The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 49 (1943)

Number 605 (15 January 1943)

Locomotive coupled wheels. 1-2.
Editorial comment on Bulleid BFB wheels.

American built 2-8-0 locomotives for Europe. 2. illustration

New 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines, London & North Eastern Railway. 3-4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
B1 type: No. 8301 Springbok illiustrated

Obituary. 4
Death on 2 January of T.H. Sanders, Director of Jonas Woodhead & Sons, Ltd., Leeds. He was born in London in 1883 and was one of the first boys to take the L.C.C. Scholarship presented by the late King Edward VII when Prince of Wales. At the age of 19 he commenced his career as an Inspector for Railway materials under George .Cawley, Consulting Engineer for the Impenal Japancse RaIlways—a position which entailed extensive foreign travel. At the age of 25 he was awarded the prize of !he year as Graduate of the Institution of Mechanical Engmeers. During WW1 he was actively engaged in the production of war material in Sheffield, first at Brown Bayleys Steel Works and then Owen & Dyson Ltd., Railway, Wheel and Axle Makers. In 1920 he was responsible for the layout, equipment and management of a Spring Works for Brown Bayleys' Steel Works at Farnley, Leeds. In 1923 he joined the firm of Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd., as Technical Engineer, and since this date had produced numerous valuable Patents in connection with Springs. In 1935 he was appointed Technical Director of Messrs. Jonas Woodhead & Sons Ltd., Leeds, and at a later date was also elected a Director of their Associated Companies, Willford & Co. Ltd., and Ibbotson Bros. & Co. Ltd., both of Sheffield. He was a Member of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, and was twice awarded medals for papers read before the latter Institution. He was also a Member of the Iron and Steel Institution, and was Past President of the Railway Locomotivernens Craft Guild (Leeds Centre). and in 1931 he was presented with the Freedom of the Sheffield Spring Trade Technical Society. In 1920 he published his first book on the subject of Springs, and this was followed by further volumes on the same subject, the last of which was only completed a few days before his death. As a technical lecturer he was in great demand and was always ready to share his knowledge with any Society or individual who cared to consult him. As a lecturer he was not confined merely to suspension, but was also an authority on Railway practice throughout the world.

C.M. Doncaster. 2-6-2 locomotives. 4-6. 7 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
In view of the advent of Bantam Cock, L.N.E.R., the writer thought it might be instructive to look back to the early engines having this wheel arrangement. Angus Sinclair, in his book The Development of the Locomotive Engine, tells us that Waldo H. Marshall, first designed engines of the 2-6-2 type in 1901 for the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway which became highly popular and are an ideal motive power for heavy express trains" (see Fig. 1). These engines had 6ft. 8in. driving wheels and two cylinders 20in. by 28in., and were soon followed by a still larger class having 21 tin. by 28in. cylinders (see Fig. 2). These latter engines had large boilers 5ft. 10in. diameter, with tubes 19ft. 6in. long, and carried 200lb. per sq. in. Our L.N.E.R. Green Arrow type has a boiler the same diameter with tubes 17ft. long and 220lb. pressure.
In the same year, 1901, the Baldwin Locomotive Works brought out a similar class of 2-6-2 engines but of the then popular Vauclain four-cylinder compound type. The History of the Baldwin Works tells us that these were powerful engines having ample heating surface and suitable firebox to handle heavy trains at high speed and they became known as the Prairie type (see Fig. 3). Forty-five such engines were made for the Atchison Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad, and fifty for the Chicago Burlington and Quincy Railroad. The design enabled six coupled wheels to be used in combination with a very wide firebox, extending over the frames behind the driving wheels. To support this overhanging weight a pair of trailing wheels is placed underneath the firebox.
In 1904 the Austrian engineer, Golsdorf, brought out a similar design to do away with piloting over the heavy grades of the Austrian State Railway system. A few years later similar engines were built at Budapest for the Hungarian State Railway's Kaschan-Oderberger section. By 1908 forty-four such engines were in service (see Fig. 4). In June, 1936, thirty-five years after the first of the engines mentioned above were built, Sir Nigel Gresley brought out his now famous mixed traffic engines of the Green Arrow class which were illustrated and described in the LOCOMOTIVE of that month. They are among the most handsome engines in the country as will be seen from the illustration of one of them running at high speed with a passenger train.
These engines have proved themselves capable of handling all classes of traffic and seem to excel equally in hauling heavy freight trains or fast express passenger trains.
In order to compare the designs of the British engineer with that of his American cousins, the writer has taken the liberty of raising the cab and boiler mountings 21½in. namely from 13ft. 1in. to 14ft. 10½in., which latter figure is the permissible chimney height of the American loading gauge (see Fig. 2). The boiler centre line happens to be the same within 1½tin. in each case, viz., 9ft. 4½in. L.N.E.R., 9ft. 6in. L.S. & M.S.R. (see Fig. 5). It would be interesting to know why the Prairie type has gone out of fashion in America. The 2-6-2 wheel arrangement is, of course, quite common in the case of tank engines, in many countries, including Great Britain, and these are often called upon to do fast running with local trains between stations. Illustrations: V2 on express near Retford; V2 on freight crossing swing bridge at Naburn.

L.N.E.R. 5
Three of the Pacifies, Nos. 4494, 4499 and 4500, formerly named after birds, had been renamed Andrew K. McCosh, Sir Murrough Wilson and Sir Ronald Matthews, after three directors of the company.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives. 7-9. 2 illustrations, table
Continued from Volume 48 page 125.

