The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume  50 (1944)
Key file

Number 617 (15 January 1944)

The locomotive and research. 1.
Editorial inspired by Sir Harold Hartley's brochure Are you research-minded? Queries extent to which research can be extended to steam locomotive, altough mentions Bridge Stress Committee, the superheater and Chapelon's work.

2-4-2+2-4-2 "Beyer-Garratt" for the Leopoldina Railway (metre gauge). 2-3. illustration
Four locomotives supplied by Beyer Peacock for service on the Cantagallo branch which rose 1500 feet to a summit at Coreiro from Portella on the Parahyba River on 1 in 30 gradients with severe curvature. They had 11 x 20in cylinders; 3ft 4in coupled wheels; thermic syphons; 1103ft2 total heating surface; 30.3ft2 grate area and Belpaire fireboxes. They had large ash pans as the engines were intended to burn inferior coal.

The late Mr John George Robinson. 3

Special railway wagons for aircraft. 3
To handle imports of American aircraft received through ports. Aircraft delivered in 40ft crates which required special well wagons.

L.N.E.R. 3
George Dow, former Information Agent became Press Relations Officer. Notes diagrams produced by him for use in carriages on both LNER and LMS railways and his work on a history ofv the Great Central Railway and that he had been railway correspondent for Design for To-day.

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 4-6. 2 illustrations
SNER 0-4-2 1859-1866 (table): supplied by Neilson (WN 478-82/1859); Peto, Brassey & Betts WN 48-50/1861-2; Vulcan Foundry (WN 490-3/1862); Neilson (WN 1161-6/1865 and 1202-7/1866). They had outside cylinders 17 x 20in; 5ft 1½ coupled wheels; 1073ft2 total heating surface; 14ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Illustration No. 65 0-4-2WT on p. 36

Ministry of Supply 2-8-0 tender locomotive. 9. illustration
No. 7199 supplied by North British Locomotive Co.

L.N.E.R. 9
New B1 type: Nos. 8303 Impala; 8304 Gazelle and 8305 Oryx.

L.M.S. 9
Villagers of Troutbeck use station waiting room as church on Sundays: their Vicar, Rev. Lawrence Nobbs cycles 3½ miles from Parish Church in Mungrisdale to conduct service. Press release added war freight trains rumbling by and John Peel Country.

The North London Railway. 9-11 4 illustrations (including 3 line drawings: side elevations)
Three 0-6-0 type were purchased from the Northumberland & Durham Coal Co.  No. 28 (with inside frames) had 16 x 20in cylinders; 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 1009ft2 total heating surface; 11.8ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Nos. 29 and 30 (with outside frames) had 15 x 22in cylinders; 4ft 7½in coupled wheels; 693.99ft2 total heating surface; 14.43ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. Begins the long story of Adams 4-4-0Ts which had outside cylinders 17 x 24in; 5ft 6in coupled wheels; 1015ft2 total heating surface; 14.72ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressure..

C.M. Doncaster. GWR No. 197. 12-13. 4 illustrations (including 3 line drawings: side elevations)
Beyer Peacock 2-4-0 of 1862 originally supplied to the West Midland Railway for use between Wolverhampton, Worcester, Hereford and Neweport. They had 16 x 20in cylinders, and 6ft coupled wheels. In 1879-81 three were rebuilt as 2-4-0T for express services, but were rebuilt as 2-4-0 tender locomotives in "1882 and 1880". Photograph shows No. 197 in this form at Snow Hill station in Birmingham. Drawings show No. 197 as built and in final form and as 2-4-0T No. 201.

An old Belgian single locomotive. 13. illustration: line drawing: side elevation)
Crampton 0-2-4T used on Brussels to Tubize line of Belgian State Railways in 1841.

Number 618 (15 February 1944)

The breaking of trains. 17

50 years' progress in design. 18-19.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 20-1. diagram (side elevation)

L.N.E.R. re-railing exercise under gas conditions at Picketts Lock. 21. illustration
J15 No. 7857 partially derailed with train of wagons derailed and contaminated with mustard gas.

F.C. Hambleton. The first locomotive to be fitted  with Joy's valve gear. 22. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0 No. 2365 exhibited at Barrow in summer 1880 for Institution of Civil Engineers meeting. The locomotive also had a drumhead smokebox and a ¾in thick copper plate tubeplate. The firehole and ashpan were flanged. The hollow ashpan was arranged so that water from the firebox sides flowed across it.  No. 930 (also illustrated) was one of the main batch of Cauliflower 0-6-0s which did not feature the ashpan novelties.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 23-5. 6 tables

Edward H. Livesay. Across Canada in the cab. 25-8. illustration
Toronto to Winnipeg by Canadian Pacific Railroad on the footplate of the Hudson type locomotives hauling the Dominion. The start from Toronto involved the use of the booster. The cabs were luxurious and had seats for three.

Post-War design. 29
Problems identified included hammer blow, flange wear, untreated water and boiler inefficiency

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 29-31. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Holmes replaced Drummond but further Drummond types were built with relatively minor modifications: thus there were further Drummond 4-6-0Ts and 17in 0-6-0s, but with Stirling-type cabs and his own design of safety valves in place of the Ramsbottom-type. In 1884 Cowlairs built his first 4-4-0 design with 6ft 6in coupled wheels and 17in cylinders: they were numbered 574-9 and had no names. The Stroudley yellow was replaced by dark brown.  The 592 class 4-4-0s were introduced to replace the Paton Beyer Peacock 2-2-2s on the Edinburgh to Glasgow expresses. They had 18 x 24in cylinders and were built in 1886/7 and numbered 592-603. Two batches of an 0-4-4T were built: six (Nos. 586-91) in 1886 and six (Nos. 90-5) in 1888. The Holmes 18in 0-6-0 was constructed between 1888 and 1900. This class became numerically the largest ever owned by the North British. They had 5ft. 0in. wheels and 18in. x 26in. cylinders, and were somewhat larger than the Drummond 18in. engines. Tlhe Holmes engines were used throughout the system as the standard heavy goods locomotive, many being fitted with the Westinghouse brake, and proving themselves equally useful, on heavy excursion trains. One hundred and sixty-eight were built between 1888 and 1900. Fifteen, Nos. 663-677, came from Neilson in 1891, fifteen, Nos. 678-692 from Sharp, Stewart in 1892 and the remainder from Cowlairs.

L.M.S.R. 31
Mr. P.J. Fisher, Assistant District Controller at Chaddesden before the war, and now Lieut.-Colonel in the Royal Engineers, has been appointed Assistant Director of Transportation in Italy. Mr. Fisher has had a wide experience of rail transportation on the L.M.S.
187 L.M.S. men had earned decorations or awards since war began. Fifty-four of these were won in air attacks while on railway duty on the L.M.S., ninety- one by staff in the Forces and thirty-five for meritorious 'railway service. The decorations include a D.S.O., a Croix de Guerre, eight George Medals, forty-six B.E.M.s, nine D.F.C.s and ten Military Medals.

