Locomotive Magazine & Railway Carriage & Wagon Review
Volume 38 (1932)

Key file to all volumes

Number 473 (15 January 1932)

Six-coupled tank locomotive for auto-service, Great Western Ry. 1. illustration
54XX class. No. 5403 illustrated.

Great Western Ry. appointments. 1
Upon W.A. Stanier's depature for the LMS the following changes were made: J. Auld to become Chief Assistant to CME, Swindon; F.W. Hawksworth to become Assistant to CME and S.J. Smith to become Chief Draughtsman.

The Railway Club. 1.
Announcement of Annual General Meeting at which Kenneth Brown would give his Presidential address.

Rebuilt 4-4-2 type passenger locomotives fitted with "boosters", L. & N.E. Ry. 2-5; 13 upper. 3 diagrs. (incl. 2 s. & f. els.).
C7 class fitted with booster on bogie articulated to the tender: Nos. 737 and 2171

Ford Motor Co. 5.
Three Diesel-electric locomotives for shunting at the Dagenham Works had been ordered by the Ford Motor Co. The engines are being supplied by W. H. AlIen, Sons and Co., of Bedford, and the electrical equipment by the British Thomson-Houston Co. Each six-cylinder engine would be of 150 b.h.p. to run at 550 r.p.m,

London, Midland & Scottish Rv. (L. & N.W. Section). 5.
Further 0-8-0 standard superheated freight engines completed at Crewe were Nos. 9625-32. Of these, Nos. 9625-9 were allocated to the Midland division and the remainder to the Western division. 0-8-0 goods tender engines Nos. 9010 and 9077, formerly class D and class G respectively, had been converted to class G1 (superheater). Both were provided with standard Belpaire boilers, while No. 9010 was also fitted with the vacuum brake. At the end of 1931 the number of class G1 engines in service was 342. The following engines had been turned out at Crewe fitted with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-4-0 George V class, Nos. 5304, 5364, 5381; 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class, No. 5674; 0-6-0 18in. goods class, Nos. 8443, 8523, 8592. Two further 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class engines had been adapted to work over the Midland division, Nos. 5703-4. Recent withdrawals included the 6ft. 2-4-0 straight link class engine, Engineer South Wales, which would not be replaced. Other withdrawals were as follows: 4-4-0 Renown class, Nos. 5112, 5144, 5156, 5180; 4-4-0 Precursor class, Nos. 5204, 5266; 4-6-0 Experiment class, No. 5535; 4-4-2 Precursor tank class. No. 6828; and 6ft. 6 in. 2-4-0 straight link class, No. 5002.
New locomotives turned out from Derby Works as follows: Nos. 661-4, class 2 4-4-0 passenger engines, for Midland division: Nos. 15555-9, class 3 2-6-2 passenger tanks for Central division.

"Mikado" locomotive, Kivu Ry. 6-7. illustration, diagr. (s. el.)
2-8-2T for Belgian Congo supplied by Haine of St. Pierre: 3ft 6in gauge. 87.95m2 total heating surface; 1.95m2 grate area and 14kg/cm2 boiler pressure

Tank locomotive, Crown Mines Ltd., Johannesburg. 7. illustration
North British Locomotive Co. WN 24069: 3ft 6in gauge 4-8-2T with 20 x 26in cylinders; and 30,275lbf tractive effort

New 250 h.p. oil-electric rail-car: Armstrong-Whitworth standard. 8-10; 11. 5 illustration, diagr. (s. & f. els), plan
Illustrations show engine, interior and exterior of diesel-electric railcar intended for multiple unit operation and already tested on the East Coast Main Line and between Newcastle and Blackhill and Blackhill and Durham on gradients of 1 in 66.

Order placed with Armstrong-Whitworth by the Gaekwar Baroda State Rys. 10
For four diesel-electric railcars for 2ft 6in gauge: bodies to be built in India.

Southern Ry. 10.
W class 2-6-4T Nos. 1911 and 1912 completed at Eastleigh. Engines Nos. 012 and 566 scrapped.

London & Nortth Eastern Ry. 10.
During 1931 J39 class 0-6-0 completed at Darlington Works: Nos. 2962 to 2971. Armstrong Whitworth delivered K3 class Nos. 1100-2; 1106. 1108, 1117-19, 1121, 1125, 1133, 113?, 1137, 1141, 1154, 1156, 1158, 1162, 1164 and 1166 (WN 1111-1130). Five Sentinel engines acquired in 1931: Nos. 117, 148, 155 and 172 (WN 8476-8480)

Pages 11-14 photographic supplement
Peping Liao-Ning Ry., "Mikado" locomotive. 12 upper
Inverness express on Killiecrankie Viaduct (H.C. Casserley). 12 lower
See also p. 20
C7 4-4-2 with articulated booster No. 727. 13 upper
A1 No. 2582 Sir Hugo with 10.05 Scotsman at Greenwood signal box (A.L.P. Reavil). 13 middle
No. 6019 King Henry V on 18.10 Paddington to Birmingham at Ruislip (A.L.P. Reavil). 13 middle
Southern Railway No. A629 burning pulverized fuel leaving Eastbourne on 09.30 express (A.L.P. Reavil). 13 bottom
Jones Goods No. 17917 leaving Killiecrankie Tunnel with freight. 13 bottom right

The Furka-Oberalp Ry. 14-16. 5 illustration
Including the Scheffenbach Bridge which could be raised to allow passage of avalanches. At time of publication line worked by steam.

J.W. Hobson. The care and maintenance of the industrial steam locomotive. 16-19. 5 diagrs.
Previous part see Volume 37, page 429. Abridged version of a Paper presented to the North East Coast Institution of Engineers & Shipbuilders on 13 November 1931

Mikado type locomotives, Peping Liao-Ning Ry., China. 19.
Kailan Mining Administration: North British Locomotive Co. 2-8-2 with 21 x 28in cylinders; 4ft 6in coupled wheels; 2726ft2 total heating surface; 41.4ft2 grate area and a mechanical stoker.

[Roumanina State Railways order placed with Sentinal Waggon Co. for ten single car steam railcars and five articulated twin units]. 19.

L.M. & S. Ry train in the Pass of Killiecrankie. H.C. C[asserley]. 20.
Notes on photograph on page 12 lower: train was hauled by Horwich 2-6-0 No. 13105 and Smith HR (CR) 4-6-0 No. 14757.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers: "Progressive methods applied to modern overhaul shop for electric rolling stock". 20??
E. Graham Paper 284

Developments in the railways of the Isle of Wight. 21-5. 7 illustration, table.
The Southern Railway decided to standardize the locomotive stock in the Isle of Wight with three classes, namely O2, El and Al (Terriers). In 1932 the O2 class locomotives on the island were fitted with extended bunkers. Table shows that only two of the Beyer Peacock 2-4-0T  remained in service.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter IX. The engine. 25-7.
Cylinder design

Technical training on the French Rys. 27-9. 4 illustration
Paris-Orleans Railway with training based at Orleans Workshops.

Recent accidents. 29.
Reports of accidents which took place in 1931: Fakenham 27 May; Corrour 27 June (derailment of refrigerated van); 30 August collision at York; 29 September Digswell Junction.

Bulgarian State Rys. express locomotive. 29.
See Volume 27 p. 402: Polish supplier's works were at Chrzanow not at Warsaw as stated.

Electric locomotive design. IV. 30-2. illustration, 5 diagrs.
Subjects covered include bad riding, side thrusts, quill drives and the Bo-Bo type used on the Austrian Federal Railways.

Trinidad Government Rys. Sentinel-Cammell articulated steam rail-car. 32-3. 4 illustration
For Sagne Grande section: Laidlaw Drew oil firing.

First-class carriage C. de F. du Midi. 33-4. 3 illustration

Axlebox facing apparatus. 34. diagr.
Southern Railway at Eastleigh Works had installed a jig to assist with locomotive axlebox facing.

L. & N.E. RY. 34.
To test the speed capacity of the latest Pacific type locomotives a series of trial runs had been organised between Peterborough and King's Crass, and also Liverpool. Street and Cambridge. On 10 December 1931 the train due at King's Crass at 16.30 headed by engine No. 2547 Doncaster, with a load of 224.5 tons (tare), covered the 76 m. 29 c. in 1 hour 6 minutes 10 seconds, an average speed of 69.2 mile/h. This included a slack to 10 mile/h, just south of New Southgate, where a new bridge is under construction far an arterial road. With a 4-6-0 Sandringham class locomotive, Cambridge was reached in 61 minutes from Liverpool Street, including a stop at Bishop's Stortford; the distance is 55¾ miles.

Great Western Ry. 34.
During 1931, ninety-three new engines had been built at Swindon Warks, viz., forty 4-6-0 Hall class for general passenger and long distance excursion trains, forty-seven 2-6-2 tank engines of the 51XX and 61XX classes for fast suburban traffic, and six 0-6-0 tank engines of the 54XX class for "auto" services, for use with leading and trailing cars. In addition, sixty 0-6-0 tank engines have been purchased from private firms. The whole of the 4-4-0 inside cylinder engines with 6 ft. 8 in. wheels had been withdrawn from service, including No. 3717 City of Truro, which was presented in March 1931 to the Railway Museum at York. Some of the Saint class 4-6-0 engines were also being scrapped.
The first section of the widening through Taunton—from Cogload junction to Taunton statian—was in use.
GWR engine No. 2197, ex Burry Port and Gwendraeth Valley Ry., was working the Cleobury Mortimer and Ditton Priors line, being stationed at Kidderminster.

A new profiling machine. 35. illustration
Reflex machine manufactured by Hancock & Co. (Engineers) Ltd of Croydon.

Light railways. 35.
The following appointments made in the control of the various light railways formerly under the superintendence of the late Lieut.-Col. H. F. Stephens: Kent and East Sussex Ry. W.H. Austin, managing director, engineer, and locomotive superintendent; R. E. Boyce, secretary. Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Ry., Jas. Ramsay, managing director; W.H. Austen, traffic and locomotive superintendent and engineer; C.R Hewitt, secretary. Weston, Clevedon, and Portishead Ry., W. H. Austen, general manager, locomotive superintendent and engineer; F.E. Johnson, secretary. East Kent Ry., W. H. Austen, manager, engineer, and locomotive superintendent; A. Parkes, secretary. Festiniog Ry., Evan R. Davies, managing director; W. H. Austen, engineer and locomotive superintendent; C. E. Davies, secretary. West Sussex Ry., Owen Walker, receiver and manager; W. H. Austen, engineer and locomotive superintendent; J. Elcome, secretary. Snailbeach District Ry., J. Pike; managing director; W. H. Austen, engineer and locomotive superintendent; C. R. Hewitt, secretary. Ashouer Light Ry., G. H. Wilbraham, secretary and manager; W. H. Austen, consulting engineer. Rye and Camber Tramway, G. Gafford, secretary and manager; W.H, Austen, consulting engineer.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers (Birmingham Centre). 35.
Announcement of a general meeting to be held in the Queen's Hotel, Birmingham, on January 20, when a paper would be read by Mr. C. G, Miller, entitled "Roads and the Road Roller." The chair to be taken by R.G, McLaughlin.

L.M. & S. Ry. (Caledonian Section). 35
The last D. Drummond 4-4-0 engine No. 14304 had been scrapped. This was originally No, 62, C.R., built at St. Rollox in 1885, and was one of the series rebuilt in 1904 with Dunalastair type boilers. and fitted with vacuum brake. One of the new 2-6-2 tanks, No, 15559, is on test in this division; it has been running on several lines, including the Coast. About seventy Northern division engines were withdrawn during 1931, of which about sixty were ex G. & S.W. Ry,

The Late Mr. F. H. Trevithick Obituary. 36.
Mr. Frederick Harvey Trevithick, chief mechanical engineer of the Egyptian State Rys. from 1883 to 1912, died suddenly on 9 December 1931 at Avignon, France, in his eightieth year. A grandson of the famous Richard Trevithick the inventor of the steam locomotive, he was son of Francis Trevithick locomotive superintendent of the London & North Western Ry., and biographer of Richard. Mr. Trevithick served an apprenticeship with Harvey & Co., pumping machinery engineers, of Hayle, Cornwall, and later at the Great Western Ry. Works at Swindon. He was appointed district locomotive superintendent for London, in charge of Westbourne Park sheds in 1880. The post of Ingenieur en Chef du Materiel et de la Traction of the Egyptian State Ry. Adrnlriistration was his next appointment in 1883. As a colleague of the late Lord Cromer, he did much to improve the rolling stock of the Egyptian Rys., while his tactfulness and geniality gained the full confidence and affection of his staff, both British and native. When Mr. Trevithick took charge at Cairo in 1883 the rolling stock was in a very neglected state, and he devoted himself to standardising and rebuilding the equipment, and his efforts were so successful that a committee appointed in 1904 reported the condition of the locomotive department to. be quite efficient. The late Mr. Ahrons gave an interesting description of the locomotive stock of the Egyptian Rys. in THE LOCOMOTIVE for 1903. Mr. Trevithick carried out an exhaustive series of feed-water heating and superheating experiments, which were described in a paper read before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in 1913. Mr. Trevithick had been a Member of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers since 1913. On his retirement Mr. Trevithick lived at Buccleuch House, Richmond, and was on his way to Egypt, where he had hoped to spend the winter, when he was taken ill. He was buried at Richmond Cemetery on December 17.

Correspondence. 36
Messrs. Henschel & Sohn A.G. Gossell & Son Ltd.
It had been stated in the Press that the works of our principals, Messrs. Henschel & Sohn A.G. of Cassel, are closing down at the end of 1931. This is, however,  only a temporary measure, and it is not anticipated that it will last. for more than three months. It is, on the one hand, mainly due to the world-wide cancellation or postponement of railway building programmes, and, on the other hand Messrs. Henschel & Sohn wish to take advantage of the lull in business to re-organise their three works at Cassel with a view to adapting them to the somewhat changed requirements of the present time.

Diesel-electric locomotives v. steam. W.C. Williams. 36-7.
We are constantly being told of the wonders of Diesel-electric traction for main line services, and therefore, the article appearing in the issue of November 1931 under the above heading prompts me to make a few comments. The design is certainly an interesting one, but can its performance, and behaviour as regards maintenance, be forecasted with any degree of certainty? After all, Diesel electric traction has not yet been proved an economic practice for main lines; that is to say, nowhere have a number of 2,000 to 3,000 h.p. Diesel-electric locomotives run day in and day out for, say, eighteen months without any special care or attention. Further, in the difficult conditions cited, it is doubtful whether anything of the power mentioned has ever been tried.
A hundred years' experience covering the design of motive power units for running on rails has surely taught us that we cannot go on indiscriminately increasing the tractive effort of locomotives, let alone double their size without, unfortunately, going "through the mill" — step by step. Each design is built a little larger than its predecessor and experience, sometimes bitter, fills in the missing gaps in our theories. We learn what wheel arrangements are possible, the most suitable methods of suspension, and something of the effect of the distribution of stresses and strain set up by the movement of the new high-powered vehicle. Very heavy and powerful articulated locomotives are, for instance now being constructed, but numerous types have had to 'be built and the design of a multitude of details altered and the chassis reconsidered throughout before a really reliable and effective high-powered machine was evolved.
As regards' the Diesel design illustrated, there is nothing really to guarantee that such a wheel arrangement will be even suitable, bearing in mind the altered centres of gravity, the location of the drawbar, and the stresses set up on the track by the placing of the motors between the wheels. There are also instances where reduced wheel bases have increased flange and rail wear under similar conditions.
Locomotives have grown tremendously in size in recent years but it has been proved that along with increased power come matters which have to be the subject of the most careful investigation and thought, in order that the more powerful unit shall be able to maintain its performance with the minimum of wear and tear to itself and the track. In other words, it is not easy to put a new form of prime mover of a high power order on to wheels and get an immediate satisfactory result.
Therefore, I submit that a Diesel-electric locomotive of the design illustrated would have to go through the same process of evolution and experience, trial and error, as every other motive power unit.
As regards the conditions of the railway cited, in the first place, the grade is not 1 in 27 but principally 4 % (1 in 25) and more severe portions occur. There are 173 curves in 20 miles; at kilometre 22 a portion of 4.28% exists, at another point three curves of 300, 360, and 800ft radius follow immediately one upon another; at this point the grade is 3.924% which at .04% increase in grade per degree of curvature equals 4.68 %, or approximately a 1 in 21 grade.
The existing articulated locomotives referred to, which incidentally, have 69,150 lbf tractive effort (at 75 %), not 60,150 lbf, handle, as stated, 360 tons, and have successfully operated 400-ton trains.
To talk of any increase of speed is to ask for a further pile of trouble, as any increase in speed with permanent way conditions as mentioned above cannot be obtained without increase of tractive effort and a consequent increase of wear
and tear of the permanent way, to say nothing of increased side play on the locomotive and increased flange wear on all rolling stock.
The proposed Diesel locomotive, it is noted, is composed of four 750-h.p. Diesel engines and four motor generators with ten motors geared to the axles. The initial cost of such a machine would, it may surprise many, be in the vicinity of £50,000 in other words, probably nearly four times the cost of a steam locomotive of equal power, which can do the work with great satisfaction arid economy. This would seem to be the case, as a further order for articulated steam locomotives of the type referred to has been given since their introduction, and after five years even the originals are, it is understood, "still going strong," and likely to for many a year to come. Also at a recent shareholders' meeting; of the company it was stated, by no less a person than the chairman, I believe, that certain reductions had been effected in working expenses and that these reductions were "mainly attributable to the powerful locomotives now working over the heavy gradient," Perhaps better the devil we know .. . particularly in these days of financial stress! -

Reviews. 37
History of the Great Western Ry., by E.T. MacDermot, Vol. II—I863-1921. London: Great Western Ry.
In this volume of 654 pages, MacDermot concludes his history of the Great Western Ry., covering the period from 1863 up till the 1921 amalgamations, and in spite of the condensation imposed in keeping the narrative to a single volume, instead of the two parts allowed for the first volume, it is remarkably full of detail.
The bulk of the book is occupied with accounts of the various lines that made up the Great Western, full treatment being given to the Monmouthshire, Bristol and Exeter, South Devon Cornwall, and West Cornwall Rys. The fiasco of what the Devonshire people called the "Atmospheric Caper," when the South Devon line between Exeter and Newton Abbot was worked on the atmospheric system, was a serious blow to Brunel's reputation, and it speaks well for his abilities that the S.D. Ry. continued to employ him as their engineer. This episode is recorded by the author at some length, as well as the story of the decline of BruneI's broad gauge until its final abolition in May, 1892. It is difficult to avoid the impression that the supporters of the broad gauge thought they were playing a losing game from the beginning, as they made but little attempt to take full advantage of it. In the chapter on the Cornwall Ry. an account of the building of the Saltash Bridge is given, as well as of the timber viaducts, of which there were thirty-four between Plymouth and Truro.
When Sir Daniel Gooch was elected chairman of the G.W. Ry. in 1865, the company was on the verge of insolvency, but when he died in 1889 he had established its fortunes on a firm basis of prosperity. His dislike of innovations and policy of rigid economy, especially in train mileage, were carried too far, and were the cause of the unpopularity of the G.W. Ry. in the 'sixties and 'seventies.
But from 1888 onwards there was a gradual awakening of the company from its backward position. Trains were speeded up, short cuts were made to reduce distances between principal towns. equipment was brought up to date, and. steps taken for developing the locomotive stock to the efficiency which to-day maintains the supremacy of the G.W. Ry. for speedy travel. Following a chapter on the working of the G.W. Ry. during the War and the years succeeding, is a section full of interesting information about the train services, methods of working, and signalling. Then there are two chapters on the remarkable variety of broad and narrow gauge locomotives, from the pen of A.C.W. Lowe. Commencing with the engines taken over from the Vale of Neath Ry. in 1866, followed by the stock off the Devon and Cornwall lines, the author deals with the "convertibles" built at Swindon. Standard gauge engines are given a separate chapter, and cover the periods supervised by J oseph Armstrong, 1863 to 1877, William Dean, divided into two sections, 1878 to 1893 and 1893 to 1902, and George J. Churchward, 1903 to 1921. Carriages and wagons, broad and standard gauge, form the subject of the final chapter, followed by three appendices giving dates of opening, mileage and gauge, lists of broad gauge engines, and dividend rates from 1840 to 1921. The volume is profusely illustrated with reproductions of old photographs, etc., and there are folding maps showing the breaks of gauge in May, 1868, and the G.W. system in 1912, recording the short cuts.

Railway literature,1556-1830. A Hand List. By R.A. Peddie. London: Grafton & Co.
Railway historians frequently experience difficulty in ascertaining the possible sources of information from which to gather the data they are searching for, and the author of this handbook has endeavoured to remedy this by cataloguing all known. references to railway literature down to the year 1830. Reference is simplified by the method of classifying the works under the year of publication, and it will probably surprise many to know that the first of these is under a date so early as 1556. An indication is given of the libraries, public or private, in which copies of the works concerned may be found, and as the author does not anticipate that he has exhausted every publication in existence he hopes that all users of the volume wiII inform him of any additional ones of which they may be aware. The list is printed on one side of the page only, the opposite side being left blank for readers to insert any additional titles they may come across. Historians should be able to save themselves much time and trouble by consulting this handbook before starting their investigations.

Stephenson Loco. Society, Notes. 38

Number 474 (15 February 1932)

Southern Ry. – new 2-6-4 goods tank locomotives, class "W". 39-40. illustration, 2 diagrs. (s. & fr. els.)

4-6-2 type locomotives, Gwalior Light Rys. 40-2. 3 illustration, diagr (s. & f. els.)
2ft gauge: W.G. Bagnall locomotives for Ujjain Agar Rly fitted with superheaters, Wrench piston valves and Walschaerts valve gear. 2ft 9in coupled wheels, 11 x 18in cylinders,  722ft2 total heating surafce, 12.3ft2  grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure. See also p. 99.

Diesel-electric locomotives for the Siamese State Rys. 42-3. 2 illustration
Royal State Railways: supplied by Frichs of Aarus in Denmark. Six articulated railcars (with power unit on separate vehicle) and 4-8-8-4 1500hp locomotive for express freight on Bangkok Chengmai section.

Beyer Garratt locomotives for the Blidah-Djelfa Ry., Algeria. 44-5. illustration, diagr. (s. & f/r els.)
Beyer Peacock 4-8-2+2-8-4

F.W. Brewer. 4-cylinder compound locomotive. 46-8. 2 illustration, diagr. (section: s. el. & cross section)
Built Schneider et cie in 1909: 2-8-2 rebuilt in 1915.

Indian Rys. 48.
The serious financial position due to stagnation in trade, loss of traffic, etc., has caused the Railway Board to reduce the salaries of officers, whilst the operating staff has been curtailed and all expenses limited to bare necessities. Locomotives and all rolling stock have to run longer before overhaul, and maintenance is being seriously reduced. Practically no new vehicles were being constructed in the large workshops and very few were on order.  The new railway being constructed by the Administration to connect Raipur, in the Central Provinces with the new port of Vizagapatam on the Bay of Bengal was rapidly approaching completion. It leaves Vizianagram Junction, about 38 miles from and crosses the Eastern Ghauts at an elevation of at Satikona, thence it descends to a low level and low-lying country not traversed by any railway and on to Jonk and Raipur. Heavy mineral traffic was expected and powerful locomotives with high-capacity wagons would be used.
The Viceregal train built at LilIooh in 1904 was being re-modelled and re-conditioned to better meet the needs of the present Viceroy and Vicereine Excellencies' bedrooms, as originally arranged, extending the full width of the cars, and passage past the saloons of the train was only possible when they were unoccupied. This fault has now been remedied, and accommodation for staff much improved.
During the financial year 1929-30 some 115,000 fuel were consumed on locomotives of the State Rys. The relative efficiency of coal and oil has been ascertained as 1 is to 1.85, and although the cost of the best coal at Bombay and Karachi is but half the price there are other advantages which are, it is claimed, compensation to justify its use.
The G.LP. running shed at Bhusawal, which has gone much rearrangement in recent years, is to have boiler-washing equipment installed by the Ec Boiler Washing Co. Ltd., of London.

London & North Eastern Ry. 48
The two Atlantics fitted with boosters: Nos. 727 and 2171, were stationed at Greensfield shed, Gateshead and working on the main line link. No. 2162, 4-6-2 tank, was at present working from Bank Top, Darlington. Another class T engine, No. 444 had been allocated to Tebay for mineral traffic. No. 1423, had been provided with one of the new straight-sided tenders, and the other engines of this class were to be fitted with these. New J39 class goods engines, Nos. 2969 to 2971. had been sent to March sheds. New Sentinel locomotive, No. 154, was at Tyne Dock shed. The Armstrong Sulzer Diesel-electric car had been working between Malton, and Whitby. On the journey from Scarborough and back, the average consumption had been 5 miles per gallon.

Southern Ry. 48.
In connection with the London-Brighton and Worthing electrification, contracts had been placed for forty-four all-steel motor coaches. The order was divided equally between the Metropolitan-Cammell Wagon & Finance Co. Ltd., of Saltley, and the Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd., of Smethwick.

The SAB type D double-acting automatic slack adjuster, 49-52. 5 diagrs.
Swedish Brake Regulator Co.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter IX. The engine. 53-4
Special materials for reciprocating and other parts.

Spanish Rys.-Recent Locos. by Babcock & Wilcox, 56-8??

4-6-2 Pass. Loco. No. 3302, Andalusian Rys.

2-8-2+2-8-2 "Garratt" Loco., No. 206, Central of Aragon Ry.... 58*

A Novel German Shunting Device. 59. illustration,

Scandinavian railway travels. 60-3. 3 illustration, diagr., plan
Train ferry services to link islands in Denmark, and others to link the railways of Sweden and Germany. Major terminals at Warnemunde and at Strasland. Longest crossing was from Sassnitz to Trelleborg which took 4.5 hours

Great Western Ry. 63.
The programme of work to be carried out in 1932 included the replacement of the last of Brunei's famous wooden viaducts on the Falmouth branch. These were College Wood (318 yards long) and Ringwell (122 yards long) constructed in 1863 and 1862 respectively. They were to be replaced by a permanent arched structure and an embankment at an estimated cost of £85,000. The Carnon viaduct, another timber structure, 252 yards long, on the same branch near Devoran, was already being reconstructed.
The locomotive programme for 1932 included another ten 4-6-0 engines of the Castle Class, twenty 4-6-0 Hall class engines, and sixty 0-6-0 tank engines for suburban services. Other rolling stock to be built at Swindon included eight composite corridor carriages, fifty-eight corridor third-class, twenty-two corridor van third-class, fifty non-corridor brake composites, ten trailers for branch line work, fifteen passenger train brake vans nine six-wheel milk tank wagons, one covered scenery van, 300 12-ton open wagons, 150 flat wagons for container traffic, 250 12-ton covered and fifty cattle wagons.

Obituary. 63.
Recorded the death in Glasgow on 8 January 1932 of G. Cunningham, M.B.E. former chief mechanical engineer of the Bengal Nagpur Ry., at the age of 55 years.
William Paton Reid, C.B.E., former locomotive supermtendent of the North British Ry., died on 2 February 1932 at Glasgow. He began his railway career at Cowlairs in 1879, and was placed in charge of Balloch locomotive depot in 1883. He was promoted to Dunfermline in 1889, to Dundee in 1891, and to St. Margarets, Edinburgh, in 1900, and then outdoor assistant locomotive superintendent. In 1904 Reid was appointed head of the locomotive department, which he held until his retirement in 1919.

Sentinel locomotive for Clee Hill, L.M. & S. Ry. 63. illustration
No. 7164: weighed 19 tons aand designed for low speed operation with maximum power available at 2 m.p.h.

Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd. 63.
Order from Ottoman Ry from Smyrna to Aidin for two 2-8-2 locomotives similar to those supplied in 1929: 19½ x 26in cylinders; 5ft 2in coupled wheels; 1745ft2 total heating surface and 25.35ft2 grate area. To be fitted with Titan feedwater heaters..

J.W. Hobson. The care and maintenance of the industrial steam locomotive. 64-7.
Abridged version of a Paper presented to the North East Coast Institution of Engineers & Shipbuilders on 13 November 1931.

Treatment of feed water for locomotive boilers on the Nitrate Rys., Chile. 67-9.
See also p. 87

Electric locomotive design: IV. 69-70.
Czecho-Slovakian State Rys. locomotive

Spanish Rys.-Diesel-electric Rail Cars for Pamplona-San Sebastian Ry. 70-1.
Maintenance was simple and of minimum cost. As they are always ready for immediate use, the rail-cars had great elasticity of servrce ; they burnt Diesel fuel oil or gas-oil, .giving considerable fuel economy. They were driven by one man only. The results obtained by the Beardrnore diesel-electric traction on the San Sebastian to Pamplona Ry. showed that the interna1 combustion engine as motive power was capable of giving complete satisfaction as a railway traction unit.

