row) and Dalkey, although they had been under the expense of adapting the atmospheric portion from Kingstown to Dalkey for locomotive working. There was, however, a clause in the lease that the terms were subject to revision if a competing railway or tramway were built between Dublin and Dalkey. A somewhat moribund horse tramway had been operating over this route since 1878, but as the through journey from' Dublin involved three changes of car and took the best part of two hours, the railway receipts had not appreciably suffered . This tramway was electrified in 1896, and the fares reduced by one-half, becoming a formidable competitor; the railway fares had, of course, to be reduced, and even then much of the traffic had gone for good. Finally, in 1906, after protracted negotiation, the payment under the lease was reduced to £30,000, and from January 1, 1907, the company assumed the more comprehensive title of Dublin & South Eastern Railway. As already mentioned, the line ran close to the sea-shore for a good part of the distance between Dublin and Wicklow; two sections in particular, between Killiney and Bray, and Bray Head and Wicklow, were particularly subject to coast erosion. As early as 1856 trouble was experienced at Bray Head, and some damage was done by a gale to the embankment near Ballybrack, while two years later the rails had to be moved in ten feet on some portions between Killiney and Bray. In the 1880s work was started on protective embankments just north of Bray, while in 1889 the line from Morris' Cliffs to near Greystones was moved in for about a mile. It was, however, soon apparent that these measures would not provide a permanent solution of the difficulty, so powers were obtained in 1911 for two extensive diversions. The first of these started just south of Killiney station and extended for three miles to Bray Bridge, including also a short portion of the Harcourt Street line; a new double line was built from Killiney to Shanganagh, where a junction was formed with the line from Harcourt Street; this point is some way inland from the original Shanganagh Junction; the double line continues on to Bray Bridge, where the original line is rejoined; the total length of new line was 3 miles 31 chains, and it was fully brought into use on 10 October 1915.
The second part of the scheme was a diversion, about two miles in length, between Bray Head and Greystones Harbour; this was single line, but proved a costly and difficult undertaking as it involved a tunnel 1,100 yards in length, the longest on the system; it was brought into use on 17 December 1917. In both cases the original lines were completely abandoned, and have by now been washed away by the sea in some places. No further new lines were constructed after this, the system now comprising 156 miles of route owned and worked, of which but 33½ miles were double line. Under the general amalgamation of the railways in the Irish Free State in 1924, the D. & S.E. Railway became a portion of the Great Southern Railways, and lost its separate existence. As already mentioned, the largest station was Westland Row, the original terminus of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, which had five platforms, while Amiens Street Junction had three. The other principal stations, Harcourt Street (Dublin), Bray and Kingstown, were all single platform erections, long overdue for reconstruction, but so far the only one to receive attention from the Great Southern Railways has been Bray, which was provided with a second platform from 10 October 1927. The arrangements at Dun Laoghaire (Kingstown) are particularly bad, as a frequent service has to be conducted over but one through road, which also serves the Pier traffic; there is, however, a terminal bay used by a few trains; the station is a regular bottle-neck, and considerable delay ensues at times. ( To be continued)