E.C. Poultney. New York Central locomotives, 10-11. 2 illustrations
The author is indebted to Mr. P. W. Kiefer, Chief Engineer Motive Power and Rolling Stock, and to the American Locomotive Co. for the photo- graphs reproduced, and to Mr. Kiefer fOT certain information on which this article is based.

L.N.E.R. 11
In addition to the large number of trailer pumps for fighting fires at large stations and depots, the L.N.E.R. have now introduced some small pumping units specially to deal with fires among wagons in congested marshalling yards. The units are extremely compact, being mounted in a cradle only 23 inches square overall, and can easily be moved by hand from place to place. A 21 h.p. air cooled engine operating a single stage type pump gives an output of 50 gallons per minute, through two very serviceable jets. The units are kept at locomotive sheds or other places where an engine is normally at hand, so that they can be taken on the locomotive quickly to the scene of a fire. The engine tender is used as a static water supply and should normally give sufficient water either to extinguish the fire or to keep it in check until further assistance arrives.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 11
The September-October, I942, Journal No. 169 contains a paper presented before the Institution by J. Poole, member on Friday, 7 November 1941, at lVIiguelete, Argentine, entitled Freight Locomotive Rating and the Statistical Control of Fuel Consumption.

L.lVI.S. 11
T.F. Mitchell, District Locomotive Superintendent, Plaistow, had been appointed to succeed D. O'Hara as District Locomotive Superintendent, Wakefield. O'Hara retiried. D.C. Urie retired from the office of Superintendent of Motive Power, Derby. Urie was trained under his father in the locomotive department of the former London & South Western Railway. Later he became works manager at Eastleigh, and in 1915 was appointed Assistant Locomotive Superintendent of the MIidland Great Western Railway, Ireland. He then succeeded Cumming on the Highland Railway, and he became Divisional Mechanical Engineer, Glasgow, in 1923. J.W. Watkins, D.S.O., M.C. appointed Divisional Superintendent of Operation, Derby.

G.W.R.. 11
A retaining wall in a cutting near St. Germans, Cornwall, developed signs of falling and traffic had to be diverted. The Cornish Riviera trains travelled via Wadebridge.

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways. 12-14. 2 ilustrations
20-inch gauge line at Northamstead Manor Gardens at Scarborough: 5/8 mile track with passing loops to enable two train to be in service. Diesel driven Pacific-outline locomotives with Vickers-Coates transmission to eliminate jerks. Similar gauge line in Leeds employed 4-6-4T steam-outline locomotives. 21-inch gauge line at Blackpool Pleasure Beach was about 2¾ miles long and employed staem outline diesel locomotives. The Jaywick Miniature Railway employed 18-inch gauge and a steam miniature Stirling 4-2-2  but with a dome and a Sentinel type with an oil-fired water tube boiler and a Stanley steam car engine: this was built by C.E. Parsons and L. May. Dreamland at Margate was also 20-inch gauge and operated two Barnes of Rhyl Atlantics 

The North London Railway. 14-15. 3  diagrams
Continued from Vol. 48 page 187. The North London Company's locomotive, carriage and wagon works at Bow was completed in 1853, when William Adams was appointed Locomotive Superintendent, but for a number of years after this date the Company continued to obtain its engines from private firms. In 1853 three well tank engines of the 2-4-0 wheel arrangement were built by Stothert & Slaughter and placed in traffic on the North London Railway where they were numbered 1 to 3. Fig. 2 shows No. 2 of this class, which had the following leading dimensions:—
Cylinders (two outside) 15 x 22in
Coupled wheels, diameter 5ft 3in
Leading wheels, diameter 3ft. 6in
Wheelbase, total 13ft. 6in
Heating surface, tubes
Heating surface, firebox 71.4 sq. ft.
Heating surface, Total 777.36 sq. ft.
Seven further locomotives of this class were obtained from Stothert & Slaughter in 1854, and these became NLR Nos. 4 to 10. They had a smart appearance with copper top chimneys and brass domes and were painted bright green with black panel bands edged with fine whitet lines. After some time in traffic they  were modified as shown in Fig. 5 the most noticeable alteration being the placing of the sandbox on top of the boiler. Nos. 8 and 10 were, however, rebuilt as side tank engines as shown in Fig. 4. Although the actual dates of the withdrawal of the individual engines of this class are somewhat obscure it is doubtful if any of them remained in service later than 1870. No. 4 is known to have been scrapped in 1864 after a boiler explosion which occurred at Camden Town on 16 August 1864 when the engine was blown off the track and landed on the wheels facing the opposite direction to which it had been travelling, on some waste ground below the embankment, the frreman being killed. No. 10 was sold to the Whitehaven, Cleator & Egremont Railway inI 1870, on which system it is believed to have become No. 12 Marron, and later passed into the hands of the Furness Railway as No. 108 (afterwards No. 108a). It is interesting to note that some of the engines of this class were fitted with shorter chimneys to enable them to operate over the Great Eastern Railway between Victoria Park and Stratford Market. During the sixties these engines were principally employed on working passenger trains to and from Richmond. .
The next locomotive to be acquired by the North London Railway, :No. 11, was a tender engine of the 0-6-0 wheel arrangement which was built in 1854 by Sharp Stewart & Co. (WN. 843) to the design of Matthew Kirtley It had double frames and is understood to have been the first of an order which Sharp Stewart & Co. had in hand at the time for the Midland Railway, the rest of the batch becoming Midland Railway Nos. 360 to 379. It had two inside cylinders measuring 16½in. by 24in. and coupled wheels 5ft. 2in. in diameter. The ultimate fate of this locomotive is not known but It was in all probability withdrawn from service sometime prior to 1866 when a new engine carrying the same running number was placed in traffic.