Articulated main drive for locomotives: System Bianchi. 71.
By courtesy of G. Bianchi, chief mechanical engineer of the Italian State Rys., we reproduce a drawing of the articulated driving arrangement (Bianchi system), which has been adopted on 223 electric locomotives since its introduction in 1921. This drawing illustrates the method of relieving the main crank pin of part of the load transmitted from the electric motors in the case of a six-coupled locomotive. It will be seen that the object of this ingenious arrangement is very similar. to the Woodard drive used on the LNER Shire class engines, and illustrated on page 295 of our issue of September last, By the use of this device a larger bearing surface is also obtained for the main crank pin. Signor Bianchi can therefore claim to be the originator of this improvement in the main drive on crank pins of locomotives, which preceded the Woodard arrangement by many years.

L. & N.E. Ry. 71.
The passenger service on the branch line from Bentley to Hadleigh to be withdrawn on and from February 29, and the stations at Capel, Raydon Wood, and Hadleigh to be closed. Excursion trains would run to these stations as may be necessary, and the goods and parcels service would be maintained. Passenger services would be operated by the Eastern Counties Omnibus Co. Ltd.

L.M. & S. RY. 71.
Contracts had been placed for the reconstruction of Camden Engine Shed and Motive Power Depot. A Chesterfield firm had secured the contract for reconstruction of the roof. whilst the work of remodelling offices, stores, etc., was being undertaken by a Watford firm. A further contract for toe sheeting for the roof and smoke troughs had been awarded to a Manchester firm. On 9 February 1932 trials were carried out on the Bletchley-Oxford branch of the L.M. & S. Ry. with a petrol-driven rail-car, fitted with Michelin pneumatic tyres. These cars were described in 15 October 1931 issue and were designed to provide a light economically operated vehicle to meet road competition.

Welded Freight Cars, by the Pullman Car Co .... 72
Chicago G.W. Ry., 70-ton Welded Freigh] Car , ..

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 72-4
Report of meeting on relationship of loading gauge to running gauge and the effect of both on speeds round curves by Collins (Paper 285).

Reviews. 74.
Handbooks of the Science Museum. – Land Transport III. Railway Locomotives and Rolling Stock.
Part 1 Historical Review; Part 2 Descriptive Catalogue by E. A. Forward, London: HMSO.
These handbooks form an interesting and instructive guide :to the collections illustrating land transport at the Science Museum, This section is divided into four groups, each having a separate handbook, as follows:
(1) Road Transport.
(2) Mechanical Road Transport.
(3) Locomotives and Rolling Stock.
(4) Railway Construction and Working.
Group III, the subject of ·these two books, deals with the general development in the British Isles of locomotive engines from the time of Trevithick's experiments to the present day, and also of carriages and wagons. Divided into two parts, the first deals with the history of the railway locomotive and the second volume is devoted to a descriptive catalogue of the fine collection at South Kensington. Both volumes are well illustrated by appro- priate photographic reproductions of the locomotives and models exhibited in the Museum. Many references to sources of further information are given at the end of Part 1. Although there are many more elaborate treatises dealing with this subject, a concise historical review such as this is very useful to those who wish to be conversant with the salient features. It is written in non-technical language and easy to follow.

Wagon details and construction, by P.H. Saunders. London: Crosby, Lockwood & Son.
As the author remarks in his introduction, this book should prove useful to those concerned in the change-over from wood to steel-wagon building, and engineers who, whilst specialising in the locomotive branch, are called upon to engage in the construction of steel wagons. The book gives a lengthy account of underframe erection, followed by a section on doors, ends, and roofs, and by another chapter on ironwork, as applied to wagon details. Wheels and axles, springs, bogies and bogie underframes with the latest methods of manufacture and machines, are dealt with in turn, followed by useful information on inspection, checking, and testing, and on spray painting and packing. Having regard to the small amount of information available on the subject of this manual it is likely to be in considerable demand. It is profusely illustrated by drawings and diagrams of details.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry, (Caledonian Section). 75. illustration
Two McIntosh 4-6-0 engines built for the Callander and Oban line, Nos. 14606 (illustrated) and 14607, had been provided with 918 class boilers and cabs. These boilers carried a working pressure of 175 psi, with a total heating surface of 2,018 ft2. and a grate area of 21 ft2. The rebuilt engines are said to be doing exceptionally good work on the Oban road.

[L.M. & S. Ry: Lentz valve gear]. 75.
The L.M. & S. Ry, announced that they were carrying out tests with the R.C. (rotary cam) type of Lentz valve gear. Five L.M. & S. Ry. standard 2-6-0 locomotives had been fitted with the gear, which is used to operate poppet valves disposed horizontally above the cylinders. The aim of this gear is principally to reduce maintenance costs and tests would be carried out in comparison with other engines fitted with the normal Walschaerts valve gear and piston valves. The Lentz gear design is a British patent, and was manufactured by the Associated Locomotive Equipment Ltd., of Victoria Street, Westminster.

L.M. & S. Ry., Northern Counties Committee. 75.
Engine No. 61 had been rebuilt as a class B3, fitted with a G6 boiler, and named County Antrim. All Class B3 engines would be named "Counties" as they come into the shops for repairs. No. 28, being overhauled, would appear as County Tyrone. The following engines had been named: Class Al No, 62 Slemish, 64 Trostan, 65 Knockagh, 66 Ben Madigan, Class U2 No. 74 Dunluce Castle, 75 Antrim Castle, 78 Chichester Castle, 79 Kenbaan Castle, 81 Carrickfergus Castle and 84 Lisanore Castle.  Engine No. 57, Class C, had received the splashers with the old name Galgorm Castle, from No. 3, to enable that engine to be named Glenaan in the near future.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 75.
On 12 January J.E. Kite, president of the Railway Correspondence and Travel Society, read an interesting paper entitled "Railways of 100 years ago." After narrating some of the trials and troubles experienced by early engineers, the author read entertaining and humorous extracts from early guide books, of which he is a collector. Mention was made about the opposition to Bills in Parliament and to schemes being rejected. At the conclusion, the chairman, J.N. Maskelyne, proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Kite for his excellent lecture. The next meeting to be on March 10, when A.J.W. Dymond, of Swindon. would be the lecturer.

Cross-Channel steamer service. 75.
The cross-Channel steamer service between Tilbury and Dunkirk, initiated in 1927, to be transferred to Folkestone on 15 May 1932.

Locomotivemen's Craft Guild. 75.
On 27 February Dr. J.N. Long, to lecture on the Heavy Oil Engine and on 5 March F. Hargreaves, assistant chemist at Ashford Works, S. Ry., to read a paper entitled How Locomotive Parts Break. The lectures were held at the Borough Polytechnic Institute, starting at 7 p.m.

Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. 75
Members heard R.L. Burge read a paper on Locomotives of the Dean and Churchward regimes on the G.W. Ry.  Numerous illustrations showing the various engines in their original and rebuilt condition were shown, and much appreciated by the audience. Burge's intimate knowledge of his subject was exemplified by many personal anecdotes related. On Wednesday, January 20, the society held its first annual dinner and general meeting since re-organisation, at the Raglan Hotel, St. Martin's-le-Grand, E.C.3. J.E. Kite presided, and gave a brief epitome of the new organisation since headquarters were transferred from Cheltenham to London. A few speeches were made, followed by the general meeting. Reports were read on the society's financial position, and some discussion arose over visits to sheds and works.

Southern Ry. Pupils and Premium Apprentices Association. 75.
Seventh annual dinner of the association scheduled for Charing Cross Hotel, on Friday, 11 March. All past pupils and premiums wishing to attend should apply for further information to the hon. dinner secretary, S. A. Webster, The County Hotel, Ashford, Kent.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 75.
W.A. Lelean, of the locomotive and rolling stock department of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton, consulting engineers to the Government of India, had accepted the invitation of the Council of the Institution to become president for the session 1932-3: Lelean would take office from June 1 next: he had served as a vice-president of the Institution. At the next general meeting, to be held in the Hall of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, on Thursday, February 25, F.A. Pudney will read papers on (a) "Notes on three Diesel locomotive types" and (b) "Rotary cam gear improvements." The annual dinner would be held at the Trocadero Restaurant on Friday, Feb. 26.-

Annual dinner of the Southern Ry. Eastern Divisional Locomotive Running Department. 75.
Held at the Strand Palace Hotel on 3 February, under the chairmanship of D. Sheppy, divisional running superintendent, supported by Mr. A. Cobb, assistant locomotive running superintendent, Mr. H. Lelew, and Mr. W. E. Neil, The gathering numbered over 200. The loyal toast having been honoured, the chairman gave the "Southern Railway, Directors, and Officers," to which Mr. Cobb replied. Mr. H. Lelew proposed "The Ladies, Guests, and Visitors," and Mr. Neil responded. A musical programme then followed, and judging from the generous applause given after each of the items, was greatly appreciated,

Number 475 (15 March 1932)

"Prairie" type locomotives for the Russian Soviet Railways. 77-8. 2 illustration
Oil burnining using Lyssoff system. Built Kolomna. 22.6 x 27.5in cyclinders, 2974.8ft2 and 51.76ft2 grate area. Further information from F. Meineke p. 151..

Michelin pneumatic-tyres rail-car trials on the L.M. & S. Ry. 79-80. illustration
Photograph show railcar at Oxford having worked there from Bletchley.

Locomotives for the Lower Zambesi Bridge Contract. 80-1.
Cleveland Bridge & Engineering Co. Ltd.: three Peckett 0-6-0T: 3ft 6in gauge with outside cylinders (14 x 22in) and outside frames; 3ft 2½in coupled wheels; 692ft2 total heating surface; 14ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure: WN 1829, etc.).

Bermuda Railway. 81. illustration
Bogie railcars supplied by Drewry Car.

Facts About British Railways. 81
Issued by British Railways Press Bureau.

The Railway Club. 81.
J. Willox spoke about electrification and the Weir Report on 12 February and D.V. Levien of the GWR was to talk about travel at 200 mph on 4 March.

Diesel elevctric locomotive for 2ft gauge. 82-3. illustration
Siemens-Schuckert Co. for CDM.

Trial run of the Armstrong oil-electric rail-car between Newcastle and Hexham, L.N.E.R. 83.
By the co-operation of the London & North Eastern Ry., Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co. (Engineers) Ltd. were able on Tuesday, February 16, to give a trial run from Newcastle to Hexham and back of the firm's two new 250-h.p. Diesel-electric rail coaches built at the Scotswood Works.
\M e gave a full description of the first car in our January issue but we can mention that it carries about sixty passengers, and it is driven by electric motors, with a Diesel heavy oil engine driving the generators supplying current to the motors, the whole torming a self-contained unit.
A party of invited guests accompanied the trial run of the two coaches, one of which has been appropriately named Tyneside Venturer, and painted blue and cream. The outward journey of 20¾ miles to Hexham was along- the route of the old Newcastle and Carlisle Ry. The two rail-cars were coupled together with a full load, and were driven by one man. Both vehicles were under their own power. and the drive was so even that the screw couplings were mostly floating during the run. The engine started easily, and the acceleration excellent, whilst a speed of over 60 m.p.h. was recorded. Diesoleum oil was used as fuel at 3¾d. per gallon, and during a recent trial run between York, Scarborough, and Whitby, the consumption was found to be about five miles to the gallon. The tank holds enough for a run of 400 miles on main line work. The fuel cost is therefore about id. per mile. The exhaust was hardly noticeable, even with the engine running light. On the return trip the party was afforded an opportunity of visiting the Armstrong Works at Scots wood, and of inspecting recent developments in the manufacture of the oil-electric locomotives and cars, as well as the recent business of Armstrong- Saurer Commercial Vehicles Ltd. Some time back the Armstrong Co. supplied the Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry. with some 1,200-h.p. oil-electric mobile power houses, and Scotswood Works are now engaged on some 1,700-b.h.p. sets for the same railway. Other work in hand at the time of the visit included a 15-ton shunting locomotive, a 40-ton shunting locomotive, one 800-h.p. 80-ton goods and passenger locomotive, and four rail coaches for the Gaekwar of Baroda's State Ry.
At the subsequent luncheon at the Central Station Hotel, Major-General G. P. Dawnay, chairman of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. (Securities) Ltd., spoke as to the possibilities and advantages of Diesel-electric traction as compared with the electrification proposals of the 'Weir' Committee, and suggested a solution of the railway problem might be a combination of electrification and oil-electric locomotives.
Lieut.-Col. P. D. Ionides (vice-chairman, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd.) spoke of the present difficulties of the locomotive building industry, and the prospects of an early revival with the new oil-driven car, with its extremely low running cost, and the consequent increase in work for Newcastle. Sir John Thornycroft, replying on behalf of "The Guests," mentioned the special advantages of oil-electric locomotive over steam or other forms of traction in countries overseas, where coal and water were scarce or of poor quality. Among those present were :-Mr. Bruce White (Robt. White & Partners), Mr. Julian Tritton (Rendel, Palmer, and Tritton), Sir John Thornycroft, Mr. R. E. L. Maunsell, Lieut.-Col. G. L. Hall, Mr. A. Raworth, and Mr. J. Clayton (Southern Ry.), Mr. C. R. Mayo (Fox & Mayo), Mr. Ashton Davies and Mr. J. E. Anderson (L.M. & S. Ry.), Mr. J. W. Spiller and Mr. W. L. Watson (Crown Agents for the Colonies), Mr. J. R. Hind, Mr. W. A. Fiddian, and Mr. W. Murray (L. & N.E. Ry.), Mr. Jas. Ramsey and Mr. J. Pike (Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Ry.), Mr. P. M. Tottenham and Mr. N. A. Ablett (Egyptian State Rys.), R. Adams (N.W. Ry. of India), F. Wood (Bahia South Western Ry.), H. P. Burman (Eastern Bengal Ry.), Messrs. C. E. Sherrington, C. J. H. Trutch, B. Irving, and M. B1acklock (Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd.), Commander Micklem (Vickers-Armstrong Ltd.), and Mr. G. C. Batho (Sulzer Bros.).

The Nitrate Railways and its locomotives. 85-7
The locomotives were of particular interest on account of the heavy work they performed over long stretches of 1 in 25, while the variety of the larger examples was great and locomotives had been bought from British, American, and Belgian builders. Oil fuel was universally employed .
Many of the original locomotives had been scrapped, but there were still several veterans on the active list. No. 1 engine dated back to 1873 and was a 0-4-4 saddle tank, built by R. and W. Hawthorn, of Newcastle-on-Tyne, and used for an officers' inspection carriage. It had outside 10 by 15in. cylinders, coupled wheels 2 ft. 10 in. diameter and working pressure 150 psi. The saloon portion was carried on a 5 ft. 6 in. wheelbase bogie, with wheels 2 ft. 4 in. diameter. The combined vehicle measured 29 ft. 10½in. over headstocks. Total heating surface 461 ft2 Grate area 7.5 ft2.
Engines Nos. 2 to 8 are four-wheeled saddle tank shunters. No. 2 was built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1889, and was still working. It had 14 in. by 20 in. outside cylinders and coupled wheel diameter of 3 ft. 4 in. Working pressure 140 psi. Total heating surface 485 ft2. Grate area 7.2 ft2. The remainder of the class, Nos. 3 to 8, were very similar in design, built by John Fowler & Co., of Leeds, in 1876 with the following principal dimensions: cylinders 12in. by 18 in.; coupled wheels 3 ft. 3½in. diameter. Five of these engines were still in service. The heating surface was as follows: total 354.5 ft2 and grate area 5.8 ft2. From the opening of the first section of the line, and until naerly 1930, the heavy traffic was dealt with by Fairlie type engines . They formed the most numerous class on the system, with twenty-three owned by the company. They had double boilers, with a separate firebox for each barrel, fired from the side. The boilers were carried on two six-wheeled steam bogies. The first series of these engines — Nos. 9 to 16 — were built by the Avonside Engine Co of Bristol, in 1872, and three were still in service — Nos. 9, 10, and 15 — though rebuilt more than once The second series of six engines — Nos. 17 to 22 — were supplied by the same makers in 1874, and of these Nos. 18 and 19 were still running. In 1874 also, one Fairlie engine of the 0-6-0+0-6-0 type was built by the Yorkshire Engine Co. This was engine: No. 23. When further power for the line was required in 1880, the Yorkshire Engine Co. were successful in obtaining a contract for a further series of five Fairlies, which became Nos. 33 to 37 on the Nitrate Rys. list, and at the same time an order for one engine of this class went to the Avonside Co., and this bore the No. 32. Nos. 23 and 32 to 37 had all been scrapped and replaced by more modern types. The Yorkshire Engine Co. built two more Fairlies — Nos. 63 and 64 — in 1889, and one more— No. 76 — in 1908. These three engines had been withdrawn from traffic recently, and scrapped.
The leading dimensions of the Avonside engines, Nos. 9 to 15 were: wheels 3 ft. 7½ in. diameter; four cylinders 15 in. by 22 in. Working pressure 140 lb. psi. Total heating surface 1,607 ft2. Grate area 24 ft2. The Fairlie engines built by the Yorkshire Engine Co., Nos. 33 to 37, although of the same general design, had wheels 3 ft. 10½in. diameter; four  cylinders 17 in.  by 22 in. stroke. Total heating surface 1,939 ft2. Grate area 32 ft2. Working pressure 150 lb. psi.
No. 23 had cylinders 15 in. by 20 in.; wheels 4 ft: 7 in. diameter. Total heating surface 734 ft2.. Grate area 11 ft2.

[Permutit]. 87.
See article on p. 67 describing the method of water treatment adopted by the Nitrate Rys. of Chile, mention was made that "Permutit" plants had been installed, but it has been pointed out to US that the trade name overseas of "Permutit" is "Zerolit." The whole of the plant for the Nitrate Rys. was supplied by United Water Softeners Ltd., of Aldwych House, London.

London & North Eastern Ry. 87.
New J39 class 0-6-0 goods engines completed at North Road Works, Darlington, were Nos. 2973, 2974, and 2975. The first two were allocated to Sheffield.

Messrs. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. 87.
Had built a 0-4-0 saddle-tank locomotive for Newport Docks, named Faraday.

Drumm battery-driven electric train. 87
The Drumm Battery two-coach articulated train had been put into regular service on the Great Southern Rys. between Dublin (Amiens Street) and Bray, where an intensified suburban service was worked. The train seated thirty-eight first-class and 102 third-class passengers, weighed 70 tons complete with all equipment. It worked at 500 volts.

Spark Arrester, French... 88*

Great Western Railway: an interesting locomotive rebuild. 88-9. illustration
GWR 2-6-2T No. 1204, former Alexandra Docks & Railway and Mersey Railway No. 15, had been rebuilt with a standard GWR conical boiler.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 89.
D.S. Barrie spoke about Light railways at the February meeting.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter IX. The engine. 90-3.
Piston heads.

Locomotive economies on the L.M. & S. Ry. 93.
Reduction in the number of separate types from 393 to 261; new records of locomotives; standardisation; index of efficiency.

Scandinavian Railway travels, 93-6. 7 illustration, diagr.
Denmark which was notable for its early adoption of diesel power both on the State Railways and on the private Copenhagen to Farum line which was operated by 200 hp diesel electric locomotives in the middle of what was in effect push & pull units. Frichs of Aarhus was the supplier of both a 2-AA-1 450hp locomotive and a three-cylinder 2-8-0 steam locomotive for freight. The low level Hovenbangaarden station in Copenhagen was illustrated

J.F. McEwan. Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway. 96. illustration.  
Refers back to article on the above railway appeared in A THE LOCOMOTIVE for September and October last, and as stated at the time, there was some uncertainty about the number of locomotives which had been employed on the line during its existence. By the kindness of a Coatbridge gentleman it is now possible to illustrate and mention three locomotives previously omitted. In the first place, it should be noted that the builders of No. 5 Frew should be the St. Rollox Foundry Co., this name being improperly given by Whishaw in his list, from which the writer took the name of the builder. According to "handed-down" information Jenny, No. 6 in the locomotive list, was later altered to a four-coupled engine, but it is impossible to say anything definite, as there is the possibility that the Jenny of the Wishaw and Coltness Ry. is being confused with this engine. The engine which was believed to have been No. 10, that is, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Ry. loco-motive, was never Garnkirk Ry. property, but was owned by a Coatbridge firm of ironmasters and ran over a part of the Garnkirk and Glasgow Ry. metals under running powers.

The locomotives by Neilson & Mitchell were built in 1843, and had railway numbers 10 to 12; the two which became 80 and 81 on the Caledonian Ry. list were scrapped in 1850 ; No. 12 as C. Ry. No. 82 lasted until about 1860, having been altered about 1850 to the 0-4-2 type by the addition of a small pair of trailing wheels of 2 ft. 9 in. diameter. The locomotives which were numbered 7 to 9 in the list were three of the six-coupled type built late in 1840 or early 1841 by the St. Rollox Foundry Co. with a dummy crankshaft be-tween the leading and middle coupled axles.

0-6-0 LOCOMOTIVE, "VICTORIA," GARNKIRK & GLASGOW RY. (From sketches made of the actual engine.)

Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway Further Notes by J. F. McEWAN

The wheels were 3 ft. 10 in. in diameter and wheelbase was 10 ft. 6 in., divided 6 ft. 3 in.+4 ft. 3 in. The cylinders were vertical and were 13 in. diameter by 18 in. stroke. The boiler was 13 ft. 6 in long inside and 3 ft. 9 in. diameter approximately inside. The type of boiler was novel for locomotive practice, as it was an adaptation of the Cornish boiler. A large diameter flue passed down the boiler for about 3 ft. and then divided into four smaller flues, which passed into the smokebox. The grate was fitted in the larger flue. The six-coupled wheel arrangement was found to be severe on the track, and the engines ultimately ran with the coupling rods between the middle and rear driving wheels removed.. These engines were named Victoria, St. Rollox, and Carlin; the latter name in all probability was a compliment to the Wishaw and Coltness Ry. directors, since the Garnkirk obtained permission to work engines over that system about this time. These three engines were sold to con-tractors in 1847, without being renumbered in the Caledonian Ry. locomotive list.

[Piccadilly Line Extension]. 96
Stations on the Tube railways extension from Finsbury Park to Cockfosters are to have the tiling or the walls in different colour schemes, so that passengers will readily recognise their own station. The colours chosen are as follows: Manor House, blue; Turnpike Lane, yellow; Wood Green, green and buff; Southgate, yellow and buff; Enfield West, green; Cockfosters, red and buff.

Southern Ry. 96.
New engines built at Eastleigh Works were Nos. 1914 and 1915, 2-6-4 three-cylinder side-tanks, of the W class. The next series of ten of these engines would be constructed at Ashford Works, Nos. 1916 to 1925. Probably these will be preceded by another fifteen of the N class, 2-6-0 tender engines (two-cylinder), with 5 ft. 6 in. wheels. Engines recently withdrawn on the Western section include Nos. 0149, 0413, 538, and 593.

Coaling plant at Cudworth locomotive sheds, L. & N.E. Ry. 98. illustration
Babcock & Wilcox installation: steel structure.

Cortazzi radial axleboxes Gwalior Light Rys. locomotives. 99. diagr.
See February Issue (p. 40) for description and illustration of the narrow gauge locomotives, built by W.G. Bagnall Ltd., of Stafford, for the Gwalior Light Rys., India. Now, by courtesy of the makers, were published detailed drawings of the radial axle boxes of the Cortazzi type, under the trailing end of the engines. Cortazzi, the original designer of this form of radial axle box control, was one of the first locomotive superintendents of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry., and prior to his appointment in 1866 had been at Doncaster, Great Northern Ry., under Archibald Sturrock. It is quite possible that his experience there with some of the early radial axle-box arrangements tried prior to the building of the 0-4-2 Metropolitan tanks of the G.N. Ry., influenced him in providing the inclined sliding surfaces eventually adopted for securing an efficient and satisfactory control of the lateral movement permissible with these axleboxes.
The earliest forms adopted in this country according to Ahrons' British Steam Locomotive had no controlling arrangements, and accordingly the engines fitted had very wild side movements when running at speed. The famous 2-4-2 tank White Raven of the St. Helen's Ry. was a notable example. Cortazzi's provision of inclined planes above the axleboxes served to effectually control the side movement, and although later designers,Webb and others, adopted springs, or links to secure this, the simple expedient of providing sloping bearing surfaces on the top of the axlebox has survived as a satisfactory control to the present. The axlebox illustrated is a good example of these very satisfactory fittings to ensure a smooth passage of a long wheel based locomotive round fairly sharp curves; a total of 4½in. side play was allowed for. The steel boxes were machined with curved faces, 7 ft. 3 in. radius on the centre line of the cast-steel guides, which further assisted in easy travel. The gunmetal bearings had steel "slippers" as packing pieces, also machined with convex upper surfaces, which enabled them to be easily removed for examnation when required. See also letter from Loco Historian pp. 150-1.

Southern Ry. 99
It was announced at the Annual General Meeting on 29 February that electric working between London and Three Bridges, and Reigate, will commence with the intro- duction of the summer train service, early in July. Trains will be run at hourly intervals, both from Victoria and London Bridge; that is to say, from one station at the half- hour and the other at the even hour. The trains will be divided at Redhill, for Reigate and Three Bridges. One of these trains is at present working between Waterloo and Guildford. The two centre coaches are of the semi-corridor type. Four-coach sets are to be used on these services. The Brighton and Worthing electric services will not operate until early next year.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers Annual Dinner. 100; 101. illustration.

L.M. & S. Ry. 101.
Besses o' the Barn, name taken from that of brass band, given as name for new station between Prestwich and Whitefield on Bury electric line.

[Withdrawal of services on LNER Port Carlisle branch from 1 June 1932]. 101.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Recent tank engine, Finland State Ry. 101-2. illustration

Improved  "Diamond" soot cleaner for locomotives. 102-3. illustration, diagram

Railway Correspondence & Travel Society. 103.
Cine films of locomotives and railways shown by H.J. Stretton-Ward to members at Liverpool Street station on 11 February.

Great Indian Peninsular Ry. 103.
L. Bigg-Wither, former Chief Mechanical Engineer, had retired and left India. The deputy cme, A.E. Williams became Chief Mechanical Engineer.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works: last days at school. 104-6

Retired Railway Officers' Society. 106.
Over ninety members and guests met for luncheon at the Abercorn Rooms, Liverpool Street Station Hotel, London, on Tuesday, March 8. The chair was taken by D. Poyntz Ricketts, M.I.C.E., president of the society. After the loyal toast, Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E., D.Sc., gave an exceptionally interesting address on the "Gold Standard." A vote of thanks to Sir Josiah Stamp was proposed by the president and seconded by W. A. Jepson. The toast of "Success to the Retired Railway Officers' Society" was proposed by Sir Herbert Walker, K.C.B., and replied to by S. H. Hunt. Other speakers were Mr. H. Marriott, C.B.E., Mr. R. F. C. Castleman (retiring president), and Mr. E. A. Clear. The usual success attended the function thanks to the untiring efforts of Mr. A. P. Parker, the honorary secretary.

Great Western Ry. 106
The latest engines built at Swindon were No. 5410, 0-6-0 tank locomotive for auto. services and No. 9300, 2-6-0 tender engine.

[North-East Coast Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders]. 106
Paper read on 12 February by E.G. Richardson, (Armstrong College, Newcastle-on-Tyne), entitled "The Prevention and Insulation of Noise," some very interesting experiments for the measurement and mitigation of noises were outlined, with practical methods for reducing such noises at the source. After following the theory of the transmission of such noises through structures and the atmosphere, the desirability of the employment of soft or porous substances, such as asbestos fibre and various compounds of asbestos felt, etc. was discussed, and results of experiments detailed. Tests were carried out at full scale in a specially constructed laboratory, and on a small scale by using a tube "stopped" by a specimen of the material. Finally, instances of practical application of sound insulating methods to shipbuilding were described. The experience gained in these tests should be helpful in solving the problem of reducing noise in railway trains, a subject which is now receiving attention.

Beyer-Garratt locomotive for Sneyd Collieries, Burslem. 106-7. illustration
Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. 0-4-0+0-4-0 with 3ft 4in coupled wheels

Running shed records. 107-8. diagram

Electric locomotive design. IV. 108-9.
2-Co-2 locomotive for the Midi Railway in France..

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Notes on three diesel locomotive types. 111-12.
Precis of Paper 292 by F.A. Pudney discussed the Tosi diesel electric locomotive and Ansaldo direct drive diesel locomotive. and the Christiani compressed steam locomotive.

Publications received. 112.
Locomotive articulees "Beyer Garratt". Beyer Peacock, Manchester.
100 illustrations; 82 pages. French edition.