F.C. Dewrance. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham and Derby Junction Rly.  127-30. diagram.
Continued from page 21. The principal constructional features of the B. & D. engines were as follows:
The outside main frames were of "sandwich" pattern with bolted-on axleguards to all wheels. similarly to the Tayleur engines, but in this case the frame curved up to give the necessary height at the driving horns without the lower portion of the L. & T. guards being excessively long. The L.& D. springs were above the framing, but the T. springs were under the sandwich within the axleguards. Unfortunately, neither the drawing nor the other sources provide full details of the inside frames.
The cylinders were horizontal, with the valves on top operated through rocking-shafts, whilst the slide-bars were of the normal four-bar pattern supported from the inside longitudinal frames independently of the cylinders, from which it is. clear there were four inside frames from the cylinders to at least as far back as the rear of the slide-bars. The boiler feed was by long-stroke pumps driven from a downward projection well below the crosshead, delivery being made to clack-boxes—low down as usual for the period—but affixed to the firebox throat-plate in the angle just above the running plate, a position both awkward and. undesirable.
The valve-gear was of the four-eccentric under-hung gab pattern, with the Stephenson arrangement of two-shaft gab-litters giving alternate lifting and lowering; all very similar to the gear as illustrated in Fig. 1.of the Sheffield & Rotherham engines (THE LOCOMOTIVE, April, 1943) although these Mather Dixon engines would appear—from the drawing—to have had the outer pair of eccentrics within the outer pair of inside frames, the other pair being, of course, located between the cranks. There were, in addition, rods from the top end of the rocking-levers to the footplate, where they occupied the customary position of the driver's vibrating levers; there was, however, provision for maintaining the front ends of the vibrating rods clear of the rocking-levers, and thus there was no continuous movement of the vibrating levers when the engine was running as on earlier valve gears, they only functioning when the driver desired to aid the effect of the taper leads of the gabs to move the valves when reversing the engme.
The boiler was typical of the time, although the firebox top was raised higher than usual and it had two domes—in which respect it coincided with the Tayleur practice of the period—but it is not now known from which steam was taken. The provision of two domes rather indicates a lack of steam space in the boiler, and, in fact, Gooch of the G.W. Railway complained of lack of steam space in the engines which M.D. .supplied to that railway, although it is clear from the dimensions available in Whishaw that the firebox crown in the B. & D. (and also North Midland) engines was lower in relation to the top of the barrel than in the engines complained of by Gooch. An unresolved point is that in Whishaw's figures of Mather Dixon's engines of the years 1838-9, the entries for the two sets for the Birmingham & Derby and North Midland show the tube length as equal to the length of the boiler barrel: it is a mystery "how it was done" —it seems the smokebox tube-plate must have been in some manner recessed into the boiler barrel.
The whole design of these engines appears light, particularly the- framing, the main portion of the outside sandwich frames being of less depth than usual; although—according to the 1841 Returns—the engines were no lighter than the similar ones of Tayleur & Hawthorn; whatever the reason, either the light frame or some feature of the boiler, these engines disappeared, like their companions of the North Midland, very soon after the amalgamation of 1844; certainly the motion in general and the valve-gear were of adequate design for their date, so that it was probablv one of the before-mentioned features which was the cause. In fact the only Mather Dixon engine to have an appreciable life was one of the sister singles supplied to the Chester & Birkenhead Railway, which lasted into the 18705, having been rebuilt in 1853 and taken over by the G.W.R. in 1860, being illustrated as rebuilt in THE LOCOMOTIVE, November, 1914, p. 292.
There is no record of any special occurrences with these engines whilst belonging to the B. & D., with the exception of a caustic reference to supposed "tinkering" on the part of Mr. Kirtley described (no doubt with adequate exaggeration) by "Veritas Vincit" in another of his well-known "Letters to the Editor" on Locomotive Management—which perhaps may here be given in full: "Previous to the Barton being taken to work, the steam was got up to a very high pressure. From the alterations Mr. K. has made upon this engine, I believe that she is obliged to be worked at a pressure of nearly 100 Lb. upon the square inch. The boiler burst below, and the boiling water was exhausted in a minute, and if either engineman or fireman, or both, had been underneath they would have been scalded to death. This engine, about ten months ago; was sent to Leeds to get a new copper firebox, a new set of tubes, and new cylin- ders. On her return she was put into the shed for the purpose of making a few more alterations. Mr. Kirtley, like his brother, Mr. Thomas, must have a dabble at 'improving'. In the fixing of his weigh-bar shaft, he was compelled to suspend it by a bracket under the boiler, and he knew of no other method ·than screwing the bracket to the bottom of the boiler plating. Owing to the water no being very good on the Derby line, and from age and corrosion of the boiler, when the plate was drilled it was only -h in. thickness. He was told that it would be impossible for this plate to sustain the pressure, and, besides, the lever that reversed the motion, by his alteration, took two men to reverse her. The whole of this leverage was hung upon the bracket, and hence occurred this explosion". For accuracy it should be mentioned here that quite possibly V.V. was himself in error when stating that the changes were made to the Barton engine, because the incident was much more likely to have oocurred with one of the Hawthorn 'engines which had a principal part of the valve- gear hung' from under the barrel of the boiler. The above reference, of 1843, to sending an engine to Leeds provides one of the earliest surviving records of a practice fairly commonplace at the period, of sending locomotives for heavy repairs to locomotive-builders—generally to Leeds and frequently to Kitsons and to Shepherd & Todd, later E. B. Wilson-and which persisted well into the 1850s. As, like manv other railways, the Midland and its constituent lines had various classes of Sharp "singles", and as no detailed account of the progressive development of the design has hitherto appeared, it is thought to be of interest to deal with the matter somewhat extensively here, before describing the B. & Derby Sharp engines.. . These Sharp singles fall into three principal bars. The boiler feed was by long-stroke pumps driven from a downward projection well below the crosshead, delivery being made to clack-boxes -low down as usual for the period-but affixed to the firebox throat-plate in the angle just above the running plate, a position both awkward and. undesirable. The valve-gear was of the four-eccentric under-hung gab pattern, with the Stephenson arrangement of two-shaft gab-litters giving alternate lift- ing and lowering; all very similar to the gear as illustrated in Fig. 1. Of the Sheffield & Rotherham engines (THE LOCOMOTIVE, April, 1943) although these Mather Dixon engines would appear-from the drawing-to have had the outer pair of eccentrics within the outer pair of inside frames, the other pair being, of course, located between the cranks. There were, in addition, rods from the top end of the rocking-levers to the foot- plate, where they occupied the customary position of the driver's vibrating levers; there was, how- ever, provision for maintaining the front ends of the vibrating rods clear of the rocking-levers, and thus there was no continuous movement of the vibrating levers when the engine was running as on earlier valve gears, they only functioning when the driver desired to aid the effect of the taper leads of the gabs to move the valves when reversing the engme. The boiler was typical of the time, although the firebox top was raised higher than usual and it had two domes-in which respect it coincided with the Tayleur practice of the period-but it is not now known from which steam was taken. The provision of two domes rather indicates a lack of steam space in the boiler, and, in fact, Gooch of the G.W. Rail- way complained of lack of steam space in the engines which M.D. .supplied to that railway, although it is clear from the dimensions available in Whishaw that the firebox crown in the B. & D. (and also North Midland) engines was lower in relation to the top of the barrel than in the engines complained of by Gooch. An unresolved point is that in Whishaw's figures of Mather Dixon's engines of the years 1838-9, the entries for the two sets for the Birmingham & Derby and North Midland show the tube length as equal to the length of the boiler barrel: it is a mystery "how it was done" - it seems the smokebox tube-plate must have been in some manner recessed into the boiler barrel. The whole design of these engines appears light, particularly the- framing, the main portion of the outside sandwich frames being of less depth than usual; although-according to the 1841 Returns- the engines were no lighter than the similar ones of Tayleur & Hawthorn; whatever the reason, either the light frame or some feature of the boiler, these engines disappeared, like their companions of the North Midland, very soon after the amalgamation of 1844; certainlv the motion in general and the valve-gear were of adequate design for their date, so that it was nrobablv one of the before-mentioned features which was the cause. In fact the only Mather Dixon engine to have an appreciable life was one of the sister singles supplied to the Chester & Birkenhead Railway, which lasted into the 1870s, having been rebuilt in 1853 and taken over by the G.W.R. in 1860, being illustrated as rebuilt in THE LOCOMOTIVE, November, 1914, p. 292. There is no record of any special occurrences with these engines whilst belonging to the B. & D., with the exception of a caustic reference to sup- posed "tinkering" on the part of Mr. Kirtley described (no doubt with adequate exaggeration) by "Veritas Vincit" in another of his well-known "Letters to the Editor" on Locomotive Management—which perhaps may here be given in full: "Previous to the Barton being taken to work, the steam was got up to a very high pressure. From the alterations Mr. K. has made upon this engine, I believe that she is obliged to be worked at a pressure of nearly 100 lb. upon the square inch. The boiler burst below, and the boiling water was exhausted in a minute, and if either engineman or fireman, or both, had been underneath they would have been scalded to death. This engine, about ten months ago; was sent to Leeds to get a new copper firebox, a new set of tubes, and new cylinders. On her return she was put into the shed for the purpose of making a few more alterations. Mr. Kirtley, like his brother, Mr. Thomas, must have a dabble at 'improving'. In the fixing of his weigh-bar shaft, he was compelled to suspend it by a bracket under the boiler, and he knew of no other method ·than screwing the bracket to the bottom of the boiler plating. Owing to the water no being very good on the Derby line, and from age and corrosion of the boiler, when the plate was drilled it was only 3/16 in. thickness. He was told that it would be impossible for this plate to sustain the pressure, and, besides, the lever that reversed the motion, by his alteration, took two men to reverse her. The whole of this leverage was hung upon the bracket, and hence occurred this explosion". For accuracy it should be mentioned here that quite possibly V.V. was himself in error when stating that the changes were made to the Barton engine, because the incident was much more likely to have oocurred with one of the Hawthorn 'engines which had a principal part of the valve-gear hung' from under the barrel of the boiler. The above reference, of 1843, to sending an engine to Leeds provides one of the earliest surviving records of a practice fairly commonplace at the period, of sending locomotives for heavy repairs to locomotive-builders—generally to Leeds and frequently to Kitsons and to Shepherd & Todd, later E. B. Wilson—and which persisted well into the 1850s. As, like manv other railways, the Midland and its constituent lines had various classes of Sharp "singles", and as no detailed account of the progressive development of the design has hitherto appeared, it is thought to be of interest to deal with the matter somewhat extensively here, before describing the B. & Derby Sharp engines..
These Sharp singles fall into three principal groups: the first may be now termed the "Early" Sharps, the others being contemporaneously known as "Little" and "Big" Sharps respectively. The first group having 5 ft. 6 in. driving wheels—except the initial set, which had 5 ft. 0 in—with cylinders from 12 in. by 18 in. to 14 in. by 18 in. and. boiler barrels 8 ft: long; the second group havmg 5ft. 6 in. and 5 ft. 0 in. drivers with 15 by 20 m. cylinders and 10ft. barrels, and the third group having 5 ft. 6 in. drivers with 16 by 20 in. cylmders, 9 ft. 6 m. barrels, but of larger diameter, and a larger firebox. Besides the various lesser sub-divisions it is necessary to appreciate that these Sharp engines were not a continuous "run" of practically the same design; the engines of the early series—up to the 1842-4 period—were entirely different from those built subsequently, the only features in common, apart from the dome and safety-valve casings, being the form and width —42 in.—of the firebox, the position of the dome, and a general resemblance in the outside main frames. These outside frames of sandwich pattern, being curved upwards at the driving horns,had the advantage of less "whip" in the horn-plates or axle-guards of the carrying wheels than in most other frames of the period, and having flitch-plates in one piece —and thus no bolting-on of horn-plates—was a further advantage.
The earlier group had horizontal cylinders with valves above, placed somewhat forward of the middle of the cylinder bore, four light inside framings, somewhat similar to the style—but really shallow plate-frames—of other makers' engines of the 1836-40 period, slide-bars fixed to the shallow frames and thus independent of the cylinders; whilst the valve-gear was of the four-eccentric type having one pair of eccentrics between the outer pair of inside frames and the inside face of the driving wheels, whilst the pair of back-gear eccentrics were placed between the innermost pair of inside frames. Although there were four inside frames, all being straight and running continuously from the cylinders to the firebox throat-plate, there were bearings in the two inner ones only, and these were merely steadiers, having no springs. The mode of applying traction was also the old-fashioned one of a drag-assembly attached to the firebox. The distinct design from 1843-4 onwards, however, of the pattern which became so well known and successful, had the usual arrangement of two inside frames extending from the cylinders to the firebox with inside bearings and springs upon the crank axle, there being a substantial cross-member, "motion- plate", connecting both the inside frames and the outside frames together,the rear end of the slide-bars being attached thereto, whilst their front ends were attached to the cylinder covers, the valve-gear being of course the link-motion; also there was a drag-plate across from the outside frames at the rear and traction was thus applied through the outside frames and not through the firebox.
There were many more variations in the outside main frames of these well-known engines than is generally supposed; there actually being no less than seven distinct varieties, those from the earliest of the type in 1837 to about the end of 1843-four styles—corresponding to boilers with 8 ft. barrel lengths, whilst the following—three styles—corresponded to the longer boilers. These various styles of frames are shown in Fig. 3; .the first style corresponding to the engines of 1837 of the Grand Junction Railway with 5 ft. driving wheels and fireboxes 28 in. long inside and having unequal leading and trailing wheels; whilst the second style corresponds to the 5 ft. 6 in. engines of 1838-40, havmg fireboxes 32 and 36 in. long inside, but with equal carrying wheels and two-level frame tops; the third sty le for similar engines 0 f 1839-41, but having fireboxes 36 and 40 in. long inside and with the front end of framing modified in form. The fourth style, which corresponds to the years 1841-2 (possibly also i843) is very similar in boiler and firebox to the third style, but having the trailing springs above the running plate, allow- ing the front and rear portions of the frame to be of equal height; this arrangement of springs and level frame-top continuing throughout the ensuing styles. It may be noted that during the final phase of the "early" pattern-the fourth style-the prac- tice of cutting holes above the leading and trailing horn-spaces began, some of the engines of that style being so treated and others not; also during the same years 1842-4-and possibly 1845-the dome was sometimes placed upon the middle of the boiler-barrel. The fifth style corresponds to the 5 ft. 6 in. engines with boiler-barrels 10 ft. long, and dates from about 1843-4, the earlier fireboxes being similar to those of the previous short-boiler engines, and the framing was not again varied either in whee1base or form until just prior to the introduc- tion of the third group. The sixth style is merely a variant of the fifth, the lesser diameter of the driving wheels, viz., 5 ft., allowing the elimination of the peculiar humping of the lower edge of the frame to suit the driving horn-spaces on the 5 ft. 6 in. engines. The seventh style is practically a combination of the two foregoing in which the strength of the lower portion of the frame around the driving horns' corresponds to the sixth style, but with its upper portion suitable for 5 ft. 6 ip. drivers. There were possibly a few engines built WIth this type of frame in which the wheelbase was similar to the fifth and sixth styles. The fifth and sixth styles correspond· to' the "Little Sharps", whilst the seventh corresponds to the "Big Sharps'", and .the foregoing exposition dearly indicates the considerable differences which existed between the early Sharpies of the 18 in. stroke and 8 ft. boiler group and the 20 in. stroke and 10 ft. boiler group which succeeded. Dimensions have occasionally been published which indi- cate that a few engines may have been built with a wheel-base intermediate between the earlier and later groups, and these may have had 9 ft. 6 in. boiler barrels and a wheelbase of 12 ft. 2 in., i.e., both length of boiler and length of wheelbase being 6 .m . .less. than the traditional Sharp standard. The distribution of the wheelbase of the early singles, It may be noted, conforms to its evolution from the fou~-wheel~,~ single, whilst that adopted from 1844-5 is an 'independent" 2-2-2 design. The former phase did not occur in the case of Stephenson's singles, whose very first 2-2-2 of 1833 was a "full-fledged" design.
The valve-gear of the early Sharps—of the four-eccentric type—was in the earlier 1838-40 engines of the opposed-gab pattern, having both eccentrics, as also the gab-ends of the eccentric-rods and the lifting mechanism, outside the outer pair of inside frames—between the frame and the wheels—on each side, the fore-gear rods having the gabs below and the back-gear being connected above. Although this opposed-gab gear with gabs linked together and working alternately upon coinciding pinion- centres, had some similarity of appearance to the link motion, there was, of course, no means of notching-up. Later engines had an adaptation of the "Cabry" gear, the fore-gear ecoentrics being between the wheels and the outer members of the inside frame, whilst the back-gear eocentrics were in the middle· between the inner pair of 'inside frames, the fore-gear gabs engaging the upper arm and the back-gear the lower arm of a rocking shaft. This "Cabry" gear provided a modicum of expansive working by means of a very deep fore-gear gab in which the gab-pin could be set at an intermediate (generally only one) position, thus producing a lesser valve movement. In the particular arrangement used by Sharps this special fore-gear gab was upon the rocking-shaft arm and the gab-pin was on the end of the fore-gear eccentric-rod, whilst the back-gear gab was on the eccen- tric-rod with the gab-pin on the rocker-arm as in normal practice. In neither case were there any vibrating levers on the footplate. The later Sharps, of course, had the link-motion, the reversing-shaft being above, and very far forward—almost over the leading axle—thus giving the advantage of very long eccentric-rods.
It may here be remarked that in all Sharp's own designs the driver's position was on the left side and the reversing lever placed accordingly, and this custom persisted to a relatively late date, even in the. case of engines supplied to the general design of railways having the right-hand position standardized. The early Sharps had ram-pumps driven off the crosshead gudgeon-pin between the slide-bars, and whilst the later enlarged design also had ram-pumps driven from the crosshead, the drive was not between the slide-bars.
The Sharp boiler was of normal construction with the firebox top slightly raised; in the early group the corners of the firebox shell were not Hanged, but formed with angle-irons, and the firehole was of the shallow-ring pattern, whilst the later fireboxes had flanged plates and the firehole was a full-width ring. The regulator of "butter-fIy" valve type, was, of course, in the dome, so close to the front that the regulator head was fixed to .the smokebox tubeplate, whilst support for the boiler at the front end was very substantial being composed of arch-plates at front and back' of the smokebox straddling across to the outside frames.

Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd. 130
A scheme for re-lighting the works had been carried out with highly satisfactory results by Messrs. John Newth Ltd. Mazda 500 watt lamps in Mazdalux L.T. type disperive reflectors used throughout. The mounting height was 15 ft. above floor level, the spacing 19 ft. by 16 ft. 6 m. staggered, and the average illumination 11 foot candles.

Number 625 (15 September 1944)

Light weight rolling stock. 131
Bulleid welded underframe without sole bars and a plastic superstructure.

Jamaica Government Railways. 131
Canadian Locomotive Co. supplying six 4-8-0 locomotives

Institute of Transport. 131
Opening meeting of Siver Jubilee session to be held 3 October at Institution of Electrical Engineers when Robert Kelso to deliver Presidential Address (mainly on road transport into Europe.

The Portstewart Tramway. 138-9. illustration
Locomotive No. 3 illustrated

G.W.R. 139
Oldest steam engine still at work: Crofton Pumping Station on Kennet & Avon Canal: Boulton & Watt engine instaalled in 1820

L.M.S.R. 139
Barassie wagon repair shops where overhead crane had been replaced by machine which could raise wagons

L.M.S. appointments. 139
Ashton Davies retired on 31 August and T.W. Royle became a Vice President: he had previously been chief operating manager; and his post was filled by T.H. Fisher, the former deputy. also retirement of A.F. Bound and replacement by his Deputy W. Wood as Signal & Telegraph Engineer.

Tapered roller bearings L.M.S. 4-6-2 "Turbomotive" No. 6202. 139. illustration
British Timken Ltd: noted that still in perfect condition and cited Cox's Paper on axleboxes

O.S. Nock. Automatic train control in Great Britain. 140-2. illustration

West Highland Railway—Jubilee. 142
Opened 7 August 1894: notes achievement of crossing boggy Rannoch Moor

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 142-6.  6 illustrations, 2 tables
Six 0-4-0ST, five from A. Barclay & Co. and one from Neilson & Co. Two of the Barclay locomotives came from John MacKay the bankrupt contractor of the Callander & Oban Railway. A third locomotive may have been acquired, but this was not taken into stock and was sold to a colliery. Two outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST were purchased from Neilson becoming Nos. 139 (illustrated) and 140: these were WN 1559 and 1560.  0-4-2 tender belonging to Solway Junction Railway

Number 626 (14 October 1944)

The rehabilitation of motive power. 147.

Southern Railway. 147
Additional Merchant Navy class locomotives under construction at Eastleigh.

Mallet locomotives for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 148. illustration
Baldwin Locomotive Co. 2-8-8-4 with 24 x 32in cylinders, 5298ft2 evapourative heating surface, 2118ft2 superheat and 117.6ft2 grate area.

Diesel electric locomotive LNER. 148-9. illustration
Built at Doncaster with 350hp diesel electric equipment supplied by English Electric; similar to that supplied to LMS. Capable of working as mobile power stations: four on order. No. 8000 illustrated.

Nose-suspended v. fixed motors. 150-3. 5 diagrams
Costs, ease of maintenance and track damage are considered for nose-suspendended, jackshaft and cardan shaft drives. Some attention is paid to resilient wheels with rubber inserts.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 153-5. 2 diagrams (side elevations)

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 155-7. 2 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)

Condensing locomotives. 157-8.

The first locomotive in Russia. 159. illustration

Automatic train control in Great Britain. Part II.  160-2. 2 illustrations

F.C. Hambleton. Great Western goods engines. Class 2361. 162-3. 2 illustrations (line drawings: side elevations)

Correspondence. 164

Number 627 (15 November 1944)

Economic life of locomotives. 165

Automatic train control in Great Britain. Part III.  165-8. illustration, 2 diagrams

Examination of locomotives on a mileage basis. 168-70

The locos of the Buenos Aires Northern Railway. 171-3. 6 diagrams (side elevations)