Southern Railway. 15
Tenth engine of the MIerchant Navy class, No. 21C10, had been named Blue Star. The naming ceremony took place at Waterloo Station, on 18 December and was performed by Lord Vestey accompanied by Holland Martin, Chairman of the Southern Railway, and Leonard Dewey , General Manager of the Blue Star Line. After the ceremony Blue Star took the 12.50 train to the West of England.

Personal. 15
W. A. Stanier, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., Chief MIechanical Engineer, L.MS., received a Knighthood in the New Year Honours. Stanier joined the G.W.R in 1892, rising to the position of principal assistant to the Chief Mechanical Engineer of that company. In 1931 he was appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the L.MI.S. and has effected many noticeable developments in the design and construction of their locomotives. Well known engines he designed are the Princess Royal, the Coronation, the L.M.S. Mixed Traffic and the famous 2-8-0 freight locomotive. The Stanier 2-8-0 freight locomotive is one of the outstanding engineering contributions to the war effort. It is now being built by all railways in this country and is the standard design for hauling heavy freight trains. Many of these engines have gone abroad, notably to assist in opening up the routes to Russia. Stanier was a member of the Indian Railway Engineering Committee of 1936 and of the Indian Pacific Locomotive Engineering Committee of 1938. He is a past president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers and is Chairman of the Mechanical & Electrical Engineers Sub-Committee of the Railway Executive Committee.

Correspondence. 15

The North London Railway. Hilton
The following are extracts from a letter of 2 November 1942. The articles on the N.L.R. are of great interest to me as the engines are the earliest, if not the first, I remember. This was in 1880, when we lived in Hammersmith and I could see them working on the Chiswick branch. Up to the present I have not read in the articles any mention of the following running powers or working arrangements, and as they were very important links in the service perhaps it may be desirable to include them.
L. & N.W.R—Chalk Farm to Gas Factory Jctn. for freight trains to and from Hayden Square depot.
L. & N.W.R—Chalk Farm to Victoria Park for freight trains to Thames Wharf and Canning Town. I think there was a L. & N.W. coal depot on the up side of the line near Plaistow, but as this was only worked in the early morning I do not know which Company's engines worked there."

The North London Railway. H.V. Borley
Re articles on the North London Railway. Some years ago had to go very fully into the history of this line, in the course of which he turned up numerous books, records and time tables. As regards the opening of the line I do not think there could have been much in the way of freight traffic to carry from Bow to Islington in September, 1850, and always understood that the passenger train service from Fenchurch Street to Islington commenced on September 26, 1850, and this view is supported by a ticket in a library in Hackney. This is a second class ticket, Hackney to London, dated by a press or steel stamp, "26 September," the year, 1850, being added in ink, probably by the original owner. I do not think the date or year can be wrong as the number of the ticket is 03. So far as the services over the L. & S.W. Rly. are concerned his investigations revealed—
1 June to 31 October 1854, to Windsor.
From 20 May 1858, to Twickenham. reversing at Kew and Barnes, until opening of curves at these places on 1 February 1862. Extended to Kingston, 1 July 1863.
1 January 1869, new line through Gnnnersbury opened and N.L. trains terminate at Richmond; Kew Bridge being served both by through trains from Broad Street and local trains from Acton (calling at South Acton) . The original N. & S.W. Junction station at Kew was near Old Kew Junction.
I have no knowledge of any N .L. trains terminating at Hounslow, nor at Richmond, prior to 1869, and would welcome any particulars of such services.
I may add that the service between Broad Street and G.N. line discontinued as from 11 September 1939, was reinstated on and from 4 December 1939.

Early British locomotives in the U.S.A.  Thomas Morell. 15-16
Since you have published references from time to time of early British locomotives in America, as well as the interesting essays of C.F. Dendy Marshall on this subject, it may be of interest to note the existence of several other British locomotives in America of which the writer has recently discovered evidence. I will list these together with the source of the information.
Winchester & Potomac RR. (an inland line extending from the Baltimore and Ohio R.R. at Harpers Ferry to Winchester, Va., in the Shenandoah Valley): Tennessee, built 1835, Edw. Bury; Old Dominion, built 1835 or 1836, Edw. Bury; Lilly of the Valley, built 1836, Edw. Bury; Pocahontas, built 1836, Edw . Bury. All were four-wheeled inside connected engines. Sources of information: Annual Reports of the Company, published by the Board of Public Works of Virginia; Baltimore American, a newspaper of 1837; Die Innern Communicationen der Vereinigten Staaten van Nord Amerika F.A.R. von Gerstner: Vienna, 1842.
Tuscumbia Courtland & Decatier R.R.—The Treasurer's reports of this company, which operated an isolated line in the far interior of the South, commencing at Tuscumbia, Alabama, show that they had an English locomotive:
Fulton, 4½ tons, 8 x 16 cyls., 4½ft. driving wheels, received 1 June 1834, built by Edw. Bury. It is stated that it attained a speed of 30 m.p.h., its fuel was pine and ash wood.
Possibly this railroad had another English locomotive, the North Alabaman, a newspaper of Tuscumbria, having stated in January, 1835, that another locomotive had arrived at New Orleans from Liverpool for the road. I have been unable to find further trace of it.
Little Schuylkill Navigation Rail Road and Coal Co.—The American Rail Road Journal, on 14 September 1833, referred to two engines having been furnished by Bury to one of the Schuylkill roads. A paper read by Edwin R Clark before the Lowell Historical Society (of Massachusetts), in 1907, mentions a letter from the agent of the machine shop at Lowell, Mass., written to England regarding wheels to be obtained from Bury, in Liverpool, similar to those he furnished on engines for Petersburg, and the Little Schuylkill railroads. The latter line was located in the Pennsylvania coal fields. It had two Bury locomotives: Comet, placed in service 1833, built by Ed. Bury; Catawissa, placed in service 1833, built by Ed. Bury. The latter engine was illustrated, without completed identification, however, in C. F. Dendy-Marshalls Two Essays in Early Locomotive History.
Some data relative to the arrival of the Comet and Catawissa appeared in Bulletin 46 of the Railway and Locomotive Historical Society of Boston.
In my opinion, other English locomotives than those which have heretofore come to light, will be discovered as having worked on some of the short forgotten railways in the far southern part of the United States. Much of the information already published would bear re-exploration, for instance, it has been stated (by C. F. Dendy-Marshall and others, based on a U .S. Congressional Document of 1838) that Bury supplied engines to the Greensville and Roanoke R.R., and the Raleigh and Gaston R.R., also that Benj. Hick, Tayleur & Co., and Rothwell & Co. similarly sent engines to these two roads. Actually, the railroads did not exist at the times the engines were imported, nor did these companies own any locomotives. They were operated by the Petersburg R.R., which imported all of the engines in question, and the arrival of which may clearly be traced m the reports of that company.
Although Whishaw accredits three Petersburg R.R. engines to Mather, Dixon & Co., and an article in the Scientific American Supplement, on 9 June 1900 showed a sketch of one of them, which sketch had been exhibited at the Paris Exposition, nothing at all appears in the reports of the Petersburg R.R. to show that it ever received any locomotives from Mather, Dixon & Co., although all of the locomotives which the company reported in its possession, from year to year, are accounted for. The Scientific American Supplement article alluded to states that the sketch of the engine New York, had been obtained from a descendant of one of the builders, but nothing else was known except that they supplied it in 1834 to the Petersburg R.R.

