Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage & Wagon Review
Volume 47 (1941)
Key file

Number 581 (15 January 1941)

Railways and coal. 1-2
The effect of WW2 on the transport of coal for export. a market mainly lost; the difficulties of war on railway transport (notably the blackout) and the dependence on coal for locomotive power.

G.W.R. Norton Fitzwarren accident. 2
Lieut. Colonel Mount's Ministry of Transport report into 4 November 1940 accident in which driver forgot on which road he was travelling and the 21.50 Paddington to Penzance express was derailed at catch points at the end of the four track section leading to 26 deaths

L.N.E.R. 2
Driver G.W. Trower had retired after 47 years service. He accompanied Cock o' the North on the Vitry tests in France.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Footplate observations under service conditions. 4-8. illustration, 6 diagrams

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 12-14.
includes dummy crank shaft locomotives Nos. 136-143, some of which were altered to 0-4-0 and 0-4-2ST

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. 14-16.

New design of welded wagons, the Butterley Co. Ltd. 20. 3 illustrations

Obituary. 20
Viscount Wakefield founder of C.C. Wakefield & Co.

Engine depots and the Black Out. 20-1.

Pneumatic tie tamping equipment. 21-3. 3 illustrations
Broomwade compressor

Number 582 (15 February 1941)

Rolling stock in India. 25
Use of colour to distinguish classes: white for first, but others lesss standardized..

4-4-4 (A class) tank locomotives, Bombay, Baroda & Central India Railway. (metre gauge). 26. illustration
Built at the Ajmer Works.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working, 1934-9. Second line express passenger locomotives. 27-31. illustration, 6 diagrams
The diagrams are gradient profiles, with train speed correlated against. Locomotives considered: NBR Atlantic No. 9509 Duke of Rothesay on Dundee to Aberdeen route (high acceleration and speed) and C1 Atlantic on Queen of Scots with particular reference to Newark to Peterborough stretch where speed in excess of 90 mile/h attained.

F.C. Hambleton. Alexander Allan. 31-6. 6 illustrations (5 drawings, plan)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 37-8.

Phillipson, E.A. The steam locomotive in traffic. VI. Storekeeping, distribution and consumption of fuels and lubricants. 44-7.

Correspondence. 48

Public miniature railways. G.J. Humbert.
Writer was Manager of Trentham Gardens Ltd and argued that internal combustion engined (preferably diesel) steam outline locomotives were cheaper and simpler to operate than live steam and were popular with the public. On Whit Monday 1939 over 5000 people had been conveyed on the two trains which ran from 14.00 to 21.30

Number 582 (15 March 1941)

Transport and the Spring Crisis. 49
Editorial on the demands placed upon the railways, especially to the ports, imposed by the War.

New 2-6-2 engine (class V4), London & North Eastern Railway. 50-2. 5 illustrations, 2 diagrams. (including side & front elevations.)
Photograph of No. 3401 Bantam Cock and diagram of boiler with Nicholson thermic syphon.

J.C.M. Rolland. Early Australian locomotives. 53-4. 3 illustrations
Melbourne & Hobson's Bay Railway 2-4-0WT with outside cylinders supplied by Stephenson WN 954-6 and 4-4-0T also supplied by Stephenson and later by Robison Bros. from the Phoenix Foundry at Ballarat.

Rogers 2-6-0 tank locomotives. 54. illustration
Highly decorated aas shown in 1876 catalog

Southern Railway. 54
First Bulleid Pacific Channel Packet; other locomotives to be named after Merchant Navy fleets.

W.A. Stanier. 54
Elected Pressident Institution of Mechanical Engineers

Charles H. Luke. 54
Elected Director of the Superheater Co. Ltd.

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Express goods trains working. 55-8. 4 diagrams
Such trains were limited to 60 mile/h and tended to be heavier  than passenger trains. The performance of K3 No. 2450 hauling 600 tons is compared with that of A1 Pacific No. 4476 Royal Lancer hauling a 515 ton passenger train between Peterborough and York. The performance of Class 5 4-6-0 No. 5266 hauling 390 tons between Hellifield and Blea Moor is examined; as is that of S15 4-6-0 hauling 500 tons on the 19.36 Exeter to Nine Elms express freight on the up and down stretch between Templecombe and Tisbury and V2 No. 4771 Green Arrow hauling 610 tons  was timed between Sandy and Peterborough.

New York Central System. 58
New streamlined air-conditioned trains with rubber cushioned draw gear and tight couplers were being cionstructed for the Empire State Express.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 61-4.

O.J.  M[orris]. Early cab doors, GWR 2-4-0 tank engine "Prince". 71.
No. 2137: broadc gauge 2-4-0ST at Brixham in 1891. Built by Ince Forge for South Daven Railway in 1871.

L.N.E.R. 71.
Heavy snow storms blocked East Coast main line between Darlington and Newcastle. Deputy General Manager, C.M. Jenkin Jones ordereed that all services from the south should terminate at Darlington. Traffic was halted for two days. Electric trains in the Newcastle area were replaced by steam trains.

Akron seat-in-sleeve valve. 71. diagram.
Made from stainless steel

Number 583 (15 April 1941)

Locomotive efficiency. 73
Brief summary of C.A. Cardew ILocoE  Paper  417 based on New South Wales Government Railways experience.

L.N.E.R. Cruden Bay Hotel Tramway. 73

Obituary. 73
Daeth of Sir Nigel Gresley at Watton House.

Southern Railway streamline Pacific locomotive, Channel Packet. 74-5. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

Modified tank locomotives, L.M.S.R.: the standard 2-6-2 design re boilered. 76-7. illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 77-9.
Pollok & Govan Railway and Wishaw & Coltness Railway.