British Industries Fair. 113-14.
Hunslet Engine Co. exhibited diesel locomotives; simplex exhibited its small diesel locomotives; Hancock & Co exibit of profiling machine; C.C. Wakefield demonstrated its lubricating systems; Gresham & Craven; Hudswell Clarke exhibited a miniature 4-6-3 with a diesel engine.

No. 476 (15 April 1932)

Recent Russian locomotives. 115-16.
American Locomotive Co. (Alco), Schenectady 2-10-4 with 27½ x 30in cast steel cylinders, General Steel Castings rear truck, 5ft coupled wheels, thermic syphons, 4100.8ft2 total heating surface, 85.65ft2 grate area and 241 psi boiler pressure.

New mogul mixed traffic engines, Great Western Railway. 116. illustration
No. 9313 illustrated: 93XX series with side-window cabs.

Standard "YC" type metre gauge locomotives, Madras & Southern Mahratta and Burma Rys. 117-18. 2 illustration
4-6-2 with 4ft 9in coupled wheels, Wrench piston valves, Cortazzi axleboxes on rear axle, 1770ft2 total heating surface and 180 psi boiler pressure.

Mixed traffic electric locomotives, Swiss Federal Rys. 118-19.
Two 7000 hp 1-Bo-1-Bo-1+1-Bo-1-Bo-1 locomotives supplied by Swiss Locomotive & Machine Co., one with Oerlikon electrical machinery and the other with Brown Boveri equipment.

Famous L.M. & S. Ry. locomotives. 119.
Preservation of Hardwicke and 4-2-2 No. 123.

Rebuilt four-coupled passenger engine, Somerset and Dorest Joint Ry. 120. illustration
4-4-0 No. 18 illustrated.

Eastern Ry. of France. 120
Micheline railcars with Michelin pneumatic tyres in use between Charleville and Givet in the Ardennes.

Sligo, Leitrim and Northern Counties Ry. 120.
Purchase of GNR(I) 0-6-0 No. 149 and named Sligo.

Great Southern Rys. battery-driven electric train. 120-1. illustration
"Drumm" mentions Shannon electric power. W.H. Morton designed the mechanical components. There were charging stations at Amiens Street and at Bray.

[Triple expansion compound locomotive]. 122.
"We understand" that ALCO would build a four-cylinder triple expansion locomotive for the Delaware & Hudson RR with rotary cam poppet valve gear, one high pressure; one intermediate pressure and two low pressure cylinders,

Scandinavian railway travels, 122-5. 3 illustration, 2 plans.
Train ferries: Warnemunde to Gjedser and at Sassnitz to Trelleborg between Germany and Sweden. There was electric traction between Gothenburg and Stockholm.

Non-stop express trains. 125
R.B. Fellows letter to The Times on 16 March 1932 showed table:

Year Company From To Miles Time Speed
h min mile/h
1845 GWR Paddington Didcot 52.8 1

8

46.6

1857 LNWR Euston Rugby 82.7 1

56

42.8

1868 Midland Kentish Town Leicester 97.5 2

14

43.6

1876 GNR King's Cross Grantham 105.5 2

10

48.6

1885 NER Newcastle Edinburgh 124.5 2

55

42.6

1895 LNWR Euston Crewe 158.2 3

0

52.7

1897 GWR Paddington Exeter 193.6 3

43

52.0

1904 GWR Paddington Plymouth 245.6 4

25

55.5

1928 LNER King's Cross Edinburgh 392.7 8

15

47.6

In addition notes that Cudworth single driver Mail engines in 1860 ran from London Bridge to Dover via Redhill non-stop: 87.5 miles in 120 minutes and that from about 1860 when Tebay water troughs were brough into use the 90 miles from Preston to Carlisle were run non-stop.

The Nitrate Railways and its locomotives. 126-9. 8 illustration
Previous part pp. 87

Institution of Locomotive Engineers — New President. 129. illustration (portrait)
W.A. Lelean photographed with a slide rule: regretted non-participation of Great Western Railway in affairs of Institution.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter IX. The engine. 130
Tail rods and cottered joints

The locomotive blast-pipe and chimney. 131-2.
Abstract of McDermid Paper 291

Improved express train services. 132.
Joint LMS/LNER announcement of "acceleration" of Royal Scot and Flying Scotsman. Royal Scot time reduced to 7 hours 50 minutes to Glasgow and 8 hours to Edinburgh. Flying Scotsman reduced to  7 hours 50 minutes to Edinburgh. Non-stop summer services reduced to Royal Scot to 7 hours 40 minutes and Flying Scotsman to 7 hours 30 minutes. The Queen of Scots had also been accelerated.

Electric locomotive design. 132-4. IV. diagr. (section), plan
Paris Orleans Railway 2-Co-Co-2.  Design features sought: unsprung weight needed to be minimised; high centre of gravity; self-aligning guiding trucks; aperiodic suspension and lateral control system; lengthy period of oscillation about longitudinal axis; symetrical weight distribution both longitudinal and transverse; ample rigid wheelbase; fine dynamic balance of all rotating machinery. 

Locomotive stock returns,  December 31, 1931. 134-5.
Statistical table plus brief notes for all four main line companies

Articulated carriages on the Nawanagar State Tramway, India. 136-7. 2 illustration, 3 diagrs., 2 plans.
Metre guage. F.C. Nissen, manager and engineer in chief. Jamnagar & Dwarka Railway. Jamnagar to Razi tramway.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works: apprentices. 138-40. illustration
(Continued from page 106) My earlier acquaintances in the works were naturally made amongst the apprentices of my own general standing and age. In a day or two Louth had introduced me to a few of these, of three of whom I have particular recollections. They were the two Brays and a young man named Moulang. Later on, my friendship with the three deepened, and my association with them did much towards making life pleasant both inside and outside the works. We were students together in the Technical Institute in Kevin Street, and almost always walked there and back after our day's work. Trams were slow and dear in those days, and pocket money was scarce and precious. It was a long day's work, three times a week in the winter, from 6 a.m. to 9-30 p.m., but we never missed a class night or disappointed the teacher, Mr. C.B. Outon, whose zeal was indefatigable. Moulang was a native of Dublin, and his knowledge of the streets, by-ways, and corners of the city seemed to me absolutely mysterious, almost uncanny. He was one of the brightest and most cheerful fellows I ever met, Frank by name and frank by nature, full of light humour and good-natured pranks. I often envied him his buoyant spirits and imperturbable temper. At the same time, beneath this merry and exuberant exterior he possessed a very serious mind and a great fund of practical common sense. He was a crack cyclist in those days when cycling was in its prime, and was regarded by all in the works as the authority on everything connected with the pastime. It w.as he who taught me how to ride: and advised me m the purchase of my first machine. He was very popular with the workmen. I remember paying him a visit one day at his lathe. He and Bill Gaynor, the turner nearest to him, were engaged on long traversing jobs, and while the cut was proceeding, they were amusing themselves by calculating how long it would take the tool to travel to Cork at the rate at which it was moving.
Generally speaking, the premium apprentices, or, as the young ladies in Inchicore termed them, "the gentleman apprentices," were popular with the men. They had an air of gaiety and mirth, they joked and made fun, they never put on "side," and, in short. showed a complete adaptability to their surroundings, never transgressing any of the shop traditions or conventions. An exception was so rare that it formed an event. There was one apprentice before my time, of whom the others told me, who could not bring himself to fit in with the ways of the place. It appears that he turned in to work the first day in a shooting jacket and immaculate white shirt front. Before five minutes had passed, a dirty oily patch arrived from the middle of nowhere on the snowy linen, evoking the irritated ejaculation, "Blagyawds, blagyawds!" Some little time afterwards, being sent with some job to be attended to in the smithy, he was directed to apply to "The Guardsman," a tall. well-built smith with drooping moustachios and a military appearance. The aristocrat enquired, "Aw you the man they call the Gawdsman ?"
"Guardsman, who are you calling 'guardsman,' you —! Get away with you to — or I'll knock your two eyes into wan, yourself and your guardsman !"
A fool of this type was, however, an exceptional case. During the first winter I was at Inchicore, one of the pupils and an apprentice got into trouble together at a dance in the dining hall. A sligiht wetting of alcohol caused them to go beyond the bounds of mere hilarity, and to end up by an insulting jocularity addressed to the fitting shop foreman. Mr. Ivatt, who was present, summoned the pair to his presence the next morning, and suspended them for a week. Needless to say, their popularity with the men was in no wise diminished when the escapade was reported in the shop next day. Both of these young men, I believe, afterwards obtained honourable positions in the engineering world.
I have seen many premium apprentices pass through Inchicore Works in my time, and have come across many diverse types of character amongst them. Some have fared well in their careers; a few turned out complete failures; some were studious; others never opened a text book or saw the inside of a technical school. I have not always found, however, that burning the midnight oil is a sure means of attaining to the best prizes in the engineering profession. I have known several who never studied, and of whose abilities, I fear, I had a poor enough upinion, who afterwards achieved success as this world understands it. Mere knowledge, indeed, or a college diploma does not necessarily bring one far in an engineering career. Other qualifications are required, such as personality, independence of character, clearness of judgment, confidence, quickness in decision, strength of will, a knowledge of men, and the power of command. Besides all these, there are varied circumstances which some are quick to make use of while others let them pass by. Some of those whom I knew in their young days, took life very seriously and yet never achieved more than mediocre success, humanly speaking, of. course. Others saw their opportunity, seized it, improved it, and strode ahead. As I recall the successes and failures which I observed, I find that in the engineering world, as elsewhere, it very often happens that "the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to them al1." The other apprentices, workmen's sons, whom I met in the shops were, as a rule. very decent fellows, but I came across a few very "hard cases" amongst this class. There was one of these at Harvey's bench near me, an individual who wore a wasp-striped Jersey as an under-vesture beneath his white slop, and. whose mouth was permanently twisted by his habit of leering. He was popularly known as "The Gauger," a term applied to fellows of that type whose character and conduct were on a level below that which the workshop canons of decency ordained as the normal. In later years, particularly in con- nectron with the work of the Technical Schools, I came across many workmen's sons who were apprentices at Inchicore. Some of these were as intelligent and capable youths as I ever met, keen on their work and a credit to themselves and to the works. It is always a satisfaction to meet with such, and to feel that the good reputation of the shops as a training ground for excellent mechanics is being upheld by the new generation.
Workmen.
I very soon discovered that an engineering workhop is not an academy of polite manners. The studied expressions, petty civilities, and harmless insincerities which are the current coin of ordinary society, have little or no place in the workman's order of thought or daily practice. He has to deal with solid materials and had facts. The job has got to be done, and done. against time, or he will suffer. Why waste unnecessary words and expressions over it? It is simpler and much more to the point to say "give me." It does not make the meaning clearer, to preface it by "will you kindly." Indeed, it is still simpler to take what you want, if you see it, without asking for it at all, and the workshop code of conduct condones this usage. Broadly speaking, the workman is crude in his manners, impulsive in his movements, and curt in his language. His expressions are more forceful and vigorous than nicely chosen, and his adjectives are commonly stained with crimson. Workshop life tends to the elimination of habits of speech and conduct not strictly required for the performance of the daily task. It also assists to develop habits of manner and language which experience teaches to be most likely to secure the immediate object in view. Furthermore, in a community composed entirely of men, anything that is not patently virile, or at least considered so, is regarded with distrust. An affectation of polite manners at 'a display of the gentler emotions is apt to be looked upon as the sign of a "softy." Civility of speech is likely to be misunderstood, and is not uncommonly suspected to be a hypocritical mask disguising a treacherous soul. An expression I have often heard is "That fellow, I always feel, is too sweet to be wholesome."
To a certain extent, undoubtedly, the rough. exterior of the workman is a reflection of his settled inner nature. It would hardly be natural to expect that a long heredity of toil and.an.environment free from refining influences, would not leave a, permanent mark on the character, Nevertheless, it always appeared to me that the workman's manner was largely conventional and deliberately assumed, It seemed to me to be a sort of carapace which he considers it advisable to wear both for defence and attack. The workshop life is hard. A man has got to stand there on his own feet amongst his fellows; "You've got to hold on to your bone or another dog will take it" is the prevalent feeling. When the workman is out of the shop and comes in contact with other people, his attitude is different. Allowing for a certain gaucherie,' he can be just as .polite as most when the occasion permits it. A very hard nut, besides, often contains a soft kernel, and the man with suppressed powers of nice expression has often more real heart than many with a polished exterior, but whose souls have been atrophied by an easy life and an.undue enjoyment of this world's good things. I have known not a few workmen who were perfect gentlemen in their conduct and ideals, honourable and upright in their principles, and possessed of a native courtesy of their own. I have known very few, indeed, who had not kindly hearts beneath their

Cleaning railway rolling stock. 140-1.

Longest non-stop freight trains. 141.
19.45 Camden Town to Liverpool Edge Hill 191 miles; Crewe to Broad Street 162¾ miles; Camden to Crewe 153¾ miles. The 23.35 Paddington to Newton Abbot was non-stop between Acton and Taunton 152½ miles. The longest bthrough run was Aberdeen departing 09.35 to Broad Street arrival 23.25 (545 miles).

Centrifugal castings for liners, etc for locomotive cylinders. 142-4. 3 illustration, diagr.
Cheepbridge Stokes Centrifugal Castings Ltd.

L.M. & S. Ry. 146
16.50 Birmingham New Street to Euston timed to run Coventry to Wllesden, 88¾ miles in 87 minutes at an average of 61.2 mile/h.

L. & N.E. Ry. 146
Buffet car express service between Ling's Cross and Cambridge: five services only stopping at Welwyn Garden City, Hitchin and Letchworth: 1 hour 22 minutes down and 1 hour 17 minutes up.

Rebuilt Mersey Ry. locomotive. 147-8. 2 illustration
Beyer Peacock modified three ex-Mersey Railway 0-6-4Ts mainly by addition of cabs prior to their export to J. & A. Brown of Newcastle in New South Wales. These were The Major, Liverpool (illustrated as prepared for export) and Connaught.

Cooled carriages on the Paris-Orleans Ry. 148-9. illustration, 2 diagrs.

Grease as a lubricant for locomotives. 149-50
This system was found very satisfactory on locomotives operating a famous Indian express train, and orders have been given for the conversion of existing oil-lubricated engines to grease-lubrication. There is a growing tendency towards extending the application of grease to other working parts of the locomotive, namely, the valve gear, brake and spring rigging, horn block slides, bogie centres, etc. For this purpose a soft grease similar to petroleum jelly is used, and this is applied in a similar manner, as in the case of coupling and connecting rods; that is to say, nipples are screwed into existing oil holes and the grease forced in by means of a grease gun, in very much the same manner as is now done with motor cars. Such progress has now been made with grease lubrication that it may be accepted as thoroughly reliable and economical, and can now in no wise be considered an experiment. Apart from obtaining longer runs without attention, there is another outstanding advantage, that is, the grease is applied by the running shed staff, little or no time devolves upon the driver in the preparation of his engine, and he is available for purely train operation. Furthermore, with the prevailing practice of pooling engines, the fact that the lubrication has been effected at the locomotive depot removes the difficulty experienced when engines that are oil lubricated are handed over to comparatively strange enginemen. It should also be borne in mind that with locomotives using oil, the feeding of the oil goes on, whether running or stationary, unless, of course, drivers are careful enough and have the opportunity to remove the trimmings from the syphon tubes. Both conditions are remote hence a considerable amount of oil is wasted, as can be seen by the greasy state of the permanent way where locomotives stand.

London & North Eastern Ry. 150.
Was proposed to build during the 1932 forty-two tender and twelve tank locomotives in the company's own workshops. Five Pacific type engines with high-pressure boilers were to be put in hand for the Scottish area, and six additional Sandringham class 4-6-0 express engines for the Great Eastern section. Ten 2-8-2 tank engines of a new design were to be built for the Nottinghamshire mineral traffic, and also two 0-8-4 tank engines, which were to be equipped with a booster driving the trailing bogie wheels. These two engines were required for working the hump sidings at Wath and the Whitemoor marshalling yard, March. It was understood that thev will be numbered 2798 and 2799. No. 201, the first of the new series of three-cylinder 4-4-0 engines, had been completed at Darlington. It had rotary-cam poppet valve gear, and was named The York and Anstey, the nameplate being surmounted by a brass replica of a running fox. The engine was not fitted with the Westinghouse brake.

Southern Ry. 150.
Three 0-6-0 side tanks, El class, from the Central section, were to be sent to work in the Isle of Wight.

G.W. Ry. developments. 150.
The first of the three Schemes of improvement in progress on the G.W. system was brought into use at Easter — the extensive works in the Taunton area. The bottle neck which existed over the seven miles of line between Cogload Junction through Taunton to Norton Fitzwarren is removed, and this will facilitate the working of all trains between London, Bristol, Birmingham, Swansea Birkenhead and the North, and thc West, The two new avoiding lines at Westbury and Frome are expected to be ready by the end of June. These involved the making of about four miles of new main line. Other schemes of improvement in hand are the widening between Olton and Lapworth on the London and Birmingham line, and the conversion of thirteen stations in the Taunton, Bristol, and Swindon areas into four-line stations. These works will, it is anticipated, be completed in 1935. To encourage early summer holidays the G.W. Ry. will introduce a through coach between Paddington and Newquay, on the Cornish Riviera Express, seven weeks earlier than usual. The company is introducing pictorial luggage labels for its principal trains. An attractive label for the Cornish Riviera Express has been issued, and another will be ready shortly for the Torbay Express.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 150.
Latest 0-8-0 standard superheater freight engines ex Crewe bear Nos. 9650-6. These, together with No. 9649, were allocated for service on the Central Division (L. & Y. section). Smoke deflector plates were being fitted to the rebuilt Claughtons and the following engines had so far been dealt with: Nos. 5910, 5946, 5962, 5970, 6017 and 6023. Two recent conversions to Class G1 (superheater) were Nos. 9072 and 9146, both previously Class G. As thus altered, these engines were provided. with ordinary round-topped boilers and also the vacuum brake. The following engines, amongst others, had recently been turned out at Crewe provided with standard pattern Belpaire boilers: George the Fifth Class, No. 5349; 19in. goods Class. Nos. 8707 and 8802; G1 Class, Nos. 8914 and 9103. The 2-4-0 passenger engine Hardwicke, which was reported recently as having been broken up, was now in the Paint Shop at Crewe. Of the same type, No. 5062 Sir Alexander Cockburn had recently been scrapped, together with the last of the corresponding 6 ft. type, No. 5095 Tartarus . Other recent withdrawals include Experiment Class 4-6-0s, Nos. 5469 North Western and 5547 Monmouthshire. The latest Class 2 4-4-0 ex-Derby is No. 683, while Nos. 678-9 are now in service on the Central division (L. & Y.)

World's Fair, Chicago (1933).  150
It is announced that one of the Royal Scot locomotives with dining and sleeping cars, as well as day coaches, will be shown at the World's Fair, at Chicago, in 1933.

Correspondence  150-1
Cortazzi's Radial Axleboxes (G.I.P. Ry. Locomotives). Loco Historian.
Refers to mention F.I. Cortazzi in description of the axleboxes of the locomotives for the Gwalior Light Rys. recently built by Bagnall. It seems strange that so little is recorded of a gentleman who introduced such an important improvement in the steam locomotive. Ahrons does not mention him or his axle-boxes in his British Steam Railway Locomotive, and I have searched other works in vain, Can anyone say which was the first locomotive fitted with these axleboxes? On looking up your interesting Locomotive History of the G.LP. Ry. I notice a remarkable statement on page 48, Vol. xxxiii where reference is made to a series of twenty 2-4-0 passenger engines, Nos. 200-219, built by the Avonside Co., and added to the railway stock of motive power in 1867. (Mr. Cortazzi was 'locomotive superintendent 1861- 1868.) "The last six of these engines were kept m stock In Bombay until 1875. They had a very smart appearance, and were painted bright green, with black bands and white lines. The dome and safety valve casing were. polished brass, the chimney had a copper top, and brass copings were provided at the back of the smoke box and back and Jront of the firebox. The leading wheels had polished brass axleboxes, as also had those of the tender.. They ran very steadily and got away under load very quickly; they were used principally on mail and fast passenger trains. Now if the leading wheels of these locomotives had polished brass axleboxes, it would appear they were "outside" axleboxes, whereas the photograph of No. 202 (Fig. 17) on page 47 shows "inside." Can it be that Mr. Cortazzi altered the last six of these engines and fitted them with his improved axleboxes, thus accounting for delay in getting them to work and also securing the steady riding spoken of . It should also be noted that the 4-6-0 tanks put in service in 1863, built by Sharp, Stewart & Co. and designed by Mr. Kershaw, Mr. Cortazzi's immediate predecessor, had bogies controlled by "inclined planes" (see page 329, Vol. xxxii).

Prairie type locomotive of the Russian Rys. F. Meineke. 151
Writer from Technical High School, Charlottenburg: the Prairie type locomotive of the Russian Rys., the original order of which writer prepared designs in 1914 at the Kolomna Works. This locomotive was destined for use on the Warsaw-Vienna Ry., with a gauge of 4 ft. 8½ in., and as they had to be delivered very quickly, the boilers were obtained from the Sormovo Works (near Nishni-Novgorod). WW1 broke out before they were finished, and, being a German, he had to leave the works, so that he did not see them when they were finished. The raising of the boiler and making the later examples larger, as well as to suit the 5 ft. gauge, did not change the outward appearance noticeably.

Reviews. 151`
Railway Economics, by K.G. Fenllon, London; Methuen & Co. Ltd.
So many changes have been made recently in the organisation, operation, and equipment of the British railways, following the grouping of 1921, the rise of road transport competition, and the growth of labour organisation, that a survey of the entire field of railway economics under present-day conditions, is essential in a book designed to assist railway students, or serve as a reference book for those employed in railway work. This work gives an excellent general view of the whole subject including the theory and practice of railway charging; state regulation and ownership; railway amalgamation; railway capital; organisation, and labour problems. In addition a critical examination is made of the economic questions involved in electrification, train speeds, railway-owned road transport, and other problems which have been brought into prominence by the Reports of the Royal Commission on Transport, and the Weir Committee on main line electrification.
In the chapter devoted to an explanation of the Railways Act of 1921, and its working, the author mentions the optimistic estimates of economies expected, and although considerable savings have been effected, part is due to the fall in the price of matenals. Then again, in 1921, the significance of road transport development was not appreciated, and the assumption of a regulated monopoly underlies many of the provisions of the Act. The amalgamations have, however, enabled the railways to build up a system of road-rail co-ordination. One can hardly imagine what the position would have been if the 214 railway companies of the pro-grouping period had to attempt to co-ordinate with bus services organised on a totally different territorial basis. In the section on the economics of railway working, the author refers to the savings to be obtained from the general use of 20-ton wagons for mineral traffic, and in discussing the Weir report, points out the small amount of consideration paid to the question of oil-electric traction. For areas of light traffic a motor bus can operate at an all-in cost of 1s. per mile, of which about 9d. would represent working costs, while a branch railway train involves working costs of from 1s. 6d. to 2s. per train mile. In such circumstances there are distinct possibilities for the operation of steam rail-cars. On a British railway the working costs of a Sentinel car has been found to average 11·3d. per mile, and as low as 6d. per mile have been obtained in Spain and Ceylon.

Symposium on the effect of Temperature on Metals.  The American Society for Testing Materials and The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Philadelphia.
In Chicago, in 1931, a "Symposium" (anglice = a banquet with philosophic discussion) was held, at which 38 distinguished authors provided 27 definite Papers on the general subject indicated above, the result of which has been the publication of the excellently printed and bound volume which we have now before us. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals are both covered by the scope of the Papers, and much learned information is set forth in graph and tabulated form. Particularly interesting to railway engineers are the Papers dealing with steel piping under high superheat and high pressures, the properties of bearing metals at normal and elevated temperatures, etc. The general division of the book is into two wide sections, one dealing with the properties of existing metals-for high and low temperature service, and the other with engineering trends and requirements for metals for such services. The book consists of over 800 pages, and these include a most excellent biblio- graphy of the subject, with 615 references to various literature which has previously occurred, supplied with a definite index. In view of the Paper by MacQuigg on "High Chromium Steels," and a reference therein to Monypenny, we were rather surprised to find the bibliography did not include "Stainless Iron and Steel," published in 1926, and then reviewed in these columns, but the future editions which we trust will be needed, will doubtless rectify this omission. In general technique of pro- duction, this volume leaves nothing to be desired, and it can especially be recommended to all engineering libraries, and the research divisions of our great industries.

A report on the "Economic Conditions in the Argentine Republic" at October 31, 1931, has been published for the Department of Overseas Trade by H.M. Stationery Office, Adastral House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2.
The marked improvement in the economic position in the Argentine is discussed in the introduction. Sections are devoted to trade, production and industry, transport and communications, etc. In reviewing the position of the privately-owned railways, recent works and extensions carried out are detailed. The enlarging of the Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry.'s terminus at Plaza Constitucion, owing to the need for reduction of expenditure, has been confined to completing the portions in hand or already contracted for. The permanent way in the yard has been remodelled from the platforms to the locomotive depot at Kilometre I, and electric pneumatic signalling has been installed. Two extensions, totalling a total length of 66 miles, were open last year; F. J. Meeks to Tandil, 25 miles, with one intermediate station and a halt; Vergara to Lezama, 41 miles, with two intermediate stations and a halt. Development work on the Central Argentine. Buenos Aires Pacific, Buenos Aires Western, Central Cordoba, and the Entre Rios and Argentine North Eastern Rys., is described, with particulars of new rolling stock put into service, ani new machinery and equipment purchased.

The Railway Club. 152
On 6 May C.R.G. Stuart to present a paper on the Great Northern Railway (Ireland).

No. 477 (14 May 1932)

2-6-0 mixed traffic engine, L.M. & S. Ry., with rotary cam poppet valve gear. 153-4. illustration, diagr.
For original design see V. 32 pp. 2 and 239: five locomotives were modified with Lentz R.C. poppet valves. cam boxes were supplied by David Brown & Sons (Huddersfield) Ltd., and all the ball bearings were by Hoffmann Manufacturing Co.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 154.
No. 9662 was latest 0-8-0 standard freight engine to be turned out at Crewe, while Nos. 9657-9 were in service on the Central Division (L. & Y. section). The series of fifteen engines (Nos. 9660-74) would be followed by a series of Class 2 passenger tender engines (4-4-0 type), of which fifteen were to be built. The following engines were fitted with altered cabs to enable them to work over the Midland Division: 4-4-0 George the Fifth class No. 5393; 4-6-0 Prince of Wales class No. 5655; 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9450; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 9153 and 9199. Engines provided with standard Belpaire boilers included G1 class Nos. 9161 and 9235; also Prince of Wales class No. 5653. A recent withdrawal included Enqineer, the last but one of the three Crewe engines. Of the 6 ft. 2-4-0 straight link class, Engineer ran as No. 792 Theorem until May 1923, when it was transferred to the Engineering Department, and thereafter was always known as Engineer. As no replacements have been made in that department within recent years, it appeared hardly likely that there will be another Engineer. The one survivor at Crewe was Engineer Crewe (late No. 209 Petrel), which had acted in that capacity since July 1914.

New South Wales Government Rys. 154.
The immensity of the Sydney Harbour Bridge was, to some extent, indicated by the enormous weight used in testing it for deflection, etc. No less than seventy-two consolidation (2-8-0).·engines of modern type were placed on the Bridge for this purpose. These were of the 50 and 53 class types, and where tenders were not available for some of these engines, older locomotives of the "24" or "25" 2-6-0 types replaced them. The weights of the two 2-8-0 classes may be taken as 107 and 114 tons respectively, so that the test load was about 8,000 tons. As the electric train tracks are at one side of the Bridge and the electric tram tracks at the other, a connection was made available on the lines approaching the structure, and half the test locomotives were on the tram rails.
In the new Transport Control of all traffic in New South Wales the Assistant Commissioner for Power was now the head of the locomotive, electrical, and mechanical power on the railways, and Mr. E. E. Lucy had retired from the position of chief mechanical engineer, which he had held for many years. The new head is Mr. W. .B. Rogers, whose service commenced in India, and who came later to South Australia, where he became manager of Islington workshops, and who, more recently, had been works manager of the Clyde Engineering Works in Sydney, where were built some 4,000 locomotives and other rolling stock for the department, including the twenty-five big 4-8-2 locomotives of the 57 class, 5701-5725.

Great Western Ry. 154.
New engines completed at Swindon: Nos. 6404 to 6406, 0-6-0 tanks, for auto service, and Nos. 9309 to 9317, 2-6-0 mixed traffict ender engines. Numbers and names chosen for the next series of twenty Hall class engines were:-5921 Bingley Hall, 5922 Caxton Hall, 5923 Colston Hall, 5924 Dinton Hall, 5925 Eastcote Hall, 5926 Grotrian Hall, 5927 Guild Hall, 5928 Haddon Hall, 5929 Hanham Hall, 5930 Hannington Hall, 5931 Hatherley Hall, 5932 Haydon Hall, 5933 Kingsway Hall, 5934 Kneller Hall, 5935 Norton Hall, 5936 Oakley Hall. 5937 Stanford Hall, 5938 Stanley Hall, 5939 Tangley Hall, 5940 Whitbourne Hall.

