Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage & Wagon Review
Volume 47 (1941)
Key file

Number 581 (15 January 1941)

Railways and coal. 1-2
The effect of WW2 on the transport of coal for export. a market mainly lost; the difficulties of war on railway transport (notably the blackout) and the dependence on coal for locomotive power.

G.W.R. Norton Fitzwarren accident. 2
Lieut. Colonel Mount's Ministry of Transport report into 4 November 1940 accident in which driver forgot on which road he was travelling and the 21.50 Paddington to Penzance express was derailed at catch points at the end of the four track section leading to 26 deaths

L.N.E.R. 2
Driver G.W. Trower had retired after 47 years service. He accompanied Cock o' the North on the Vitry tests in France.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Footplate observations under service conditions. 4-8. illustration, 6 diagrams

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 12-14.
includes dummy crank shaft locomotives Nos. 136-143, some of which were altered to 0-4-0 and 0-4-2ST

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. 14-16.

New design of welded wagons, the Butterley Co. Ltd. 20. 3 illustrations

Obituary. 20
Viscount Wakefield founder of C.C. Wakefield & Co.

Engine depots and the Black Out. 20-1.

Pneumatic tie tamping equipment. 21-3. 3 illustrations
Broomwade compressor

Number 582 (15 February 1941)

Rolling stock in India. 25
Use of colour to distinguish classes: white for first, but others lesss standardized..

4-4-4 (A class) tank locomotives, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway. (metre gauge). 26. illustration
Built at the Ajmer Works.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working, 1934-9. Second line express passenger locomotives. 27-31. illustration, 6 diagrams
The diagrams are gradient profiles, with train speed correlated against. Locomotives considered: NBR Atlantic No. 9509 Duke of Rothesay on Dundee to Aberdeen route (high acceleration and speed) and C1 Atlantic on Queen of Scots with particular reference to Newark to Peterborough stretch where speed in excess of 90 mile/h attained.

F.C. Hambleton. Alexander Allan. 31-6. 6 illustrations (5 drawings, plan)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 37-8.

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. VI. Storekeeping, distribution and consumption of fuels and lubricants. 44-7.

Correspondence. 48

Public miniature railways. G.J. Humbert.
Writer was Manager of Trentham Gardens Ltd and argued that internal combustion engined (preferably diesel) steam outline locomotives were cheaper and simpler to operate than live steam and were popular with the public. On Whit Monday 1939 over 5000 people had been conveyed on the two trains which ran from 14.00 to 21.30

Number 582 (15 March 1941)

Transport and the Spring Crisis. 49
Editorial on the demands placed upon the railways, especially to the ports, imposed by the War.

New 2-6-2 engine (class V4), London & North Eastern Railway. 50-2. 5 illustrations, 2 diagrams. (including side & front elevations.)
Photograph of No. 3401 Bantam Cock and diagram of boiler with Nicholson thermic syphon.

J.C.M. Rolland. Early Australian locomotives. 53-4. 3 illustrations
Melbourne & Hobson's Bay Railway 2-4-0WT with outside cylinders supplied by Stephenson WN 954-6 and 4-4-0T also supplied by Stephenson and later by Robison Bros. from the Phoenix Foundry at Ballarat.

Rogers 2-6-0 tank locomotives. 54. illustration
Highly decorated aas shown in 1876 catalog

Southern Railway. 54
First Bulleid Pacific Channel Packet; other locomotives to be named after Merchant Navy fleets.

W.A. Stanier. 54
Elected Pressident Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Charles H. Luke. 54
Elected Director of the Superheater Co. Ltd.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Express goods trains working. 55-8. 4 diagrams
Such trains were limited to 60 mile/h and tended to be heavier  than passenger trains. The performance of K3 No. 2450 hauling 600 tons is compared with that of A1 Pacific No. 4476 Royal Lancer hauling a 515 ton passenger train between Peterborough and York. The performance of Class 5 4-6-0 No. 5266 hauling 390 tons between Hellifield and Blea Moor is examined; as is that of S15 4-6-0 hauling 500 tons on the 19.36 Exeter to Nine Elms express freight on the up and down stretch between Templecombe and Tisbury and V2 No. 4771 Green Arrow hauling 610 tons  was timed between Sandy and Peterborough.