The North London Railway. 173-6.. 2 illustrations

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 177-8.   2 illustrations, table
Continued  from page 146. As these engines were beginning to wear out, McIntosh considered replacing them. The cost was considered too great, and the engines were brought in turn to St. Rollox and reboilered with standard boilers as fitted to the 0-6-0 side tanks. These boilers had a heating surface of 1,086 ft2, of which the tubes provided 975 ft2. and the firebox 111 ft2t. The grate area was 17 ft2 and . the working pressure 150 lb. The weight was scarcely altered. After the reboilering, which was done in March, 1898 (No. 542) and November, 1897 (543) respectively, the engines returned to their old job. In 1897 both had been taken from the duplicate list and riumbered 381 and 382 respectively. No. 381 was brought in for rebuilding in March, 1902, and No. 382 followed in February, 1903. Some time subsequent to this both engines got other tenders to replace their own, which had worn out. No. 382 got a rebuilt passenger one with a footboard for the shunter added, whereas No. 381 acquired a four-wheeled one adapted for passenger working and also provided with a footboard for the shunter. No. 382 had a mishap which subsequently deprived it of its leading and trailing wheels, and these were replaced with cast iron wheels fitted with, steel tyres. The change was noted about 1920,. but the cause was apparently unknown to anyone. Both of the 0-6-0 type engines lasted to become L.M.S. stock in 1923 with the numbers 17101 and 17102 respectively. They continued to work on the now shortened S.]. section between Annan and Kirtlebridge until withdrawn in 1927 and 1928 respectively. These were the oldest C.R. engines to have L.M.S. numbers.
After working on the S.]. section for some years the 0-4-2 well tanks were sent to Glasgow (South Side sheds) to work on the Rutherglen to London Road section, then for a short period were sent to v work on the Dundee & Arbroath Joint Line. Both returned to Glasgow. No. 540 went to Perth and shortly afterwards was sent to work the Millisle Branch (about 1890) and finished its days there. No. 541 went to Grangemouth for the Larbert & Grahamston trains, and finally finished up at Perth as the Methven branch engine. The 0-4-2 engines were taken from the Solway Junction section when the are traffic began to decline rapidly, (and worked between Carstairs, Lanark and Muirkirk. Later, one went to Lockerbie and the other to the Brechin to Bridge of Dun section.
The seventh engine of the Solway Junction Railway was destined to appear more than once in a railway stock list. It was an 0-6-0 type saddle tank of Manning Wardle's standard design, being their No. 196 of 1866. It was supplied new to Eckersley & Bayliss at Chesterfield, but in the following year was sold to Brassey & Co., who were the contractors for the Solway Junction Railway. It had inside cylinders 11 in. diam. by 16 in. stroke, and coupled wheels 3 ft. 0 in. diameter. After the completion of the line the S.J.R. took, the engine over as previously arranged, as they expected to have a use. for it as the yard shunting engine. On coming to the Caledonian Railway it. was given the number. 539.. In January,1872 it was disposed of to the contractor for ,the Wigtownshire Railway, and is fully creferred to in the articles on the Wigtownshire. Railway: which appeared in THE LOCOMOTIVE for 1943.
Before leaving the Solway Junction section. reference must be rnade to a story which has been perpetuated, but of which no evidence of fact can be produced, and supporters of the Maryport & Carlisle Railway must suffer disillusionment. The myth is that M. & C. No. 5 was lent to the Caledonian Railway by request and did such good work that the CR. people wanted to buy it for their line; but that the M. & C. people in turn were so proud of their handiwork that they refused to sell. No. 5 was a 2-2-2 type, tender engine built at Maryport in 1857, and was inside-cylindered. The M, & C. and Caledonian railways were, generally speaking, on fairly friendly terms, and both Mr. Connor, of the CR., and Mr. George Tosh, of the M. & C.R., agreed to try the M. & C. engine out art the C.R. metals if their respective directors would agree. Connor was an outside cylinder exponent, while the M. & C. engineer favoured inside cylinders. No. 5 was tried out on the C.R. main line about 1859 between Carlisle and Beattock, and forward later to Carstairs with a regular train. Indicator cards were taken when the test ; was made, and it was generally agreed that while the engine had done well it was not made for the C.R. route. The boiler failed to supply sufficient steam while ascending the Beattock incline, but could generate plenty for the level parts of the line. The other drawback was the light loading of the driving axle compared with the Conner passenger engines. The conclusion.reached by the M. & C, engineer was that for his own line 6 ft. diameter wh'eels would be: large enough for future construction. The M. & C. were entitled to run over the  S.J. section and lfor ,a short space of time in 1870 sent No. 5 over the section.
In 1870 Neilson & Co. delivered a further batch of goods engines, intended primarily for use on the former Scottish Central and Scottish North Eastern  sections. The design was mainly a. repeat of the one used for the ScottIsh Central engmes of 1863, with the adoption of double frames and outside: bearings. for ilie leading wheels. Also the flush-topped boiler was used. The engines were of the 2-4-0 type with outside cylinders 17 in. diameter by 24 in. stroke, coupled wheels 5 ft., 2 in. and leading wheels 3 ft. 2 in. diameter respectively. The dome was placed in the middle of the boiler barrel and had Salter type safety valves. The wheel centres were 6 ft. 2½ in. plus 8 ft. 9in., total 14 ft. 11½ in. The heating surfaces were: Tubes, 783.2 ft2..; firebox, 85.6 ft2.; total, 868.8 ft2.. Grate area, 15.0 ft2.. Working pressure, 120 lb. The weight per axle was: Leading axle, 10 tons 18 cwt. 2 qrs.; driving, 11 tons 18 cwt. 1 qr.; rear coupled, 11 tons 6 cwt.; total, 34 tons 2 cwt. 3 qrs. The tenders were standard four-wheeled type carrying 1,540 gallons of water and 2½ tons of coal. Eight of these engines were allocated to each section, those for the S.C. being renewals and those for the S.N.E. being additions to capital account. These engines were never rebuilt, although some of them in later years received good second-hand boilers with the Rarnsbottom type safety valves over the firebox. The last survivors of the class were generally to be found around Perth and Dundee, the exception being 1377, which was to be seen anywhere between Stranraer and Lockerbie.

No. WN Renumbered Withdrawn
372 1502 372A in 1891, 1283- in 1899, 1372 in 1900 1904
373 1503 373A in 1891 1893
374 1504 374A in 1891, 1284 in 1899, 1374 in 1900 1902
375 1505 375A in 1891, 1285 in  1899, 1I375 in 1900; 1544 in I904, 1375 in 1906   1908
376 1506 376A in 1891, 1286 in 1899 1899
377 1507 377A in 1891, 1287 in I899, 1377 in 1901 1911
378 1508 378A in 1891 1896
379 1509 379A in 1891 1898
544 1510 544A in 1892, 1288 in 1899, 1544 in 1900, 635 in 1902, 1375 in 1904, 1544 in 1905 1905
545 1511 545A in 1892 1894
546 1512 546A in 1892, 1289 in 1899 1900
547 1513 547A in 1892, 1290 in 1899, 1547 in 1900 1905
548 1514 548A in 1892, 1291 in 1899,  1548 in 1900 1905
549 1550 549A in 1892, 1292 in 1899,1549 in 1900 1901
550 1551 550A in 1892, 1293 in 1899. 1550 in 1900 1910
551 1552 551A in 1892, 1294 in 1899, 1551 in 1900, 639 in 1904, 1551 in 1904 1908

NOTE.-Nos. 544 and 551 got old close-coupled 0-6-0 engine boilers to wear out, hence the renumbering to 635 and 639 respectively. ( To be continued)

In tabulated list on page 143, for third engine read No. 15 built 1867, makers' number 71, and thereafter as printed.

L.M.S. 6252 "City of Leicester". 178. illustration
Caption: showing the latest development of the "6235" class as introduced for series 6249 to 6252 completed during 1944.

Correspondence. 179

The North British Atlantics. W.B. Thompson.
Your interesting account of the origin of the North British Atlantic engines illustrates once more the insularity of British railway. practice. The fact that the directors would not allow a six-coupled passenger engllle on the Waverley route may perhaps be excused on the ground that directors are not generally engineers and cannot be expected to know much about. contemporary locomotive work in other lands. But the attitude of W.P. Reid seems inexplicable. You say (on page 157) that when he found himself obliged to use an engine of the Atlantic type he contemplated building compounds on the three-cylinder system introduced on to British railways by the North Eastern engine 1619, but that the stakes were too high to trust the expresses to experimental machines, and he accordingly decided to build simple engines.
At that date the French compound Atlantics were doing consistently brilliant work; they had long been world-famous and there was nothing "experimental" about them; and if in any other country an Atlantic compound had been required, the French system 'would have been adopted as a matter of course. But there is nothing in your article to show that Reid ever gave it a thought, or even was aware of its existence.
In an earlier generation, F W. Webb rejected the Westinghouse brake because he was not going to be taught his business by a Yankee, and we have suffered from his folly ever since; the use of French compounds on the Waverley route might have given a very beneficial stimulus to British loccmotive design.

Our Railway History-Part I .(Rixon Bucknall). W. Beckerlegge.
In the review published on page 164 are two items calling for comment. The G.W.R. Atlantic Quentin. Durward. was No. I79, dated April, 1905. When first put into traffic it was named Magnet (see The Locomotive, Vo!. 11, p. 73). About the end of 1906 it was decided to name all the Atlantics after characters in Scott's novels, and 179 was accordingly renamed Quentin Durward . In August, 1912, the engine was converted to 4-6-0 type and in December, 1912, was renumbered 2979, but the name was retained and it is understood that the engine is still in 'service (with this name).
With regard to L.N.W.R. Coronation, this engine left the erecting shop as No. 1800. A photograph was reproduced in The Locomotive, Vol. 17, p. 119, showing the engine with this number, but without name plates. When painted and named, the number-plates were altered to 5000 (the Crewe number) and the engine never ran again as 1800 (although entered as such in the Company's records) and retained the number 5000 till the L.M.S. renumbered the engine 5348 in June, 1927.

[The rehabilitation of motive power]. R.S. Guinness
I have read with much interest your leading article in the October issue on page 147, and though doubtless those responsible for the commercial and technical operation of the railways are giving careful thought to the future, one sometimes wonders if they fully realise the advantages they have at their disposal, such as unrestricted rights of way and none other than, broadly speaking, self-imposed speed limits. Judging, however, from what one sees and what one experiences, I cannot help thinking that the word "speed" is by any means written to the extent it might be on the railway brow, and that if the railways are to regain anything approaching their premier position (under normal conditions) speed is the essence of the matter. As to· how they are to achieve this is a matter for themselves, but I am particularly glad to see your reference to the braking of goods stock, for the railways have as yet devised no general means of enabling fast traffic to overtake slow, without causing great delay to the latter and, in causing this, they get to cross purposes with their freight customers, who, quite often, find things so that they have to resort to other means of conveyance. Logically the solution should be for all railway traffic to move at the same speed, but if that is a practical impossibility, it surely could be made less so by discarding relics of antiquity in the shape of the modern goods train.
Though not touched on in your article, it sometimes occurs to me that London is looked on as a centre to perhaps too great an extent; that day and night travel under comfortable conditions might be extended so as to enable other centres to be better linked, and that synchronized departure times would save the present generation from telephoning for information, when they find the railway timetables, as they well may, something they cannot afford the time to study the complexities of.
In conclusion, your query of more frequent running is "best perhaps answered in that these Islands are not a Continent, so that the vast distances incidental to the latter and the necessary conditions to meet them hardly apply.

British locomotive builders. S.H. Pearce Higgins
Although the last locomotive built by Dick & Stevenson carried the works number "1'00", the total output of the firm was probably exactly half that number, as it was-in later years at least-the practice to allot two numbers to each engine, and only the even number appeared on the plate. This firm built three narrow-gauge locomotives for Spain; several locomotives were sent to Singapore, and possibly one to Holland. Dick and Stevenson were also numbered among the select, and long extinct generation of builders whose works were never served by a siding to a railway; and when completed the engines were driven under their own steam through the streets of Airdrie: in earlier days the locomotives were taken to Hallcraig Station, but most of the later engines were driven down the hill to a siding at Airdrie South Station. I think it is unlikely that McKendrick & Ball built any locomotives: this firm were at one time the London agents of A. Chaplin & Co., of Glasgow, and no doubt several of Chaplins once familiar vertical-boiler engines were supplied through these agents.
The claim of Lennox, Lange & Co. as builders of locomotives seems yet to be proved. The firm is known to have obtained at least once locomotive from Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co.; and although the earliest Snailbeach District Railways locomotive Fernhill is attributed to Lennox, Lange & Co., it would not be surprising to find that this 2 ft. 4¼ in. (or 2 ft. 4½ in.) gauge locomotive was only supplied by Lennox, Lange. The Glasgow directories of the period show a City address for this firm, and I have been unable to discover any reference to their yard or works.