New freght locomotive for Russian Soviet Rys. 155. illustration
Baldwin 2-10-2 with steel firebox and thermic syphons. 5304.9ft2 total heating surface; 79ft2 grate are, 200 psi boiler pressure, 5ft coupled wheels and 27½ x 30in cylinders.

New Cross Channel night service. 155.
Folkestone to Dunkirque: train leeft Victoria at 23.00, but earlier service available from Cahring Cross. Served by former Tilbury route vessels Alsacien, Picard and Flamand.

L. & N.E. Ry. train improvement. 155.
07.50 Leeds to King's Cross with through coaches from Bradford and Sheffield timed to run 105½ miles from Grantham to London in 100 minutes at an average speed of 63.3 mile/h and reach King's Cross at 11.20.

New 4-4-0 three-cylinder passenger locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. 156. illustration
Rotary cam valve gear with poppet valves: No. 201 Bramham Moor illustrated.

Southern Ry. 156
Drummond's personal 4-2-4T saloon known as The Bug had been stationed at Southampton Docks and numbered 58S

Tank locomotives Bengal North Western Ry. 157. illustration
Metre gauge 0-4-0ST supplied by W.G. Bagnall to assist with loading ferry services across the Ganges. They had 12¼ x 18in cylinders and 3ft coupled wheels.

Kitson-Still locomotive. 157
At Bank Top shed, Darlington and working coal trains to Barnard Castle.

2-10-2 three-cylinder tank locomotives, Eastern Ry. of France. 157-9. illustration, diagr. (s. el.)
Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mechanique with 560 x 600mm cylinders; 1.35m coupled wheels, 255.44m2 total heating surface, 3.06m2 grate area and 14 hpz boiler pressure.

Cork, Blackrock & Passage Ry ... 158

The Nitrate Railways and its locomotives. 160- 6 illustrations.
Included 2-8-2+2-8-2 Beyer Garratts supplied by Beyer Peacock in 1926, Yorkshire Engine Co. 4-8-4T put into service in 1924 and Baldwin 2-8-2 supplied in 1925.

Jersey Railways and Tramways. 164.
A Sentinal steam railcar involved in trials on the LMS, working from Hellifield, had been acquired by the Jersey Eastern Railway where it was painted yellow, brown and cream and named Normanby. When this system closed it was transferred to the Jersey Railways & Tramways and regauged for 3ft 6in. The engine unit from another former Jersey Eastern Railway was acquired by a contractor in Dover.

S.H.H. Barratt. Heat losses from boilers and cylinders. 164-6.
Virtues of asbestos; notes National Physical Laboratory involvement in tests.

Scandinavian railway travels, 167-70. 6 illustration, plans.
Includes description of Swedish State Rys 3rd class sleeping cars.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 171-3.

A useful spanner for the running shed. 173. diagram
Device for tightening the nozzle on the steam cone on Gresham & Craven steam sanding gear.

L. & N.E. Ry. 173
Several London and Southend trains have been accelerated and a timing of 55 minutes, including a stop at Prittlewell, is being given by a train leaving at 9.22 a.m. and arriving, at Liverpool Street at 10.17 a.m. Many of the trains on the Chingford and Enfield Town lines are being accelerated, whilst on the Loughton line numerous additional trains are being run on week-day evenings, some of which are non-stop between Liverpool Street and Leyton.

A. Jacquet. Early Belgian locomotives. 174-5. 3 diagrams
Locomotives of the Grande Company of Luxemburg.

Speeding up on the Netherlands Rys. 175

L.M. & S. Ry. 175
Carriage washing plant at Cricklewood

Somerset & Dorset Ry. locomotives. 175
2-8-0 renumbered again from 9670-9680 to 13800-13810.

L. & N.E. Ry. 175.
J39 0-6-0 No. 2976 completed at Darlington allocated to Colwick.

Service repairs. 176
Scheduliing with mileage intervals

70-ton hopper wagons with aluminium alloy bodies. 176
Placed in service by Alcoa Ore Co. of America

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter IX. The engine. 177-81. 2 diagrs., table.
Crosshead and slidebars.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. "The manufacture of copper firebox plates." 181
Paper 293

Boiler tube straightening machine. 182.
Joshua Bigwood & Son, Wolverhampton

The Railway Club. 182.
B.R. White spoke on the Metropolitan Railway: past and present at the April meeting: not listed by Ottley.

Pullman cars for the Spanish Rys. 183. illustration

Southern Ry. – ballast plough van. 184. illustration

Electric locomotive design. V. 184-5.

Chinese Eastern Ry.185.
Six-wheeled armoured cars were being used by the Japanese.

Southern Ry. 185.
Three E1 class 0-6-0T to be sent to Isle of Wight.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 185-7. 3 diagrs.
copy

L.M. & S. Ry. 187.
Newton Heath Carriage & Wagon Works closure.

L. & N.E. Ry. 187.
No. 8579 being rebuilt with Sandringham type boiler at Stratford Works and would be tested against No. 8559 (unmodified) on Great Northern main line.

A fast run in Victoria. 187-8. illustration
Victorian Rys. fast running on Sydney Limited Engine (No. 300S illustrated). Three-cylinder Pacifics used between Melbourne and Albury, non-stop between Seymour and Albury.

Personal – Mr Ernest F. Lang of Beyer Peacock & Co. had retired. 188.

[LNER appointments]. 188.
A. Woolford, District Locomotive Superintendent, Ipswich had retired; position filled by G.B Hennessy formerly District Locomotive Superintendent, Norwich (since 1928); J.A. Frampton, formerly Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent, Norwich promoted to be District Locomotive Superintendent.

The Flettner rotor circulating system for cooling refrigerator vans. 188-9. 2 diagrs.

Allhallows-on-Sea Branch, Southern Ry. 189
Branch was under construction, the line rose at 1 in 220 to nearly 100ft above sea level, but much of line built on marsh. Contractor's locomotive was a Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST of 1878 named J. Bray with 3ft 1½in coupled wheels and 12 x 17in cylinders.

Arc welding on the permanent way. 189. illustration
Portable Murex Welding Processes.

Trade notes & publications. 190
Ports owned and served by the L.M. & S. Ry. 190
Written by H.N. Appleby. Ottley 6812.
Centrifugal castings
Sheepbridge Stokes Centrifugal Castings

Number 478 (15 June)

New compound express locomotives, Great Northern Ry. (Ireland). 191-2. illustration, diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Rebuilt 0-8-4 tank engine, fitted with reversible booster, L.N.E.R.. 193-5. illustration, 3 diagrs. (incl. s. & f. els.)
To increase the power available, by 35%, Gresley rebuilt one of the Robinson Wath shunting locomotives with a superheated boiler and a reversible bogie booster (S1/2).

2-6-0 metre gauge standard locomotive, class Y.K. Indian State Rys. 196. illustration
Manufactured Skoda for Madras & Southern Mahratta Ry. under supervision of Rendel, Pakmer & Tritton. 3ft 7in coupled wheels; 14 x 22in cylinders; Belpaire boiler pressed to 160 psi with 598ft2 total heating surface and 14ft2 grate area.

"Mountain" type express locomotive, Polish State Rys. 196-8. 2 illustration
Intended for haulage of 750 ton trains. Designed H. Ceglieski & Co. Included a Marcotty firedoor and mirrors in cab to see rear of train. 6ft coupled wheels; 24.8 x 27.56in cylinders; 3498ft2 total heating surface and 51.67ft2 grate area.

Early Belgian locomotives. 198-200. 4 diagrs.

<3 paras>. 200 copied

Unveiling of Memorial to Richard Trevithick, the "Father of the Locomotive".  200-1. illustration.
On 17 May 1932 Prince George unveiled a bronze statue outside Camborne Public Library.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 201
Annual Continental trip: to France at Whitsun: visits to Chemin de Fer l' Etat fascilities at Havre and Rouen.                

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works: the Tool Shop. 202-3.

Great Southern Rys. of Ireland. 203
Following the appointment of W.H. Morton as general manager, it was announced that A.W. Harty would succeed him as chief mechanical engineer. Harty served his time at Inchicore, and became manager of the works at Limerick in 1904. He was appointed district locomotive superintendent at Waterford in 1908, and three years later took charge of the Limerick district. In 1916 he became chief district superintendent of the combined Limerick and Waterford districts. On the formation of the Great Southern Rys. Harty was appointed to the position of chief running superintendent.

New record run by the fastest train. 203
A new record was set up by the Great Western Ry.'s Cheltenham Flyer between Swindon and Paddington on Monday, June 6, when the 77¼ miles were covered in 56 minutes 47 seconds, at an average speed of 81.6 miles per hour. Many consecutive miles were run at 90.3 miles per hour. Leaving Swindon at 3-48 p.m., No. 5006 Tregenna Castle (Driver Ruddock), with six coaches, weighing about 195 tons, soon reached a speed of 60 miles per hour, and at 5 miles out was running at 80 miles per hour. Near Wantage Road 92 miles per hour was reached. The train reached Paddington 11 minutes adhead of schedule. On the same day the 5 p.m. ex Paddington, with engine No. 5005 Manorbier Castle (Driver Burgess) and six coaches, one being a restaurant car, 210 tons, made a special stop at Swindon 15 minutes before time. On this run on a slightly rising gradient the highest speed attained was 86½ miles an hour.

Single expansion articulated locomotives, Western Pacific Railroad, U.S.A. 204. illustration
2-8-8-2 with booster: 5ft 3in coupled wheels; four 26 x 32in cylinders; 9032ft2 total heating surface (including superheater and thermic syphons), 145ft2 grate area and 235 psi boiler pressure. Oil fired and Franklin lateral motion driving boxes. No. 252, etc.

A new cutting machine. 205.
Hancock & Co. oxygen cutting machine.

Obituary. Mr Robert Young. 205
Author of Timothy Hackworth and the locomotive

Scandinavian Railway Travels.  206-9. 10 illustration, diagr.
Norway: includes illustrations of rotary snowploughs, electric locomotive on the Oslo to Lillestrom section, the Oslo Underground and a gradient profile of the Bergen Railway.

E.H. Edwards. Tramways, Light Railways and Transport Association Congress, London, 1932. 209.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter IX. The engine. 209-11.
See also letter from W.T. Hoecker on p. 380

The diesel-electric locomotive in Russia. 211-15. 3 illustration
Kolomna Works 4-10-2 with MAN engines supplied from Germany; also mentions 2-8-0 and 2-8-2 types. See also letter from W.T. Hoecker on p. 380.

Quicker service to Northern Ireland. 215.
From 1 June improved daytime service from Euston to Belfast via Stranraer and Larne through acceleration of Royal Scot leading to arrival in Belfast at 22.10. Also acceleration of 09.10 departure service from Belfast.

Nepal Government Railways. 215
Order placed with Beyer Peacock for a 2-6-0+0-6-2 Beyer Garratt for 2ft 6in gauge lines

[New loops between Manchester and Buxton]. 215
At Dove Holes on both up and down lines

[French State Rys]. 215
Paris to Rouen covered 86.68 miles in 84 minutes: 61.9 mile/h.

Electric locomotive design. V. 216-19. 3 illustration, 2 diagrs., 2 tables.
Brown Boveri 1-C-0 shunting locomotive for Swiss Federal Railways; also used on local passenger services;  German State Railways 1-Co+Co-1 and 1+B+B+1 15000V single phase locomotives with transformers to convert to 340V and Swiss Federal Railways 1-C+C-1 with jackshaft drive (crocodile type)

L.M. & S. Ry appointments. 219.
R.F. Harvey District Locomotive Superintendent Rugby moved to District Locomotive Superintendent Edge Hill to replace C.L. Chambers who had retired. F.W. Slade, formerly of Belle Vue moved to Rugby.

Locomotive building in Russia. 219.
Output in the First Quarter of 1932: Krasnoye Sormovo 30; Kolomna 42; Lugo 91 and Komintern Kharkov 47.

Jubilee of the St. Gotthard Ry. 219.
Bronze monument Vincenzo Velor The Victim of Work erected at Airolo (Southern portal).

New hopper ballast wagons and plough brake vans, L.M. & S. Ry. 219-20. 2 illustration

Miniature diesel locomotive with Vickers-Coats torque converter. 220-1. illustration, diagr.
Built by Hudswell Clarke for the 20 inch gauge Golden Acre Pleasure Park in Leeds managed by F.T. Thompson. Similar locomotives had been supplied to the Scarborough Miniature Railway.

[Chesapeake & Ohio RR: new train George Washington]. 221
Air conditioned

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 222
Continued from 185

Timmis' Electric Brake, London Elec. Rys. 223.
See also letter from C.A. Branston on p. 265

"Diskon" Variable Gear, The 224'

Buffet cars, London & North Eastern Ry. 225. diagr. (s.el.), plan
Some intended for King's Cross to Cambridge service serving the garden cities at Welwyn Garden City and Letchworth.

L.M. & S. Ry. – Northern Counties Committee. 225.
The following locomotives had been given names: No. 1

The Railway Club. 227.
Mentions earlier talk by Stuart and visit on 7 May to Surrey Iron Tramway conducted by C.N. Anderson of the Southern Railway.

No. 479 (15 July 1932)

British Guiana 0-6-4 side tank locomotive No. 32 Sir Edward. 229. illustration
Hunslet Engine Co. supplied through Crown Agents standard gauge locomotive with 14 x 20in inside cylinders, 4ft coupled wheels, 671ft2 total heating surface, 15.6ft2 gare area and 160 psi working pressure.

Great Western Ry. 229
New 54XX 0-6-0PT Nos. 5413-17.

L.N. & E. Ry. 229
Closure of Gateshead Works due to decline in traffic. New engines from Darlington Works: J39 class Nos. 2978, 2979, 2980 all sent to Scottish Area. D49 No. 247 The Blankney was nearly ready. C class No. 1075 had been rebuilt with a larger F type boiler. Sentinel No. 117 was working at South Dock, Sunderland.

Armstrong-Whitworth 40-ton diesel-electric shunting locomotive. 230.
Trials on LNER attended by A.C. Stamer, W.A. Fiddian (North East District Superintendent) and by Messrs Robinsin, Bell, Bull and Kidd.

L.M. & S. Ry. 230
During four weeks ending 21 May express train punctuality achieved 90%, and local trains 95%.

8,800 h.p. electric locomotive for St. Gotthard, Swiss Federal Rys. 231-3.
See also letter from William Hoecker on page 341

London Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 233
Crewe-built G3 7F 0-8-0 Nos 9620-74 were in service: the last three were fitted with ACFI feedwater heaters; and Nos 9663 onwards were sent to the Central Diviion (L&Y section). 2-6-4T Nos. 2375-7 had entered service. Three-cylinder Claughton type Nos. 5659 and 5685 (similar to 5902 and 5971) had left Crewe Works. 5ft 6in 2-4-2T No. 6701 had been fitted with vacuum-operated pull and push gear. Prince of Wales Nos. 5791 and 5806 had been fitted with Belpaire boilers.Withdrawals included 6ft 6in Jumbo type Nos. 5000 Princess Beatrice, 5005 Pitt, 5069 Penrith Beacon and 5070 Wheatstone. G1 No. 9353 had been fitted with vacuum rake in place of its steam brake and No. 9301 had been modified to meet the Midland loading gauge.

Piccadilly tube line extension. 233.
Completion of the western extension of the Piccadilly Railway, enabled a service of through trains from Finsbury Park to South Harrow to start on 4 July. This extension provided two additional tracks between Hammersmith and Acton Town, enabling substantial savings to be made in the running times in addition to passing four stations without stopping on the Piccadilly line, the Harrow trains run non-stop between Hammersmith and Acton, saving quite three minutes. Between South Harrow and Piccadilly Circus the running time is 34 mins. a saving of 10 mins., besides cutting out two changes. Between South Harrow and Uxbridge a shuttle service at 20-minute intervals operated.
On this western extension the two Southern Ry. tracks between Ravenscourt Park and Turnham Green, which had been derelict since 1916, have been utilised. The L. & S.W. Ry. had run steam trains between Waterloo and Richmond via Addison Road over these tracks. Between Ravenscourt Park and Hammersmith station two additional new tracks had been constructed, and also from Turnham Green to Acton Town. In this three-mile section the District trains use the two outside tracks, while the Piccadilly line trains use the inner tracks. Acton Town and Hammersmith stations have been reconstructed to provide a simple platform exchange from the Harrow line to District stations and from the District to Piccadilly line stations. A 5½-minute service of through xpress Piccadilly line trains operates between South Harrow and Finsbury Park in the first place, and to Arnos Grove and Cockfosters when the extension of the line in North London is completed. A 2¾-minute service operates between Hammersmith and Finsbury Park.
When the Harrow branch opened in 1903 a two-car train in each direction was sufficient to meet the traffic. There were now 170 Piccadilly trains between South Harrow and Finsbury Park daily in each direction. These are made up of six or seven ars in the rush hours, and three cars in the slack periods, and are improved Underground rolling stock in which four doors istead of two are provided, without decreasing the seating ccornmodation, will be used for the service.

L.M. & S. Ry, excursion to John o' Groats. 233
The first day excursion to the "Land of the Never Night" from Glasgow, Perth, and Stirling, was run by the London, Midland & Scottish Ry. on Friday night, 17 June. The train left Buchanan Street, Glasgow, at 23.25. A correspondent who made the journey from Perth to Wick to see what the Icomotive department could do with an 8½-hour timing for this section, sent notes. The train was very well filled; no compartment had less than four, and some six, passengers, whilst every berth in two third-class sleepers was booked both ways. From Glasgow to Perth the load was 372 tons, Perth to Inverness 399 tons, and Inverness to Georgemas Junction 405 tons. From Glasgow to Perth the train was worked by one engine, No. 13182, and arrived 5 minutes late, due to permanent way slacks near Larbert, and again on the up grade near Dunblane. At Perth No. 13108 came on, and eight minutes was lost here through the Glasgow engine having to come off to go to the water columns at the other side of the station. During its absence No. 13108 attached another coach and remained as train engine, No. 13182 coming back to act as pilot to Inverness. Getting away 13 minutes late, the two locomotives soon got into their stride, and any doubts as to the speeding qualities of these engines were soon set at rest. Blair Atholl was passed in 53 minutes (02.09), Dalwhinnie in 1 hour 37 minutes (02.53), to Kingussie first stop, 72 miles, at 03.11. Here both engines needed water, so that station time was 13 minutes instead of 5 minutes. Aviemore was passed, but the train was brought to a standstill at Slochd summit, waiting the arrival of a goods train it should have passed at Daviot. This cost another 8 minutes. and Inverness was reached 26 minutes late. This was 3 minutes under exact booked "running time," plus the initial 13 minutes late and 8 lost at both Kingussie and Slochd.
At Inverness both engines and a van came off; and two Inverness engines, Nos. 14677 Dunrobin Castle and 14763 Clan Mackinnon came on, whilst an additional eight-wheel third took the place of the van.
Here the running really commenced. Inverness was left at 04.41, with 405 tons; Dingwall was reached at 05.18; Invergordon at 05.38, 7 minutes ahead of booked time. Here one engine took water. Tain was reached at 06.01 (11 minutes gained), and here another engine watered. Bonar Bridge 06.26, Lairg 06.47, Rogart 07.03, to Golspie at 07.11. Here one engine took water, and the train left just 5 minutes late. Helmsdale, watered one engine again, and left at 07.48 (6 minutes late only) to get to Georgemas Junction just 3 minutes behind time-table. Here a fine effort to get in on time was frustrated by having to wait for the 08.40 a.m. from Wick, having been delayed loading a late consignment of fish. Leaving Georgemas at 09.32, 24 minutes late, a spurt was made for Wick with about 300 tons, the last 14 miles being covered in 15 minutes, arriving but 17 minutes late, all lost at Georgemas. It was a truly good piece of work, when all the difficulties of 279¾ miles of single road and the Struan and Culloden banks to contend with, are taken into consideration. North of Inverness the actual running time of 253 minutes must be nearly a record. A bus service was provided to John o' Groats. From Wick our correspondent went down the Lybster branch and had a bad engine breakdown at Mid Clyth. The cotter holding the nut on the piston rod head worked out and smashed the cylinder cover; the engine was one of the small Drummond 0-4-4 tanks. The guard telephoned Wick for a bus. where the passengers arrived two hours late but fortunately in time for the last train to Thurso. The journey Wick to Thurso was uneventful. Ben Breach'ard is the branch engine, with Ben Udlamann as spare at Wick. Leaving Thurso at 10 p.m. on Saturday night, with all the inhabitants at the station, the Wick portion was joined up at Georgemas. Perth was reached 8 minutes late, through stopping at Kingswood for a tablet, and time taken to "re-gas" the dining cars at Inverness. The same engines were used both "up" and "down."
Altogether it was a most interesting journey in every way'

[Westinghouse Brake and Saxby Signal Co. Ltd.] 233.
O.J.F. Thorpe. having completed thirty-one years of service with the Westinghouse Brake and Saxby Signal Co. Ltd., retired on 30 June, and A.V. Hichisson was appointed Publicity Manager from 1 July.

The Centenary of the Leicester and Swannington Ry. 234-8. 7 illustration, map

Danish State Rys. 238.
Copenhagen suburban services to be electrified at 1500V dc. English Electric at Bradford supplying 42 motor coaches and 21 trailers.

"Mountain" type express locomotive, Polish State Rys. 238-41. 4 diagrs.
Cegielski bogie design and suspension. Bissel trailing truck. See also letter from W.T. Hoecker on p.380

Great Western Ry. 241.
Café cars were being used on the 09.15 Paddington to Weston-super-Mare and return 14.42; and on the 09.45 Paddington to Oxford; the 11.21 Oxford to Birmingham and the 16.05 Birmingham to Paddington.

Improved methods of overhaul of electric locomotive and motor coach apparatus, L.M.S. Ry. 242.
Cortez Leigh, the Chief Electrical Engineer had increased productivity by placing adjustable platforms in workshops, by holding spare motor bogies and by enabling the complete removal of switch boards.

Stripping tools for dismantling cottered joints. 242

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter IX. 243-7. diagr.
Direct (horizontal) loads on coupling rods and axleboxes.

Repairs to Morley Tunnel, L.M. & S. Ry. 247
Over 8,000,000 bricks and more than 6,000 tons of cement and sand have been used in repairs to Morley Tunnel, the sixth longest tunnel on the L.M. & S. system. The tunnel, which is 1 mile 1,614 yards in length, is situated between Dewsbury and Leeds on the main Manchester-Leeds route. The task of repairing it was begun in September, 1920, and has taken over twelve years; owing to the necessity of avoiding interference with traffic, work could only be carried out at certain times and some of the most important operations were, therefore, performed on Sundays. The materials used in the repair work included: 8,016,690 bricks; 1,912 tons of Portland cement, 4,744 tons of sand, 50 tons of steel rails, 36,306 cubic feet of timber, 1,425 yards of drain pipes. The total amount of stone and rock cut out of the tunnel was 25,000 tons. A length of 1,400 yards of the tunnel has been repaired, most of the work consisting of cutting out the lining entirely and replacing it with six rings of brickwork over two feet thick. With the exception of a short curve at either end, Morley Tunnel was originally built straight, but owing to mining operations and consequent movements of the ground, which were the main cause of the large amount of damage to be repaired, its walls and alignment had become distorted. All the parts rebuilt were, therefore, set to a new centre line, so that when, in years to come, the tunnel is completely rebuilt, the straight portion will be in accurate alignment. The cutting out and rebuilding was done in lengths of nine feet; to complete one length took from two to three months, which is considered rapid work. Four steel rail "ribs" were fitted as supports, the erection of these being done on Sundays from specially prepared vehicles. Seven separate stages of work were required to complete each of these nine-feet lengths.

L.M. & S. Ry. 247.
The rebuilding of Buchanan Street Station, Glasgow, is fairly well on the way to completion. The sides of the station will still be of wood, but a glass roof now covers the booking hall and circulating area. The platforms only are covered by glass verandah roofs. The whole scheme is a great improvement from the point of view of ventilation and lighting. The re-signalling of St. Enoch station is proceeding apace, and is expected to be ready for use in September.

L.M. & S. Ry., speed record. 247.
Starttng on July 18, the 17.20 express from Liverpool (Lime Street) to Euston will be re-timed to cover the 152½ miles from Crewe to Willesden in 142 minutes, start to stop,. at an average speed of 64.4 mile/h., and will thus set up a new European speed record for the fastest start-to-stop journey of over 150 miles. The train will be altered to leave Liverpool at 5.25 p.m., call at Willesden in addition to its present stop at Crewe, and arrive at Euston at 20.45 giving an acceleration of 25 minutes from Liverpool to Euston. From passing Stafford to stopping at Willesden (128 miles), the average speed will be 66 mile/h., while the 193¾ miles between Liverpool and London will be covered in 200 minutes.

The Meier-Mattern oil-pressure valve gear applied to locomotives. 248-52. illustration, 4 diagrs.
Fitted to Netherland Rys. 4-4-0 No. 1777. Also used in marine and stationary engines; claimed reduced coal consumption..

Southern Ry. electrification. 252.
Extension to Reigate and Three Bridges.

Clogher Valley Ry. 254.
Cotract with Walker Bros. (Wigan) Ltd. for supply railcar.

Brisbane to Sydney through express service. 254.
From 9 May the bridge over the River Clarence had enabled through trains to be worked to Sydney,.

Indian State Rys. 254.
The YK class metre gauge 2-6-0 locomotives were fitted with Ajax lubricating system.

Petter high-speed compression ignition engine. 255-6. 3 illustration, diagr.
Used by Fowler of Leeds.

Locomotive No. 1, Pioneer Sacramento Valley R.R. 256. illustration
4-4-0 first locomotive to work in California: brought there via Cape Horn in 1856: see also letter from F.W. Brewer on page 341.

A large Danish bridge. 256
Dorman, Long & Co. Ltd. awarded contract to build bridge between Zealand and Falster across th Storstrom Channel.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works: "The new engines". 257-8.
Continued from page 203.
Southern Ry. 258.-
Engines recently withdrawn on the Western section were Nos. 554 and 575. No. 754 had been fitted with 21-in. diameter cylinders. It had been decided to build five new engines of the "Schools" class at Eastleigh that year

Six-wheel wagons for conveying road milk tank trailers, Great Western Ry. 258-9.  diagr. (s & f. els), plan
To meet the requirements of the milk trade whereby milk in bulk can be conveyed by road from a collecting depot to the railway, thence by rail to a distant station and afterwards by road to a receiving depot, special wagons have been designed and built by the Great Western Ry. at Swindon for carrying 2,000-gallon milk tank trailers constructed by Dyson, of Liverpool, for the United Dairies Co. Novel features have been introduced whereby the weight of the trailer is entirely removed from the pneumatic tyres when it is loaded in position. Cast-steel drums on the insides of the wheels of the trailer carry the weight of the loaded vehicle on elevated tracks, the centres of which coincide with the centres of the drums on the trailer and act as carrying and guiding elements.

J.E. Kite. Old L.M. & S. Ry. 2-4-0 locomotives. 259-60.
No. 21 on a Peterborough to Northampton train. Kirtley No. 1 class. No. 156A had been preserved at Derby.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 260-1. 4 diagrams (side elevations)
Fig. 6 shows Beattie mixed traffic 2-4-0 No. 126 Dane originally described in Locomotive Mag., 1903, 8, 393-4. Fig. 7 shows No. 134 Ironsides in its original condition. Fig. 8 shows 2-2-2 No, 135 Canute. D.K. Clark performed experiments with counterbalancing in 1856 and these are noted in Colburn's Locomotive engineering and  in Proc. Instn Civ. Engrs. 1856/7. Fig. 8 is a 2-4-0WT No. 11 Minerva: refers back to Volume 9 page 6.

Tests of a heavy oil-engine car. 261
Cummins developed the diesel engine and achieved world records for speed and the ability for trucks with engines to cross from Coast to Coast in the USA at high speed.

L. & N.E. Ry appointments. 261
H.R. Silver, district locomotive superintendent, Ardsley appointed to similar position at Colwick in succession to J.W. Hulme who had retired. D.C. Fletcher, assistant district locomotive superintendent, Doncaster moved to Ardsley

Great Northern Ry. (Ireland). — new diesel engine driven rail car. 261
Glover bogie car built at Dundalk Works. Trials between Dublin and Howth; to be used on Armagh-Portadown-Belfast-Newry and Dundalk sections.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 262-3. illustration
See also J. Instn Loco. Engrs, 1932, 22, 501.

