The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 48 (1942)
Key file

Number 593 (15 January 1942)

Balancing locomotives. 1-2.

4-6-2 metre gauge locomotives, Assam-Bengal Railway. 2-3. illustration.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 3-6. 4 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)

Locomotive balancing. 7-11. 2 diagrams, table

Fireboxes. 11

H. Fayle. The Belfast & County Down Rly., and its locomotives. 12-14. 6 illustrations

Miniature railways. 14-17. 5 illustrations.
Duffield Bank Railway

Correspondence. 18

L.N.W.R., S.D., No. 300. Henry W. Dearberg.
In reply to Mr. Dendy Marshall's letter on the subject of McConnell's locomotives on the L.N.W.R. No. 300, the engine referred to, was a double-frame single with 18 in. by 24 in. cylinders with driving-wheels 7 ft. 6 in. in diameter. The cylinder with valve-chests above the cylinders, were 1 ft. lO½ in. between centres. The outside journals of the driving-axles were 7 in. diameter and 10 in. long. The inside journals were 7 in. diameter and 4¼ in. long. The eccentrics were between the cranks. . The inside-frames extended from behind the crank-axle to the tube-plate of the smoke-box. The cylinders were anchored to the smoke-box and by diagonal-stays to the outside-frames.

Locomotive performance on the G.W.R. H. Holcroft. 18
There is one statement in Nock's excellent article on the performance of G.W.R. two-cylinder engines which, for the sake of accuracy in historical record and due credit to the designer, calls for amendment. He states on page 260 of the December issue of The Locomotive that the 43XX Class were originally designed for fast goods traffic and goes on to say that at the time of their design passenger duties contemplated were excursion trains and other classes of traffic, which, if heavy, would not require high sustained speed.
In actual fact the class was originally designed for mixed traffic in order to supersede the double-framed engines originating in Mr. W. Dean's time and continuing under Mr. Churchward with standard tapered boilers. These included the 4-4-0 types with 6 ft. 8½ in. wheels (Atbaras, Flowers, etc.), 4-4-0 types with 5 ft. 8 in. wheels (Bulldogs, etc.) and the 2-6-0 type with 4 ft. 7½ in. wheels known as the Aberdare goods. By 1909 these older 4-wheel coupled classes had been relegated to semi-fast or branch line passenger working and when more engine power was needed for this secondary traffic and for main line freight, it was not felt to be desirable to perpetuate out-of-date designs, although many of the parts were interchangeable between the various classes of double-framed engines.
The 43XX Class was evolved to take their place, a single class improving the availability of engines at sheds and reducing the number of spare parts required to be kept in stock. Their tractive effort and boiler power made them the equal of the Aberdare goods, while the wheel diameter enabled them to run as fast as the Bulldogs." As compared with the 6 ft. 8½ in. wheel engines, it was thought that while their maximum speed on the level and down grades would not be as great, they would make up for it by higher acceleration and better speed on up gradients, so that in many cases they could maintain the same average speed as the bigger wheeled engines. The 2-6-0 general purpose type with 5 ft. 8 in. wheels was therefore a new departure in locomotive practice and it should be acknowledged as such.
Its success is evidenced by the hundreds built, not only for the Great Western, but in later years for the other British railways.
What happened to the first batch of engines handed over to the locomotive running department is another matter. It may be as Mr. Nock says, that they were at first used on fast goods and heavy excursion trains until their capabilities were known, but in any case it was not long before they were also put to work in passenger service, as intended by their designer, Mr. Churchward.

Southern Railway.  18
Bishopstone Beach Halt on the Seaford Branch was closed for traffic as from 1 January.

Railway Club. 18
At a meeting held in London on 6 December G. A. Newman read a paper on the Midland & South Western Junction Railway.

Rolling stock for Iran. 18
To improve war transport in Iran locomotives have been shipped from Australia. It is also proposed to borrow some from Egypt and replace them from America.

G.N.R. Stirling passenger tank, No. 121, passing the 10th mile post in Hadley Woods on an up main line local train. 18. illustration
The scene depicted is just south of the bottle neck from Greenwood box to Potters Bar where only a double line exists for all classes of traffic, no relief roads having so far been provided on account of the three tunnels which would have to be duplicated. The down train shewn is an empty passenger stock one waiting to proceed after the passage of a down express. The engine on the up train was one of the 13 0-4-2 well tanks designed and built by Stirling in tbe: yens 1868-1871. They were numbered 116 to 119, 121 to 123, 125 to 127, 129 and 131 and 132. All except two, Nos. 126 and 127, were fitted with condensing apparatus for the London underground working. These two exceptions never came to London, but remained throughout their career in country' districts mostly in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

Southern Railway.  18
The fourth engine of the Merchant Navy class Pacific type locomotives, No. 21C4, has been named Cunard White Star. The ceremony took place at Charing Cross Station on 1 January when Sir Percy Bates, Bart., G.B.E., chairman of Cunard White Star, Ltd., named the engine after inspecting a guard of honour from the Southern Railway Home Guard. It may be recalled that the White Star line inaugurated a service between the ports of Southampton and New York in 1908. The Cunard and White Star lines were merged in 1934.

Railway Clearing House. 18
The first meeting of the Railway Clearing House was held on 26 April 1842, at 111, Drummond Street, near Euston Station. The building was destroyed in an air raid last year. The larger premises in Eversholt Street (formerly Seymour Street) were opened in 1847. About thirty years ago the staff totalled nearly 2,400.

Number 594 (14 February 1942)

A large locomotive. 19

Southern electric locomotive. 20. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
CC1 Alfred Raworth, O.V. Bulleid [misspelt as Bullied] design, built at Ashford

E.C. Poultney. Union Pacific 4-8-8-4 locomotives for fast freight. 21-3. illustration, diagram
Diagram shows arrangement of blast pipes. Deasigned for working between Ogden in Utah and Green River in Wyoming. 150ft2 grate area.

Obituary. 23

A.C.W. Lowe
It is with deep regret that we have to record the death on February 3rd of A.C. Willoughby Lowe, at the Julian Courtauld Hospital, Braintree. He had been associated with The Locomotive from its birth in 1896—contributing regularly and checking the proofs of every issue until last month. "The Locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway" was one of the many articles he compiled.
Lowe was we believe one of the greatest authorities on railway history and devoted a lot of time and energy investigating some of the mysteries surrounding early developments, especially points in connection with the older locomotive designs. He travelled over almost every mile of railway in this country and made numerous journeys to the Continent in search of material for his records.
For many years Mr. Lowe was with the old Great Eastern Railway—first at Stratford and latterly at Norwich where he held the post of District Locomotive Superintendent. Lowe was Master of Arts and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.

W.F. Pettigrew
Death, on January 22, of William Frank Pettigrew who from 1897 to 1918 was Locomotive. Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the Furness Railways.
Mr. Pettigrew received his training at the Stratford Works of what was at that time the Great Eastern Railway being articled to W. Adams, the Locomotive Superintendent. When Mr. Adams left to go to the London and South Western, Mr. Pettigrew completed his pupilage with Massey Bromley the new Superintendent and subseqluently served as Assistant Manager of the works, first under T. W. Worsdell and then under James Holden. Later Pettigrew re-joined his old chief Adams as Works Manager of the Nine Elms Shops in which capacity he remained until his appointment in 1897 to the post of Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendent of the Furness Railways. At the time, this was an entirely new position, previously the duties having been shared between R. Mason in charge of locomotives and Sutton the carriage and wagon stock. Pettigrew retired at the end of March, 1918, after 21 years' service, during which period great and far reaching changes took place not only in the provision of larger and more powerful locomotives, but also in the design of the carriages as well, which were greatly improved in respect of the comfort of passengers and in appearance. It may be recorded that the Furness line was one of the first to standardise electric lighting using the Stone's system.
Pettigrew was a well-known and greatly respected member of the engineering profession. He contributed to the proceedings of the Institutions of the Civil and the Mechanical Engineers, both of which he was a member, and also to the proceedings of the Iron and Steel Institute. Pettigrew was a Past President of the Association of Railway Locomotive Engineers of Great Britain and Ireland, President of the Barrow Association of Engineers, in addition he tuok great interest in technical education during the time he lived at Barrow. In 1905 he acted as reporter on Automatic Couplers to the International Railway Congress held at Washington, D.C., U.S.A .. Pettigrew, died at his home Cashel. Redhill, Surrey, in his 84th year. E. C. P.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 33-7. 2 illustrations
SCR No, 7 with Alexander Allan on footplate.