P.C. D[ewhurst]. L.M.S.R. locomotives: a history of the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway. 89-91. 4 illustrations
Maritime activities at Burnham. See also letter from R.B. Fellows on p.140

C.R.H. Simpson. A pole road locomotive. 94. illustration

2,000 B.H.P. diesel locomotive, Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R.R. 94. illustration
American Locomotive Co.

Number 585 (15 May 1941)

Combustion turbine locomotives. 97
Report by American Railway Fuel Association that a 500 hp locomotive was being constructed and that a 6000 hp was in prospect which would incorporate four 1500 hp gas turbines. Improvements in metallurgy made this possible.

Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc. 97-9. illustration

Lord Stamp of Shortlands. 99
Short obituary which mentions "tragic death by enemy action"

Guy Bakewell. 4-8-4 locomotive Victorian Railways. 99-100. 2 illustrations
Pocono type. No. 220, built at the Newport Works was exhibted at Spencer Street station in Melbourne with 0-6-0 No. 94 which had been built in 1884.

Locomotive fuels. 100

O.S. Nock. British locomotive working 1934-9. Locomotive work on heavy gradients. 101-5

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 107-9:
Wishaw and Coltness Railway (continued).
In 1844 and 1845, R. &  W. Hawthorn, delivered six similar locomotives of the 0-4-2 wheel rrangement. The cylinders were 14 in. diam. by 20 in. stroke and the diameters of the wheels 'ere 4 ft. 6 in. and 2 ft. 11 in. Unfortunately the original drawings of this class of engine cannot be found by the makers and from various odd records and sketches kindly loaned a reconstruction of the design has been attempted. The design appears to have followed the makers usual practice having double frames and outside cranks. Pressure was 60 lb. per sq. in. at first, but was ter raised to 70 lb. The names, etc., of the class were as undernoted

Name Date WN CR No. Withdrawn
Jupiter 1844 388 89 1861
Hercules 1844 389 95 1858 (a)
Vulcan 1845 421 91 1861
Venus 1845 422 87 (b) 1863
Vesta 1845 454 88 (c) 1859
Lucifer 1845 455 86 1861

Note (a). No. 95.is said to have been hired to /rn. Dixon & Co. for the haulage of their own coke traffic, in exercise of their running powers between Calder and Blantyre and the Govan Ironworks, from 1855 or earlier to 1858 in which year the engine was sold out of service. Although nothing definite can be traced it is suggested that Messrs. Dixon were the purchasers and that this locomotive was the first "Calder No. 5." The late John Smith—the last main line driver at Dixon's—always declared that the first "No. 5" was of similar wheel type to the second No. 5, 0-4-2, and that when he came to Calder some wheels and axles lying there were pointed out as belonging to the earlier engine which was "of the Coltness type" and got for working the main line trips and retained after the larger engine had been sold to the Caledonian Railway. This sale will be referred to shortly when dealing with the history of the Traders' locomotives.
Notes (b) and (c). os. 87 and 88 were renumbered 84 and 85 respectively either in 1853 or early in 1854.
Some years ago the reminiscences of John Mann were given in a Lanarkshire Club and one concerned the Wishaw and Coltness Railway. It was claimed that the line had only one mishap prior to its amalgamation with the C.R., happily without serious consequences. . On the occasion referred to, two of the locomotives, Hercules and Venus had been sent to Morningside on the previous evening to work an extra train early next morning. The leading engine was Hercules and the train engine Venus. The usual early trip from the Holytown Works, and depot, to Morningside was being hauled by Lucifer, Both trains were coming along their own set of rails near Cambusnethan (Wishaw) and had almost met when Lucifer suddenly left the rails, slewed over towards the other set and pitched in to Hercules, Luckily the driver and fireman were thrown dear of the Hercules before it fell over.
At the inquiry into the accident it was suggested by the company's superintendent that the only solution which could be advanced was that Lucifer had the idea that Venus was being led away by his rival. Referring to John Mann, it is interesting to note that he came to the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway with Mr. Dodds. He had been a driver with the Stockton and Darlington Railway previously. Later he left the M. & K.R. to become a " foreman driver" with the Wishaw and Coltness Railway and later joined the Caledonian. When the stock was taken over by the C.R. it was seemingly numbered in the rotation the engines arrived at the Holytown Shops for repainting.
Trader's locomotives
When the C.R. was formed it was understood that all the haulage required at collieries, etc., was to be performed by the Company, and this meant the removal of loaded wagons from the pithead to the nearest mineral yard on the main line for marshalling, including the setting in of empties. The C.R., however, had spent so much money in other directions that when the line was opened some of the stations were only half completed, while owing to debt all the locomotive stock necessary could not be provided; some of the singles worked on goods trains. In consequence it was arranged with the colliery people and others interested that until the time when the Company could undertake the shunting themselves the owners would acquire suitable locomotives and undertake the haulage. In consequence of this the C.R. were to give the colliery and ironworks locomotives running powers over the section of the main line adjacent to their works. Some of the running powers granted were of a limited nature while in two ,cases they were extensive. Those of Co1in Dunlop & Co. permitted that company to operate from Crossbasket, near Blantyre to Gushetfaulds (Glasgow) and over the former Drumpellier Railway. Later when the line was extended to Strathaven and the Quarter Collieries were brought into use, Dunlop ceased to use the running powers and sent the engines still retained to this district. The most extensive were those granted to Wm. Dixon & Co. who were permitted to run their own trains over the line from Calder to Glasgow (Port Dundas) traversing the route of the Glasgow, Garnkirk and Coatbridge Railway, and also from Calder to Govan Ironworks, via. Motherwell. Later the powers were exercised mainly between Calder and the ironworks, via. Langloan and an occasional trip from High Blantyre. These powers have not been used since 1937 as the trips were becoming sporadic and there was little traffic for a large locomotive of limited power.
One part of the arrangement with the various owners was that the Company would purchase the stock acquired, as soon as was practicable, but the owners would have the option of retaining the facilities for a short period after the notice to purchase had been intimated. Some of the owners parted with their facilities in whole, others in .part as soon as the C.R. indicated that they purposed taking the engines over. Some retained the locomotives for internal traffic.
A few of the owners got the C.R. to operate the engines for them when obtained and it is said that frequently locomotives were seen bearing a C.R. road number and also the inscription that the owner was a private individual (e.g., Arch. Russell). This may have given rise to the story that at one period the C.R. was so poorly off that creditors put their names on the engines to indicate ownership.