New York Central System. 58
New streamlined air-conditioned trains with rubber cushioned draw gear and tight couplers were being cionstructed for the Empire State Express.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 61-4.
2-2-2

O.J.  M[orris]. Early cab doors, GWR 2-4-0 tank engine "Prince". 71.
No. 2137: broadc gauge 2-4-0ST at Brixham in 1891. Built by Ince Forge for South Daven Railway in 1871.

L.N.E.R. 71.
Heavy snow storms blocked East Coast main line between Darlington and Newcastle. Deputy General Manager, C.M. Jenkin Jones ordereed that all services from the south should terminate at Darlington. Traffic was halted for two days. Electric trains in the Newcastle area were replaced by steam trains.

Akron seat-in-sleeve valve. 71. diagram.
Made from stainless steel

Number 583 (15 April 1941)

Locomotive efficiency. 73
Brief summary of C.A. Cardew ILocoE  Paper  417 based on New South Wales Government Railways experience.

L.N.E.R. Cruden Bay Hotel Tramway. 73

Obituary. 73
Daeth of Sir Nigel Gresley at Watton House.

Southern Railway streamline Pacific locomotive, Channel Packet. 74-5. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Modified tank locomotives, L.M.S.R.: the standard 2-6-2 design re boilered. 76-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 77-9.
Pollok & Govan Railway and Wishaw & Coltness Railway.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 89-91. 4 illustrations
Maritime activities at Burnham. See also letter from R.B. Fellows on p.140

Number 585 (15 May 1941)

Combustion turbine locomotives. 97
Report by American Railway Fuel Association that a 500 hp locomotive was being constructed and that a 6000 hp was in prospect which would incorporate four 1500 hp gas turbines. Improvements in metallurgy made this possible.

Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc. 97-9. illustration
obituary

Lord Stamp of Shortlands. 99
Short obituary which mentions "tragic death by enemy action"

Guy Bakewell. 4-8-4 locomotive Victorian Railways. 99-100. 2 illustrations
Pocono type. No. 220, built at the Newport Works was exhibted at Spencer Street station in Melbourne with 0-6-0 No. 94 which had been built in 1884.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 107-9:
Trader's locomotives.

Number 586 (15 June 1941)

Aluminium alloys. 119.
Main use in valve gear components to reduce weight and hammer blow. Side rods based on material use on Alton & Southern RR.

G.W.R. Mr. C.B. Collett, O.B.E, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E.. 119
Retirement and succeeded by F.W. Hawksworth

New 2-8-0 locomotives Victorian Railways. 120-1.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 122-5. 7 illustrations (including portrait)
Benjamin Connor was in charge from 1857 to 1876. At the beginning of this time double-sided bullhead steel rail was being introduced and experiments were being made to replace coke with coal as locomotive fuel. In 1858 an order was placed with A. Neilson for a coal burning 0-6-0 with outside cylinders to work on the General Terminus Railway. This had 16 x 22in cylinders, 5ft 2in coupled wheels, 895 ft2 total heating surface and operated at 95 psi. It had WN 460 and the initial running number was 180. In 1873 the locomotive was rebuilt as a 2-4-0. In 1858 Connor's own design was introducesd: a Crewe type 2-4-0 freight locomotive with outside frames and outside cylinders. Four were built at St Rollox and four at Neilson's. The latter were supplied with steam tenders, but  these were switched to a larger St. Rollox design in the following year. They were numbered 189 to 196: the WN of the Neilson enginesb were 492-5. The class was withdrawn between 1894 and 1902.
The eight foot singles were alleged to have been designed at Crewe by Alexamder Allan according to Ahrons and certainly had a high input from Neilson. The first twelve had a raised firrebox with the dome and Salter safety valves located on it. Neilson built one for the London Exhibition of 1862, but it, plus a further two, were acquired by the Viceroy of Egypt. Otherwise it would have become CR No. 83. They were very heavy locomotives and were capable of hauling substantial trains up to Beattock. Photographs: Benjamin Connor (portrait), No. 188 (outside-cylinder 0-6-0; 2-4-0 (189-96 series as built); 2-4-0 No. 192 as rebuilt; 2-2-2 Exhibition engine; 2-2-2 No. 115; 2-2-2 No. 83a as rebuilt by Drummond.