Number 595 (14 March 1942)

Electric locomotives. 41.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 48-9

Some reminiscences of the late A. C. W. Lowe by an Old Friend (signed T.F.B.: KPJ must be Budden). 56
We first met on the platform of the G.E.R. Station at Cambridge in 1886, we were both looking at an engine, and on speaking to one another we soon found that we had many interests in common. He was an undergraduate at "Trinity" and I was at "Gonville and Caius." After that we met casually many times at the same place, and struck up a friendship which lasted over 50 years. In those days the G.E.R. trains were mostly worked by Worsdell's compounds or the old "Sinclair" 2-4-0, while the "Doncaster" or in common parlance "The Donkey" had one of the Bromley 4-2-2 type. The L. & N.W.R. often used a 2-2-2 Fortuna or a 2-4-0 Sphinx. The G.N.R. had usually a "Stirling" 2-4-0 of the 87 class or occasionally an old "Sturrock" 2-2-2. The G.E.R. down trains stopped at the North end of the long platform, and the up trains at the Southern end, this of course necessitated a crossing in the centre, usually called the Scissors. There was great interest when 710 the first of Holden's 2-4-0s made its appearance. The reversing gear was worked by a wheel instead of the old-fashioned lever; Lowe and I were watching a down-train pass over the "scissors" and the driver had his hand on this wheel. A stranger came up to us and remarked "That driver steers well doesn't he "! This amused Lowe immensely, and we often used to refer to it in later days. Lowe was very interested in the Paris Exhibition of 1889, to which three English Railway Companies sent engines. The Midland was represented by one of Johnson's singles, the L.B. & S.C.R. sent Edward Blount a 0-4-2, and the S.E.R. 240 a Jarnes Stirling 4-4-0. A special trial was arranged over a stretch of line on the P.L.M. ; the Midland was an easy winner. Then the coupled engines had their coupling-rods removed and ran as singles. They did better, but even then were not so fast as the Midland. For experimental reasons one of Holden's 2-4-0 engines had its coupling rods removed and was tried as a "single." The results were so successful that No. 789 a 2-2-2 was built and was followed a little later by a batch of very similar engines.
When Lowe left Cambridge he went as a pupil to Stratford Works and I became a medical student at University College in Gower Street. He had lodgings first at Stratford and afterwards at Wood Green where at both places I frequently visited him. We also used to meet at various Termini and look round the engines. On one occasion when we were at Euston Greater Britain made one of its first visits to London. "Almost long enough for a cricket pitch" remarked Lowe. We both admired the beautiful way in which the Midland engines were kept, Lowe said "he believed they varnished their chimneys every day." Even the lamps had the drivers' names neatly painted on them. One day I received a letter from him asking me to meet him at Stratford the following afternoon, and "bring your camera" he wrote. On a siding a "Sinclair" 2-2-2 was standing, waiting its turn for the scrap heap. I was fortunate enough to get a fairly good photo of this old veteran.
Later on he went to Norwich as District Locomotive Superintendent and I took a medical post at Worcester, so our opportunities of meeting were very much reduced but we corresponded fairly regularly; whenever I wanted information about railways I always asked him, and I think that in practically every instance he was able to tell me what I wanted to know. I never knew anyone with such a good and accurate memory, and his knowledge of railway matters was simply colossal! In his death railway enthusiasts have suffered a great and irreparable loss! T.F.B.

The Irish Railway Society's Bulletin. 56
No. 50, contains amnng its interesting contributions one by Mr. H. Fayle, "Waterford as a Railway Centre." In describing the Waterford and Tramore Railway and - its rolling stock, the author refers to the chief officers and says:-" undoubtedly the locomotive superintendent, Henry Waugh, was one of the most remarkable railwaymen that it has ever been my good fortune to meet; born in Dublin in 1827, he was apprenticed to Rendell & Lamphrey, a Dublin firm of engineers, in 1841, and remained there till JS5I, when he went to the Dublin & Drogheda Railway as a fitter till 1854. He then joined the Waterford & Kilkenny Railway as a driver and fitter, becoming assistant locomotive superintendent in 1858, and locomotive superintendent of the Waterford & Tramore Railway in 1860. He held this last post right up to his death, about 1905, and when I met him, he was already approaching eighty.
In his early years he must have been a striking figure about 6 ft. in height, though a slight stoop and considerable lameness, necessitating the use of a stick, had somewhat reduced his activities; his hair was white and his face was bearded. The remuneration attached to the job cannot have been very high, it is-doubtful if it reached £3 a week, so Henry had a second string to his bow in the form of a shoe-repairing business, which was carried on in premises not far from the station. Just how he came to take up this profession has never been explained, but my own surmise is that he inherited the business from a relative. I regret to say that I sadly neglected my opportunities, as Henry Waugh would have been just the person to clear up the lacunae in our early locomotive histories. He told me the Tramore Board of Directors had never grudged him a penny for repairs or paint for the rolling stock, and certainly it was always very spick and span during his period of office; indeed he made a very good job of reboilering and rebuilding three of the locomotives, considering the limited resources at his command.
" When the D.W.W.R. extended their line to Waterford in 1904 he opined that this railway' would be a very useful feeder to the Tramore line,' a somewhat naive statement considering the relative sizes of the two systems. He could not understand why Waterford had not a tramway system, though it was patent that there was not sufficient traffic to support one. On one point, however, Henry was firm- riding on the footplate could not be permitted; , it's against Board of Trade regulations' he exclaimed in horror when the subject was broached, and nothing would induce him to budge from this attitude."

Number 506 (15 April 1942)

The railway oil engine. 63-4
Editorial comment on Brian Reed's paper presented to the North East Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders at Newcastle-on-Tyne: railcars and locomotives.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. . -66

2-10-4 locomotive Central Railway of Brazil. 72. illustration
Metre gauge: very large (70.3ft2) grate due to low calorific value of Brazilian coal; 2250ft2 total evaporative heating surface; 20 x 24in cylinders; 4ft diameter coupled wheels; 243 psi boiler pressure.

Beighton accident. 72
Occurred on 11 February when a nortbound troop train on the LNER Nottingham to Sheffield line struck a heavy steel plate on a stationary wagon in Holbrook Colliery Sidings. The steel plate penetrated some of the coaches carrying 400 naval or military persons and 14 soldiers were killed and 35 were seriously injured. J.L.M. Moore, Director General of the Ministry of War Transport deprecated the lack of secure means for retaining the plate.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 73-6.

New 0-6-0 freight engines, Southern Railway. 79-81. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Bulleid austerity 0-6-0 Q1. See W.B. Thomson comment on p. 116

Correspondence. 82

"Webb" compounds. John W. Smith.
Continuing to read with interest the excellent articles on L. & N.W. compounds, by F. C. Hambleton, I regret that they could not have been consecutively presented for easy reference. There now remains to be described the 5 ft. 4-6-0 machines of 1903—Webb's last compound—they were not very successful by all accounts. C. J. Allen, speaking some years ago to a branch meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers remarked he would not refer to Webb's work—speaking on Compound Locomotives —as the engines were not well designed, though it cannot be said that interest in Webbs work is lacking as recent articles and correspondence show. The L. & N.W. locomotive remained consistently true to Crewe traditions right up to the grouping, a circumstance that can hardly be claimed by other contemporary systems. It is to be regretted that no illustration of Whale's modification to Joy's gear on the King Alfred compounds has ever appeared in The Locomotive and it will be recollected that the locomotive's appearance was not enhanced by such alterations. The standard tender until the end of Webb's reign was a singular, though attractive vehicle, it differed little from the days of Ramsbottom. The features were snap head rivets, large tool boxes, inclined coal rails and in a few cases towards the end sand pipes to the forward wheels: notable too was the wooden frame. The long continuation of wood brake blocks was remarkable, the hangers of which were in tension, a sound mechanical arrangement, specially on a vehi le whose running was mostly in a forward direction. Another feature of Webb's practice was the combined engine and tender brake actuating gear, whereby a floating lever self compensated both vehicles in exact proportion to their requirements.
Tenders on the L. & N.W. were separately numbered in the stock of that company, and doubtless they were changed about from engine to engine as required by repairs to either unit from time to time. Engineering for 1883, Vol. 37, describes the Dreadnought compound, with drawings and a fine woodcut, though no tender is shown, there are also details of the Metropolitan type of 4-4-0 tanks, while the same journal for 1887 contains the correspondence by "Argus" and others, which makes illuminating reading.

W.F. Pettigrew. H.W. Davis
In the obituary notice in your current issue concerning W.F. Pettigrew you refer to his contributions to the proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers and the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, but reference to his principal literary work A Manual of Locomotive Engineering published about 1895 is omitted. It was an outstanding work on locomotive practice of the period, was full of useful practical and theoretical information and had a large circulation. In fact no locomotive engineers library was considered complete without it forty years ago.

Great Western Railway. 82
The Southall & Brentford branch to be closed for passenger traffic on and from 14 May: this branch was one of those closed for a time during WW1.

Swedish Railways. 82
Locomotives in Sweden were burning wood as fuel, especially on the secondary lines. Wood firing necessitated the withdrawal from circulation of some of the large and heavier types of carriages.

Reviews  82

The Phillimore Railway Collection. Catalogue of Sale. Sotheby & Co.,   82
In connection with the sale by Messrs. Sotheby & Co., of the railway collection of the late John Phillimore on 28 April, an interesting and comprehensive catalogue has been received from that well-known firm of auctioneers. This publication comprises 52 pages in which are listed in detail the 345 items which are for sale, and is illustrated with eight half-tone plates depicting subjects in the collection.
Mr. Phillimore was an assiduous collector of railway material dating from the earliest days, including books, maps, manuscripts, coloured prints, pottery and snuff boxes with representations of trains or locomotives. There are many items in the collection relating to the Stockton & Darlington, Liverpool & Manchester, London & Birmingham and other pioneer railways. . The coloured prints and also the railway pottery are unique collections..
. The George Stephenson collection is worthy of special mention containing as it does numerous autographs, letters, portraits and relics of that great Railway Engineer. Other subjects included in the collection comprise railway medals and tokens, railway passes in gold, silver and other metals, etc., a selection of passenger tickets covering the years 1832-1873, and time tables issued during the period

Victorian Railways. 82
In 1922/23, the Department built at the Newport shops ten light line 2-8-0 engines of the K class, numbered 100-109 (Ref. LM. p. 7. 1923).
Though the design was then some 16 years old, the first draft had proved so successful, that further engines of the same class and dimensions, though with modifications, began to be added in 1940 and there are now 29 of the later engines, making with the original ten 39 very useful units. To make one" bloc" of all the" K's," the first ten were renumbered 140-149, and the newer ones bear numbers 150-178 (Re£. LM. p. 120/41).
Work was being pushed on with in the output of the much larger 2-8-2 X class engines and ten of these are more or less on order, though naturally nowadays all output is subject to availability of material. When in running these will be numbered from 46 onwards, there being' already 19 of the class in service, though the last eight are a modification of the first  eleven of the class 27-37 (Ref. LM. p. 139/29).
H 220, though designed for express running as far as Ararat on the Overland to Adelaide, is still prevented by road conditions from taking up this work and is engaged chiefly on fast freight to the New South Wales border at Wodonga/Albury, with an interlotted passenger trip on the same track (Re£. LM. pp. 99 and 164/41). The official figures as at June 30th, 1941 (and with additions and subtractions they must be still about the same) were:
Steam Locomotives


Electric Locomotives


Steam Cranes


Steam Coaching Stock


Electric Coaching Stock


Rail Motor Passenger Vehicles


Goods Vehicles.


