BackTrack Volume 23 (2009)

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Published by Pendragon, Easingwold, YO61 3YS

Number 1 (January)

H class 0-4-4T No.31512 taking water at Gravesend Central on 24 September 1960. (M.R. Galley). front cover
See also colour photo-feature on pp. 32-3

Our friends in the North. Michael Blakemore. 3.
Editorial on the joys of the West Highland Line in mid-winter when it was blocked by snow.

The Chalford 'Flyer'. Hugh Ballantyne (phot.). 4-5.
Colour photo-feature: auto train (push & pull) service between Gloucester Central and Chalford. No. 1458 leaving Gloucester Central with 11.20 to Chalford passing Horton Road mpd with 8F No. 48424 on shed on 28 August 1964; No. 1453 crossing Stroud Viaduct with 14.10 ex-Gloucester on 10 October 1964; non-auto fitted No. 9493 at Downfield Crossing Halt with 10.20 ex-Gloucester on 26 September 1964; No. 1458 propelling auto coaches on 12.30 ex-Chalford towards Ham Hall Halt on 10 October 1964; 57XX No. 9711 at Cashes Green Halt on 13.08 ex-Gloucester on 10 October 1964; and No. 1458 at Stonehouse Burdett Road on 15.08   ex-Gloucester on 10 October 1964. See also letter from Bob Stephens on page 252 which notes that locals called it the Rattler and whose family used it to travel tp Gloucester to shop from Cashes Green Halt – a journey which was impossible by bus when perforce such trips had to be made to Stroud..

Sinclair, Neil T. To Inverness for Hogmanay. 6-17.
On 29 December 1958 weiter travelled from Edinburgh to Inverness to celebrate New Year and the opportunity was taken to visit the railway station, with its unusual method of working where most arrivals reversed into the station, after traversing the Rose Street Curve to make cross platform interchanges simpler and Lochgorm Works. In the station the cafeteria had recently been modernised, but the departure board still made use of enamel plates, several of them pasted over to remove lines which had closed. The schoolboy was shown over Lochgorm Works by one of the foreman Lachy Russell who had revealing comments both on the former Highland Railway's locomotives and on some of the later mechanical engineers. At the time of the visit four class 5 4-6-0s were being overhauled. Lachy joined the Highland when Peter Drummond was in charge, but sadly he has nothing to add to the Frederick Smith saga. Christopher Cumming was known as 'Eagle Eye', but David Urie's brief tenure was viewed with disdain as he removed the recently acquired machine tools and took them with him to St Rollox Works, and this was followed by sixty staff at the Lochgorm Works being sacked.. The Skye Bogies were regarded as being troublesome. The Jones Goods were excellent engines and never experienced broken springs. The Clan Goods were also troublesome. The return journey to Edinburgh was made from Culloden Mooor station on 5 January 1959. See also letter from John Macnab on page 124 which adds some notes on Vancos (vans with coffins) and on the replacement of the last HR postal vans with BR vehilces in 1961..

Skelsey, Geoffrey. 'First lamb to Beeching slaughter': the closure of the Wetherby branches. 12-19.
The first line to be opened was the Harrogate branch of the York & North Midland Railway which left that main line at Church Fenton and ran via Tadcaster and Wetherby to Harrogate: it opened in 1847-8. A second line connected Cross Gates with Wetherby in 1876, but an additional curve to permit direct running from Leeds to Harrogate did not open until 1902. The original line featured special platforms to serve Wetherby racecourse and during WW2 Thorp Arch was the junction for the Thorp Arch circular railway which served a Royal Ordnance Factory. Suburban passenger traffic developed between Scholes and Leeds and was encouraged by the LNER opening a station ay Penda's Way on 5 June 1939. Traffic from this station grew and journey times to the centre of Leeds were far faster than competing bus services. Traffic data are reproduced which show that most of the passenger traffic had disappeared before closure except south of Westherby, and especially south of Scholes. The "iconoclastic" General Manager of the North Eastern Region was not interested in suburban passenger traffic into Leeds in spite of road congestion on the Leeds to Wetherby section.

Nisbet, Alistair E. The Inchture bus. 20-2.
Royal Assent was received on 2 July 1847 to construct a tramway from the Dundee & Perth Railway station named "Inchture" into the village with a terminus at the gates of Rossie Priory (not an ecclesiastical establishment, but the home of Lord Kinnaird). The tramway was worked by a horse tram, but some through traffic was steam hauled. The original rolling stock consisted of a four-wheel coach supplied from the Dundee & Arbroath line when the tramway opened on 1 February 1848 and this was replaced by another from the Scottish Central Railway in 1865. In 1890 the Caledonian Railway constructed a single deck tramcar for the line. The line closed during WW1 probably in 1916

On the Kent Estuary. Tommy Tomalin (phot.). 23
Colour photo-feature;  Class 5 No.45390 on mineral empties passing Arnside signalbox on 1 August 1968;  class 5 No.45394 propelling stone hoppers towards Sandside on 11 April 1968, and 8F No. 48631 approaching Grange-over-Sands with train iron ore hoppers on 27 July 1966.

Wells, Jeffrey. Railway travel and public health. Part 1. 24-8.
An examination of the state of railways in 1861 and their influence on the public good. Railway accidents at Clayton Tunnel on 25 August; fires on trains (notably the Derby winner Klarikoff in a horsebox on a GNR express; tyre failure on a Shrewsbury & Herford Railway train at Dinmore; a derailment at Sittingbourne on the LCDR; the failure of a tunnel under construction near Haddon Hall in Derbyshire (see also letter from Roger Brettle on p. 189 who states that railway concerned was Midland, not as stated); bridge failure on LNWR Leamington branch at Wootton; derailment of North Staffordshire Railway engine leading to scalding to death of its crew. New works included much of the Severn Valley Railway, the connection of Oxford with Cambridge, the conversion of the Thames & Medway Canal tunnel into the North Kent Railway, the completion of the Oldham, Ashton & Guide Bridge Junction Railway, the Caledonian Railway's line to Granton Harbour and improvements at London Road station in Manchester and extensions to the London Underground. Innovations included Markham's for burning coal in locomotive fireboxes; James Newall's experiments in gas lighting on the LYR; Ramsbottom's water troughs; a new Royal carriage, the use of a guard on the tender on the LBSCR to look backwards over the train, and gas lighting at Paddington station.

Grayer, Jeffery. 'SPB' – the Southern's publicity bookman. 29-31.
Stuart Petrie Brodie Mais, born in 1885,  was a popular writer and broadcaster who earned his living by popularising walks and rambles, some of which he led, These were associated with cheap railway tickets and booklets which are described herein and the covers for which are illustrated in colour: Walking at Week-Ends (1935), Hills of the South (1939), Southern Rambles for Londoners (1948 edition) and Winter Walks in Surrey & Kent (1950). These were published by the Southern Railway and later by the Southern Region. A biography of Mais by Maisie Robson: An unrepentant Englishman: the life of S.P.B. Mais is listed.

The Chatham's big tanks. 32-3.
Colour photo-feature:(note title is misleading the "big tanks" were the J class, not the H class as portrayed herein): No.31552 st Stewarts Lane on 15 June 1958 (R.C. Riley); No.31518 on last day of "Westerham Flyer" approaching Dunton Green on 28 October 1961: NB the "concrete sleepers" noted in the caption were concrete cable ducts (David Idle): see also letter from Grahaam Wootton (page 189) who shows that Marples was even more corrupt and that the concrete ducting was intended for electrification of the Westerham branch; No.31551 with brake van passing Stewarts Lnae on 25 June 1962 where E6 No.32413 and Eastern Region J50 (weith hopper coal bunker) were on ash pit (R.C. Riley); 31522 at Tunbridge Wells West on 25 June 1962 (Celyn Leigh-Jones); 31324 at Sharnal Street on 111.37 Grain to Gravesend Central on 2 December 1961 )David Idle). See also front cover.

Way to Derby County. 34-6.
Colour photo-feature based on transparencies shot in Derbyshire: Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46465 with 09.39 Sheffield Midland to Chinley with Southern green carriage at front in January 1966 (see also letter from Stephen Grant on p. 189) (Brian Magilton); 4F 0-6-0 No. 44482 at Dore and Totley with a Sheffield to Derby slow passenger in August 1961 (see also letter on p. 189 from Roger Brettle who corrects caption on present state of station); two J94 0-6-0STs Nos, 68006 and 68012 haul enthusiast brake van special joining the Cromford & High Peak line at Parsley Hay Junction on 30 April 1967 (David Idle); 8F No.48679 with Fowler tender on northbound mineral empties at Chinley on 24 March 1962 (Alan Tyson); Sulzer Type 4 (Class 45) D105 on a Manchester Central to Nottingham Midland at New Mills South Junction train in August 1966 (Brian Magilton); New Mills Central (junction for Hayfield) on 26 February 1966 (Alan Tyson); 4P compound 4-4-0 No. 41062 at Derby in August 1958 (R. Shenton).

Clarke, Jeremy. Portsmouth Direct – and indirect! 37-43.
Includes a map of the Direct line which was constructed by Thomas Brassey as a speculative venture. The line was steeply graded and in part sinuous, but was much shorter than the brevious routes to Portsmouth provided via the LSWR and LBSCR, both of which opposed the Direct Line. The LSWR eventually leased the Direct Line from 1 January 1859, but never really advanced services over the route. The Southern Railway electrified the line and provided a vastly improved service, although the writer considers that the the corridor multiple units were under-powered, although the Isle of Wight non-stops have long receded into history. Bibliography.

Yeoman service. Michael Mensing (phot.). 44-5.
Colour photo-feature based on Foster Yeoman limestone trains from the quarries in the Mendips: Class 56 048 (in BR Rail Blue) on train of empty bogie hoppers at Blatchbridge Junction, Frome, on 5 June 1985; Sulzer Class 46 019 (BR Rail Blue) with four-wheel (steerable wheels) empty wagons approaching Clink Road Junction on 26 June 1979; two Class 56 Nos. 56 044 and 56 050 leaving Merehead quarry with loaded four-wheel hoppers on 16 May 1983; two class 37 Nos. 37 162 and 37 121 on Frome avoiding line with old miner wagons on 5 July 1984; and two fomer BR class 08 shunters shunting four-wheel hoppers at Merehead quarry on 29 August 1979.

Smith, Michael J. "In the interests of their own ambitions": the story of the bitter rivalry between London's Metropolitan and District Railways. Part Two. 46-50.
The District obtained powers for electrification in 1897, and the Metropolitan in 1898. The Metropolitan ran an experimental electric service at 500-550V DC at Wembley Park between 1897 and 1900. In 1898 a joint experimental service was organises between Earl's Court and High Street Kensington. This ran at 600V DC.  Meanwhile the Metropolitan had discovered the Ganz three-phase 3000V AC system which required two separate overhead contact wires and attempted to inflict this system upon the Circle Line. This system was not to the liking of Charles Tyson Yerkes, the American financier who had gained control of the District. Arbitration, under Hon. Alfred Lyttleton on 11 December 1901 found in favour of the DC system. The Underground Electric Railways Co. was formed on 19 April 1902, but the Metropolitan Railway fell outwith this group. The outer circle of the Inner Circle saw its first electric services onn 1 July 1905, but there were teething problems. Steam was eliminated from 5 November 1905, but patronage was slow to develop. The East London Line was electrified from 31 March 1913, Capital was supplied by the Great Eastern; engineering work was performed by the South Eastern Railway, the District supplied electricity and the Metropolitan ran the trains. It spite of the apparent harmony there were disputes between the Metropolitan and the District concerning the operation of through trains onto their systems. One final battle remained, namely Distrct access to Uxbridge from South Harrow via Rayners Lane: this dispute was only resolved with the creation of the LPTB (London Transport).

Rutherford, Michael. The Kitson-Still locomotive and other hybrids. (Railway Reflections No. 148). 51-8.
The "combined cycle" Kitson-Still locomotive may in retrospect appear to be a somewhat unhappy amalgam of two engine forms: internal and external combustion, but such systems have dominated electricity generation ever since the "dash for gas". It is shown that there were some even more intimate mixtures of the two systems. There was a mixed superheated air and steam system devised by E. Field and F.S. Morris and developed by Field and the New Century Engine Co. The system was taken up by William Beardmore & Co. and fitted to a Holmes 0-6-0 No. 686 and tested in November 1905 and later on a new Atlantic No. 874 Dunedin in July 1907. In 1912 the Thermo-Locomotive Co. of Ludwigshaven (a consortium of Sulzer, Krupp, Borsig, the Prussian and Saxony State Railways wirh Diesel and Alphonse Klose produced a 4-4-4 direct-drive diesel engine assisted by compressed air when starting. The James Dunlop attempted to combine an internal combustion engine with compressed air transmission and 'Closed-Circuit' Air Transmission of Glasgow was established in 1912.. Later this was sold as the Aero-Steam system. The NBL Co. converted one its works 0-4-0Sts to operate on the principle. William Peter Durtnall was involved with two Italians Severino Christian and Secondo Sacerdole in the devlopment of Paragon-Christian compressed steam locomotives.A protype Hawthorn Leslie 3513/1923 was assembled, but did not achieve success: the reamins were converetd into an 0-6-0ST named Stagshaw and extant on the Tanfield Railway. The Kitson Still locomotive is covered in depth (and is the only one of the machines described to be shown working). The Teploparovoz Stalinets were extremely complex and attempted to generate producer gas in the tender to power a combined cycle steam/internal combustion locomotive. Very extensive bibliography. 

Foster, Richard and Edgington, John (phot.). Modernisation comes to St. Pancras (Signalling Spotlight). 59.
Illustrations of the Midland Railway structure of 1900 on 13 October 1956, and its not-yet commissioned replacement on same date (both colour).

Taylor, Alan. The 'Condor' 60-1.
The name was derived from "container" and "door-to-door" and ran between London (Hendon) and Glasgow (Gushetfaulds) and was run at relatively high speed. The wagons were long wheelbase four-wheel vehicles fitted with roller bearings as the service ran with only a single stop to change crews. Motive power was initially provided by a pair of Metropolitan Viscks Co-Bo diesel electric locomotives, but theses were unreliable and steam had to be substituted sometimes until in 1961 power was provided by a pair of Sulzer Type 2 locomotives. The Midland route to Carlisle via Leicester, Rotherham and the Leeds avoiding line was followed in both directions. Northbound the train travelled via Kilmarnock, but the southbound journey was via Beattock. The service began in 1959 and ended in the mid 1960s due to competition from the motorway network.

Book reviews. 61.
Railways of Buchan (Aberdeen-Peterhead-Fraserburgh and branches). Keith Fenwick, Douglas Flett and Dick Jackson. Great North of Scotland Railway Association. TJE ****
"Very good value"
John Ramsbottom: a Vistorian engineering giant. Robin Pennie. Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Association. RH ****
"extraordionarily good value"

Readers' Forum. 62.
Cambrian locomotive sheds and rosters. John Reohorn.
See letters in November 2008 Issue from John Richards and Peter Davis in response to article by John Reohorn In this letter Reohorn ponders on why Raven requested the report (and suggests that may have been compiled by a junior official).
Special trains. Peter Davis
Colin Maggs (Vol. 22 page 684) was guilty of "unique error" in claiming that Portpatrick & Wigtownshire Railway was only one with English company involvement: not so Forth Bridge enjoyed Midland, Great Northern and North Eastern Railway financial involvement
Southport. John Temple.
See article by Michael H.C. Baker in Volume 22 page 590: shows the rich diversity of motive power on the Manchester expresses which included the B1 class 61008 Kudu and Britannias, Clans and Royal Scots (KPJ remembers 4P compounds!), and even notes that one of the EMUs (M28311) was far faster than the others
Steam, diesel and electric. Alan de Burton
See flawed article by L.A. Summers in Volume 22 page 646; cites the British Transport Commission Modernisation and Re-equipment of British Railways of December 1954 where the reasons for abandoning steam traction were cogently stated. The writer agrees that the switch in motive power was badly handled, notably the failure to acquire the best available dieesel-electric traction, and points to how both the French and Germans opted for rugged simplicity in their final steam traction: "When steam traction was up against it, mechanical simplicity won over thermal efficiency"

Frost over the Pennines. Brian Magilton. rear cover
8F No.48200 approaching Hall Royd Junction, Todmorden with coal emties in January 1967.

Number 2 (February)

Class E4 2-4-0 No.62785 stands at Mildenhall with the branch train to Fordham and Cambridge in 1958. (Derek Penney). front cover

Railways for the taxpayer. A.J. Mullay.
Notes the very considerable Government expenditure on canals.

Swanscombe cement David Idle (phot.) and John Scholes (Indsustrial Railway Society, notes). 68-9.
Colour photo-feature: Associated Portland Cement Manufactureres Ltd: shows most of 0-4-0ST locomotives acquired from Hawthorn Leslie from 1928. No. 1 3715/1928 seen on 7 March 1970; Nos. 6 (3860/1936) and 7 (Robert Stephenson Hawthorn 7405/1948) on 15 February 1969; No. 4 (3718/1928?); No. 3 (3717/1928?) and further view of No. 6.  

Wilson, Andrew. The 'ROD' 2-8-0s of the Great Western Railway. 70-7.
521 slightly modified Robinson 8K class (steel fireboxes, Westinghouse air brakes and lifting jacks) were supplied to the Railway Operating Division. Twenty virtually new North British Locomotive Company locomotives were purchased by the GWR in 1919 becoming Nos. 3000-19. In addition locomotives were hired from 1919 and these received numbers 3020-99 and 6000-3. Nos. 3094-8 came via the LYR and 3099 and 6000 came via the LSWR. Eventually these were returned to the Government, but an offer of locomotives at £1500 led to the GWR purchasing 79, fitting the best thirty with copper fireboxes and numbering them 3020-49 and the remainder 3050-99. Wilson quotes from several sources to show that the class was not popular with GWR enginemen.. Illus.: No. 3016 (green) approaching Leamington Spa in 1935 (colour: Colouur-Rail); ROD No. 2124 at Strawberry Hill shed (LSWR) (later GWR No. 3099); No. 3016 at Oxley in October 1955 (colour: K. Cooper); No. 3025 in original condition on freight at Exeter in July 1921; No. 3017 on Shrewsbury shed in winter 1936/7; No. 3016 newly outshopped from Swindon c1937; No. 3028 at Old Oak Common on 10 August 1935; No. 3015 near Lonlas onn Swansea District Line with interesting freight in 1951 (colour: Hugh Daniel); No. 3020 in Swindon Works on 26 February 1939; No. 3026 on freight between Gloucester and Cheltenham during WW2 (1940); No. 3005 climbing Hatton Bank on 22 May 1943 (V.R. Webster); No. 3012 near Lapworth on 4 December 1955 (Michael Mensing); No. 3015 ex-Works, Swindon on 18 Mach 1956 (L.W. Perkins). See also letter on page 317 from R.H.N. Hardy  who notes the superb nature of the Robinson 2-8-0s, especially their boilers, and their reliable steam brakes: he suggests that problem on the GWR/Western Region was their shovels and firing technique. They were also capable of fast running. See also other letters on 252 from Peter Clark who being an LNER enthusiast could find no fault with the type, even noting that the type was well received at West Hartlepool during WW2, also queries the 185 psi boiler pressure, Robert Barker on the survival of ROD tenders as service vehicles: at Swindon Works until 1972 at Landore until 1989 (and may still be extant) and at Machynlleth in useable condition in July 1970.and Neil Woodland. (comment on caption to No. 3005 climbing Hatton Bank hauling ironstone not coal).

Hill, Keith. The Swanage Branch. 78-87.
Article describes rather more than just the branch line as this was preceded by tramways and plateways to assist with the shipment of china clay. A 2ft 8in tramway was constrcted by Pike Brothers to link Furzebrook with Ridge Wharf. This employed steam locomotives including the preserved Secundus. Another plateway was built by Benjamin Fayle. An Act was obtained for the Swanage Railway on 18 July 1881. The line waas inspected on 5 May 1885; the official opening was on 16 May 1885 and routine traffic began on 20 May. Through carriages were conveyed to London and the motive power was modernised with DEMUs and Class 33 performing, but Barbarous Castle closed it on 3 January 1972. Illus.: M7 No. 30057 at Swanage with push & pull for Wareham in early 1960s (coluor: J.M. Cramp); Beattie 2-4-0WT No. 209 on first train on 20 May 1885; West Country No. 34019 Bideford.on down through train from Waterloo at Corfe Castle with N class alongside in August 1956 (colour: S.C. Townroe);  415 class 4-4-2T No. 426 arriving Swanage in 1921; M7 No. 67 at Swanage on 6 July 1930 (H.C. Casserley); S11 with M7 No. 59 on 09.18 Swanage to Wareham leaving Corfe Castle on 1 September 1933;  No. 30057 on push & pull heading for Corfe Castle on 27 October 1962 (color: Gavain Morrison); Swanage engine shed on 15 May 1964 (H.C. Casserley);  0-4-0T Tiny on 3ft 9in gauge Fayle's Tramway on 31 August 1933; Class 2-6-2T No. 41295 entering branch at Worgret Junction on 7 August 1965 (colour: Peter W. Gray); Corfe Castle station in August 1965 (colour: Peter W. Gray); Peckett 0-4-2ST Septimus at Furzebrook on 2ft 8in gauge line; Norden depot on 22 August 1966 following conversion of line to 1ft 11½ gaugue;  

Nisbet, Alistair F. The Alyth Railway. 88-93.
Act of Parliament granted 14 June 1858 to connect the town of Alyth with the Scottish North Eastern Railway at what would become Alyth Junction and link onward to Dundee via the Dundee & Newtyle Railway. Main intermediate station seved the large village of Meigle. Main industry in the Vale of Strathmore was agriculture: soft fruit (notably raspberries and strawberries and sseed potatoes. Main structures on the line were the bridges over the Dean  Water and the River Isla. Col. Yolland inspected the line with a return visit on 7 August 1861. It was leased to the Caledonian Railway from 1866 and absorbed by it in 1874. Passenger traffic was heavy during the Dundee Trades Holidays. Closed to passenger traffic on 2 July 1951..

In the grip of winter.  94-5.
Colour photo-feature: 8F No. 48327 climbing from Chapel-en-le-Frith towards Dovel Holes Tunnel working wrong line with mineral train (Paul Riley); BR Class 5 No. 73083 on up fitted freight at Setley Plain south of Brockenhurst in December 1966 (A.C. Sterndale): A3 No. 60080 Dick Turpin passing Caldwell, North of Hitchin, with 12.45 King's Cross to Newcastle in December 1962; O4/8 No. 63785 crossing frozen Stainforth & Keadby Canal in January 1963 (G. Warnes: all Colour-Rail).

Mensing, Michael (phot.). Through the Malverns. 96-8.
Colour photo-feature: Hymek D7076 approaching Ledbury Tunnel with 13.15 Paddington to Hereford on 1 June 1963; No. 5952 Cogan Hall near Colwall on 17.35 Hereford to Paddington on 9 June 1963; No. 4916 Crumlin Hall approaching Ledbury on 15.15 Paddngton to Hereford on 1 June 1963; Class 166 DMU forming 16.25 Brirmingham Snow Hill to Great Malvern passing Worcester mpd on 27 August 1961; No. 7030 Cranbrook Castle shunting off van from 13.50 from Hereford at Worcester Shrub Hill on 2 September 1961: see also letter from Editor on page 189 which notes that caption failed to mention extra coaches to be added and worked forward by 7006; Class 3 2-6-2T No. 82008 approaching Malvern Wells with 16.25 from  Worcester Shrub Hill on 3 May 1958; 28XX No. 3805 climbing between Great Malvern and Malvern Wells with empty minerals on 19 June 1960.

Penney, David (phot.). Look East.  99
Colour photo-feature: J15 (GER Y14) No. 65475 acting as station pilot at Cambridge; E4 (GER T26) No. 62785 on turntable at Mildenhall.