[Bramah & Fox]. H.F. Hilton.
It is' recorded in "The History of the G.E.R. Locomotives" that one of the engines of the Eastern Union Railway taken over by the Eastern Counties Railway when the two lines were amalgamated was built by Bramah & Fox. The name of this firm does not appear in the list of builders published in "The Locomotive" for 1927, and I have been unable to trace it in other publications. It would be interesting to have some further information about the firm in question, and thus add to the completion of the list. .

The inventor of the steam superheater. H. F. Hilton. 180
.It has been stated that Timothy Hackworth invented the steam superheater in 1839. In order to correct this statement and place the credit for the idea with the rightful person, I would state on the authonty of Luke Herbert, who was a patent agent and editor of The Journal of Patent Inventions at that time, that "The last invention of Richard Trevithick, of Camborne in Cornwall, was for improvements in the steam engine and in their application to navigation and locomotion, for which he obtained a patent on 19 March 1833. The first of these improvements consisted in interposing between the boiler and the worrking cylinder, in a situation to be strongly heated,. a long pipe, formed of a compact series of curved plates, in which .the steam, after it has left the boiler, passes with great velocity, and is further expanded in volume before it enters the cylinder. And in order still further tu augment this volume of steam, he placed the working cylinder within a case constituting a part of the chimney, where the cylinder was kept hotter than the steam employed in it, and by these means employed the otherwise waste heat in augmenting the power of the engine." It is not recorded whether this invention was ever applied to a boiler or engine. Timothy Hackworth fitted a superheater to a locomotive constructed by Hawthorns in 1839.

Reviews. 180

British railways facts and figures:
Simplicity is the keynote of this official publication which contains 16 pages and has for simple and ready reference all the facts arranged alphabetically. Three pages are devoted to a chronological table of outstanding events dating from the opening of the first public railway in 1825. The story of the Railways and London Transport, their work and progress, equipment and achievements, both pre-war and during the past five years, is told factually under 48 separate headings covering subjects as wide apart as railway bridges and workmen's travel
One learns that 10,000 air attacks have been made on railway property; track repairs are generally completed within 12 hours; shelter accommodation has been provided for over 500,000 people, and 1,000 carriages have been con- verted into ambulance and casualty evacuation trains. During the first evacuation of London the railways ran 4,349 trains carrying 1,428,425 civilians to safer areas, and 620 special trains were run in 16 days for 3I9,II6 troops evacuated from Dunkirk.
Since the outbreak of war to the end of June last over 300,000 special trains have been operated for the movement of troops and equipment, whilst in connection with the North Aftica expedition over a period of a month 185,000 men, 20,000 vehicles and 220,000 tons of stores were carried to the ports in 440 troop trains, 680 freight trains and 15,000 wagons attached to ordinary goods trains.
Paragraps are also included giving much useful information about railways, docks, electrification and Government control, rolling stock, staff, stations, and track, whilst for the serious student of railway affairs a ten-page folder giving a summary of the latest available financial and other statistics in handy form is appended. These statistics tell their own story and reveal the magnitude of the war-time task the railways have had to perform, and the efficiency and economy with which it has been accomplished. A glossary of railway terms is also included, together with a diagrammatic illustration of railway operating statistics for 1943 compared with pre-war.

The story of the .West Highland. George Dow.
In this all-embracing history of one of .the most interesting lines of the British Isles the author has lived up to the high standard which he set in his previous book, recently reviewed in this column. The first of the four chapters relates to an historical survey and amongst other matters refers to the skirmishes which the North British had with the Highland and Caledonian railways, together with the history of the unlucky Invergarry & Fort Augustus Railway. The second chapter deals with engineering features, of which it can certainly be said that the line had its fair share; possibly the best known of these is the snowshed north of Rannoch, but a number of the bridges, and especially the Glenfinnan Viaduct, are of considerable interest. Next the subject of locomotives receives detailed attention, full particulars being given of all the various types .which have worked over the line dunng the fifty years It has been open.. Finally, train services and other features are dealt with. An outstanding feature of this publication is its illustrations, they are copious and good; in fact, although it is a minor criticism, one cannot help thinking that in some cases they are unnecessarily complete. There are four appendices consisting of elevations and plan of the typical station buildings, a gradient profile, a sectional view of a coach and the principal dimensions of locomotives. This excellent book will be valued by the many who have traversed the railway and will attract many who have not yet travelled the metals to what is one of the great scenic lines of Scotland.

Our railway history. Part II. R. Bucknall. 48 pages 8vo.,
This is the .second of three parts in which the author plans to epitomise the history of the railways of Great Britain. It deals with the Great Eastern, L. & Y., Great. Central, L.S.W., L.B, & S.C. and South Eastern & Chatham railways, Excellent illustrations add to the interest.

The medal of the London & North Eastern Railway has' been presented by Sir Ronald 'Matthews to Driver Gimbert, G.C., and the mother of the late Fireman Nightall, G.C for gallantry in saving from complete destruction a burning ammunition train.

Newcomen Society. 180
At a meeting held on 18 October a paper was presented, Stephenson Locomotives for the St. Etienne & Lyon Railway, by E. A. Forward, M.I.Mech.E,

Institute of Transport. 180
On 3 November a luncheon was held in London to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the Institute. The President, Robert Kelso, was supported by Sir William Wood, Vice-President of the L.M,S., Herbert Morrison, the Home Secretary, and Lord Woolton, as well as many other distinguished visitors. Mr. Morrison, in proposing the continued success of the Institute, congratulated the members on its work, and while keeping clear of controversial aspects, emphasised that transport was a basic industry and that it was essential to the country's welfare that all forms of it should work together in a "streamlined" fashion. In celebration of this anniversary the Institute of Transport has issued in pamphlet form a paper prepared by D. R. Lamb, one of its members, reciting the beginning and achievements of this latter-day scientific society. The record bears witness to the power of the technical Press, not only in arousing interest in a worthwhile object, but also in setting it in motion, for the author explains how the Institute owes its origin to the enterprise of Modern Transport in successfully soliciting the support of the leaders of the industry towards the founding of a society which to-day enjoys Royal Patronage.

New Zealand Govt. Rlys. 180
The conversion of the class A 4-6-2 four-cylinder compounds to two-cylinder simples was proceeding. Of the 57 engines built between 1906 and '1914 over 30 had been converted since 1941.

Southern Railway. 180
A. Cobb, the Locomotive Running Superintendent, had retired, and as from 1 November T,E. Chrimes had been appointed Superintendent of Motive Power attached to the Office of the Superintendent of Operation.

Number 628 (15 December 1944)

The British 4-6-0. 181-2
Broad survey: partly history (Highland Raiway Jones Goods to GWR Kings..

4-8-2 Mountain type locomotive Canadian National Rlys. 182. illustration.
Built by Montreal Locomotive Works: first of batch of 20: No. 6060. Inspected by E.R. Battley, Chief of Motive Power; W.N. Townsend. Works Manager of Montreal Locomotive Works, Francis Williams, Chief Mechanical Engineer and R.F. Walker mechanical engineer (locomotoves)

Dynamometer car Victorian & S. Australian Rlys. 183-4. 2 illustrations, diagram (elevation & plan).;
Fitted with Amsler equipment and constructed at the Islington workshops of the South Australian Railways in 1932. Illustrations include view of instrument table.

F.C. Hambleton. G.W.R. saddle tank engines Class 1661. 185. 2 illustrations
Drawings of Nos. 1695 with saddle tank and and 1685 as pannier tank. Withdrawn locomotives were sold to the Cardiff Railway, Alexandra Docks Cp. and to the Brecon & Merthyr Railway. See below

L.N.E.R. 185.
Over £3,000,000 was to be spent by the L.N.E.R. on the construction of 10237 new wagons for 1945. Four thousand of the new vehicles will be 16-ton end-door mineral wagons, and 3000 13-ton open goods wagons. Included in the remainder will be 1750 hopper wagons for mineral traffic, 200 13-ton single bolster and 100 21-ton double bolster wagons, mainly for iron and steel products; 500 covered vans of 12 tons capacity, 100 10-ton air insulated fish vans; 30 machine wagons of 20 tons and 25 tons capacities, and 100 20-ton brake vans

Londonderry & Lough Swilly Ry. 185.
4-6-2T No. 12 had been scrapped leaving only 10 locomotives in stock. Passenger services still ran between Derry and Buncrana and freight ran to Gweedore.

L.M.S.R. 185.
The fifty American 2-8-0s and the fifty British-built 2-10-0s which were on loan to this company during the summer have now been returned to the Government for service overseas. The output of standard Class 5 passenger and Class 8 freight engines continues. Of the 5P 4-6-0 type Nos. 4800 to 4814 and 4826 to 4845 are in service, while the 8F 2-8-0 engines are out up to No. 8374 (built by the L.M.S.), while the G.W. have built 8400 to 8459, all in service on that line) and the L.N.E.R. have built 8500 to 8524 (all working on the L.N.E.R.).