Service Vehicles


L.N.E.R. (North Eastern Area). 82
On and from 4 May, High Westwood station on the Scotswood-Blackhill branch closed for passenger traffic.

Number 507 (15 May 1942)

The modern 0-6-0.  83.

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 94-5. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
The competition between the Caledonian and the Edinburgh and Glasgow had, as was only to be expected, repercussions·on the locomotive department at Cowl airs. The Edinburgh and Glasgow, upon whose track the world's first electric locomotive had run in 1842 - if locomotive Davidson's machine can be called - was still receptive to new ideas.
In 1847 Mr. Samuel of the Eastern Counties Railway had introduced the steam rail-car, and this had developed into the 'Light express', consisting of a very small tank engine and three or four four-wheeled carriages. The intention was to run a frequent service with these cheap units to supplement the ordinary trains, thus gaining the advantage which the motor coach has exploited in recent years of departure times to suit everyone. The Edinburgh and Glasgow decided that 'light expresses' were the answer to the competitive Caledonian service.
Messrs. George England of London were builders who specialised in small tank engines, and from them the Cowlairs people hired a 2-2-2 well tank with outside frames only, the 9 in. by 12 in. cylinders being mounted inside the frames but behind the smokebox, and driving 4 ft. 6 in. diameter wheels. This engine, which was named England, had a wheelbase of 15 ft., a very long boiler of small diameter, and a haystack firebox. Before long it had broken its crank axle, and it cannot be said to have been an unqualified success. It is interesting in that it was the first locomotive to be built with a raised front or capuchon to the chimney to prevent a back draught. Ahrons commented on the unsuitability of this on a tank engine, designed to travel bunker first on branch lines, but in justification of George England's good sense it must be pointed out that this was a main line engine, which would normally be turned round at the end of each run.
Possibly as a result of criticisms of this engine, Messrs. England modified the design considerably in later engines, reducing the wheelbase to 12 ft. 8 in. and fitting flangeless driving wheels. The modified design incorporated a boiler of more normal proportions with a round- topped firebox.
Before long we find the Edinburgh and Glasgow operating an England 'light express tank' named Wee Scotland, and it is open to the reader to surmise whether this was England renamed, or whether the latter was returned to the owners as unsatisfactory, and was replaced by the makers with one of the later and even smaller locomotives; appropriately enough given the new name. Whether or no England and Wee Scotland were the same engine, an England tank bearing the latter name, which had been on hire to the Edinburgh and Glasgow, was bought by the railway in 1856 and was shortly afterwards withdrawn.
To work with England on the 'light expresses' the Edinburgh and Glasgow bought from Messrs. Neilson in 1850 another design of lightweight 2-2-2 well tank. This was designed by W. Bridges Adams, and was derived from the 2-2-0 type·built under Mr. Samuel's patents for such lines as the Londonderry and Enniskillen and the Morayshire. It was named Atalanta. The 10 in. by 14 in. cylinders were placed outside, but behind the smokebox, and drove 5 ft. wheels. Inside plate frames were used, with slots cut in them above the carrying axleboxes for the springs. A dome of prodigious height and slenderness was placed just behind the chimney, and from this outside steam- pipes led to the cylinders. There was no weatherboard. A minor but interesting point in all the Adam-designed light tanks was the use of nine spokes for the carrying wheels.
A photograph of Atalanta, taken at Cowlairs Junction in 1856, shows the engine in its original condition. It was then numbered 88, but the Edinburgh and Glasgow company followed a confusing policy of renumbering the locomotive stock from time to time. A sister engine of Atalanta was built at the same time for the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction company, and ultimately came into the possession of the Edinburgh and Glasgow. The latter engine at some time in its career had a weatherboard added to it, mounted on a peculiar false casing well above the rear half of the firebox, and also had been graced by sandboxes added to the front of the driving splashers. This was the engine which became 'The Cab' on the North British, when it was numbered successively 312, 879 and 1079. Taken all in all the 'light expresses' were not a success, and after they had been ordered, but before they became an accepted part of main line operation, the fares war with the Caledonian came to an end. In consequence there was no reason to perpetuate such locomotives as the England and Neilson tanks, which drifted out of main line work, and were found to be unsuitable for the lesser traffic. The Edinburgh and Glasgow had disposed of their own examples of the type by the end of 1864, and only that from the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction remained.
Paton now turned his attention to improving some of the original 13 in. passenger engines. The 'Burys' were quite unsuitable for main line traffic by this time owing to their lack of power and to the unsteadiness of four-wheeled engines at speed. Thanks to the competition with the Caledonian expenditure was an important matter with the Edinburgh and Glasgow, and he therefore set about rebuilding the 2-2-0 machines as cheaply as possible. The design of Bury's bar frames more or less determined the continued use of the D-shaped haystack firebox, and precluded the fitting of a larger boiler if the locomotive were converted into a 2-2-2 by extending the frames to the rear. Paton consequently lengthened the frames by 3 ft. in front and added a small pair of carrying wheels, converting the engine into a 4-2-0, thus, presumably, infringing Stephenson's 'Long boiler' patent. The cylinders were enlarged to 14 in. by 18 in., and were placed 3 ft. further forward, but the original connecting rods were used, necessitating very long piston rods and slides. Stephenson gear replaced the original gab motion, and a boiler of increased length was fitted, with, however, a small Bury-type of fire box. The resulting engine was peculiar in appearance and not very satisfactory in service, as it was still unsteady at speed. Only one or two conversions were made.
At this point Daniel Kinnear Clark comes into the story. A railway engineer, he found himself out of a job as a result of the slump in railway work following the Railway Mania, and he decided to make use of his time by writing an authoritative work on railway locomotives, rolling stock and equipment. To that end he got permis- sion from Paton of the Edinburgh and Glasgow and from Sinclair, by then general manager of the Caledonian, to conduct lengthy experiments on the engines of those two lines, in order to determine, as he hoped, once and for all the relative merits of locomotives with outside and with inside cylinders. Largely on data collected in 1850 and 1851 in these experiments he wrote Railway Machinery.
Clark carried out his work on several Caledonian engines of the outside-cylindered 2-2-2, 2-4-0, 0-4-2 and 0-6-0 types, on an ex-Glasgow, Paisley and Greenock Sharp 2-2-2 with inside cylinders, and on the following Edinburgh and Glasgow machines: the Cowlairs singles Orion and Sirius, the 16 in. Hawthorn singles Nile and America, the 13 in. Hawthorn single Euclid, the 'Sharpies' Hebe and Jupiter, the Neilson single Pallas, the England 2-2-2WT England and the Paton 4-2-0 rebuild of the Bury 2-2-0 Brindey. He also turned his attention to Paten's latest experiment, Edinburgh and Glasgow No. 61

Number 598 (15 June 1942)

Freight stock of the future. 101
There are a good number of pointers to indicate that English railway operation in the years subsequent to the war and the chaotic period immediately after it, w'ill not be entirely along the lines to which we have been accustomed, and several major changes in principle are not unlikely. Although improvements and alterations will pr~bably be made in every phase of railway workimg , none should exceed in Importance those made to freight rolling stock and Its operation, not only by reason of the technical modifications but also because of the vast number of vehicles involved.
Even though more traffic goes to the roads, and some of the longer-distance high-speed passenger traffic to the an as foreshadowed already by Sir Ernest Lemon, of the L.M.S.R., increased track capacity of main and suburban lines and certain other routes will certainly be included in the desiderata. Yet whatever the signalling improve- ments adopted, there will have to be a smaller differential between the speeds of passenger and freight trams. As the greater bar at present to the increased commercial speed of goods trains is inadequate braking power, the fitting of automatic brakes t? a'11~ or the great majority, of goods vehicles m this country should be the first major task m this field., Moreover, if a big programme of fittmg automatic brakes was to be initiated one might as well go further to automatic couplers at the same time, and have the braking connections embodied in the couplers.
More than once the larger capacity wagon has been mooted, and sometimes pushed, as one of the best solutions to the difficulties of freight train working. In this country it is largely a fallacy. It IS true that for certain specialised traffics, such as coal,. bricks, and iron ore transported over specific routes or area, much can be done in this direction, but for the huge amount of miscel- laneous freight traffic the trouble has been to get a constant sbrearn of similar or suitable paying Ioads to fill 10-ton wagons going to the same destination. If the track capacity was increased by better si,gnalling and braking, another method of speeding up trains would be to run lighter local and stopping goods trains, and more of them; the time lost in wayside shunting by anyone train would thus be greatly reduced, and the locomotive itself would handle the train more smartly, and might even be of smaller size. The type of working resulting from all these improvements would thus be a httle closer to the operating ideal of every unit with rts own :power, although still a long way from it. In fact, i't would not be surprising to see frelg;ht traffic on branch lines, at least, handled by some type of railcar which would have a coosiderable am~unt of revenue earning space, and thus reduce stILl further the trailing weight for any given weight of pay load.
Improved design and construction of the wagons themselves — leadmg to economy in cost, lower tare weight, and easier mamtenance — can be anticipated along a number of avenues. For example, roller bearings not only reduce the rolling resistance of the stock considerably, but also effect a great. savmg m the maintenance labour and material charges because of the extraordinarily Iittle attention they need while in traffic. Greater attention will be needed in the design of the suspension to provide the right characteristics for both loaded and empty vehicles, and this problem is sure to become more acute with any reduction in tare load for .a given carrying capacity and with any geeneral increase in speed. Fewer vertical oscillations and lesser amplitude are required to eliminate empties jumping off the rails at speed. For some time after· the war it is unlikely that many high-grade metals, such as aluminium or high-alloy steels, will be available in any great quamtities for freight stock construction. Home and foreign production may be needed for more urgent purposes. This is not altogether a disadvantage Use of a high-alloy high-tensile steel, or of aluminium alloys, could result in a great decrease m tare weight, but to be economical all round — that is, in weight saving, construction cost, maintenance cost, and depreciation — full use would have to be made of these expensive materials, and the proportion of the tare weight to the gross weight would then, in many examples, be so low that trouble would be met in getting brake equipment which would give an adequate retaJrding. force for a fully-laden wagon and yet one not higih enough to cause the wheels of empties to slide. Lower-alloy steels with a slightly greater ultimate tensile strength, and appreciably greater ducti:lity and resistance to corrosion, than ordinary carbon steels, seem to offer the best solution at the moment, particularly if used in conjunction with welding, either complete or with welded sub-assemblies riveted together, and with balanced design ensuring equal stress through all members.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. X. Engine failures. 102-4. 3 diagrams (facsimile forms)
As defined on Great Western Railway: where a mechanical or boiler defect results in delay to train; where a mechanical or boiler defect causes engine to come off its train, or turn, short of the destination; any failure as previous which necessitates an engine being kept out of traffic and unable to work its next turn. The Southern Railway was slightly stricter in that any locomotive having to come off its train, even if no delay occurred, had to be regarded as a failure; and any train delayed by 10 minutes or more due to the locomotive had to be reported as a failure.