Correspondence. 31

Springs, a miscellany. C. F. Dendy Marshall.
Had read the second volume of the late T. H. Sanders' Springs, a Miscellany with very great interest. It is a wonderful book. He has said very kind things about my books, and I am duly grateful, but, on page 951, there is a statement intended to give my views on the subject of the early history of the bogie, which, at all events, does not represent them now. It is as follows: "On the authority of Dendy Marshall, the first bogie which was fitted to any locomotive was designed by ... John Jervis." In Two Essays I wrote practically those words, but they were preceded by these: "Apart from the possibility of Chapman having put his invention into practice in 1813." I afterwards discovered the drawings of Chapman's chain engine in the Derby Museum, and gave reproductions of them in Early British Locomotives, from which Sanders took his own illustrations on page 949. Considering that we know the chain engine was built, and that the drawings agree with those in his Patent Specification, there can now be no doubt that Chapman was the first man to put a bogie on a locomotive. It would still be true to say that the first bogie which was fitted to a successful locomotive was designed by Jervis.

Locomotive valve gears. Harold A. Akroyd
Re January issue reference to locomotives built by this company (Yorkshire Engine Co., Ltd.). Fuller particulars of the valve gears fitted to those for the Hull and Barnsley Railway 0-6-0 engines Nos. 70 to 78 and 91 to 96, and 0-6-0 side tank engines No. 111 to 116 had Stephenson link motion with the reversing shaft underneath. 0-8-0 engines Nos .117 to 131 were fitted with Allan straight link motion. and five later 0-6-0 engines, Nos. 157 to 161, also had Allan motion which differed slightly in dimensions from the 0-8-0. The valve gear on the two locomotives built for the Maryport and Carlisle Railway, already referred to in Montague Smith's letter, was exactly duplicate of these five.

Manx Northern Railway. Ian MacNab.
Re cover page xxix of The Locomotive Magazine for November, 1919, with an advertisement by the British Commercial Lorry Engineering Co., of Manchester, offering for sale a 3 ft. gauge locomotive built by Sharp, Stewart & Co., with cylinders 11 in x 18 in. stroke; an illustration of the engine concerned appears with the announcement. Although the illustration is not too clear in detail, the engine is in all probability No. 1 Ramsey of the late Manx Northern Railway. This engine was sold out of service in 1918 by its then owners, the Isle of Man Railway, but records at Douglas do not indicate what actually became the fate of this locomotive. I am anxious to obtain details of the final history of this Manx Northern Railway locomotive, and if any of your readers can give further information, I should be greatly obliged.

Cowlairs Commentary. C. Hamilton Ellis..
In common, I am sure, with many other readers, I am greatly enjoying "Cowlairs Commentary." I would like, however, to point out that the drawing of the Helensburgh tank engine No. 1391, previously 495, does not show her quite accurately in the aspect she bore in 1921. All three of' these beautiful locomotives were rebuilt with new boilers in 1905, many years before they were given duplicate numbers in the thirteen hundreds, but your contributor's otherwise admirable sketch shows the new number in conjunction with the old Drummond boiler. The latter was always recognisable at once by the spacing of the safety-valves. Between the old seatings there was space for the spring of the original Ramsbottom fitting, while in the Holmes and Reid boilers the lock-up .valves were close together. The 1905 boilers on the three Helensburgh tanks had 150 psi with a slight reduction in the grate area and the tube heating surface. Photographs of these engines are rare and I have never seen a photograph of one on a train. I enclose, however, a picture of mine showing No. 1390 (originally No. 494 Craigendoran) as she appeared in the last days of the North British Railway. I painted. the picture a few years ago and for the sake of old associations depicted her with a Helensburgh train, though this would have been unusual towards the end. One, I believe, finished up at Aberfoyle and another at St. Andrews.

Reviews. 31

British Railways in Peace and War.
New facts about the railways were revealed in latest publication. In addition to a comprehensive survey of facts, a special chapter gives a behind-the-scenes account of the big task of moving an army, and a double-page coloured plate provides a visual impression of the vast number of trains needed to haul a force of the size of that which went to North Africa. A review of the "Progress Between the Wars." shows that cheap fare journeys more than doubled, the figures in 1923 being 209,600,000 and, in 1938, 492,400,000. Other facts given show that the same number of miles were run in 1923 as in 1938, but with 4,300 less locomotives; between 1923 and 1938, 350 new stations and 40 new goods depots were provided; £7,000,000 was spent on new steamships, and a £40,000,000 programme for London was commenced. The "Total War Effort" of the railways reveals that the movement of troops to "invasion" stations required one railway to run 116 special trains spread over twenty-seven days; the first exports to Russia involved one railway running 132 special trains between August and November, 194 I. Another section of this booklet gives an account of the war effort of railway steamships and marine staffs. Ninety- two railway vessels have been chartered by the Government for service as, hospital carriers, transports, assault ships, minelayers and sweepers, ammunition carriers, ack-ack ships and rescue ships sailing with Atlantic convoys. The last section of the book gives an indication of the post-war services which are being planned.

Testing locomotive slide valves: ports and pistons. E.J. Nutty.
Thirty-two page booklet compiled with the assistance of Engineman W.H. Nutty, explaining the relative positions of cranks, coupling rods, eccentrics, pistons and valves, and glVlllg useful information for locating blows or defects in the steam chest or cylinders. The diagrams are clear and the text is neatly arranged.

Locomotives .of the Metropolitan Railway, 1863-1943. P. Densham. . 20pp.,
A list of all the steam and electric locomotives that have worked on this railway, together with dimensions and rough sketches of t.heir outlines, A useful record of the builders dates and ultimate disposal of the engines of a line that dunng eighty years had many interesting designs of tank locomotives, but no tender engines.

A.B.C. of L.M.S. locomotives. Ian Allan and A. B. MacLeod; 52 pp. and cover. The A..B.C. of·L.N.E.R. locomotives, Ian Allan; 64 pp. and cover.
The authors have already published lists of the locomotives of the Southern and G.W. systems and the two new booklets deal with the L.M.S. and L.N.E., so that the series now covers the locomotive studs of all four British groups. The booklets have been officially corrected and are well illustrated by official photographs. The first-mentioned contains dimensional diagrams of the standard classes, whilst the L.N.E. book has a full table of dimensions of all types. A list of running sheds and a few other interesting notes complete two well arranged and produced reference books.

Number 619 (15 March 1944)

The future of transport. 33-4
Major-General Gilbert Szlumper paper presented to the Engineeering Industries Association in which he outlined three future strategies: the earlier one of unlimited competition between road and rail, government limited competition and nationalization: the last not being favoured

Conversion of L.N.E.R. "04" class locomotive. 34-5. 2 illustrations.
Thompson conversion of Great Central O4 type to O1 using B1 cylinders and valve gear and boiler

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 35-7. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
SNER 0-4-2T and 2-2-2 Vulcan Foundry delivered four Crewe-type 2-2-2 designed by Yarrow. These had 7ft 1½ in driving wheels, 16 x 22in cylinders, 1301.75ft2 total heating surface, 12.75 grate area and 120 psi bouiler pressure. A further locomotive was constructed at Arbroath but with 16½ x 20in cylinders and 7ft 0½ driving wheels. Four more were ordered from Vulcan Foundry, but the SNER had been absorbed by the Caledonian before they were delivered In 1870 the Arbroath locomotive was overhauled at Perth and the Yarrow firebox was replaced and standard 22in stroke cylinders were fitted. Table gives rebuilding, renumbering and withdrawal date. Figures: SNER 0-4-0t No. 32 (line drawing); 0-4-2WT No. 65; 2-2-2 No. 461 and CR 2-2-2 No. 316 as rebuilt (ex SNER No. 27).
.