Trader's locomotives
C.R. No. Type Cyls. D.W.
80 2-4-0T 14 by 21 5 ft. 0 in.
81 2-4-0T 14 by 21 5 ft. 0 in.
83 (a) 0-4-0 15 by 18 4 ft. 6 in.
87 (b) 0-4-2 16 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
88 (c) 0-4-2 16 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
95 (d) 0-4-2 17 by 20 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
182 2-4-0 15 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
183 2-4-0 15 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
184 0-4-2 14 by 21 (i) 4 ft. 6 in.
185 0-4-2 14 by 21 (i) 4 ft. 6 in.
186 0-4-2 16 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.
187 0-4-2 16 by 22 (o) 5 ft. 0 in.

For details of makers, etc., see separate list
Notes-(a) Renumbered 240 in 1862 and 1I8 in 1864.
(b) Renumbered 241 in 1862 and 255 in 1864.
(c) Renumbered 242 in 1864.
(d) Renumbered 111 in 1866, 120 in 1867, 123 in 1872, 451 in 1876 and 680 in 1877.
So far as is known some twelve locomotives came over to the C.R. The details of the numbers are somewhat confused and contradictory and the basic details are taken mainly from the notes made by the late Inspector John McInnes who joined the service of the Garnkirk and Glasgow Railway in 1844 and retired from the Company's service in 1902.
R. &  W. Hawthorn are credited with the construction of at least four engines, but these makers, despite great search, are not able to trace the manufacture of any of them, therefore the makers appear to. be Hawthorns of Leith, as No. 95 has builder's number 47 of 1851 and' Hawthorns had then not long started general engineering. No. 83 is said to have been Neilson's No. 50 of 1851, but as this was the Summerlee Iron Co's. engine the maker would be Hawthorns and their No. 50. This engine bore the name Neilson, hence the possible mistake in the makers name. Nos. 80 and 81 were sold to owners in Co. Durham. The former rejoiced in the nickname The Cuddy (Horse) and 81 in The Bird. The source of the latter is said to have come from the knowledge that its first owners had named it Hawk. Both are stated to have been very efficient and powerful and were employed until their disposal in shunting the old yard at Glasgow (South Side). These two locomotives were said to have been the first two made by Hawthorns, all four previous jobs being marine.
Nos. 182 and 183 were short coupled locomotives and had the same boiler details, cylinder and wheel dimensions as those numbered 144 to 151 previously described. The wheelbase, however, was 5 ft. 11 in. plus 5 ft. 6 in., and 11 ft. 5 in. total. The piston rod had a trunk guide. These appear to have been engines from the cancelled order for Russia.
Nos. 184 and 185 seem to have been Hawthorns copy of the earlier R. & W. Hawthorn design which had been assembled at Leith, but of slightly increased dimensions.
Nos. 186 and 187 were of Neilson & Co's. standard design and had in consequence quite a number of parts which were standard with C.R. designs. They were rebuilt at Perth in 1867 and 1865 respectively. No change appears to have been made in the boiler design. No. 187 was the first " foreign" engine to be overhauled at the former Scottish Central Railway shops. The names were removed by the C.R. when the locomotives were taken over.
Sinclair was succeeded by Ben. Connor, but no alteration was made to the locomotives ordered prior to Sinclair's departure and still to be built. Sinclair did little experimental work and apart from the attempt to improve combustion by the additon of argands to the firebox, his main alterations were the fitting of chimneys of correct diameter and blast pipes of correct diameter and height as found by trial and error methods under actual conditions. He discontinued the use of stay rods in the boiler barrels, and adopted longitudinal stays between the smokebox tube plate and the firebox tube plate.

Traders' locomotives acquired by the Caledonian Railway.



Acq'r'd Maker WN Name Owner W'drawn



1855 Hawthorns ?5 Coltness Iron Co. 1860



1854 Hawthorns ?6 ?Hawk A. Russell & Co. 1861



1854 Hawthorns 50 Neilson Sumrnerlee Iron Co 1873



1854 Hawthorns Newton Kidson 1874



1854 A. Neilson & Co 46 Arch. Russell A. Russell & Co. 1872



1858 Hawthorns 47 Glencairn . J. Watson & Co 1878



1857 G. England & Co. Cuilhill C. Dunlop & Co 1870


1857 G. England & Co. Monkland C. Dunlop & Co 1872


1857 Hawthorns 83 ?Tewsgill Coltness Iron Co. 1872


1857 Hawthorns 84 ?Garrion . Coltness Iron Co. 1874
186 ?1855 1857 A. Neilson & Co Calder W. Dixon & Co. 1881
187 ?1855 1857 A. Neilson & Co Cambusnethan Thos. Barr & Co. 1882

C.R.H. Simpson. A twin locomotive. 113. illustration.
Swiss Locomotive & Machine Works, Winterthur. Built in about 1878 during the managemnt of Charles Brown for theVilla Real & Villa Regoa Tramway in Portugal which had 1 in 12½ gradients and severe curvature.