Brunel's broad gauge. 104-6. 6 illustrations
A brief appreciation which notes Brunel's perverse addiction to non-elastic permanent way with its unnecessary piles; the genius of Gooch's locomotive purchases, but the failure to develop broad gauge locomotives and the long period of decline and atrophy. Photographs: final broad gauge 17.00 Paddington to Plymouth awaiting locomotive; cab view of 8 ft single Iron Duke; Bulkeley at head of final broad gauge 17.00 Paddington to Plymouth; standard gauge coach running on broad gauge (KPJ Looks odd); mixed gauge track at Torquay; track near Teignmouth with junction between modern permanent way and baulk road

L.M.S.R.  106
All of the L.M.S. Holiday Camping Coaches that in peacetime were allocated at beauty spots throughout the country are now on war work. These coaches that once provided holiday homes, are now being used in a variety of ways. Some of them are Home Guard posts and Guard Rooms; others are in service as Naval or Military posts, etc. Certain of the coaches form part of the L.M.S. Engineering "Flying Squad" repair gangs and provide accommodation and feeding facilities for the engineering staff who dash out to repair tracks damaged by enemy air attack.

Southern Railway. 106
Another engine of the Merchant Navy class No. 21C 6 named Peninsular & Oriental has been put into service.

Railway operating conferences.  106
To meet the growing needs of national war production, far-reaching steps have been taken by the Railways. In addition to the normal daily conferences which take place on each of the Railways a daily Central Operating Conference has been introduced to obtain the best possible use of all available routes to their utmost capacity.
These meetings take place every morning, including Sundays, by means of special telephones which link up the Chief Operating Officer of each of the four Main Line Railways at his own desk. Immediate decisions are reached involving railway operating over the whole country. Movements of train loads of goods and thousands of wagons are allocated to the routes which give the best possible operating conditions, irrespective of the commercial or other individual interests. Actual operating conditions are discussed by the Chief Officers who are fully advised by their staffs of the latest position. If a particular route is over-taxed arrangements are made for trains to be diverted by alternative lines.
Extensive efforts are being made to achieve an even greater utilisation of motive power by the exchange of locomotives between the railways. Firemen belonging to one railway are working with engine drivers belonging to another; repair staff, and equipment for engines from one railway are being made available to others to speed up the turnround of engines. Locomotive coal supplies are being obtained jointly, and engines are coaled irrespective of their ownership.

Withdrawal of restaurant cars. 106
Dining cars, buffet cars, kitchen cars and Pullman cars on some 400 train services have been withdrawn.
An indication of the sacrifices being made to increase the carrying capacity of the greatly reduced number of passen- ger trains in order to release locomotives for vital goods services can be gauged by recalling that before the war 800 restaurant, buffet and Pullman cars were running on the railways to and from London and on cross-country and excursion trains. Railway catering was a vast business. It was estimated that 7,000,000 meals were served aboard cars. Some of the travelling kitchens were capable of supplying 200 meals at a single sitting.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 107-10. illustration, 3 diagrams (including 2 side elevations)
During December 1857 Fairburn & Sons of Manchester built to Allan's designs six "Crewe" type 2-4-0 goods engines with 16 x 22 inch cylinders and 5ft 2in coupled wheels. The firebox was made of steel and had a mid-feather. The valves were ectivated by Allan link motion. Boilerr pressure: 120 psi. The running plate was stepped originally, but was altered in 1865/6. The steel fireboxes were removed at the first rebuilding, although Conner stated in 1870 nthat all the steel fireboxes were still in service. The tender framing had a high proportion of wood and this caused trouble due to leaking water tanks. No. 57 was fitted with a throttle valve and may have been in connection with counter pressure braking. The class was withdrawn in 1888. In April 1860 two 2-4-0 locomotives were purchased from the Dundee Perth & Aberdeen Junction Railway: these had 16 x 22 in. cylinders and 4ft 9 in coupled wheels and vhad been buit by George England in 1854

Briquettes for locomotive fuel.  110
It is estimated the British railways can take up to 25.000 tons of briquettes per week and by co-operation with manufacturers the most suitable weights and shapes are being investigated. 10.000 tons of 10 lb. briquettes weekly are being used in South Wales which is saving long distance haulage. The use of briquettes for locomotive fuel is being adopted in order to increase the local stocks of coal of the railways during the summer months.

Wartime economy in paint.  110
As they become due for repairing all locomotives on the British railways are to be painted black as a wartime economy. The distinctive colours of the different Railways. also linings. emblems. gold-leaf and other decorations are to be discontinued for the duration of the war.
Further savings in labour and materials are being made by the decision not to paint new and repaired open wagons. with the exception of a single bottom board which is to be painted lead colour. and on this the number and ownership of the wagon is to be indicated.
Carriages are also to do with less paint. Only painting or varnish absolutely necessary for protection against weather conditions is to be carried out. Green and cream carriages on the L.N.E.R. will be painted brown and the minimum number of coats of varnish applied.

C. Hamilton Ellis. Famous Locomotive Engineers. XX. James Holden. 110-15. 4 illustrations
Includes a portrait of Holden, a picture and extensive description of Decapod locomotive

Dr. Church's tank engine of 1837. C. F. Dendy Marshall. 115
In the course of looking through a series of reports of railway accidents sent to the Board of Trade in 1840, I have found an interesting passage about the above on page 14 of D.K. Clark's Railway Machinery, there is an illustration of a very remarkable design of tank engine, designed by Dr. Church of Birmingham and built in 1836 or 1837. It had a single pair of driving wheels 6 ft. 2½ in. diameter under the barrel of the boiler, with a small pair of carrying wheels behind the firebox. The cylinders were 11¼ in by 24 in., horizontal, at the rear; the boiler contained 81 tubes, 2 in. diameter. Named Eclipse, Clark says it was employed as a ballast engine on the London and Birmingham Railway in the spring of 1838, hauling trains of 100 tons with ease; and on one occasion running 12 miles in 12 minutes light. Until now, I have never found any other reference to this engine. The following communication finishes the story.

Birmingham and Gloucester Railway. Reporting an Accident, attended with Loss of Life, on the Line on the loth. Birmingham, 14 November, 1840.
It becomes my painful duty to report to the Lords of the Privy Council for Trade, a melancholy accident which occurred at the Bromsgrove station on this railway, on the loth instant, by the bursting of an engine-boiler. The engine was of a peculiar construction, having been made about three years ago by Dr. Church of this place, and soon after tried both on the London and Birmingham and Grand Junction Railways. It was then found necessary to make some alterations for the purpose of producing steam more quickly, but not at all affecting the safety of the engine. The engine then passed into the hands of Mr. S. A. Goddard of this place, and a short time since, the necessary alterations being made, he applied to the directors of this company to allow a trial of the engine, stating, at the same time, that his object was to sell this engine to the company, and make others like it for sale. The company's engineer of locomotives and his foreman were sent to examine the engine, and they having reported favourably of it, the directors allowed the trial. The engine was consequently placed upon the line, and put under trial before proceeding to use it. On the occasion of the steam being got up the second time, and after several short runs had been made, but the engine being stationary at the time, the boiler burst, and Thomas Scaife, one of the company's best drivers, was killed on the spot. John Rutherford, the foreman of the engines, was so much injured, that he survived only 12 hours. Thomas Williams, another of the company's servants, and Edward Paul, a stoker, in the employ of Mr. Goddard, were also severely hurt, but are doing well. The engine-man in the employ of Mr. Goddard, and who was in charge of the engine, and two or three other persons, were slightly hurt, but are very much recovered. A coroner's jury has sat upon the bodies. The evidence goes to show that no neglect or want of caution existed on the part of the company's servants; but that the boiler plate, although it had resisted a much higher pressure of steam than it then had on it, was not strong enough. The inquest is adjourned until next Monday week, for the purpose of affording the boiler-maker an opportunity of giving evidence. Wm. Burgess, Sec. S. Laing, Esq., Railway Dept., Board of Trade.