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 38-41. illustration, 4 diagrams.
The leading dimensions of the Star and Claughton classes are compared: the Claughtons had a higher superheat, but in other respects were smaller. On 2 and 4 November 1913 dynamometer car tests were performed between Euston and Crewe and between Crewe and Carlisle on No. 1154 Ralph Brocklebank hauling 435 tons to Crewe and 360 tons thereafter. The Engineer reported the results on 6 February 1914. 1500 horsepower was attained on Grayrigg bank and indicator readings taken on passing Tebay gave 1669 ihp.

Air attacks. 41.
"It can now be revealed" that the railways had experience over 10,000 incidents. A 3½ mile stretch of line near Coventry received forty high explosive bombs in one night.

Union Pacific R.R. 41
Five 4-8-8-4; ten 4-8-4 and twenty 4-6-6-4 locomotives had beeen ordered from the American Locomotive Company.

L.N.E.R. 41
J.S. Jones who had been engaged on special duties in the chief mechanical engineer's department, had been appointed assistant locomotive running superintendent Western Section, Southern Area. E.S. Bradley, district engineer Hull had been appointed district engineer York.

The North London Railway. 42-4. illustration, 2 tables
Adams resigned in 1873 and was replaced by J.C. Park as Locomotive Superintendent. He continued to build the 4-4-0T locomotives with slight modifications, notably the addition of cabs and the removal of the number and coppper cap to the chimneys. Tables list the running numbers, Bow Works numbers and rebuilding numbers with dates. Figurec 27 shows No. 48 at Alexandra Palace.

Review. 44

The evolution of railways, 2nd ed. Charles E. Lee.
Traces history back much further than might be expected.

C.M. Doncaster. Old banking engine, London and Croydon Railway. 44. illustration
G & J Rennie 0-4-2 locomotive of 1838/9.

Swiss Federal Railways. 44
Two electric locomotives were under construction for the Bern-Lotschberg-Simplon line. They had four driving axles and were intended for hauling express trains

Rapid repair of locomotives. 45; 46. 4 illustrations
One of photographs shows A8 No. 2162 being overhauled: main accent is on rapid stripping down with tanks of caustic soda being used to clean the motion and high pressure water being used to clean the frames, etc.

General Montgomery meets railway workers. 45

L.N.E.R. 45

Canadian National Railways. 45

F.C. Hambleton. The first 4-2-2 express loco. 47. 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Dean built Wigmore Castle as a 2-2-2 which broke its leading axle in Box Tunnel on 16 Septdember 1893 and led to it being rebuilt with a leading bogie: the remainder of the class was similarly rebuilt.

Obituary. 47.
Harold Hume Brindley, Fellow of St. John's College Cambridge and Keeper of the War Transport Collection,Cambridge Musuem of Archaeology and Ethnology. Also A.C. Stamer.

Wagons for American railways. 47
4000 hopper wagons under construction using timber for floors and sides  to save weight.

Correspondence. 48

Memories of Havre and Rouen. John Poole.
Re Norman Duncan's reminiscences of Rouen of exceptional interest, as writer was, at the time or which he writes, stationed at St. Etienne-du-Rouvray, the C.M.E. Base Workshops. I only made one visit to Petit Quevilly (then commanded by, if I remember correctly, a Capt. Lyddon, of the Hull & Barnsley) this being on the occasion of trouble with the brake ejector of a G.W.R. 43XX class recently turned out from wreck repairs. I do not remember the well tanks still bearing "Ouest" plates at Quevilly, and was under the impression that, except for one preserved at. the works at Sotteville, and another stationed at Pon de I' Arch on a "push and pull" service, this class was extinct.
There was a Pacific design still earlier than the 231,001 class—two engines of this type were turned out by the old Ouest—characterised by super-smokeboxes and a peculiar form of conjugated valve-gear. I could never discover what happened to these two; possibly as relative failures they were decently interred.
The engines seen by Mr. Duncan at the Gare d'Orleans were probably not ex-Ouest. but ex-Etat. One with a form of Corliss valve-gear used to work a mid-day train past Sotteville. Outside cylinder passenger engines were rare on the Ouest after the Buddicorn period.

Joseph Hamilton Beattie. C. Hamilton Ellis
By way of supplement to my article on Joseph Beattie, I enclose a copy of a picture recording my impression of Nine Elms running shed in the early 'sixties [1860s], showing three different types of Beattie locomotive: Havelock, built 1858, one of the second series of Beattie single expresses; Medusa, a 5 ft. goods built in 1863, with a single jet-condenser feedwater heater, and Ajax (1855), one of the double-framed passenger engines which formed Beattie's first design for the London &. South-Western Railway, and as running with another form of condenser. In the original picture, the first-named is painted chocolate, lined out in red, black and white; the second similar, but without the red lines, and the third Iridian red with black bands, as used up to the end of the 'fifties. On the extreme right I have endeavoured to reconstruct their designer from the old por- trait still at Nine Elms. He is conducting a distinguished visitor round the shed. Behind is the old roundhouse and the drawing office resplendent in its new yellow brick. Bereft of its tower, smothered in dirt and with its windows blown in, this building has survived everything else in the picture.

North London No. "51" class. H.R. Norman.
Can any reader state definitely if the cylinders were enlarged to 17½ in. and coupled wheels to 5 ft. 11 in. in the 1883 to 1890 rebuilding, or if these enlarged dimensions apply only to the three engines rebuilt between 1902 and I907? My personal opinion is that Nos. 103, 114 and 117 only were so treated, as the 17½ in. cylinder appears to have been introduced by Park, and the first new engine to have such cylinders was No. 81, built in 1896. Furthermore, No. 109, which was rebuilt at Crewe and not at Bow, seems to have retained 17 in. cylinders to the end.

The North London Railway. C. W. Williams.
Regarding the 4-4-0 tank engines introduced by Mr. Adams in 1868 and described in the January issue according to official information, Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 25 and 42 were rebuilt and not broken up at the dates shown. No. I was renumbered 125 in November 1906, when It was replaced by a new engine of similar. type. Details of the six engines noted above-all of which survived into L.M.S. service-are as set out below:

N.L.R

Date

L.N.W.

L.M.S

No.

Built

No.

No.

Withdrawn

1

4/70

2872

6443

6/25

5

9/70

2804

6444

6/28

6

11/70

2805

6445

6/29

7

9/71

2806

6449

6/29

25

4/69

2819

6442

7/26

42

8/74

2835

6456

6/28

It will be noted that these engines fit in, as far as the L.M.S. numbering is concerned, with those mentioned in the January article; also that the series became .L.M.S. Nos. 6439 to 6458, inclusive, in the same order in which the engines were built.

Number 620 (15 April 1944)

Steam or diesel. 49.

White Horse of Kent. 53

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 57-9. illustration, map

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 60-1. illustration, 2 diagrams

Number 621 (15 May 1944)

Locomotive power. 65-6.
Editorial examination of some of the formulae available: F.J. Cole (of Alco), E.C. Poultney (as stated in ILocoE Paper 445) and W.F. Kiesel. The significance of grate area was considered

South Australian 520 class engines. 66-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Streamlined 4-6-4 with light green livery. Two 20½ x 28in welded cylinders with 12in piston valves, Cast steel bar frame. 45ft2 grate area; thermic syphones; 2163ft2 total evaporative heating surface; 651ft2 superheat and boiler set at 215 psi. Locomotive marked a return to Walschaerts gaer from Baker. F. Harrison, CME..