Wells, Jeffrey. Railway travel and the public health. Part two.  100-3.
Excursion traffic; the public experience of railway travel, the unsanitary state of urinals and ill-lit closets, notably at Normanton. The comfort of passengers is considered, especially of that provided for the lower classes (see also letter from Bell on page 189 concerning infestations on electric tramcars) Illus.: p. 102 "Dinting Viaduct": see letter on p. 189 from David H. Mason (of Glossop) who firmly states Broadbottom Viaduct.

Atkins, Philip. Heavenly blue enigmas: the Caledonian Railway '956' class 4-6-0s. 104-11.
The 956 class were three-cylinder locomotives with a derived drive to the inside cylinders. They were unsuccessful and one remedy applied to some locomotives was tthe substitution of Stephenson motion for the inside-cyilinder whilst retaining Walschaerts on the outside cylinders. Dashpots were also applied in an attempt to limit valve travel. Cites paper by Shields (J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1943, 33 Paper 443) and illustrates dashpot from it. Identifies several St. Rollox draughtsman associated with the desgn: Graeme Miller who who was a Premium Apprentice under J.F. McIntosh from 1911 (Atkins had spoken with Miller); George Kerr (whom Miller stated drew up the valve gear and signed the boiler drawngs; he also drove to work), and Sandy Linn who signed the drawings for the derived gear. Moodie became Chief Draughtstman in 1921. Illus: No. 956 in workshop grey with indicator at Perth General station in August 1921; No. 958 on passenger train at Beattock Summit;  No. 957 with modified inside valve gear at Carlisle Kingmoor in 1922; No. 959 on 12.30 Aberdeen to Plymouth near Cove Bay; No. 959 at Perth with some evidence of inside valve gear; No. 14800 (ex No. 956) with derived gear in LMS red on Perth shed in July 1924; No. 14802 (ex 958) on freight at Elvanfoot in 1927; GSWR 4-6-4T No. 540 at Glasgow St Enoch in 1922; NER 4-6-2 No. 2400 near Alnmoutrh with dynamometer car train in April 1923; NBR 4-4-2 No. 501 The Lord Provost at Perth in 1921; No. 14800 (LMS black: M. Secretan painting colour postcard). See also further information page 318 provided by Dr Campbell Cornwell via Philip Atkins which gives details of indiactor readings taken in August 1922 where the middle cylinder with the derived motion did an excessive amount of work. A leter trial with Stephenson motion for the inside cylinder in October 1922 led to a very low output from the middle cylinder coupled withg low steam generation and high coal consumption...

Morrison, Gavin (phot.). Latterly in North Wales. 112-13.
Colour photo-feature: HST with power car No. 43 187 leading on 08.53 Euston to Holyhead on 27 August 1994; Class 33 No. 33 044 hauling  11.16 Crewe to Holyhead through Conwy Tubular Bridge and past Castle on 20 September 1986; Class 37 37 509 (grey livery) at Penmaenmawr with ballast hoppers for Warrington; 37 314 (Regional livery) at Holyhead with 16.00 for Crewe (Stena Line ship behind) No. 66 602 in Freightliner livery hauling Penmaenmawr to Basford Hall ballast train through Abergele on 8 September 2004 (see Editorial correction p. 189). 

Rutherford, Michael. Rude mechanicals: The Fell 4-8-4 and some other diesel-mechanicals (Railway Reflections No. 149). 114-23.
Cites L.F.R. Fell's The compression-ignition engine and its applicability to British railway traction. Proc. Instn Mech. Engrs., 1933, 124, 3-61 and his J. Instn Loco. Engrs. Paper 511. Notes that Fell was a Doncaster apprentice and was associated with Sir Henry (Harry) Ricardo.. The major features of the Fell locomotve were the use of relatively small engines in multiple, separatetly and inversely supercharged engines and a differential driving gearbox.. Illus.: No. 10100 en route to Willesden for exhibition in May 1954 (colour: J.B. McCann); Lomonossoff 4-10-2 diesel mechanical (diagram: side elevation/section); 10100 on down local train near Chapel-le-Frith in June 1957 (colour: W. Oliver); Lomonossoff 4-10-2 diesel mechanical (diagram: transmission and gearbox); Hudswell Clarke 2-6-2 Junin constructed in 1930 for 2ft 6in gauge railway in Chile; page 116 artist's impression of Fell-type locomotive with single cab for Southern Railway; 10100 withdrawn at Derby in April 1959 (colour: T.B. Owen); Fell and Ricardo at Marylebone in 1951; 10100 side view; possible Fell configurations; 10100 joining Peak line at Ambergate with stopping train for Manchester in 1957 (T.G. Hepburn); 10100 in Derby station with stock for 19.30 slow train to St Pancras in June 1967 (G.T. Greenwood): see also Editorial letter on p. 189.; sectioned elevation and plan; gearbox; drawbar characteristics; illus. and diagr (s. el.) of Yorkshire Engine Co. 0-8-0 Fell-type Taurus. See also letter from Walter Rosthchild on page 252 who See letter page 252 considers that design sketched for Southern Railway with cab at rear would have been a great mistake later implemented in the English Electric Type 20 which normally worked in pairs to obviate the problem of limited visibility. In the USA cabs were either at the front (both ends) or in the centre. Also considers that cab design of Derby Fell locomotive was later repeated in Peak type..

Readers' Forum. 124.
1962 — the last real summer. Michael Mensing.
See  feature in December issue (page 710 et seq) concerning transition from steam to diesel traction. concerning Western Region power ratings of Warships and Westerns compared with Peaks. DMU illustrated page 713 was not a class 119 or 120, but an Inter City class 123. Mensing also notes Western Region adoption of 24-hour clock for its 1964 timetable..
Our friends in the North and to Inverness for Hogmanay. John Macnab.
See Scottish feature on page 6 et seq: notes how Vancos (vans with coffins) were liable to end up in cold storage on the Highland and West Highland lines in winter; also noted replacement of the last HR postal vans with BR vehilces in 1961..
Steam, diesel and electric — towards the ultimate answer. Doug Landau.
See Volume 22 page 646: derides the assumption that No. 71000 Duke of Gloucester had an inadequate ashpan: the original had one of 5.7 ft2 and the one fitted on the Barry scrap was 5.2ft2— it was over-draughted
Steam, diesel and electric — towards the ultimate answer. Jeremy Clements and Michael McMahon.
See Volume 22 page 646:consider that the Turf Burner was a legitimate attempt to handle the lack of indiginouus shortage of fuel in Ireland. During WW2 train services had been impossible to operate due to lack of coal.

Book Reviews. 125
F.W. Webb — in the right place at the right time. J.E. Chacksfield. Oakwood. RH *****
"authorative biography"; "clearly written, abundantly illustrated"; "impressively fair". Notes that Webb was a "fervent supporter of techncal education".
The railway products of Baguleyt-Drewry and its predecessors. Allan Civil and Ray Etherington. Industrial Railway Society CPA *****
"a truly monumental work"
Charles Tyson Yerkes: the traction king of London. Tim Sherwood. History Press. RH ****
readable and revealing

A Day at the Races.  126
London & North Eastrern Railway handbills from the David V. Beeken Collection:
Dining car excursion from Darlington to Aintree for the Grand National on 27 March 1931; through train from York to Easingwold on 4 April 1931 for York & Ainsty's point-to-point

Wintry days at Wing crossing. David Idle. rear cover.
8F No. 48408 on permamemnt way train on 8 February 1964.

Number 3 (March)

LMS Class 5 4-6-0 No.45143 has arrived at Shrewsbury with a local service on 5th August 1961. Ahead is the junction for the Wolverhampton (left) and Hereford (right) lines past Severn Bridge Junction signal box. (Michael Mensing). Front cover.

"Change is not made without inconvenience..." (nor without the prospect of Birmingham New Street) . Michael Blakemore. 131.
Editorial on the iniquitous removal of the through train service from Newcastle and York to Southampton and Bournemouth by some apparatchik in the Bureau of Rail Transporatation. Stephen G. Abbott (letter page 252) suggested changing at Leamington Spa or at Oxford Circus to ease the torture of cross London travel. The Editor, like Queen Victoria, was not amused.

Dungate, Keith (phot.). The Southern diesel-electric units. 132-3,
Colour photo-feature: DEMU Class 205 Sets Nos. 1118, 116 and 1105 and Class 207 No. 1317 at Tunbridge Wells West on 30 June 1985; Class 207 sets Nos. 1317 and 1311 come off the single track from Tunbridge Wells West at Grove Junction on the 19.59 Eridge to Tunbridge Wells Central on 6 July 1985; Class 207 sets Nos. 1317 and 1311 at Tunbridge Wells West forming 08.59 Eridge to Tunbridge Wells Central on 6 July 1985; Class 207 No. 1309 calling at Groombridge on 16.09 Tonbridge to Eridge on 3 July 1985; Set 1306 on 16.59 Eridge to Tonbridge passing site of Groombridge Junction on 3 July 1965. See also letter from P.M. Jones on page 317 who noted that the passenger accommodation in the DEMUs was very poor and that passengers are now much better served by the Turbostars used on non-electrified rouites.. :

Hennessey, R.A.S. Working the Lickey: some ups and downs of historiography. 134-9.
Based on a meeting orgganized by the Stephenson Locomotive Society which took place at the Kidderminster Railway Museum on 12 April 2008. Even with modern traction descents of the incline could go out of control, and ascents with the former Bristol to Newcastle sleeping car and Mail train could be reduced to near stalling speed at the summit when rail conditions were poor. See also letter from Bob Essery on page 252 which adds some further accounts of running aways, notes that his first drive was up the Incline, and notes with absurd accuracy the summit height and location (near Barnt Green station). See also letterr on page 317 from Richard Kite who corrects some of the geomorpholgy suggested in the description: the railway does not ascend Beacon Hill, but merely climbs (like the canal and the motorways) up to the Midlands plateau at an altitude of some 400-500 feet above the Severn...

Lewis, Peter R. A reconstruction of the Tay Bridge Disaster of 28th December 1879. 140-4.
This re-examination of the bridge failure is in agreement with the Official Inquiry of 1880 that the "bridge was badly designed, badly built, and badly maintained".

Edmonds, Tim. Territorial limits: railway company boundary markers. 145-7.
Colour photo-feature: Great Western Railway: Paddington on 26 April 1992: then in situ now preserved (marker in Bishop's Road showing boundary with Grand Junction Canal Company); Midland Railway: Market Bosworth on 22 June 1996 (originally marked boundary of Ashby Canal); London & North Eastern Railway (cast letters on old rail) at Campsea Ashe on 4 April 2002 (part of Wickham Market station, probably installed late as boundary for local authority housing development of 1947); Stockton & Darlington Railway at Crawley on 14 July 1994 (stone marker on former Stanhope & Tyne Rail Road, taken over by SDR in 1847); London & North Western Railway at Clydach on 17 August 1992 (cast iron marker above Clydach Tunnel; London & South Western Railway at Brentor on 1 October 1983 — also Great Western Railway marker nearby showing mutual boundaries; Great Northern Railway at Farringdon on 13 June 2007: "G.N.R. boundary 2½ inches in front of this stone"; London Transport at Baker Street on 18 March 2008 (metal in pavement).

Pearson, David. Royal ladies [names of LMS Princess Royal and Princess Coronation Pacifics].  148-57
No. 6200 The Princess Royal; 6201 Princess Elizabeth; 6202 Princess Anne; 6203 Princess Margaret Rose; 6204 Princess Louise; 6205 Princess Victoria; 6206 Princess Marie Louise; 6207 Princess Arthur of Connaught; 6208 Princess Helena Victoria; 6209 Princess Beatrice; 6210 Lady Patricia; 6211 Queen Maude; 6212 Duchess of Kent. The remainder were Princess Coronation: No. 6221 Queen Elizabeth; 6222 Queen Mary; 6223 Princess Alice; 6224 Princess Alexandra, and 6225 Duchess of Gloucester. Story continued by same author as Most noble ladies in Volume 25 page 86..   

Scholey, Keith. Stations of the Cross: religion on, in, by, before and above London's railways.  158-9.
Inevitably begins with St Pancras, although notes secular inpiration for architectures: the Cloth Hall at Ypres. On the other hand St Luke's Church had to be replaced to make way for the new station. Other stations constructed on hallowed ground included the new Waterloo on All Saints. Lower Marsh, Mansion House on Holy Trinity the Less, and Monument on Weigh House Chapel. Bank station is built beneath St Mary Woolnoth, a Nicholas Hawksmoor church. Prominet religious features in front of stations include Eleanor Cross, designed by Edward Barry in front of Charing Cross, and the War Memorial with Crucifix in front of Euston. There were Masonic temples at Liverpool Street (extant) and Holborn Viaduct (destroyed during WW2). Illustrations: Cannon Street facade; Bank station as named Lombard Street under St Mary Woolnoth and St. Luke's Chuch in Euston Road (all non-photographic images).: .

As it was at Lincoln Central. 160-2
Colour photo-feature: B1 No. 61026 Ourebi departing southwards in late 1850s; 31 431 on 13.10 Skegness to Sheffield on 28 May 1988 with Cathedral above (Gavin Morrison); K3 No. 61807 on up express traversing Pelham Street level crossing; B17 No. 61645 The Suffolk Regiment on Harwich boat train with new Pelham Street bridge under construction in May 1957 (M. Longdon); O4/8 No. 63703 on southbound coal train (M. Longdon); 60 066 John Logie Baird with train of oil tankers on High Street crossing (all remainder by Gavin Morrison on 26 March 2003); class 153 in Central Trains livery arriving and class 156, also in Central Trains liverish on 11.35 from Leicester.:

Brighton steam. 163-5.
Colour photo-feature: E4 0-6-2T No. 32469 at Petworth on freight in April 1960 (Chris Gammell); H2 4-4-2 No. 32424 Beachy Head on Brighton shed in April 1955 (E.V. Fry); A1X No. 32650 at Hayling Island with 11.35 from Havant on 1 November 1963 (David Idle) E4 0-6-2T No. 32469 at Petworth on freight in April 1960 (another view: Chris Gammell); C2X 0-6-0 No. 32449 at Langton Green between Groombridge and Tunbridge Wells with pick up freight in November 1958; E4 0-6-2T No. 32581 enering Oxted with push & pull set in 1960; E1 No. 4 Wroxall at Medina Wharf, Cowes in May 1957 (S.C. Townroe); K class (in fully-lined black) No. 32340 on Brighton shed in March 1962.

Vickers, R.L. The Welsh Marches Line. 166-74.
An important secondary main line which links Crewe with Shrewsbury (former LNWR); Shrewsbury with Hereford (LNWR and GWR Joint); and Hereford with Newport (and formerly the Severn Tunnel) which wa owned by the GWR, but had originated in a complex series of plateways which had acted as feeders to canals. At one time the line had acted as the source for a LNWR railway which penetrated deep into Wales from Abergavenny. Both Hereford and Shrewsbury continue to be major railway junctions. The country especially near Church Stretton and Abergavenny is very beautiful. See also letter from Richard Kite (p. 317) who corrects the information given herein which implied that Woofferton was the junction for the Cleobury & Ditton Priors Railway: it was the junction for a cross-country branch line to Bewdley via Cleobury Mortimer. Illus.: Britannia 4-6-2 No. 70052 Firth of Tay on 10.45 Kingswear to Liverpool & Manchester near Marsh Farm Junction on 27 July 1963 (colour: Michael Mensing); unrebuilt Royal Scot No. 6126 Royal Army Service Corps at Shrewsbury station; Jubilee No. 45554 Ontario on 08.00 Newquay to Manchester on 27 July 1963 (colour: Michael Mensing); Britannia 4-6-2 No. 70028 Royal Star on 11.45 Manchester to Plymouth passing Little Stretton Halt on 10 June 1957 (Michael Mensing)  .

Nisbet, Alistair F. Two Highland narrow gauge railways. 175-7.
Peter Patriae (pen name) promoted a narrow gauge (3 ft) railway in the Dundee Advertiser to connect Alyth with Braemar via Glenisla and Glenshee. In part this sought to extend upon a reservoir to be constructed at Lintrathen to serve Dundee. Queen Victoria's distaste for the ipotential invasion of Braemar is not recorded. Later the Dalmunzie Estate at Spittal of Glenshee built a 2ft 6in gauge line 2½ miles long to convey shot deer and grouse.

Rutherford, Michael. Reflections 150 (Railway Reflections No. 150). 178-85.
Possibly the key feature of this meander through various aspects of railway enthusiasm is the picture of the Editor looking like Robin Riddles on the footplate of the Duchess of Hamilton. Other illus. (with considerable amount of autobiographical material in captions): 46249 City of Sheffield at Lamington (colour: Derek Cross); Coventry station following November 1940 WW2 blitz; No. 7031 Cromwell's Castle on Sunday only 16.45 Paddington to Wolverhampton in June 1962 (P.W. Gray); Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41320 on Welsh Dragon push & pull at Colwyn Bay; MIchael Rutherford on footplate of Rocket replica; Old Oak Common with pannier tanks (0-6-0PTs) Nos. 8420, 4609, 1506 and 9401 (colour); Wells & Walsingham Railway 2-6-6-2 Norfolk Hero (10¼ in gauge (colour); Stanier class 5 2-6-0 No. 42948 at Shilton station (J.A.G. Coltas) : Hawthorn Leslie (3182/1916) 0-4-0ST Daimler shunting Daimler sidings near Coventry during WW1; diagram of Coleman proposed 2-6-2 (which would have used shortened Duchess boiler); Royal Scot No. 46166 London Rifle Brigade and class 5 No. 44997 at Perth in May 1962 (colour: W.J.V. Anderson); p. 184 upper: Bridlngton to Filey bus in 1912 (caption incorrectly refers to Penzane to The Lizard bus service: it began at Helston station see letter from Chris Heaps p. 381); Craven Arms & Stokesay station with Swindon three car Cross Country DMU for Cardiff in 1959; GM class 071 No. 082 waiting to leave Cork Kent with Dublin express in 1990 (colour).

Stewart-David, David. Passing Peterborough in 1954. 186-8.
Observations made between 16.00 and 19.00 on 23 April 1954 at Crescent Junction.. Illus: A4 No. 60015 Quicksilver approaching on up Flying Scotsman and passing D16/3 No. 62530 on 16.10 for Harwich on 3 July 1956 (T.G. Hepburn); C12 No. 67365 station pilot; A1 No. 60133 Pommern on down Queen of Scots on 3 July 1956 (T.G. Hepburn); D16/3 No. 62615 in north end station yard; WD No. 90028 with up freight in August 1967 (D.T.G. Greenwood); D16/3 No. 62530 bringing stock for 16.10 for Harwich into station on 3 July 1956 (T.G. Hepburn) 

Readers' Forum. 189.
Gremlinia – February Issue. Editor.
A rash of incomplete captions: includes p. 112 date of Class 66 photograph; on page 96 et seq (p. 98): the full shuting movements taking place at Worcester Shrub Hill including extra coaches being added to be worked worked forward by 7006 and feature on Fell locomotive (p. 114 et seq (p. 119): 10100 in Derby station with stock for 19.30 slow train to St Pancras in June 1967 (G.T. Greenwood).
Railway travel and public health – Derbyshire. Roger Brettle.
See feature on page 24 et seq: the failure of a tunnel under construction near Haddon Hall in Derbyshire was a Midland Railway structure, not Manchester, Buxton Matlock & Midlands as stated. See also photo-feature on page 34: Dore and Totley station is now much reduced..
Railway travel and public health – Derbyshire. David H. Mason.
See illustration on page 102: Broadbottom Viaduct not Dinting Viaduct
Railway travel and public health. Richard Bell.
See mainly Part 2 (page 100 et seq) where comfort is covered: infestations in curtains and cushioning on early electric tramcars led the LOndon tramway companies to get rid of such luxuries.
The Chatham's big tanks. Graham Wootton.
The concrete ducting was intended for electrification of the Westerham branch (the TUCC had turned down closure: also shows that Marples was even more corrupt than we ever thought.
Away to Derby County. Stephen Grant.
See photo-feature on p. 34: Sheffield Midland to Chinley train with Southern green carriage at front: reason was that Southern Region was exchanhing vehicles with other regions when forming the REP and TC sets for thge Bournemouth electrification.
Permanent way. Jim Harper.
See feature in previous volume: page 718 et seq: corrects caption to first illustration: the trailing crossover was partially protected by disc signals.
In the interests of their own ambitions. George Jasienicki.
See illus. on page 681 of previous Volume: Earl's Court station with train for Putney Bridge: see letter from George Jasieniecki on page 189 of next volume who gives date as 1900...
The Great Central position — a final examination. J.H. Bates.
See November Issue page 654. refers to the wanton destruction of railways in the UK and the similarly corruptly governed Latin America (vide Marples and McGregor) and that in the period when the GCR was constructed it was normal to wait thirty years for profits to emerge

Book Reviews..190
Charles Tyson Yerkes: the traction king of London. Tim Sherwood. History Press. MJS ****
"This book should certainly be on the shelves of any Underground enthusiast"
Train control and passenger workings on the L&YR. Bob Mills. Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Society. MB *****
Rose Grove – Volume 1. Noel Coates. Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Society. MB *****
"couple of excellent publications"
Servicing the North Eastern Railway's locomotives. John G. Teasdale. North Eastern Railway Association. MB *****
Water supplies, coaling and turntables.
A detailed history of British Railways Standard steam locomotives. Volume four. The 9F 2-10-0s. RCTS. MB *****
Excellent review of the book in terms of what is contained within it: an important criterion for KPJ who dwells in a biobliographical gulag

Electrics through Longendale. Tommy Tomalin. Rear cover
76 021 and 76 026 on train of coal on 17 September 1975: a day of exceptional clarity.

Number 4 (April)

Class 50s at Penzance on 4th May 1988. Hugh Ballantyne. Front cover
No.50 030 Repulse in Network SouthEast livery waits with the 19.22 up Great Western Postal, while green-liveried No.50 007 Sir Edward Elgar is on the 18.30 to Plymouth. See also page 196 et seq.

Testing times. Michael Blakemore.
Editorial introduction to the article on locomotive testing

Class 50s in Cornwall. 196-8
Colour photo-feature: 50 049 Defiance at Penzance with 10-21 for Leeds on 25 October 1978 (Gavin Morrison); 50 030 Repulse leaving Par with 17.17 SO Newquay to Plymouth on 29 August 1987 (Gavin Morrison); 50 007 Sir Edward Elgar (in GWR green livery) arriving Penzance with 15.57 from Plymouth on 4 May 1988 (Hugh Ballantyne); 50 031 Hood arriving St Erth with 15.57 from Plymouth to Penzance on 5 May 1988 (Hugh Ballantyne); 50 011 Centurion crossing Coombe Viaduct (east of Burrngullow) with 12.10 Penzance to Glasgow parcels train on 18 September 1981 15.57 from Plymouth on 4 May 1988 (Hugh Ballantyne); 50 024 Vanguard with Royal Albert Bridge in background with train for Penzance on 6 September 1985 (Gavin Morrison); 50 032 Courageous in Network SouthEast livery passing Carlyon Golf Course, St Austell, with 12.03 Penzance to Plymouth on 6 May 1988 (Hugh Ballantyne). See also front cover.;

Tester, Adrian. An introduction to steam locomotive testing. Part One. 199-203.
Road locomotives and railway locomotives were unusual in that they were tested as units. For most steam power the boiler and engine were tested separately. One of the earliest measures of testing was coal consumption gained either from close observation of locomotives running service trains or from running special test trains. Ahrons (British steam railway locomotive) compared the coal consumption (as recorded in shed coal records) for several classes of Midland Railway 2-4-0 in 1884-5: the classes were 1400, 800, 1282 and 1400. Part 2 see page 308. See also letter from Martin Johnson on page 702.