Unintentional parting of trains. 186
It is not possible accurately to assess the cost to the railway of an unintentionally divided train. Apart from the actual costs of replacing the defective drawgear and any other consequent damage to stock, way and works which may accrue, and the settlement of claims by consignors for goods damaged or delayed in transit, overtime may be incurred by the train news and other operating staff, and the line capacity of the section concerned temporarily reduced. In any event such train partings are of considerable nuisance value, and practical considerations alone demand their minimisation. Assuming good workmanship and satisfactory material for the drawgear in the first instance, and given good design, the possible causes of drawgear fractures are in the main of a cumulative nature. They are:
(a) Unsatisfactory standard of shunting in that shunting movements are badly con- trolled and result in unnecessarily abrupt starts and stops, or snatching at couplings during movement.
(b) Unsatisfactory standard of driving as regards control of the regulator and brake; this may be aggravated by the consistent giving of shunting signals on the side away from the driver and / or inefficient transmission of instructions by the fireman. These two causes, it will be observed,. can only be eliminated by careful attention to the systematic training of staff and subsequent supervision of their work.
(c) Fatigue or excessive wear of drawgear. If many cases of partings are attributable to reasons in these categories, it is obvious that the standard of rolling stock maintenance must be raised. Limits of maximum wear must be specified and, when these are reached, either by length of service or exposure to atmospheric conditions, the drawgear must be brought back to drawing dimensions by makmg up with welding or other means. Fatigue brittleness, a frequent cause of mechanical failure, can be counteracted by periodic normalisation, and it is felt that the more general adoption of this practice in future will be advantageous. It is equally as important that drawgear springs be regularly and thoroughly examined, scragged and retempered as necessary, this examination being extended to all nuts, taper pins and cotters used for their retention.

Great Southern Rys. Ireland. 186
No. 463 4-6-0T (formerly No. 11, Cork, Bandon & South Coast Ry.) has been fitted with an R class Belpaire boiler. .

G.W.R. 186
Further standard 0-6-0 goods engines were appearing from Swindon, numbered 2231 onwards. Some of the 2:8-0 Austerity engines only recently transferred to this line from other companies have been handed back to the Government.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives: Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 186-8.
Continued from page 155. The next locomotives were two 0-4-2 goods engines supplied by the firm of Thompson & Cole, their names being Kingsbury and Willington; no maker's numbers are known of this firm, whose out- put of locomotives appears unknown except for the engines they supplied to this railway and the North Midland. The firm is believed to have been located at Carlisle, and it is also probable that the first- named partner- Thompson-was the Thompson who afterwards became one of the members of Messrs. Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson when the Airedale firm was re-formed with that title in 1842. This fits in well with the supposition that Thompson & Cole ceased business as locomotive-builders in 1841-although an alternative version is that the Fig. 6 Mr. Isaac Thompson of Kitson & Co. had previously been an iron merchant of Northallerton; possibly the two accounts are complementary. The delivery of these engines must have been between the Secretary's letter of June, 1840, and the Return of October, 1841, and probably early in 1841. The apparently very SImilar goods engines built by the same firm for the North Midland were delivered July-September, 1840, hence it is likely these B. & D. engines were delivered between September, 1840, and September, 1841, and as a minute of the latter date reading "to consider providing two additional goods engines" , suggests that some time had elapsed, the deliveries were probably nearer the former than the latter date.
In the Secretary's letter of June, 1840, already referred to, which gives the upper limit for the delivery of these engines, it is stated "your list includes an engine named Wellington. We have no engine so named". At first sight this might indicate there was already a B. & D. engine named Willington mistakenly written Wellington by the London & Birm.; if this had been the case, however, it seems obvious that the B. & D. Secretary would have pointed it out as an error and given the true name. . Although no drawings, and only a few dirnensions are directly traceable, the probable form of these Thompson & Cole engines can be derived from the following considerations: The October, 1841, Returns give the type 0-4-2 and state that they had inside and outside beanngs, and hence had main frames outside the wheels, i.e., double- framed; the diameter of driving wheels 5 ft. 0 in. ; and the weight in working order, 15.5 tons. As the only engines with 5 ft. 0 in. wheels in the MId. Rly. Gauge Returns of 1845 have 14 by 18 in. cylinders and further the engines appear with 14 by 18 in. cylinders in the Mid. Rly. list of 1849, also the average weight of the twelve Birmingham & Derby singles (which had 12 by 18 in. cylinders according to Whishaw) being given in the 1841 Returns as 13.9 tons, it is clear the goods locomotives were much larger engines. Regarding their general features: as Robert Stephenson had considerable influence on the Birrningham & Derby line from about 1840, and as Thompson & Cole also built three 0-4-2 double-framed goods engines with 5 ft. 0 in. wheels and 14 by 18 in. cylinders for the North Midland during 1840, for the purchase of North Midland locomotives Robert Stephenson being at that time responsible, there can be little doubt but that the B. & D. goods engines followed closely the pattern of 0-4-2 engines put upon the N. Midland by R. S. & Co., Thompson & Cole, and other firms. These latter engines will be fully dealt with later on in that section of the history. As, however, there is fortunately extant a R. Stephenson & Co.'s drawing as supplied to those firms which built engines to what were practically sub-contracts of Stephenson's, a precis-outline is given here as Fig. 6 and probably represents these engines very closely. Apart from the actual dimensions of these engines already given it may be added that the heating surface would have been about 550 sq. ft. in the tubes, plus 56 sq. ft. in the firebox, a grate area about 11 sq. ft. and a wheelbase 11 ft. to 11 ft. 6 in. Whether the boilers had domed or "Gothic" firebox shells is not definitely known, although as practically all locomotives constructed under the auspices of Stephenson's in 1840-4 had the latter, these B. & D. examples probably followed the practice.
The Mid. Rly. numbers of these two engines when first placed upon the Amalgamated Stock list are not certain; they may at first have been numbered between 77 and 85, but in any event they were Nos. 298 and 299 in 1849, the former of these being sold—a 14 in. cylinder coupled engine ten years old at that time had considerable secondary usefulness—in April, 1851, whilst the latter, after being renumbered 307 in June, 1852, was sold in November of that year.
It has been supposed that there was a third goods engine, thus making the total "amalgamated stock" contributed to the M.R. 15 locomotives, but although there is room for such an engine amongst the 13 such goods in the 1845 Return, .the extra one is possibly a North MIdland engine. That there was some intention to obtain more goods engines is evident from a B. & D. minute of September, 1841, "to consider providing two additional goods engines for the opening of the New Line" (i.e., the direct line from Whitacre to Birmingham). This proposal is clearly additional to the two goods engines which appear in the October, 1841, Returns, but as a minute of October, 1841, refuses a tender from Braithwaite Milner & Co. to supply locomotives and another minute of November, 1841, declines an offer of a. locomotive with the remark "that the Company are not at present purchasing engines", it would seem the proposal lapsed. No minutes are available for the subsequent period until 1843, so it is not possible to prove the negative, but as no reference has been traced of such engine subsequently upon the Mid. Rly., the fifteenth locomotive upon the B. & D. must remain "not proven". No information is known as to the colour of the locomotives of the B. & D. Railway, and sparseness of records prevents any fuller reference to the characteristic features of the carriages and wagons, although of the carriages, which were of first, second and third class and stated at the time to be "very similar to the London & Birmingham carriages.' ,
Regarding the locomotive depots and workshops, it has already been mentioned that there were sheds at Hampton (now used as a timber and corn mill) and the fact that Mr. Kirtley was stationed there indicates that they formed the principal depot. There was also a locomotive running-shed at Derby from the beginning; it consisted of a straight shed 143 ft. long by 43 ft. wide, having three lines for the engines, a blacksmith's shop, offices, etc., and was at the southerly end of the area occupied by the works and yard of the North Midland and Midland Counties under what came to be called the tri-partite arrangement, being towards what is now known as the London Road Bridge. When the extension line to Birmingham (Lawley Street Station) was built, running-sheds were established at Saltley, from when, or at some time between then and the amalgamation, the Hampton shed would appear to have been closed, because by June, 1844, only two active locomotive depots are recorded, Derby and Birmingham, and the latter must have been represented by Saltley.
There were no tunnels; the principal bridges and viaducts consisting of a very fine viaduct over the River Anker just south of Tamworth having 19 stone arches in all some 700 ft. long, the Wichnor Viaduct between Burton and Tamworth over the confluence. of the rivers Tame and Trent, some 1,.300 ft. long, originally constructed of timber—and which lasted until 1879—and a smaller viaduct, also originally of timber, over a tributary of the River Dove south of Repton. The ruling gradient was 1 in 339.
From the earliest timetable known—of October, 1839—it is seen that there were four passenger trains each way on weekdays and two on Sundays, one each of the weekday trains making intermediate stops at Burton, Tamworth and Hampton only; whilst by July, 1840, the service comprised five passenger trains each way per day—and three each way on Sundays—increased to six and four respectively by November, 1840 — mostly takmg 1 hour 40 minutes to two hours between Derby and Hampton (one train 1 hour 30 minutes) giving average speeds from 19 to 26 m.p.h. including stops, whilst between Hampton & Bummgham—no doubt including a wait. at Hampton in some cases —a minimum and maximum of 20 and 35 mmutes was allowed. Whishaw gives the average speed as 23 m.p.h. at this period. It may be. noted that there was no station at Whitacre at this time. Later when both the use of the route as a London traffic link had ceased, as also the direct line from Whitacre to Birmingham had eliminated even the Birmingham traffic from the Hampton line, the service in 1851 was still five passenger trams, but by 1852 the service between Whitacre and Hampton was reduced to four passenger and one goods train per day (no trains on Sundays) and in that year trains took 1 hour 55 minutes between Derby and Hampton and two hours between Derby and Birmingham direct, except one or two w.hlch did each run in 1 hour 45 minutes. All trains—passenger and goods—then took 30 minutes for the 7¼ miles from Whitacre Junction to Hampton, but only 15 to 20 minutes in the reverse direction.
One of the earliest railway journeys of Queen Victoria included the Birmingham & Derby line as a link in a round trip from London via Hampton to Tamworth and on via Derby to Chesterfield, then from Chesterfield via Derby to Nottingham, and, finally, after travelling from Nottingham to Leicester byroad-for what reason the road was chosen is not now known—from Leicester via Rugby to London. It will be observed that four distinct railways were travelled over and that both of the one-time rival "London and the North" routes, viz., via Tamworth and via Ullesthorp, were patronized. This journey took place at the end of November, 1843, and the B. & D. engine used was Tayleur's Burton (not Barton, as erroneously stated by "Veritas Vincit", but corrected by him later) as is duly chronicled in the Press of the time, which also states that the directors of the Derby line travelled with the train, which was "under the guidance of Keightley, the Resident Engineer of the Line" and that the run from Hampton to Tamworth—15 miles—as made in 20 minutes. The reference to Mr. Keightly (sic) supports the view expressed at the beginning of this account that Mr. Kirtley was also Resident Engineer during the later life of the B. & D. During its separate existence the B. & D.—contrary to at least one of its later partners—appears to have led a fairly blameless life in respect to accidents; there being, it is believed, only one case "recorded against it" ,. this being a "collision with a truck on the line" on 2 December 1840, when one person was killed. The shadow of impending amalgamation appears definitely in a minute recording the appointment of a "Joint Committee" composed of North Midland, Midland Counties and Birmingham & Derby members from September, 1843, amongst the early actions of which was to recommend' to the Midland Counties and North Midland "to provide two powerful Locomotive Engines, viz., one by each Company", to which both the before-mentioned companies retorted they considered "two engines each instead of one be ordered." The last minute dealing with locomotive matters ends on a typical key of improvement of constructional details whereby, in view of a driver having been injured by falling from an engine in motion, Mr. Kirtley was instructed "to narrow the space between the Tenders and the Engines" —an improvement to which full effect was not given by locomotive designers for very many years.