C.M. Doncaster. Sturrock's condensing tank, Great Northern Railway. 68. illustration
In 1865 Avonside supplied fifteen 0-4-4T: a further five were obtained from Neilson; and fourteen further were supplied to the London, Chatham & Dover Railway. In 1866 a further five given running numbers 270-4 were supplied by Neilson. They had 16½ x 22in cylinders and 5ft 6in coupled wheels. They tended to oscillate at high speed.

W.F. Wegener. Performance of class 19c engines on the South African Railways. 68-70. 2 illustrations
4-8-2 fitted with poppet valves working on severe gradients with heavy loads and capable of high speeds.

James McEwan . Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.71-3. 5  illustrations (including 1 line drawing: side elevation)
Two 2-4-0 type assembled at Perth from parts collected from SNER Arbroath Works. They had 17 x 22in outside cylinders; 1040 ft2 total heating surface; midfeathers and 120 psi boiler pressure. Their running numbers were 472-3; renumbered 123-4 in 1876. The Number 1 class 2-4-0 came into service during 1869-71 and were supplied by Neilson and Dubs. They had 16½ x 22in cylinders; 6ft 2in coupled wheels; 914 ft2 in the tubes; 68.2ft2 in the firebox and 14.3ft2 grate area. The boiler pressure was 140 psi. Several later worked on the Portpatrick Railway..

O.S. Nock. The "Claughton" class, L.N.W.R.: an analysis of their design and performance. 73-6.

C.M. Doncaster.  An old Rennie single. 76. illustration (drawing: side elevation)

Locomotive power. 77-9. 2 diagrams.

L.N.E.R. 79
One of the GWR diesel railcars was at work in the Newcastle district.

Solving a reclamation problem. 79. illustration
Use of electro-magnet to reclaim metal from the Thames lost during the demolition of the old Rennie Waterloo Bridge from a crane based on the new bridge.

Correspondence. 80

Class 19c engines on the S.A.R. "Firebox."
As letters on the relative merits of the R.C. poppet valve gear as against conventional valve gears appear from time to time, perhaps the following short account might be of interest to vou. The writer made a trip several years ago, on the footplate of a class 19C engine (which are fitted with .the R.C. gear) on the Cape Town-Caledon line,' during the most exacting portion of the run, viz ,; that between Sir Lowry Pass Station and Steenbras Siding. This portion, about nine miles in length, involves the Pass itself, a formidable climb having grades of 1 in 40 and 1 in 44, against the engine, and severe curves. The line rises 1,100 feet from Sir Lowry Pass Station to the highest point of the climb, just before Steenbras Siding. On this occasion the train consisted of seven bogies (225 tons)-the usual load-and the weather was fine. Starting from Sir Lowry Pass Station (post 14¼) at the foot of the Pass, the acceleration was rapid. I do not remember the cut-off at starting, but at post 14½ the speed was 23 m.p.h. on a 1 in 40 grade. At about this point the cut-off was set at 40 per cent., the regulator being about full open, and the driver did not touch either cut-off or regulator again during the whole ascent, except to ease the engine down on some of the curves. This, to me, was a pretty good show. The fireman fired regularly, but not heavily, and there was no suggestion of the engine labouring. So much for hill climbing. On the level, their accelerating powers are remarkable, and a 19c can always be distinguished by its snappy exhaust, which is noticeable even when notched up. I do not know how a similar engine having, say, Walschaerts gear would perform, but such a comparison would be very interesting. My own feeling is that the excellent performance of the 19C class is due in a large measure to their valve gear, and that this is not sufficiently recognised.

Miniature railways. Robin D. Butterell.
Re Wells' recent letter on the Dreamland Miniature Railway. The builder of Billie was Albert Barnes, of Rhyl, who also built the locomotives in use in latter years on the Rhyl Miniature Railway. I can shed no light on the identity of Prince Edward of Wales; it would be interesting to have a table prepared of all the Little Giants and their ultimate "fates." Another Miniature Railway. which I do not think has been mentioned in your articles. is the 15 in. gauge line in Belle Vue Park. Manchester. Although only a pleasure line. and a few hundred yards long. it is of a rohust nature. and is at present undergoing overhaul for the summer season. It has been down about fifteen years. and has had three locomotives. The present one was built by Barnes, and is an "Atlantic"; it is a well-proportioned design and bears quite a close resemblance to the "improved" Little Giant type. as used to run on the Sand Hutton Miniature Railway. It draws a train of open coaches. There is also a train of closed bogie coaches. but this is at present under repair. It might also interest you to know that the Eaton Hall line is still flourtshing, I visited it about a week ago and discovered that trains. drawn bv the four-wheel petrol locomotive. still run every day except Sundays. It is interesting to find sleepers stamped "E.R. 1895 B" and "D B R. 1897 B." The good condition of the permanent way is no doubt due to these cast steel sleepers. The Cuckoo's Nest branch was removed recently.

The "White Horse of Kent." C. F. Dendy Marshall
The letters which have been brought to light by Mr. Hilton will be much appreciated by all who are interested in locomotive history. There is one passage in the article which conveys a wrong impression as it stands, viz., "there is no evidence that the second engine was named White Horse of Kent. The author doubtless meant that there was none in the papers he had been examining, but omitted to say so. There is plenty of such evidence elsewhere. For example, there are numerous references to the engine of that name in the Gauge Commissioners' Report (e.g., vol. 1, page 148, etc.). Warren distinctly says she was not built by Robert Stephenson & Co. It is well known that they often employed other firms as sub-contractors. .

Reviews

The thermal technics of steam boilers. J. Webster.
This monograph deals with the sequence of problems, from the heat aspect only, as they occur with orthodox boilers. Much useful information is given in a style calculated to appeal to the busy reader. The calculations and rules are presented in a readily understood manner. As is only to be anticipated, water-tube boilers are chiefly dealt with, but the booklet is none the less interesting to those dealing with other types, as fundamental principles are the same.

White metalling. H. Warburton,
Apart from the firms who specialise in such work, most engineering shops, at some time or other, are called upon to line bearings, and it is upon such occasions that many have discovered that it is not such a simple procedure as might be supposed--or perhaps it has been left to the customer to make the discovery, at a later date, when shell and lining parted company. This monograph gives much valuable information upon the subject and deals with the operations and considerations involved in the metalling of bearings up to large sizes. It is a useful contribution to the literature of a subject not sufficiently understood by some of those who practise it.

L.M.S. Chief Mechanical Engineer. 80
C. E. Fairburn, M.IC.E., M.I,M.E., M.I.Loco.E., the recently appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.M.S. had been acting in that capacity since 1942, when Sir William Starrier was seconded to the Ministry of Production. He was born in 1887 and educated at Brasenose College, Oxford, entering the Derby locomotive works under Sir Henry Fowler in 1912. Afterwards he joined Siemens Bros. & Co., Ltd., being engaged in their railway department. During the period of the first world war he was with the R.F.C.-later the R.A.F.-and left this to join the English Electric Co. in 1919. In 1926 he was appointed general manager of Dick Kerrs, also presiding over the English Electric Co.'s car works, and rose to the position of chief engineer and manager of the traction department at the Stafford establishment. He entered the L.M.S. as electrical engineer in 1934, becoming deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer in 1937.