"Southern Belle": Kansas City Southern-Louisiana and Arkensas Lines. 113-16. 2 illustrations, plan.
Streamlined diesel electric train which operated between Kansas City and New Orleans. The exterior was painted predominantly green on the exterior of the passenger cars with red on the locomotive, There was limited accommodation for "coloured" passengers and more generous areas for colourless ones (only the latter are illustrated in black & white). 

O.J. M[orris]. Four-rail mixed gauge, G.W.R. 117. illustration
W.M. Spriggs, then resident in Canada, and a very well-known authority on Canadian locomotive history, sent photograph of a "renewed" Gooch 8 ft. single, G.W.R., which he took at Newton Abbot Station in 1891, the year previous to the abolition of Brunels 7 ft. Broad Gauge. Interest centres mainly on the disposition of the narrow gauge rails, which are shewn interlaced, thus providing an example of mixed gauge on a four-rail system. It is well known that the mixed gauge was normally laid with only three rails, one rail being common to both the 7 ft. and the standard gauge tracks, and it seems that a four-rail system existed, as in this instance, to bring narrow-gauge engines centrally over the turntable (which is shewn immediately behind the engine), possibly also to bring them centrally over the inspection pits

Pennsylvania R.R. 117
Passengers from Chicago to Miami, Fla., travelled on the South Wind luxury train of the Pennsylvania Railroad. The trip took 29½ hours each way which was the fastest timing for this run. The latest design and smartest appointments have been put into the South Wind. There is an 85-foot observation-lounge buffet car, a solarium forms the semi- circular observation end. Seats number 258 and are of the individual reclining coach type; they are also adjustable to suit the comfort of the passenger. Large dressing rooms for men and women are in each coach; floor lights have been placed beneath seats for illumination at night when overhead lights are turned off. Luxury, comfort and speed are offered by this newest addition to the Pennsylvania system.

C.R.H. Simpson. Wooden rails.117
Having recently referred to a pole road locomotive (vide page 94 of the current volume) it may be of general interest to describe briefly the types of wooden rails in use in America during the closing years of the last century. There were briefly three varieties, the pole road in which timber of circular section was employed, the flat timber rail and that in which the depth either .equalled or exceeded the face width. The pole road demanded wheels with concave treads whereas in those roads utilising flat timber the treads of the wheels were flangeless and the engine was retained on the track by means of guiding wheels acting nearly horizontally in the manner outlined in Prosser's patent. It may here be recalled that the patentee mentioned envisaged the use of wooden rails although engines were constructed on this system to operate on ordinary metal rails, an example is illustrated and described in Locomotive, 1903, 8, 57. In the case of the square or edge rail wheels with tyres of orthodox contour were used and light locomotives designed for use on steel rails could be employed without alteration.
The chief advantage or wooden rails was obviously cheapness of first cost and that is about the only point which could be claimed in their favour; their most pronounced disadvantages were high rolling resistance, the difficulty of obtaining adequate adhesion in wet and freezing weather, the need for frequent attention and the necessity of very slow speeds. Pole roads were in the opinion of some unsuitable for steam traction. The best wooden rails were constructed from maple, laid heart uppermost, hard pine also found considerable favour. Lengths usually varied from 16 to 20 ft. the cross-section varying according to the wood used and the weight of the locomotives; 5 in. by 5 in. was a commonly employed size although 5 in. by 7 in. and 4 in. by 6 in. were also encountered. Sleepers were laid at 4 ft. centres with the larger section rails and at 2 or 3 ft. centres with the lighter sections, the usual section of sleepers was 6 in. by 6in. The rails were recessed some 3 in. into the sleepers and were affixed in the recesses by wooden keys. In some cases such rails were laid to serve until such time as the road earned sufficient to pay for steel rails whereas in other instances they were used by firms such as logging companies who had timber readily available and frequently required the road moving to another site.

L.M.S.R.  117
The train canteens for troops recently introduced as an experiment by the L.M.S.R. for service between London and Glasgow in co-operation with the War Office, Y.M.C.A. and Salvation Army were to become a permanent feature on certain express trains. between these two points. Third Class dining cars for members of the Forces only had been provided on the weekday 10.00 Euston to Glasgow and the 10.00 Glasgow to Euston.

L.N.E.R.  117
E. Thompson, O.B.E., appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer in succession to the late Sir Nigel Gresley, C.B.E., D.Sc. Thompson was a pupil with Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., and served some time with the Midland Railway. He joined the N.E.R. in 1906 and became assistant to the Divisional Locomotive Superintendent at Gateshead in 1909. In 1912 he became Carriage and Wagon Superintendent at Doncaster (G.N.R.) and in 1923 was appointed Carriage and Wagon Works Manager at York (L.N.E.R.). In 1930 Thompson was appointed Mechanical Engineer at Stratford having served as assistant there since 1927. In 1934 he went to the North-Eastern Area and in 1938 became Mechanical Engineer of the Southern Area, Western section
H.W.H. Richards appointed Chief Electrical Engineer and be completely responsible for the Company's electrical engineering work.

Number 586 (15 June 1941)

Aluminium alloys. 119.
Main use in valve gear components to reduce weight and hammer blow. Side rods based on material use on Alton & Southern RR.