Locomotive utilisation . A.J. Walter.  16
Re article issue of October mentions that the state of the boiler is the limiting factor in hard water districts, which is very true. When however, the word "may" accompanies the statement that water treatment affects the length of time between washouts we beg leave to mention that the word "does" is more appropriate. We have data from fourteen railways using Permutit Base-Exchange water softeners showing reduction of washouts from twice weekly to once monthly and without the continuous blow down system mentioned. One railway reports a total mileage achieved with 118 engines greater than that previously obtained with 168 engines on the same locomotive section, and states that this was due to the installation of Permutit Base-Exchange Plants on that section, which substituted the Lime-Soda Softening Plants previously used.
In these times of shortage of engines and boilers the importance of increased engine utilisation and conservation of existing boilers and tubes is recognised by the Government departments concerned, as witness the fact that the Government of India after world wide investigations into results obtained by various methods of water softening have entrusted us with the largest Railway Water Softening scheme yet carried out in India, embracing as it does 300 engines and approximately 1,000 miles of main line. Writer Directo of Perthwtit Company Limited.

Reviews. 16

The steam locomotive: its theory, operation axd economics. including comparisons with diesel-electric locomotives. Ralph P. Johnson, M.E., Chief Engineer, Baldwin Locomotive Works. New York: Simmons-Boardman Publishing Corporation.
An authoritative treatise on the theory, operation and economics of the modern steam locomotive based upon recent research and current practice. The author's experience in testing locomotives in the U.S.A. and other countries has been drawn upon for interesting material on the road testing of locomotives. The subject matter has been cut down to fundamentals, enough background being included to indicate paths of development. Tables have been checked against latest available data.
Mechanical engineers, Locomotive designers, works managers and students concerned with motive power will find much of value in this
book. The following is a summary of contents: Locomotive Classification, Locomotive Fuels, Combustion, Front Ends, Water for Boiler Use, Evaporation, Superheat, Tractive Force, Horsepower, Resistance, Tonnage, Valve Gears and Valve Setting, Counterbalancing, Acceleration, Torque Diagrams, Dynamometer Cars, High Speed Trains, Streamlined and Light Weight Trains, Motive Power for High Speed Services, Motive Power for Switching Services, The Relation of Locomotive Operating Expense to Net Operating Income, Locomotive Repair Costs, Economic Life, Locomotive Testing Apparatus, Typical Locomotive Dimensions.

The theory and practice of heat engines, includixg steam generators, reciprocating steam engines, steam turbines and internal combustion engines. R.H. Grundy. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd.
An outline of the practice of heat engines, and its accompanying theory. The standard is that of the Ordinary and Higher National Certificate examinations, while the material is sufficient to cover a three years course in University or Technical College. A simple method has been adopted to distinguish between the elementary and more advanced sections of the work. The book is also suitable for the examinations in Heat Engines of the Professional Engineer- ing Institutions and for all Engineers of the l\Iercantile Marine.
In some respects the method of presentation is unique, as the author has felt the necessity of filling a gap left by the usual text-books, which either deal fully with the theory, and neglect practice, or vice versa. An up-to-date treatment of the theory is given from first principles in Part 1., and its dependence upon Physics and Chemistry has been emphasised by introducing certain elementary work, which however, adds to the value of the book for reference purposes. The continuity of the subject is preserved throughout, even to the extent of placing the illustrative examples at the end of the chapters, while a large number of the illustrations have been specially prepared in accordance with this policy, and to assist a comparison to be made between similar features. The practical side of heat engines, including steam engines and turbines, and internal combustion engines, has been dealt with in Part II, and while descriptions of the latest plant are included with sectional views and photographs, the historical side of the subject has not been neglected. It is intended that the descriptive portion of the book should be read after the theory has been studied .