The "Railway Mania". 80
During 1844 a remarkable change in the railway world came about and spread rapidly. It was attributed to the improvement in trade activity following a severe depression. The total railway mileage at the time in Great Britain was approximately 3,000, owned by 118 companies. Sixty-six applications, involving 900 miles of new railway, were received by the House of Commons at the beginning of the 1844 session. The companies incorporated during the session were: the Chester & Holyhead; Fumess; Lancaster & Carlisle; Leeds & Bradford; Manchester. Bury & Rossendale; Preston & Blackburn: North Wales Mineral: South Devon; North British; Eastern Counties & Thames Junction: Eastern Union; Norwich & Brandon: Guildford Junction: Brighton & Chichester; and the Brighton, Lewes & Hastings.

Number 622 (15 June 1944)

British steam locomotives. 81-2. table

F.C. Hambleton. "Lord of the Isles", G.W.R. 83. illustration (drawing: side elevation)

L.N.E.R. 83.
Remaining four of 25 V2 type modified to Pacific type and classified as A2/1.

[Ministry of Supply 2-10-0 No. 3701]. 84
Photograph of locomotive in LNER Scottish Area

The North London Railway. 84-6. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
0-6-0T. Continued p. 120

O.J. Morris. Railmen's holiday. 86-7. illustration
Annual excursions to Eastbourne of the LBSCR Stationmasters' and Inspectors' Mutual Aid Society. Locomotives hauling these trains were decorated and there was competition between Battersea and New Cross sheds.

Boiler repairs. 88-9. 2 illustrations, plan
Progressive system of boiler repair introduced at the LNER Gorton Works involving purpose-built gantries

Commonwealth Railways of Australia. 89.
Eight 4-6-0 type locomotives had been taken over from the Canadian National Railways and a further two 4-6-0s had been acquired from the New York, New Haven & Hartford RR.

Locomotive power. 90-2. 2 diagrams.
Locomotive resistance

G.E.C. mobile sub-stations. 92. illustration
Mounted on a well wagon intended to accept a 11 or 6.6 kv, three-phase ac supply and output 1000 kw, 500 volt dc.

L.N.E.R. 92
Experiments in radio transmission between footplate crews and guards en route. Equipment from Rediffusion Ltd. Sir Ronald Matthews, chairman of the LNER spoke to Sir Charles Newton, general manager, as he travelled north by train (seems a long way before the quiet coaches now provided to switch off such chit chat)

L.M.S.R. 92
On 30 December 1943 cthe LMS ran its hundred thousandth OHMS train since the outbreak of WW2. Total included 52,603 troop trains, 25,288 stores trains, 6799 ammunition trains and 15,310 petrol trains.

L.N.E.R. 92
A.G. Minty, assistant district locomotive superintendent, Newcastle had been appointed acting district locomotive superintendent, Sunderland.

South Australian "520" class engines. 92
Further information about superheated fitted.

L.N.E.R. class Y8 0-4-0T No. 560. 92. illustration
Fitted with chime whistle off A4 No. 4469 Sir Ralph Wedgwood destroyed in Baedeker raid on York

New passenger luggage vans, Southern Railway. 93-5. illustration, 2 diagrams (including plans)
Four wheel vehicle where light weight was combined with added protection for the contents through isolating the body of the vehicle from the frame using suspension elements consisting of spiral springs with rubber elements. Plastic panels and welded components reduced the weight. Designed by O.V.S. Bulleid. Livery was black due to WW2 conditions.

R.B. Fellows. By train to the Eton Montem, 1838-1844. 95-6.
On Whit Tuesday 1844 the last Eton Montem was held. Was the Mortem killed by the railway? The Montem, which had been held for three, if not four hundred years, was essentially a school pageant, a feature being the procession of. the school from Eton to Salt Hill, near Slough, many of the boys being in "fancy dress", usually of historical type, then, the collection of money from the spectators, and indeed from all travellers on the road nearby, a custom open to criticism. The donations, often considerable, were called "salt", and after all expenses were paid the balance was handed over to the captain of the school for his use at the University. It is well known that the Eton governing body got a clause inserted in the Great Western Company's Act to prevent the building of a station within three miles of Eton College—this, of course, ruled out any station at Slough. James Wyld, the well-known compiler of early railway guides, states in his Guide to the G.W.R., published in 1839, that "the enraged Provost of Eton", having discovered that the company intended to convey passengers to Slough for the Montem, which in 1838 was held on 5 June, the day after the opening of the railway, applied to the Court of Chancery to restrain them from setting down or picking up passengers within three miles of the College, but the application was dismissed with costs. The Company's Act merely prohibited the building of a station. John Herapath, the editor of The Railway Magazine, travelled to Maidenhead and back on Montem Day, 5 June 1838, and in his magazine for July wntes an account of his journey. The 10 o' clock train from Paddmgton by which he travelled was made up of eight carriages headed by the North Star, and carried some 400 passengers; he rode in an open carriage and complained of the jolting. Returmng from Maidenhead by the 5 o'clock train—engine Eolus—the train he wrote, stopped at Slough and took up an enormous load of Montem gentry, who defied police and everything else to keep them out . . ." The Times stated that a special train of ten carriages was run late in the evening to bring people back to Paddington from the Montem.
The next Montem was held in 1841 when there was a station at Slough. In The Annals of Eton College published in 1898, Sir Wasey Sterry states that in 1841 the Great Western Railway brought down a crowd of most undesirable sight-seers and the next Montem of 1844 was the last." Perhaps this was as well, for according to the Telegraph Book kept at Paddington, some notorious thieves travelled down on that occasion. The telegraph had not been long extended to Slough, and It was on Montem Day of 1844 (May 28) that the instrument was used for police purposes for the first time. The entries show how the police at Slough were warned of the departure from Paddington by the various trains of these notorious characters. Extracts were given in the booklet Brunel and after published by the company about twenty years ago, and are amusing reading. From the Telegraph Book entries and from other contemporary sources we learn that special trains were run to Slough for the Montem of 1844, including a Royal special—for the company carried some very distinguished persons—which left Paddington shortly after 10 a.m. and returned from Slough about 2 p.m., conveying H.R.H. Prince Albert (the Prince Consort), and we also learn that part of the "A" Division of the London Police were on duty at Eton and Salt Hill.

Correspondence. 96

Condensing locomotives. W.O. Skeat.
You will doubtless have had notice of the very interesting paper on condensing locomotives by Professor Lomonossoff and Captain Lomonossoff presented at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers on Friday, May 19· This paper gives a most interesting world survey of condensing locomotives at the present time. It must be admitted that this country's contributions in that direction have not been particularly outstanding, but that may well be, as the authors suggest, because in such a climate as ours the advantages of condensing are much less than they would be in other parts of the world.
The authors give some space, however, to two very interesting experimental efforts by the North British Locomotive Company, the first being the Electro-Turbo-Locomotive of 1910, and the second the Reid-MacLeod Turbo-Locomotive which was exhibited in 1924 at Wembley. The authors make the interesting observation that the second locomotive was possibly a rebuilt version of the first, and Professcr Lomonossoff, in personal conversation with me, has pointed out that the arrangement of the bogies and also of the wheelbase was the same in both these engines thus supporting the authors' contention. I think it will be generally agreed that the authors, in their statement that the history of the first, known as the 'Reid-Rarnsay' locomotive, is somewhat obscure" are not guilty of exaggeration It.is very much to be hoped that someone may come forward with further information about these two extremely interestinng and, from the national pomt of view, most important expenments.
Although in this case private locomotive-building firms were concerned, there is a tendency among the railways of this country, which seems regrettable, to suppress the publication of details of any experiments which they do not deem to be briliantly successful; thus engineers the world over are depnved of all means Of finding out just how much work has been done and what results have been achieved during the expenmental stages of any novel idea or principles m railway locomotion. Unfortunately, this outlook is extremely deep-rooted and is always instinctively bound up with the .idea that an unsuccessful experiment would impair the prestige of the administration concerned. In this direction one is sorely tempted to apply the old saying "The man who never made a mistake never made anything" and so it is with feelings of regret that we find so little information on these two notable experimental types has been allowed to be published. It is hoped, however, that after so many years have elapsed a more enlightened outlook on the matter may prevail and that someone may be ermitted to come forward with additional authoritative information.