G.W.R. Mr. C.B. Collett, O.B.E, M.Inst.C.E., M.I.Mech.E.. 119
Retirement and succeeded by F.W. Hawksworth

New 2-8-0 locomotives Victorian Railways. 120-1.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 122-5. 7 illustrations (including portrait)
Benjamin Connor was in charge from 1857 to 1876. At the beginning of this time double-sided bullhead steel rail was being introduced and experiments were being made to replace coke with coal as locomotive fuel. In 1858 an order was placed with A. Neilson for a coal burning 0-6-0 with outside cylinders to work on the General Terminus Railway. This had 16 x 22in cylinders, 5ft 2in coupled wheels, 895 ft2 total heating surface and operated at 95 psi. It had WN 460 and the initial running number was 180. In 1873 the locomotive was rebuilt as a 2-4-0. In 1858 Connor's own design was introducesd: a Crewe type 2-4-0 freight locomotive with outside frames and outside cylinders. Four were built at St Rollox and four at Neilson's. The latter were supplied with steam tenders, but  these were switched to a larger St. Rollox design in the following year. They were numbered 189 to 196: the WN of the Neilson enginesb were 492-5. The class was withdrawn between 1894 and 1902.
The eight foot singles were alleged to have been designed at Crewe by Alexamder Allan according to Ahrons and certainly had a high input from Neilson. The first twelve had a raised firrebox with the dome and Salter safety valves located on it. Neilson built one for the London Exhibition of 1862, but it, plus a further two, were acquired by the Viceroy of Egypt. Otherwise it would have become CR No. 83. They were very heavy locomotives and were capable of hauling substantial trains up to Beattock. Photographs: Benjamin Connor (portrait), No. 188 (outside-cylinder 0-6-0; 2-4-0 (189-96 series as built); 2-4-0 No. 192 as rebuilt; 2-2-2 Exhibition engine; 2-2-2 No. 115; 2-2-2 No. 83a as rebuilt by Drummond.

C.Hamilton Ellis. Famous locomotive engineers. No. 19. James Manson. 126-31. 4 illustrations (including portrait)

The 0-8-2 tank engine. 131.
Restricted to railways in Britain: designs described Sharp Stuart WN 4182-8 for the Barry Railway; Cooke Locomotive Works products for Port Talbot Railway; the Ivatt, Doncaster design intended for suburban traffic; L&YR 1501 class and LNWR 1185 class..

Rail car for His Highness the Maharaja Saheb of Morvi. 132-3. illustration, diagram (side, front and rear elevations & plan)
Built under the supervision of C.O.B. Morgan, Locomotive and Carriage Superintendent of the Morvi State Railway: streamlined luxury vehicle with six-cylinder Dodge engine

Dublin and Kingstown Railway: centenary of Irish locomotive building. 133-4.
2-2-2T Princess built at Grand Canal Street Works in 1841 and entered service on 4 April

E.A. Phillipson. The steam locomotive in traffic. VIII. Periodical examinations. Organisation of repair and maintenance work. 134-9. 6 diagrams (facsimile forms)

Two large wagons. 139

Madeira-Mamore Railway. 139

Southwold Railway. 139

British Railways train services. 139.

L.M.S.R. 139

Trans-Saharan Railway. 139

Correspondence. 140

Burnham-Cardiff passenger boats. Reginal B. Fellows.
In 1858 the Somerset Central Railway became involved in steamer sailings to Cardiff working in association with the SS Taliesen owned by the Cardiff Steam Navigation Company. In 1860 this service was repalced by the SCR owned SS The Ruby. In 1860 the Burnham Tidal Harbour & Railway Company extended the quay and the Act legalised the steamer sailing which took about 1½ hours for the crossing. Bradshaw for 1884 list the Sherboro performing the sailings

British locomotive working, 1934-9. John W. Smith
In 1919 he had observed No. 592 with 7ft coupled wheels attempting to start its train away from Craigendoran and the fireman was applying ballast to the slipping 7ft driving wheels to assist adhesion. Holmes West Highland No. 9695 was used to assist a B12 4-6-0 on the annual through train to Oban for the Iona cruise.

Facts about British Railways in Wartime. 140.
Issued by British Railways Press Office.

L.M.S.R. 140
Coronation Pacific to be named King George VI for which Royal approval had been obtained

U.S. gift in memory of Lord Stamp. 140
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad sent cheque to LMS to fund an RAF flying ambulance. Presentation made in New York to representative of British Railways by President of the British American Ambulance Corps.

L.N.E.R. 140
A.H. Peppercorn to become Assistant Chief Mechanical Engineer and Mechanical Engineer Doncaster; F.W. Carr to be Mechanical Engineer at Stratford; T.E. Heywood designated Mechanical Engineer (Scotland), K.S. Robertson as Assistant Mechanical Engineer in Scotland; R.A. Smeddle Mechanical Engineer Darlington. with L. Reeves as Manager of the Locomotive Works at Darlington; J.F. Harrison as Mechanical Engineer at Gorton with H.J. Williams as Works Manager (formerly Chief Materials Inspector at Doncaster.

Number 587 (15 July 1941)

Locomotive fire engines. 141-2

F.C. Hambleton. John Ramsbottom. 143-7.