H. Fayle The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 188-90. 3 illustrations
Continued from page 127. With this somewhat brief resume of the history of the company, the locomotive stock will now claim attention. The company took over with the Dublin & Kingstown Railway in 1856 that company's locomotive works at Grand Canal Street, Dublin, just outside Westland Row station, and these premises, with a few minor extensions, served in this capacity throughout its entire existence. The works, which had originally been a distillery, were very inadequate, but, nevertheless, a considerable number of locomotives were built there. starting with the Princess of the Dublin & Kingstown Railway in 1841,. the first engine built in Ireland. Plans had been made about 1905 for transferring the works to Rathnew, but never came to fruition owing to the financial state of the company.
In stating that engines were built at Grand Canal Street, some qualification is necessary; the cylinders were sometimes cast on the premises, but the boilers and mountings came complete from some English firm, and this sometimes applied to the cylinders too. So cramped was the accommodation that engines under repair remained partly out in the open, and construction was an extremely slow business. Still, when all these drawbacks were allowed for, the quality of the work turned out was very creditable, more particularly of latter years. Some good coaching stock was also built on the premises that was quite up to the standards of that time. The old stock running on the local trains was, however, none too creditable, being all six-wheeled or four-wheeled up to about 1905, the third class being innocent of upholstery. Itis worth noting that second class accommodation predominated in the local trains, and the company had more coaches of this class than any other in the early years of the present century, Eventually, however, in 1921, second class accommodation was discontinued throughout the system.
For the opening of the line five engines were obtained from Wm. Fairbairn & Son, and two others were temporarily hired from Wm. Dargan, the contractor. Regarding the latter, nothing is known of their type, but one of them, named William Dargan, was afterwards used on the construction of the line to Wexford. Nos. 1 and 2 were single well tanks, which are said to have had 13 in. by 20 in. cylinders, and 5 ft. 6 in. driving wheels; very little is known about them, but No. 1 was working on the Wexford & Rosslare Railway when the D.W. & W. Railway were operating that line between 1882 and 1889; it may have lasted to 1892, when a new engine bearing this number was built. No. 2 was renumbered 45 in 1885 and adapted for use as a stationary engine to work the machinery at Grand Canal Street works, being finally scrapped in 1901.
No. 3 was a 2-4-0 tender engine with cylinders 15 in. by 22 in. and 5 ft. 0 in. coupled wheels; it appears to have been very similar to some engines supplied by Fairbairn at the same time to the Waterford & Limerick Railway, and may have been one of the same batch. This engine received a new boiler in 1879, and was rebuilt as a side tank locomotive in 1884; in this state lit somewhat resembled the later side tanks built at Grand Canal Street, but the cab was open at the back; as in the case of other Grand Canal Street rebuilds, the plate carried the date of the boiler (1879) but not that of the actual rebuild; it was scrapped in 1898.
The two remaining engines, 4 and 5, were 2-2-2 well tanks of a larger type than Nos. 1 and 2; the cylinders were 15 in. by 20 in., wheels 3 ft. 6 in., 5 ft. 6 in. and 3 ft. 6 in. respectively, boiler 9 ft. lit in. by 4 ft. 0 in. (inside), firebox 4 ft. 6t in. by 4 ft. 0 in. (outside), tubes 2 in. by 10 ft. 4 in. long, heating surface 635.35+73.35= 709 sq. ft.; weights: 7.5 tons + 13.0 tons+7.5 tons = 28.0 tons in working order. All these five engines were probably supplied in 1853. No. 4 blew up on September 16, 1872, when standing at Bray station, the engine being a total wreck. No. 5 was rebuilt in 1870, and made more powerful by decreasing the size of the driving wheels to 5 ft. 3 in. ; in 1882 it was further rebuilt with all-over cab and bell-mouthed dome on the first boiler ring; this type of dome was fitted to many Grand Canal Street rebuilds of this period; the engine became No. 5A in 1897 and was scrapped in 1900. It would appear that all these early engines bore names, only one of which is known, the Avoca, which worked a special train to Bray WIth the directors on 25  March 1854.
In 1854 the Vulcan Foundry supplied two single saddle tanks (Nos. 392/3) which became Nos. 6 and 7; the cylinders were 13 in. by 20 in.; wheels, 3ft. 6¼ in. 5 ft. 3¼ in. and 3 ft. 6¼ in. respectively; wheelbase, 12 ft. 9 in. equally divided; boiler, 10 ft. 0 in. by 3 ft. 01/8 in. (small end); height of centre line, 5 ft. 105/8 in.; firebox, 4 ft. 0 in. by 3 ft. 11 in.; 158 tubes of 17/8 in.; heating surface, 712.6+ 64.0=776.6 sq. ft.; grate area, 12.25 sq. ft. ; tanks, 450 gallons. The eng:ines were domeless and had two 4 in. safety valves; they were fitted with Dodd's wedge valve motion. As the water in the shallow saddle tanks was liable to get over-heated, these were replaced by well tanks under the footplate, and, probably to preserve the weight distribution, shallow trough tanks were also fitted along the frames. These trough tanks were almost a D.W. & W. Railway speciality, and cabs and the usual bell-mouthed domes were also added. No. 6 was rebuilt in 1877, and became 6A in 1894; it continued to work till 1903, when it was hired to the contractor of the new railway then building between Waterford and Rosslare, and was probably broken up soon after. No. 7 became 7A in 1895, and was scrapped in 1902; in both cases the cylinder diameter had been increased to 14 in. when the engines were rebuilt; despite their small size, this type had done good work on the light trains then in vogue on the level portion of the line between Dublin and Kingstown, and lasted nearly fifty years.

L. & N.E.R. 190
It was reported that one of the Ivatt 4-4-0 engines, No. 4075, had been allocated to Directors' use, and had been renumbered 2000 and repainted in the standard L.N.E. green Iivery with polished brasswork. In consequence the N.E. Area 0-6-0 formerly No. 2000 had been renumbered 2050. Engines built at Darlington so far this year in order of works numbers (1923 to 1944) are: 3691, 8500, 3692, 8306/7/8, 3693/6, 8309, 8501, 3697, 8310, 3694/5. 8502 to 8508 and 3698 . Nos. 3691 to 3695 were Class V2, 3696 to 3698 were A2/1, 8306 to 8310 were B1 (Antelopes) and 8500 to 8508 were L.M.S. 8F 2-8-0s on loan to the L.N.E.R.