Reviews. 96

The First Railway in Norfolk. George Dow.
The author, who will be known to most of our readers as the Press Relations Officer of the L.N.E.R., has produced an excellent booklet, the publication of which coincides wi th the centenary of the Yarmouth & Norwich Railway. . Many people will regard this booklet as a model of its kind; it traces the history of the Y. & N.R. from its inception to its ultimate inclusion in the Eastern Counties fold and later the G.E.R. The salient historical points are given Without an encumbrance of detail, and there are included, inter alia, a map of the line, illustrations of rolling stock and a complete list of the locomotive stock of the Norfolk Railway. In congratulating the writer upon the production of such an interesting contribution to the literature of railways, readers will add the hope that similar works will follow from his pen.

Number 623 (15 July 1944)

Articulated locomotives. 97.

Canadian National Railways. 97
Ten diesel electric shunting locomotives delivered from American Locomotive Co. for use on Grand Trunk Western RR: 1000b hp; capable of 60 mile/h running: 0-4-4-0

Personal. 97
H.R. Carver, sales manager with Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd., Leeds had been made a director

Duluth, Missabe & Iron Range Ry. 2-8-8-4 type locomotives. illustration
Duluth is an iron ore port on Lake Superior and locomotives intended to haul long trains to port. They had 5ft 3in coupled wheels of the Boxpok type; 26 x 32in cylinders; 9528ft2 total heating surface; 125ft2 grate area

New Pacific locomotives for the L.N.E.R. 99-100. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
A2/1: four from final batch of V2 built as Pacifics with divided drive and three independent sets of Walschaerts valve gear. No. 3696 photographed in workshop livery.

Personal. 100
Frederick Hall, Works Manager of the Superheater Co. Ltd. had been awarded an MBE

The Battle of the Gauges. 100
Kenneth Brown spoke at a Railway Club Meeting. Refered to the Gauge Act of 1846 and to the Gauge Commissioners. Argued that the difficulties at Gloucester were deliberately exaggerated

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway.101-3. 4 illustrations
In 1867 the Caledonian Railway purchased the Forth & Clyde Navigation with its docks at Grangemouth. There is confusion in the records with the locomotives aquired with the General Terminus Railway. Two locomotives were acquired which spent their lives at Grangemouth: they bore the names Carron and Grange, but received the numbers 116 and 117; 668 and 669 in 1875 and were sold in 1876 and 1877. Class 98 2-4-0

Tanganyika Railways. 103
War related work performed in the workshops.

L.N.E.R. 103
The last remaining D13 class 4-4-0, No. 8039 had been withdrawn. It had begun as a Holden T19 2-4-0 but had been rebuilt with a bogie and fitted with a superheater. 

H.F. Hilton. Stephenson letters of 1844. 104-6. illustration
In connection with supply of locomotives to the Norwich & Yarmouth Railway and involving the contractor Messrs Grissell & Peto, and Morton Peto the resident engineer at that time with an office at St. Michael-at-Plea in Norwich.

Institution of Loco. Engineers. Locomotive axleboxes. 106-8.
Very extensive precis of Paper 447 in Volume 34; continued pp. 122-4.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XII. Rostering of enginemen, depot correspondence, conditions of service for staff in Great Britain. 108-111. 3 tables

Correspondence. 111-12

The North London Railway. James F. Vickery.
Re C.W. Williams' letter, page 48, I am somewhat surprised at his statement: Nos. 1, 5, 6, 7, 25 and 42 were rebuilt and not broken up at the dates shown." From my own copious notes and recollection I agree that Nos. 1 and 25 were rebuilt (No. 1 In 1882 and 1895, and. No. 25 in 1883) but I always was under the firm impression that the others were scrapped in the.years when, apparently, new engines appeared bearing their numbers, viz., Nos. 5 and 7 in 1890, No. 6 in 1894; and No. 42 in 1893. I well remember six all apparently new in shop grey coming out in 1890, viz., 5, 7, 23, 24, 26 and 27. At the end of that year old Nos. 26 and 27 stood awaiting scrapping at Devons Road. To the end they were almost in their original condition, in green livery, but fitted with cabs. But whereas No. 27 still had a brass dome, No. 26 had a plain round top dome painted green. Both retained their sandboxes on top of boiler, and No. 26 still had a copper cap to chimney. Of course, I am not contradicting  Williams' statement, as there was very little difference between a so-called rebuilt engine and a brand new one, but the number plates showed the engines as rebuilt or just Bow Works as I have enumerated above. The information on the date plates cannot always be regarded as actual fact in this matter, as, for instance, in the case of the first ten L.T.S. type 4-4-2Ts built new subsequent to the Midland absorption of that very progressive little line, Nos. 2110-2119 built in 1923, although the date plates stated "rebuilt Derby" 1923, they were of course new machines. As a youth I often noticed "new" N.L.R. engines in shop grey with the wheel centres of old locomotives, and: on the other hand, "rebuilt" ones, also in shop grey, with new cast steel wheel centres with the more graceful crescent-shape balance weights.

British locomotive builders. R. Abbott
Re The Locomotive for 1927 there appeared a list of British locomotive builders past and present; SInce then additional makers have been mentioned in various journals, and I have come across others in correspondence with friends. Additional notes are available about the firm of Dick & Stevenson; their address was Airdrie Engine Works, Bel! Street, Airdrie. Established 1790, closed down 1890, and buildings dismantled soon after. Said to have built exactly 100 locomotives, mostly to a standard design, 0-4-0ST, with 14 in. cylinders; some went to SIngapore and one to Poland. I am indebted to Mr. Pearce Higgins for this information, which he gathered. locally.
The following fourteen makers were not noticed In the 1927 article:
Blackie & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Carrett Marshal! & Co., Sun Foundry, Leeds. built for the Kendal & Windermere Railway.
Clayton & Shuttleworth, Lincoln. Built a few locomotives of traction engine type for industrial railways.
R. Daglish & Co.. Wigan. Built for the St. Helens Rly.
Gibb & Hogg, Airdrie. Built industrial locos.
Gourlay, Mudie & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Leeds Foundry Co., Leeds. Built for the Blyth & Tyne Railway. [KPJ: difficult to identify]
McHendrick & Ball, Glasgow. Built industrial locos. with vertical boilers.
Mills Forge Co. Built for the St. Helens Railway.
J. M. Rowan & Co.., Glasgow . Built for the Pollok & Govan and Wishaw & Coltness Railways.
Sandys, Carne & Vivian, Copperhouse Foundry, Hayle. Built for the Hayle Railway.
W. Sisson & Co., Ltd., Gloucester. Built the engine- bogies for the Cardiff Railway rail-motors,
Simpson & Co., Dundee. Built for the Aberdeen Railway.
Joseph Smith. Built for the Stockton & Hartlepool Railway. I have not been able to fix the location of the works of the Mills Forge Co., or of Joseph Smith, but perhaps Joseph Smith is the same firm as J. Smith of Bradford who, on page 104 of "The Locomotive" for 1927 were said to. have ordered the Tantalus from the Haigh Foundry .and supplied it to. the Grand Junction Railway.