Evans, Edward A. Crumlin High Level and its lofty neighbour [Crumlin Viaduct]. 204-9.
Constructed as part of Newport, Abergavenny & Hereford Railway (NAHR) the 42 mile section between Pontypool and Neath was known as the Vale of Neath line. Crumlin Viaduct consisted of two separate structures: Little Bridge across the Kendon Valley and Big Bridge across the Ebbw Valley. It took four years to build, cost £62,000, and the engineer was Thomas Kennard. To lessen the effect of wind it was a lattice steel and iron structure. It was 200 feet high and was originally double track, but was singled to reduce stress, and the GWR imposed an 8 mile/h speed limit. The station was designed by Charles Liddell, engineer of the NAHR. A steeply graded (1 in 42) branch descended to Llanhilleth in the valley. Includes anecdotes from Ernie W. Jenkins, a relief signalman who remembered a boy climbing the structure and another young man using the viaduct as a short cut but getting his foot trapped in the check rail. Demolition of the structure started in 1965, but before this got very far Universal Pictures used it as a location for Arabesque, a film starring Sophia Loren and Gregory Peck. See also letter on page 574 from Terry McCarthy which corrects the statements made about broad gauge involvement on the VNR...

Wells, Jeffrey. Aspects of railway and Cross-Channel services. Part One: 1840-1922.  210-16.
The South Eastern Railway reached Folkestone on 28 June 1843 with a temporary station erected prior to the completion of Foord Viaduct. This enabled the company to organize an excursion for its Directors to travel from London to Boulogne and return within the day on Whit Monday, and with General Pasley on 24 June 1843. Once Foord Viaduct was completed a trmway or railway was constructed down to the Harbour. The railway was extended to Dover on 7 February 1844. In September 1851 the SER opened the Lord Warden Hotel in Dover. In 1861 the London Chatham & Dover Railway reaached Dover (Town station opened on 22 July) and the Harbour station on 1 Novemeber. For reasons which are not clear the SER failed to secure the Mail contract and this passed to the LCDR. The LCDR competed strongly: it introduced Customs examinations at Victoria for incoming passengers' luggage; the unsuccessful Bessemer which aimed to obviate sea-sickness and the Mann Palace Car to provide luxurious railway travel.. The Bessemer was designed by Bessemer and built by the Earle Shipbuilding Co. of Hull: it had a saloon which was protected by a hydraulic mechanism, but this made the ship unstable. The Paris Exhibition (1 April to 3 NOvember 1867) stimulated traffic for both companies whilst the Franco-Prussian War (1870/1) caused the services to be withdrawn. Part 2 see page 299 et seq...

Both stations in Bradford. Derek Penney (phot.). 217.
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 No.44807 leaving Bradford Exchange with through coaches for King's Cross in 1967; Jubilee No. 45593 Kolhapur leaving Forster Square with parcels train for Heysham on 30 September 1967.:

Maggs, Colin G. Railway curiosities: railway staff. 218-20.
Anecdotes about railway staff: the punishment of a greedy porter at Wellington (Somerset) by his colleagues; how a porter putting luggage onto the up Queen of Scots at Leeds Central got carried up to King's Cross and did not get back until 03.30; how the Western Region rostered Defiance to haul a Paddington to Cardiff express at the start of the Slef strike on 29 May 1955; how the Orange shedmaster at Edge Hill arranged No. 6122 Royal Ulster Rifleman to work the train to be used by Eamon de Valera and the stationmaster at Lime Street removed the nameplate; how Carry On (the LMR staff magazine) noted some of the strange surnames of the Region's staff.

Kell, Roger J. The darkness at Newcastle Central. 221-3.
Photo-feature which includes an introduction by the photographer on how he worked and why he selected black & white film rather than colour: A3 No. 60045 Lemberg with 17.38 Fridays only ex-Manchester Exchange in November 1963; V3 No. 67646 with former LNER North Tyneside electric mutiple unit behind in 1964; A1 60155 Borderer; A1 No. 60140 Balmoral with relief train off LMR in late 1964; 60152 Holyrood in late 1963; B1 No. 61014 Oribi on empty stock working to Heaton; A3 60086 Gainsborough with 17.38 Fridays only ex-Manchester Exchange in summer 1963; A3 60106 Flying Fox with additional train from King's Cross on Christmas Eve 1963.  :

Tyson, Alan. Hills of the North, rejoice again! 224-7.
Colour photo-feature: Class 5 No. 44828 at Ais Gill Summit with a northbound freight on 1 July 1964; 9F No. 92249 in loop at Blea Moor with southbound anhydrite train on 1 June 1966; 8F No. 48454 at Ais Gill Summit with a southbound freight on 1 July 1964; Class 5 at Blea Moor with northbound freight on 1 June 1966; 8F No. 48344 approaching Garsdale with a southbound freight on 21 September 1965; 8F No. 48500 with a northbound  cattle train near Dent with Garten Gill Viaduct visible on 29 June 1964; 8F No. 48708 with a southbound mineral train leaving Shotlock Hill Tunnel on 1 July 1964; Jubilee Class No. 45618 New Hebrides on northbound ballast train at Blea Moor on 31 March 1962 (snow still on Park Fell).   :

Ludlam, A.J. The Lincolnshire Loop Line. 228-34.
Following delaying tactics by George Hudson, the Great Northern Railway received Royal Assent for its Bill on 26 June 1846 and it was decided to place the initial effort on the Lincolnshire Loop Line, an easy to construct railway across the Fens to link Peterborough with Boston and on to Lincoln. The first railway to reach Boston was the East Lincolnshire Railway which opened on 2 October1848: this was operated by the GNR. The Loop opened a few days later on 17 October. It is noted that the Boston landowners expected extortionate prices for land required by the railway. Many stations were far from the villages served, and villages tended to be small. The GNR encouraged the growth of potatoes and ran trains to Hull, Liverpool, Southampton for export, and to London. Sugar beet traffic was important. The LNER diverted the fish traffic for London off the Great Central route onto the Loop. Illus.: C4 No. 2500 at Grimsby Town station in April 1950 with Yarborough Hotel behind; No. 92193 on fish train for London in April 1961; North Thoresby station, Ludborough station with GNR steam railcar c1910, Fotherby station in August 1961, Louth station on 11 July 1959 (H.B. Priestley), horse shunting at Louth in July 1939, B1 No. 61130 at Louth station on up express for King's Cross, B5 No. 5181 with articulated stock on stopping train at Aby, Alford station with 264 Class 2-2-2 No. 266 pre-1899, Firsby level crossing on 25 May 1970, C1 No. 4421 at Firsby in 1945 (T.G. Hepburn), K2 No. 61763 crossing Grand Sluice Bridge, Boston in June 1952, Willoughby station in August 1966..

Mann, John D. E-Day on the Great Eastern. 235-7.
Electrification between Colchester and Clacton-on-Sea and Walton-on-the-Naze from 16 March 1959. Illus.: B1 No. 61360 on wiring train at Frinton-on-Sea in 1958 (colour: R. Cooper); Britannia No. 70034 Thomas Hardy arriving Thorpe-le-Soken with train from Liverpool Street on 13 June 1959 (class 302 EMU in up platform) (J.N. Faulkner); J15 No. 65443 backs on to Walton through carriages at Thorpe-le-Soken on 13 September 1959 (R.A. Yeomans); Class 302 No. 221 approaching Thorpe-le-Soken from Walton-on-the-Naze on 20 June 1976; Class 302 No. 215 arriving at Frinton-on-Sea on 13 April 1959 (colour: R. Cooper).

Scooped! 238-9.
Colour photo-feature of picking up water from water troughs: Modified Hall No. 7904 Fountains Hall on Goring troughs with up express on 27 July 1963 (R.C. Riley); A4 No. 60022 Mallard in impeccable condition, but with water cascading over train on Langley troughs in June 1962 (B.J.H. Stevens); Hughes Class 5 2-6-0 No. 42794 on Lostock troughs with return Blackpool to Sheffield excurstion train formed of non-corridor stock in summer of 1957 (R,J. Maxwell); Britannia No. 70049 Solway Firth (but probably minus nameplate) on Brock troughs with northbound freight on 7 May 1966 (Alan Tyson): rebuilt Patriot No. 45531 Sir Frederick Harrison on Castlethorpe troughs with up The Shamrock in August 1958 (T.B. Owen).  :

Rutherford, Michael. Dr. Beeching and the BBC. Part One (Railway Reflections No. 151). 240-9.
Ian Hislop and Stuart Maconie's failure to present an accurate portrayal of Beeching's contribution to the railway network. Illus.: E4 2-4-0 No. 62785 at Mildenhall (colour: J.G. Dewing); U1 2-8-0+0-8-2 Beyer-Garratt No. 69999 climbing towards Dunford Bridge on the electrified Woodhead route in 1955 whilst on test (colour: Eric Oldham) (caption notes that closure of this route "demonstrated Government decision-making at its absolute, self-serving worst");  D11 Director No. 62660 Butler-Henderson at Sheffield Victoria in September 1958 (colour: T.J. Edgington) (caption notes that locomotive was a good example of the pinnacle of British  inside-cylinder 4-4-0 expresss locomotive design); demonstration against Barbaric Castle's reduction in train services at Summerseat in January 1967; end of National train service at Summerseat on 3 June 1972; Marple-Rose Hill on 4 September 1954 (R.M. Casserley); Swindon six-car Inter-City DMU for Cardiff at Birmingham Snow Hill in 1958 (colour: T.J. Edgington) (caption notes roofboards: elegance of design is also noteworthy); Stockport Tiviot Dale on 23 June 1966 (H.C. Casserley); Blue Pullman at Bristol Temple Meads in October 1963 (colour: R. Herbert); Butlin's Holiday Camp station at Filey on opening day, 10 May 1947; p. 245 lower: GWR bus No. 8 on The Lizard service c1903 incorrectly refer to Penzane to The Lizard bus service (which actually began at Helston station) see letter page 381 from Chris Heaps; Gilford 1680T as GWR motor coach on the Oxford to Cheltenham service; Fishguard harbour; Church Fenton North Junction on 17 nOctober 1948; Gatwick Express Mark II rolling stock (colour); Gresley Pacific No. 2375 Galopin on Crimple Viaduct with Queen of Scots Pullman express (caption notes the lack of railway network at City of Ripon); King's Lynn station frontage in 1938 (caption notes seaparte M&GNR notice board); Naburn swing bridge with A4 on 15 March 1943 (caption notes Selby diversion rather than superb cycleway). Fizzles ou on pages 363 et seq.

Reading the Signs. 250-1
Colour photo-feature:Ais Gill Summit (LMR maroon enamel) (David Jenkinson); Midland Railway cast iron STOP sign outside Burton shed on 12 April 1958 (R.C. Riley); GWR Private road sign fixed to a tree at Grange Court seen on 31 October 1964 (David Idle); Longniddry painted blue sign and enamel totems with A3 60045 Lemberg passing on express for Edinburgh in August 1960 (Kevin P. Jones); Drem station with station name formed from painted stones and enamel totem on lamp standard as seen 22 May 1962 (Michael Mensing); Loch Awe station experimental re-opening seen on 10 May 1985 (J.S. Gilks); GWR style sign at Lydford pointing towards former Southern Railway station at Lydford on 2 July 1966 (J.S. Gilks).:

Readers' Forum.  252-3.
Working the Lickey. Bob Essery.
See feature on page 134: adds some further accounts of running aways, notes that his first drive was up the Incline, and notes with absurd accuracy the summit height (563.97 feet) and location (near Barnt Green station)..
The Chalford 'Flyer'. Bob Stephens.
See colour phot-feature on page 4 et seq:notes that locals called it the Rattler: family used it to travel tp Gloucester to shop from Cashes Green Halt – a journey which was impossible by bus when perforce such trips had to be made to Stroud..
The Fell locomotive. Walter Rothschild.
See page 114 et seq (notably artist's impression of Southern Railway Fell locomotive with cab at rear on page 116): considers that this would have been a great mistake later implemented in the English Electric Type 20 which normally worked in pairs to obviate the problem of limited visibility. In the USA cabs were either at the front (both ends) or in the centre. Also considers that cab design of Derby Fell locomotive was later repeated in Peak type..
The ROD 2-8-0s of the Great Western. Peter Clark.
See article on page 70 et seq: an LNER enthusiast could find no fault with the type, even noting that the type was well received at West Hartlepool during WW2, also queries the 185 psi boiler pressure
The ROD 2-8-0s of the Great Western. Robert Barker.
See article on page 70 et seq; survival of ROD tenders as service vehicles: at Swindon Works until 1972 at Landore until 1989 (and may still be extant) and at Machynlleth in useable condition in July 1970.
The ROD 2-8-0s of the Great Western. Neil Woodland.
See article on page 70 et seq comment on caption to No. 3005 climbing Hatton Bank: it was  hauling ironstone not coal, also states that crew might have "greatly preferred" a 28XX.
Newcastle to Bournemouth. Stephen G. Abbott.
See Editorial on page 131 which bemoaned the loss of the useful Newcastle and York through service to Bournemouth due to the failure by Notwork Rail to provide suitable paths through Birmingham. Writer adds salt to wounds by suggesting pleasant waits in Leamington Spa or extraordinary rendition at Oxfor Circus. Editor damns such violation of human rights.
The Great Central — a final examination. David Hodgkins. 253.
See article in previous volume on page 654 et seq: cites paper by Nicholas Crafts, Timothy Leunig and Abay Mulutu Were British railway companies well managed in the early twentieth century? Economic History Review, 2008, 61, 847 which concludes that only the SECR was worse at that time..
Railway docks, harbours and shipping interests. N.P. Fleetwood.
See article on page 742 of previous volume: questions the acccount of the relationship between the North Eastern Railway, Hull Corpooration and the Hull & Barnsley Railway: this last being busier and more profitable than implied in the article

Book Reviews. 254
London & North Western Railway 30ft 1in six-wheeled carriages. Philip A. Millard. London & North Western Railway Society. MK *****
"Reproduction of all is to a very high standard while the detailed drawings (all 24 pages) are first class... Details of every type of vehicle are included... [and] extremely reasonable price"
Railways and rural life: S.W.A. Newton and the Great Central Railway. Gary Boyd-Hope and Andrew Sargent. English Heritage. MB *****
".... provides an oustanding picture record of not only a massive railway construction project (the last of its kind) but of also rural life in Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire and Buckinghamshire in the years around the turn of the nineteenth century,"
Rails to Newquay – railways – tramways – town – transport. John Vaughan. Oakwood. AB *****
"Highly recommended" "Vaughan integrates a strong narrative with a highly impressive collection of illustrative material". Includes both the extant railway to Par and the former line to Chacewater via Perranporth.
British railway enthusiasm. Ian Carter. Manchester University Press. KPJ. *****
"stimulating book fills a major gap by examining railway enthusiasm from a serious" (well not too) "academic stance"

Morning shift at Redhill shed. David Idle. rear cover
21 December 1963.

Number 5 (May)

Former GWR '5101' Class 2-6-2T No. 4133 arrives at Widney Manor with the 18.05 Birmingham Snow Hill to Leamington Spa on 2S June 1963. (Michael Mensing). front cover
See also colour photo-feature p. 288

Rothschild, Walter Men of sweaters. 259.
Guest editorial by someone whom KPJ had always "thought" to be vastly older than his 54 years and had only just managed to see steam in its declining years. "The men in sweaters" are similar observers of railway history, and reference is made with due reverence to the many who have now departed, but left their records, like the Prophets of old, in the form of photographs and published records. The Chairman of the Great Western Trance, Peter Rance, responded (p. 381) with doubts about attracting suitable volunteers..

Descended from the 'Premier Line'. 260-1
Colour photo-feature: G2 0-8-0 No. 49410 at Horninglow shed, Burton on 12 April 1959 (R.C. Riley); Prince of Wales No. 25725 at Shresbury with express for Crewe in 1938 (P.B. Whitehouse);:18 inch goods 0-6-0 No. 8502 at Bletchley shed in June 1938 (L. Hanson); Coal Tank 0-6-2T No. 58900 acting as station pilot at Birmingham New Street in 1950 (P.B. Whitehouse); G2A 0-8-0 No. 48930 at Birmingham New Street  on 2 June 1962 on special passenger working with headboard and express headlamps (T.J. Edgington).

Mullay, A.J. 'Very elaborate closing' [involvement of Sir Ian Bolton in Scottish train service withdrawals]. 262-6.
Argues that Sir Ian Bolton, who was an Etonian Chartered Accountant who specialised in company liquidations and was Chairman of the Scottish Area Board as well as a member of the British Transport Commission, sought to close as much of the railway system in Scotland as possible. Mullay does not do his case any good by even mentioning the Fort Augustus branch (which William Whitelaw stated should never have been opened, and was probably the least useful railway in Britain). He is on much stronger ground when he mentions the organized redistribution of population from Glasgow to other centres and the failure to provide railway facilities in the new locations (Glenrothes, Haddington and Hawick are cited: KPJ surely more Western Scots ended up in Corby than in any of these locations). See also letters from John Macnab, Neil Sinclair and J.D. Flett on page 381; on page 445 from Keith Fenwick who is highly critical of assertion of malicious involvement by Sir Ian Bolton in the Scottish Region's closure programme; and from R.L. Marshall on page 508 who clearly has local knowledge of Dalkeith which the author would appear to lack,. Also notes that TUCCs recommended improvements to bus services where train services were to be withdrawn, and the hopeless nature of the Fort Augustus branch. The Author responded on pages 573-4 by emphasising the lack of a "democratically-elected" element in the Bolton appointment and actions and the failure to electrify the northern lines in conjunction with the Hydro Board..

Emblin, Robert. A brisk run from East Leake to Rugby. 267-73.
Great Central Railway London Extension: comment upon the high quality of the bridges, stations and viducts..

Bennett, Alan. Shakespeare Land – the Great Western's internationally-inspired promotion. 274-7.
Cites paper presented by C.S. Lock of the GWR Publicity Department to the Great Western Railway (London) Lecture & Debating Society in January 1929 which considered the promotion of Shakespeare Land. In 1928 the Company had published Oxford and Shakespeare Land. Illus. (all colour): Shakespeare Land (1935 edition); Memorial Theatre, Stratford-on-Avon (pre-1914 postcard); Rambles in Shakespeare Land and the Cotswolds by Hugh E. Page (1938 edition cover); The Shakespeare Country (1938 brochure); Shakespeare's Country by Maxwell Fraser;  Le Pays de Shakespeare (joint GWR/LMS brochure, 1934 edition: Art Deco theatre)   :

Nisbet, Alistair F. Swansong and last rites of steam at King's Cross.  278-83.
The transition from rather superior steam to a mixture of superb (Deltic) and utterly mediocre diesel electric Class 40 introduced slowly from about 1958, (only suitable for the LMR) and the variable, under-powered Class 47 on the ECML as observed mainly from the platform end in the early 1960s: the black & white pictures are indicative of what was seen: A1 No. 60120 Kittiwake on the 18.05 for Leeds with A3 No. 60044 alongside on 16.12 to Leeds, Halifax and Bradford on 24 Ma\y 1963; V2 No. 60899 on 17.14 relief express for Newcastle on 2 June 1963; No. 60025 Falcon leaving with 13.15 for Leeds passing B1 No. 61179 in engine siding alongside York Road; Britannia No. 70028 Royal Star after arrival with Bank Holiday relief from Leeds on 2 June 1963; A2 No. 60520 Owen Tudor on 17.05 to Grantham on 24 May 1963; A3 No. 60111 Enterprise awaiting departure in May 1963; Britannia No. 70039 Sir Christopher Wren erupting with 16.12 to Cleethorpes in March 1963; A4 No. 60026 Miles Beevor departing for Leeds on 13.15 in March 1963 with snow on the ground; A1 No. 60139 Sea Eagle at the buffer stops with a relief from Leeds on 4 June 1963, and A4 No. 60019 Bittern alongside a Deltic at the buffer stops on 31 May 1963..

Crewe in the 1980s. Eric Saunders (phot). 284-5
Colour photo-feature: No. 87 032 Kenilworth on 9 August 1982 awaing departure for London; test train consisting of HST power car, Mark III test vehicle, another test vehicle and Advanced Passenger Train power car at rear on 9 August 1982; Class 40 No. 40 093 with 15.50 Liverpool to Poole on 29 September 1980; Class 47 No. 47 076 City of Truro running round its train from/to Cardiff on 31 August 1980; BRCW Class 33 No. 33 010 on 16.00 for Cardiff on 27 August 1981.:

Bennett, J.D. Charles Dickens and the Staplehurst Disaster, 286-7.
Accident took place on 9 June 1865 and involved the 14.38 up tidal boat train from Folkestone which became derailed on a small viaduct where engineering work was taking place and inadequate safety measures had been put into place. There were ten fatalities and half of the passengers were injured. Dickens was able to tend to the more severely wounded, but the accident had a major deleterious effect upon his health and creative output.

Western Prairies. 288-91.
Colour photo-feature restricted to "large Prairies": Class 5101 No. 4148 in sparkling condition of unlined green (looks like Graham Farish just out of the box) leaving Stratton Park Halt in 1961 (K. Ellis); No. 4158 (lined green, but not sparkling) on 08.23 Lapworth to Birmingham Snow Hill near Olton on 12 June 1963 (Michael Mennsing); 61XX No. 6165 at Subway Junction on empty stock on 19 October 1963 (R.C. Riley); No. 4118 (unlined black) on down freight passing Acocks Green & South Yardley on 29 August 1961 (Michael Mennsing);No. 4107 approaching Lea Line Tunnel on 16.30 Hereford to Gloucester Central on 15 May 1964 (Michael Mennsing); No. 6141 (clean and green) with chocolate and cream empty stock at Subway Junction 10 September 1960 (R.C. Riley); No. 8103 departing Aberystwyth with passenger train for Carmarthen in May 1956 (Trevor Owen); No. 6157 on local freight near Reading West in May 1964 (Derek Penney); No. 8103 hauling through coaches from Pembroke Dock to Paddington with express headlamps in August 1959 (M.S. Welch); No. 6155 at Ledbury withtrain about to enter tunnel and reach Great Malvern and Worcester (Derek Penney).. See also front cover.:

Skelsey, Geoffrey. St. Pancras: From redundancy to Jewel in the Crown. Part One. 292-8.
The Midland Railway had originally had to rely upon the London & Birmingham Railway (LNWR) for access to London and later upon the Great Northern Railway with what became a branch line from Bedford to Hitchin, but its traffic was subject to delay on both routes and in 1862 the Midland Railway board agreed to seek Parliamentary approval to construct is own route into London from Bedford: this opened for freight traffic in September 1867 and for passenger traffic from October 1868, but the magnificent Sir George Gilbert Scott building or folly did not open until 1877. In its original guise Skelsey notes that: "Although busy, St Pancras was seldom overstretched operationally and was unusual in retaining a wide carriage drive as well as storage sidings beneath its roof". Thus it was a major target for rationalisation both by the LMS which considered merging it with Euston and under British Railways which considered merging its functions with either King's Cross or Euston. Concludes page 346 et seq.

Wells, Jeffrey. Aspects of railway and Cross-Channel services. Part Two: 1923-1930. 299-305.
Part 1 see 210 et seq Improvements introduced by the Southern Railway as described in contemporary issues of the Railway Gazette: these culminated in the luxurious Golden Arrow all-Pullman car train and the SS Canterbury (built by William Denny to carry 800 first class passengers) which connected into the Flèche d' Or at Calais to give a fast London to Paris journey. This was partly achieved by keeping customs officials in their place. Other Southern Railway investment in harbour fascilities and stations (notably Dover Prior) and in carrying motor cars is also notes..