L.N.E.R. 151
Stramlined B17 No. 2780 City of London: a record of continuous performance between Liverpool St. and Norwich, in which 100,103 miles were run in 452 days.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 154-6.
The singles were originally confined to the Glasgow Buchanan Stret to Carlisle section for 7 years, but were then moved elsewhere. Some were involved in serious collisions. On 14 May 1883 Nos. 78 and 84 ran into wreckage of a previous accident due to signalman error at Kirtlebridge. In July 1886 Nos. 80 and 85 made contact with another train fouling the line at Fullwood Junction. 4-wheel tenders were fitted to some locomotives to enable them to use 35-ft turntables. Thw Westinghouse brake was fitted to all the singles. In 1859 four of the 189 series of 2-4-0 were fitted with steam tenders, but this was unsuccesssful, but the process was repeated on the larger-boilered 197 series on Nos. 197-200 and was successwful for a few minutes: the tenders also improved braking performance. They were very unpopular with the footplate crews, eespecially the task of oiling the inside motion od the steam tenders/

L.N.E.R. Medal. 156
Silver medal inscribed FOR COURAGE AND RESOURCE.

O.J. Morris. Standardising Southern Railway locomotives, Central Section. 157-60. 4 illustrations, diagram
Includes fitting E4 0-6-2T No. 517 Limpsfield with Ashton pop safety valves

C.R.H. Simpson. Handyside's steep gradient locomotive. 161. illustration
Fox, Walker & Co. locomotive. Refers to Locomotive Mag. article in Volume 39 page 207 and to Engineering, 1876, 13 October

Chicago North Shore "Electroliners". 161. illustration
100 mile/h inter-urban cars

Number 588 (15 August 1941)

Railway accidents, 1940. 163.
Restricted lighting due to WW2 was estmated to account for approximately 10% of accidents. Particular attention is paid to the collapse of the firebox crown on a Stanier streamlined Pacific between Clegham [Cleghorn?] and Carstairs

G.W.R. 163
F.C. Hall appointed as assistant to CME: Hall had been apprenticec at Swindon from 1900; in 1919 became assistant divisional locomotive superintendent at Old Oak Common, district locomotive superintendent at Bristol in 1931 and locomotive running superintendent at Swindon in 1931. Promotion of W.N. Pellow to Hall's former post.

Australia's largest locomotive. 164-5. illustration
Victorian Railways three-cylinder 4-8-4 H class

Ethiopian Rly. 165.
Partially reopened after it had been destroyed by Italy: had connected Adis Ababa with Jibuti.

The assessment of locomotive performance. 166-70. 6 tables

The Whitland and Cardigan Ry. 170. 3 illustrations
Line incorporated 12 July 1869 as Whitland and Taf Vale Railway with a line to Crymmmych Arms with an extension to a quarry. Opened to passengers on 12 July 1875. In 1877 powers were obtained for an extension to Cardigan, but this did not open until 1 September 1886, by which time had become part of the GWR. Three Fox, Walker & Co. 0-6-0ST locomotives formed the stock: WN 170/1872 No 1 John Owen (GWR No. 1385), WN 271/1875 No. 2  (GWR No. 1386); and WN 340/1877 No. 3 (GWR No. 1387). The first two had outside cylinders, but the last had inside.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 171-4. 7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
2-4-0 and 0-4-2 mineral engines.. The latter introduced in 1861 had been intended to be fitted with steam tendders, but this part of the order was cancelled.

Southern Railway. 174
Passenger service from Brockwood to Bisley Camp on Saturday afternoons

R.B. Fellows. The centenary of a business train. 175-6. table
The City Limited Brighton to London Bridge express began on 18 September 1841: outward at 08.30 arriving 10.15 and return at 16.45 and back in Brighton at 18.30. It was limited to first class passengers, but calls for stops at Croydon and elsewhere slowed the service, but in 1883 times of approaching one hour were attained and in 1912 the down train took exactly one hour.

Wagon for exceptional loads (Victorian Government Railways). 177.
Electric power station at Newport required wagon to convey 150 ton loads.

F.C. Hambleton. John Ramsbottom. 178-82. 9 diagrams

Number 589 (15 September 1941)

Modern locomotive practice, Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway. 196-9. 2 illustrations
Bridge strengthening between Bath and Mangotsfield enabled Stanier Class 5 4-6-0s to be used to wokl the heavy Pines Express and another heavy passenger train with its twelve wheel dining car more efficiently. Load limits are given, both northbound and southbound for Bath to Masbury, Masbury to Corfe Mulklen and Corfe Mullen to Bournemouth. The limits for the 7F 2-8-0, Class 2 4-4-0, 4F 0-6-0 and 3F 0-6-0 are also given.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 200-2.

Number 590 (15 October 1941)

The balance of loco. design. 205.
How the proportions for efficient design were reached in Britain. See also letter from L.A. Fullagar on p. 266.

Manchester-Sheffield-Wath electrification: mixed traffic electric locomotive No. 6701 tested on the Manchester-Altringham line. 206

Government control of railways. 206

L.M.S.R. 206

Steam v. diesel electric locos. 207-8

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 208-10. 3 illustrations (drawings: side elevations)

Number 591 (15 November 1941)

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 231-4..
92 Class 2-40 built at St. Rollox with 17 x 24in outside cylinders, 6ft 8in coupled wheels, about 900ft2 total heating surface and 130 psi boiler pressure. No. 92 built in 1865; Nos. 93-7 iin 1866; Nos. 103-7 in 1867. Reboilered with flush top fireboxes from 1878 (Nos. 94, 96 and 106); Nos. 93, 103 and 105 in 1889; Nos. 92 and 104 in 1880, Nos. 95 and 97 in 1881 and No. 107 in 1883. Order placed with Dubs in 1865 for freight locomotives to work on former Scottish Central Railway lines.

London Transport car No. 14233. 234
Bomb damaged Metropolitan Railway motor car repaired by welding it to remains of District Railway trailer No. 013167.