"Railmen's holiday." W.G. Tilling. 112
Re. Morris's article, "Railmen's Holiday:", in which he mentions No. 203 Henry Fletcher working one of the specials from London Bridge. My father was a personal friend of Mr. Pierpoint, the stationmaster at London Bridge, and went to. Eastbourne as a guest, and I well remember, as a schoolboy. asking him to. make a note of the name of the engine. When he told me, on his return home, that it was a brand new engine named Henry Fletcher , I was quite excited. The date would be about June, 1897.

Reviews. 112

Who, wrecked the Mail? By C. Hamilton Ellis. Humphrey Milford
The author describes in considerable detail an imaginary railway in Spain. The hero is appointed locomotive superintendent and the story deals with a plot to sabotage the line so. that the British company working it would lose its concession through inefficiency and German interests take over: this plan is, of course, discovered and foiled by the locomotive supermtendent. As might be expected of the author. the technicalities of railway working are described in a convincing manner, and the interest and excitement is well sustained to. the end. One of the best railway yarns we have read. A word of praise might be added for the well-drawn and very attractive dust-cover.

James Watt and the Industrial Revolution. H.W. Dickinson and H. P. Vowles.
Published for the British Council, deals with the life and achievements of James Watt, and paints a background of the conditions prevailing during his time. Such background is essential to enable one to. fully appreciate his achievements, the difficulties to. be overcome m attarmng them and his influence upon the industrial era. The matter is presented in a more condensed and easily digested manner than some previous accounts of the life of Watt, and will, no. doubt, be read by those m search of information both upon James Watt and the industrial and economic conditions which his work so largely affected.

Early railways in Surrey. Charles E. Lee. London: The Railway Gazette. 112
Works of this well-known writer on early railway matters exemplify much painstaking research, and the booklet under review-which is the text of a paper presented to. the Newcomen Society in 1940. and reproduced by the courtesy of that Society's Council is no exception. The raiilways concerned are the Surrey Iron Railway and its continuation, the Croydon, Merstham & Godstone Iron Railway. To. what length the author is prepared to. go. in pursuance of facts is well demonstrated by his chartering a 'plane to. carry out an aerial survey of the more important town sections of the route traversed by this first example of a public railway, which was also the first of any kind in the neighbourhood of the Metropolis. It is gratifying to be able to add that from the air a nearly continuous track may be traced. The Surrey Iron Railway has received a large amount; of notice and publicity, much of a contradictory nature, but there is no. doubt that the subject has never been so. fully investigated or so. lucidly dealt with as it is in the present publication. The work is well annotated and the authoratably assisted, as he acknowledges, by his wife and father- has succeeded in bringing to light much information hitherto. overlooked. Among the Iittle-known matters may be mentioned the part that both the S.I.R. and the C.M. & G.R. played in the series of quarrels that the old Brighton Railway had with its Eastern and Western neighbours, The illustrations are of interest and the whole forms a complete work of reference which all students of early railway history will wish to. add to. their collection.

Locomotives of the Somerset & Dorset Railway and the Irish narrow gauge railways. M.C.V. Allchin. 12pp.
List of the numbers, types and building dates of the railways mentioned in the title, together with the number allocated to. the individual engines when absorbed by the larger groups. Twelve illustrations add to. the booklet's interest.

G.E.R. detailed loco stock list. C. Langley Aldrich. 32 pp.
A list of the numbers, classes and dates of the Great Eastern Railway locomotive stock compiled from an official register dated 1April, 1921, with some notes on subsequent additions..

Historical models. 112
W.H. Smith, of Bingley, has offered his valuable collection of engine models to. the Bingley Urban Council. The collection includes locomotives. mill engines, portable and semi-portable engines—all working models. Many readers will remember the magnificent North Eastern model shown at the Railway Centenary Exhibition at Darlington.

Sierra Leone Railways. 112
The pioneers who built Sierra Leone's single track in 1896 could never have imagined the work the railway is doing to-day, and the way in which the problems created by the demand for the Colony's iron ore have been solved is a tribute to. the versatility of the workshop men. One of the most notable achievements has been to. rebuild locomotives to. give greater pulling power, and Sierra Leone now boasts the only eight-coupled Garratt of standard gauge. Another rebuilding job is a tank engine that now has ten coupled driving wheels. It was necessary to convert these locomotives because supplies from Britain could be sent only to standard specifications, while replacements of any kind were virtually unobtainable. Parts that would normally be scrapped are being reconditioned by welding. Parts beyond repair are being replaced by castings made from scrap metal. At the same time the greatly increased traffic has meant a much higher rate of wear and tear, and every aspect of locomotive and rolling stock repair work has been stepped up.

L.N.E.R..
Three further class B1 4-6-0. engines were in service, No. 8307 Black Buck, No.. 8308 Klipspringer and No.. 8309 Kudu,

Number 624 (15 August 1944)

Locomotive design and train operation in the future. 113.
Proposed 2-8-2 version of V2, but with smaller coupled wheels, but larger than those fitted to P1 to operate faster mineral trains. Express locomotive design would depend on whether a policy of fast frequent services were required or heavy, but infrequent services. The former could be met by 4-6-0s, but the latter required Pacifics.

Modified 4-6-0 "Hall"-class engine. 114. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 6959 illustrated painted in unlined black without a name

Baldwin 2-8-0 locomotive built for Russia. 115. illustration
Loaded onto a bogie flat car for transport to docks: named Stalingrad.

Review. 115.

The steam locomotive, its theory, operation and economics. R.P. Johnson. New York: Simmonds-Boardman Publishing Co. 564pp.
The author of this work was the Chief Engineer of The Baldwin Locomotive Works, and he states that this book has been written to present in convenient form certain fundamental facts regarding locomotive theory and operation—the object has been admirably achieved. The information has been gained from many sources, most of which would be inaccessible to residents here [in UK]; the convenience resulting from having this collected in one book is enormous. There are 29 chapters dealing comprehensively— and, of course, accurately—with the many sides of the subject. Some of the headings will be familiar enough, e.g., Combustion, Superheat, Valve Gears, Horse Power, Resistance, etc., but each theme is treated in a refreshingly explicit and very practical form. We say refreshingly explicit because, for example, the derivation of formulae (and their use) is explained; writers too frequently assume that their readers are more familiar with such matters than is actually the case.
Many of the chapters deal with subjects which previously have been omitted from the literature of the subject; in some instances due to their being problems of comparatively recent advent. Included in this category are High Speed Trains, Streamlined and Light Weight Trains, and Motive Power for High Speed Service.
There is an excellent chapter on Locomotive Testing and another valuable one on Dynamometer Cars. Among chapters relating to the economics of the subject may be mentioned The Relation of Locomotive Operating Expense to Net Operating Income, and Economic Life. Locomotive Testing Apparatus, the Derivation of Economic Life Formula, and Typical Locomotive Dimensions form the subjects of appendices. The author has most carefully compared diesel-electric and steam power, the characteristics of both being fully and fairly presented.
From what has been said it will be apparent that the author has collected- a wealth of most useful information and by incorporating this in one volume has bridged some of the gaps previously existing in locomotive literature. This book, well illustrated where necessary, will be of great value to the rnany between the locomotive builder and designer at one end of the scale and the student at the other.