C.Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. No. 19. James Manson. 126-31. 4 illustrations (including portrait)

The 0-8-2 tank engine. 131.
Restricted to railways in Britain: designs described Sharp Stuart WN 4182-8 for the Barry Railway; Cooke Locomotive Works products for Port Talbot Railway; the Ivatt, Doncaster design intended for suburban traffic; L&YR 1501 class and LNWR 1185 class..

Rail car for His Highness the Maharaja Saheb of Morvi. 132-3. illustration, diagram (side, front and rear elevations & plan)
Built under the supervision of C.O.B. Morgan, Locomotive and Carriage Superintendent of the Morvi State Railway: streamlined luxury vehicle with six-cylinder Dodge engine

Dublin and Kingstown Railway: centenary of Irish locomotive building. 133-4.
2-2-2T Princess built at Grand Canal Street Works in 1841 and entered service on 4 April

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. VIII. Periodical examinations. Organisation of repair and maintenance work. 134-9. 6 diagrams (facsimile forms)

Two large wagons. 139

Madeira-Mamore Railway. 139

Southwold Railway. 139

British Railways train services. 139.

L.M.S.R. 139

Trans-Saharan Railway. 139

Correspondence. 140

Burnham-Cardiff passenger boats. Reginal B. Fellows.
In 1858 the Somerset Central Railway became involved in steamer sailings to Cardiff working in association with the SS Taliesen owned by the Cardiff Steam Navigation Company. In 1860 this service was repalced by the SCR owned SS The Ruby. In 1860 the Burnham Tidal Harbour & Railway Company extended the quay and the Act legalised the steamer sailing which took about 1½ hours for the crossing. Bradshaw for 1884 list the Sherboro performing the sailings

British locomotive working, 1934-9. John W. Smith
In 1919 he had observed No. 592 with 7ft coupled wheels attempting to start its train away from Craigendoran and the fireman was applying ballast to the slipping 7ft driving wheels to assist adhesion. Holmes West Highland No. 9695 was used to assist a B12 4-6-0 on the annual through train to Oban for the Iona cruise.

Facts about British Railways in Wartime. 140.
Issued by British Railways Press Office.

L.M.S.R. 140
Coronation Pacific to be named King George VI for which Royal approval had been obtained

U.S. gift in memory of Lord Stamp. 140
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad sent cheque to LMS to fund an RAF flying ambulance. Presentation made in New York to representative of British Railways by President of the British American Ambulance Corps.

L.N.E.R. 140
A.H. Peppercorn to become Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer and Mechanical Engineer Doncaster; F.W. Carr to be Mechanical Engineer at Stratford; T.E. Heywood designated Mechanical Engineer (Scotland), K.S. Robertson as Assistant Mechanical Engineer in Scotland; R.A. Smeddle Mechanical Engineer Darlington. with L. Reeves as Manager of the Locomotive Works at Darlington; J.F. Harrison as Mechanical Engineer at Gorton with H.J. Williams as Works Manager (formerly Chief Materials Inspector at Doncaster.

Number 587 (15 July 1941)

Locomotive fire engines. 141-2
Editorial

F.C. Hambleton. John Ramsbottom. 143-7.