Light and shade. 306-7.
Colour photo-feature: rebilt Scot No. 46116 Irish Guardsman in Carlisle Citadel in mid-1950s (Gavin Wilson); Brighton station looking north from platform barriers at 10.08 on 23 March 1982 J.S. Gilks); Class 5 No. 45282 within Heaton Mersey shed on 5 May 1968 (S.C. Dent);  Class 31 No. 31 412 acting as station pilot at Paddington in 1978 (A.F. Nisbet); No. 46245 City of London (red) at Euston on arrival from Liverpool on 14 July 1962 (Geoff Rixon)..:

Tester, Adrian. An Introduction to steam locomotive testing. Part Two. 308-15.
Part 1: see page 199. Mainly about indicating cylinders to establish power output The indicator was invented in the 1790s by John Southern and James Watt. It was applied to locomotives by Daniel Gooch on the Great Western broad gauge in 1847. The Richards indicator was marketed in 1867. Notes that it was difficult to integrate indicator readings, and considerable inaccuracies could occur. Notes the influence of Professors Goss and Dalby, and tests conducted under Deeley on the Midland (on a 4-4-0 compound No. 2631) and Holcroft (on an N class 2-6-0) on the SECR/Southern, as well as Churchward's tests on an individual cylinder where small adjustments could be made to the valve gear. Gass's experiments with an LYR class 91 0-8-0 are also noted. Notes that tests of indicators were conducted on the Rugby Test Plant on Britannia No. 70025 Western Star: the Maihak and Dobbie McInnes used at Swindon were tested against the Farnboro' indicator which had been developed at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, to test piston-engined aircraft. Illus.: GCR 4-6-0 No. 463 Sir Sam Fay fitted with an indcator shelter; NER Q1 4-4-0 No. 1870 fitted with an indcator shelter; a Tabor indicator; No. E850 Lord Nelson fitted with an indcator shelter (caption notes the disaappointing power output on tests on the LSWR main line); Princess Royal No. 6201 Princess Elizabeth fitted with an indcator shelter; V2 No. 60845 fitted with a Swindon indcator shelter during controlled road testing in March 1953. See also Part 2A on page 564..  See also letter from Martin Johnson on page 702..

The world of Worcester. David Idle (phot.). 316
Colour photo-feature of Shrub Hill on 1 August 1963 with Class 5 No. 44814 on 17.25 slow passenger to Gloucester Eastgate; Castle No. 7000 Viscount Portal on 15.15 Paddington to Hereford express, and partly green (boiler was black?) Standard Class 5 No. 73021 on 16.40 Gloucester to Birmingham.:

Readers' Forum. 317-18.
The ROD 2-8-0s of the Great Western. R.H.N. Hardy.
See article on page 70 et seq: notes the superb nature of the Robinson 2-8-0s, especially their boilers, and their reliable steam brakes: he suggests that problem on the GWR/Western Region was their large shovels and firing technique. They were also capable of fast running.
The Southern DEMUs. P.M. Jones
See photo-feature on page 132 which failed to note that passenger accommodation in the DEMUs was very poor and that passengers are now much better served by the Turbostars used on non-electrified rouites.. :
Working the Lickey. Richard Kite.
See feature on page 134: corrects some of the geomorpholgy suggested in the description: the railway does not ascend Beacon Hill, but merely climbs (like the canal and the motorways) up to the Midlands plateau at an altitude of some 400-500 feet above the Severn...
The Welsh Marches Line. Richard Kite.
See page 166: corrects the implication that Woofferton was the junction for the Cleobury & Ditton Priors Railway: it was the junction for a cross-country branch line to Bewdley via Cleobury Mortimer.
The Tay Bridge disaster. Simon Marshall.
See page 140 et seq:
Caledonian Railway '956' Class 4-6-0s. Philip Atkins. 318.
See article by letter writer on page 104 et seq: data provided by Dr Campbell Cornwell gave details of indiactor readings taken in August 1922 where the middle cylinder with the derived motion did an excessive amount of work. A leter trial with Stephenson motion for the inside cylinder in October 1922 led to a very low output from the middle cylinder coupled withg low steam generation and temperature and very high coal consumption...

Book Reviews. 318
What's in a name: the origins, meanings and significance of steam locomotive names in the British Railways era. Part 1. LNER. David H. Baldwin. Trafford Publishing. DWM. ***
Suspect reviewer is excessively generous and that this book is really a non-starter as he cites this indicator of its impoverished nature: 'The author seems to have a 'down' on Sir Walter Scott. commenting that "unlike Dickens... Scott's characters have not stood the test of time and are not instantly recognisable" – quite so, sir, but as these characters did provide a very fruitful seam for locomotive names both on the East Coast and at times as far west as Swindon, would this not be a good place to enlighten us?'
Edward Thompson of the LNER. Peter Grafton. Oakwood. DWM *****

Signals at Stirling. J.S. Gilks. rear cover.
A4 No. 60019 Bittern with 07.10 Aberdeen to Glasgow Buchanan Street passing under gantry on 1 May 1965.

Number 6 (June)

SR 'Merchant Navy' 4-6-2 No.35030 Elder Dempster Lines ready to leave Waterloo with the 11.00am Atlantic Coast Express for Exeter, Ilfracombe and Padstow on 9 March 1964. David Idle. front cover

Constructive comments. Michael Rutherford. 323.
Prefactory remarks to Gordon Biddle's wonderful Logistics of railway construction.

Winwick Quay and Junction. Brian Magilton (phot.). 324-5
Colour photo-feature: No. 46256 Sir William A. Stanier FRS (red) on Glasgow Central to Birmingham express at Winwick Quay in June 1960; former MR 3F 0-6-0 No. 43257 shunting in Winwick Quay yard in June 1960; No. 46115 Scots Guardsman on 06.20 Carlisle to Crewe stopping train at Winwick Junction in September 1964; Jubilee class Nos. 45696 Arethusa and 45596 Bahamas on Glasgow to Euston relief express in August 1961 at Winwick Quay in August 1961, and 45583 Assam at Winwick Quay on Barrow to Crewe express in August 1962.  

Stirling, David. The 'Queen of the South' and her railways. 326-31.
Dumfries was formerly an important railway junction served by the Glasgow & South Western Railway on its main line from Glasgow to Carlisle and by a branch off the competing Caledonian Railway from Lockerbie. There were also GSWR branches to Kirkcudbright and for a relatively brief period to Moniaive. Castle Douglas on the line to Kirkcudbright served as the starting point for the convoluted Portpatrick & Wigtownshire Joint Railways owned by the GSWR, CR, Midland and LNWR which served the North of Ireland via the ports of Stranraer and for a limited period Portpatrick.. Illus.: Manson 381 class 4-6-0 as LMS No. 14671 in late 1920s (mostly taken by J.J. Cunningham); Smellie 22 Class 0-6-0 arriving from Castle Douglas direction on freight see also letter from Arnold Tortorella (page 509) which notes the gap in the platform used to accommodate a barrow crossing and caused inconvenience to passengers and how the LMS eliminated this, and how the LMS leased the former Caledonian goods station to a Mr McAlister; Caledonian Railway train in station which had probably arrived from Stranraer in 1880s; former CR 0-6-0 No. 17302 heading towards Castle Douglas with freight including many cattle trucks; Stirling 187 Class 0-4-2 No. 17032 acting as station pilot; map and plan of lines in area; 153 Class 4-4-0 No. 14139 arriving from Stranraer with a stopping train; Dumfries shed with 2P 4-4-0s and CR 0-6-0; page 330 lower: former CR 60 Class 4-6-0 departing towards Kilmarnock with freight (letter from G. Luke (page 509)) notes that cropping had rendered the caption to be incorrect ("line" mentioned in caption was down to Castle Douglas); ex-CR 0-6-0 with short stopping train possibly for Kirkcudbright

Patterson, Allan. Victoria Park Junction, Eastern Region, 1977-1979 and 1981-1984. 332-7.
See also similar excellent feature on Mitre Bridge signal box in previous volume (page 284). Victoria Park signal box was located on the former North London Railway where its line to Poplar diverged off the line to Stratford. At the time written about the traffic was predominantly freight (the Ken Livingstone-inspired passenger services had yet to restart) and although the line was in the Eastern Region the signal box combined external modernity (1977 structure) with archaic London Midland Region style manual signalling. Mentions one incident of train passing signals at danger at both Victoria and Park and Dalston West: there was no accident as incident occurred during a block failure. It was difficult to get to work for some early shifts and "lifts" were sometimes obtained from the drivers of freight trains. Illus. (all colour by Author): exterior of signal box with parapets for retaining walls of motorway/road  approach to Blackwall Tunnels in 1977; track diagram in interior in February 1977; train for Poplar line hauled by Clas 37, another Class 37 heading for Stratford and Class No. 47 519 waiting claose to Junction awaiting the road; lever frame in 1977; Class 25 on Willesden to Temple Mills freight in March 1979; Class 33 approaching from Stratford direction in August 1977; Class 31 approaching from Poplar with remarkably empty road on 22 May 1981, and four HST power cars heading for Stratford in early 1978. See also letter from Mike Russell (page 509) who was a fireman/second man at Stratford betwen 1962 and 1969 and encountered vandalism to the track in viscinity of Victoria Park, another signal box at Graeme Road, and the steep climb from Channelsea Junction which was a severe test for Class 15 or Class 16 locomotives..

Nisbet, Alistair F. Eulogy for the 4-SUBs. 338-45.
Network SouthEast had a notice "Welcome to Finsbury Park": an eulogy for the cramped slam-door EMUs is equally apposite. Notes that the type originated as three-car multiple units for the original LSWR electrification, grew both via new construction of similar three-car sets, and via the reconstruction of existing rolling stock from all three pre-grouping companies on to new underframes. For a time these three car units were augmented by an additional unmotored pair of coaches sandwiched between which prior to WW2 were shunted out of service during the off-peak  From the late 1930s according to Nesbit these vehicles were incorporated into the sets, or three car sets were augmented with Bulleid-type all-steel trailers to produce an untidy outline. Bulleid had constructed his own four-car sets known as Queen of Shebas during WW2: these had domed ends and were similar to two-car sets constructed for the final electrification to Maidstone. Following WW2 the domed ends were dropped in favour of flat ends which typified Post-War austerity. Initially the stock employed compartments, but later open saloons were adopted. Periscopes were provided for the guard. See on page 445 letters from Kevin P. Jones who notes that augmentation sets survived WW2 on the South Eastern Section, but they remained in service all day; he also notes the splendours of former saloons in some units, former firsts, and oddest of all the remains of gas lighting in the ceilings of some former carriage bodies mounted on new frames; and from Charles R. Hart who fails to eulogise: writer's sister's fingers were trapped in viscious slam-door; the fug and crush inside the compartments was dreadful; we forgot to mention the injuries caused by the premature opening of doors; and leaping onto moving trains and why was no attempt to test Merseyside EMUs on the Southern Region?. Letters (page 508) from Terry McCarthy who disagrees with green livery applied by Southern Region (a sort of low grade malachite and far lighter than that adopted for DMUs elesewhere on BR) and from John Lunn who enjoyed driving them in spite of the lack of speedometers and AWS, the draughty and cold cabs. The lighting ran off the third rail with the bulbs in series. and from Ian Brady in Australia on page 637.. Further letters on page 764 from Nick Stanbury on delights of seaside excursions from Fulwell to Littlehampton or Bognor and from Charles Long noting that sets were not allocated to specific depots for most of time units were in service.

Skelsey, Geoffrey. St. Pancras — from redundancy to Jewel in the Crown. Part Two. 346-51.
Began on page 292. Considers the problem of handling the displaced traffic from St Pancras at Euston where there was a shortage of platform space for parcels, Mail and sleeping cars (albeit it did for a brief period handle the final Midland route sleepers which traversed the Northampton to Market Harborough line at a sedate crawl). Argues that the destruction of the Euston Arch tended to limit the planners' approach to redevelopment of the King's Cross/St Pancras area as a back lash was feared, but this did not halt proposals to merge the two stations.

Steam on the South Western Main line. 352-5.
Colour photo-feature (all Bulleid Pacifics are in rebuilt form unless noted otherwise): No. 34021 Dartmoor at Waterloo on 2 May 1965 (Alan Tyson); No. 34005 Barnstaple at Basingstoke on 11.00 Bournemouth West to Waterloo on 14 September 1964 (David Idle); No. 35023 East Asiatic Company at Wimbledon in September 1964 (Derek Penney); No. 34052 Lord Dowding at Waterloo on 09.30 to Southampton on 7 August 1964 (Alan Tyson); page 353 bottom: unrebuilt No. 34057 Biggin Hill at West Byfleet on down very odd train (four vans, corridor first, corridor composite, corridor third plus two non-corridor vehicles in maroon livery (Derek Penney): see letter from Kevin P. Jones on p. 445; 34100 Appledore passing Fleet on 10.08 ex-Bournemouth West on 25 July 1964 (David Idle);; No. 35012 United States Lines at Winchester on 10.30 Waterrloo to Weymouth on 6 September 1964 (David Idle); No. 35029 Ellerman Lines on down West of England express near Clapham Junction in September 1964 (Derek Penney); unrebuilt No. 34084 253 Squadron on 10.50 Bournemouth to York with No. 34056 Croydon on down express at Basingstoke on 12 September 1964 (David Idle); nameless No. 35007 on 08.35 Waterloo to Weymouth at Southampton on 25 February 1967 (David Idle).

Biddle, Gordon. The logistics of railway construction. Part One. 356-62.
To an extent early railways followed existing techniques which had been employed to exploit and move building materials for cathedrals, churches and great houses, but there was one major differnce in that rapid progress was needed to meet investor expectations. Nevertheless, early railways exploited river and canal transport, and later railways made extensive use of existing lines even where the new route would be acting in competition. Both local building materials were exploited and specialised materilas were conveyed long distances. In the case of the former local stone from cuttings was exploited in structures, and where appropriate local clay was exploited for brickmaking as in the case of the great Welwyn or Digswell Viaduct on the Great Northern main line. Caen stone was employed for dressings on Raistrick's great Ouse Valley Viaduct on the London & Brighton Railway. The London & Birmingham Railway used Bramley Fall stone extensively including for the Euston Arch (cf tawdry structures on Marples' motorways and cf conservation vs Conservatives). Concludes page 436. Illus. (mostly colour; all by Author): Newcastle Central station exterior in 1980 (Prudham stone); flying arch stone bridge Coventry (local stone L&BR 2838) photographed in 1993 (b&w); Cefn Coed y Cymmer Viaduct (Brecon & Merthyr Railway local limestone) photographed in 1988; Leaderfoot Viaduct (sandstone 1865) photographed in 1985; Thetford station (knapped flint, 1845) b&w image 2004; Ouse Valley Viaduct b&w 1983; London & Greenwich Railway viaduct at Spa Road, Bermondsey b&w 1992; Lewes station exterior..

Rutherford, Michael. Railways, Dr. Beeching and the BBC. Part Two (Railway Reflections No. 152). 363-75.
Rutherford's attack on Ian Hislop began on page 240 and smoulders on. Incidentally, people in glasshouses shouldn't throw stones, but the illustrations only vaguely relate to Beeching and still less to Hislop (but this may be a slightly bleak assessment). Allan Patterson, letter page 445, disagreed with Rutherford's sharp criticism of the BBC television programmes on the Beeching cuts, further records the crude methodology adopted by the Beeching regime to assess "profitability" and the failure to make economies especially in the management structure. Illus. 57XX No. 3747 on 18.15 Brecon to Newport at Torpantau in July 1962 (colour: P. Strong) : caption corrected by Terry McCarthy on page 508: Brecon & Merthyr Railway, not Neath & Brecon Railway and Brecon Mountain Railway has still to reach Torpantau. Class 5 No. 44885 on Dumfries to Stranraer local passenger crossing Greater Fleet Viaduct on 1 July 1961 (Gavin Morrison); V2 No. 60840 near Whitrope Summit with down express freight on 8 July 1961 (Gavin Morrison); J6 0-6-0 hauling 09.55 Saxby to King's Lynn at Spalding on 28 February 1959 (T.J. Edgington); Breydon Viaduct with swing span open after line closure on 21 September 1953 (T.J. Edgington); Sentinel shunter No. 47191 (supplied to Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway at Radstock in July 1953 (colour: S.C. Townroe); 09.08 Yarmouth Beach to Birmingham New Street at Spalding Town on 28 February 1959 (T.J. Edgington); No. 635 on Somerset & Dorset Railway at Midford hauling Pines Express? (later locomotive regular banker at Manchester Exchange dutin period 1949-54)  Letter from Andy Hacking (page 508) supports Hislop rather than Rutherford..

A 'Directors' cut [former Great Central Classes 11E and 11F and LNER D10 and D11]. 376-7.
Colour photo-feature (all Colour-Rail: catalogue numbers quoted): No. 62656 Sir Clement Royds on turntable with B1 behind at Manchester Central in 1952 (W. Oliver); D11/2 No. 62684 Wizard of the Moor at Glasgow Eastfield in June 1955 (J.G. Wallace);  D11/1 No. 62668 Jutland with former GWR Syphon at Nottingham Victoria in May 1958 (G. Warnes);  D11/2 No. 62677 Edie Ochiltree leaving Inverkeithing with Rosyth Dockyard to Edinburgh Waverley workmen's train in Jone 1959; D11/1 No. 62664 Queen Mary outside Sheffield Darnall shed in August 1958 (P.J. Hughes) 

Mullay, A.J. Railway canals – the Shuttleworth verdict. 378-80.
Essentially an examination of the Royal Commission (Oh what excellent vehicles these are to control the evil natures of our elected "representatives" whose noses are forever in the trough) on Canals and Inland Navigations of 1909. Perhaps one of its most telling comment was that road motor vehicles might prove to be a rival not only for canals, but also for railways.

Readers' Forum. 381-2.
"Very elaborate closing". John Macnab.
See article on page 262: Notes the policy entitled Amortisation of Redundant Assets and how some railway officials sought status enhancement by proposing wild schems, such as singling Aberdeen to Artbroath, as there was an existing single-track section from Usan to Montrose.
"Very elaborate closing". Neil Sinclair.
See article on page 262: writer rushes to defence of Sir Ian Bolton whose effective period of influence was limited to 1955 to 1959 (Scottish Region closures span a much longer period). Notes that new ha;lts were opened on the Speyside line in 1958. Also notes the closures of intermediate stations on the Caledonian route between Perth and Aberdeen and on the Far North line which enabled faster services to be provided. During the Bolton tenure of chairmanship the key Glasgow suburban electrification was planned. The Bolton family had long associations with railways: Sir Ian's grandfather, Joseph Cheney Bolton, had beena director of the Caledonian Railway for 33 years and chairman for seventeen.
"Very elaborate closing". J.D. Flett.
See article on page 262: letter is indicative of a difference of opinion between letter writer and A.J. Mullay concerning the significance of Bolton, or otherwise: this is not very well articulated. Specific points raised herein include the Perth to Inverness electrification promulgated by the North of Scotland Hydro Electric Board which was allowed to die like most railway investment and the consideration of strategic issues in closure proposals. Flett states that these were considered in the case of the Far North line, but that Cold War realities had made Scapa Flow and Invergordon to cease to be valuable. Flett does not consider the strategic value of the shorter route to Stranraer (although see article on page 326 wherein it is noted that contemporary transit times from Dumfries to Stranraer have almost caught up with what used to be "achieved" on the direct route)..
The Gresley 'Hush-Hush' 4-6-4. R.A.S. Hennessey.
Forum to be organized by Stephenson Locomotive Society on Gresley Yarrow high pressure compound locomotive: location Kidderminster Railway Museum; date 3 October 2009; speaker Bill Brown.
Men in sweaters. Peter Rance.
Writer is Chairman of the Great Western Trust and is concerned that a new generation of volunteers is not emerging: see Rabbi Walter Rothschild's wonderfully written guest editorial
Railway Reflections. Chris Heaps.
See caption to illus. on page 184 upper  (also page 245 lower) which both incorrectly refer to Penzane to The Lizard bus service (which actually began at Helston station
An Introduction to steam locomotive testing. David Andrews.
See series which began on page 199: Most of the graphs show performance (power, IMEP or IMEP as a percentage of boiler pressure) against speed (locomotive speed, rpm or piston speed). Note the difference between those that show a curve for constant cut-off, those where the curve is the envelope of maximum recorded efforts and those where the curve is for constant steam consumption.
Writer suspects curves for constant cut-off were used because the data were easy to collect, not because of their usefulness. If power falls off with speed the curve does not explain whether this is due to reduced cylinder efficiency or reduced steam consumption. In addition, as Adrian Tester noted, fixed reverser position does not mean fixed cut-off – the actual point of cut-off may vary with speed.
There is limited value in the envelope of maximum recorded powers at different speeds as there is no way of knowing if they are at the same evaporation rate nor whether the steam consumption for each data point was sustainable or a short-term effort.
Curves for constant evaporation are very valuable; they show both the capability of the locomotive and how cylinder efficiency varies with speed. The full beauty of the Swindon method is seldom appreciated. When testing a locomotive the key variables to record are speed, power, steam consumption and (less importantly) cut-off position that assumes full boiler pressure and wide open regulator. All of those are easy to measure instantaneously apart from steam consumption. In the Swindon method the hard-to-measure variable was held constant, the easily measured ones were allowed to vary. The locomotive could run up hill and down dale capturing a full curve of data – whereas a constant speed test only gave a single point.
A best fit straight line through IMEP data is valid only within the range of the data. It would be incorrect to extrapolate it out to higher speeds, ie to assume that indicated power falls as steeply as it rises. It is right to question the accuracy of indicated power. The response of the indicator will never be perfect particularly at high speeds. There is also scope for error in measuring the area of the diagram. Generic curves of MEP as a percentage of boiler pressure v speed are of limited value. The shape and position of the curve depend on the various design features and the relative size of cylinders and boiler. A double chimney 'King' would have a different curve than a single chimney version.

Book Reviews. 382
Yorkshire Engine Company: Sheffield's locomotive manufacturer. Tony Vernon. History Press, CPA *****
Most of excellent review reproduced in entry for Yorkshire Engine Company. Highly recommended.
Lost Railways of Northamptonshire.Geoffrey Kingscott. Countryside Books. GBS ***
Shavian (Geoffrey Skelsey's?) observations are always worth reading: in this case they may be better than the book under review.but it "is very reasonably priced".
Wheels to disaster! The Oxford train wreck of Christmas Eve 1874.  Peter R. Lewis and Alistair Nisbet. Tempus. PT *****
Interesting and well produced book deals with railway accidents, engineering practice in matters of rolling stock wheels and the developing role of the Railway Inspectorate. The narrative is built round the tragic events on the Great Western Railway at Shipton-on-Cherwell, north of Oxford, the day before Christmas Day in 1874, but starts by considering earlier incidents of the failure of critical components and operating practices on the then new railways being established first in England and as they spread to other countries. Examines railway accidents resulting from wheel and axle failures from early days usually arising from sharp recesses or internal defects in the product, known as 'stress raisers'. This culminated in the tragic accident a Shipton on Christmas Eve, when, as the result of the loss of a wheel tyre on the leading coach of a crowded double-headed train for Wolverhampton, 34 passengers lost their lives and 69 were seriously injured. The narrative describes the inquests, public inquiry and treatment of the injured and bereaved and book concludes by discussing what was learnt and exploring subsequent accidents right up to recent events such as at Eschede, Germany, (1998) and Lambrigg (2007). This is an in-depth study of its chosen topic and as a result calls for serious thought by the reader.

Midland red at St. Pancras. David Idle. rear cover.
Exterior of former Midland Grand Hotel viewed from south side of Euston Road at 10.35 on 13 June 1964 with red Routemasters and Royal Mail vans.

Number 7 (July)

Ex-LNER J94 0-6-0STs Nos.68012 and 68006 being prepared at Buxton shed. (David Idle). Front cover
For series of farewell runs over the Cromford and High Peak line on 30th April 1967.

To boldly go... Michael Blakemore. 387.
Editorial prelude towards adventures in the Trossachs with the now revolutionary idea of one ticket being available on several modes of transport (tell that to Caledonian Macbrayneless) and runabout tickets.