Illumination of engines undergoing repairs. 115-16. 2 illustrations
Air raid precautions led to the Home Office demanding restrictions on illumination. The LNER overcame this by constructing light tunnels where work could continue and inside these mobile illuminants could be used using heavy duty batteries on trolleys. Illustrations show these trolleys and a B12/3 replete with electric lighting fitted to its boiler.

J.C.M. Rolland. An episode in locomotive history. Victorian Railways. 117. illustration
Richard Speight, the Assistant General Manager of the Midland Railway became Chief Commissioner of the Victorian Government Railways in 1884. He pursued a policy of standardisation aiming to limit locomotive types to: main line passenger, main line goods, light line passenger, light line goods, suburban tank and a six-coupled shunting engine. Jeffreys, an iron founder from Leeds,  got Kitson's to draw up designs. This led to a six-coupled locomotive WN 3089 and a 2-4-2T WN 3088 being exhibited at the Melbourne Centenial Exhibition: they were named Victoria and Tasmania. These were followed by twenty D class 4-4-0 locomotives fromn the Phoenix Foundry at Ballarat in 1887-8; thirty Y class heavy 0-6-0, 25 E class 2-4-2T and 15 A class express passenger 4-4-0. Robinson Brothers, Campbell & Sloss of South Melbourne supplied 25 R class light freight 0-6-0 in 1890-1. 25 further E class were supplied by Phoenix plus a further 25 from David Munro & Co. of Melbourne. The final 5 standard locomotives were 0-6-2T shunters.

O.J. Morris. By rail to the Devil's Dyke Hotel. 118-20. 3 illustrations (including diagram/plan)
The Brighton & Dyke Railway Co. built a branch line which rose at 1 in 40 to 500 feet above sea level, about 200 feet below the summit. This was worked by the LBSCR: push & pull working was rarely employed because of difficulty with water supply at the summit. The Southern Railway used a Sentinel railbus for a time. The gap between the railway terminus and the summit was closed by the 3ft gauge Dyke Steep Grade Railway which opended on 24 July 1897 and closed in about 1908. This was designed by Charles Blaber (who may not have been an engineer) and built by Courtney & Birkett. It was powered by a Hornsby Akroyd oil engine. The ravine was also crossed by a cable car.

Obituary. 120.
Frank Dudley Docker and R.M. Deeley

The North London Railway. 120-2. 2 illustrations
Previous part pp. 84-6

Institution of Loco. Engineers. Locomotive axleboxes. 122-4
Previous part of precis pp. 106-8. Very extensive precis of Paper 447 in Volume 34

H. Fayle. The Dublin & South Eastern Railway and its locomotives. 125-7. 2 illustrations

Number 625 (15 September 1944)

Light weight rolling stock. 131
Bulleid welded underframe without sole bars and a plastic superstructure.

Jamaica Government Railways. 131
Canadian Locomotive Co. supplying six 4-8-0 locomotives

Institute of Transport. 131
Opening meeting of Siver Jubilee session to be held 3 October at Institution of Electrical Engineers when Robert Kelso to deliver Presidential Address (mainly on road transport into Europe.

The Portstewart Tramway. 138-9. illustration
Locomotive No. 3 illustrated

G.W.R. 139
Oldest steam engine still at work: Crofton Pumping Station on Kennet & Avon Canal: Boulton & Watt engine instaalled in 1820

L.M.S.R. 139
Barassie wagon repair shops where overhead crane had been replaced by machine which could raise wagons

L.M.S. appointments. 139
Ashton Davies retired on 31 August and T.W. Royle became a Vice President: he had previously been chief operating manager; and his post was filled by T.H. Fisher, the former deputy. also retirement of A.F. Bound and replacement by his Deputy W. Wood as Signal & Telegraph Engineer.

Tapered roller bearings L.M.S. 4-6-2 "Turbomotive" No. 6202. 139. illustration
British Timken Ltd: noted that still in perfect condition and cited Cox's Paper on axleboxes

O.S. Nock. Automatic train control in Great Britain. 140-2. illustration

West Highland Railway—Jubilee. 142
Opened 7 August 1894: notes achievement of crossing boggy Rannoch Moor

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 142-6.  6 illustrations, 2 tables
Six 0-4-0ST, five from A. Barclay & Co. and one from Neilson & Co. Two of the Barclay locomotives came from John MacKay the bankrupt contractor of the Callander & Oban Railway. A third locomotive may have been acquired, but this was not taken into stock and was sold to a colliery. Two outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST were purchased from Neilson becoming Nos. 139 (illustrated) and 140: these were WN 1559 and 1560.  0-4-2 tender belonging to Solway Junction Railway

Number 626 (14 October 1944)

The rehabilitation of motive power. 147.

Southern Railway. 147
Additional Merchant Navy class locomotives under construction at Eastleigh.

Mallet locomotives for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 148. illustration
Baldwin Locomotive Co. 2-8-8-4 with 24 x 32in cylinders, 5298ft2 evapourative heating surface, 2118ft2 superheat and 117.6ft2 grate area.

Diesel electric locomotive LNER. 148-9. illustration
Built at Doncaster with 350hp diesel electric equipment supplied by English Electric; similar to that supplied to LMS. Capable of working as mobile power stations: four on order. No. 8000 illustrated.

Nose-suspended v. fixed motors. 150-3. 5 diagrams
Costs, ease of maintenance and track damage are considered for nose-suspendended, jackshaft and cardan shaft drives. Some attention is paid to resilient wheels with rubber inserts.

P.C. Dewhurst. Midland Railway locomotives. Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway. 153-5. 2 diagrams (side elevations)

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 155-7. 2 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)

Condensing locomotives. 157-8.

The first locomotive in Russia. 159. illustration

Automatic train control in Great Britain. Part II.  160-2. 2 illustrations

F.C. Hambleton. Great Western goods engines. Class 2361. 162-3. 2 illustrations (line drawings: side elevations)

Correspondence. 164

Number 627 (15 November 1944)

McEwan, James. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 177-8.
2-4-0

Number 628 (15 December 1944)

The British 4-6-0. 181-2
Broad survey: partly history (Highland Raiway Jones Goods to GWR Kings..

4-8-2 Mountain type locomotive Canadian National Rlys. 182. illustration.
Built by Montreal Locomotive Works: first of batch of 20: No. 6060. Inspected by E.R. Battley, Chief of Motive Power; W.N. Townsend. Works Manager of Montreal Locomotive Works, Francis Williams, Chief Mechanical Engineer and R.F. Walker mechanical engineer (locomotoves)

Dynamometer car Victorian & S. Australian Rlys. 183-4. 2 illustrations, diagram (elevation & plan).;
Fitted with Amsler equipment and constructed at the Islington workshops of the South Australian Railways in 1932. Illustrations include view of instrument table.

F.C. Hambleton. G.W.R. saddle tank engines Class 1661. 185. 2 illustrations
Drawings of Nos. 1695 with saddle tank and and 1685 as pannier tank. Withdrawn locomotives were sold to the Cardiff Railway, Alexandra Docks Cp. and to the Brecon & Merthyr Railway. See below

L.N.E.R. 185.

Londonderry & Lough Swilly Ry. 185.
4-6-2T No. 12 had been scrapped leaving only 10 locomotives in stock. Passenger services still ran between Derry and Buncrana and freight ran to Gweedore.

L.M.S.R. 185.

White Horse of Kent. 194