Electric locomotive design. 263-5. 2 illustration, 2 diagrs., plan.
2-Do-1 Swiss Federal Rys. 3,650 hp single phase type. German State Railways 2-C-2 and 1-Do-1

Obituary; Sir Harry Livesey. 265.
Death of Sir Harry Livesey on the 21 June, on board his yacht Jeanette in the harbour of Monaco, at the age of 72, son of the late Jas. Livesey, founder of the firm of consulting engineers, Livesey, Son & Henderson, of which he became senior partner. From August 1916 to May 1917 he was Deputy Director of Inland Waterways and Docks at the War Office, then to December 1918 he was Director of Contracts at the Admiralty. He was created K.B.E. in 1918, and promoted G.B.E. in 1920.

Obituary; G. F. Glass Hooper. 265.
Died on 5 July 1932 at Bridport, aged 68, was Chairman of the Manila Railway and the Barranquilia Railway & Pier Company. For many years he was Chairman of Kerr, Stuart & Co., Ltd., which he? established in 1894, he also founded the Peninsular Locomotive Works in India.

The Vulcan Foundry Ltd.  265.
Contract for twenty boilers the Madras and Southern Mahratta Ry., which were to be fitted with fireboxes of steel plate manufactured by Colvilles Ltd., and six of these boilers were to be equipped with Nicholson thermic syphons (two per boiler); the syphons being made using Colvilles' double crown brand steel by Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., under an arrangement with the Locomotive Firebox Co., Chicago, for whom Messrs. Whitelegg & Rogers were London representatives.
Vulcan Foundry Ltd. had also secured a contract for three 4-6-2 type locomotives, Class YC, for service on the metre gauge Burma Rlys., for delivery in fourteen weeks.

The railways and the Eucharistic Congress at Dublin. 265.
During the Congress, from June 20 to June 26, the Irish railways had to deal with very large traffic on all main lines leading to Dublin. The biggest day was on Sunday, June 26, when the Great Northern Ry, worked sixty specials into Amiens Street, the Great Southern Ry. thirty-seven to Kingsbridge terminus, twenty-three to Broadstone, and twelve to Harcourt Street. Between Kingstown (Dun Laoghaire) and Westland Row, on the Dublin & S.E. section, there was a ten-minute service all day. The G.N. trains arrived at ten-minute intervals from 3 a.m., the Sutton and Howth branch being used as a siding for the empty trains during the day. The return trains left Amiens Street at frequent intervals between 6 p.m. and 2.30 next morning. At Kingsbridge, arrivals began at 3-45 a.m. and continued at 15-minute intervals until 1 o'clock. So great was the shortage of stock that a military special from Newbridge was made up of cattle wagons. At Harcourt Street,. 9,000 passengers arrived between 10 and 12-30, the twelve trains including three from Bray and one from Rosslare with London passengers. Broadstone received 18,000 passengers between 7-15 and 1-45, while a number alighted at Ashtown station, which is handy for Phoenix Park. On the D. & S.E. section, in addition to the Kingston service, there were specials in connection with the cross-channel boats and for the liners anchored in the bay. 20,000 passengers are estimated to have been carried this line. An hourly service was worked to and from Bray also.

Exhibition at the Science Museum, South Kensington. 265
To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the opening of thee old South Kensington Museum, a Special Exhibition had been arranged at the Science Museum in Exhibition Road, South Kensington, to illustrate the developments which have taken place in the different branches of Science and Technology during the period since the Museum was opened by Queen Victoria and the Prince Consort in 1857. Included display of transport of the 1850s compared with the entirely "new forms of motor and air transport of the present day."

Correspondence. 265
Electric continuous brakes. C.A. Branston.
The description of the Timmis electric continuous brake in your number of June 15, prompts me to mention the Achard brake, introduced on certain French lines about 1860. Though always referred to as an "electric brake," its action was not, however, purely electro-magnetic, as the current merely served to energise a magnetic clutch causing a chain-wheel on the axle of the vehicle to wind up the brake chain. In the derivation of the actual braking power the brake, therefore, was what in motor car practice is now called a "servo brake," and belongs, in that respect, to the same group as the Clark & Webb chain brake used on the L. & N.W. Ry. up till forty years ago, and the Heberlein brake, still, I believe, in use on some light railways in Germany. The current was derived from Daniell cells on each vehicle equipped with a brake-actuating mechanism. With "brakes off" current from a similar battery on the engine flowed through a circuit running the length of the train and connected on each braked car to a magnetic cut-out switch in the local circuit there. Any interruption of the train circuit caused either voluntarily by the driver or involuntarily by an accident such as a broken coupling, caused the local circuits to close and so apply the brakes. The continuous demand on the engine battery and probably also the difficulty of maintaining the local cells, caused this design to be modified later on; the local batteries were abolished and the magnetic clutches connected to the train circuit, which would then be closed only when applying the brakes. In this way the automatic feature of the brake was, of course, sacrificed, but, on the other hand, it became possible for the driver to "graduate" applications and releases by means of a variable resistance.

Reviews. 265-6
Colliery machinery and its application. Volume 5 of Modern Practice in Mining, Sir R. A. S. Redmayne, London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd.
Elements of steam power engineering. J.B.O. Sneeden. Longmans. 266.
Textbook
Universal Directory of Railway Officials, 1932. London: Directory Publishing.
The Railway Year Book for 1932. Railway Publishing Co.
See Ottley 7948 which shows that above titles were merged in 1933

 Number 480 (15 August 1932)

Three-cylinder 2-8-0 mineral engine, L. & N.E. Ry. 266. illustration
Series of O2 with side window cab and standard tender.

Beyer Garratt express locomotivee P.L.M. Ry. (Algeria). 268-71. illustration, diagr. (s. el.), table.
4-6-2+ 2-6-4

2-6-4 tank locomotive, Egyptian State Rys. 271. illustration
North British Locomotive Co. Nos. 1321-40. 5ft 6¾in coupled wheels, 21 x 26in cylinders, Walschaerts valve gear, Belpaire boiler with 279ft2 superheater, total heating surface of 1605ft2 and 22.6ft2 grate area.

The Centenary of the Leicester and Swannington Ry. 272-6. 7 illustration, 3 diagrs.
Acknowledges the work of Stretton. Locomotives includes No. 1 Comet Robert Stephenson WN 4/1832; No. 2 Phoenix RS WN 6/1832.

Two new speed records by the L.M. & S. Ry. "Mancunian's" fast run. 276.
On 18 July the 09.45 from Manchester arrived six minutes early: 177 miles Wilmslow to Euston covered in 171 minutes: an average of 61.7 mile/h. Royal Scot locomotive No. 6165 with Driver A. Lane and fireman C. Heywood of Longsight on the footplate. On the same day the 17.25 Liverpool to Euston hauled by No. 6140 Hector ran the 152¾ miles from Crewe to Willesden in 142 minutes at an average of 64.4 mile/h with Driver J. Farrell and fireman J. Pritchard of Edge Hill. The train was met at Euston by E.J.H. Lemon, Ashton Davies and C.R. Byrom.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter IX. The engine. 277-8.
Coupling rods.

Flexible wheelbases. 278.

Wheelbase, Flexible, Proposed Arrangement of Centre Buffers and Couplers ... 279

Diesel rail-cars, Great Northern Ry. (Ireland).  280-2. 2 illustration, 2 diagrs. (s. & f. els.), 2 plans.

Welded copper firebox, Eastern Ry. of France. 282-3. diagr.

40-ton bogie well trollies, L.M. & S. Ry.  283-4. illustration

Electric locomotive design. 284. illustration, diagr.
Three phase 1-C-1 with Zara trucks and Scotch yoke drive as used by six types on Italian State Railways. Also description of four-wheel R. & W. Hawthorne three-phase  (50 cycles, 550 Volts) for a coke oven quenching plant near Sheffield.

John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd. 284.
Orders received for two 2ft gauge diesel locomotives for sugar estate in Natal; also similar locomotive for Imperial Chemical Industries (Lime) Ltd. of Buxton and a standard gauge locomotive for Roads Reconstruction Ltd of Bristol (100 hp 0-4-0).

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works: Workshop fun. 285-6.

Great Southern Rys of Ireland. 286.
Imposition of 5/- tax per ton of British coal forced railway to seek supplies from elsewhere.

New locomotives for the French State Rys. 286.
4-8-2 for Paris Cherbourg services. 3-cylinder: 20¾ x 30 outside (2) and one 22½ x 25½ inside cylinders. Boiler had arch tubes and a combustion chamber and 2892ft2 total heating surface and 54ft2 grate area.The design included poppet valves and gear of the Renaud type, A.C.F.I. feed- water heater, Leach sanders, Westinghouse brake, and side deflectors on: the smokebox.

Oil-electric locomotive for the Ford Motor Co.'s Works. 287-8. digram (side elevation)
Three diesel electric locomotives ordered for Dagenham Works from British Thomson-Houston Co. Ltd of Rugby with diesel engines supplied by W.H. Allen, Sons & Co. of Bedford and assembled at the Attercliffe Works of the Metropolitan-Vickers Co. Ltd.

Steel bogie wagons, Ford Motor Works, Dagenham. 288-9. illustration.
Built by Craven's Railway Carriage & Wgon Co. Ltd. Designed to transport hot pig-iron

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 289
Additional "Claughtons" recently converted at Crewe into three-cylinder engines ("Baby Scot" class): Nos. 5949, 5974, and 5987. As  running, these engines were provided with new frames and new tenders having a water capacity of 3,500 gallons. Nos. 2378-9 were the latest 2-6-4 passenger tank engines to be delivered from the Derby works. A further ten 2-6-0 mixed traffic' engines would shortly be put in hand at Crewe. . Two more 5 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tanks had been adapted for working "push and pull" trains, Nos. 6718 and 6742. Engines recently altered to suit the Midland loading gauge included Nos. 8905 and 9353 (class "G1").
The following engines rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers :-Prince of Wales class Nos. 5665, 5718, 5744; G1 class Nos. 9234, 9376.
The Shropshire and Montgorneryshire Ry. Co. had acquired another of the Webb 0-6-0 coal engines, making three in all within recent years. Their latest acquisition was No. 8236 (old No. 3575), which was built at Crewe in 1881. Originally No. 2422, it became No. 3575 in 1918.
Recent withdrawals include two 19-in. goods, Nos. 8742 and 8864, as well as the last of the Ramsbottom 0-4-0 shunters, No. 7215. This latter is now stored in the paint shop at Crewe. It will be remembered that this railway has two more of these 0-6-0 coal engines, No. 8108 and 8182.

At Derby Works five new 4-4-0 compound engines were nearing completion. No. 1831, a 0-6-0 side tank, is being converted to a Diesel unit. The truck is completed and the power unit is mounted on it.

Modernisation of the G.W. Ry. Locomotive Works at Wolverhampton. 290; 291. 4 illustration

Ribeiro's train rating diagrams. 291-2.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 292-3. 4 diagrams (side elevations)
Fig. 10 shows 2-4-0 No. 136 Goth after it had been fitted with a cab: this was a member of the Dane class. The number of Wizard should have been given as 39. Fig.11 shows 2-2-2 No. 142 Eugenie built at Nine Elms in 1857 under Joseph Beattie. The other members of this class were Nos. 149 Napoleon 150 Havelock, 151 Montrose and 152 Marmion (all built in 1858). They were scrapped between 1875 and 1878. With the exxception of No. 153 Victoria built in 1859 (with larger cylinders)  these were the last single wheelers built at Nine Elms. Fig, 13 shows 2-4-0T No. 154 Hogue. It was similar to the Nelson class but had 5ft 6in coupled wheels rather than the 5ft on the earlier locomotives. Nos. 155 and 156 named Nile and Cressy completed the class. The Tweed class were 6ft 2-4-0s built in 1859: Nos. 160 Thames (Fig.14), 161 Shannon and 162 Severn.

[International Railway Congress, Cairo]. 293
Egypt to issue a set of commemorative postage stamps which would include illustrations of the first locomotives used on the Egyptian Railways built by Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd.in 1852.

Diesel tractor for H.H. the Gaekwar's Baroda State Ry. 294. diagr. (s. & f. els.) copied
Four 2ft 6in gauge tractor railcars built by Armstrong Whitworth & Co., one of which was tested on the Leek and Manifold section of the LMS where it ran bery smoothly on the 1 in 50 gradient. Spencer Moulton rubber buffers were fitted.

L.M. & S. Ry. [Creosote Works at Beeston]. 294.
New creosoting cylinders had increased the plant capacity to 365,000 sleepers per annum, Neew adzing and boring machines had also been installed.

[LMS order for five saddle tank engines from Kitson & Co.]. 294.

Pontadawe Steel and Tin Plate Works (Messrs W. Gilbertson & Co. Ltd). 294
Order with Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd. for one 0-4-0 tank locomotive,

Fast long distance run of diesel-electric motor coach on L.N.E.R. 295. illustration
Lady Hamilton (Armstrong-Whitworth & Co.) returning to Newcastle from demonstration runs in King's Cross on 15 July completed the journey in 6 hours 38 minutes, but was stopped for signals, etc for one hour. Otherwise the railcar ran at about 60 mile/h. Photograph of Lady Hamilton with trailer at Hertford North station

Personal. 295. illustration (portrait)
Retirement of J.W. Hulme, district locomotive superintendent at Nottingham after more than 50 years railway service. Born in Lincolnshire; began apprenticeship at Gorton in 1881; on completion moved to running department. In charge at Chester in 1890; Southport 1897; Stockport 1898; Liverpool 1900; Neasden 1907; Annesley 1916 and appointed as district locomotive superintendent at Nottingham on 1 January 1924 when GC and GN activities were merged. Keenly interested in ambulance work and in the Railway Convalescent Homes. He had been responsible for fitting up the first automatic brake ejector.

Café cars. G.W. Ry. 296. illustration, 2 plans
Buffet cars converted from 59ft 5in clerestory coaches.

L. & N.E. Ry. 296.
New service provided on Southend branch between Southend and Shenfield (sometimes terminating at Rayleigh) provided by two coach trains stopping at all stations but cutting journey times to Shenfield to 26 minutes up and 38 minutes down.

Testing Loco. Details by X Rays. 298

Day excursion to the Isle of Skye. 299.
From Glasgow Buchanan Street (depart 23.50) arrive Kyle of Lochalsh 09.15; varrive Portree 11.30. Motive power between Perth and Inverness was River class No. 14756 and No. 14691 Brodie Castle. The return journey began at 20.15, but the tide delayed progress and Kyle was not left until 22.45 and there was a long delay on the southbound journey due to having to wait for northbound traffic to pass and Glasgow was reached over an hour late. Two River class locomotives (Nos. 14756 and 14759) were used between Inverness and Perth.

Southern Ry. 299.
Nos. 591, 596 and 653 had been scrapped at Eastleigh.

L.M. & S. Ry. 299.
Details of new marshalling yard, extra tracks and new viaduct at Mirfield.

Callipers for standard iron steam pipes. 299. diagr., table

"Mikado" and "Pacific" type locomotives. Italian State Rys. 300-2. 2 illustration
Series 746 and 691

Cleator & Workington Ry. 302.
No. 11568 Skiddaw Lodge sold to R. Fraser.

Correspondence 303

Recent express locomotives of the Polish State Rys. Wm. T. Hoecker.
Re article describing Cegielski's powerful and symmetrical passenger engines for the Polish State Rys. may perhaps leave some readers with the impression that these are the first eight-coupled locomotives built for express service in Poland. That distinction, however, apparently belongs to the 4-8-0 engines of series OS24, which were built by the First Polish Locomotive Works of Chrzanow some years ago. The development of passenger locomotives in Poland during the past decade has been quite remarkable, as will be understood from a glance at the accompanying table (not reproduced, but heating surface grew from 182.1m2 to 200m2 to 238.5m2. The 4-6-0 engines of series OK22, which were built by the well-known Hanomag Co., of Germany, were very much like the ex-Prussian P-8 class. The principal change was an increase in the size of boiler and firebox to permit the satisfactory use of inferior grades of coal. The 4-8-0 engines of series OS24 represented a change to Austrian ideas, their design being very similar to that of the celebrated series 570 of the Austrian Southern Ry, The new 4-8-2 type evidently indicates a leaning toward German practice, many details of these engines being reminiscent of Reichsbahn standards. Americans, who have long been accused of enlarging the steam 'locomotive beyond its economical limit, find some solace in reflecting that the same factors which brought about the wholesale use of eight-coupled express locomotives in USA are now compelling the general introduction of the same types on the Continent, which seems to prove that those European engineers who were most severe in their criticism were not then thoroughly conversant with the problems involved. No doubt they can sympathise with us now.

[Papers by LMS senior officers]. 303
The extremely interesting and valuable papers:- "Development of Costing Methods on L.M. & S. Ry." By W.V. Wood, Vice-President (Finance & Service), L.M. & S. Ry. "Rationalisation on the L.M. & S. Ry." By E.J.H. Lemon, O.B.E., Vice-President (Railway Traffic Operating and Commercial), L.M. & S. Ry. "Scientific Research on the L.M. & S. Ry." By Sir Harold Hartley, C.B E., F.R.S., Vice-President (Research), L.M. & S. Ry. which were published in Modern Transport on 28 May, and 4 and 11 June reprinted in book form, and by the courtesy of the President of the L.M. & S. Ry. (Sir Josiah Stamp, G.B.E.) may be obtained gratis on application to the Secretary of the L.M. & S. Ry., Euston Station, N.W.1.

Reviews 303

The locomotives of the London, Brighton & South Coast Ry. W.G. Tilling
Third edition of this interesting record of the locomotive stock of the former London, Brighton & South Coast Ry, contains a lot of information and notes hitherto unavailable to those who like to keep in touch with the engines of this line. In tabular form the author gives the makers' names, dates of building, rebuilding, and also the scrapping dates, to the end of March, 1932. In the case of engines sold, the date of sale and name of buyer are stated. As an appendix there is a chapter on the useful work of the twelve 0-6-2 tank engines sent to France in 1917 and used in the operations near Arras during the closing stages of the Great War. There are plenty of nice illustrations on art paper, some of which are quite new to us. The tables are in handy form· for reference, with space for notes to keep the records' up to date.

Number 481 (15 September 1932)

Four-cylinder compound freight locomotive, P.L.M. Ry. 305-8. illustration, diagr., plan.
Includes detailed working drawings. R. Vallantin design: concluded page 344. Four cylinder design with all cylinders outside the frames: the low pressure drove on the third axle and the high pressure on the sixth. An inside coupling rod connected the two sets of outside coupling rods.

Wigan Railway Centenary. 308.
3 September 1832: Parkside to Wigan.

Lysaght's Steel Sheeting. 309.
Developed with Dunlop Co. using vulcanised fibres to protect steel.

L.M. & S. Ry. recent developments. 309.
Belmont on the Stanmore branch opened on 12 September; colour light signalling was introduced between Camden Town and Watford and electric traction had reached Upminster with  new stations at Upney and at Heathway.

Modern locomotives of the Czecho-Slovakian State Rys. 310-12. 3 illustration
2-10-2T, 4-6-2T and 2-10-0

A. Jacquet. Two famous engineers: Egide Walschaert, 1820-1901 [and] Alfred Belpaire, 1820-1893. 313-16.
Seems strange that Walschaert rather than Walschaerts used: includes a portrait and biographical details. Also includes portrait of Belpaire.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works: Names, nicknames and shop colloquialisms. 316-17

"The Comet." the new L.M. & S. Rv, London and Manchester express. 317
An addition was made to the fleet of L.M. & S. Ry. named expresses since Monday, 12 September, when the 17.40 express from Manchester (London Road) to Euston and the corresponding 11.50 express from Euston to Manchester became known as The Comet. In the up direction The Comet is to run from Manchester to Euston in 3½ hours, thus sharing with the Mancunian express and with an evening train from Euston to Manchester the distinction of being the fastest service between the two cities. There are now seventeen expresses on, the L . M & S. Ry. bearing distinctive names, which were dlsplayed on boards on the coaches. One of these trains. The Irish Mail,' is the oldest named train in the world, having borne this title for eighty-three years. .

Messrs. HudsweJl, Clarke & Co. Ltd. 317
Received from I Beswick's Lime Works, Hindlow, near Buxton, an order for a standard gauge Diesel locomotive using a six- cyhnder Mlirrlees engine of 100/120 h.p. This is the third repeat order received from this firm. The same builders have also an order from J.C. Robinson & Sons, Ltd  of Chesterfield, for a standard gauge Diesel locomotive, 70/80 h p., using a four-cylinder Mirrlees engine.

Sand Hutton Light Ry. 317
Owing to the fall in revenue due to agricultural depression and stoppage of work at the Claxton Brick Works, this 6½ mile light railway closed on 30 June. An illustratecl description appeared in this magazine in October 1928. It connected with the LNER York, Market Weighton, and Hull line at WarthilI.

New coaling plants on the L.M. & S. Ry. 317. illustration.
Toton large mechanical coaling plant with a capacity for 3000 tons per week. Other plants installed at Cricklewood, Wellingborough and Wakefield. Mechanical ash handling plant (illustrated) also installed at Toton

Metropolitan Ry. 318.
Skylights in roofs

Great Western Ry. 318.
New Castle class Nos. 5018 St Mawes Castle, 5019 Treago Csatle, 5029 Trematon Castle, and 5021 Whittington Castle. 48XX 0-4-2T Nos. 4800-4809 had also been completed.

International trains on the Netherlands Rys. 318-19. 3 illustration
Photographs of Hook of Holland to Berlin; Amsterdam to Berlin and Bucharest and Vienna to Amsterdam expresses.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter X. The engine. 320-4. 2 diagrs.
Axles.

The "rising and falling" generation. 324. illustration
Diesel electric railcar "A" and a three-cylinder compound No. 83 on the GNR(I) at Dundalk.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 324

The Paris terminus of the Eastern Railway of France. 326-30. 3 illustration, 2 plans.

L.M. & S. Ry. 330.

Shower baths for locomotives. 330.
Apparatus for spraying hot water over steam locomotives to clean them devised by Canadian National Rys.

LONDON, MIDLAND & SCOTTISH Rv. (L. & N.W. SECTION).
- A further four "Claughtons" have been converted at Crewe into three-cylinder engines ("Baby Scot" class), Nos. 5936, 6005, 6010, and 6012. After being tested they will be allocated for main line service between London (Euston) and Liverpool and Manchester. Three more 2-6-4 passenger tank engines have been delivered from Derby, Nos. 2380-2. Of the same series, the last two engines, Nos. 2383-4, are understood to be in service on the Central Division (L. & Y. section). No. 9001 has been converted from class "G" to class "GI" (superheater) and provided with a standard "Belpaire" boiler. Nos. 6663 and 6690, 5 ft. 6 in. passenger tanks, have been fitted with vacuum control gear for working "push and pull" trains.
The last remaining Cleator & Workington 0-6-0 saddle tank, No. I I 568-formerly C. & W. No. 10, Skiddaw Lodge- has been sold to Messrs. R. Fraser and Sons.
Two more 4-6-0 "Experiment" class engines have recently been withdrawn from service, Nos. 5454, Sarmatian, and 5520, Sisyphus.
Nos. 5733 and 5759 of the 4-6-0 "Prince of Wales" class, have been adapted for working over the Midland Division. Additional engines rebuilt recently with standard Belpaire boilers include the following:-"Prince of Wales" class, Nos. 5670, 5707, 5717, 5797; "Precursor" superheater No. 5297; 4-6-0 19 in. goods class, Nos. 8782, 8812.


SHOWER BATHS FOR LOCOMOTIVES.-A novel method of washing locomotives has been adopted by the Canadian National Rys. Instead of being wiped over and cleaned with waste and cloths by hand the engines are passed through and under a hoop-like washing frame fitted with spray nozzles. As this is reached, the front wheels of the engine close an electrical circuit that turns on hot water sprays having a pressure of 1:0 lb. to the square inch. When the engine and tender have slowly passed through the frame the rear wheels break the circuit and the water flow ceases. A cleaning compound mixed with the spraying water dissolves oil and grease and leaves on the washed surface a film of wax, which renovates the paintwork and discourages rus

New first-class sleeping cars London & North Eastern Ry. 330-1. 3 illustration
Ten compartments, shower, use of Rexine and Vi-spring mattresses.
shower bath compartment in each vehicle, together with the usual toilet and pantry accommodation. With the exception of the corridors the whole of the interior decoration of the cars has been carried out in "Stipplex" rexine. The material is of blue near the floor, fading to cream at the cornice. The ceilings and spandrels are also rexine-covered. Whilst this method of finishing the interiors has been used in previous cars, a feature of the new vehicles is the modification of various details to suit the technique of the new material. Each bed consists of a "Vi-Spring" mattress on a "Vibase" support, and is provided with blue blankets and bedspread to match the walls. The bed head and foot are of walnut. The floor of' each berth is covered with a blue and fawn carpet specially designed for these cars. The interior fittings are similar to those in the previous cars, the metal fittings being chromium plated throughout. A long mirror is fitted on each corridor door. The lighting and heating follows the company's standard practice,and the usual louvre ventilator and sliding shutter over each window have been fitted. An illuminated toilet indicator 'is also provided. Pressure ventilation on sleeping cars has proved successful, and is being applied to all new first-class cars on the L. & N.E. Ry. The present installation incorporates various small improvements resulting from the experience gained with the earlier cars. This railway is the first in this country to fit a shower bath as part of the ordinary equipment of a train, and this practice has been continued in the two new cars.

Electric locomotive design. V. 332-3. diagr., plan, 2 tables.
DC locomotives: table includes LNER (NER) locomotives. Diagrams of Paris Orleans Railway 2-Do-2.

Fourteen-coupled engine for the Russian Rys. 334. illustration
2-14-4 type for Donetz to Moscow coal traffic. 5ft 1in coupled wheels; 29 x 32in cylinders; 4770ft2 total heating surface; 107ft2  grate area and 227 psi boiler pressure.

Record live stock train, Victorian Rys.  J.C.M. Rolland. 335. illustration
7701 sheep conveyed in double deck wagons fitted with MCB couplings.

New refrigerant for perishable traffic. 335-6.
LMS experiments with Drikold.

Making a film of "The Rome Express". 336-7. 4 illustration
British Picture Corporation, Lime Grove, Shepherd's Bush. See also letter from J.C. Cosgrave on p. 412.

Transport of wheels and axles. 337-8. 2 illustration
Delaware & Hudson R.R. platform car (freight wagon).

"Transit" Continuous Air Brake .338
See statement from Swedish State Rys. on p. 380

Parting tackle for valve spindles etc. 339-40. 2 diagrs.

Electrification and the operation of "Beyer-Garratt" steam locomotives on the South African Rys. 340.
The General Manager had been disappointed by the financial return on electrification and considered that operation by Beyer-Garratt locomotives, especially the GL type 4-8-2+2-8-4 supplied by Beyer Peacock, wasmore economically effective.

L. & N.E. Ry. 340.
D49 class Nos. 247 The Blankney, No. 255 The Braes of Derwent and No. 249 The Cleveland had bee completed at Darlington Works as had J39 Nos. 1453 and 1471. H Class Nos. 900 and 1301 had been sold to Pelaw Main Coal Co. E class Nos. 2183, 2303, 2307, 2310, and 2312 had been moved to the Scottish Area.

Instiution of Locomotive Engineers. 340.
Report of paper on railway electrification by J,W. Beatty presented at the Birmingham Centre on 16 November: see Paper No. 312.

Correspondence. 341.

Jubilee of the St. Gotthard Ry. Valentine Rippon. 341
It may be of interest to readers, who are not philatelists, to know that they can obtain miniature portraits of three of the men connected with the building of the railway. The Swiss Government put on sale, on May 31, 1932, a set of three stamps to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the making of the railway, with its famous tunnel. The stamps of values 10, 20, and 30 centimes are for postal use, and depict the portraits of Louis Favre, of Geneva, the engineer who planned and undertook the construction of the railway; Alfred Escher, statesman and the first president of the administration of the St. Gothard Society; and Emil Welti, federal councillor and head of the Department of Posts and Railways from 1867 to 1891. The name of the portrayed is given on the left of the stamp. The stamps were on sale till the end of June, 1932, and are valid for postage till the end of this year.