The A.B.C. of Southern locomotives. I Allan.
A handy pocket size 20-page booklet giving a complete list of the numbers and classes of all engines now working on the Southern Railway. A list of all named engines and a table of dimensions at the end of the book completes a useful and compact reference book for all those interested in Southern engines.

Number 606 (15 February 1943)

Locomotive boiler evaporation. 17
The evaporative capacity of a locomotive boiler is governed and influenced by such a wide variety of factors that sometimes it seems well-nigh impassible that any predeterminatian could be made which would have any semblanoe of accuracy. Nevertheless, for any given type of coal, or for oil fuel, there are certain characteristics which have a paramount effect, and the intelligent—thaugh largely empiric—use of these enables a reasonable estimate of the maximum evaporation to be made.
Far bituminous and semi-bituminous coals the firebox volume is at least as important, if not more so, as the grate area in the normal box with bnick arch. The volume and shape of the firebox, along with the grate area, form the first of the principal determining factors. The second is the free gas area through the tubes and flues. The third—little realised at the moment—is the water level and steam space of the boiler.
The fireboxes and combustion chambers of large modern boilers account for a greater proportion of the total evaporation than was the case in engines built fifteen or twenty years ago, and it appears, further, that this results not merely from a greater relative size of the box but also because the rate of evaporation at. high firing rates may be higher than that, for example, assumed by Cole as 5.5lb. per sq. ft . of heating surface per hour, and which was given as corresponding to a firing rate of 120llb. per sq. ft. of grate area per hour. For maximum specific evaporation per unit of firebox surface or volume, the deep, narrow box may be by no means the best, far the greatest firebox evaporation comes from the intense radiation of the incandescent fuel bed, and the brick arch alone keeps this away from much of the wall surface. What is really needed is a design' or proportions which will enable the maximum possible amount of surface to receive direct radiant heat from the firebed without having excessive unburnt fuel loss at medium and high firing rates,
Though the absorption efficiency of the. tubes and flues is governed by,their bore, length, and hydraulic depth, their usefulness in effect is determined at a prior stage by the temperature of the gases when these first enter the tubes and flues. If a large proportion of the heat released from the coal fired has already been taken up in the firebox and combustion chamber, the evaporation from the tubes and flues may be comparatively small unless the boiler is of large diameter and provided with adequate free gas area. This is the reason why many large boilers do not show such-a 'high final superheated steam temperature as rather smaller classes, in which the firebox has not such a high heat-absorbing capacity, and thus the gases pass the firebox tubeplate at a higher temperature'. Even with large boxes it is possible that the gas temperature at the entrance to the tubes and flues might be increased at heavy firing rates if secondary air was introduced above the brick arch.
C.D. Young, of the Pennsylvania Railroad, seerns. to have been the first engineer to draw attention to the relation existing between the maximum possible evaporation and the free gas area through the tubes and flues, and as a result of the tests he conducted on such engines as the E6s Atlantics and K4s Pacifies he stated that with boilers of generally normal proportions the maximum capacity was limited to approximately 7,000Ib. actual or 9,000/9,100 lb. equivalent evaporation per hr. per sq. ft. of free gas area.. This may still be regarded as a reasonably reliable estimate for English and most Continental locomotives when being forced, but for the modern types of American and other large locomotives.· particularly where the E-type superheater is incorporated, the actual evaporation may be 8,000/8,500 lb. and the equivalent evaporation from and at 212°F, over 10,0001b. per hr. per sq. ft. of free gas area. Indeed, the now well-known Pennsylvania 4-8-2 locomotives of the MIA class have recorded an test an equivalent evaporation of 12,750 lb. per hr. per sq. ft . of free gas area, but that was at a firing rate altogether exceptional and which would hardly be reproduced in service warking. It is this same type of locomotive which also has formed one of the most striking examples of the extreme importance of adequate water-level surface arid steam space for engines which work a goad deal of their time at medium to high power outputs. Originally the steam space was equivalent to 150 cu. ft., but so much water was carried over into the steam pipe and superheater that the locomotive almost had to be regarded as a working failure, practically no superheat. being obtained. By lowering the crown of the inner firebox and slightly increasing' the barrel diameter to give a little greater height by the dome, the steam space was increased to 200 cu. ft., and this entirely cured the trouble. And despite a reduction of 4 per cent. in the heating surface the evaporative capacity was mare than maintained, and a final steam temperature of well over 700°F, obtained,

Crampton's patents. 25-6.  
Patent 11,349.

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 27-9.

Auto-Railer. 32
A new type of road or rail train known as the Auto-Railer, had been completed by Evans Products Co., Detroit. It operated with equal facility on rails or on roads. Some were already in service in America's great ordnance plants, for the movement of shells, bombs, and explosives. The Auto-Railer consists of a locomotive and two double-end cars having a gross capacity of 90,000 Ibs, Each unit operated on 42 rubber tyres and' 'an change from rail to road, or vice versa, in a few minutes.
Steel flariged wheels are employed to hold the vehicles on the rails, and are retracted for operation off the rails. These Ranged wheels act. merely in the nature of guide or pilot wheels, with the rubber tyred wheels taking approximately 80 per cent. of the load in rail operation and 100 per cent. when operated on 'the highway. Raising and lowering or the guide wheels is accomplished by compressed air. The train is equipped with standard air brakes.
Each 'car is built with all-wheel steering. This permits utmost flexibility, as each of the tyres of the cars rolls in the same path as the tyres on the locomotive, their movement being synchronized with the movement of the locomotive wheels. A number of Auto-Railer units of various types, such as ammunition trucks, ambulances, fire fighters, and inspection cars are helping the National Defence Service of the U.S.A. The constructieon and design of the Auto-Railer follows that of automobile practice. Only light-weight type materials are used, steel and the heavier materials which are necessary in the construction of standard locomotives and freight cars are eliminated.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 32
At a luncheon held by the Institution, at the Savoy Hotel, London, on 22 January, there were 242 members and friends present. The President, O.V.S. Bulleid, was in the chair.