Modernising Stephekson link motion.  115
J. N. Maskelyne, A.I.Loco.E., in his Presidential address to the Stephenson Locomotive Society, described recent experiments which have led to successful results on a scale model steam locomotive built for 5 in. gauge. Long-lap valves, he said, read to lively and economical miniature engines and so much is this so, that many scale or free lance models are now fitted with Walschaerts gear arranged for long travels, though fiat valves are usually employed. The older British classes are, however, increasingly popular as prototypes, with a consequent tendency to return to Stephenson link motion which, in conjunc.tion with scale (large) cylinders and (small) boilers' working at low pressures, is liable to produce poor results in miniature practice. After studying the Churchward 2-cylinder valve setting as employed on standard G.W.R. outside cylinder engines, model enthusiasts were able to devise a scale gear employing link motion having a travel equivalent to about 6 in. full size which gave most satisfactory results provided that the workmanship and fitting were of high standard.

Correspondence. 116

McConnell's 300 class singles. P.C. Dewhurst
I have been interested in the letters from Mr. Dendy Marshall and Mr. Dearberg in Issues for December. January and February last. particularly because to the writer the design has always appeared inexplicahle. From the enormous amount of shaping-up of the boiler- barrel to clear the big ends as shown in the plate in Colburn & Holley, 1858. it is evident the cylinders were unusually close together and the fact. evident in the same drawing. that the inside frames were bar-pattern forgings, makes clear that the distance centre-to-centre of the inside bearings was also less than usual. Now a customary distance out-to-out of the inside bearings (= approx. the distance between wheelbosses) on normal double-framed engines of the period was 4 ft. 4½ in. and hence this distance in the case of 300 could have been anything less than about 4 ft. 1 in. With cylinders at 1 ft. 10½ in. the centres of inside bearings would become about 3 ft. 4¼ in. (compared with about 3 ft. 11a in. normal) whilst out-to-out would be 3 ft. 8½ in. leaving a bare section of axle some 2¼ in. between bearings and wheelbosses.
The explanation is evidently that these forged inside frames were spaced much closer together than usual in order to suit the cylinders and to be close to the crank-webs and that it was this unusual spacing which governed the width of inside bearings—it being of course impossible to have the inside bearings loaded "off centre." The only real difficulty in accepting the 1 ft. 10½ in. cylinder-centres is the very reduced space left for the four eccentrics as taking normal crank-webs and crank-pins there would only be 9 in. left for the eccentrics, thus giving no more than 2¼* in. for the width of each; but "it could be done."
D. Marshall is mistaken in considering that Ahrons drawing (Fig. 106. The Railway Locomotive) shows inside framing passing alongside the cylinders, on the contrary the smoke box supports controvert this, as also is evident— indeed so stated by Ahrons in his remarks—that the smokebox wrapper-plate extended downwards to carry the cylinders. The attachment of the inside frame to the cylinders is not shown in Ahrons drawing, which in fact delineates a connecting-rod in an "impossible" position altogether above the cylinder-centre-lines. Indeed from the absence of details behind the leading wheels, it seems clear that the drawing (but not Ahrons description) is a "build-up" from Colburn and Holley's plate and the well-known perspective view of engine 300 showing a large number of workmen around it.
The closeness of the cylinder centres, together with the short inside bearings. are just two instances, of which there appear so many in this particular design, of the incorporation of troublesome features which could have been avoided —no wonder the career of the engines was short. Ahrons considered" that they would have been able to perform the two-hours (London-Birmingham) run is possible"; to which the present writer would add "but not for long." It has always appeared a mystery how McConnell, who was generally addicted to exceptionally simple and straight-forward designs should in this case have produced one which for its date was decidely "freaky." Ahrons noted the probability of McConnell having tried to meet almost impossible conditions. the writer finds difficulty in accepting the engines as substantially a McConnell design at all.

W.B. Thompson.
Your picture of the new Southern Railway goods engine recalls to mind a long article describing the Brighton engine Grosvenor in the year 1875. The writer. using words with which everyone who remembers the Stroudley locomotives will agree. referred to the "dainty excellence of design." and said that "the general appearance of the engine is elegant in the extreme." He would not have found this language adequate for Grosvenor's latest successor.
The Midland company's Pullman drawing-room cars which you illustrate on page 69 were the most attractive vehicles. in which I have ever ridden on a British railway, but unfortunately the cost of travel in them was high and they were little used. The open platforms at the ends made them more convenient for passengers with hand luggage than the vestibule entrances provided in later cars. Once; when a boy. to see what it was like I went out onto the end platform and stood there in the dark while the train was. running at full speed through Bleamoor tunnel. It was an experience to be remembered but not repeated. The letter which you publish on the subject of the Webb compounds says that Engineering for 1883 described and illustrated the Dreadnought engine. To be strictly accurate the first engine of the Dreadnought type was not built until the middle of 1884; I saw it out on the line in the late summer of that year before it had been painted.

Sampling and testing of coal and coke. 116
Since 1930' the British Standards Institution has published methods for the sampling and !l-nalysis of coal and coke to suit industrial requirements. During the preparation of these specifications experimental work has been carried out continuously by the members of the Committees. both upon the principles of sampling and upon the methods of analysis of the laboratory sample, A position has now been reached where. in view of war conditions. it is desirable to review all this work and to publish two comprehensive specifications at this stage does not mean that the work of the Committees will cease. but since it was inevitable that the work would be slowed up owing to war conditions. it is more than ever important that the present stage should be made public.
One of these specifications (No. 1016) covers the sampling of coal and coke down to the stage of the preparation of the laboratory sample; the other (No. 1017) details the treatment of the laboratory samples and gives all the methods of analysis that have been approved after examination by the Committees.
In specification 1016. on the sampling of coal and coke. the weights of the gross samples specified are based on the size of the coal, on its variability and on the degree of accuracy required of the analysis, The number and size of the increments required are chiefly determined by the variability of the coal. as indicated by the average deviation of the ash content from the mean. Since this deviation increases with increasing ash content. the coals are grouped for sampling purposes according to the amount of ash they contain,

James Watt International Medal. 116,
The Council of the Institution of  Mechanical Engineers has unanimously awarded the James Watt International Medal to Mr. A. G. M. Michell , F.R.S .. of Melbourne, Australia. on the nomination ot:the Institution of Engineers. Australia, the South African Institution of Engineers. and the Engineering Institute of Canada. The Medal was founded by the Institution in 1936 to commemorate the bicentenary of the birth of James Watt on 19 January 1736—an event which was destined to bring about a revolution in the utilisation of power. The Medal is awarded every two years to an engineer of any nationality who is deemed worthy of the highest award that the Institution can bestow and that a mechanical engineer can receive. In making the award the Institution has secured the co-operation of the leading Mechanical Engineering Institutions and Societies in all parts of the World. Mr. Michell's name is best known because of his work in connection with thrust and journal bearings. but he has in addition made a number of extremely valuable contributions to the science of engineering in connection with centrifugal pumps and crankless engines.

S.R. Camel's Head Halt. 116
Situated between St. Budeaux and Ford (Devon), had been closed for traffic.

Number 599 (15 July 1942)

Post-War locomotive practice. 117.

Converted 0-8-0 tank, London and North Eastern Railway. 118-19. 3 illustrations
Q1: No. 5058 and Q4 No. 5059 0-8-0 (then converted to 0-8-0T and O2 No. 3834 fitted with tender from Q4 converted to shunter

2-6-6-6 articulated locomotive, Chesapeake and Ohio R.R. 119. diagram (sectionalised side elevation)

L.L. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 120-2, diagram

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 122-5. 3 illustrations
Notes that George Thompson the painter at Brighton Works who painted the names of the Stroudley and Robert Billinton locomotives had inspired Eric Gill to produce his famous typefaces and quotes Peterborough in The Telegraph

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 125-7. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways. 128-30. 2 illustrations
Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway: brief mention of 2ft 9in gauge line, but mainly 15in developments including the Poultney patent articulated locomotive

New L.M.S. control office. 131. illustration

Number 600 (15 August 1942)

Locomotive boiler balance. 133

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 133
Paper [439] by L.K. Sillcox read by J.S. Tritton on 29 July

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. X. Engine failures. 136-8. diagram

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 139-41. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Number 601 (15 September 1942)

Diesel-electric locomotives. 149.

O.S. Nock. A new cab signal development.150-1. illustration, diagram
Pennsylvania Railtoad: visual signals in cab

L.E. Sanders. Carriage and wagon design and construction. III. The bogie. 152-5. 5 diagrams
Equalized or sandwich type; helical springs; diamond frames and cast steel

F.C. Hambleton. L.B.S.C. Ry. "E" class goods engines. 155. diagram (side elevation)
No. 110 Burgundy illustrated. Stroudley design. No. 110 as hundredth locomotive to be built at Brighton Works and was celebrated by a banquet given at the Old Ship Hotel for the foremen on 13 April 1877. It was fitted with the steam brake known by the drivers as a wim-wam