The most powerful electric locomotive. W.T. Hoecker.
Re page 231 there is a description of a locomotive which is said to be capable of an unprecedentedly high horse-power output at speeds in the neighbourhood of 40 m.p.h., and is therefore claimed to be the "most powerful locomotive in the world." It is difficult to find a basis for comparison between this engine and the locomotives built some years ago for the Virginian Ry., which are essentially heavy mineral engines of necessarily rugged construction, and having a maximum safe speed of about 35 m.p.h. However, it is quite certain that the most difficult task assigned to these latter locomotives, which involves the exertion of a tractive effort of not less than 160,000 lb., or about 6,000 h.p. at 14 m.p.h., is far beyond the capability of the new Swiss locomotive. Coal trains weighing 5,360 English tons are started from the foot of a 14-mile incline averaging 1 in 50, and hauled up the grade in 58 minutes by two of the Virginian three-unit locomotives. Some 18,000 to 20,000 kilowatts are required to accelerate this train up to sychronous speed. This performance would very probably require four locomotives like No. 11851. While the motor ratings of the Swiss locomotive, which were no doubt derived in the usual manner from stationary tests in the workshops, are beyond question, they are scarcely indicative of the performance of the locomotive as a whole. A maximum starting effort of 132,000 Ib., with a factor of adhesion of only 2.87 (even allowing for the effect of the adhesion augrnenter), is not a safe figure to rely on. One may also question if a tractive effort of 84,200 lb. at 38.5 m.p.h. (the factor of adhesion being 4.2) could be maintained in regular working, except under the most favourable rail conditions. Calculating on a conservative basis, it would appear that with the trainloads, speeds, and gradients as mentioned in your article, the power output at the motor shafts of locomotive No. 11851 should lie between 6,000 h.p. as a minimum and 6,500 h.p. as a maximum. The multitude of unfortunate engineers who are still struggling along with the antiquated steam locomotive will envy their Swiss confr eres, who are apparently to be provided with 8,800-h.p. engines, possessing a reserve capacity of from 35 % to 45 % in excess of what is required to work the heaviest trains in ordinary traffic. Those familiar with the literature which emanates from electrical .engineering sources may perhaps be pardoned for harbouring some slight suspicion that at least a few of the statistics presented on behalf of the new Swiss locomotive are put forth principally to establish a new "record," rather than to indicate what the actual everyday performance of the locomotive may be. So far as single-cab electric locomotives are concerned I would. remind you that an experimental 1-C-C-1 freight locomotive of the Pennsylvania Railroad is officially said to have a maximum capacity of 7,640 h.p., or considerably more than the P.L.M. engine mentioned in your article. The wnter does not vouch for the accuracy of this claim. In Its report to the American Railway Association in June. 1926 the Committee on Electric Rolling Stock emphasised that the two ratings ordinarily quoted in connection with electrical equipment (i.e., the "one-hour" and "continuous" .r!'ltings) are useful for comparative purposes, but such additional information as to the rates of heating with other loads is necessary for a proper understanding of motor performance. The railway officer or engineer who attempts to compile his time-table and engine-load table from the most optimistic figures supplied by the manufacturer is apt to have a rude awakening.

Early counter-balancing in America. F.W. Brewer. 341
The photo reproduction in your July issue, p. 256, of the old Sacramento 4-4-0, No. 1 Pioneer, serves to illustrate American practice in regard to the counter-balancing of "inside connected" (otherwise, inside cylinder) locomotives of. the period in which the above-mentioned example was built (1849). It wIll be seen that the inside and outside cranks, according to the counterweights in the wheels, are placed on coinciding centres, a plan that was afterwards followed here by Wm. Stroudley, at first on the Highland Ry. and subsequently on the L.B. & S.C. Ry. From time t.o time a few other British locomotive engineers have tried It. As recently as 1928 ten 4-6-0s then built for the G.E. Section of the L. & N.E. Ry., had 'the crank arrangement in question. Among those cases in which counter-balancing had been carried out in America, this system has invariably been employed there for "inside connected" engines, many examples of which were constructed down to approximately 1853: Outside cylinder locomotives were, however, more popular in the United States, and were always in the majority, straight axles being preferred to crank axles. As a compromise, a fair number of engines had half cranks, which were driven by semi-outside cylinders, the connecting-rods working between the frames and the sides of the boiler. It would appear, therefore, that the counter-balancing method referred to, for inside cylinder engines, was adopted as standard practice in America, and that it was in use there before Stroudley adopted it in this country.

Leicester and Swannington Ry. J.G.H. Warren. 341
The engine Atlas was not the first six-coupled engine built by Robert Stephenson & Co., previous locomotives with this wheel arrangement having been built in 1829 as follows:-Twin-Sisters, Rocket, for the Stockton and Darlington, Formarr's engine for Pen-y-darren, South Wales, Whistler's engine for the Baltimore and Ohio R.R., now known to have been lost at sea, and one for the Tredegar Works (makers Nos. 13 to 17). These engines, however, were of a primitive type, with outside inclined cylinders and hardly can be considered as prototypes of the standard British goods engine. An illustration of the Tredegar Co.'s engine appeared in THE LOCOMOTIVE for January, 1915.

Reviews. 342

Die Kleinlokomotive im Rangierdienst auf Unterwegs-Bahnhofen Der Deutschen Reichsbahn. Galle and Witte.· Berlin: Verkenrswissenschaftliche Lehrmittel-gesellschaft m.b.H, bei der Deutschen Reichsbahn. 2nd edition. 230 pp., 113 illustrations.
This reference book written in the German language, deals in a comprehensive manner with the rationalisation of shunting operations at intermediate stations, which has taken on the German railways during the last few years. After touching upon some of the conventional methods of shunting by means of manual labour, animal traction, road-wheeled tractors, and stationary capstans, the authors, who hold responsible positions in the D.R.G., show the heavy waste inherent by the employment of high-powered goods locomotives for the comparatively light duties performed when shunting at intermediate. stations. The use of small shunting locomotives, driven either by internal combustion engines or (alternatively) electrically from accumulator batteries is advocated and the standardisation to two sizes namely; 25 and 60 h.p:, is outlined.
Much valuable information is given about the general design and the maintenance of the small shunting locomotive. Various prime movers, such as the petrol engme and the Diesel or heavy oil motor, are investigated, and descriptive articles deal with auxiliary equipment, such as the change speed and reversing gears, the power transmission, and also new forms of automatic couplers operable in connection with the existing standard draw gear. The various types of small shunting locomotives tested on the German railways since 1930 are described, and numerous tables and illustrations are included in the text. Great stress is laid upon the importance of simplicity in the controls of the small shunting locomotives which have to be operated by shunters and even platelayers. Exhaustive information is given about the working of the new shunting units from both the operating and traffic pomts of VIew, and the selection of the stations for which small shunting locomotives are desirable is explained. The compilation of 'the various statistical data' required for calculating the cost of shunting is illustrated by specimen forms from original records of the German railways. The work, a second edition of which has just been published, is clearly written and well got up, and will be appreciated by all interested in the efficiency of shunting services.

Trade notes and publications. 342

G.D. Peters & Co. Ltd., Windsor Works, Slough. 342
R
eceived a repeat order from the Calcutta Tramways Co. Ltd., for fifty car sets of Straight Air Brake equipment, for application to existing tramcars.

Beyer, Peacock and Company Ltd. 342
Well-known firm of locomotive engineers of Manchester, acquired by purchase the business and assets of Richard Garrett and Sons Ltd., of Leiston, Suffolk. It was proposed to carry on at the Leiston Works, which were originally established in 1778, the business of General Engineers, under the title of Richard Garrett Engineering Works (Branch of Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd.). Spare parts for all of the Garrett products are therefore now available, as well as any of the products formerly manufactured by Richard Garrett & Sons Ltd. From time to time, such products may be supplemented by others for which there may be a demand. It was the policy of the old Company to manufacture products of high quality and general utility. The high- class engineering work of Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., IS also well-known, so that customers can confidently expect the con- tinuance of first-class engineering work from the now styled Richard Garrett Engineering Works (Branch of Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd.).

F.C. Ribberd & Co. Ltd., London, 342
Purchased the goodwill, patents, patterns, and drawings of the locomotive business carried on by J. & F. Howard Ltd., Bedford.

Associated Locomotive Equipment Ltd. 342
Received an order from the Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry. for 15 sets of RC. poppet valve gear for 15 metre gauge class YB locomotives to be built at Ajmer shops. The gear was identical with that being supplied to the same railway for 15 class YD engines. In addition, an order for one set of RC gear had been received from the London & North Eastern Ry, for a class C7 4-4-2 type locomotive, the gear being identical with that recently supplied for 15 D49 class engines of the new Hunt class.

Steel Sleepers. 342
A list of steel railway sleepers for main line tracks is to hand from R A. Skelton & Co., Steel and Engineering Ltd., Moorgate Station Chambers, London, E.C.2. Details, with drawings, are given WIth chairs and fastenings.

Number 482 (15 October)

2-8-2 locomotive for Morocco. 343. illustration
Constructed for the Morocco Ry. by First Locomotive Works in Poland at Chrzanow. Built to suit the standard 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge and of modern design throughout, with outside cylinders 620 mm. x 700 mm. with Walschaert valve gear actuating piston valves of 350 mm. diameter; coupled wheels diameter 1,650 mm. The heating surface of the Belpaire boiler was 207m2, to which the superheater adds another 42m2; the grate area 3.8m2 The boiler contains 123 tubes of 5S/50 mm. (2.16/1.97 in.) diameter and 24 of 148/140 mm. (5.83/5.51 in.) diameter; the length between tube plates is 5.800 mm. (19 ft.). The working pressure was 14 atm. The engine fitted with Kylchap patent blast pipe; and Dabeg feedwater heating apparatus and pump,

London, Midland & Scottish Ry, (L. & N. W. Section). 343
Two further four-cylinder Claughton class locomotives converted at Crewe into three-cylinder engines (Baby Scot class), Nos. 5942 and 5966. Four others, would complete the present order, and be followed by a series of 4-4-0 passenger engines (class 2).
No. 9003 was latest addition to class Gl (superheater): engine, formerly class D, was provided with a standard Belpaire boiler and the vacuum brake. The engine referred to in the September issue as converted to class "Gl" was No. 9110, not as printed, No. 9001.
The remaining unnamed three-cylinder Royal Scot class locomotives to be named after famous Territorial regiments.. No. 6162 Queen's Westminster Rifleman.
Engines fitted with vacuum control gear for working push and pull trains now include Nos. 6682 and 6692, both of the 5 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tank class.
It is understood that the 6 ft. 2-4-0 passenger engine. Engineer Crewe (old No. 209 Petrel), has been changed to Engineer South Wales, but so far no other engine has been allotted in its place. The service at present was being temporarily worked by one of the larger 6 ft. 6 in. engines; No. 5011 Director.
Several 0-6-0 18-in. cylinder goods engines had been withdrawn, including Nos. 8379, 8380, and 8389.
Prince of Wales class engines fitted with standard Belpaire boilers: Nos. 5658, 5680, 5782 and 5829.
New construction at Derby comprises a series of 2-6-2 passenger tank engines numbered 15560-15569. The first two were complete and ready for service.
A series of 0-4-4 tank engines  was to be put in hand at Derby; of these, 6400-4 are for the Midland division and 6405-9 for the Western.

Great Western Ry. 343
The whole of the first ten 0-4-2 . tank engines had been completed at Swindon, Nos. 4800 to 4809:. Work had been commenced on a new series of . 2-6-2 tanks of the 6130 class. The first was ready,

Four-cylinder compound freight locomotive, P.L.M. Ry. 344-8. 2 illustration, 2 diagrs.
Began page 305

L.N.E.R. 348.
Accelerated express freight service from King's Cross to Glasgow High Street: departing 15.40 and arriving 05.15 at an average speed of 39.7 mile/h for 443.7 miles.

Great Western Ry. 348.
New engine shed for Didcot with 50 ton engine hoist; a coaling stage and boiler washing out.

Petrol shunting engines, Netherlands Rys. 348-9. illustration, 2 diagrs.
See correction page 388

Electric welding for locomotive boiler repairs.  348-9. 2 diagrs.
French State Rys.

Recent locomotives, Imperial Japanese Railways. 350-3. 2 illustration, 2 diagrs. (s. els.)
4-6-2 classes C51 (two-cylinder type) and C53: three-cylinder type with derived motion similar to Gresley type.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter X. The engine. 353-5.
Axlebox journals; stresses in crnks; axle?, built up crank axles. Cites Fowler's ILocoE paper

Rail-cars for the Roumanian State Rys. 355. illustration
Sentinel Cammell steam railcars. Shipped via Harwich to Zeebrugge train ferry and then hauled overland to Roumania.

Belfast & County Down Ry. 355.
No. 6 withdrawn and to be replaced on Ballynahinch branch by 270 hp diesel locomotive and railcar built by Harland & Wolff.

L.N.E.R. 355.
Withdrawal of services on Boddam branch which served Cruden Bay from a junction at Ellon. Great North of Scotland section.

Safe and load indicator for cranes. 356. diagr.
Thos. Smith & Sons, Rodley, Leeds

Welding equipment for the Iraq Pipe Line.  356-7.

Tank locomotive, Singapore Air Base. 358. 2 illustration
Eleven locomotives supplied by Peckett & Sons. 3 ft gauge. 9 x 14in cylinders; 2ft 3in coupled wheels; 257ft2 total heating surface; 4.25ft2 grate area; 180 psi boiler pressure

Cork, Blackrock and Passage Ry. 358.
Total closure. See Locomotive Magazine, 1900 (October) for description of broad gauge 2-4-2T: subsequently lines converted to 3ft gauge.

A.C.F.I. feed-water heating apparatus, L.M. & S. Ry.. 359.
G3 0-8-0

London and North Eastern Ry, 359.
J39 class Nos. 1469-80 0-6-0 completed at Darlington (see correction p. 405). Q5 Nos. 658 and 659 rebuilt with non-superheater boilers and steel-roofed cabs; B12 Nos. 8576 and 8580 rebuilt with Sandringham type boilers. No. 1304, H type 0-4-0T was sold to the Hazelrigg & Burradon Coal Co. The Kitson-Still locomotive was working from Darlington Bank Top and No. 10000 was working between Newcastle and Edinburgh.

Diesel-electric power units Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry. 360. illustration
Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. 1700 hp locomotive and three mobile power houses.

Electric locomotive design. V. 360-2. illustration, diagr., table
Broken Hill Mines 220 hp B+B type and 1-Do-1  for Dutch East Indies.

Piccadilly Ry. — Arnos Grove extension. 362-3.

New electric trains. Southern Ry. 363-4.
Four car sets for services to Reigate and Three Bridges.

The standardisation of locomotives: Institution of Locomotive Engineers Presidential Address. 364-6.
Lelean

The Railway Club. 366.
Future meeting: Edward Codd. The union of road and rail.

Chinese Purchasing Commission. 366.
Hunslet standard gauge tank locomotive with outside cylinders; 22½ x 26in. cylinders and Westinghouse brake.

Cold-drawn seamless steel tubes. 366.
Tubes Ltd of Aston, Birmingham

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works: Names, nicknames and shop colloquialisms. 367-8.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 368-9.
Continued from page 325
During the years 1865 and 1866 a large increase was made in the locomotive stock of the L. & S.W. Ry., which comprised named passenger and goods engines built at the company's works at Nine Elms, also a number of the small well tank engines and passenger and goods engines built by Beyer, Peacock and Co., Manchester.
All these engines were fully chronicled in THE LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, Vol. IX, pages 294-296, but the illustrations available at the time were somewhat meagre we now, therefore, remedy the defect with the accompanying outline drawings from photographs, firstly by the goods engine Mazeppa, No. 53, works No. 23 (Fig. 17), in its original condition ; this engine was one of three, the other two being Rhinoceros, No. 52, and Medea, No. 54, works Nos. 22 and 24 respectively; the date of the first two was July 1865, and that of Medea August of the same year. )
After the various modifications made to most of the engines during their last ten or fifteen years, their appearance was exactly similar to Lioness, illustrated by reproduced photograph on page 24, Vol. IX, THE LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, which shows the half cab and spring balances removed from the small casing to large dome over firebox, also the small name plates fitted on side sheets instead of large ones on boiler. The trailing splashers recessed within the panel plates were peculiar to Lion, Lioness, and Tiger.
These engines worked the principal goods trains from Nine Elms to Southampton, Portsmouth, etc., and in turn with others, when shedded at Salisbury, to Weymouth and the West of England ; also they might often have been seen on heavy excursion trains during the summer months.
A few of the principal dimensions are as follows : Cylinders 16½ in. by 22 in. • wheels 5 ft.; length of boiler barrel 9 ft. 2¾ in., diameter 4 ft. ; height of centre of boiler 6 ft. 1 in. ; length of firebox shell 5 ft. 8 in.; depth below centre line front 4 ft. 1 in. and at back 4ft11in. ; heating surface : tubes 898 sq. ft., firebox 141 sq. ft.; grate area 16.6 sq. ft.; tractive force 7,855 lb.; working pressure 130 lb. per sq. in. Wheelbase : engine 14 ft. 6 in.; tender 10 ft. 3 in. Weight in working order : engine 33 tons 2 cwt.; tender 19 tons 16 cwt. Total length of engine and tender 43 ft.
The Mazepa was scrapped in July 1893 and Medea in April of the same year, but Rhinoceros was sent to Eastleigh Works in November 1890 for use as a stationary engine. Dealing now with the passenger engines, of which there was a group of five, tabulated as below :—

No.

Name

Date

Wks. No.

Scrapped or sold

77

Wildfire

March 1865

25

Sold June 1885.

79

Harpy

Dec. 1865

27

Scrapped Dec. 1888

80

Hornet

Dec. 1865

28

Scrapped Jan. 1892

81

Herod

Dec. 1865

29

Scrapped Oct. 1890

82

Sultana

June 1866

26

Sold June 1885

These engines differed in several respects from the Arrow and Ariel group, viz., although the dimensions were similar, the cylinders were only 16 in. by 22 in., afterwards altered in the case of Harpy and Herod to 17 in. by 22 in., and one of the chief characteristics of these five engines was the ornamental slotted splashers with brass beading over both pairs of coupled wheels, giving them, with their brass domes, valve casings, and copper-topped chimneys, a very handsome appearance.
Wildfire and Sultana differed from the rest of this class in having the steam chests on the top of the cylinders, the valve spindles being worked by means of rockers from the inside motion, which had been the practice with the singles (see illustration of Harold). The eccentrics were not outside, as stated on page 294, Vol. IX. When built, all these engines had the straight-up weather board with turned-over lip at the top, but during Mr. W. J. Beattie's regime they were fitted with half cabs with narrow sides and longer sloping roof (affording a little additional protection to the driver and fireman), with the exception of the Herod, which was fitted with a cab of the elliptical pattern after the style of the Great Northern engines. In Fig. 18 is shown a line drawing of the Herod, in which may be seen the particulars just described and also the small dome over firebox and different arrangement of the safety valve, as well as the tapered chimney fitted by Mr, Adams. Only two other engines of this class had this style of cab and small dome, viz., Sussex, No. 1, and the Queen, No. 17.
With reference to the Vesuvius class of single express engines, further particulars of which were given in the June issue, the dates should read 1849-1853—also they do not follow in exact rotation of date, the first one being the Etna, December 1849, followed by the Vesuvius and Stromboli in June and December 1850 respectively; the Vulcan and Volcano in June 1851; the Hecla in December 1852, and the St. George and Britannia, in June 1853.
It must be remembered that these engines were put in hand by Mr. J. V. Gooch, but were not all finished till after Mr. Joseph Beattie had taken charge, and who commenced the practice of numbering in addition to the naming of the engines, hence the disordered dates.
It may be of interest to note that the Etna was numbered 40 for a short time, replacing an engine named Fly, and afterwards put with the rest of the class and numbered 118.
Continued page 432

Variable power brake arrangement. 370-1. 3diagrs.
Consolidated Brake & Engineering Co.: for four-wheel wagons.

L.M. & S. Ry.~Northern Counties Committee. 370.
A bogie rail-car driven by six-cylinder Leyland engines was under construction at the Belfast works of the N.C.C. with separate engines for running in either direction of travel, one for each bogie. It was intended to run the car on the Derry Central line-Coleraine to Cookstown. The body of the car was 58 ft. long.
Work on the loop between Jordanstown, on the Belfast-Lame line, and Monkstown, on the main line to Coleraine and Londonderry, to avoid the reversing of trains for Portrush and Derry at Greenisland, was well in hand, and was expected to be ready in June next. To ease the gradient, the main line from near Ballyclare Junction was being lowered for a considerable distance.

Personal:. F.W. Harris. 370
Assistant to the divisional locomotive superintendent, Great Western Ry., Oswestry, had been appointed divisional superintendent, Oswestry, as from October

Speeding up in Canada. 371.
Faster running for the Continental Limited, operating daily between Montreal and Vancouver, was announced by the Canadian National Rys, The distance between these points is 2,929 miles and the new timing allows 89 hours 25 minutes, cutting off 6 hours 25 minutes from the previous running time, making this the fastest schedule which has ever been operated across Canada by the Canadian National Rys. While the speed per hour may not appear so to British travellers, the operating time is actually fast, involving speeds up to 70 m.p.h. These trains, because of the distances over which they operate, require special services, three restaurant cars being taken on and off, and in addition to the through sleeping cars, other sleeping cars are added to the train at cities along the line, and some are cut off. Changes of engines are also necessary, and coaches are cleaned at the end of divisional runs and supplied with fresh water and ice. These trains require a minimum of eight coaches each, weighing approximately 600 tons, which at busy travel periods will be appreciably increased by additional coaches. Locomotives of the Northern Type, weighing 300 tons, are used on these trains. Between Winnipeg and Edmonton, 802 miles, only one locomotive is used, no intermediate changes being made.
The Continental Limited, leaving Montreal on Monday evening, reached Winnipeg Wednesday morning, Saskatoon Wednesday night, Edmonton Thursday morning, thence across the Rockies and along the canyons of the Thompson and Fraser rivers, arriving at Vancouver early Friday morning.

L.M. & S. Ry. winter time-table. 370.
Between Euston and Manchester and vice versa thirteen expresses have been accelerated to save 144 minutes daily in this important service; there is a morning and evening express from Manchester to Euston, each booked to make the journey in 3¼ hours (the fastest time on record), and a similar timing has been introduced for the evening business train (The Lancastrian) leaving Euston at 6-0 p.m. One of these 3¼ -hours trains from Manchester to Euston, The Comet, leaving Manchester at 5-40 p.m., is timed to run the 133½ miles from Stafford to Euston in 127 minutes at an average speed of 63.1 m.p.h. On the Midland route between Manchester and St. Pancras six expresses have been speeded-up, while eleven trains between Euston and Liverpool will be altogether 114 minutes faster each day compared with a year ago.
The principal day services between London and Scotland are also considerably faster than last winter, while an improved service was given between London and Turnberry, and a faster overnight service from Euston to Stranraer, Larne, and Belfast.
Other improvements affected the services between London, Sheffield, Leeds, and Bradford, Yorkshire and Scotland, Manchester and Birmingham, and the North to West of England. In the London suburban area the L.M. & S. Ry. have speeded up over eighty trains on the Euston-Watford-Bletchley section by a total of 340 minutes, while on the St. Pancras and Bedford line fourteen trains had been accelerated by 53 minutes.
Provincial centres benefitted considerably by the new schedules, not only by the acceleration of through trains to and from London stopping at intermediate points such as Rugby, Crewe, Leicester, Nottingham, and Sheffield, but also by the improvement of connecting trains to the speeding-up of which special attention had been given. By the acceleration of certain Euston and Manchester expresses, places like Macclesfield, Oldham, Stoke-on-Trent, and Colne were provided with services faster by from five to thirty-seven minutes.

L.M. & S. Ry, trains scheduled at over 60 m.p.h.

Train From To Miles Min. Speed (rm p.h.)
6-12 p.m Crewe Willesden 152½ 142 64.4
6-48 p.m, Stafford Euston 133½ 127 63.1
10-8 a.m. Wilmslow Euston 177 172 61.7
5-12 p.m. Coventry Willesden 88½ 87 61
6-0 p.m. Euston Wilmslow 177 176 60.3

Weed-killer trains on the L.M. & S. Ry. 371
To the numerous varieties of trains running on British railways a novel one-the weed-killer train-has been added by the L.M. & S. Ry., who are making experiments with vehicles equipped to spray weed-killer over the tracks as' they go along. The weed-killer train consists of an engine, a brake van, and a wagon fitted with a large tank and a spray-pipe con- trolled by a man riding on the wagon. A measured quan- tity of chemical weed-killer is put into the tank, which is then filled with water, and the train then runs over the line, the sprayers being turned on when traversing sections which require treatment. The weed-killer train used in the Birkenhead and Chester districts includes a tank wagon of 2,000 gallons capacity, and that which is in use in the Highland district of Scotland employs an eight-wheeled vehicle with a capacity of about 6,000 gallons.
In some parts of the country weeds grow rapidly, and methods such as that described enable the growth to be kept down without undue expense. Other experiments in this direction which are being made by the L.M. & S. Ry. include the use of weed-killer in a dry state, the apparatus used consisting of a container carried on the operator's back with the supply controlled by a bellows; and the distribution of dry weed-killer by a small petrol-driven plant mounted on a platelayer's trolley.

New train stop apparatus, Kofler system. 373-4. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Kofler was an Austrian: the system was mainly mechanicalb and was at cab roof level on the locomotive or multiple unit.

F.W. Brewer. Notes on the history of the engine crank and its application to locomotives. 373-4.
Matthew Wasbrough applied the principle of the crank at a rolling mill in Snow Hill, Birmingham in 1780. Wasborough took out a patent: GB 1213/1779 Machine... (Woodcroft which described the crank not noted by Brewer). According to Brewer James Watt became aware of the Snow Hill mill, but James Pickard also patented this principle in 1780 (GB 1283/1780 Woodcroft) and John Steed exploited the concept through watching his wife's spinnining wheel.

Pierre Anthony. French Crampton type locomotives. 375-6.
Continued p. 410

A light rail motor coach, Wismar-Mecklenberg. 376-7.

The steam whistle. 378
Owing to the fact that the locomotives of the Leicester and Swannington Ry. were the first to be fitted with steam whistles, or more correctly horns, for it is said the original instrument was a small horn procured from a Leicester optician, which was fitted with a cock and applied to the boiler of the Comet, it has been claimed that this year is also the centenary of the steam whistle. In Knight's Cyclopedia of Engineering it is stated that "in 1826 the chief engineer of some works in Plymouth, Adrian Stephens, fitted a boiler in his charge with a whistle to give a clear audible signal of the escape of steam from the safety valve. He afterwards equipped boilers at Merthyr Tydfil with whistles." According to Zerah Colburn's Locomotive Engineering, "The steam whistle is believed to have been the invention of William Stephens, a workman in the Dowlais Ironworks, where it was in use in 1833. Messrs. Sharp, Roberts & Co., of Manchester, had occasion in 1835 to send one of their workmen to Dowlais to put up some shafting, This workman, Thos. Turner, brought home with him a section of Stephen's whistle. His foreman showed the section to Mr. Fyfe, the locomotive superintendent at the Manchester end of the Liverpool & Manchester line. Mr. Fyfe adopted it at once, and its use soon became general on an railways." It will be noted that although the steam whistle at Dowlais is contemporaneous with its application on the Leicester & Swannington line, the adoption on the Liverpool & Manchester Ry. is certainly later.
In 1841 an inventor named Wood [KPJ: cannot trace in Woodcroft] took out a patent for a whistle to be attached to the blast pipes of locomotives, whereby their near presence should be loudly proclaimed in foggy weather. The use of whistles on locomotives used to be more depended on for signals than it is now. Prior to the general adoption of improved signalling, the route of a train was frequently directed by blasts on the whistle — long, short, cock-crows, etc. Some railways had their locomotives equipped with two whistles, a sharp-sounding one for ordinary signals, starting, etc., and a deep-toned one for the brakes. The G.W. Ry, invariably employed two. The Caledonian Ry used a buzzer, as well as the Lancashire, Derbyshire, and East Coast Ry., the North Eastern, Great Central, and others, deep-toned whistles, whilst the shrill ear-piercing shriek of the old North London Ry, engines will be well remembered by many Londoners of yesterday. The Metropolitan and District Rys. had, in common with almost every fitment, brakes, etc., whistles diametrically opposite in sound. The sharp musical whistle of the old Great Northern Ry, is apparently perpetuated on the locomotives of the L. & N.E. Ry., whilst the heavy sound of the old Midland Ry. whistles is all but gone, the present L.M. & S. being much lighter in sound. On some railways, notably the Great Eastern, the cord controlling the whistle valve in the cab of the engine was connected up to the cord running along the carriages of trains running over 25 miles without stopping.