High capacity well car. 242. diagram (side & end elevations and plan)
Wagaon built by Greenville Steel Car Co. for Carnegie Illinois Steel Co. to convey ingot moulds.

O.J. Morris. A pioneer bogie coach. 242-3. illustration
Former Midland Railway vehicle, probably supplied by Ashbury, sold to Isle of Wight Central Railway for £125 where Charles L. Conacher, manager, envisaged using it on push & pull services powered by 0-4-2ST

Southern Railway. 243
Hillsea Halt opened between Portcreek Junction and Fratton

L.M.S. 40-ton electric magnet crane. 243
Goliath crane with 38-inch diameter magnet capably of lifting 7 tons.

Tank trains in mock battle. 244

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 244.

Obituary. 244.
E.C.B. Ashford: an authority on the Somerset & Dorset Railway; died aged 40; member of Bath City Council.

Reviews. 244

The Railways of Persia. Railway Gazette..
There was no railway in Persia (other than a short link in from Russia) until 1927 and the main line from the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf was not completed until 1938. This involved a summit at 6929 feet with a 3170 yard tunnel and ruling gardients southbound of 1 in 36 and northbound of 1 in 67

The welding of copper, bronze and brass by the arc process.
Murex trade literature

Correspondence. 244

Joseph Beattie. W.B. Thompson

Number 592 (15 December 1941)

The locomotive in engineering. 245-8. 3 tables
Precis of Stanier's IMechE Presidential Address.  When commencing his training in January 1892, locomotive practice on the Great Western, under the guidance of William Dean, was very much the same as that of other railways of the time. The locomotives were comparatively small, with steam pressures up to 140 psi., but very quickly another phase began; steam pressures were raised to 160 psi and a bogie became necessary in front to provide a lengthened wheelbase on which to carry the larger boilers. About the year 1902, Churchward brought out the first big departure from current practice, when he built six-wheel-coupled express passenger engines with cylinders having 30 in. stroke and fitted with valve gear having an unusually long travel and a greater lap. These characteristics made it possible to work the engine so that greater advantage was obtained from the expansion of the stcam. Churchward continued to adopt these features throughout the whole of his career as chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western. This practice has been adopted and developed gradually on all the other English railways and it is the development that has taken place on the LMS over the last ten years to which he principally refered.
Table 1 lists the approximate thermal efficiencies of various steam locomotives: representative locomotive of c1880; c1912, Coronation, Chapelon superheated 4-8-0 compound locomotive and advanced steam power station practice electric drive (the last based on particulars given in Sir Leonard Pearce’s Thomas Hawksley Lecture, Proc.I Mech.E., 1939, vol. 142, p. 305), Table 1 attempts to set out the relative thermal efficiencies for different stages in the development of steam motive power, showing first of all the basic theoretical efficiency of the cycle, then the actual engine and boiler effciencies, and finally an overall thermal efficiency for the plant as a whole on a basis of indicated horse-power. The first column represents a saturated steam engine as designed in the last century (of which many are still running); col. 2 represents a superheated design of the period 1908-12, still retaining old-fashioned cylinder and valve gear design ; col. 3 the position of representative best present-day design in this country, while col. 4 is illustrative of the work done by Chapelon in France, and represents very nearly the best which can be expected from further refinement in.the normal reciprocating locomotive. The last column gives comparative figures for an “ideal” application of the most advanced power station practice to the locomotive, leaving on one side for the moment the question of how far the various features of power station practice could in fact be applied. The record of the locomotive is not, as is sometimes thought, entirely bad, and Table 1 shows clearly where it has advanced and where it still falls short. Table. 2: particulars of representative locomotive boilers (L .M. & S. Railway and Table 3 Dynamometer car test results with various L .M. & S. Railway locomotives: No. 5917 Claughton class Euston to Carlisle and return; No. 6158 Royal Scot class Euston to Carlisle and return (low mileage and high mileage); Princess Royal No. 6210, Turbomotive No. 6202 and Coronation class No. 6225 with light load Euston to Glasgow; Euston to Glasgow and back No. 6220 with Coronation Scot load and timing and No. 6234 with maximum load Crewe to Glasgow and return; and Class 5 St Pancras to Leeds and return with No. 5067 with 14 element superheater and No. 5079 with 21 element superheater.
A review of the efficiency of the steam locomotive, based on LMS testing plus a forecast of future development: makes reference to Goss and thr Altoona test plant

Twin-coupled railcars, Great Western Railway. 248-9. illustration.
Designed to incorporate an intermediate trailer using an ordinary corridor coach.

James McEwan. The locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 250-2.
The General Terminus Railway was taken over together with 3 locomotives. Two were 0-4-0 tender locomotives built by J.M. Rowan in February 1851: they became CR Nos. 116 and 117 and were scrapped in 1867..