Institution of Mechanical Engineers. 32
A portrait of George Stephenson, painted by H. P. Briggs, R.A. (1791-1844), has been presented to the Institution of Mechanical Engineers by the President and Council of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

L.M.S. (G. & S.W, Section)  32
The passenger train service between Ayr and Mauchline had been withdrawn.

Russian austerity locomotlves. 32
A large number of 2-10-2 type locomotives were under construction in Russia. The design is based largely on the American engines imported a few years ago, but modified to suit present conditions.

Belgian Railways. 32
Estimated that over 1,000 and about 16,000 wagons had been commandeered by Germany.

Reviews. 32

International Railway Associations. London: The Railway Gazette.
An interesting series of articles reprinted from the Railway Gazette, giving an account of the work and scope of the various associations concerned with international traffice, principally on the European continent.. The headings include—International Transport Committee—-International Wagon Union—European Timetable Conference—International Union for the Issue of Through Tickets—Railway Congress—League of Nations, Communications Section—International Railway Union—Eastern European Change of Gauge Associations.

Locomotives of the Cambrian, Barry and Rhymney Railways, M.C.V. Allchin. (Published by the Author).
A list of the numbers, types and dates of building of all the engines .on the three railways at the time of their absorption bv the Great Western Railway, together with the numbers allotted to them on the latter system. It makes a useful reference book to those interested in engine numbers.

Number 607 (15 March 1943)

Austerity tank locomotive: Ministry of Supply. 34-5. illustration.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 39-41.:
Dundee & Arbroath and Arbroath & Forfar Railways.

Number 608 (15 April 1943)

Locomotive and train resistance. 47

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 53-4. 3 diagrams (side elevations)

Crampton's patents. 55-7. 9 diagrams

E.C. Poultney. New high speed locomotives for the Pennsylvania. 58-9. diagram (sectionalised side elevation)
Pennsylvania RR Duplex 4-4-4-4

Correspondence. 64

The North London Railway. Mechanicien
Perhaps the following notes in regard to some of the old North London Railway locomotives may be of interest to your readers.
Engines Nos. 14; 17 and 21 were bought by William Horsley & Co. in 1871 or 1872, and who, doubtless after extracting a most satisfactory commission, turned the engines over to W. Woods & Co., the proprietors of the Brunton and Shields Railway, a line used by the collieries in the Killingworth district of Northumberland, to send the coals down to the river Tyne for shipment. No. 14, when owned by Woods had the footplating supported by outside angle irons, the same as No. 13 illustrated in· your last issue. The makers' number on the motion was No. 857, this raises a query, was the saddle tank changed prior to the engine being sent North and the original number plate left on? It may have been that the tank of No. 13 was in better condition than that of No. 14 and in view of the fact that the engine was being disposed of, the Railway Company decided that fair exchange is no robbery, and decided upon swapping tanks! This engine worked upon the Brunton and Shields Railway for many years and the writer well remembers her running with a huge rectangular saddle tank with about double the water capacity of the original, a cab was also fitted, the engine being withdrawn and scrapped about 1920. No. 17 did not have such a long career, and I think that when the original boiler required renewal the engine was scrapped, but this was not the finish, as one of the driving splashers with its polished brass beading was appropriated and used as a fender for the fireplace in the bar parlour of the local Black Hull public house for years.
No. 21 ran until about the year 1898, when it was scrapped; this engine in the middle eighteen-nineties had the coal bunker extended and an extra pair of small wheels added at the trailing end by Black Hawthorn & Co., of Gateshead, making her into a 4-4-2 Tank.
There is some doubt about the Stephenson locomotives supplied to the Northumberland and Durham Coal Co., but it is definite that Stephenson's Nos. 772 and 773 were despatched from Newcastle for delivery at Blackwall on 29 January 1851. I think that John Bowes and Partners of the Marley Hill Collieries had an interest in N. & D. Coal Co.
R. Stephenson's No. 733 was a rebuild for the York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway and delivered to the Railway Company in February, 1849, and therefore could not have been one of the Northumberland and Durham Coal Company's engines.
The dimensions of Nos. 772 and 773 were as follows: Cylinders 15in. by 22in., centres 2ft. 5½in., steam ports 1¼in. by 11in., exhaust ports, 2½in. by 11in., valve travel 4½in.; wheels 4ft. 7½in. diameter; Losh's patent, wrought iron spokes, also forming rim of wheel, cast iron bosses, wheelbase, Leading to driving 6ft. 6in., Driving to trailing 7ft. 1in., inside bearings to wheels; Boiler barrel 3ft. 8ins. diameter by 10ft. 0in. long 3/8in. plates; Firebox casing 4ft. 4¼in. long by 3ft. 7¾in. wide; 115 tubes at 2in. outside diameter; Heating surface: Tubes 621.79 sq. ft., Firebox 72.2 sq. ft., Total 693.99 sq. ft.; Grate area 11.43 sq. ft.; Steam pressure 1201b. Tender with a water capacity of 1,000 gallons upon four wheels, cast iron, with a diameter of 3ft. 49/16in., on a wheelbase of 8ft. 6in. No. 773 appears to have broken a crank axle as an order for 2, new one was sent to Stephenson by J.H. Adams in April, 1856.
Engine No. 1093 was supplied to the North London Railway Co. in April, 1857, and was a heavier and more powerful engine than the preceding two. The dimensions were: Cylinders 16in. by 24in., Centres 2ft. 3¾in.; Wheels, Losh's patent, 4ft. 6in. diameter, with cast iron bosses and inside bearings; Wheelbase, Leading to driving 7ft. 3in., Driving to trailing 4ft. ·3ins.; Boiler barrel 3ft. roins., diameter by 13ft. 6in. long, 7/16in. plates; Firebox casing 4ft. 5±in. long by 3ft. 77/8in. wide; Tubes 121 at 21/8in. outside diameter, 2¾in. centres; Heating surface: tubes 930.5 sq. ft., Firebox 74.5 sq. ft., Total 1005.0 sq. ft.; Grate area 11.8 sq. ft.; Steam pressure 1201b.
The tender was similar to those fitted to Nos. 772 and 773 but had a larger tank with a capacity of 1,200 gallons of water.
It is of interest to note that a similar engine to Nos. 772 and 773 was supplied to Frances Anne, the Marchioness of Londonderry, for use on her private railway between Seaham and Sunderland.