L.N.E.R. 151
Stramlined B17 No. 2780 City of London: a record of continuous performance between Liverpool St. and Norwich, in which 100,103 miles were run in 452 days.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 154-6.
The singles were originally confined to the Glasgow Buchanan Stret to Carlisle section for 7 years, but were then moved elsewhere. Some were involved in serious collisions. On 14 May 1883 Nos. 78 and 84 ran into wreckage of a previous accident due to signalman error at Kirtlebridge. In July 1886 Nos. 80 and 85 made contact with another train fouling the line at Fullwood Junction. 4-wheel tenders were fitted to some locomotives to enable them to use 35-ft turntables. Thw Westinghouse brake was fitted to all the singles. In 1859 four of the 189 series of 2-4-0 were fitted with steam tenders, but this was unsuccesssful, but the process was repeated on the larger-boilered 197 series on Nos. 197-200 and was successwful for a few minutes: the tenders also improved braking performance. They were very unpopular with the footplate crews, eespecially the task of oiling the inside motion od the steam tenders/

L.N.E.R. Medal. 156
Silver medal inscribed FOR COURAGE AND RESOURCE.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 157-60. 4 illustrations, diagram
Includes fitting E4 0-6-2T No. 517 Limpsfield with Ashton pop safety valves

Number 588 (15 August 1941)

Railway accidents, 1940. 163.
Restricted lighting due to WW2 was estmated to account for approximately 10% of accidents. Particular attention is paid to the collapse of the firebox crown on a Stanier streamlined Pacific between Clegham [Cleghorn?] and Carstairs

G.W.R. 163
F.C. Hall appointed as assistant to CME: Hall had been apprenticec at Swindon from 1900; in 1919 became assistant divisional locomotive superintendent at Old Oak Common, district locomotive superintendent at Bristol in 1931 and locomotive running superintendent at Swindon in 1931. Promotion of W.N. Pellow to Hall's former post.

Australia's largest locomotive. 164-5. illustration
Victorian Railways three-cylinder 4-8-4 H class

Ethiopian Rly. 165.
Partially reopened after it had been destroyed by Italy: had connected Adis Ababa with Jibuti.

The assessment of locomotive performance. 166-70. 6 tables

The Whitland and Cardigan Ry. 170. 3 illustrations
Line incorporated 12 July 1869 as Whitland and Taf Vale Railway with a line to Crymmmych Arms with an extension to a quarry. Opened to passengers on 12 July 1875. In 1877 powers were obtained for an extension to Cardigan, but this did not open until 1 September 1886, by which time had become part of the GWR. Three Fox, Walker & Co. 0-6-0ST locomotives formed the stock: WN 170/1872 No 1 John Owen (GWR No. 1385), WN 271/1875 No. 2  (GWR No. 1386); and WN 340/1877 No. 3 (GWR No. 1387). The first two had outside cylinders, but the last had inside.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 171-4. 7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2-4-0 and 0-4-2 mineral engines.. The latter introduced in 1861 had been intended to be fitted with steam tendders, but this part of the order was cancelled.

Southern Railway. 174
Passenger service from Brockwood to Bisley Camp on Saturday afternoons

R.B. Fellows. The centenary of a business train. 175-6. table
The City Limited Brighton to London Bridge express began on 18 September 1841: outward at 08.30 arriving 10.15 and return at 16.45 and back in Brighton at 18.30. It was limited to first class passengers, but calls for stops at Croydon and elsewhere slowed the service, but in 1883 times of approaching one hour were attained and in 1912 the down train took exactly one hour.

Wagon for exceptional loads (Victorian Government Railways). 177.
Electric power station at Newport required wagon to convey 150 ton loads.

F.C. Hambleton. John Ramsbottom. 178-82. 9 diagrams

Number 589 (15 September 1941)

Modern locomotive practice, Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway. 196-9. 2 illustrations
Bridge strengthening between Bath and Mangotsfield enabled Stanier Class 5 4-6-0s to be used to wokl the heavy Pines Express and another heavy passenger train with its twelve wheel dining car more efficiently. Load limits are given, both northbound and southbound for Bath to Masbury, Masbury to Corfe Mulklen and Corfe Mullen to Bournemouth. The limits for the 7F 2-8-0, Class 2 4-4-0, 4F 0-6-0 and 3F 0-6-0 are also given.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 200-2.

Number 590 (15 October 1941)

The balance of loco. design. 205.
How the proportions for efficient design were reached in Britain. See also letter from L.A. Fullagar on p. 266.