Stirling Everard. Cowlairs commentary. 156-8. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)
Continued from page 127.
The small shunting "pug" came into being towards the end of the eighteen fifties, but here the railway companies were prepared to leave the design entirely in the hands of the builder. The engines were, for the most part, of 0-4-0 design with square pannier tanks, inside frames and outside cylinders. Those on the Edinburgh and Glasgow came from Messrs. eilson, being varia- tions of the design used by railway contractors, and to be found also on the Caledonian, the West of Fife and the Findhorn Railways among others. In 1861 there arrived at Cowlairs as works manager a young Englishman, William Stroudley, who had just left the employ of the Great Northern Railway. The locomotive department of that line was presided over at the time by Arohibald Sturrock, whose choice of engines was in accord with that of William Paton, so that Stroudley was already acquainted with the mysteries of " Sharpies;" "Hawthorns" and similar machines; while Bury's goods locomotives were to be found at Doncaster as at Cowlairs. Stroudley had had the further advantage of a period at Swindon under Gooch.
What he found on the Edinburgh and Glasgow fitted in with his past experience, and he was to be influenced more by the work of William Paton than has, perhaps, been hitherto recognised.
At Cowlairs, however, there were changes. Paton had been succeeded by William Steel Brown, who held the view, then becoming prevalent, that a main line railway should not be entirely dependent upon contractors for its new locomotive construction, but should build at least a proportion of ats engines in its own shops.
It has been seen that, after the purchase of the Sharp singles of 1854, Paton abandoned the use of double frames for new construction, and adopted types with only inside bearings for driving and coupled wheels. In 1862 this policy was reversed by his successor when a new series of double-framed 2-4-0 passenger engines began to appear from Cowdairs, built under Stroudley's supervision, to Brown's designs. They later became North British Nos. 351-354. The coupled wheels were 6 ft. in diameter, and the cylinders 16 in. by 22 in. Except for the domeless boilers they were very unlike previous Edinburgh and Glasgow types, but bare a resemblance to the contemporary designs of Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn. It is, perhaps, pertinent to remark upon the similarity between the Cowlairs engines and another design, namely Stroudley's Belgravia, built in 1872 for the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway, in which the double frames and  the domeless boiler again appeared, and to draw the conclusion that Stroudley was not unmindful of the Edinburgh and Glasgow machines when he set out to design his first main line passenger engines for the Brighton concern.
Turning to engines received by the Edinburgh and Glasgow from other lines. The agreement to work the Stirling and Dunfermline in 1855 spread the Cowlairs influence. Matthew Holmes was appointed superintendent of the railway as nominee of the larger company. The locomotive stock appears to have been somewhat nondescript, which is not surprising under the circumstances, the Hawthorn types being used, and the designs those not unknown at Cowlairs. In 1862, however, the amalgamation of the Glasgow, Dumbarton and Helensburgh brought into the Cowlairs' fold a handful of locomotives of a very alien conception, namely one Allan type 6 ft. 2-2-2, one Allan type 6 ft. 2-4-0 and an outside cylindered goods engine, all by Messrs. Jones & Potts, and dated 1857/8. Jones & Potts had been one of the suppliers of the original Caledonian engines, but had modified that company's specifications in building domeless boilers with safety valves on the front and rear of the barrel.
Together with the Allan-type engines the Edinburgh and Glasgow received from the Glasgow, Dumbarton and Helensburgh four Neilson outside-cylindered 2-2-2 tanks of 1850, sometime the property of the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction Railway, one of which was the sister engine of Atalanta, while the others were larger and of more orthodox design, having 5 ft. driving wheels and 14 in. by 20 in. cylinders. The North British renumbered the latter 309-311.
The Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Junction Railway, small as it was, is interesting in that Patrick Stirling was at one time its locomotive superintendent, while the father of Dugald and Peter Drummond was also in its employ.
Dugald Drummond joined the Edinburgh and Glasgow at Cowlairs shortly after Stroudley, and when in 1864 Stroudley was appointed locomotive superintendent of the Highland Railway in succession to Allan's nephew, Barclay, Drummond went with him. At Lochgorm the two men gained experience with the locomotives of the rival school of thought to Paton, for all Barclay's engines were Allan-type singles and 2-4-0 goods. Stroudley, as is well known, left Lochgorm in due course for Brighton, where Dugald Drummond followed him, to be his works manager. Many of Stroudley's designs showed marked traces of Paton's influence. Grosuenor and the other singles were derived from Paton's Beyer, Peacock singles, with, however, the improvement of inside frames in place of Paton's relatively heavier mixed frames. Stroudley's 0-4-2 types were not radically different from the Edinburgh and Glasgow Beyer, Peacock goods.
S.W. Johnson became the Edinburgh and Glasgow company's next locomotive superintendent, taking up office in 1864. He made few changes, contenting himself with building. at Cowlairs four further double framed 2-4-0 engmes of the 1862 type (subsequently N.B.R. Nos. 355-356 and 349-350) and three of the Beyer, Peacock design of 2-4-0, modified by the adoption of the domeless boiler, for passenger service. The last named engines became N.B.R. Nos. 235, 236 and 239. It is rather a mystery why he found it necessary to turn out during the same period engines of two different types but of very similar power for the same class of work. For goods traffic he built six additional 0-4-2 locomotives of the Beyer, Peacock type, but with domeless boilers, which became N.B.R. Nos. 329-334, and one double-framed 0-4-2 of very similar dimensions (N.B.R. No. 262) to replace an old Bury goods of which the boiler had regrettably exploded. He also received from Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn two inside-framed inside-cylindered 0-4-0 tender engines (N.B.R. Nos. 268 and 269) with, 4 ft. wheels and 16 in. by 20 in. cylinders. These machines of apparently obsolete type were necessary for use on the tortuous and lightly built colliery branches, the requirements of these lines accounting also for the complete absence of six coupled locomotives on the Edinburgh and Glasgow except for the special Cowlairs bankers. At about the time of the amalgamation with the North British three heavy double-framed 0-6-0 tanks with 4 ft. 2 in. wheels and 16 in. by 22 in. cylinders were delivered by Messrs. Dubs. Two at least, Nos. 209 and 210, were delivered to the North British company, but the first of the batch, N.B.R. No. 282, may have been built for the Edinburgh and Glasgow to Johnson's requirements, in which case this was the first deviation from the general rule to employ only singles and four-coupled engines.
There are certain further points in connection with the earlier Edinburgh and Glasgow engines which should be mentioned here.
The author is indebted to Mr. Jas. McEwan for pointing out that 0-6-0 tanks Hercules and Samson were not, in fact, sold by the Edinburgh and Glasgow, but were cut up at Cowlairs in the early sixties. There is also some doubt as to the diameter of the coupled wheels of the Hawthorn 0-4-2 engines Nos. 23-31, some accounts giving 4 ft. 6 in., against the 5 ft. 3 in. quoted in t:hese articles. Mr. McEwan gives the cylinders of Nos. 23 and 24 as 14 in. in diameter when built. A further point that he raises is that the photograph of the 2-2-2 "light express tank" No. 88, mentioned in the May number, was taken. not in 1856, as has frequently been stated, but in 1864, and, in consequence, it shows not the Edinburgh and Glasgow's company's Atalanta but the sister engine, builrt originally for the Caledonian and Dumbartonshire Railway.
Finally, before leaving the history of the Edinburgjh and Glasgow in Paton's days, through the courtesy of Messrs. Hick, Hargreaves & Co., Ltd., who have supplied a drawing, it is possible to give some details of the two E. & G. locomotives supplied by Benjamin Hick & Son. In ordering these machines Paten deviated from his general rule to use inside-cylindered engines for passenger duties, for the "Hicks" were 5 ft. 6 in. singles with 15 in. x 22 in. outside cylinders, 10ft. boilers, 3 ft. 6 in. in diameter, pitched very low: in the frames, and inside Stephenson link motion. The dome, a very large one, was placed well forward.
These engines, No. 42 and 43 in the Edinburgh and Glasgow Iist, remained in service for a few years only, when they were sold , It is recorded that they went to the Fife and Kinross Railway m June, 1857, but it is felt that there may possibly be an element of doubt in this, for Mr. L. Ward points out that in 1855 the Stockton and Darlington acquired two identical engines named Uranus and Neptune, which were bought second hand, and which ran on that line until the late sixties. The data still available of Hick-built engines of the forties makes no suggestion that further engines of the Edinburgh and Glasgow type were built for any other Iine, and when it is remembered that the Stockton and Darlington company had already bought second-hand engines from the Edmburgh and Glasgow in 1854 the possibility that Uranus and Neptune had once been Edinburgh and Glasgow Nos. 42 and 43 cannot be oompletely dismissed.
When in 1865 the Edinburgh and Glasgow and the Monkland concerns were absorbed into the North British the locomotive affairs of the original North British and the Edimburgh, Perth and Dundee, together with those of several smaller constituent companies of the enlarged North British, continued to be run from St. Margarets works, Edinburgh. Cowlairs became responsible for the engines taken over from the Edinburgh and Glasgow and the Monkland, which undertakings constituted the Western Division.
The Monkland contributed a number of additional Neilson outside-cylindered 0-4-2 mineral engines, which were numbered 295-303, and also some Hawthorn double-framed 0-6-0 locomotives built between 1850 and 1856. These were numbered 276-279. All had 16 in. by 24 in. cylinders, while all but No. 277 had 5 ft. wheels. Those of No. 277 were 4 ft. 6 in. The greater number of the remaining Monkland machines were of the 0-4-0 tender mineral type or were "pugs." A Hawthorn 0-6-0 similar to the Monkland batch was No. 280, sometime the property of the Stirling and Dunfermline Railway.
For a year after the amalgamation Cowlairs remained under the control of Johnson; but in 1866 he became locomotive superintendent of the Great Eastern, succeeding Robert Sinclair. At Stratford he immediately set to work to replaoe the St. Rollox sohool of rthoug;ht by that of Cowlairs, for he built a large number of 2-4-0 mixed-traffic locomotives which were small editions of the Paton-Beyer, Peacock engines of the Edinburgh and Glasgow. Illustrations: E. & G.R. W. Steel Brown's 2-4-0. 1862-1867; E. & G.R. 2·2·2 Benjamin Hick & Sons' 1846; Monkland Ry. Hawthorn's 0-6-0 1850 (later NBR 276 class).

R.A. Whitehead. Miniature railways. The Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway. 159-61. 3 illustrations

S.R. 161
Two more Merchant Navy class Pacifics into service: 21C7 Aberdeen and Commonwealth and 21C9 Shaw Savill 

L.M.S.R. 161
American rail in 39ft lengths was being welded into 78ft and 117ft lengths for relaying.