Around Portsmouth. 388-9.
Colour photo-feature: Class 33 hauling 11.10 Portsmouth to Cardiff across Burlesdon Viaduct with many motor launches on River Hamble on 3 August 1985 (Eric Saunders); two Class 31 diesel electrics hauling 16.10 Portsmouth to Cardiff train leaving Cosham on 15 August 1981 (Bruce Oliver); Portsmouth & Southsea station with Class 31 on Cardiff train and 4-VEP/Class 423 EMU in August 1977 (Bruce Oliver); Class 205 DEMU entering Portsmouth & Southsea station on 27 October 1982 (Eric Saunders); and No. 33 007 on 11.12 to Cardiff at Portsmouth Harbour on 4 August 1987 (Bruce Oliver).

Bennett, Alan. The Helston Branch. 390-7.
The Helston Railway Co. was formed in 1879 and opened on 9 May 1887, having been inspected by Colonel Rich three days earlier. It connected with the Cornish main line at Gwinear Road: the main line was still mixed gauge at the time of opening (see first illus.). The GWR had operated the line from its opening and absorbed the local company in 1898.  The line closed to passenger traffic from 3 November 1962 and freight traffic ceased on 4 October 1964. Includes a better than usual map. Illus.: Gwinear Road with standard gauge locomotive in branch platform and mixed guage on main line; No. 4566 arriving Gwinear Road with 15.20 from Helston on 22 May 1959 (Michael Mensing);  No. 4517 shunting at Helston on 19 June 1934; Nancegollan pre-1937; No. 4571 at Nancegollan with 14.25 from Gwinear Road on 14 April 1960 (Peter Treloar); Truthall Halt in 1920; No. 4577 on freight climbing from Helston on 30 August 1958 (Peter Treloar); No. 4552 shunting in Nancegollan yard on 14 April 1960; Warship No. D800 Sir Brian Roberston on down Cornish Riviera Express on 22 May 1959 (Michael Mensing); front cover of The Cornish Riviera by Great Western Railway by Claud Hart c1920 (colour); No. 4566 with six coaches on severe curve near Truthall Halt on 4 July 1959  .

At Leeds Holbeck Shed. Gavin Morrison (phot.).  398-9.
Colour photo-feature: No. 45562 Alberta on 9 April 1962; A3 No. 60092 Fairway with Jubilee No. 45602 British Honduras behind on 15 May 1964; Royal Scot No. 46109 Royal Engineer on 9 March 1961; rebuilt Jubilee No. 45736 Phoenix from Carlisle Kingmoor on 25 January 1964 having arrived with a football special conveying Carlisle United supporters to Bedford; line up of Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42689, No. 45562 Alberta, former Crosti 9F and class 5 No. 45072 on 19 June 1967; and preserved Highland Railway Jones Goods 4-6-0 No. 103 on 25 May 1964 en route from Bedford to Scotland following filming role in Those Magnificent Men in their Flying Machines.

Smith, Michael J. Sidings and saddle tanks on the Metropolitan. 400-6.
The Metropolitan Railway and subsequently the Metropolitan line of London Transport used saddle tanks on the Brill branch (Wotton Tramway) and to shunt at specific locations, notably the Wembley Park private siding, and to provide contactors' locomotives during extensions to the system to Uxbridge and to Stanmore. Illus.: Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST Brill No. 1 supplied to the Oxford & Aylesbury Tramroad at Quainton Road on 10 July 1908 (Ken Nunn); Peckett 0-6-0ST No. 101 at Neasden in 1933; Manning Wardle (of 1867) 0-6-0ST Nellie owned by Bott & Stennett used on Harrow & Uxbridge Railway and later hired by Metropolitan Railway (Ken Nunn); Logan & Hemingway Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST No. 13 as used during contract to construct Metropolitan and LNER Joint Watford branch; Walter Scott & Middleton's Manning Wardle 0-6-0ST Ashendon being employed during construction of Stanmore branch between 1930 and 1932; and similar Bradford on same project; Peckett 0-6-0ST No. L53 (colour); 0-6-0PT No. L90 at Croxley Green tip on 28 March 1969 (R.K. Blencowe); L53 outside its modern shed in Neasden in October 1958 and as shunting with power station behind on 14 July 1939 (H.C. Casserley). See also letters on page 573 from Allan C. Baker who cites Ian Melton's From Quainton to Brill in Underground, 1984 (13): Melton had access to the Chandos family papers in the Huntington Library. The two Bagnall locomotives were acquired to replace the Aveling & Porter locomotives which suffered many problems, including derailments and shortage of steam. Buckingham was the first Bagnall locomotive and designed to run on poor track. Wotton had a long wheelbase which was intended to spread the load. Notes that the Chandos and Bagnall families were known to each other.and from Robert Barker

Jeffs, Simon. The Southern Region towing units. 407-9.
For a limited period withdrawn from passenger service electric multiple units were used as motive power to haul and shunt withdrawn fellow multiple units to enable them to be moved and recycled. Illus. (all Fred Ivey): Unit No. 4543 shunting freight vehicles at Durnsford Road in 1956 ; Unit No. 4564 entering Strawberry Hill with two withdrawn 2-NOL units. Unit No. 4542 passing Wimbledon with condemned unit; Unit No. 4559 shunting at Strawberry Hill and Unit No. 4564 arriving Strawberry Hill with withdrawn 4-SUB on 16 September 1956. See also letter from Nick Stanbury on page 509..

Campbell, Robert D. Scotland's 'Number One' Tour: the Trossachs Tour. Part One. 410-13.
Via Callander, Loch Katrine, Loch Lomond and Balloch from Edinburgh and Glasgow by train, steamers and road coaches which were initially horse-drawn. Illus.: Queen Street station viewed from George Square (coloured postcard); four-in-hand coach about to depart Callender station in 1900s (postcard); Edinburgh Waverley station interior (sketch from Mountain, Moor and Loch); Wheatley 0-6-0 No. 359 at Aberfoyle station (postcard);  horse-drawn coach alongside Loch Achray with Trossachs Hotel behind (coloured postcard); Edinburgh & Glasgow Railway handbill for 1859 Excursions; Sir Walter Scott leaving Trossachs Pier in early 1900s (coloured postcard); four-in-hand coach at Trossachs Hotel c1918 (coloured postcard); ex-CR Jumbop 0-6-0 arrived Balloch Pier with train from Glasgow Central Low Level..

Maggs, Colin D. Railway curiosities: passengers. 414-15.
On 7 June 1889 a passenger shot his lover with a revolver on a Reading to Trowbridge train near Devizes; the Wells to King's Lynn train was sometimes diverted to Norwich to ease the transport of whelks, the passengers were forced to change trains at Dereham; passengers were frequently charged for carrying luggage, especially on the outward journey made with excursions tickets.

Away again to Derby County. 416-19.
Colour photo-feature: 8F on freight approaching Chinley station on 10 May 1966 (Alan Tyson): see Editorial apology on page 508 as printed in reverse (cheap source of mirrors on e-bay?); 8F No. 48532 on ballast train at Buxton Junction in February 1968 (P.J. Fitton); Jubilee No. 45597 Barbados passing Hasland shed with south west to north east Saturday holiday express in 1966 (Cliff Woodhead); 3F 0-6-0T No. 47423 on Brampton branch where it crossed Great Central Chesterfield loop (crooked spire of St Mary and All Saints church in background) (Tommy Tomalin); 76015 and 76013 (1500V dc electric locomotives) approaching Crowden with coal train on 16 September 1975 (Tommy Tomalin); Class 5 4-6-0s Nos. 44781 and 45046 on special climbing between Whaley Bridge and Dove Holes on 27 April 1968 (David Idle); B1 4-6-0 No. 61004 Oryx at Buxton East Junction on 11 May 1963 having arrived on LCGB/RCTS railtour (David Idle); Hasland mpd with Beyer-Garratt No. 47971, 4F 0-6-0 No. 44162; 2P 4-4-0 No. 40502 and Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46491 (J. Davidson); J94 0-6-0Ts Nos. 68012 and 68006 on ethusiast brake van special on Cromford & High Peak line on 30 April 1967 (David Idle); Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42228 arriving Ambergate with down Manchester local in mid-1950s.

Flann, John L. The developing railway passenger traffic from 1825 to 1904. 420-6.
The Stockton & Darlington Railway had not intended carrying passengers, but had to make arrangements to accommodate it, whereas the Liverpool & Manchester Railway sought passengers from the start. Eventually the Government became involved and passed the Railway Regulation Act in 1844. Tickets, notably the system devised by Edmondson, and timetables evolved. Workmen's trains were run and this led to the Cheap Trains Act of 1883. There were excursions and express trains, and the imposition of Passenger Duty....

From across the Irish Sea. David Idle (photographs) and David Mosley (captions). 427.
Colour photo-feature of Ulster Transport Authority locomotives: former NCC W class 2-6-0s Nos. 91 The Bush and No. 97 Earl of Ulster at Londonderry on 12 August 1964; Z class 0-6-4T No. 27 Lough Erne built by Beyer Peacock for Sligo, Leitrim & Northern Counties Railway at York Road, Belfast on 23 August 1969; and Great Northern Railway (Ireland) No. 170 (formerly Errigal) shunting at Great Victoria Street, Belfast on 8 August 1964.

Peascod, Michael. The Furness Railway 4-4-0s of 1890. 428-32.
An order for four standard Sharp Stewart 4-4-0s ordered by the Cambrian Railways were cancelled, and these were acquired by The Furness Railway in 1890/1. Originally the locomotives were painted in Indian red as depicted in coloured drawing at foot of pp. 428-9. See also letter from Peter Davis on page 508 which notes that the locomotives were driven from the left-hand side, but that the reverser was on the right-hand side and had to be operated by the fireman..

Electrics at Manchester Piccadilly. Adrian Willats (phot.). .433
Colour photo-feature based on photographs taken in October 1984: Class 506 1500V dc EMU No. M59607M; AM4 (Class 304) EMU driving trailer No. M75660; AL8 (Class 86) No. 86 252 The Liverpool Daily Post at head of 16.13 to Euston.

When you could see 'Deltics' at York. Ray Farrell (phot.). 434-5.
Black & white photo-feature: all in original livery hauling long trains: No. D9013 The Black Watch departs 14.35 with 13.00 Newcastle to King's Cross on 9 September 1967; still to be named No. D9006 heads north at 17.10 with 14.00 King's Cross to Edinburgh on 3 October 1964; still to be named D9010 heads south at 12.21 on 09.00 Edinburgh to London on 7 September 1963; No. D9017 The Durham Light Infantry heads north on 9 September 1967; and D9000 Royal Scots Grey arrives at 17.00 with 13.30 King's Cross to Ednburgh on 7 September 1963.

Biddle, Gordon. The logistics of railway construction. Part Two. 436-41.
Began on page 356. In October 1835 Robert Stephenson had to cope withh a major ingress of water into the workings for the Kilsby Tunnel. Fortunately, the Grand Junction Canal enabled pums and beam engines to be brought to Braunston. Similarly the proximity of the Rochdale Canal to the Summit Tunnel of the Manchester & Leeds Railway greatly assisted in bringing machinery to the site. The Butterley Company was highly dependent upon the Cromford Canal for the transport of its output. Some structures, noted the Belah trestle viaduct required the railway to be built to the site before material could be conveyed from Gilkes, Wilson in Middlesbrough. Timber was a simpler material to convey than iron and steel, but Brunel specified Memel pine for his viaducts.  The article concludes with a case study of the Settle & Carlisle line where bricks were used for the construction of some over-bridges, and on a large scale for the lining of Blea Moor Tunnel and in Ribblehead Viaduct. The bricks were made on site and a vast settlement was needed for the workforce. Cites Peter E. Baughan's The Midland Railway north of Leeds (1987). There is also an extensive bibliography. ..

Crosse, J. Here comes British Railways. 442-3.
Memorandum for the information and guidance of a1l officers and staff of the main line railways as to the procedure during the period beginning January 1st 1948 was issued by the British Transport Commission in November 1947 to assure the workforce that they would continue to be paid and the formal forms of address to be used by the new Railway Executive and its Regional structure.. Illus.: Richmond station in 1963; Pocklington station and Pateley Bridge station on 21 July 1961: see also letter on page 702 from  M. Hainsworth who has an anecdote concerning this station.

Rolling Stock Focus: vintage South Eastern & Chatham Railway coaches. Roy Hobbs (phot.) and Mike King (captions). 444.
Colour photo-feature: push & pull set No. 659 at Tunbridge Wells West in October 1961 (formed of birdcage brake coach No. S3324S and driving brake composite No. S6409S); six wheel guard's van departmental No. 1510S at Groombridge in March 1963 (used as static stores van and very faded former grey livery); and S1055S at Gatwick Airport sidings in June 1962 (ten compartment third built by Birmingham RCW for intended conversion to electric multiple unit stock, but work never performed.

Readers' Forum. 445.
"Very elaborate closing". Keith Fenwick.
See article on page 262: writer is highly critical of Mullay's assertion of the malicious involvement by Sir Ian Bolton in the Scottish Region's closure programme. Also notes that TUCCs recommended improvements to bus services where train services were to be withdrawn, and the hopeless nature of the Fort Augustus branch..
Railways, Dr Beeching and the BBC. Allan Patterson.
See page 363 and for first part page 240: did not agree with Rutherford's sharp criticism of the BBC television programmes on the Beeching cuts, but does record the crude methodology adopted by the Beeching regime to assess "profitability" and the failure to make economies especially in the management structure.
Steam on the SW main line/Eulogy to the 4-SUBS. Kevin P. Jones.
See page 353 bottom: unrebuilt No. 34057 at West Byfleet on down very odd train consisting of four vans, corridor first, corridor composite, corridor third plus two non-corridor vehicles in maroon livery: presumably a miliary special and feature by Nisbet on page 338: notes that augmentation sets survived WW2 on the South Eastern Section, but they remained in service all day; he also notes the splendours of former saloons in some units, former firsts, and oddest of all the remains of gas lighting in the ceilings of some former carriage bodies mounted on new frames.
Eulogy to the 4-SUBS. Charles R. Hart.
See article by Nisbet on page 338: fails to eulogise: writer's sister's fingers were trapped in viscious slam-door; the fug and crush inside the compartments was dreadful; we forgot to mention the injuries caused by the premature opening of doors; and leaping onto moving trains.

Book Reviews. 446.
Discovering Britain's little trains. Julian Holland. AA Publishing. DWM ***
"stylish and well-produced" and "profusely illustrated".
Pullman Profile No. 1: the twelve wheel cars. Anthony M. Ford. Noodle Books. BCL *****
Reviewer comments on depth of research and superb illustrations.
Robert Billinton: an engineer under pressure. Klaus Marx, Oakwood..
Lawson Billinton: a career cut short. Klaus Marx, Oakwood.  CPA *****
Excellently written rerview of "excellently researched" biographies. The review contain some further information, notably on Lawson Billinton's working scale model locomotive and points towards information abou Basil Field, Chief Draughtsman and later Works Manager at Brighton Works.

On the banks of the River Dee. Cliff Woodhead. rear cover
Freight train hauled by 16XX 0-6-0PT leaving Llangollen for Ruabon in 1961 at time of Eisteddfod.

Number 8 (August)

Caledonian Railway 0-6-0s at Dumfries shed in 1960 – Drummond 'Standard Goods' No.57302 and McIntosh '812' Class No.57623. (Derek Penney). Front cover.

An inveterate pastime. Jeffrey Wells. 451.
Guest Edtorial on abuse of railways and their staff by vandals: what the writer calls route crime.

North East industrial. Photographs by David Idle. Notes by John Scholes. 452-3.
Colour photo-feature: National Coal Board railways in Northumberland. Joint railtour by Stephenson Locomotive Society and Manchester Locomotive Society on 10 June 1867 using internal rolling stock (former North Eastern Railway and Furness Railway coaches) hauled by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn 0-6-0T WN 7764/1954) No. 39 used at Ashington to work to Linton Colliery and also seen at Lynemouth Colliery; inside Ashington workshop with 0-6-0T No. 29 (RSH WN 7607/1950) under repair, No. 33 0-6-0ST (RSH WN 7177/1944) on internal coal train near Percy Main on 28 August 1964; outside-cylinder 0-6-0ST No. 1 (RSH WN 7300/1946) at Cambois Colliery, North Blyth on 20 August 1965.

Welch, Martin S. Harecastle Diversion Scheme 1964-6. 454-61.
Construced in association with the electrification of the West Coast Main replace the main Harecastle Tunnel which pierced the Harecastle Ridge alongside tunnels on the Trent & Mersey Canal between Stoke and Kidsgrove on the North Staffordshire Railway. The Harecastle Tunnel lacked sufficient space to accommodate an electrified double track line and would have been difficult to enlarge. Instead a new line was constructed on what had been the route originally selected in the 1840s via the Bath Pool (Bathpool) Valley, but opposed by Thomas Kinnersley, the local landowner. Even in the 1960s care had to be taken to ensure that environmental concerns were met: in this case the County Coucil was active to ensure that the area affected was improved. The new works included the cutting of a new short tunnel at the north end and major works on the short North Tunnel to accommodate the new alignment. The Bath Pool and the smaller Nelson Pool were sources of water used for industrail purposes, and the former was a location for angling, and planning approval required the lake to be replenished after it had been modified to accommodate the new railway. The work included modifications to the access to Chatterley Sidings, The new line came into use on 26 July 1966.

Rutherford, Michael. The Joint is Jumpin'. Part One. (Railway Reflections No. 153). 462-71.
Joint railways were a feature of the pre-nationalized railways: there were at least 77 prior to the 1923 Grouping, but they greatly diminished in number following it and their rare distinctive quality of separate locomotives and rolling stock vanished in the 1930s. The North Union Railway which provided the approach to Preston from the south is claimed to be the first joint railway and had complex origins in the Preston & Wigan Railway which received its Act on 23 April 1831 with the aim of joining the Wigan Branch Railway authorised on 3 September 1830 to connect Parkside on the Liverpool & Manchester Railway with Wigan. The North Union Railway remained a legal entity until 1888 when its stocks were converted into L&YR and LNWR debentures. The secrtion from Euxton Junction to Preston remained joint LNWR and LYR property until the 1922 amlgamation. At Preston it joined the similarly jointly-owned Preston & Wyre Railway which served Fleetwood and its shipping services (to Ardrossan for Scotland) and Blackpool (Talbot Road) and Lytham. The East Lancashire Railway also served Preston and might have formed a route for the Midland Railway into Lancashire, but the ELR was absorbedd by the LYR. Two Victorian railway managers/adventurers are mentioned Mark Huish and Edward Watkin. Illus.:steam trains crossing Forth Bridge in July 1958 (colour: J.G. Wallace); 4F 0-6-0 No. 44558 at Midsomer Norton on freight in August 1962 (SDJR locomotive delivered in 1922) (colour); Severn Railway Bridge in July 1959 with auto train crossing powered by 14XX (colour: T.B. Owen); Preston station looking north on 17 March 1907 (with notice to "Subway to East Lancashire Bays): No. 70038 Robin Hood entering Preston from north on 15 July 1967 (H.C. Casserley); Birkenhead Woodside on day of closure, 5 March 1967, with Fairburn 2-6-4T on parcels train (T.J. Edgington) (LNWR/GWR Joint); Railway Clearing House map (in colour) of joint lines in Preston area as in 1913; Manchester Central station exterior in 1950s (former CLC); 8F No. 48511 hauling Tunstead to Northwich ICI hoppers passing Hale (former CLC) on 4 November 1961 (Alan Tyson); D10 Director 4-4-0 No. 62659 Worsley-Taylor on 12.35 Manchester Central to Northwich train at Altringham on 8 August 1953 (H.C. Casserley); Metropolitan Railway (LTE) electric locomotive No. 10 W.E. Gladstone passing Northwick Park on Baker Street to Aylesbury train in July 1961  (colour: T.J. Edgington); K3 No. 61861 at Gainsborough Lea Road (former GNR/GER Joint) with 18.30 Lincoln to Doncaster on 3 June 1952 (colour: T.J. Edgington);  Super D 0-8-0 No. 49138 at Llandovery (GWR/LNWR Vale of Towy Joint) on 8  September 1951 (H.C. Casserley); Kensington Olympia (West London Railway: GWR/LNWR Joint) with M7 0-4-4T No. 30322 on parcels train and diesel railcar W13W on London Railway Society Special on 26 September 1954 (T.J. Edgington); D9 4-4-0 No. 6018 on Edmondthorpe Bank (Midland & Great Northern Joint) with Birmingham to Yarmouth train in June 1946 (colour: H.N. James); notice at Aylesbury station showing joint ownership by two joint railways: GWR & GCR/Metropolitan Railway & GCR: picture taken on 4 May 1967 (H.C. Casserley all of remainder); Cromer Beach station (M&GNR) with 11.16 to North Walsham (via Overstrand) hauuled by 4-4-2T No. 20 on 26 June 1929; Wells Priory Road (Somerset & Dorset Joint) with 18.50 to Glastonbury hauled by Johnson 0-4-4T No. 54 on 16 March 1929; Erecting Shop at Melton Constable Works with Johnson 4-4-0 No. 77 on 26 June 1929, and outside Highbridge Works (SDJR) with 2-8-0 No. 81. See also letter from A.J. Mullay on page 637 which notes that ownership of Forth Bridge included GNR...

Wells, Jeffrey. Manchester's South Junction Railway 1845-1849. 472-6.
Cites Frank Dixon's history The Manchester South Junction & Altringham Railway (Oakwood, 1994).  The aim of the South Junction Railway was to overcome the problem of the development of separate termini without access between them. The Manchester and Birmingham and Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne & Manchester shared London Road, but lacked access to the Liverpool & Manchester, Manchester & Leeds and Manchester, Bolton & Bury Railways. The aim of the South Junction line was to connect London Road to the Liverpool & Manchester Railway at Ordsall Lane Junction. A branch to Altringham was a subsidiary aim. Agreement was reached with Francis Egerton, later the Earl of Ellesmere who had a major interest in the Bridgewater Canal, and this assisted in obtaining an Act: Royal Assent was given on 21 July 1845. The LNWR had acquired the Earl of Ellesmere's financial stake in 1847 and the railway was jointly owned by the LNWR and MSLR. The line was carried on viaducts and bridges for much of its length and these cost more than had been estimated; moreover, there were fatalities due to some of the arches failing during onstruction. Most of the works are extant and in use. Captain Wynne inspected the line, which opened on 1 August 1849.  

More on the Malverns Line. Michael Mensing (phot.). 477-9.
Colour photo-feature: 17.40 Hereford to Worcester climbs away from Ledbury Tunnel hauled by No. 75025 on 1 June 1963; Hymek diesel hydraulic locomotive No. D7083 leaves Ledbury Tunnel with 10.05 Hereford to Paddington on 16 May 1964; No. 7006 Lydford Castle passing Henwick station with 10.00 Paddington to Hereford on Sunday 27 August 1961, and earlier same locomotive on same day working 10.35 Hereford to Paddington crossing Worcester & Birmingham Canal in Worcester (did locomotive spend a relaxing day in Worcester?); 5101 Class 2-6-2T No. 4147 on 16.34 Worcester Foregate to Ledbury local leaving Colwall Tunnel on 26 May 1964;  No. 4125 banking (bunker first) up semi-fitted freight out of Ledbury Tunnel on 16 May 1964; Swindon three-car Cross-Country DMU (dark green livery) on 14.40 Worcester Shrub Hill to Great Malvern working, but with destination blind addressed to Ledbury on 9 September 1961.