Manchester-Sheffield-Wath electrification: mixed traffic electric locomotive No. 6701 tested on the Manchester-Altringham line. 206

Government control of railways. 206

L.M.S.R. 206

Steam v. diesel electric locos. 207-8

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 208-10. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)

Number 591 (15 November 1941)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 231-4..
92 Class 2-40 built at St. Rollox with 17 x 24in outside cylinders, 6ft 8in coupled wheels, about 900ft2 total heating surface and 130 psi boiler pressure. No. 92 built in 1865; Nos. 93-7 iin 1866; Nos. 103-7 in 1867. Reboilered with flush top fireboxes from 1878 (Nos. 94, 96 and 106); Nos. 93, 103 and 105 in 1889; Nos. 92 and 104 in 1880, Nos. 95 and 97 in 1881 and No. 107 in 1883. Order placed with Dubs in 1865 for freight locomotives to work on former Scottish Central Railway lines.

London Transport car No. 14233. 234
Bomb damaged Metropolitan Railway motor car repaired by welding it to remains of District Railway trailer No. 013167.

High capacity well car. 242. diagram (side & end elevations and plan)
Wagaon built by Greenville Steel Car Co. for Carnegie Illinois Steel Co. to convey ingot moulds.

O.J. Morris. A pioneer bogie coach. 242-3. illustration
Former Midland Railway vehicle, probably supplied by Ashbury, sold to Isle of Wight Central Railway for £125 where Charles L. Conacher, manager, envisaged using it on push & pull services powered by 0-4-2ST

Southern Railway. 243
Hillsea Halt opened between Portcreek Junction and Fratton

L.M.S. 40-ton electric magnet crane. 243
Goliath crane with 38-inch diameter magnet capably of lifting 7 tons.

Tank trains in mock battle. 244

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 244.

Obituary. 244.
E.C.B. Ashford: an authority on the Somerset & Dorset Railway; died aged 40; member of Bath City Council.

Reviews. 244

The Railways of Persia. Railway Gazette..
There was no railway in Persia (other than a short link in from Russia) until 1927 and the main line from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf was not completed until 1938. This involved a summit at 6929 feet with a 3170 yard tunnel and ruling gardients southbound of 1 in 36 and northbound of 1 in 67

The welding of copper, bronze and brass by the arc process.
Murex trade literature

Correspondence. 244

Joseph Beattie. W.B. Thompson

Number 592 (15 December 1941)

The locomotive in engineering. 245-8. 3 tables
Precis of Stanier's IMechE Presidential Address.  When commencing his training in January 1892, locomotive practice on the Great Western, under the guidance of William Dean, was very much the same as that of other railways of the time. The locomotives were comparatively small, with steam pressures up to 140 psi., but very quickly another phase began; steam pressures were raised to 160 psi and a bogie became necessary in front to provide a lengthened wheelbase on which to carry the larger boilers. About the year 1902, Churchward brought out the first big departure from current practice, when he built six-wheel-coupled express passenger engines with cylinders having 30 in. stroke and fitted with valve gear having an unusually long travel and a greater lap. These characteristics made it possible to work the engine so that greater advantage was obtained from the expansion of the stcam. Churchward continued to adopt these features throughout the whole of his career as chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western. This practice has been adopted and developed gradually on all the other English railways and it is the development that has taken place on the LMS over the last ten years to which he principally refered.
Table 1 lists the approximate thermal efficiencies of various steam locomotives: representative locomotive of c1880; c1912, Coronation, Chapelon superheated 4-8-0 compound locomotive and advanced steam power station practice electric drive (the last based on particulars given in Sir Leonard Pearce’s Thomas Hawksley Lecture, Proc.I Mech.E., 1939, vol. 142, p. 305), Table 1 attempts to set out the relative thermal efficiencies for different stages in the development of steam motive power, showing first of all the basic theoretical efficiency of the cycle, then the actual engine and boiler effciencies, and finally an overall thermal efficiency for the plant as a whole on a basis of indicated horse-power. The first column represents a saturated steam engine as designed in the last century (of which many are still running); col. 2 represents a superheated design of the period 1908-12, still retaining old-fashioned cylinder and valve gear design ; col. 3 the position of representative best present-day design in this country, while col. 4 is illustrative of the work done by Chapelon in France, and represents very nearly the best which can be expected from further refinement in.the normal reciprocating locomotive. The last column gives comparative figures for an “ideal” application of the most advanced power station practice to the locomotive, leaving on one side for the moment the question of how far the various features of power station practice could in fact be applied. The record of the locomotive is not, as is sometimes thought, entirely bad, and Table 1 shows clearly where it has advanced and where it still falls short. Table. 2: particulars of representative locomotive boilers (L .M. & S. Railway and Table 3 Dynamometer car test results with various L .M. & S. Railway locomotives: No. 5917 Claughton class Euston to Carlisle and return; No. 6158 Royal Scot class Euston to Carlisle and return (low mileage and high mileage); Princess Royal No. 6210, Turbomotive No. 6202 and Coronation class No. 6225 with light load Euston to Glasgow; Euston to Glasgow and back No. 6220 with Coronation Scot load and timing and No. 6234 with maximum load Crewe to Glasgow and return; and Class 5 St Pancras to Leeds and return with No. 5067 with 14 element superheater and No. 5079 with 21 element superheater.
A review of the efficiency of the steam locomotive, based on LMS testing plus a forecast of future development: makes reference to Goss and thr Altoona test plant