Reviews

Mechanical World Year Book, 1943. Manchester: Emmott & Co., Ltd.
This volume has, as usual, been thoroughly revised and the tables brought up to date. The light metals and alloys, including the important wrought light alloys, are presented in an entirely new section. The section dealing with press- work has been revised and enlarged. Another important feature is the section on the selection and substitution of processes with information on die casting and on plastics.

L.M.S.R. diesel-electric shunting locomotives. The Railway Gazette,
This reprint of articles which have appeared in the Railway Gazette, deals principally with the working conditions imposed on the 350 b.h.p. diesel locomotives in fiat and hump yards, and not with the design of the locomotive itself. The contents include notes on the servicing and re-fuelling (but not the maintenance or repair), the principles of allocation to various yards, and some of the general advantages of diesel shunters in L.M.S. yards. This 24- page reprint is copiously illustrated.

Obituary
We regret to learn from the Superheater Co. Ltd., of the death of Henry Edward Geer, who was for many years their Chief Engineer. Geer was in his 57th year and had been associated with the design and application of superheaters to all forms of steam generators; his experience in locomotive superheating dated back to 1911.

Number 609 (15 May 1943)

L.M.S.R.express locomotives. 66-7.illustration., diagram. (side elevation)
Jubilee class rebuilt with larger boilers

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 68-70
.Scottish Midland Junction Railway and Aberdeen Railway.

Number 610 (15 June 1943)

Lubrication of rolling stock. 79
Includes grease

L.M.S.R. 79
Moble canteens presented by Argentina to LMS railwaymen

Southern Railway. 79
Centenary of opening Thames Tunnel to pedestrian traffic. In 1866 the East London Railway converted it as a railway tunnel

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. XXI. W. Bridges Adams. 80-2. illustration.
Steam railcar Fairfield illustrated

0-6-0 tank locomotive, Rhodesia Railways. 82. illustration
Works shunter at Untala; supplied by Hudswell Clarke & Co. in 1929: named Churchill.

Obituary. 82
C.H.M. Elwell: had been apprenticed under James Holden at Stratford Works; following which he became a locomtive running inspector. During WW1 he was involved in munitions manufacture at Stratford. He became Locomotive Running Superintendent of the LNER Southernv Area and in 1938 Locomotive Running Superintendent of the Eastern Section,

Notes on the modern rail L.N.E.R. 82-3
For ordinary rail a medium manganese content was specified. For points and crossings a high manganese steel was specified with Sandberg sorbitic process.

The counter pressure brake method of testing locomotives. 83-4.
Account of T. Robson ILocoE paper

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 85-7. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)

Crampton's patents. 89-91.  
Patent 11,760.

Number 611 (15 July 1943)

Passenger rolling stock capacity. 97.
Considers London Transport versus LNER main line coaches

L.N.E.R. 97
Second B1 class No. 8302 Eland undergoing trials.

Beyer-Garratt heavy freight (war standard) locomotive, Ministry of Supply. 98. illustration
Intended for South Africa (3ft 6in gauge): 2-8-2+2-8-2.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 106-8.
Aberdeen Railway: locomotives from Dundee: Kimond & Steel, Gourlay, Mudie and Blackie

Number 612 (15 August 1943)

Locomotive centre of gravity. 113.

Edward H. Livesey. Across Canada in the cab. 114-17. illustration, map

The Phillimore Collection sale. 117-18.

L.N.E.R. 118. illustration.
Locomotive of 20.45 Liverpool Street to Harwich passenger train fell into a bomb crater on embankment near Ingatestone.

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 119-21. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Number 613 (15 September 1943)

A remarkable locomotive. 129.
4-4-4-4 Pennsylvania Railroad with Franklin poppet valves: draws parallels with Webb designs 

Narrow-gauge 2-8-2 locomotive, Vicicongo Railway. 130-1. illustration

Mobile electrical substations, London & North Eastern Railway. 131. illustration

No. 6245 "City of London", London Midland & Scottish Railway. 131. illustration
Photograph of black streamlined locomotive with double chimney

Crampton's patents. 132-3. 3 diagrams
Dummy crank shaft locomotives.

L.N.E.R. appointments. 133
J. Blair Assistant to Chief Mechanical Engineer Doncaster had become Mechanical Engineer (Outdoor) in succession to C.H.M. Elwell (deceased). S. King, District Docks Mechanical Engineer to succeed Blair. B. Adkinson, District Locomotive Superintendent Norwich moved to Gorton to succeed C.B. Kirk who had retired.