Lightweight passenger stock . 190-1.
Save for the advent of the war, lightweight passenger stock would by now be a familiar feature upon the railways of this country and the Colonies. For some years considerable developments took place, and the weight had been greatly reduced by scientific design coupled wIth the use of metals which the continuous progress in that field had made available. How considerable these developments had been may be realised by comparing the 1,600 lb. weight per passenger seat of the orthodox third-class coach with that of some stock placed in service by the L.M.S.R. shortly before the conflict commenced, where the equivalent weight was reduced to 500 lb. Obviously this reduction was not achieved over- night; it represented, in fact, some seven years' progress.
The advantages of weight reduction appear to have been appreciated far earlier—if not better—in the road transport sphere, where, many years ago, it was realised that the chief constituents of what is understood by performance, viz., acceleration, maximum speed and fuel consumption, were dependent upon the ratio of power to weight. Light weight also greatly lessened wear and tear of both vehicle and road. All these findings apply with equal emphasis to the weight reduction of rolling stock with certain added advantages; e.g., existing types of locomotives are capable of working longer trains to existing schedules, or, alternatively, trains of orthodox seating capacity to schedules calling for higher rates of acceleration and greater maximum speeds than those in force with existing stock. It is of interest to note that experience in America has shown that for high-speed operation a satisfactory weight/power ratio is 450 lb. per horsepower (including the weight of the locomotive).
The war has been responsible for prodigious developments in the technique of manufacturing and utilising lightweight alloys and stainless and high-tensile steels, so that to-day it is no exaggeration to state that in such products this country may claim to lead the world. Such alloys are naturally higher priced, but the additional capital cost is justifiable from the economic aspect. alone, for weight reduction pays a continuous dividend m the form of lower fuel and maintenance costs. A point frequently overlooked with the aluminium alloys is that a considerable saving is effected in the working, and a further saving results in the paint-shop, for, generally speaking, less preparatory work is necessary in obtaining a suitable surface, with the added advantage that rusting troubles are unknown. Still further advantages accrue from the point of view of finishing by the use of stainless steel, which may be left in its natural condition; the results thus obtainable are very satisfactory, both from the point of view of attractiveness and ease of deaning.
Problems arise in connection with the braking of such trains, for although the train, being lighter, requires less retardation in itself, the fact remains that normally the locomotive does not do its fair share of the braking, and, as a corollary, the train has to do more than its fair proportion viewed on a weight basis. The solution is a simple one and consists of much higher braking ratio, m some cases as much as 250 per: cent. may be called for, and fitting of decelakrons becomes necessary.
It is impossible to touch upon more than a tithe of the considerations involved in design in an article of this length, nor, for that matter, is it necessary; our pages in recent years have contained much information upon the subject, together with particulars of experience obtained elsewhere. What is necessary at thrs Juncture, is the formation of a clear-cut policy on the construction of light-weight passenger stock and, equally Important,. a definition of the spheres where Its operation will prove of the utmost benefit to railways and public alike. The sphere of operation will affect the root of the whole matter, for any weight-saving is largely dependent upon design and to derive the maximum benefits such coaches must be operated only in conjunction with other lightweight stock. Should it be decided to utilise hght stock with heavy, the design of the former must allow for the increased buffing and draw stresses and the maximum savings cannot result.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary . 191-2. illustration (drawing)
Continued from page 157. The Atlantics were put into service with appropriate publicity, and they were all given names suitable to Scottish engines. Their numbers were 868-881. In comparison with the "317" class they were enormous, and possibly for this reason there was an initial prejudice against them .. After a few months of service all were temporanly withdrawn and one was sent to the North Eastern for dyriamometer trials, but the trials proved so satisfactory that the engines were all returned unaltered.
The Cowlairs authorities still hankered after a 4-6-0 design, and a comparative trial was arranged between an Atlantic and a locomotive of the London & North Western Experiment class, taking place on the English company's line: Nevertheless the ban on six-coupled express engmes was not raised, and in 1911 six further Atlantics were ordered from Robert Stephenson & Co. These engines, Nos. 901-906, varied from the original machines slightly in detail..
Reid had no intention of abandoning, except ill this one case, accepted North British practice. Only in the case of the Atlantics did he stray far from the beaten track. In 1906, for example, he introduced a typically Cowlairs 6ft. 4-4-0 with 19in. x 26in. cylinders, officially named the 19in. Intermediate Goods" class. Twelve were built, Nos. 882~893, which were, despite their classification, used almost entirely on passenger duties. They were followed in 1909 and 1910 by a further twelve. These were numbered 331-333, 382-385, 864-867 and 894. In common with all Reid's main line passenger engines, this class had piston valves.
In 1909 and 1911 sixteen 6 ft. 6in. 4-4-0 express engines on the same general lines were built, and since they would come more under the eye of the public it was decided to name them after characters in Sir Walter Scott's novels, one, No. 898, being named after the author himself. The engines of this, the first "Scott" class, were numbered 243-245, 338-340, 359-362 and 895-900.
When the Intermediates were introduced an 18½in. 0-6-0 goods class was also put in hand to take over from the 18in. Holmes engines the heaviest main line traffic. The design followed conventional North British practice. Seventy-six in all were built, Nos. 848-857 coming from the North British Locomotive Company in 1906 and 197-208 and 364-381 from the same firm in 1909 and 1910. The remainder of the class were built at Cowlairs between 1906 and 1913, and were numbered 38, 56-59, 86, 115, 120, 124, 126, 127, 129, 185-196, 220, 226, 228, 253, 254, 329, 330, 335-337, 347 and 348. The first to appear were the Cowlairs engines Nos. 329 and 330 which were the first goods engines owned by the North British to be fitted with piston valves. There was nearly a year's delay in their completion from the time they were laid down, the frames lying unused in the boiler shop for most of this time.
All the Reid classes so far described had relatively large boilers, high pitched, and, therefore safety valves mounted above the firebox. Reid, however, had not so far departed from the old practice of placing them on the dome from any reason of policy. His tank engines built in 1909 had the safety valves on the dome.
The two tank classes brought out in that year were based on the types which had originally been introduced by Drummond. For passenger service he ordered from the North British Locomotive Company twelve large 0-4-4 with the 5ft. 9in. coupled wheels which Cowlairs had standardised for that wheel arrangement, but with 18in x 26in. cylinders.
It had been decided in 1909 to abandon once again rope haulage on the Cowlairs bank, and Reid, therefore, decided to introduce a powerful class of six coupled tank for banking service. Such engines, however, would be equally useful for short distance goods traffic. He took the " Terrier" as the basis of an 18in. design of 0-6-2 wheel arrangement with 4ft. 6in. coupled wheels, the trailing axle being added to allow of a larger coal bunker. This class with modifica- tions from time to time was built from 1909 to 1924, thirty examples being put into service after the North British had been merged into the L.N.E.R. The boilers of this class were interchangeable with those of the 0-4-4 tanks.
The 0-6-2 engines were for the most part built on contract, Nos. 7, 20, 22, 29, 47, 49, 54, 61, 65, 69, 70, 96, 97, 106-108, 142, 154, 165, 166, 209, 210, 219, 223, 224, 229, 230, 240, 246, 251, 252, 257, 259, 264, 276, 282, 386-393, 369-399, 453 and 858-863 coming from the North British Locomotive Company between 1909 and 1920. Nos. 519-528 were built by R. Stephenson & Co. in 1923, and the N.B. Loco. Co. built Nos. 907-926 in 1912. After the grouping twenty were built at Cowlairs, Nos. 9019, 9023, 9031, 9052, 9055, 9060, 9067, 9071, 9074-9079, 9099, 9125, 9147, 9174, 9225, 9227. The greater number of these carried North British numbers when put into service, with or without the suffix " B," being delivered before the introduction of the scheme by which the North British numbers were increased by nine thousand.
The 0-4-4 tanks did not prove to be the last word for suburban traction, so in 1911 Reid introduced a 4-4-2 tank design for these duties. These loco- motives were similar in power to the front coupled tanks, having 5ft. 9in. coupled wheels, 18in. x 26in. cylinders and standard boilers with safety valves over the firebox, as in the case of the later 0-6-2 engines. They were the lineal descendants of Drummond's 4-4-0 express tanks for the Helensburgh route. Thirty in all were built between 1911 and 1913 by the Yorkshire Engine Company, their numbers being 1-6, 12, 15, 16, 25, 26, 39, 41, 43, 48, 51, 53, 64, 102, 122, 131, 133-135, 141, 155, 164, 265, 267 and 309.
About this time a further trial of a 4-6-0 passenger engine took place, the North British borrowing a Castle class engine from the Highland, and running it between Edinburgh and Perth. For comparison an "Intermediate" 4-4-0 was used on similar duties. This experiment resulted in no change of North British policy, and in fact the 4-6-0 did not appear on N.B.R. routes, even in L.N.E.R. times, until long after the type had become commonplace on every other main line in Britain. (To be continued)

H.F. Hilton. Gurney's Locomotive on the Hirwain Railway. 192-4. 2 diagrams
From time to time methods of locomotion designed for roads have been adopted on railways, and one of the earliest instances occurred on the Hirwain Railway in South Wales in 1830.
Goldsworthy Gurney had introduced steam carriages on the streets in London and on the road between Gloucester and Cheltenham about the same time as Hancock, an engineer, of Stratford-le-Bow, Essex, was running several steam vehicles of different types in and about the Metropolis. In spite of the rough roads and other difficulties, he had established the adaptability of this form of locomotion, and it would appear that Gurney, in an attempt to gain equal success, had intruded on the 'ingenuity of Hancock and put forward fictitious claims for his ideas. He forwarded his own interests by every possible means and obtained the patronage of influential persons.
Wilham Crawshay, a prominent ironmaster, of Cyfarthfa Castle, near Aberdare, laid down a railway on Hirwain Common far the conveyance of ironstone and coal to his furnace, a distance of 2! miles, and early in 1830 induced Gurney to sell him one of his London-built road engines. Hebert, an engineer, in one of his books states the engine was hauled by horses to South Wales,

P.C.D. Commentary on the "White Horse of Kent". 194-6