Twin-coupled railcars, Great Western Railway. 248-9. illustration.
Designed to incorporate an intermediate trailer using an ordinary corridor coach.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 250-2.
The General Terminus Railway was taken over together with 3 locomotives. Two were 0-4-0 tender locomotives built by J.M. Rowan in February 1851: they became CR Nos. 116 and 117 and were scrapped in 1867..

O.S. Nock. Locomotive performance on the G.W.R. 257-60. illustration, 6 diagrams
Letter from H. Holcroft objected to comments on 43XX class

Correspondence. 266

Locomotive design. L.A. Fullagar.
The opening article in issue of 15 October criticises the Great Northern 251 class Atlantics as designed on the ground that the cylinders were too small for the boiler. The subsequent performance of the Atlantics, however, suggests a profitable enquiry why they did so distinguishingly well, and whether the proportions were not consistent with the highest locomotive development at that time.
At this distance from their date of origin in 1902 it is easy to overlook .that there was then no superheat, no modern valve or cylinder design and a heavy preponderance of D slide valves. With such engines when, as was the fashion in the 1890s, the cylinders were far too large for the boiler, the choice was soon reached between (a) running with a sufficiently short cut-off for the boiler to maintain steam when the back-pressure was excessive and ceiling speed low, or (b) obtaining freer running by working in fuller gear and saving the boiler by throttling at the regulator.
In the 251 class Atlantic Ivatt applied Richardson balanced valves which with outside cylinders introduced only· one slow 90° bend between cylinder port and blast pipe. The 180° reversal + 90° sharp bend common with .D valves were eliminated but the S shaped passages from cylinder ports to valve chest remained. Back pressure was greatly. reduced but would still be serious at short cut-offs 'with the valve travel then in force.
Ivatt appears to have recognised this and designed the engines for what we should now regard as very late cut-off and full regulator. Had they been given larger cylinders they would have been driven with the same cut-off, but partly closed regulator, an admittedly less efficient method. With saturated steam also the reduction of losses obtained through small cylinders was desirable. Ivatt in fact produced an engine which with short travel valve gear of his day could be driven with full regulator and the low back pressure at high speed now obtainable with modern cylinder and valve design, while steam losses were limited by small cylinders. There was also valuable limitations of the mechanical stresses.
The introduction of piston valves when, as the article referred to points out, it was at last realised they could be of large diameter, allowed the freedom of exhaust at short cut-offs which Ivatt alone had obtained in 1902 by 'balanced valves, small cylinders and longer cut-offs. Such piston valves are usually associated with long travel about which there still exists confused thinking. Actually the valve movement of a long travel engine at 15 per cent. cut-off may be less than an old short travel design at 30 per cent. cut-off, but the former gives reduced throttling at exhaust.
In most modern designs long travel valves are combined with cylinder ports passing directly through the cylinder casting and leading with no pronounced change of direction to the blastpipe. This was the feature which distinguished the G.W.R. two-cylinder engines from 1900 onwards and it is one of the mysteries of locomotive development that its value was not recognised when the 4-cylinder G.W.R. engines were designed. These, by placing all cylinders out of line with the smoke box introduced two right-angle bends for both steam and exhaust. The L.M.S.R. in their first two Pacifies repeated this defect but have partially remedied it in the subsequent engines by moving forward the outside cylinders. Considering in 1941 a 1902 design it may be found not to possess proportions desirable now, but only when combined with developments unknown when the type originated. Comparison with other Atlantics must be made with caution as there were various points of difference, but it should surely not be overlooked that all the five British Atlantic designs which' followed Ivatt had larger cylinders, and it will hardly be contended that anyone of them has done as well.