The North London Railway. 133-5. Illustration, 3 diagrams (side elevations)

P. Ransome-Wallis. Impressions of some overseas railways in War-time. 135-8. 4 illustrations
South Africa

O.J. Morris. Portrait of a Mid-Victorian signalman. 138-40. illustration
Jack Fielding worked at Lovers' Walk signal box at Brighton and was photographed in 1882.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 140-1:
Aberdeen Railway

Correspondence. 142

Cowlairs commentary. John W. Smith

The Phillimore Collection sale. Reginald B. Fellows.
First edition of Bradshaw sold for £27. Refers to Falconer Madan, Bodley's Librarian, classification of Bradshaw's timetables.

Number 614 (15 October 1943)

David L. Smith. The Wigtownshire Railway and its locomotives. 149-51. 3 illustrations

Re-built "Royal Scot" engines: L.M.S. 155. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 6103 Royal Scots Fusilier illustrated: to be known as "Converted Royal Scot" class

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 156-7. illustration (drawing: side elevation)

Post-war railway supplies. 157.

Correspondence. 158

Mr Benjamin Piercy. E.K. Gregory
Died 24 March 1889 aged 61. In 1862 he was appointed engineer of the Sardinian Railways.

Locomotive centre of gravity. C.R.H. Simpson.

Number 615 (15 November 1943)

The valve gear. 159.

Locomotive valve gears. 160-4. illustration, 2 diagrams

Conversion of L.N.E.R. class P2 2-8-2 locomotive. 169-70. illustration

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 170-2:
Scottish North Eastern: boiler explosion: illus. of No. 48 at Bridgr of Dunn in 1869.

Number 616 (15 December 1943)

Weight saving in locomotives. 173

L.N.E.R. [appointments]. 173
R.P.Critchley had been appointed District Locomotive Superintendent, Glasgow, in succession to G.W. Phillips, who had retired, B.P. Blackburn, District Locomotive Superintendent, Burntisland, had been appointed to succeed Critchley at Edinburgh. H.J. Williams, Locomotive Works Manager, Gorton, had been appointed Carriage and Wagon Works Manager, Gorton. G. Caster had been appointed Locomotive Works Manager, Gorton. J.H.P. Lloyd had been appointed Works Manager, Stratford.

Another L.N.E.R. conversion. 185. illustration
B3/3 Lord Farringdon type rebuilt with two cylinders

Crampton's patents. 186-8.  
Patent 14,021.

Correspondence. 188

No. 12, Victorian Railways. James. C.M. Rolland.
While the Geelong and South Suburban. companies had already acquired locomotives which were later to become V.R. motive power, the first actually procured by the Government (through the Trustees of the lately taken over Mount Alexander Railway Co. to Bendigo) were from the works of George England, of London. These comprised. four 0-6-0 and one 2-2-2, all tender engines, the building date being 1857, though it was 1858 before they had arrived and the Williamstown Shops erected them. No. 12 was the single-wheeler (11, 13, 15 and 17 being the goods quartette) and her claim to fame is that she was the first V.R.-owned passenger locomotive and the "ancestor" of all the big express engines of to-day—and to-morrow. It. is this historical claim that has prompted the attempt to portray her as she was when on her trials across the stony rises of Yarraville on the line then just approaching completion (the opening day was in January, 1859). The prompting, it should rightly be mentioned, has come from Leo. J. Harrigan, the most assiduous and fully-informed historian, probably, of all Victorian Railway enthusiasts. It seems there is in existence no picture of her' as she was then, and the accompanying reproduction is, from a drawing. Fully correct details cannot, of course, be guaranteed, but a close study has been made of all the evidence—from later pictures of 12 after alteration; from definite pictures of the rather peculiar tender; from drawings of other "England" engines of the period, and from many illustrations of other British locomotives of about the same date.
The "Ancestor's" career was by no means a routine one. Quite early it became apparent that 6 ft. 6 in. single driver were not suited to Victorian grades, and she was converted to a 2-4-0 with 5 ft. coupled wheels (as were the Beyer, Peacock singles, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10). After the extensive-conversion she seemed to be very much of a rouseabout, and in her later days (in 1880) she was sold to the Yarrawonga Shire to run their Dookie to Katamatite Tramway. When this outfit was taken over by the Government, 12 came back to the fold again, but to find that her "seat" had been meanwhile taken by 12E, one of the new 2-4-2 tanks built by the Phoenix Foundry. So she was thereafter' listed as 528.
Other humble jobs fell to her lot. For a time she worked . for the Box Hill brick works, a mile or so's run from the pits to the station yard; then she was on loan to the Altona Bay (Colliery) Co.: in 1901 she was seen standing by at the head of a casualty train in Jolimont during the Royal: visit, every other engine being busy, Finally, in 1904, she was sold to Messrs. Rawdon & Baxter, contractors, and ended her chequered career helping to build the Outer Harbour at Port Adelaide, South Australia. Is there not in this halting attempt at life history some parallel to the tales of the famous old veterans of the high, seas? The writer often feels there is,

Review. 188

A.B.C. of G.W.R. locomotives. Ian Allan. 40 pp, and cover,
A list of the numbers and names of all G.W,R, locomotives, at present in service: together,with the leading dirnensions, of each class. The origin of engines taken over from railways. incorporated in the Great Western system is indicated; this is a useful feature, as, owing to many of them having been now fitted with standard G,W. boilers, etc., they are- not now readily identified even by those familiar with them in the past. The leading dimensions of each class and a list of the running sheds completes a well illustrated and excellently arranged booklet. .