G.W.R. 161
Passenger service between Didcot, Newbury and Southampton suspended from 4 August except for one between Winchester Cheesehill and Sutton Scotney. Lostwithiel and Fowey closed to passenger traffic from 22 August.

The North London Railway. 162-4. illustration

Locomotive repairs. Derby Works. L.M.S.R. 165-6. 4 illustrations
Use of welding to repair portway in cylinder and to a feed pump

M.A. Crane, A.M.I.Mech.E., A.M.I.Loco.E. 166
Joined staff of Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., in London. Mr. Crane was, until recently, Senior Locomotive Superintendent of the Gold Coast Government Railway.

Swiss Federal Railways. 166
To celebrate the Railway Centenary in 1947 preparations are being made to enlarge the railway museum at Zurich and to transfer it to a new building.

Rubber tyred ra1lcar. 166
For working in a large U .S.A. ordnance plant a special rubber tyred railcar (petrol driven) is running trials. It has been designed to run on the roads as well as on rails.

L.N.E.R. 166
A large electic stator weighing 130 tons and capable of generating 50,000 kilowatts, was transported from the North-East to the Midlands mounted on a transformer wagon-set running on 40 wheels. It was accompanied by three guards' vans, a plate wagon for the constructing firm's gear, and a mess van for nine members of their staff, some of whom were detailed to guard their charge night and day.
The extreme height of the stator loaded was 13 ft. 6½in., which was 1½ in. greater than the height of the load gauge of the Great Central section over which it passed for a portion of the journey.
Its width of 13ft. 6½in. necessitated blocking the opposite lines and the adjoining line in many places throughout the journey, and nearly 200 disc signals had to be dismantled to provide the necessary path.
On thirty-eight occasions the load had to be wound out of centre to enable it to pass platforms, tunnels and bridges, and in many instances clearance was effected with only Iiin. to spare. The maximum speed when loaded centrally was IS m.p.h. and when 12 inches out of centre-I2 inches being the maximum out-of-centre move-speed did not exceed six m.p.h.
The most notable engineering achievement was the slueing of seventy yards of track in Mapperley tunnel, yet despite this the load travelled through the tunnel 12 inches out-of-centre to the 6ft. side.

Correspondence. 166

James Holden. C. Hamilton Ellis.
I was most interested to read the late Mr. Fred V. Russell's letter on Great Eastern locomotive practice under James Holden, a propos of my article, and shocked to learn of Mr. Russell's death a few days later. The true origins of the design of the "Claud Hamilton" class, as well as of the "Decapod", provide an example of the extent to which the Man on the Throne may at times delegate authority and, etiquette being what it was and often, is, obtain all the kudos over a period of many years following. My suggestion of Holden being a pioneer of modern democracy was som~what wide of the mark, unless one accepts the celebrated dictum of a Very Hostile Personage that Totalitarianism is the only True Democracy. Let us call Holden's philosophy Paternalism; things like the Stratford Enginemen's Dormitory exemplified paternalism at its best. By the way, you make me say that Holden's three-class dining car train came out in 1893, two years before the northern lines provided third-class diners in I895! The dates I really gave were surely 1891 and 1893.

L.N.E.Ry.  166
South Pelaw derailment. J. L. M. Moore's report to the Director-General of the Ministry of War Transport: A down mineral train from Morrison Colliery to Stella Gill, consisting of twenty-five wagons loaded with coal, and a brake van, weighing in all 675 tons, had traversed only a short distance of the seven-mile almost continuous steep descent between Annfield Plain and South Pelaw when the steam brake on the engine and tender became inoperative, owing to the failure of one of the main brake rods. More than the stipulated number of wagon brakes had been ap- plied at the summit and, after the failure of the power brake, the engineman and guard apparently did what they could with their respective hand-brakes, but it is evident that the train quickly got out of control. After negotiating the facing junction at South Pelaw , where it was being diverted to a mineral line, at an estimated speed of about 40-50 miles an hour, the engine overturned, and the entire train was derailed, all but two of the wagons being damaged beyond repair. The train crew acted with great credit to themselves by remaining at their posts, and it is regretted that fireman Walter Stanley was killed instantly when the engine overturned, and driver Ernest Matthew Ridley died shortly afterwards. Fortunately, the brake van in which the guard was travelling was only slightly damaged, and he escaped with a severe shaking and bruises.
Several days elapsed before the junction could be restored as, intermingled with the wreckage of the train, there was about 420 tons of coal, most of which had to be cleared before the more important repairs to the track could by commenced, or even surveyed with any degree of accuracy.
Owing to the severe gradients on this line, the braking regulations stipulate that all down goods and mineral trains must have one double brake that is, affecting both axles, fastened down for every two wagons, and that the trains must stop at a specified point about half a mile east of West Stanley station for brake examination and readjustment if the load of the train is more than half the authorised load of the engine working it. Guard Stephenson stated that while the train was drawing slowly out of Annfield sidings he pinned down fifteen double brakes near the leading end, applying rather more than the required number, as the rails were inclined to be greasy. This statement was confirmed by evidence arid by examination of the wreckage. The guard did not hear any whistle signals from the engine owing to the noise of the intervening train, but, realising that the speed was higher than usual. he applied his van brake and maintained the maximum pressure until the derailment.
The train was being hauled by engine No. 2286, Class Q6 0-8-0, the maximum load for which is 710 tons over this line in the down direction.
On this class of engine the steam brake is actuated by a single cylinder which, by means of a connecting link, also applies the brake on the tender, and the failure of the brake in this instance was due to a fracture of the connecting link. As the rigging throughout is compensated, the failure. of the link in question rendered the power brake on both engine and tender inoperative. The link parted through a single eye at the front and has not been found, but the main portion remained attached to the tender brake riggmg.
The sectional timing, which allows 29 minutes for the 7¼ miles, represents an average speed of 1S m.p.h.; at first sight this timing appears to be sufficient, but it must be remembered that it includes the slow start at Annfield and the stop at South Pelaw, also an intermediate stop of uncertain duration at West Stanley. It is recommended that consideration he given to the question whether this timing is altogether consistent with the low speed which is required; also whether the necessity for slow speed might be brought more tangibly to the notice of drivers by the inclusion of an appropriate Appendix speed restriction.

W.A. Stanier, Chief Mechanical Engineer, L.M.S.R. 166
Appointed Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Production.

L.M.S. and L.N.E. Rys. 166
St. Ann's Road Station on the Tottenham and Hampstead Junction Railway was closed for traffic on and from Sunday, 9 August 1942.

Number 602 (15 October 1942)

Edward H. Livesay. Transatlantic footplate experiences. 168-9. illustration
Riding on the locomotive through the Rockies both on the footplate which could be exceedingly hot in some of the narrow bore tunnels and on the pilot (the front of the locomotive) through the spiral tunnels on the descent. Includes notes on oil-firing. Photograph of train in Fraser Canyon.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. X. Engine failures. 170-1. XI. Breakdown work and equiment. 171-2.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 173-5.
Earl of Airlie.

Crampton's patents. 179-80.
 Patent 9261.

Number 603 (15 November 1942)

Locomotive tyres. 183.

L.N.E.R. class A4 Pacific locomotive: No. 4901 "Charles H. Newton". 184. 2 illustrations
To ease maintenance and reduce the risk of overheated bearings the side valences from the streamlining were removed. Locomotive was painted black with "NE" on tender: locomotive had formerly been named Capercaillie. Newton is shown on footplate.

Crampton's patents. 187-9

Number 604 (15 December 1942)

Diesel vehicle repairs. 201.
Diesel Vehicle Repairs A consideration af the maintenance and repair methods of diesel locomotives and railcars compared with those of steam locomotives indicates that the life of either type of unit may be virtually unlimited. It has not been uncommon practice to. glorify the performance of steam locomotives 30, 40 and 50 years old, regardless of the fact that at such an age there is little of the original locomotive left except the spaces between the wheels. Similar methods may be applied to. the engines and mechanical portions of diesel locomotives and railcars by routine renewals, and by building-up through welding and by metal deposition.
This passible similarity of the methods applied to. steam and diesel power an railways was not featured in the remarkably comprehensive paper an the repair of railway oil engines on the Central Argentine Railway presented recently by C.A. Parker, of that line, to the Diesel Engine Users' Association, and read in London, on November 5, before a joint meeting of that Association and the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. But that paper did result. in an appreciation of the way and degree in which the proportions of a maintenance-and-repair programme may vary. For example, with. the Chicago-California and other long-distance diesel-powered trains in the United States the travelling-fitter system and the work done during a few hours of lie-over time at each end of the run, mean that say, 75 or 80 per cent. of all maintenance and repair work comes under the heading of maintenance, and that repair work "within the meaning of the Act" is undertaken only at infrequent intervals. On the other hand, the method practised on the Central Argentine Railway for the power plants of the 12 twin-car 640 b.h.p. Ganz diesel sets incorporates the mmimum of shed work, and the running department has teen relieved of the responsibility for engine maintenance except for odd details, practically all of the necessary work being carried out in the course of visits to the central repair shops. The claim is made that this Central Argentme Railway practice in no way invalidates "preventive" maintenance and repair, which is probably the key to the successful running af motive pawer of all types. On the Central Argentine system the power plants are taken to. the repair establishment for a light overhaul every 43,000 miles, and for heavy repairs every 125,000/140,000 miles, and It is judged that these mileages enable attention to be given to all the major and minor constituents before they begin to give trouble either through excessive wear, fatigue, or deterioration. Nevertheless, the extent to which the Central Argentine Railway has relieved the running department of much minor work and tuning-up the engines is greater than found on the majority of railways owning diesel stock, and possibly the success with which this has been done may be traced in a large measure to. the fact that these twin-car trains are concentrated in one area and work an certain definite services without variation. For mare widely-scattered vehicles it would seem that the shed staffs would still have to. be entrusted with a greater proportion of the total maintenance-and- repair work. These remarks, of course, apply to. medium and large-sized railways, for an the smaller lines maintenance and repair are usually undertaken in the same shed by the same men just as they happen to be needed.
Although a certain amount of trouble has been experienced with the main constituents of these oil engines an the Central Argentine Railway—the shopping periods, for instance, seem to be governed by the mileage which can be expected before trouble is given by the inverted main bearings bolted to the light-alloy crankcase—Mr. Parker's paper emphasised the feature which has been found in practically all diesel railcars designed and built from about 1937 onwards, and that is the great majority of failures booked against the vehicles are not due to the engines or to the gearboxes themselves, but to. the auxiliaries associated with those two main constituents, Many of these troubles are trifling, and may result in the lass of only a few minutes on schedule, or a day laid off. On the other hand, the consequential damage resulting from the failure of a relatively unimportant part may be great, and that is one of the principal reasons for the necessity of an immediate advance in the standard of design and construction of all ancillary equipment. Far too often the standards have been almost nonsensical, and if found in conjunction with a conscientious running department officer who. books every defect, however small, may give a totally incorrect impression as to what modern diesel locomotives and railcars can do in the way of performance.