Caledonian steam. 480-3.
Colour photo-feature: Class 439 0-4-4T No. 55217 at Ballinluig on 18.53 to Aberfeldy on 7 June 1960 (Alan Tyson); Drummond Jumbo 0-6-0 No. 57538 on Dumfries shed in 1960 (Derek Penney); Class 113 4-4-0 No. 54465 at Blairgowrie on freight? in April 1962 (A.M. Davies); Class 439 0-4-4T No. 55217 at Killin in April 1961 (D.M.C. Hepburne-Scott): 72 Class 4-4-0 No. 54495 outside Helmsdale shed in May 1961; 812 class 0-6-0 No. 57623 on Dumfries shed in 1960 with part of Hughes 2-6-0 No. 42915 in background (Derek Penney); Westinghouse brake-fitted 4-4-0 No. 54465 hauling Blue Train EMU passing Shields Road in May 1962 (see letter from John Macnab on page 574 which explains what was going on: KPJ picture also of interest as southern approaches to Glasgow Central being buried under gigantic earthworks and concrete to "improve the environment"); 0-6-0T No. 56239 with red coupling rods outside Polmadie shed in June 1960; Class 498 outside-cylinder dock tank No. 56167 on Greenock shed in June 1960, and 812 class No. 57602 passing through Dumfries station (R. Biddick).  

Mullay, A.J. Railways and No. 10 from Lloyd George to Blair. 484-90.
The record of British prime ministers and their relationship, mainly negative, with railways whether state-owned or otherwise, but always state-controlled. Mullay makes extensive use of Gourvish and of some biographies of key figures. Some of the dismal ministers of transport are also mentioned, but the arch-nave, other than motorway Marples, Wee MacGregor (a Beatrix Potter character) is not even hinted at: perhaps the Author is ashamed of the wee man's Scotch roots. Lloyd George introduced Eric Geddes as a transport supremo during WW1. See also letter from Derek J. Winter on page 702 who states that Lloyd Geoge had considerable experience of narrow gauge railways when practicing as a young solicitor in Wales. Neither Stanley Baldwin nor Ramsay Macdonald contributed much to railway governance, but Neville Chamberlain was far more active. His Keynesian policy of Treasury loans led to electrification in the Wirral and elsewhere. He attempted to recruit Stamp from the LMS to be his Chancellor, but Stamp declined on advice from the Governor of the Bank of England. Churchill was greatly taken with trains and had his own during WW2: codename Cutlass, later Rugged. This was employed to take him from Marylebone to Thurso where he joined HMS Prince of Wales to travel to meet President Roosevelt off the coast of Canada. General Sir Alan Brooke, later Lord Alanbrooke also had his own train formed of LNER stock codename Bayonet. General Montgomery's train was known as Rapier and Eisenhower's seventeen GWR vehicles was Alive. Attlee failed to perceive the need for clear objectives and astute management when the railways were nationalized. On the return of Churchill his intellectual power was failing. and he advocated "competition" as a cure for railway ills. Macmillan introduced Marples who brought in Beeching. At least Sir Alec Douglas-Home halted the Highland railway clearances, but failed to see what was to happen on his own doorstep..
Notes that Harold Wilson, who could have stemmed the haemorrhages induced under the Conservative regime by Beeching, but didn't, had won the Gladstone Prize for his Thesis The state and railways 1823-1863. Tom Fraser probably takes the prize for the most invisible Minister of Transport, Barbara Castle was one of the most visible, but with Richard Marsh, watched like Lady Macbeth as the worst Beeching closure took place, namely the loss of railway access to Galashiels and Hawick. Edward Heath's tenure was dominated by the malignant trade unions, as was James Callaghan's. Margaret Thatcher had seven Ministers of Transport (none of whom warrant listing), but she did announce the electrification of the Eaat Coast Main Line (perhaps she was told that would be the end of smuts at Grantham). Her economic guru, Alan Walters, was highly critical of the need to electrify the railways inspite of the proximity to the First Energy Crisis. The announcement was made at the National Railway Museum in York to the fury of David Jenkinson. The John Major Disaster was responsible for the "policy" of the dreadful destroy the railways runt, which Anthony Blair went along with until this led directly to the accidents at Hatfield and at Paddington (Tories of Chichester remember the car park at Kemble). There is also a rather strange anecdote about the late Michael Allison MP owing the Author £1.95 for a copy of his book on Duchess of Hamilton (not listed BLPC). Illus. (colour: Colour-Rail) Churchill's funeral train at Sunningdale on 30 January 1965 hauled by Battle of Briatin class No. 34051. See letters on page 573: Bob Farmer firmly places blame for major closures to places like Galashiels on Barbara Castle and Dennis Postlethwaite who attacks recent ITV News (1 July 1970) on absurd visuals accompanying demise of Notional Express East Coast (train leaving Kings Cross and emerging on Camden Bank) and on page 637 from E.M. Johnson  (who suggests that it was Alfred Sherman who made Margaret Thatcher anti-rail) and from Michael Welch.
Illus: GCR 4-6-0 No. 6167 Lloyd George; GWR Bulldog No. 3411 Stanley Baldwin; Castle class No. 5063 Earl Baldwin entering Paddington with an express from Worcester on 17 July 1937 (J.P. Wilson); No. 34051 Winston Churchill leaving Clapham Junction on 14.54 Waterloo to Basingstoke stopping service on 11 July 1964 (Brian Stephenson); Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44918 on RCTS rail tour at Skegness on 12 September 1964 (T.J. Edgington); DMU at Ravenscar on Scarborough to Whitby line on 2 May 1964 (J.S. Gilks); DMU at Looe on 16 July 1985 (T.J. Edgington); page 490: No. 34051 Winston Churchill near Sunningdale with Sir Winston's AState Funeral train on 30 January 1965 (colour): see also letter from Michael Welch on page 637 which notes that Colour-Rail transparency was taken by Robert Adley and that his wife and son are in photograph.  ....

Peak Forest stone. Steve Burdett (phot.). 491
Colour photo-feature showing limstone traffic on 7 September 1981: Class 25 No. 25 115 hauling early British Railways' wagons: other two show more moder, but still four-wheel wagons with No. 47 238 and with No. 37 107.

Coombs, L.F.E. Levers, wheels and gauges. 492-5.
Little is known about the controls on early locomotives except that there were no brakes, stopping and reversing was the movement of gabs, there was a a regulator valve, and some means of replenishing water in the boiler and of ascertaining its level. Reversing mechanisms gradually improved: and could be achieved via a lever or a reversing screw. These could be located on either side of the footplate. Some air braked locomotives had power-assisted reversing mechanisms. Water gauges were provided, but the location of shut-off cocks varied in the event of both the gauge glass and the protective ball valves failing. Injectors enabled a stationary engine to maintain the water level in the boiler, prior to their introduction locomotives had to be moved to operate the feedwater pumps. From 1878 continuous brakes became mandatory on passenger trains, but some companies continued to use the tender hand brake in preference for routine stopping. Access to the blower control was vital in the event of a blowback, but was seldom optimised.

Above the streets of Liverpool. 496-7.
Colour photo-feature on the Liverpool Overhead Railway which closed in 1956: Set No. 42 leaving Wapping (R. Oakley), modernised set leaving St. James Square station crossing Chapel Street (E.S. Russell): see letter from Alistair Stuart on page 637 which corrects location to James Sreet and notes Mersey Tunnel entrance; Set No. 41 entering Wapping (R. Oakley); modernised Set No. 18 approaching Seaforth Sands station (E.S. Russell); and an unmodernised set near Gladstone Dock with three dark blue Mersey Docks & Harbour Board 0-6-0STs (Nos. 29 and 3 identifiable) beneath (E. Hunt)..

Helm, John W.E. Railways, steamships and the 'Merchant Navy' Class: a look at the Companies behind the names. Part One. 498-505.
Some shipping companies were also major owners of railways: the Canadian Pacific enabled passengers to travel across the Atlantic, the North American Continent and the Pacific under one management. Both the Pennsylvania and Chesapeake & Ohio had shipping interersts. In the case of the latter 'Commodore' Cornelius Vanderbilt earned this soubriquet through his shipping activities. J.P. Morgan acquired the White Star Line and formed the International Mercantile Marine combine in 1902. Both of the major international ship canals, Suez and Panama, were presaged by railways: the first constructed under Robert Stephenson opened from Alexandria to Suez in 1856, and the latter in 1855. Major shipping magnates sat on railway boards: Bruce Ismay, notorious for his safe escape from the Titanic, lounged on the boards of the LNWR and LMS. Lord Inchcape who engineered the merger of P&O with British India sat on the GWR board. Lord Kylsant of the Royal Mail had sat on the Southern Railway board until he was caught. Lord Pirrie of Harland & Wolff was on the LSWR board and members of the Bibby interests were represnted on both the LNER and GWR boards. Early steam engineers worked on both railway and marine engines: Brunel, Trevithick, Matthew Murray and William Fairbairn, for instance. The general development of marine technology in the nineteenth century is concisely surveyed: sail was able to recapture its competitive edge with the introduction of iron then steel hulls. John Elder introduced compounding in 1854, and this was followed in the 1890s by the Parsons' turbine and the use of high pressure water tube boilers.
The names originally identified for the Bulleid Pacifics were based on Allied WW2 victories, but these were elusive at the time the class was introduced and shipping companies which served Southampton were selected, but with modifications in nomenclature to fit a Merchant Navy class. Thus 21C1 Channel Packet covered a generic concept. Some names were abbreviated. Each name and its shipping line are treated in turn (the captions to the illustrations of the associated locomotives show the total mileages achieved by them when withdrawn in the rebuilt state). The names are treated alphabetically: Aberdeen Commonwealth (No. 35007) formed from the Aberdeen Line founded in 1825 by George Thompson and the Australian Commonwealth Line founded in 1916; Belgian Marine (No. 35017) owned by the Belgian Government; Bibby Line (No. 35020) founded in 1805 by John Bibby and still in existence; Blue Funnel (No. 35013) founded by Alfred Holt, who had been apprenticed to the Liverpool & Manchester Railway (he was to be responsible for improvements to marine compounding); Blue Star (No. 35010) formed in 1890 by the Vestey Brothers pioneers of meat refrigeration; British India Line (No. 35018) founded in 1856 as the Calcutta & Burma Steam Navigation Co. by William Mackinnon (see also letter from Tom Dethridge on page 637 which gives further information on links between the Line and named loomotives of the Southern Railway and Region); Brocklebank Line (No. 35025) founded in Whitehaven in 1770 by Daniel Brocklebank (much later Sir Aubrey Brocklebank had interests in Cunard, the Suez Canal, the GWR, and owned the Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway); Canadian Pacific (No. 35005); Channel Packet (No. 35001); Clan Line (No. 35028) formed by Charles William Cayzer and Captain William Irvine to serve India via Suez from Liverpool and Glasgow; Cunard White Star (No. 35004) formed from British & North American Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. and Oceanic Steam Navigation acquired in 1867 by Thomas Ismay; East Asiatic Company (No. 35024) a Danish company formed by Hans Niel Anderson in 1897 to provide services from Copenhagen to Bangkok; Elder Dempster Lines (No. 35030 formed via Macgregor Laird's African Steam Ship Co. and John Dempster and Alexander Elder's shipping agency; Elders Fyffes (No. 35016) formed via Edward Wathen Fyffe, banana importer; and Ellerman Lines (No. 35020) named after accountant John Reeves Ellerman until sold to J.P. Morgan. Copious notes on sinkings. Part 2 see page 628.

Signalling Spotlight: single line token exchangers at Talerddig. Notes Richard Foster. Photographs: John Spencer Gilks. 506-7.
Colour photo-feature: colour pictures taken in 1988 showing former GWR/Western Region apparatus to assist with exchanging tokens on single track lines. Illumination was provided by oil lamps. Suspect that mast for subsequent radio tokenless block working visible in one of the three pictures. :

Readers' Forum. 508-9.
Away again to Derby County. Editor.
County Derby type apology: 416 page see.
'Very elaborate closing'. R.L. Marshall.
See article on page 262: Dalkeith lost its passenger service in January 1942, not through the actions of Sir Ian Bolton. Public transport users prefered the frequent buses which used to arrive in Princes Street to the trains which arrived in the depths of Waverley station. Eskbank station lasted until the closure of the Waverley route in 1969.
Railways, Dr Beeching and the BBC. Andy Hacking.
See page 363 and for first part page 240: did not agree with Rutherford's sharp criticism of the BBC television programmes on the Beeching axe by Ian Hislop. Furthermore, Betjeman received a statue at the renovated St Pancras where Beeching is celebrated in sardonic Beeching Closes.
Railways, Dr Beeching and the BBC. Terry McCarthy.
See page 363 corrects caption to train at Torpantau: Brecon & Merthyr Railway, not Neath & Brecon Railway and Brecon Mountain Railway has still to reach Torpantau. Otherwise supportive of Rutherford's anti-BBC stance.
The Furness Railway 4-4-0s of 1890. Peter Davis.
See article on page 428: notes that the locomotives were driven from the left-hand side, but that the reverser was on the right-hand side and had to be operated by the fireman..
Eulogy for the 4-SUBs. Terry McCarthy.
See page 338: disagrees with description of green livery applied by Southern Region (a sort of low grade malachite and far lighter than that adopted for DMUs elesewhere on BR)
Eulogy for the 4-SUBs. John Lunn.
See page 338: enjoyed driving 4-SUBs in spite of the lack of speedometers and AWS, the draughty and cold cabs. The lighting ran off the third rail with the bulbs in series
'Queen of the South'. Arnold Tortorella.. 509.
See photograph page 326 lower: notes the gap in the platform used to accommodate a barrow crossing and caused inconvenience to passengers and how the LMS eliminated this, and how the LMS leased the former Caledonian goods station to a Mr McAlister
'Queen of the South'. G. Luke.
Photograph on page 330 lower: notes that cropping had rendered the caption to be incorrect ("line" mentioned in caption was down to Castle Douglas)
Victoria Park signal box. Mike Russell.
See page 332: letter writer was a fireman/second man at Stratford betwen 1962 and 1969 and encountered vandalism to the track in viscinity of Victoria Park, another signal box at Graeme Road, and the steep climb from Channelsea Junction which was a severe test for Class 15 or Class 16 locomotives. See  also letter from Michael J. Smith on page 574 "Graeme" i.e. Graham Road curve used for six years to provide a Liverpool Street to Watford service in substitution for service from Broad Street...
Southern Region towing units. Nick Stanbury.
See article by Simon Jeffs beginning page 407. Comments on braking arrangements, if any.

Book Reviews. 510.
Lost railways of Cumbria. Gordon Suggitt. Countryside Books. DJ **
Criticised for "old-fashioned appearance" and lack of colour illustration.
The Hythe Pier. Peter A. Harding. Author. TJE. *****
Costs little more than borrowing a book in Country File Norfolk: postage charged is less than that applied to E-bay purchases!.
A history of the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway 1824 to 1870. Bill Fawcett. NERA. GBS *****
"Superb book" on an unjustly neglected railway: sadly it will cost £2.50 to bring it to the depths of Norfolk; better to await visit to Scotland where libraries remain free.
Lost railways of North Wales. Mark Jones. Countryside Books. DJ **
Criticised for including railways which are still operating such as the main line to Holyhead and several preserved railways.

Holiday time at Yarmouth. E. Alger. Rear cover.
August 1957: B17 No. 61638 Melton Hall arrived with passengers smartly dressed on concourse at Vauxhall station.

Number 9 (September)

Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75048 in the sidings at Ulverston on 1 August 1968. David Idle. Front cover

It must be true, I read it in the papers. Michael Blakemore. 515.
Editorial which celebrates the Torygraph's intrusion into the world of MP's expenses which extended to duck houses and moat improvements. Naughty Michael also considers the observations made by the press on railway related incidents including the effects of a broken crank axle on the locomotive of an overnight Anglo-Scottish express at Chevington in 1909, and the collision of the Great Central Railway's Leicester ship in the Humber also in 1909. In 1981 new carriage sheds opened in York - these have since closed, and in the same year the Selby Diversion opened, but the coalfield which instigated this work has since been closed.

Every which way to Walsall. Michael Mensing. 516-17.
Colour photo-feature: Bescot yard with Class 31/1 No. 31 232 on train of tank wagons with crumbling M6 viaduct behind; Class 310 EMU No. 074 in Walsall station; on 4 May 1979 on 4 May 1979; Class 25 No. 25 272 passing remains of Sutton Park station with eastbound engineers' train on 29 July 1976; Class 47/4 No. 47 479 on freight which consisted mainly of cars passing remains of Blowers Green station, Dudley on 10 November 1977; Class 45 No. 45 044 Royal Inniskilling Fusilier passing Ryecroft Junction with train of bogie oil tank wagons on 19 May 1977. See also letter on page 637 from G.L. Huxley caption describing Ryecroft Junction needed clarification: four, not three, lines diverged there. from left to right in photograph routes were: (1) the curve leading to North Walsall Junction and Wolverhampton this was Midland Railway property, (2) the LNWR's Cannock branch, (3) the South Staffordshire line of the LNWR, (4) the MR curve leading to Lichfield Road Junction and thence to Water Orton.

Mosley, David, 'The Titanic of the Channel Islands' - and other stories. 518-23.
The Casquets (a shoal of rocks off the Island of Alderney) were the location for the loss of the SS Stella, owned by the LSWR, on Good Friday, 16 April 1899. To an extent the accident could be attributed to competition for the Channel Islands traffic from the GWR which operated services from Weymouth, whereas the LSWR operated from Southampton. A later tragedy afflicted an LSWR vessel, the Hilda, which struck rocks whilst entering St Malo on 18 November 1905 in severe weather. Poetry? celebrating the loss of the Stella by Alfred Austin and William McGonagall: former contains politically correct line: "And women as brave as men"  Illus.: Lydia alongside quay in St. Peter Port, Guernsey c1900; GWR SS Ibex and LSWR SS Lydia racing past Casquets (painting by G.W. Williamson); SS Stella at full speed (painting dated 30 March 1899); map; Lydia passing Elizabeth Castle off St Helier, Jersey, c1905 (coloured postcard); GWR Ibex approaching Weymouth c1906; Guernsey milk maids (coloured postcard).

Kell, Roger K. Newcastle Central Station: a historical perspective. 524-9.
The earliest railway to the south terminated on the southbank of the Tyne: at Brandling Junction, Gateshead: the Newcastle & Darlington Junction Railway opened in 1844. The Newcastle & Carlisle Railway had opened earlier in 1838 with a terminus at Redheugh, south of the Tyne in 1838, but also with a depot in Lower Elswick north of the Tyne. To connect the lines to Darlington and to Berwick consideration was given to a river crossing at Bill Point which would have bypassed the historic centre of Newcastle, but Robert Stephenson was responsible for the High Level Bridge which was opened by Queen Victoria on 28 September 1849. In August 1850 the Queen opened the Central station designed by the architect John Dobson. Until the King Edward VII Bridge was opened in 1906 all north to south traffic had to reverse: during the railway races engine changing was expedited by the fresh locomotive following the train across the High Level Bridge from Gateshead engine shed. Engine changing at Newcastle continued with a few exceptions until the end of steam traction on the East Coast Mainline. Illus. (all by Author): A4 No. 60001 Sir Ronald Matthews on Edinburgh train in 1964; A1 No. 60126 Sir Vincent Raven departing for south from Platform 9; A4 No. 60016 Silver King departing for north from Platform 8 in 1962; B1 No. 61216 in centre roads; A4 No. 60023 Golden Eagle departing for north with Anglo-Scottish Car Carrier in July 1963; A1 No. 60124 Kenilworth in centre roads; J72 No. 68723 painted in NER livery at south end of station in May 1963; Jubilee No. 45573 Newfoundland on return excursion to Leeds; V2 No. 60810 and Type 4 No. D167.

Best, Eric. Memories of Eastleigh Works as recorded by Paul Joyce. 530-6.
Eric Best left school in 1948 when aged 15 and started work as an office boy in the print room attached to the drawing office. His main work was the on 31 July of dyeline "blue prints", but time was available for him to explore the large stored collection of engineering drawings which included "Mr Urie's Caledonian drawings". Two Urie LSWR designs are mentioned: a 2-6-0 and a 4-4-2T which would have used the the D15 boiler, 6ft 7½in coupled wheels, and the motion used on the large tank engines. During this period he discovered a cupboard full of railway periodicals and more surprisingly the stored museum pieces which had survived WW2: notably Drummond's Bug the 4-2-4T; a Beattie 0-6-0ST No. 0330; and the Royal T9 4-4-0. In the Works yard there were four former LNWR tenders which had been adapted for oil burning. Best liked to work out of doors and spent a lot of time on the scrap road. Best's knowledge of LSWR liveries was used during the preservation of the T3 4-4-0. Illus.: unrebuilt West Country No. 34019 Bideford inside Works on 18 August 1963 (colour: Roy Hobbs); T9 No. 30711 inside Works in 1950s (Eric Bruton); N class No. 31831 with preserved T9 No. 120 behind on 6 April 1963 (colour: Roy Hobbs); H15 No. 30475 alongside coaling stage on 6 November 1960 (Alan Tyson); H2 4-4-2 No. 32424 Beachey Head in scrapyard (Eric Best); 57XX No. 3742 ex-works on 4 November 1961 (colour: Roy Hobbs); No. 30850 Lord Nelson on shed on 6 November 1960 (Alan Tyson); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41295 on display at Open Day on 21 August 1961 (colour: Roy Hobbs); LSWR T3 4-4-0 No. 563 immediately prior to preservation (Eric Best).

Bath 'Halls'. Hugh Ballantyne. 537.
Colour photo-feature: No. 6944 Fledborough Hall leaving Bath Spa with 17.25 Salisbury to Cardiff on 30 April 1963; No. 6909 Frewin Hall leaving Twerton tunnel with 13.45 Weymouth to Cardiff on 30 June 1962. and No. 6946 Heatherden Hall on 09.32 Cardiff to Bournemouth on 7 July 1962.

Steam freights through Southern Electric suburbia. John Spencer Gilks. 538-9.
Black & white photo-feature: Class Q1 No. 33003 at South Merton with trtain of milk tank wagons from Express Dairy at St. Helier; 700 Class Black Motor No. 30692; N clas 2-6-0 No. 31832 shunting empty coal wagons at Banstead on 24 May 1963; 700 Class 0-6-0 passing Hampton Wick with pick-up freight on 18 February 1958 (letter from Nick Stanbury on p. 637 states that not returning from Shepperton. but was routed via Kingston roundabout working Barnes to Nine Elms); 700 class No. 30701 passing East Clandon with one van and brake van on 25 January 1958; exterior of Hampton Wick station on 25 January 1958.

Wells, Jeffrey. The Great Western Railway in the news, 1841-1842. Part One. 540-3.
Based on accounts appearing in The Railway Times and The Times when the railway was completed from Paddington to Bristol. Illustrated in part by J.C. Bourne prints (depicting a Royal party arriving at Slough Station with the Royal Hotel behind; the Western portal of Box Tunnel; Sonning cutting, and Wootton Bassett incline descending towaqrds Bath). Other illus.: Cirencester Town station with 57XX class No. 7792 in platform on 1 May 1956 and Platform 5 at Paddington with 43XX No. 9319 on arrival on 15 April 1950 (both H.C. Casserley).

More Lancashire hotpot. 544-7.
Colour photo-feature: panorama of Carnforth engine shed on 1 August 1968 with Class 5 4-6-0s Nos. 45310, 44781 and 45390; 8F No. 48715; B1 No. 61306 and Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42085 (David Idle); Class 5 4-6-0s Nos. 45073 and 45156 double-head enthusiasts' special train across Entwhistle Viaduct between Bolton and Blackburn on 28 July 1968 (David Idle panorama); Class 5 4-6-0s Nos. 44781 and 44894 near Mossley on climb to Diggle on 4 August 1968 (David Idle); Britannia 4-6-2 No. 70054 Dornoch Firth without nameplates arriving Preston with 10.35 Euston to Carlisle on 12 March 1966 (Brian Magilton); Cloass 5 No. 45226 at end of Brock water troughs with up freight on 7 May 1966 with M6 behind (Alan Tyson); Duchess Pacific No. 46251 City of Nottingham (red) passing through rock cutting near Newton-le-Willows in March 1961 (Brian Magilton); 8F |No. 48775 with short coal train passing Lostock Hall Junction on 31 July 1968; Class 5 4-6-0s Nos. 44871 and 44894 leave Sough Tunnel with enthusiast special on 4 August 1968 (David Idle); Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45342 with tank wagon and brake van entering Carnforth station from Furnesss & Midland Junction on 17 July 1968 (M.H. Yardley); 8F No. 48294 in Edge Hill yard on 22 April 1968 (M.H. Yardley); 8F No. 48773 (with incorrectly applied stripe on cabside) hauling enthusiast special past Agecroft power station on 28 July 1968 (David Idle).