O.S. Nock. Locomotive performance on the G.W.R. 257-60. illustration, 6 diagrams
Letter from H. Holcroft objected to comments on 43XX class

Correspondence. 266

Locomotive design. L.A. Fullagar.
The opening article in issue of 15 October criticises the Great Northern 251 class Atlantics as designed on the ground that the cylinders were too small for the boiler. The subsequent performance of the Atlantics, however, suggests a profitable enquiry why they did so distinguishingly well, and whether the proportions were not consistent with the highest locomotive development at that time.
At this distance from their date of origin in 1902 it is easy to overlook .that there was then no superheat, no modern valve or cylinder design and a heavy preponderance of D slide valves. With such engines when, as was the fashion in the 1890s, the cylinders were far too large for the boiler, the choice was soon reached between (a) running with a sufficiently short cut-off for the boiler to maintain steam when the back-pressure was excessive and ceiling speed low, or (b) obtaining freer running by working in fuller gear and saving the boiler by throttling at the regulator.
In the 251 class Atlantic Ivatt applied Richardson balanced valves which with outside cylinders introduced only· one slow 90° bend between cylinder port and blast pipe. The 180° reversal + 90° sharp bend common with .D valves were eliminated but the S shaped passages from cylinder ports to valve chest remained. Back pressure was greatly. reduced but would still be serious at short cut-offs 'with the valve travel then in force.
Ivatt appears to have recognised this and designed the engines for what we should now regard as very late cut-off and full regulator. Had they been given larger cylinders they would have been driven with the same cut-off, but partly closed regulator, an admittedly less efficient method. With saturated steam also the reduction of losses obtained through small cylinders was desirable. Ivatt in fact produced an engine which with short travel valve gear of his day could be driven with full regulator and the low back pressure at high speed now obtainable with modern cylinder and valve design, while steam losses were limited by small cylinders. There was also valuable limitations of the mechanical stresses.
The introduction of piston valves when, as the article referred to points out, it was at last realised they could be of large diameter, allowed the freedom of exhaust at short cut-offs which Ivatt alone had obtained in 1902 by 'balanced valves, small cylinders and longer cut-offs. Such piston valves are usually associated with long travel about which there still exists confused thinking. Actually the valve movement of a long travel engine at 15 per cent. cut-off may be less than an old short travel design at 30 per cent. cut-off, but the former gives reduced throttling at exhaust.
In most modern designs long travel valves are combined with cylinder ports passing directly through the cylinder casting and leading with no pronounced change of direction to the blastpipe. This was the feature which distinguished the G.W.R. two-cylinder engines from 1900 onwards and it is one of the mysteries of locomotive development that its value was not recognised when the 4-cylinder G.W.R. engines were designed. These, by placing all cylinders out of line with the smoke box introduced two right-angle bends for both steam and exhaust. The L.M.S.R. in their first two Pacifies repeated this defect but have partially remedied it in the subsequent engines by moving forward the outside cylinders. Considering in 1941 a 1902 design it may be found not to possess proportions desirable now, but only when combined with developments unknown when the type originated. Comparison with other Atlantics must be made with caution as there were various points of difference, but it should surely not be overlooked that all the five British Atlantic designs which' followed Ivatt had larger cylinders, and it will hardly be contended that anyone of them has done as well.

McConnell's single engines. C.F. Dendy Marshall.
CFDM interested in McConnell's single engines on the L. & N.W.R., namely, large Bloomers, small ditto, No. 373 Maberly, No. 300 and Mac's Mangle. Can anyone tell me where good drawings are to be found? I have searched Tredgold, Clark and Colburn in vain. The only thing I have found is a fine drawing of the firebox of No. 300 in The Permanent Way etc. of Colburn and Hollery (New York, 1858). I particularly want to know the distance between the centres of cylinders of No. 300. Ahrons (p. 95). says 1 ft. 10½ in., and then goes on to say that the inside beanngs could therefore be only 41 in. long. This must be a mistake. The drawing referred to above shows that the eccentrics were in the usual position; between the cranks. Ahrons also says the inside frames only extended from the motion-plate to the firebox, whereas his illustration (Fig. 106) shows that they passed forward behind the leading wheels Response from Henry Dearberg.

Reviews. 266

A book of trains. W.J. Bassett-Lowke and F.E. Courtney. Penguin Books Limited, London.
How does one review a Penguin, or in this case a Puffin —one of the seemingly thousand-odd red-and-white backed sixpenny's which bedeck every railway bookstall in England? This one, at least, differs from most of the others in its size, for it must have been beyond the wit even of Bassett-Lowke and his artist to illustrate and describe express trains and big stations within the usual Penguin-Puffin compass. As fitting a circulation among the mass, the text is simple in the extreme, but simplicity here does not mean crudeness as, unfortunately, it does in the illustrations. The book seeks to cover all phases of train working. and within what must have been the strict limitations imposed upon him, the author has dealt with history. locomotives, trains, bridges, stations, signals, underground lines and even miniature railways.

Some notes on zinc oxide in lubrication. 266
Interesting booklet by Alexander Duckham, The author does not deal with what may be regarded nowadays as the more or less well understood field of lubrication by oils and greases, but confines his comments to the securing of. more perfect lubrication by the incor- poration of zinc oxide. It. has been found that the. presence of zinc oxide in lubricants neutralises acidity and forms inert zinc com- pounds which in no way interfere with the stability or functioning of the lubricants. Electrolytic decomposition of the zinc compounds. results in the deposition of zinc on the bearings thus giving increased protection of the ferrous surface.

Trade note. 266

Portable axlebox press.
For the mounting and withdrawal of axle boxes, a new portable hydraulic concentric press has been developed by British Timken Limited. It is particularly useful in emergency and in inconvenient situations.  Timken axlebox bearings always have their inner races press fitted on to the axle; this is standard practice, as in wheel fitting, but it has been open to the objection that the use of a wheel press is involved. The objection is now removed by the advent of the new press. The purpose of the design was to -evolve a tool capable of a pressure of 75 tons, and at the same time portable. Two men can lift the press. There are two models, one hand operated and the other power operated. Using either of these, an axlebox can be mounted or removed in 10 minutes, including time for setting up. In case of. power failure, the power unit may be used for hand operation; a handle is provided for this emergency. A safety device prevents the handle being attached while the Power is available.