McConnell's single engines. C.F. Dendy Marshall.
CFDM interested in McConnell's single engines on the L. & N.W.R., namely, large Bloomers, small ditto, No. 373 Maberly, No. 300 and Mac's Mangle. Can anyone tell me where good drawings are to be found? I have searched Tredgold, Clark and Colburn in vain. The only thing I have found is a fine drawing of the firebox of No. 300 in The Permanent Way etc. of Colburn and Hollery (New York, 1858). I particularly want to know the distance between the centres of cylinders of No. 300. Ahrons (p. 95). says 1 ft. 10½ in., and then goes on to say that the inside beanngs could therefore be only 41 in. long. This must be a mistake. The drawing referred to above shows that the eccentrics were in the usual position; between the cranks. Ahrons also says the inside frames only extended from the motion-plate to the firebox, whereas his illustration (Fig. 106) shows that they passed forward behind the leading wheels Response from Henry Dearberg.

Reviews. 266

A book of trains. W.J. Bassett-Lowke and F.E. Courtney. Penguin Books Limited, London.
How does one review a Penguin, or in this case a Puffin —one of the seemingly thousand-odd red-and-white backed sixpenny's which bedeck every railway bookstall in England? This one, at least, differs from most of the others in its size, for it must have been beyond the wit even of Bassett-Lowke and his artist to illustrate and describe express trains and big stations within the usual Penguin-Puffin compass. As fitting a circulation among the mass, the text is simple in the extreme, but simplicity here does not mean crudeness as, unfortunately, it does in the illustrations. The book seeks to cover all phases of train working. and within what must have been the strict limitations imposed upon him, the author has dealt with history. locomotives, trains, bridges, stations, signals, underground lines and even miniature railways.

Some notes on zinc oxide in lubrication. 266
Interesting booklet by Alexander Duckham, The author does not deal with what may be regarded nowadays as the more or less well understood field of lubrication by oils and greases, but confines his comments to the securing of. more perfect lubrication by the incor- poration of zinc oxide. It. has been found that the. presence of zinc oxide in lubricants neutralises acidity and forms inert zinc com- pounds which in no way interfere with the stability or functioning of the lubricants. Electrolytic decomposition of the zinc compounds. results in the deposition of zinc on the bearings thus giving increased protection of the ferrous surface.

Trade note. 266

Portable axlebox press.
For the mounting and withdrawal of axle boxes, a new portable hydraulic concentric press has been developed by British Timken Limited. It is particularly useful in emergency and in inconvenient situations.  Timken axlebox bearings always have their inner races press fitted on to the axle; this is standard practice, as in wheel fitting, but it has been open to the objection that the use of a wheel press is involved. The objection is now removed by the advent of the new press. The purpose of the design was to -evolve a tool capable of a pressure of 75 tons, and at the same time portable. Two men can lift the press. There are two models, one hand operated and the other power operated. Using either of these, an axlebox can be mounted or removed in 10 minutes, including time for setting up. In case of. power failure, the power unit may be used for hand operation; a handle is provided for this emergency. A safety device prevents the handle being attached while the Power is available.