Campbell, Robert D. Scotland's No. 1 tour: The Trossachs Tour. Part Two. 548-52.
Part 1 see page xxx. The opening of the Blane Valle new tours to be operated by Railway and the Strathendrick & Aberfoyle Railway coupled with the Duke's Pass coach road from Aberfoyle to Loch Katrine enabled a new range of tours to be offered. The Caledonian Railway was also involved in the Trossachs trade following the absorption of the Dunblane, Doune & Callender Railway on 31 July 1865; the opening of the Callender & Oban Railway in 1867 reinforced the Caledonian's involvement. The North British Steam Packet Company acquired the Lochlomond Steamboat Company with its paddle steamers on 31 October 1888 and increased its involvement with Loch Lomond with the opening of the West Highland Railway in 1894. In the 1890s the Caledonian Railway sought to gain access to the North British traffic north and west of the Clyde by constructing the Glasgow Lanarkshire & Dumbartonshire Railway with its underground section through Glasgow Central Low Level to Dumbarton and thence over the joinly owned Dumbarton & Balloch linee to a pier on Loch Lomond. In the 1920s competition from motor coaches led to a fall in railway traffic most notably on the Aberfoyle route where Sentinel steam railcars were introduced in an attempt to reduce costs. Illus.: horse-drawn coaches at Loch Katrine c1900 (coloured postcard); handbill advertising 1879 arrangements for NBR No. 1 Circular Tour to Trossachs; paddle steamer Prince George at Inversnaid Pier on Loch Lomond; Dumbarton & Balloch Joint Railway steamer at Balloch Pier with Caledonian Railway trainn alongside (coloured postcard); Prince Edward preparing to leave Balloch Pier in 1920s (non-panchromatic film); Caledonian Railway publicity material for Trossachs Tour showing Sir Walter Scott's Lady of the Lake (colour) and in stark contrast Caledonian MacBrayne publicity materail for Maid of the Loch cruises (one can almost detect the odour of stale chips), and worst of all Dawsholm 2-6-4T No. 42197 leaving Balloch Central for sulphurous fumes of Glasgow Central Low Level in 1960 (C. Lawson Kerr).

Rutherford, Michael. The joint is jumpin'. Part 2. (Railway Reflections No. 154). 553-61.
This part turns its attention to the rivalry between the LNWR, as directed by Mark Huish, and the GWR for traffic from the south bank of the Mersey at Birkenhead. Two of the major protagonists were the Chester & Birkenhead Railway under the chairmanship of John Bancroft and under the watchful guidance of William Laird and the Shrewsbury & Chester Railway which met at Chester Joint station. The LNWR did every thing possible to inhibit traffic developing on the Birkenhead line, but eventually in 1859 it was forced into a joint railway agreement with the GWR to form the Birkenhead Railway which covered several railways in the Wirral. Two years later the LNWR and GWR agreed to joint ownership of the Shrewsbury & Hereford Railway. Also in Cheshire the Great Northern Railway and the Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway, together with the Midland Railway began to construct and own a series of lines which provided a new main line between Liverpool and Manchester with new termini in both cities known as Central. For a time this enabled the GNR to provide a competitive service from King's Cross to Manchester. These lines eventually became the Cheshire Lines Committee which remained in existence until nationalization. Illus.: Manchester Central platform ends with No. 45705 Seahorse with Stanier tender on 17.05 to Buxton; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42064 and DMU in jaded condition in 1963 (colour: Brian Magilton); impressive exterior of Blackpool Talbot Road; and interior of same station with piles of luggage; 4F 0-6-0 No. 44462 hauling coal empties through Northenden towards Stockport Tiviot Dale on 23 September 1961 (Alan Tyson); Birkenhead Woodside on its last day 5 March 1967 (T.J. Edgington); green standard Class 5 No. 73097 enetering Llandovery with 09.45 Swansea to Shrewsbury express in July 1963 (colour: P.A. Fry); C1 Atlantic No. 4425 with 18.40 Cleethorpes to Sheffield train at Grimsby on 9 May 1946 with clean CLC bogie third No. 324 (H.C. Casserley);  Whitaker automatic tablet exchange apparatus in action at Massingham on former M&GNJR on 16 April 1947 (H.C. Casserley); boundary post at end-on junction between Midland and Midland & Great Northern Joint at Little Bytham' Melton Mowbray on the former Great Northern & LNWR Joint with J6 No. 64212 on 19.04 to Leicester Belgrave Road on 24 May 1949 (T.J. Edgington); signal box at Melton Mowbray (T.J. Edgington); LNWR Super D 0-8-0 No. 49122 at Kensington Olympia with freight from Southern Region in July 1960 (colour: S.M. Watkins) see also letter from Michael J. Smith on page 637 who corrected direction of freight train northward; Leicester Belgrave Road with enthusiast brake van special on 7 November 1964 (T.J. Edgington); 4P compound No. 41174 crossing Marple Viaduct (former Midland/GCR Joint) with train formed of carmine & cream stock in 1953 (color Eric Oldham); Cromer Beach station on 16 March 1939 with M&GNJR 4-4-0 No. 06 about to head off for West Runton? (H.C. Casserley); Ashby Junction looking north on 9 August 1948 (T.J. Edgington);  and Shrewsbury station with Castle and Jubilee class locomotives alongside in August 1958: No. 5031 Totnes Castle and 45578 United Provinces (colour R. Shenton) .

Out and about with the N7s. 562-3.
Colour photo-feature: No. 69614, the highly polished Liverpool Street station pilot in 1958 (T.J. Edgington); No. 69704 at Dunstable North in July 1959 having arrived vfrom Hatfield with connecting train for Leighton Buzzard; No. 69670 with polished chimney cap and brasswork for Westinghouse brake being serviced at Enfield (J.M. Cramp); No.. 69605 arriving at Liverpool Street with articulated set from Chingford viewed from beneath Pindar Street bridge in 1955; No. 69694 at South Lynn with connecting service from King's Lynn into Yarmouth to Birmingham express via M&GNJR route in 1958 (J.M. Cramp).

Tester, Adrian. An introduction to steam locomotive testing. Part 2A. 564-9.
See also Part 2 on page 308. The interpretation of data obtained from indicator measurements, both early measurements and later ones made using the Farnboro' (Farnborough) indicator developed at the Royal Aircraft Establishment for testing aircraft engines. Illustrated with indicator diagrams taken from GER Class T19 No. 739; A3 class 4-6-2 No. 2751 Humorist hauling 540 tons; V2 2-6-2 No. 60845 on Swindon Test Plant. See also letter from Martin Johnson on page 702

Scholey, Keith. The Catford Loop: the history of a lesser-known London byway. 570-2.
Instigated by the nominally independent Shortlands & Nunhead Railway under the influence of the LCDR. Received Royal Assent for its Act on 12 AQugust 1889 and opened on 1 July 1892. It sought to encourage suburban development and to provide an alternative route which avoilded Penge Tunnel which was considered to be in danger of failure when the line was promoted. Map ntaken from The Engineer includes projected line plus lines which connected Bricklayers Arms to Cannon Street and Blackfriars. Other illus.: Catford station exterior c1904 and damaged vehicles from deerailment at Catford on 20 September 1946. See also letter from David Walsh on page 637 concerning projected lines; .

Readers' forum. 573-4.
Sidings and saddle tanks on the Metropolitan. Allan C. Baker.
See article by Michael J. Smith on page 400. Cites Ian Melton's From Quainton to Brill in Underground, 1984 (13): Melton had access to the Chandos family papers in the Huntington Library in Marino, California. The two Bagnall locomotives were acquired to replace the Aveling & Porter locomotives which suffered many problems, including derailments and shortage of steam. Buckingham was the first Bagnall locomotive and designed to run on poor track. Wotton had a long wheelbase which was intended to spread the load. Notes that the Chandos and Bagnall families were known to each other.
Sidings and saddle tanks on the Metropolitan. Robert Barker.
Comment on the identity of "No. 75", the earliest to it being in P. Densham's booklet London Transport: its locomotives of 1947.
Dr. Beeching, railways and the BBC. Dennis Postlethwaite.
See page 484 et seq. attacks recent ITV News (1 July 1970) on absurd visuals accompanying demise of National Express East Coast (train leaving Kings Cross and emerging on Camden Bank)
Dr. Beeching, railways and the BBC. Bob Farmer.
See page 484 et seq. Places blame for the most controversial closures on Barbara Castle,
'Very elaborate closing'. A.J. Mullay.
See article on page 262 and correspondence ensuing from it: response emphasises the lack of a "democratically-elected" element in the Bolton appointment and actions and the failure to electrify the northern lines in conjunction with the Hydro Board (cites "recent" Guardian feature on this continuing lack in comparison with other European mountain routes).
Victoria Park signal box. Michael J. Smith. 574.
See letter on page 509 from Mike Russell: "Graeme" i.e. Graham Road curve used for six years to provide a Liverpool Street to Watford service in substitution for service from Broad Street.
Crumlin High Level and its lofty neighbour. Terry McCarthy.
See article on page 204: careful examination of records (RAIL 704/9) appears to indicate that the Vale of Neath Railway made only limited use of broad gauge wagons mainly to convey coal over the mixed gauge between Duffryn and Swansea. The exchange sidings at Duffryn were not used for the transfer of coal between trucks of different gauges, but to exchange traffic with the GWR.
Caledonian steam. John Macnab.
See page 482 lower: suggests that Westinghouse brake fitted 4-4-0 was hauling stock from southside to Hyndland Depot via City Union Line which still needs a Ken Livingstone to breath life into it.

Book reviews. 574.
Warwickshire Railways. Mike Hitches. History Press. TJE. *
"numerous errors" and poor reproduction
Great railways of the world. Julian Holland. AA Books. DWM *
Very badly received.

Pause for thought at Monton. Alan Tyson. Rear cover
Caprotti Class No. 73131 in terminal decline halted at signal alongside fine church at Monsal Green on 29 April 1966.

Number 10 (October)

GWR 'County' 4-6-0 No.1004 County of Somerset gleams outside Swindon shed with 'Castle' No. 5062 Earl of Shaftesbury on 16th June 1957. (R.C.Riley). Front cover.
See also colour photo feature

"With cat-like tread, upon his way he steals...". Michael Blakemore.
Ron White of Colour-Rail, Chesham, is hanging up his boots and the colour transparency business is being handed over to Paul Chancellor. Evidently Ron was fond of roles in Gilbert & Sullivan which accounts for the even greater than usual eccentricity of the title. To the amazement of the chaotic Kevin he always seems to find a Colour-Rail transparency every time that he tries to find one of his own: he is now old enough and daft enough to think "that was an excellent one" until he sees the Colour-Rail ownership and returns sadly to his own dross: out of focus, deep cloud, and filthy locomotives. Mark you, should he dig out his own of Polmadie, the site of which is now buried under millions of tonnes of spoil for an eco-friendly motorway (as claimed by Scottish politicians)?

Seaton for Uppingham. 580-1.
Colour photo-feature: No. 84008 with two coach push & pull unit to Stamford Town at Seaton in October 1964 (J.W. Millbrook); No. 41321 with push & pull unit (but not working in that mode) at Uppingham in June 1960 (J. Phillips); Tilbury-type 4-4-2T No. 41975 at Seaton in 1960 (Colour-Rail); 3F 0-6-0T No. 47300 with: push & pull unit (but not working in that mode) at Uppingham in September 1959 (Chris Gammell); No. 41321 with single coach for Uppingham at Seaton  in June 1960 (J. Phillips). 

Grainger, Ken. Herbert Ashton, Great Central railwayman. 582-5.
Herbert Ashton was born at Nostell Priory, Yorkshire on 8 August 1902. He was the son of a railwayman, Billy Ashton, who was transferred to Heath station, and Herbert initially worked at Holmewood Colliery before joining the Great Central Railway in 1918 as a lad porter at Heath. In 1928 he married Hannah Mary Gibson and they had a son Colin who is now deceased and who provided much of the information. Most of Herbert's railway service was spent at Chesterfield Central station where he was eventually Foreman. Between 1933 and 1938 he was a goods guard, and for a time from about 1948 a passenger guard. Illus. include portraits of Herbert as a porter at Heath with LNER cap badge, and with his Foreman's uniform at Chesterfirld Central and LNER official photographs of the passenger station taken in winter of 1936.

Bennett, Alan. Going abroad. 586-9.
Southern Railway publicity material to promote Continental holidays. Brochures mentioned in the text included England and the Continent by Short Sea Routes, Come Abroad with us and It's Time to go South. The texts were prepared by E.P. Leigh-Bennett and the purple prose was full of exotic images (Cyprus trees pricking a saxe-blue sky, etc). The visuals by Leonard Richmond show the sophisticated ladies wearing slacks and smoking viewing the local peasantry in exotic cosumes. At the end of this colourful article there is a brief reference to the market for mourners to grieve on the Menin Road. Illustrations (all colour) show covers of publicity brochures: The Peerless Riviera (1931); Along the Rhone Valley (Off the Beaten Track No. 7); The Engadine (Off the Beaten TRack No. 16); Roman France (Off the Beaten TRack No. 25); To Brittany's Emerald Coast (1936); Hungary Constantinople from England and the Continent and Belgium: Her Cities and Her Coast. .

Nisbet, Akistair F. The Blairgowrie Express. Part One. 590-5.
Branch opened on 1 August 1855 from Coupar Angus. Engineer was Thomas Bouch: the timber structure across the River Isla was subsequently replaced by a lattice girder bridge in 1882, by which time the branch was part of the Caledonian Railway. The contractors were Kerr and Crichton of Bankfoot. The branch opened to passenger traffic on 1 August 1855. Map is good in itself, but fails to show route onwards to Dundee. Part 2 see page 684...

Rutherford, Michael. The joint is jumpin'. Part 3. (Railway Reflections No. 155). 596-604.
The erstwhile competitive Midland Railway and Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway worked together to access Manchester initially to London Road, and from 1 August 1880 to Manchester Central. The Scramble to exploit the reserves in the South Yorkshire coalfield led to the conctruction of several joint railways. The South Yorkshire Joint Railway opened in 1909 and was owned by five companies: CR, GNR, LYR, MR and NER. The Swinton & Knottingley Railway was owned by the NER and Midland, but used by several other companies, notably the GCR, GNR and LYR. The GCR used the route in conjunction with its Banbury spur to encourage cross country journeys via the East Midlands. The Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint was useful for channelling coal off the ECML and enabled the GER to run passenger trains to York. Cites A.L. Barnett's The railways of the South Yorkshire Coalfield from 1880. RCTS, 1984. Table lists 23 longest joint lines at the Grouping. Illus.: C14 (GCR 9L) 4-4-2T No. 67445 at Hayfield on 6 August 1954 when working 18.37 to Manchester London Road (Alan Tyson); Class Five No. 45382 at Chester with up express in August 1959 (colour: G.H. Hunt); LMS 4F 0-6-0 No. 44422 at Bath Green Park with 15.20 to Templecombe in July 1964 (colour: J.M. Cramp); Push-pull driving trailer No. E5487E (ex-GCR London suburban vehicle) at Winsford and Over on 17 October 1953 (E.D. Bruton); Caprotti valve gear fitted B3/2 (GCR 9 class) No. 6166 Earl Haig at Aylesbury in 1938 (colour: Colour-Rail); LMS Black Five No. 45216 at Glazebrook with Harwich to Liverpool Central express on 6 January 1962 (Alan Tyson); B1 class No. 61113 at Cromer Beach with Ian Allan Trains Illustrated excursion on 19 September 1954; Ivatt class 2 2-6-2T No. 41272 at  Rickmansworth with Chesham set in September 1959 (colour: L.V. Reason); Jubilee No. 5658 (not yet named) at Bristol Temple Meads with train mainly formed of GWR stock; Tenbury Wells station (former LNWR & GWR Joint) on 30 September 1960 R.M. Casserley), Pye Wipe Junction Lincoln with ex GER J67/1 No. 8553 and LNER O2/3 No. 3964 (two photographs taken on 19 April 1947 (H.C. Casserley), Ashendon Junction on 20 July 1946 (H.C. Casserley), Pontefract Baghill station on Swinton & Knottingley Joint Railway on 26 March 1983 (T.J. Edgington), 7P No. 46170 British Legion at New Street Birmingham in March 1959 (colour: R. Shenton), Rebuilt Royal Scot No. 46112 near Amersham in snow in January 1963 on 12.38 Marylebone to Nottingham (colour: J.P. Mullet), Hunslet diesel mechanical shunter No. 2611 at Reedness Junction with a brake van special on 14 September 1963 (T.J. Edgington), BR class 4 No. 76038 at Chalfont and Latimer with push & pull set in bay platform on 31 August 1960 (T.J. Edgington), Easton station on former Easton & Church Hope Joint Railway with 57XX No. 3737 on RCTS railtour on 14 August 1960 (T.J. Edgington).

A Class 9 to Alnwick.  Roy Hobbs (phot.). 605.
Colour photo-feature: No. 92099 being prepared at Alnmouth by volunteer cleaners to work final steam trains from Alnwick on 18 June 1966 ( pre Barter Books!).

Gray, Adrian. The Clayton Tunnel Disaster. 606-7.
Accident on Sunday morning 25 August 1861 when two trains collided in Clayton Tunnel mainly due to primitive and unreliable signalling, the risk of confusion in telegraphic messages and misfortune (a train reversed out of the tunnel having missed a signal and hit another entering it). Two excursion trains from or via Brighton to London:plus the 08.30 Parliamentary train were.despatched from Brighton by the Assistant Station Master Charles Legg.. The tunnel was controlled by signalmen at each end linked bya simple electric telegraph. Henry Killich was the signal man at the southern end. The warning signal (distant signal) at approach to the tunnel was faulty. This caused the second train to miss the signal and the train had to be halted by Killich's red flag, but the train could not avoid entering the vtunnel. Scott, the driver of this train decided to reverse out and into the path of the third train. The collision led to 22 deaths and 150 injured. Killich was clearly the initial culprit, but he blamed the signal system and nearly caused the premature end of John Saxby's career as he was responsible for vthe signalling at the tunnel. Legg was charged with manslaughter but Lord Chief Justice Eele directed the jury to dismiss the case. John Saxby left the LBSCR in 1862 and set up the famous signal equipment businees with John Farmer in Kilburn. Captain Tyler produced the Board of Trade report and was critical of the signalling.

'County' Champions. 608-11.
Colour photo-feature: No. 1002 County of Bucks (all green with double chimney, except next) Ex-works, Swindon Works on 26 April 1959 (R.C. Riley); No. 1018 County of Leicester (black, single chimney) on milk train? (caption states freight) at Dolcoath Siding in Cornwall in July in 1956 (R.C. Riley) see also letter from Alan Wild (Volume 24 page 61) who notes that movements on County class were restricted at this location and other points on the 18.20 from Penzance milk train; No. 1016 County of Hants departing Wolverhampton Low Level with 09.40 Bournemouth Central to Birkenhead on 4 August 1962 (Michael Mensing); No. 1014 County of Glamorgan at Bristol Temple Meads with West of England express in 1962; No. 1002 County of Bucks at Bodmin Road with 09.00 Wolverhampton to Penzance Cornishman formed of chocolate and cream stock on 18 May 1959 (Michael Mensing); No. 1019 County of Merioneth departs Shrewsbury with 09.10 Paddington to Birkenhead in December 1962 (Michael Covey-Crump); No. 1024 County of Pembroke outside Cardiff Canton shed in November 1960 (A.A. Jarvis); No. 1005 County of Devon at Plymouth Laira shed on 25 September 1960 (R.C. Riley); No.  1018 County of Leicester in unkempt condition approaching Lapworth with a down fitted freight on 1 July 1962 (Michael Mensing). See also fronnt cover..

Hennessey, R.A.S. The meta motors: a lost railway technology. Part 1. 612-17.
Electric traction tended to be dominated by low voltage direct current systems: in the USA there were  a large number of interurbans which tended to feed into urban tramway systems; and in major cities and in Britain there were many third rail low voltage electric suburban railways. The technology was simple, but electricity had to be supplied at short intervals and the feed required many sub-stations where high voltage alternating current was converted to DC via motor-generators. These sub-stations had to be staffed. Higher voltage (1500 or 3000 volts) required fewer sub-stations. There was also interest in high volatge alternating current and this was employed by the Midland Railway and by the LBSCR, but AC motors were torque deficient.In the USA the Paul Smith's Railroad (an interurban in the Adirondacks) used a 5kV ac conductor line to feed 600V dc motors via motor-generators installed in the cars. Harry Ward Leonard pioneered mechanical systems for converting ac to dc. Maschinenfabrik Oerlikon of Zurich mounted a series of experiments on the Seebach-Wettingen line of the Swiss Federal Railways between 1904 and 1909 to investigate electrification at 50Hz converting it to dc on the locomotive. Dr. E. Huber-Stockar and Hans Behn-Eschenberg were involved in these experiments. The PLM in France built an experimental 2-Bo+Bo-2 which employed 12kV ac at 25Hz and used a true motor-generator: it successfully worked between Grasse and Soutoux and could haul 150 tons up a 1 in 50 gradient. Henry Ford dabbled in railway operation by acquiring the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton RR and running it in a highly paternalistic manner. As well as maintaining the steam locomotive fleet in superb condition he electrified seventeen miles with concrete overhead structures supporting the 22kV ac catenary. The locomotive was configured as a Do-Do+Do-Do and weighed 375 tons. It ran 34,000 miles per month between 1927 and 1931. The New Haven RR employed motor-genertor locomotives for shunting and trip work. This railroad was later associated with ignitron rectifier locomotives. The Great Northern Railway exploited motor-generator technology for the Cascade Tunnel line with five 1-Do-1 locomtives from Baldwin-Westinghouse which took current at 11kV ac at 25Hz. These were followed by eight 1-Co-Co-1 machines and in 1948 by two Bo-Do-Do-Bo locomotives. The Virginian Railway employed Bo-Bo-Bo-Bo+Bo-Bo-Bo-Bo machines which could regenerate electricity. In the late 1930s the SNFC used Ward Leonard technology on 1500V dc shunting locomotives and in Hungary the MAV used Ward Leonard technology quite extensively on shunting and freight locomotives. Interesting tests preparatory to the design of electric locomotives for the Southern Railway included braking tests with K class 2-6-0 hauling 956 tons braking hard with unfitted wagons and another with a motor coach from a 6-PUL unit acting as a "freight locomotive" with the K class locomotive providing assistance. Metamotors Part 2..

Lost around Lochaber. Tom Heavyside (phot.). 618-19.
Colour photo-feature: No 37 425 Sir Robert McAlpine/Concrete Bob at Lochy Bridge on 25 July 1987; No 37 405 Strathclyde Region with West Highland terrier logo on 21.05 Fort William to Malliag on 25 July 1987; No 37 039 passes Mallaig Yard:in Fort William with 21.55 Euston to Mallaig on 18 June 1982; English Electric No. 20 114 eases a train out of the Wiggins Teape yard, Corpach on 22 July 1983.