[United States locomotives for service in Britain]. 201
The first consignment of American built locomotives for service in this country recently arrived at a British port. These engines will be used principally for shunting and hauling short distance freight trains.

Ministry of Supply "Austerity" locomotive. 202. diagr. (s. el.)

L.N.E.R. 202
1942nd locomotive built at Doncaster Works: Works number plate identical to that of year. Running number 3844: 2-8-0 type

King's Cross Station. 203

The real team spirit: rail, road, Army and others worked as one after raid on Middlesbrough Station. 202-3. illustration.
Picture shows serious damage to station, locomotive (Gresley 2-6-2T) and train which led to several deaths and injuries. Repllacement bus services were provided by Middlesbrough Corporation and United Automobile Services for passengers and Stockton station handled the newspaper, mail, milk and parcels traffic swhich was forwarded by road.

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. XI. Breakdown work and equipment. 204-6.

Netherlands Railways. 206.
All forty articulated diesel railcars had been confiscated by the Nazi regime and sent to Germany

[Skefco Ball Bearing Co. Ltd.]. 206
G.A.R. Mead appointed Managing Director, formerly Assistant Managing Director.

Gilbert S. Szlumper. 206
Appointed Director-General supply Services to Ministry of Supply.

Southern Railway. 206
King Arthur class Nos. 739, 740, 742, 744, 747-51 and 754 lent to LNER North Eastern Area

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 207-8.
Dundee & Perth and Dundee & Arbroath Railways.

New York Central locomotives: further notes by E.C. Poultney. 208-12. 5 illustrations.
Information further to that in Volume 41 (1935) by same author.

Diesel locomotives for tunnels. 212

Obituary. 212
Charles S. Lake:
died 19 November 1942: engineer and technical writer
T.S. Finlayson:
former Chief Locomotive Draughtsman LSWR

Crampton's patents. 213-14.
Continued from p. 189

60 ton breakdown cranes: Victorian Railways. 214-15. illus.
The Victorian Railways had recently constructed two 60 ton breakdown cranes at the Newport Workshops. The elements of the design were due to Cowans, Sheldon & Co. Ltd. of Carlisle with modifications introduced by the Chief Mechanical Engineer, A.C. Ahlston. In 1911 the Newport Workshops had built a 30 ton crane; and another in 1914, but these were inadequate for handling the Pacific and Mikado types introduced from 1928/9. The new cranes were fitted with squat Spencer Hopwood boilers.

The coming of the extended smokebox. 215-16. 4 diagrs.
In these days of multiple blastpipes, and the almost universal employment of extended smokeboxes an experiment tried by F. W. Webb on the L.N.W.R. as far back as 1897 is not without interest. The extended smokebox, apart from one or two tentative efforts on the G. & S.W.R. and G.E.R. was first brought into regular use in England by William Dean, who, in 1895, provided his Duke of Cornwall class with this novelty.
In America the idea had been adopted previous to this date, as it was found that an extended smokebox acted as a spark arrester, since there was both room for the provision of a wire net placed just below the level of the blastpipe orifice, as well as space to allow the hot cinders to settle on the floor of the box. This obviated the back pressure caused by the earlier forms of spark-arresters placed in the chimney itself. On the G.W.R. engines Dean followed the American scheme, and with cylinders 18 by 26 in., 5ft. 7!in. driving wheels and 160lb. pressure, gave the smokebox a length of 5ft. 0¼in., and an internal diameter of 4ft. 11¾in. The chimney had a liner with the rather small diameter of 1ft. 0in., and the spark arresting grid was made of No. 16 B.W.G. wire.
As is well known, these engines proved a great success, burning an average of 30.8 lb. of coal over the heavy road between Plymouth and Exeter. When, on 2 August 1897, the new L.N.vV.R. four-cylinder compound 4-4-0 Black Prince began her trial trips, it was seen that F.W. Webb had also given this engine and her non-compound sister, Iron Duke, extended smokeboxes. These were not so long as the G.W.R. examples, as they measured internally 3ft. 65/8in., and had a diameter of 4ft. 9in. They were also differently planned, since they contained a horizontal partition placed slightly below the centre line of the boiler. The blast pipes from the low pressure cylinders did not unite, but discharged into separate chimneys each 1ft, 0in. in diameter. The right-hand low-pressure cylinder blast pipe exhausted the upper part of the smoke-box, and the left-hand low-pressure blast-pipe exhausted the lower compartment. The two chimneys were made less unsightly by having side-plates fitted, which made the external shape that of a flat box with rounded ends, the whole being surmounted by the familiar standard L.N.W. chimney heading. For a short period Iron Duke was tried with the usual chimney, but the double one was soon replaced. Black Prince, in November, 1897, had the standard moulding replaced by a half-round beading, and thus adorned she resembled, in this respect, the 6ft. 6in. 2-4-0 Jumbo Hampden , to which Webb had previously fitted a cylindrical extension on the front of the smokebox when trying out the horizontal position and separated blast-pipes. In January, 1898, these unusual ideas, like so many locomotive novelties, passed into oblivion, but nevertheless, once Webb had settled the size of the low pressure cylinders at 20½ by 24in., and raised the boiler pressure to 200Ib., he placed the extended smokebox on the whole of the eighty 4-4-0 engines he subsequently built. From this time onwards, all L.N.W.R. and G.W.R. express engines carried these large boxes, and it was realised that the extended smokebox had become an essential part of the modern locomotive.


Dr. Church's Tank Engine. P.C. Dewhurst.  216
The communication from Mr. Dendy Marshall in the June Issue of citing a report relatiring to the Bromsgrove explosion of November, 1840, raises the question of the relatively sparse—and sometimes inaccurate—information published concerning the above interesting engine. Mr. Marshall refers to the 1840 explosion as " the end of the story," but this is no longer the case as in recent years the writer has become able to supplement that information not only in respect to after, but also before, the event of November1840. It should first be emphasized that it is the victims of the said November 1840 explosion whose memory is perpetuated by the two well-known tombstones in Bromsgrove Churchyard—upon which most excellent representations of Norris pattern locomotives appear—and not as it often supposed— the victims of a Norris locomotive boiler explosion, which did occur—but of lesser gravity—in 184I. The results of this error have disfigured "railway" books and even as. late as 1912 these two occurrences were confused in the technical press and with the added embellishment that the victims were "two of the American drivers sent with the engines.
The engine was constructed during 1837 at Birmingham to the design of Dr. William Church for Mr. S.A. Goddard and it was placed on the London & Birmingham Railway in January, 1838, where it worked for a time as a ballast engine; later it went to the Grand Junction Railway, at that time having the name Victoria, but it was not a success. It was a tank, not a tender engine. In November, 1840—then named Surprise —it was sent for trial to the Birmingham & Gloucester Railway, but exploded at Bromsgrove before doing any service on that line. In 1842, by which time it had been re-named Eclipse, the engine was again offered to the Birmingham & Gloucester Railway for trial but was declined, and. later, in 1844, offered to the same railway a third time; on this occasion it was agreed to allow a trial to be made, but no record exists of such having actually taken place.
The next record of its "appearance" was. in 1850, as according to D. K. Clark (1855) it "stood" at Camp Hill Station, Birmingham in that year, from which date nothing definite is known of it until 1861, when it was authoritatively stated to have then been in use upon the Swansea Valley Railway, since its rebuilding there into a 0-6-0 tank locomotive about 1857-8. In this rebuilding, the boiler, which had been supplied to Eclipse somewhere between 1842 and 1850 and differed entirely from the original boiler of 1837, was utilised and there is reason to believe that this rebuilt engine eventually came into the- hands of the Midland Railway in 1874.

L.M.S.R. 216
Lt.-Col. Harold Rudgard, R.E. (Retd.), has been appointed to succeed Mr. D. C. Urie as Superintendent of Motive Power of the L.M.S. Railway. Lt.-Col. Rudgard was a pupil of the late Samuel Waite- Johnson, Locomotive Superintendent of the old Midland Railway. The position he held before being appointed Superintendent of Motive Power was Divisional Superintendent of Operation (Midland Division) of the Railway. which position he has held for over five years. Since the war he has been acting with Mr. J. E. Kitching, Mineral Manager of the L.N.E. Railway as Liaison Officer with the Midland (Amalgamated) District Coal Mines Scheme and jointly there has been developed a very successful system of Block Coal Train working.
Mr. J. W. Watkins has been appointed Divisional Superintendent of Operation at Derby