Reviews. 378

Ripper's steam engine, theory and practice, William  J. Goudie. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd.
Since the first edition of Professor Ripper's text book Steam Engine Theory and Practice was published in 1899, it is interesting to note that it has been possible to keep pace with developments by publishing no less than seven editions. the last being issued in 1914. In 1928 Dr. Goudie was asked to act as editor of the eighth edition, which Professor Ripper. owing to aclvanced age, felt unable to undertake. For this edition, which runs to 841 pages, with 503 illustrations, the text has been rewritten and considerably enlarged by matter relating to the latest modern practice, with numerous examples. The original scheme of the text book, with a slight re-arrangement in the order of the sections, has been adhered to; but the theoretical portion has been extended and developed to meet the requirements of students, and in accordance with the systematic instruction as now given in the day and evening classes of technical schools and colleges. The new edition will also be found useful for reference by engineers concerned with the design or operation of steam engines and turbines. With the exception of a short note, in the section on locomotives the subject of steam generation has been omitted, as it would involve a discussion of fuels and combustion and modern arrangements of high-pressure boiler plants and their accessories, an adequate treatment of which would make the size of the book prohibitive.
Chapter XVIII is devoted to recent developments in locomotive practice, including the L.M. & S. Ry, three-cylinder Royal Scot, L. & N.E. Ry, high-pressure compound and Schmidt high-pressure locomotives; high-pressure locomotive by the Swiss Locomotive Works, Schwartzkopff, Loeffler high-pressure locomotive, Ljungstrorn turbo-locomotive, Krupp-Zoelly turbo-locomotive, and the Maffei turbo-locomotive, with very helpful illustrations. The text is divided into twenty-four chapters, and its educational value is enhanced by the provision of a comprehensive series of worked examples. The sections are as follow: thermodynamic principles; properties of steam; energy diagrams for steam; engine cycles and efficiencies; indicated and brake horse power; condition of the steam in the cylinder; multiple expansion engines; engine details; valves and valve gears; governors; crank effort and twisting moment; flywheels; balancing; Corliss and drop-valve engines; uniflow back pressure and extraction engines high-speed engines; marine engines; locomotives; types of steam turbines: impulse and reaction steam turbines; energy conversion in turbine nozzles and blading; condition curve, reheat factor, and efficiencies; heat consurnption : rates and dimensions of compound steam turbines; condensers: steam engine and turbine performance. Tables of the properties of saturated steam are given at the end of the book, and there is a well-arranged index

The railway problem, Ashley Brown. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co. Ltd.
The author was general secretary of the Railway Reform League, and he has produced a very entertaining volume on a subject all interested in our railways must appreciate His criticism of the directors and their competency is much to be debated. The chapters on "The Railways and the Roads" contain much excellent argument, and Mr. Brown remarks on the unsatisfactory and chaotic state of passenge fares. As he says, it is clear the so-called standard of 1½ per mile is doomed, and the sooner the companies recognis this from the business side the better. In 1923, 415,000,000 tickets were issued at full fares, and in 1930 only 139,000,000 whereas tickets at different reduced rates increased in very similar proportions. As regards the much-discussed question of class, the author has some common-sense remarks. We would add, why not abolish class, and simply have "reserved" or "Pullman" accommodation for those who desire to pay extra rates. No road transport compan paints a large 3 on the doors of its cars. Practically ever first-class passenger has his own motor car in these days so that very few pay the high surcharge for specially select accommodation. The chapters on goods and mineral traffi and on wagons are enlightening. We think stock holders In our railways who must surely begin to feel uneasy, coul do worse than read Mr. Ashley Brown's book There can be no doubt the present position of the railways is illogical and unreasonable, and if the managing authorities do no make some change in their methods little short of disaster can result.

The vacuum brake and related appliances. R. Brinkworth. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co Ltd.

Correspondence. 379.

The "Transit" continuous air brake. C.A. Branson
The "Transit" brake, briefly described in your September issue is a curious variant of the two-chamber type. It differs from the true two-chamber brake in that there is no permanent body of compressed air present on one side of the brake piston such as that in the pressure chamber of a two-chamber brake; hence the new brake is not inexhaustible any more than were the old single-chamber air brakes. The air in chamber B is permanently under full brake pipe pressure except during an application, and it may well be doubted, therefore, whether serious leakage can be prevented past the brake piston K (which must be about 16 in. diameter to be equivalent to a 10 in. ordinary brake cylinder) and the small counter piston on its left. The complete absence of pressure differentials (other than momentary ones) between volumes of air on the two faces of a piston was one of the out-standing merits of the first Westinghouse automatic brake of 60 years ago, and this principle has been followed, very wisely, in all subsequent systems which have attained to practical success.
It is obvious that the use of a "take-up" cylinder to bring the brake blocks up against the tyres must effect air economy, but the brake as a whole does not appear to lend itself to this much-to-be-desired object. A full service application on a loaded vehicle entails the venting of the whole of the air contained in chamber B and subsequently of the air in brake cylinder A and take-up cylinder C; whereas in a single-chamber brake the air consumption would be limited to the latter, and in a two-chamber brake to the former.
Curiously enough the take-up cylinder and notched push- rod type of brake was evolved by the Westinghouse Co. in America some twenty years ago as the outcome of the sheer inability of the 1¼ in. standard brake pipe to transmit the increased volume of air which would have been called for by the larger ordinary brake cylinders required for the adequate braking of certain heavy mineral cars. As the Continental railways have now adopted 1 in. piping as standard for freight cars, it is clear that economy of air consumption, even though not as insistent a necessity as in the U.S.A., is, nevertheless, not merely a remote desideratum.
Failing sectional drawings and a description of the triple valve, one' is puzzled to see how the knotty problem of a graduated release has been solved.
In the penultimate paragraph I presume that 600 ft. per sec. as "the time for a full application" is an error for "the time of transmission of the brake pipe reduction," whereas further on "30 seconds" refers to the time in which a full application. attains its maximum.

Letter covering several articles. W.T. Hoecker of Galveston, Texas. 380
Steam locomotive desiqn. (Locomotive Mag., June 15, page 209.)
In speaking of connecting rods, Mr. Phillipson says: "It is neither customary nor desirable to provide means for taking up wear, which is not great, in the small end." While this may indicate the author's personal preference, others do not agree with him, as is evidenced by numerous illustrations in recent issues of Locomotive Mag..
Big-end bearing pressures quoted by Mr. Phillipson as indicative of American practice were apparently extracted from page 104 of the 1917 edition of the American Locomotive Co.'s handbook. It may be of interest to quote what is probably the most recent authoritative information on this subject, so far as the United States is concerned. This may be found in the report of the Committee on Locomotive Design and Construction to the American Railway Association in June 1928. On plates 1 and 2 of this report, showing recommended practice for crankpins, the following appears: "Bearing pressures should not exceed 1,600 lb. per sq. in."
Mountain type express locomotives, Polish State Rys. (Locomotive Mag. July 15, page 238.)
These are not "mechanically less complicated than any other European example of the 'Mountain' type," since they are not the only two-cylinder examples of that type in Europe. The writer of the article evidently overlooked the engines of Series 1700 on the Madrid, Saragossa, and Alicante Ry., which were dealt with on page 373 of your December 1925 number.
The second and third paragraphs on page 238 of the July number are especially timely, and should have been printed in capital letters and red ink, for the benefit of all "thermal efficiency experts." Many thousands of pounds have been wasted in experimenting with machines which common sense and a little arithmetic would demonstrate were utterly unable to compete with the steam locomotive.
The First Locomotive Works in Russia. (Locomotive Mag., June 15, page 211.)
Locomotive building in Russia began 'long before 1867. See Locomotive Mag. for August 1915, page 176.

Transit Air Brake. 380.
In our notice of this brake as fitted on 'goods vehicles on page 338 of our September issue, it was 'Stated that satisfactory results are reported from tests on the Swedish State Rys. The Royal Administration of the Swedish State Rys. inform us that this statement is incorrect, and the tests mentioned were made on some small Swedish private railways under the supervision of the inventor and the manufacturers. The Swedish State Rys. use the Kunze-Knorr brake, and, therefore, have never had anything to do with the tests of the Transit brake, which is not yet officially approved for international use.

equipped with the automatic vacuum brake, this volume claims more than ordinary interest from railway transport men generally. In his preface he very concisely outlines the purport of his work when he says "the vacuum brake, when kept in good order, acts most efficiently." It is, however, a sensitive apparatus which demands for its proper operation and maintenance a considerable amount of exact and detailed knowledge. Mr. Brinkworth supplies much of the needed "inner information."
In those chapters devoted to illustrating and describing the different details of vacuum brake apparatus all the latest developments are dealt with, and particularly clear and instructive original diagrams are given, the author adopting quite new outlines for his drawings. Different forms of ejectors are fully dealt with and very comprehensive tables given to show their efficiency in creating and maintaining vacuum. •
Considerable space is devoted to the different types and forms of cylinders now used, and all the latest improve- ments are fully discussed, and in many cases criticised, for naturally it is the man who is confronted with the mainten- ance of these on a large scale who discovers any advantages which may be present in the multitude of modifications suggested. The vacuum brake cylinder has in recent years undergone much re-design and modification in construction, dictated by the necessity for ease of removal and recon- ditioning, when thousands are in constant use on the freight trains of a large national system of railways as in India, etc. What often took hours to inspect and correct can now be undertaken in as many minutes. The rubber details, of paramount importance in the vacuum brake, are very fully reported on, and much useful "inner" information imparted as to form, quality, and handling in service.
The special arrangements of vacuum brake apparatus adopted by the G.W. and L.M. & S. Rys. in this country are clearly illustrated and details explained. We hope in a future edition to see the different foreign made appliances and adaptions dealt with.
In the chapter on auxiliaries, the various forms of valves used in train control and different graduating van valves are illustrated and described.
The advice given on the arrangement and fitting up-of the train piping and the hints on testing and preparing the brakes for service are, we believe, novel and new to books on the vacuum brake. These chapters will, we feel sure, prove of great value to all concerned with the ordinary working of fitted trains on main line railways, where constant coupling and uncoupling, making up of trains, etc., IS general.
Brake rigging and the adjustment of gear for worn blocks, etc., is most opportunely dealt with, and much said on the different forms of slack adjusters now being intro- duced, a simple and satisfactory automatic adjusting ar- rangement would seem to be an absolute necessity on goods vehicles.
Preparing the brakes on Indian goods trains appears to be a somewhat lengthy operation, and the actual number of vehicles functioning in a long train comparatively small when reference is made to American air-brake standards.
Among the miscellaneous equipment handled, we notice the arrangements for electric locomotives where air brakes are used to' operate simultaneously with the vacuum brakes on the train. Different rotary exhausters, the vacuum pumps in use on some locomotives, and the portable pumps us~d for testing, are all illustrated and described by Mr. Bnnkworth, as also are slip coach arrangements, and such details as sanding gear, horns, etc., for electrically-operated locomotives.
R It is to be regretted the tests made by the Indian State ys, (E.B.R.) in 1898 were. not carried out in a more accurate manner, and so secure better data for the guidance of the operating department. It looks as if only a demon- stratIon of the possibility of working the brake on long goods trains was needed.
Finally, we attach much importance to the chapters on operating the vacuum brake on long goods trains. They represent the first really practical discussion we have seen on this problem in transport, which must sooner or later become an important one here, as the vacuum brake is apparently the chosen one for the steam-operated railways. The times quoted for exhaustion of long trains will probably be criticised in certain quarters.
Mr. Brinkworth's book will most certainly prove a useful addition' to the locomotive and railway transport bookshelf, in the office, shop, or shed. . .

Correspondence

The "Transit" Continuous Air Brake. C.A. Branston  
Sir, The "Transit" brake, briefly described in your September issue is a curious variant of the two-chamber type. It differs from the true two-chamber brake in that there is no Permanent body of compressed air present on one side of the brake piston such as that in the pressure chamber of a two-chamber brake; hence the new brake is not inexhaustible any more than were the old single-chamber air brakes. The air in chamber B is permanently under full brake pipe pressure except during an application, and it may well be doubted, therefore, whether serious leakage can be prevented past the brake piston K (which must be about 16 in. diameter to be equivalent to a 10 in. ordinary brake cylinder) and the small counter piston on its left. The complete absence of pres- sure differentials (other than momentary ones) between volumes of air on the two faces of a piston was one of the out- standing merits of the first Westinghouse automatic brake of 60 years ago, and this principle has been followed, very wisely, in all subsequent systems which have attained to practical success.
It is obvious that the use of a "take-up'; cylinder to bring the brake blocks up against the tyres must effect air economy, but the brake as a whole does not appear to lend itself to this much-to-be-desired object. A full service application on a loaded vehicle entails the venting of the whole of the air contained in chamber B and subsequently of the air in brake cylinder A and take-up cylinder C; whereas in a single-chamber brake the air consumption would be limited to the latter, and in a two-chamber brake to the former.
Curiously enough the take-up cylinder and notched push- rod type of brake was evolved by the Westinghouse Co. in America some twenty years ago as the outcome of the sheer inability of the I! in. standard brake pipe to transmit the increased volume of air which would have been called for by the larger ordinary brake cylinders required for the adequate braking. of certain heavy mineral cars. A3 the Continental railways have now adopted 1 in. piping as standard for freight cars, it is clear that economy of air consumption, even though not as insistent a necessity as in the D.S.A., is, nevertheless, not merely a remote desideratum.
Failing sectional drawings and a description of the triple valve, one' is puzzled to see how the knotty problem of a graduated release has been solved.
In the penultimate paragraph I presume that 600 ft. per sec. as "the time for a full application" is an error for "the time of transmission of the brake pipe reduction," whereas further on "30 seconds" refers to the time in which a full application. attains its maximum.
..

Trade Notes and Publications. 380.
Kitson & Co. Ltd., Airedale Foundry, Leeds, in 1927 absorbed the old established firm of Manning, Wardle & Co. Ltd. They had issued a booklet giving particulars of the various types of Manning-Wardle locomotives, suitable for service at collieries, on contractors' works, and in industrial establishments. The tank locomotives illustrated are of the 0-6-0, 0-4-0, and 2-6-0 types, to suit gauges of 4 ft. 8t in., 3 ft. 6 in., and 2 ft 6 in. The materials are to British standard specifications, and the workmanship is in accordance with the best locomotive practice for all main lines.

Fried Krupp A.G., of Essen, An illustrated pamphlet gives specifications of Diesel locomotives for different countries, and is practically a review of the various types built by them to date. Krupp-Diesel engines' of the airless injection type are made for industrial plants of every kind. Other special designs of the firm include high-speed four-cycle engines and single-acting and double- acting two-cycle engines up to 20,000 h.p. for large power stations, also light weight engines for boats, auxiliary purposes, etc.

Skefko Ball Bearing Ltd., of Luton:. booklet entitled "Attain. Majority," described huge Luton works and its plant, and methods of manufacture of Skefko ball bearings. Only 150 hands were employed in 1911, but.company was one of the largest employers of labour the district.

Superheater Co. Ltd. pamphlet described Gresley valve gear used on three-cylinder locomotives. The advantages of thr cylinder locomotives are summarised and particulars of a series of comparative trials between two- and three-cylinder locomotives of the 4-4-2 and 2-8-0 types of the LNER. given. The three-cylinder shows much superiority over . two-cylinder engine in giving a more uniform turning effort. Several diagrams are given. A description then follows, with drawings, of the Gresley valve gear for operating the middle cylinder, which derives its motion from extensions of outside cylinder valve spindles and consists of two levers.

Number 483 (November 1932)

"Nearing the Summit". 381 + colour plate on facing page
Plate missing (had been torn out) from BL copy: Thames Forth Express south of Sheffield headed by two 3-cylinder compound engines, soon after leaving Sheffield for London, at a spot near the 155th mile post from St. Pancras, almost exactly half-way between Carlisle and London, and near the top of the 5-mile incline. This train leaves Edinburgh (Waverley) at 10.3 a.m. and uses the L. & N.E. Ry. route to Carlisle, where it is due at 12.44 p.m. The times are: Leeds dep. 3.30 p.m.; Sheffield 4.27 p.m., and St. Pancras arrive 7.55 p.m.

Tank locomotives for China. 381. illustration
Three locomotives built for the Chinese Mining & Engineering Co. Ltd. by Kitson & Co. Ltd., of the Airedale Foundry, Leeds, were 2-6-0ST to suit the standard 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge. They had outside cylinders 17½ in. diameter by 24 in. stroke; six- coupled wheels 3 ft. 6 in. diameter, and leading pony truck wheels 2 ft. 6 in. diameter. The cylinders had slide valves arranged inside the frames actuated by Stephenson valve gear. The boiler carried a working pressure of 180 psi and had a total  heating surface of 986.86 ft2. The grate area was 17.9 ft2. Water capacity of saddle tank 1,200 gallons, while the bunker carried 1¾ tons of coal. In accordance with standard Chinese practice the engines were fitted with the Westinghouse air brake and M.C.B. central automatic couplers. The total weight of the engine in working order was 49.9 tons.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry, (L. & N.W. Section). 381
The first five of a new series of 4-4-0 passenger tender engines (Class 2) have been completed and turned out at Crewe, Nos. 686-690: they were working trial from Crewe North shed and would be allocated later. Further Claughtons had been rebuilt as three-cylinder engines (Baby Scot class). These completed the  series: Nos. 5958, 5982, 5983 and 5992. Several of the rebuilt engines were at work on the Midland division, including Nos. 5958, 5983 and 6012.
Nos. 9050 and 9119, formerly class "D" and class "G" respectively, had been converted to class G1 (superheater) – both with standard Belpaire boilers. No. 6682 was latest 5 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tank to be adapted for auto train working.
Eight Royal Scot class 4-6-0 express engines had been named after famous Territorial Regiments of London and the Home Counties. No. 6144 Ostrich, renamed Honourable Artillery Company, and No. 6160 was Queen Victoria's Rifleman, 6162 Queen's Westminster Rifleman, 6163 Civil Service Rifleman, 6164 The Artists' Rifleman, 6165 The Ranger, (12th London Regiment), 6166 London Rifle Brigade, and 6167 The Hertfordshire Regiment.

Rebuilt narrow gauge compound tank locomotive, L.M. & S. Ry. — Northern Counties Committee. 382. diagr. (s. el.)
One 2-cylinder compound tank engine was rebuilt with a larger boiler. At the same time it was converted from a 2-4-2T into a 2-4-4T. Modifications performed under H.P. Stewart, Locomotive Engineer..

Diesel-engined shunting locomotives. 382-4. 2 illustration

Rebuilt four-coupled passenger engine, M. & G.N. Joint Ry. 384. illustration
No.50 was rebuilt at Melton Constable with a M.R. standard G6 Belpaire boiler and enlarged cab.

Ashington Coal Co. 384.
Purchases of locomotives from the main line companies: E1 0-6-0T No. B163 from Southern Railway and from Great Western Railway: 0-6-0ST No. 676 (formerly Alexandra Docks & Railway No. 3) and 0-6-0T No. 2161 (formerly Brecon & Merthyr Railway No. 35). Hartley Main Colliery, Seaton Delaval had acquired LMS 0-6-0ST Skiddaw Lodge (formerly owned Cleator & Workington Railway) and GWR Nos. 785 and 728 which became Nos. 22 and 23 in the Colliery stock.

Diesel-electric rail-cars: H.H. the Gaekwar's Baroda State Rys. 385-7. 2 illustration
Trials took place on Leek and Manifold line.

Extended use of "Drikold" refrigerant. 387. illustration

New high-speed diesel-electric rail-cars in Germany. 388. illustration
Articulated 94 mile/h units with MAN engines; buffet for light refreshments; intended for Berlin Hamburg service.

Petrol shunting engines, Netherland Rys. 388.
Correction to article on page 348.

Indian railway contracts. 388.
Vulcan Foundry Ltd. had received orders for 18 boilers for the Madras & Souther Mahratta Railway; for twenty boilers for the Indian State Railways; for three YC class metre gauge locomotives for the Burma Railway and three D class 4-6-0 fot theNizam's State Railway.

Shunting tank engines for the Buenos Aires & Pacific Ry. 389. illustration
0-8-0T with outside (18 x 26in) cylinders for 5ft 6in gauge.  4ft 1in coupled wheels. 990.2ft2 total heating surface; 19ft2 grate area and 200 psi boiler pressure.

Locomotive wheel drops (bogie type) L.M.S. Ry. 389-90. illustration

L.M.S.R. – punctuality of the "Comet" express. 390.
Only three had been late; eight arrival were before time. The name stemmed from Cottonopolis and Metropolis.

A pneumatic-tyred rail-car.  391-2. 4 illustration
Austro-Daimler Puchwerke of Vienna: very light four wheel vehicle. Braking was by drums fitted to each of the steel guiding wheels, by external shoes of ample area, with asbestos linings. On the single bus the brakes were operated by hydraulic pressure, the rear axle brake being applied by a foot pedal and the front axle brakes by a hand lever. On the twin and triple buses the brakes were operated by air pressure. The high efficiency of the brakes, combined with the low weight of the vehicle, enabled remarkable short stopping distances to be allowed for. From a speed of 50 m.p.h. the car can be stopped in 360 ft. From 40 m.p.h. on a descent of 1 in 40 the stopping distm:ce is 310 ft., or from a speed of 30 m.p.h. on a decline of 1 in 25 the stopping distance is 230 ft., which suggests very effective control.
The twin and triple 'buses were driven by two engines, one. at each end of the train. Each had its own gearbox and transmission, and there was no con- nection between the two power units, although both engines can work together. It is also possible to drive the train with only one engine, whether the driver was on one or the other end of the train. , To avoid difficulties in. synchronising the two engines, hydraulic instead of mechanical clutches were provided. Electric controlling devices show the driver in his compartment whether the rear engine an~ gearbox are working perfectly; also sound transmitters are fitted to test the rear engine from the front driver's compartment.

L.M. & S.Ry., Northern Counties Committee. 392.
Most of the passenger locomotives on this system had been named, the list a being as follows: No. 1 Glenshesk; 2 Glendun; 4 Glenariff; 21 County Down; 24 County Derry; 28 County Tyrone; 34 Queen Alexandra; 50 Jubilee; 55, Parkmount; 57 Galgorm Castle; 59 King Edward VII; 60 County Donegal; 61 County Antrim;, 62 Slemish; 64 Trostin; 65 Knockagh; 66 Ben Madigan; 68 Slieve Gallion; 71 Glenarm Castle; 74 Dunluce Castle; 75 Antrim Castle; 76 Olderfleet Castle: 78 Chichester Castle; 79 Kenbaan Castle; 81 Carrickfergus Castle; 82 Dunanie Castle; 83 Garra Castle; and 84 Lisanoure Castle. Names were also to be given to engmes Nos. 3, 33, 51, 56, 58, 63, 67, 69, 70, 72, 73, 77 and 80 when next through the shops.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam Loco. Design, Data and Formulae. Chapter X. The engine. 392-3
Continued from page 355. Axleboxes. The forces acting on axle boxes may be summarised as:-
(a) The spring borne load.
(b) The resultant of the forces in the connecting and coupling rods respectively. This is usually the greatest in magnitude and acts approximately horizontally.
(c) A horizontal force arising from the tractive effort exerted at the wheel tread.
(d) The braking force, having a nearly horizontal line of action, and
(e) The flange pressure, which acts horizontally in the transverse plane.
Of these, (b) has already been considered in connection with coupling rods, and (c) and (e) with axles;
(d) will be dealt with in the section of Chapter XII on brakes.
In general, the position of the resultant line of action of (a) and (b), or (a) and (d), as the case may be, determines the necessary extent of the arc of contact between box and journal. This ranges in practice from 60° to 90° for carrying axleboxes.

The Railway Club. 394.
H.A. Vallance led a discussion meeting on The Grouping – what it was and what it might be yet in September and on 7 October he presented the Great North of Scotland Railway; the paper by E. Codd The union of road and rail was scheduled for 4 November.

Leicester & Swannington Ry. 394.
G. Royde Smith in a letter to the Engineer had stated that the Swannington winding engine had been supplied by the Horseley Iron Co., and that Isaac Dodds was possibly its designer.

Diesel-electric motor coach, Italian State Rys. 395. illustration
Self-contained 150 h.p. diesel-electric rail motor coach illustrated was one of a series for the Italian State Rys., of which the electrical equipment was supplied by the Tecnomasio Italiano Brown-Boveri, of Milan. The six-cylinder Fiat-Diesel engines were four- stroke mechanical injection type. The car was divided into two main sections and has seats for eight first-class passengers and thirty third-class, while provision is also afforded for twenty passengers to stand. There  were  also a postal compartment, lavatory, luggage compartment, and a compartment for the generatmg set and auxiliaries.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works: Gas plant and millwrights' work. 395-7

Institution of Locomotive Engineers: some observations on the practice of providing lead with piston or slide valves. 397.
Abstract of Paper No. 306 by C.A. Cardew. See also letter from C.F.I. Batt on page 451..

Sulzer Bros. (London) Ltd. 397

The use of X Rays for testing locomotive details, German State Rys. 398-400. 5 illustration
Mobile railway vehicle for examining welds in fireboxes.

Railway electrification. 400
Announcement by secretary to the Ministry of Transport that the Minister of Transport had recently made the railway (standardisation of electrifications) order 1932 in pursuance of powers conferred by Section 16 (2) of the Railways Act 1921. This order provides that future schemes of electrification of standard gauge railways shall be on the direct current system at a: maximum voltage of either 1,500 with overhead collection, or 750 with top contact third rail collection. subject to the power of the Minister to consent to a maximum voltage of 3,000 with overhead collection in special conditions. Maximum loading gauges of electric locomotives are specified, and provision made for standardising methods of collection and third rail and overhead equipment. Through running of electric locomotives between the 1,500-volt and 750-volt systems is dealt with by a provision that as soon as one-third of the steam locomotives of a company have been replaced by electric tractors, such electric tractors shall be equipped with lower voltage motors and series parallel switching equipment, to make them capable of through running on both higher and lower voltage systems.

[Bo-Bo electric locomotives for the Midi Ry.] 400
Further twenty Bo-Bo electric locomotives for the Midi Ry. — similar to those recently illustrated in — were under construction in France, and would be followed next year by a further forty-seven of the same type. But, 'in the meantime, erection of six 2-D-2 express passenger locomotives is in a forward state, and these machines will be completed before the end of this year. The Midi's electric stock, totalled 240 locomotives and 43 motor-coaches, and would rise to 313 locomotives with a total horse-power on the one-hour rating of 455,000.

Dundalk, Newry & Greenore Ry. 400.
The L.M. & S. Ry. transferred the working of this line to the Great Northern Ry. (Ireland) as from 1 November 1932. It consisted of 27 miles of 5 ft. 3 in. gauge line, with five 0-6-0 saddle tank locomotives built at Crewe.

Steel fireboxes for locomotives. 400-5. 2 illustration, 6 diagrs.
The fireboxes of the earliest locomotives were constructed of iron plates, and, although operating conditions were not anything like so severe as compared to those obtaining in later years, the plates frequently gave trouble on account of blistering due to laminations and other causes. It was eventually found necessary to discontinue the use of iron, and as the manufacture of a suitable steel had not so far been perfected, copper was therefore accepted as the most suitable material for the purpose. For many years America had been the principal source of supply for copper, and as iron plate had not met the requirements, copper fireboxes were extensively used there and in other parts of the world. But when it became possible to obtain steel plate of satisfactory quality, copper, in view of its high cost and the trouble experienced in its use, was entirely abandoned in America. It is noteworthy that there are to-day in service on the railways of USA and Canada no less than 60,000 locomotives fitted with steel fireboxes, some of which are the largest and most powerful in the world, carrying pressures of as much as 300psi. It must also be taken into consideration that the operating conditions obtaining in these countries are both varied and severe. Every known kind of unsuitable water is used in the boilers of these locomotives.
It would appear to be paradoxical that whilst copper is not obtainable in Great Britain, except by importation, it is used exclusively for locomotive firebox construction, in spite of the fact that Great Britain has always exoelled in the production of steel, accountable to some extent by the high quality of valuable ores, but mainly to the technical skill of the manufacturers. British pig-iron has all along been used in America for the. manufacture of special quality firebox steel plates, and billets have been shipped there from Great Britain for rolling into plates for this purpose.

[First electric train reached Brighton from London]. 405.
On 1 November 1932 a four coach EMU reached Brighton without ceremony to instigate test running.

Great Western Ry. 405.
0-4-2T Nos. 4805-9 had entered service. Passenger services had been withdrawn between Wolverhampton and Stourbridge Junction via Tettenhall.

Southern Ry. 405.
Adams 4-4-0 No. 579 had been withdrawn. N class Nos. 1400-9 had been completed at Ashford.

London & North Eastern Ry. 405.
D49 Nos. 273 The Holderness and 282 The Hanworth had been completed at Darlington and an order for six further Sandringham class was expected. J39 class Nos. 1453, 1469, 1471 and 1480 had been completed at Darlington — not as stated in previous Issue (p. 359). 0-4-0T No. 518 had been sold.

Lambton, Hetton & Joicey Colliery. 405.
Purchase of GWR No. 426 (Taff Vale Railway No. 85) and numbered 52 in Colliery stock..

Electric locomotive design. VI. Effect of motor disposition upon weight distribution. 405-7. 5 diagrs.

Tests of "Beyer-Garratt" express locomotive on the P.L.M. Ry. 407-8.

L.N.E. Ry. buffet cars for the Leeds-Newcastle service. 408-9. 3 illustration

[Beyer Peacock shunting locomotives for USSR]. 409.
Order for twenty 0-6-0T and six 0-4-0T.

Pierre Anthony. French Crampton type locomotives. 410-12. 2 illustration
In colloquial French, the expression "Crarnpton," pronounced in the French way, was for years and up to the War synonymous of a "passenger train," and "prendre le Crampton" (to take the Crampton) stood for "to travel by railway." See also letter from A.M.H. Solomon on page 451

Diesel-electric power units, Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry. 412. illustration
The accompanying illustration shows the first of the three mobile power houses on order for the Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry., to be completed at the works of Sir W. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. (Engineers) Ltd., Scotswood Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. They had been ordered as a result of the successful performances obtained from 1,200 b.h.p. units which are already running in five-coach train sets in the Argentine. There is also a 1,700 b.h.p. main line locomotive in hand. Each of the 1,700 h.p. Diesel-Electric power houses weighs 130 tons, and will operate eight-coach suburban trains seating over eight hundred people at speeds up to 56 m.p.h. The total wheelbase is 60 ft., and the overall length 66 ft., a driving compartment being provided at one end only, in view of the permanent coupling to the specially equipped train.
The main line oil-electric locomotive of the same power scales 148 tons, or 195 lb. per b.h.p. It is driven by six traction motors, and has a wheelbase of 65 ft. 4 in., and a length of 72 ft. Both types of vehicle are of articulated construction, running on four bogies, and roller bearings are employed for the axle-boxes. The first two vehicles will be shipped about the end of November, and the remaining power-house and the locomotive will follow about the end of the year.

Correspondence. J.C. Cosgrave. 412
See 336: Many of your readers must have noticed the curious arrangement of the smoke-deflecting screens on the model purporting to represent a P..L.M. locomotive to be used for a cinematograph picture. The photograph on page 336 shows the upper portions of the screens to be turned, outwards, instead of inwards, i.e. away from, instead of towards, the smoke box which, if so applied to the "real thing," would nullify the air-stream effect required to lift the exhaust steam, etc. Considering the lavish expenditure upon which the "movie" people pride themselves" it 'is surprising that in technical matters they not infrequently display an ignorance only to be equalled by the lucubrations of the popular journalist.

Obituary. 412-13
[John Mitchell]. illustration (port.). 412.
Death  on 20 October of Mr. John Mitchell, M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., managing director of the A.B.C. Coupler and Engineering Co. Ltd. Mr. Mitchell was in his fifty-eighth year. He served his time in the running sheds and works of the Caledonian Ry, first at Edinburgh and subsequently at St. Rollox from 1891 to 1896. He was then in the drawing office, and in 1897 was appointed to take charge of the testing and inspection department at St. Rollox. He also supervised the building of the six "Dunalastair" type locomotives for the Belgian State Rys. at Neilson's Works. Mr. Mitchell then joined the staff of Sir A. M. Rendel & Son (now Rendel, Palmer & Tritton), consulting engineers to the Indian Government. From 1904 to 1911 he acted as advisory engineer to the Cape Government Rys., and was then appointed engineer to the A.B.C. Coupler & Engineering Co. Ltd., becoming managing director in 1918. Mr. Mitchell was the patentee of several devices for locomotives and rolling stock, including automatic couplers, buffers, wagon doors, etc.

[J.J. Gifford]. 413. illustration (port).
Death on 17 October of Mr. Gifford, managing director of W.G. Bagnall Ltd., of Stafford, for the past twenty-four years, aged seventy-two. He served his apprenticeship at the Birkenhead works of Messrs. Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd., and joined the firm of W.G. Bagnall in 1886 as draughtsman. On the death of Mr. Bagnall he was appointed managing director, Mr. Gifford was of a retiring disposition, and took no active part in public affairs. He was very interested in golf, and presented a cup some years ago to the Engineering and Employers' Association to be played for each year.

[Samuel S. Scott]. 413.
Death on 26 September of Mr. Samuel S. Scott, of Stockport, aged seventy-three will be an especial loss to those who knew him through his hobby of collecting detail, of the history of the locomotives of the former L. & N.W. Ry. and its early tributary companies. As a guard working on the Euston and Manchester expresses, he had good opportunities for observation, and these he supplemented bv research in libraries and enquiries from old railwaymen, The railway officials also afforded him facilities for going through the old records at Euston and elsewhere. Although he took great pride in his records he was always willing to assist in clearing up obscure points in regard to locomotive history.

[John Riekie]
We regret to record the death of Mr. John Riekie on October 9, at the age of eighty-four. Mr. Riekie was formerly locomotive superintendent of the Oude & Rohilkund and North Western State Rys. of India. He was the inventor of a locomotive valve gear which was described in our issue of September 15 1926. Mr. Riekie took a keen interest in the compound locomotive, and originated a design of his own which proved very satisfactory on the North Western Ry. of India.

International Railway Congress at Cairo. 413.
The International Railway Congress to be held in Egypt will begin on Monday, January 16, in Alexandria, when a reception will be given by the municipality. On the following day the delegates will proceed to Cairo. On January 17 and 18 enrolment of the delegates will take place at the Congress headquarters, the Heliopolis Palace Hotel, followed by a reception of the delegates by the Commission. The official opening of the Congress will take place at the Theatre Royal de l'Opera, Cairo, on Thursday, January 19, when H.M. The King of Egypt will preside. Meetings will take place each morning from January 20 to 27 inclusive, except Sunday, January 22, when a banquet will be given by the Minister of Communications. The afternoons win be available for excursions to places of interest, including the Pyramids, the Temple of the Sphinx, the Citadel, the mosques of Mohammed Ali and the Sultan Hassan, the Museum of Arabian Art, Memphis and Saqqarah, and the Barrages. Arrangements have also been made to provide a museum of railway equipment and material.
The closing session will take place on Monday, January 30, after which the delegates wiII have the choice of two excursions, one to Luxor, returning to Cairo on Friday morning, February 3, and the other to Assuan and Luxor, in this instance reaching Cairo on Sunday evening, February 5.
Subjects for discussion have been arranged in five sections, viz "Way and Works," "Locomotives and Rolling Stock," "Working," "General," and "Light Railways and Colonial Railways." The papers on the various subjects have been prepared by representatives of railways throughout the world. The British reporters are Mr. A. Newlands, chief engineer, L.M. & S. Ry., who will deal with "The protection of level crossings in view of modern developments in road traffic"; Sir Henry Fowler, assistant to Vice-President, L.M.&S. Ry., on "Methods to be used to increase the mileage run by locomotives between two repairs, including lifting"; Mr. H. N. Gresley, chief mechanical engineer, L. & N.E. Ry., on "All-metal rolling stock; carriages and wagons. Use of light metals and alloys. Use of autogenous welding"; Mr. G. H. Crook, assistant to signal engineer, G.W. Ry., "Automatic train control and train stop. Track equipment. Locomotive fittings. Methods used for repeating signals on the locomotives. Devices intended to ensure the attention of the drivers"; and Mr. E. C. Cox, traffic manager, Southern Ry., on "Competition between or joint working of railways and airways, or railways and road ways; an investigation from the technical, commercial, and contractual points of view."

Reviews. 413
The British Standards Association
Published Standard Specification No. 468 of solid rolled steel wheels and disc wheel centres. Duplicate specifications are provided for solid rolled wheels, one of which specifies a chemical analysis and covers wheels for carriages and wagons. In the other no chemical analysis is specified, and it is restricted to wagon wheels only.

Number 484 (15 December 1932)

Rebuilt 4-6-0 passenger engine, London & North Eastern Ry.. 415-16. illustration, diagr. (s. & f. el.)
Larger boiler, based on that fitted to B17 class, but shorter barrel and longer grate, and long-travel valves: B12/3.

Mikado type locomotives for the Tientsin-Pukow Ry. 416. diagr. (s. el.)
Nasmyth Wilson supply of standard gauge 2-8-2 with bar frames via Chinese Purchasing Commission and via C.P. Sandberg for inspection. 4ft 6in coupled wheels, 20 x 28in cylinders, 1945ft2 total heating surface, 43.5ft2 grate area and 200 psi boiler pressure. 

2-6-0 locomotives for Persia. 417-18. illustration
Baldwin Locomotive Works oil burning locomotives for Southern State Railways with 3ft 10in coupled wheels, 16 x 22in cylinders, 1017ft2 total heating surface,  17.6ft2 grate artea and 175 psi boiler pressure.

[Speed-up of London coal traffic on LMS]. 418.
Seventeen daily Toton to Brent (127 miles) had been accelerated to reduce the time to 6hr 40 min at an average speed of 19 mile/h. The Beyer Garratt locomotives had assisted this change.

Heavy oil shunting locomotive, L.M. & S. Ry. 418-20. 3 illustration, diagr. (sectionalised side and front elevations), plan.
Used chassis of Midland Railway 0-6-0T No. 1831 and a Paxman engine.

Oil-electric traction units demonstration at Newcastle. 420-1. illustration
Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. products on display at the Scotswood Works to which the guests were conveyed from Newcastle Central station by the railcars Lady Hamilton and Northumbrian. Units on display included the 1700 hp diesel electric locomotive and the mobile power house units for the Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry. Guests included the President of the Board of Trade, Walter Runciman.
Oil-electric traction is also being adopted on an extensive scale by the Danish State Rys., and in Siam, Japan, Russia, Germany, and France. At Scotswood there is the largest Diesel-electric locomotive building plant in this country, including an engineering shop over 600 ft. long. Progress in the development of the oil-electric tractor in this country is largely due to the co-operation between Messrs. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. and the London & North Eastern Ry. Two Diesel shunting locomotives were on view at the Scotswood demonstration to illustrate the ease of control and rapid movement without wheel slip. Speaking at a luncheon at the Central Station Hotel, Newcastle, presided over by Major-General Guy Dawnay, Chairman of Sir W. G. Arrnstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd., Mr. Runciman said that the Prime Minister had expressed the liveliest interest and had requested him to report immediately' on his return on the prospects which the new development held out for the future. He added that oil-electric traction was an adaptation of power which had come none too soon, and which could be put to use, not only by great railways but also by great manufacturers. Lt.-Col. P. D. Ionides, vice-chairman of Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., said that a Diesel-electric coach had recently completed six months running on the L. & N.E. Ry. It had covered 25,000 miles without a hitch. The cost of fuel, lubricating oil, and running maintenance worked out at less than Id. a coach mile, and this was far cheaper than anything so far known. The saving in running cost as against a steam coach was at the rate of £1,000 a year, or as against a steam locomotive and coaches £3,000 a year. Sir Brodie Henderson said that the Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry. had run Diesel-electric engines giving precisely the same services as on two neighbouring railways electrified in the ordinary way .

Japanese Government Rys. 421.
Latest returns showed locomotive stock had been reduced from 4189 in 1931 to 4016 at the beginning of 1932. The total stock was made up of 2984 tender engines, 908 tank engines, 119 electric. locomotives, and 5 special machines. A number of "Pacific" and "Mikado" engines are under construction, and will be provided with large tenders with a water capacity sufficient to last from the Tokyo electrified area to Nagoya. The average coal consumption per locomotive mile taken over the whole steam stock was 50.5 ·Ib., that of the steam railcars being 13.5 lb. Electric locomotives show an increase of ·22 over the previous year, while among the steam locomotives scrapped are a number of American-built "Mallets." Coaching stock totals 9,553 vehicles, electric train stock 1,219, and wagon stock 65,138, including some new 25-ton covered vans designed specially to run in fast trains. Special research work includes comparative tests on the efficiency of new 2-6-4T, Mogul, and Diesel-electric locomotives, and power tests on a double-bogie electric locomotive, with a view to using it on the new central electrified section.

Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. 421
0-4-0ST WN 3894 completed fo Malta Dockyard.

Tests of "Mountain" type locomotive, P.L.M. Ry. 422-5. illustration, 2 diagrs., table
Includes version with double chimney. Includes indicator diagrams.

Petrol-electric rail-car train, Gulf,  Mobile & Northern R.R. 425-6. illustration
Contributing largely to the popularity of the G.M. & N. service between New Orleans and Covington is a 'de Luxe" trailer, with an observation platform at the rear. Good riding action in this car is augmented by leather upholstered semi-individual seats in the fore-part and individual arm-chairs in the rear. It is obvious this type of equipment is a big departure from the elementary idea of the rail-car for light traffic service, and approaches the conventional arrangement of locomotive and train, and therefore it is somewhat difficult to see its advantages over the traditiional train.

London & North Eastern Ry. 426.
The diesel electric coach Tyneside Venturer is at present stationed at Guisborough, and working between that place and Middlesbrough. Three new 250-300-h.p. Sentinel rail-cars had been delivered to the North Eastern area. After being tested they are being painted at north RoadWorks, Darlington; the first one has been named Defence, D49 No. 282 is named The Hurworth, and not as in our last issue. Another interesting link with the old Stockton and Darlington Ry, disappeared recently in that one of the old round sheds in the works yard at North Road had been pulled down to make way for an improved lay-out in the yard sidings.

Re-organisation of Research Department, L.M. & S. Ry. 426.
Following the retirement of Sir Henry Fowler, Assistant to Vice-President for Research and Development, and of Mr. T. H. Adams, Chief Chemist, early in the new year, the following changes in organisation, and personnel would be made in the L.M. & S. Research Department from 1 January 1933. The department will be under the general supervision of Sir Harold Hartley, Vice-President and Director of Research, and its headquarters will be transferred to Euston. Mr. T.M. Herbert has been appointed Research Manager, to co-ordinate the research work carried out in external institutions and in the five sections into which the department will be divided. Dr. P. Lewis-Dale would take charge of the Chemical section, and Mr. F. C. Johnson (of the Aerodynamics Department of the National Physical Laboratory), had been appointed to take charge of the Engineering Research section. Mr. E. Millington, Mr. W. Pritchard, and Mr. F. Fancutt will be responsible respectively for the sections dealing with Metallurgy, Textiles, and Paint. The general research policy of the company is supervised by an Advisory Committee on Scientific Research, consisting of a number of distinguished scientists and the company's principal technical officers. The Director of Research acts as Chairman to the Advisory Committee.  Experience gained during the past two years had indicated the great value of personal contact between members of the Research Committee and ths company's technical staff, and the reorganisation which is about to be made should further assist in facilitating this co-operation, and in co-ordinating the internal and external facilities for research now available to the company.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 426-8.

The Renaud valve gear for locomotives. 428-31. 4 diagrams.
Originally published in Rev. gen. Chemins de Fer. Poppet valves.

Vacuum brake equipment. 431-2.

Notes on early London & South Western Ry. locomotives. 432-3. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Continued from page 368-9. Nos. 201 and 202 were purchased from George England in 1865. A.C.W. Lowe had "recently discovered" that England undertook an order for 20 engines for Russia in 1854 which was subsequently cancelled. Eight were sold to the Caledonian Railway where they became Nos. 144 to 151. Fig. 19 shows them in their original condition. They became No. 9 Harrison and No. 10 Bidder in the locomotive department's list and may have been painted royal blue the standard Geroge England colour.

Aluminium for rolling stock. 433.

[Repeat order for Bagnall]. 434.
W.G. Bagnall had receiveda repeat order for four metre gauge 2-6-2Ts with 11½ x 18in cylinders from the Mysore Railways and for three 2-4-2Ts with 8 x 12in cylinders for the 2ft 6in gauge section: theese to have rotary cam poppet valves and aimed at combatting road competition.

[Transport of 92 ton transformer]. 434.
On 28 November from Ferranti facory at Hollinwood to Canada Dock power station in Liverpool om LMS 100 ton super trolley wagon.

The Egyptian State Railways. 435-7. 3 illustration
Delegates to the International Railway Congress in Cairo in January 1933 would be presented with copies of L'Egypte et des Chemins der Fer by Professor L. Wiener. The illustrations and the basis for the text came from this book: the former included one of Cairo-Luxor Train de Luxe.

Metropolitan Ry. 437.
Official opening of Stanmore branch by P.J. Pybus, Minister of Transport on 9 December.

Long travel valves. 437-9. 4 diagrs.
Notes the LNER Shire class, but observes that locomotives used on Cheltenham Flyer did not have exceptionally long travel valves.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. 439-41. 2 tables
Lubrication

Gaekwar's Baroda State Ry. 441.
Order placed with W.G. Bagnall for six 4-6-0 locomotives.

Modern articulated steam locos. 441-4.
Abstract of ILocoE paper No. 299 by Cyril W. Williams.

Electric locomotive design. VI. 445-6. 4 diagrs.
Effect of motor disposition upon weight distribution.

Locomotive & Carriage Institution. 446
Celebration of 21 years at Cannon Street Hotel on 5 November 1932. Agnew was President at this time, and J. Clayton was the Vice-President.  George Hally of the Metropolitan Railway, President-Elect and A.E. Morgan of Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co. were also present.

The Railway Club. 446.
J. Macnab spoke on the Liverpool Overhead Railway on 16 December.

Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. 446
H.J. Stretton-Ward presented moving pictures (cinefilm) at the Miller Street Dining Club, LMS Audit office on 21 November 1932 with scenes of Northern Ireland, Scotland, the Isle of Man and on the Continent.

Roller bearing axle boxes for heavy electric vehicles. 447. diagram
Hoffmann Manufacturing Co. Ltd. of Chelmsford patented (GB 176697) axlebox for Drumm battery railcar developed by the Great Southern Railways.

Developments in single-phase traction motor design. 447
R.F. Stockar paper presented at International Congress of Electricity in Paris and reproduced in Oerlikon bulletin.

[Kemp Town branch closure to passenger traffic]. 447

Steam rail-car: Turkish State Rys. 448. illustration
400 hp unit built in Germany by Esslingen with semi-automatic firing, water preheating, a grate area of 10.75ft2 and 9.85 x 19.8in cylinders.

London & North Eastern Ry. 448.
Electric coaling plant installed at King's Cross where the old Midland Railway roundhouse had been demolished; also coaling plant, sand drier and wet ashpit installed at New England depot, Peterborough; 70ft turntable, sand drier and mechanical coaling plant at Cambridge; and new engine shed and coaling plant at Frodingham.

The Fontaine locomotive. 449. illustration
Photograph of friction drive 4-2-2? at St. Thomas on the Canadian Southern Railway. Grant Locomotive product with 17 x 24in inclined cylinders and 5ft 10in driving wheel driven by a friction mechanism patented by Eugene Fonaine.

[London Midland & Scottish Railway staff appointments, etc]. 449
D.C. Urie promoted to be chief motive power superintendent based at Derby; H.G. Ivatt moved to Scotland to take place of Urie in charge of locomotive workshops in Scotland. J.E. Anderson retired.

Royal Special, L.M. & S. Ry., Northern Counties Committee. 450. illustration.
Three day visit by HRH the Prince of Wales to Northern Ireland, when he opened the new Parliament Buildings at Stormont, near Belfast, on 16 November 1932, terminated on Friday afternoon, 18 November. For his return journev to London, via Lame and Stranraer the Northern Counties Committee provided a special train from York Road Station, Belfast, to Lame Harbour. This was worked by engine No. 83 Carra Castle, as shown In the accompanying photograph. His Royal Highness crossed to Stranraer in the new turbine steamer Princess Margaret. Between Stranraer and Castle Douglas the signal boxes and crossing places for single Iine working were switched out during the night, for the normal working of the boat trains, and it would be interesting to know if the boxes were opened specially for this occasion.

Russian Rys. 450
A heavily-graded section of the main line between Batoum and Baku had been electrified by the Soviet Government on the 3,000-volts direct current system and passenger and freight traffic was being worked over the 40 miles from Zestafoni to Khashuri by very large electric locomotives, Over this mountain-pass line the grades are continuous, and vary from 1½ to 3 per cent., and to control the trains when running down hill, regenerative braking equipment  is fitted to all power. The first eight locomotives were of the Co+ Co type, the first two being built throughout in the U.S.A. For the remaining six, the motors and much of the equipment were constructed in Russia, while another seven units being put into traffic emanated from Italy. The principal dimensions of the locomotives are :-Horse- power on hourly rating, 2,725; on continuous rating, 2,425: maximum .speed, 42 m.p.h.; weight in working order, 129.5 tons; maximum axle load, 21.75 tons; bogie wheelbase 13 ft. 9 in; total wheelbase 40 ft.: six forced- ventilated nose-suspended motors with twin gears.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry, (L. & N.W. Section). 450
No. 698 was the latest 4-4-0 class 2 passenger engine to be completed and turned out at Crewe. Of this series, the first ten had been allocated as follows: Nos: 686-9 Northern Division; No. 690-1 Central Division; and Nos. 692-5, Western Division. The first of a new series of 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines was also nearing completion at Crewe," while progress was being made with the conversion of a further ten Claughtons into three-cylinder engines (class 5x). New 2-6-2 passenger tank engines ex Derby bore Nos. 15564-7.
No. 9078, class G, had been converted to superheater (class G1), and provided with a standard Belpaire boiler. In common with others of the same type, this engine was now fitted with the vacuum brake in place of the former steam brake. No. 8345, 0-6-0, 18-in. cylinders, had been fitted with raised footplate and larger (2,500-gallon) tender.
The following engines were running rebuilt with standard boilers:19 in. goods class, Nos. 8733, 8743, 8749; G1 class, Nos. 9022, 9184; G2 class, No. 9401. Fitted with cabs to suit the Midland loading gauge: G1 class, Nos. 9003, 9316.
Rebuilt three-cylinder Claughtons, Nos. 5983 and 5992, were stationed at Leeds (Midland Division), and both had been observed working into St. Pancras, alternately with others of the same type stationed at Kentish Town shed. The remaining N.S. Ry, 2-4-0 and 2-4-2 passenger tank engines of classes A and B were either broken up or in the works at Crewe awaiting scrapping.
Kitson & Co., of Leeds, had commenced the delivery of five new type 0-4-0 shunting engines, these being numbered 1540-4. Five new 4-4-0 compounds had left the Derby Works, and two of them, Nos. 938-9, had been noted at work in the Glasgow district.

Mr. T. R. Perkins. 450
of Henley-in-Arden, had recently completed his self-imposed task of travelling over the whole of the railway system of the British Isles, aggregating some 22,000 miles. It had taken him nearly forty years of systematic travel to enable him to say he has been over every mile of railway that is regularly used by passenger trains. Most of his journeys have been made in his annual holidays, with a few odd trips, when opportunity occurred. On several occasions Perkins had contributed articles on various little-known railways to our pages, while for the entertainment of his railway-enthusiast friends he compiles, after each of his journeys, a most informative account of his observations. He also writes a second chronicle of more general interest for private circulation. By profession Mr. Perkins is a chemist, and therefore has very little opportunity for travel in the course .of his business, but he prepares the itinerary of his tours WIth the utmost attention to detail, and the arrangement of the time-table is quite a fine art. .

Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. Ltd., 450
received an order from the Egyptian State Rys. for two narrow gauge 2-8-2 tender locomotives for the Western Oases Ry. They are also making two locomotive boilers for the Assam Railway and Trading Co. Ltd.

Correspondence. 451.

Single-expansion articulated locomotives
Correspondent in the United States wrote: there had been a growing tendency to substitute simple for compound cylinders on the large articulated (or, more correctly, SEMI-RIGID) locomotives used for special purposes by many American railways. This has led to some discussion regarding the proper nomenclature in connection with such locomotives. The present writer holds the opinion that so-called articulated locomotives should be primarily classified in accordance with the structural features and relationship of boiler and running gear, without regard to the question of simple or compound cylinders. Certain American writers and engineers, possibly unacquainted with the complete history of articulated locomotives, evidently entertain the view that they should be divided into two classes, dependent on whether the engines are compound or simple. Those who adopt this standpoint, if they wish to be logical, must place the locomotive illustrated on page 204 of your June number and that shown on page 269 of your August number in the same category, though they are totally different machines. The current number of a publication issued by an American locomotive building firm contains the following statement :- "The single-expansion articulated locomotive is frequently but erroneously referred to as a 'Mallet.' The boiler and running gear are alike in the two types, but M. Mallet was a strong advocate of compounding ... and the term 'Mallet' should be omitted when discussing the single-expansion type." Four-cylinder simple locomotives, with semi-rigid running gear constructed on the Mallet principle, were introduced into South Africa, Canada, and the United States a little over twenty years ago. Two designs of this type are fully illustrated in the 1912 edition of the well-known Locomotive Dictionary, and are there referred to as "'Mallet Simple Articulated Locomotives." One is tempted to wonder why M. Mallet's name has become anathema at this late date. If American locomotive builders are reluctant to use the name. of a foreign engineer in connection with their product, certainly they should have no difficulty in devising some appropriate title, more distinctively descriptive than "Single- expansion Articulated."

French Crampton locomotives. A.M.H. Solomon.
Re account of the French Crampton engines I observe references to the additions made to them at various periods of their existence. It may be appropriate to record an Important change in detail of design incorporated in some of these locomotives supplied to the Northern Ry., viz., Walschaerts valve gear. My authority is the supplemental volume, published in 1865 of the Guide du Mecanicien Constructeur, by Messrs. Le Chatelier, Flachat, Petiet, and Polonceau, in. which it is stated that this gear was applied successfully to a series of Crampton .locomotives in 1859. A drawing of the gear is given, with a table of particulars of the distribution in fore and back gear, corresponding to the position of the lever in the sector notches. The original volume, published in 1859 of the above-mentioned work contains an illustration of a Nord Crampton dated 1849; this engme has the usual link motion and no dome. I believe that at the time of the building of the Crarnptons the title of the firm of Cail was Derosne et Cail. During the autumn of 1912 I saw an occasional Crampton while on the Est Ry. between Paris and Nancy.

Providing lead for piston or slide valves. C.F.I. Batt
See precis of paper on page 397: writer's experience of marine valve gears prompted him to point out that C.A. Cardew had omitted the most important reason for providing lead. Due to the obliquity of the connecting rod if the lap is the same at both ends the position of piston at cut-off will be later, and therefore the power exerted in the stroke towards the crank will be greater than in the stroke from the crank. To neutralise this effect more lead is given to the-inside end, bringing the points of cut-off nearer to one another. Some of the valve gears in locomotives may allow for this. He had not had time to delve deeply into the theory of their working, and should like to hear more on this matter from readers of your excellent journal. He  did not agree with the 10% saving in steam consumption :'Ifr. Cardew mentions being obtained by reducing clearance from .08 to .04. My theoretical working only attains 6.5 % .

Reminiscences of an Irish Locomotive Works. J.H. McDowell
The writer has been reading with considerable interest E. Joynt's "Reminiscences," for he was at the same school a year or two earlier, and in the same class as G. A. Joynt, a relative. . The writer's acquaintance with the G.S. & W. Ry. began about 1904-5, when he often travelled from Dublin to Cork by the mall train,. when Engine 321, in charge of Paddy McKinley, a little red-haired man, who wore a hard hat, was the latest pattern of 4-4-0 and was fitted with Marine type big ends. It is of interest to note that the G.S. & W. Ry. was the only railway in the United Kmgdom and Ireland to use a two pipe automatic. vacuum brake in regular service. This brake was described in THE LOCOMOTIVE several years ago, but some details may be of interest, as probably they have reverted to the standard one pipe system by now. Most of the details of the brake were designed and made in Inchicore Works. There were two train pipes, an 1½ in. and a 2 in. which were quite separate and could not be coupled together. On the engine and each carnage the 2  in. pipe was connected direct to the bottom Side of the brake cylinder, which was of the flexible diaphragm piston type, the piston rod being made air-tight by a . collapsible rubber stocking .. The 1½ in. pipe communicated with the top of the brake cylinder through a casting containing a brass ball valve with release lever; this casting was arranged so that two brake cylinders could be connected to it. On the engine both train pipes were terminated in a short pillar close to the driver's seat, and convenient to his hand. On the top of this was placed the application handle, which could move rather more than ¼ turn vertically. In running position It stood vertical and then both 1½ in. and 2 in. train pipes were connected together through it and vacuum maintained in both. On the engine the large and small ejectors were connected to the 1½ in. pipe only and so always exhausted from it direct, and from the 2 in. pipe through the brake valve when in running position. When the latter was moved backwards to apply the brake, it first shut off communication between  1½ in in. and 2 in. pipes and then admitted air to the 2 in. pipe, applying the brake, while the ejectors still maintained a vacuum above all the brake pistons via the 1½ in pipe, direct, and so no vacuum reservoirs were required. The brake was also automatic in case of a break away, and was an interesting variation of standard brake practice.

Reviews. 452
Locomotives of the Netherlands Rys. H. Waldrop. Hilversum.
Oil engine traction. Alan E.L. Chorlton. Royal Society of Arts.
Based on Howard Lectures.