Hill, Keith. The Bridport branch. 620-7.
Bridport was involved in several Railway Mania proposals including one which have linked it to Watchet on the Bristol Channel as well as placing it on through routes from Dorchester to Exeter. In the end a locally promoted Bridport Railway was schemed to produce a railway which ran to a junction at Maiden Newton on the Great Western's route to Weymouth. This was inevitably broad gauge and engineered by Henry Johnstone Wylie. The Chairman was Joseph Gundry who negotiated with Spencer Walpole, Chairman of the GWR, on working the line. Kenneth Mathieson was the Contractor. An extension to West Bay opened on 31 March 1884. The Contractor for this was Mousley & Lovatt. This line closed to passengers during WW1 in 1916 and reopened in 1923 and closed again on 22 September 1930, but remained open for freight. The line was inspected by Captain Tyler on 6 October 1857 and there was a formal opening on 12 November 1857. The line nearly escaped Beeching, but closed on 5 May 1975. Illus.: Bridport station c1910, No. 1467 at Maiden Newton on 20 January 1956 with 09.25 to Weymouth, No. 4562 at Bridport with 08.55 to Maiden Newton.on 20 January 1956, Toller station in 1959, West Bay on 7 June 1956 with special train, Powerstock on 20 January 1956, Bridport engine shed in 1947, Bridport East Street on 13 July 1957, Bridport station on 7 June 1958 and No. 3746 on 16.38 to Bridport at Maiden Newton on 13 July 1957.  

Helm, John W.E. Railways, steamships and the 'Merchant Navy' Class: a look at the companies behind the names. Part 2. 628-35.
Part 1 began on page 498 et seq. The remainder of the alphabetical sequence: No. 35011 General Steam Navigation: firm founded by Thomas Brocklebank and William John Hall in 1824, acquired by Penimsular & Oriental in 1920. The firm was associated with excursions on the Thames. No. 35023 Holland-Afrika Line: founded in 1919 to exploit impounded German merchant fleet. No. 35022 Holland-America Line had its origin in 1871 when Antoine Plate and Jonkheer Otto Reuchlin initiated a Rotterdam to New York service; 35026 Lamport & Holt Line founded by William James Lamport and George Holt (brother of Alfred Holt of the Blue Funnel Line). The early name was the Liverpool, Brazil & River Plate Steam Navigation Co. The firm had close ties with the City of Liverpool. 35014 Nederland Line (Stoomboot Maatschappij Nederland established in 1870 to provide services to the Dutch East Indies), 35021 New Zealand Line (established in 1873 as New Zealand Shipping Co. using sailing ships to circumnavigarte the globe; estblished shipment of frozen meat), 35008 Orient Line (founded in 1878 as Orient Steam Navigation: used large ships to serve Australia), 35006 Peninsular & Oriental S.N. Co. originated in 1820 under Brodie McGhie Willcox, a shipbroker, and Arthur Anderson, 35027 Port Line formed through merger in 1914: James P. Correy & Co (Star Line), Thomas B. Royden (Indra Line), G.D. Tyser and William Millburn (Anglo-Australia Steam Navigation Co.) the Commonwealth & Dominion Line), 35015 Rotterdam Lloyd (founded by William Ruys in 1839 to serve Dutch East Indies), 35003 Royal Mail (established in 1839 to ship mail to the West Indies. In 1903 taken over by Owen Crosby Phillips, later Lord Kylsant, who was later imprisoned for issuing a false prspectus), 35009 Shaw Savill (founded by Robert Shaw and Walter Savill in 1858 for sailings to New Zealand and in 1883 merged with the Albion Co.), 35002 Union Castle (founded in 1853 with ships named after castles: Windsor Castle and Arundel Castle), 35012 United States Lines founded by USA with ships acquired as WW1 reparation: The United States put into service in 1952 was extremely fast and probably attained 42 knots. Appendix 1; Vessel nomenclature, funnel and hull liveries, Appendix 2; Merchant Navy building, rebuilding, liveries and withdrawal dates also technical data. Illus.: No. 35014 Nederland Line passing West Byfleet in September 1964 (colour: Derek Penney); No. 35026 Lamport and Holt Line passing with West of England express West Byfleet in September 1964 (colour: Derek Penney); No. 35026 Lamport and Holt Line at Southampton on 12 September 1964 (Gavin Morrison); No. 35014 Nederland Line leaves Bournemouth Central on 1 September 1965 (Gavin Morrison); No. 35012 United States Lines at Skipton with RCTS special to Carlisle on 13 June 1964 (Gavin Morrison); Union Castle liner Athlone Castle, No. 35022 Holland-America Line at Southampton Central on 12 September 1964 (Gavin Morrison); No. 35026 Lamport and Holt Line at Nine Elms mpd,  No. 35003 Royal Mail crossing Brockenhurst Common on down Pines Express on 9 September 1965 (Gavin Morrison), and coloured postcard: painting; rebuilt Merchant Navy on Atlantic Coast Express. See also letter from Ian Simpson in Vol. 24 page 125 which refers to Note 22 (Mont Blanc exploding in Halifax, Nova Scotia).

Waverley wayfarers. Richard Barbour (phot. via Colour-Rail). 636.
Colour photo-feature; A3 No. 60052 Prince Palatine with up freight at Stobs Camp in October 1964; Class 4 2-6-4T No. 80122 crossing Shankend Viaduct with a Carlisle to Hawick local; and class 2 2-6-0 No. 78047 shunting at Hawick in September 1964. :

Readers' Forum. 637.
Railways and No.10. E. M. Johnson.
See page 484 et seq: Margaret Thatcher's antipathy to railways was almost certainly due to the influence of the Sir Alfred Sherman, one of her key policy advisors and speech-writers. (Incidentally, it was Sherman, a one-time communist and arch-monetarist, who introduced Alan Walters to Thatcher.) In 1974 he cofounded, with Thatcher and Sir Keith Joseph, the Conservative Centre for Policy Studies. Alfred Sherman was both vehemently and passionately anti-railway. His views on the subject – he was a keen proponent of rail/road conversions – were frequently expressed via letters to the Daily Telegraph. Sherman was a one-time leader writer for the paper, but was eventually sacked (KPJ: presumably Sherman was blind to the benefits of railway commuting to Torygraph sales). Perhaps space precluded Mullay mentioning that the 'Iron Lady' was the daughter of a one-time Mayor of Grantham, a noted railway town.
Railways and No.10. Michael Welch
See page 490: photograph of Sir Winston Churchill's funeral train (p490) was taken by Robert Adley, who later became MP for Christchurch and died at the age of 58 in 1993, the photograph was published in his book In Search of Steam 1962-68. The infant in the pram was Simon, his son of eleven months, presumably with his mother and Robert's wife.
The Catford Loop. David Walsh.
See page 570: writer was intrigued by the map from The Engineer that accompanied the piece. In that map a dotted line in a 'Y' shape emanates from Bricklayers Arms station and depot and swung through a thickly populated Bermondsey south of the Old Kent Road and then diverged, the western fork making a junction with the line from Loughborough Junction to Blackfriars and Holborn Viaduct, with the eastern fork connecting with the spur running to Cannon Street from the Charing Cross direction. Does any south London railway historian know the story of this still-born and probably expensive alignment and the potential rationale for it?
Above the Streets of Liverpool. Alistair Stuart,
See middle picture on p496: it was James Street station, not St. James as stated. The view shown is actually north of Pier Head station and the bridge crossed the junction at St. Nicholas Place, New Quay and George's Dock Gate. There is an entrance to the Mersey Road Tunnel in the background.
The joint is jumpin'. A.J. Mullay.
See p462 picture caption for the Forth Bridge omits Great Northern as a member of the FBR consortium. It contributed 18.75%, equal with the NER The NBR put up 30% and the Midland 32.5%.
The joint is jumpin'. Michael J. Smith.
See page 559 bottom: 'Super D' at head of a train of vans was homeward bound from the Southern Region. The LNWR-style signal box on the right was Kensington South box and in the background can be seen Earl's Court exhibition hall which lies south of Kensington Olympia.
Railways, steamships and the 'Merchant Navy' Class. Tom Dethridge.
See page 498 et seq particularly where John Helm mentioned British India Line (No.35018). There was a further link between this line and SR express locomotives as through its experience of operating troopships, the company secured a Ministry of Defence contract to manage six Landing Ships Logistic (LSLs) built in the mid-l960s. These bore the names of Knights of the Round Table carried by former Maunsell 'King Arthurs' (Southern number in parentheses): Sir Lancelot (No.455), Sir Bedivere (No.457), Sir Galahad (No.456), Sir Geraint (No.766), Sir Percival (sic - No.772) and Sir Tristram (No. 448). They were based at Marchwood, near Southampton. The LSLs were transfered into the Royal Fleet Auxiliary Service (RFA) in the early 1970s, exchanging their livery of white hulls with a broad blue band for Naval grey and hoisting the RFA blue ensign with gold vertical anchor badge in place of the red ensign previously flown. They were remarkably versatile ships with 'ro-ro' configuration, able to carry troops with their tanks and vehicles, embarking and offloading through bow doors or stern ramp, and could run up on a beach if required. They had two landing spots for helicopters and could also carry and launch what were in effect self-propelled barges of cellular construction, known as 'Mexeflotes'. RFA Sir Galahad and RFA Sir Tristram became major casualties in the Falklands War in 1982, others sustaining damage in varying degrees. Subsequently in the 1980s another ship of different design was acquired, becoming RFA Sir Lamorak (No.451). Like their SR namesakes, these ships are no longer in service.
Eulogy to the 4-SUBs. Ian A. Brady.
See article starting page 338. Writer experienced the comforting 'thunk' of doors slamming. On p342,Nisbet noted that 4SUBs did not appear to be allocated to 'a particular depot or division', but in RCTS The List of Coaching Stock of BR dated 1974 each remaining SUB unit was shown allocated to a depot 'SU' for Selhurst and 'WM' for Wimbledon Park Sidings. No SUB units were allocated to the Eastern Section depot of Slade Green (SG) at that date although many newer, but similar, 2- and 4-EPB units were noted as 'jt' in the depot code, indicating a joint allocation to Slade Green and Selhurst. From timetables and carriage working notices for summer 1954 relatively few 'joint' operations of these units occurred. Most Western Section units stayed in their area of operation working into and out of Waterloo on the former LSWR main line and branches. The few which did stray to terminate at a station in the Central section, such as Effingham Junction, Holwood or Dorking, returned to Waterloo or to a Western Section station. There was certainly joint operation of SUB units on trains originating to and from Holborn Viaduct, Blackfriars or Victoria to the West Croydon and Sutton area. Into this mix came trains from North Kent and Sevenoaks and, at that time, Crystal Palace High Level. The vast majority of Eastern Section trains arriving at Charing Cross, Cannon Street or Victoria are shown as returning to Eastern Section destinations from which they worked. Similarly, SUB units working the service from Tattenham Corner /Caterham to Charing Cross and return from the Central Division on weekday off-peaks returned to their point of origin without exception. Working of SUBs outside the London area was rare except on summer Sundays to Sussex, but Nesbit's recollection of seeing them on the Alton line was interesting. On a Saturday morning in the 1954 Carriage Working, four SUBs were scheduled on regular Portsmouth/Alton trains attached to the regular BILs and detached at Farnham and worked to the depot there, returning similarly on the following Sunday. A SUB unit also worked to Portsmouth attached to a BIL from Waterloo each evening, returning the next morning. No Central Section SUBs were scheduled to penetrate here but an unusual SUB scheduled train originated from Brighton at 06.56 for Crawley (then empty to Horsham), returning to Brighton at 17.30, possibly for local traffic. On weekdays in the Carriage Working Notice, there were many Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday dated excursions to Brighton worked by SUBs, plus a few to Bognor and elsewhere. Some originated from the Western Section, Wimbledon Park depot, marked in the working as ED (supplied by the Electrical Department!). Surprisingly, there was only a small number on Saturday, as that traffic was handled by the regular Brighton line units. A total of 50 SUB units was scheduled from the London area to Brighton on a summer Sunday. Of those, five returned empty to Victoria for further trips (a 12SUB and an 8-SUB); two were scheduled to work empty to Eastbourne and two to Worthing for evening return trips. The remaining 41 stayed in the Brighton area at depots and stations for the return traffic from 17.46 to 21.16. The procession of eight and twelve-car SUBs on the line during this time added to a grand total of 57 electric trains scheduled from Sussex to the London area on a summer Sunday evening.
Every which way to Walsall. G.L. Huxley
See pp. 516-17: aditional information added thereat.
Steam freights through Southern suburbia. Nick Stanbury
Photograph on p539 (feature p. 538) does not show a goods working from Shepperton; traffic for that line was invariably routed to/from Feltham via Twickenham. The head code shows it was a working on 'Kingston roundabout', probably Barnes-Nine Elms.

Book Reviews. 638.
Locomotives of the GSR. Jeremy Clements and Michael McMahon. Colourpoint. DWM *****
"This work deserves to be the standard work on the steam locomotives of Southern Ireland in the inter-wars. ... A superb work indeed!"
An illustrated history of the North Yorkshire Moors Railway. Philip Benham. OPC. MB *****
"...presents as comprehensive a history of the railway as could be wished for".
Railway voices inside Swindon Works. Rosa Matheson. History Press. LAS ****
Sets out to prove that working conditions were harsh and dangerous, but reviewer considers that they were probably typical for the period.

Crossing the river at Carmarthen (J.S. Gilks). rear cover
No. 7422 with single coach from Llandilo crossing Towy on 18 May 1961 on a beautiful day.

Number 11 (November)

SR 'Schools' 4-4-0 No.30912 Downside glows at Stewarts lane shed, polished to perfection for Royal Train standby duty, in 1960. Chris Gammell. front cover

Enter the Four Horsemen of the Apostrophe. Michael Blakemore. 643.
Editorial plea for higher standard of punctuation: correct use of dashes, hyphens and apostrophe's' and wheresoever they should be put:support from Nick' Stanbury of Tunbridge Wells as final gasp of this Volume (by the way KPJ noted a citation appended to a number in Summers's? contribution to this Issue which might have implied some staggering sum: of "2616 first class locomotives" (page 669 top left).

Passing Hilton Junction. David Idle. 644-5.
Colour photo-feature: all pictures taken on 31 August 1965. Class 5 No. 45018 on 18.00 Dundee to Glasgow Buchanan Street; Class 5 No. 44674 on 12.07 express freight to Ordsall Lane Salford leaving Moncrieffe Tunnel; WD 2-8-0 No. 90441 on 12.25 Thornton Junction to Perth coal train; B1 No. 61132 hauling a Thornton Junction to Perth freight crossing River Earn; Standard Class 5 No. 73149 (with Caprotti valve gear) on 17.15 Aberdeen to Glasgow Granite City restaurant car express.

Fell, Mike and Hennessey, R.A.S. A Stephenson Centenary. 646-52.
The Stephenson Society was founded on 29 December 1909 (11 December letter from R.A.S. Hennessey which also correctly states the Society's involvement in the naming of Brighton Baltic No. 329 Stephenson) in Croydon by Lionel Brailsford and Frank Burtt. The latter left the SLS in 1912 to form the Junior Society of Locomotive Engineers, which in turn became the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, but he returned to the Stephenson Locomotive Society in 1923. The enthusiasts' Society rapidly gained the support of leading locomotive engineers which gave members access to engine sheds and works. J.N. Maskelyne (portrait page 646) was Chairman 1915-25 and President 1925-61. Maskelyne was instrumental in the preservation of Stroudley 0-4-2 locomotive Gladstone in the LNER Railway Musuem at York. The fine draughtsmanship by F.H. Stringemore and L. Ward is recorded. Special rail tours were organized by W.A. Camwell and by Dr Hollick (historian of the North Staffordshire Railway). The latter was involved in tours over the Cromford & High Peak Railway in trains hauled by North London Railway 0-6-0Ts. Authorship, notably rhe effort by Harold Bowtell, books published by the Society, and the SLS Journal are covered at length. See also letter from Colin Foster on page 60 of Volume 24: this gives further information about F.C. Hambleton  (Locomotives worth modelling) and Laurie Ward.

Fox, Chris (phot.). A day at Scarborough. 653
Colour photo-feature based on one half hour's activity in August 1977: Class 40 No. 40 052 arriving under last remaining signal gantry; No. 31 272 alongside Falsgrave Road signal box, and panorama of platforms from departure end with Classes 31, 37 and 40 plus two DMUs.

Rogers, James. Harrogate railway station — its passenger and staff. 654-8.
Includes a list of the station masters at Harrogate between 1862 and 1970. The practice of wearing a silk top hat ended in 1952. There was a refreshment room until the 1980s. Many of the brief stories recountered concern the activities of the station policemen and their arrests for fare evasion, theft by railway staff, including stealing from the luggage belonging to county people, minor violence and public nuisances. Several fatalities are recorded most of which were related to boarding moving trains. Black and white illus: engraving of station c1862, B13 (NER S class) 4-6-0 on down express with Sentinel steam railcar on opposite platform; C7 NER 4-4-2 arriving with southbound express (J.W. Hague took remaining photographs), J39 assisting B16 on northbound freight, D49/4 (inside two-cylinder 4-4-0) The Morpeth and D49/2 The Sinnington with 12.55 Northallerton to Leeds City on 2 June 1951.

Kinder, Mike. (phot.) Royston recalled. 659.
Colour photo-feature: former LMS MPD opened in 1932 as seen in Eastern Region in Yorkshire in January 1967 and the summer of 1966: WD No. 90318 and 8Fs in the cold of January, 8F No. 48266 (also in January) and line up of WDs and 8Fs on a summer afternoon..

Smith, George. The knight's tale: Sir John Rennie and the growth of railways. 660-3.
John Rennie, son of the equally famous engineer, was born in Stamford Street London on 30 August 1794. He was well educated at Greenlaw's academy in Isleworth where one of his school companions was Shelley, the famous poet. He worked for his father on Waterloo Bridge, and in 1813 assisted him to survey the route for a canal or railway between Stockton and Darlington: a project where the Rennies were to be thwarted by George Stephenson for the first time. Also outlines George Rennie's contribution to mechanical engineering, including to locomotive design..

Summers, L.A. Mr. Watson's not so bright 'Stars' and other Irish 4-6-0s. 664-9.
Edward Watson was an Irishman and was born in Clones. He was well-educated and this included an apprenticeship with the American Locomotive Company (ALCO) before joining the Pennsylvania Railroad at its prestigeous Altoona Works. He then moved acrosss the Atlantic to Swindon where he worked under F.W. Marrilier, the Assistant Carriage Works Manager. He became Works Manager at Inchicore in 1911 and at the end of 1913 Watson took over from Maunsell. It is generally agreed that Watson found the transition to Irish government to be highly unpleasant and in 1921 Watson became General Manager of Beyer Peacock in Manchester, where it was discovered that he had stomach cancer and died very quickly, aged 41 Sadly, neither the Author nor the Editor appear to have been aware of Clement and McMahon's magnificent Locomotives of the GSR in spite of it having a superb review in Backtrack: the Authors respond at length: see Volume 24 pp. 60-1 In spite of this major lack Summers does not appear to state anything which is not stated in the mighty green tome. In spite of Watson's background the four-cylinder 400 class 4-6-0s were highly unsuccessful and some were withdrawn after an extremely short lives. Others were rebuilt by Bazin, Watson and Bredin (Watson's successors) and it appears to be agreed that a two-cylinder rebuild based upon Bazin's own mixed trafic design was the most successful. Two others were improved by the addition of Caprotti valve gear. See also letter by Martin Johnson in this Issue on page 702 for the difficulties in designing multiple-cylinder locomotives. Summers took up yet more space in Volume 24 pp, 189-90...

Nisbet, Alistair F. The Swainsthorpe bomb train. 670-1.
During the school summer holidays three small boys, including the station master's son, observed a large piece of metal being thrown onto the platform at Flordon in Norfolk by the locomotive of a freight train and sparks coming from the front of the locomotive. They ran to inform the duty porter Aubrey Leach who had the train stopped at Swainsthorpe where the train was observed to be loaded with bombs for RAF Horsham St Faith's. This led to a general emergency which included halting a troop train. The incident was kept secret for many years, but emerged on local radio. Illus. (not related to incident): Flordon station c1924; D16/3 No. 8837 on down stopping train near Flordon with milk trank as leading vehicle, Swainsthorpe station c1924, Flordon station c1960, and Swainsthorpe level crosing gate in 1963.

'Schools' days. 672-5.
Colour photo-feature: No. 905 Tonbridge in malachite green at Eastleigh shed in 1948 (S.C. Townroe); No. 30925 Cheltenham (BR lined black) at Ramsgate with 17.45 for Charing Cross via Dover on 14 June 1959; No. 30908 Westminster (unlined black?) passing Factory Junction (with Battersea Power Station behind) with Victoria to Dover boat train on 23 August 1958 (R.C. Riley); No. 30928 Stowe Brunswick green) on Ashford shed on 28 May 1961 (Rodney Lissenden); No. 30911 Dover on 17.25 London Bridge to Reading passing Honor Oak Park in June 1962 (C. Hogg); No. 30930 Radley (with Lemaitre multiple blaspipe) in Ashford shed yard in March 1961 (Chris Gammell); 30936 Cranleigh leaving Waterloo with 13.54 to Basingstoke in April 1962 (Chris Gammell); No. 30915 Brighton (with Lemaitre multiple blaspipe)with white cliffs of Dover behind on 17.05 Deal to Charing Cross in April 1960 (C. Hogg); No. 30901 Winchester (with Lemaitre multiple blaspipe) ex-Works at Ashford on 20 June 1960 (R.C. Riley); No. 30919 Harrow (with Lemaitre multiple blaspipe) with 10.35 Victoria to Ramsgate passing Bromley South on 6 June 1959. See letter from Julian Bowden-Green on page 764 which argues that must have been No. 30915 Brighton as No. 30919 never received green livery nor Lemaitre chimney.

Wells, Jeffrey. The Great Western Railway in the News 1841-1842. Part Two. 676-81.
Topics included locking passengers into their compartments, permitting non-passengers to accompany passengers onto the platform to see them off, and the first railway journey by Queen Victoria from Slough to Paddington on Monday 13 June 1842 as reported in The Illustrated London News on 18 June 1842. The second Royal journey was taken frpm Paddington to Slough on 23 Juuly and this was reported in The Railway Times on 30 July. A third journey up to London was described in The Illustrated London News on 13 August. Once again the name of the locomotive, Prosperine, was recorded, as was the presence of Brunel.

Steam in the Valleys. 682-3.
Colour photo-feature; 57XX No. 3753 shunting wagons across a level crossing at Cresselly Arms, Mountain Ash in May 1962 (A.A. Jarvis); 56XX No. 5608 passing Taffs Well station with a coal train in September 1962 (Michael Covey-Crump); 64XX No. 6416 with Merthyr to Hirwaun calling at Abernant with single coach train in May 1962 (A.A. Jarvis); 56XX No. 6680 hauling a Briton Ferry to Treherbert train enetering Blaenrhondda station in September 1962 (Michael Covey-Crump); 56XX No. 6685 at Quaker's Yard High Level with an Aberdare local in August 1962 (Colour Rail).:

Nisbet, Alistair F. The Blairgowrie Express. Part Two. 684-8.
Part 1 see page 590. Excursionists from Dundee and elsewhere were welcome provided that they remained sober. On 26 June 1857 there was a visit by staff from the SNER and they were entertained at a marquee set up by the Temperance Hotel. The Free Lodge of Weavers arrived on a special train on 1 June 1881, but their visit was marked by drunken brawls. The Highland Games commanded six special trains. The Traders Committee pleaded for better train services. There were many incidents: one of the most serious involved the station master, Mr Cadenhead, whose inattention led to a collision between two trains 0n 25 June 1877: this led to criticism from Major General Hutchinson. There were Royal visits by Queen Victoria and by King Edward VII who motored to Blairgowrie from Balmoral to join a special train which took him to Dunblane. There was a serious level crossing accident near Stormont Loch when three farmers were involved in a collision with a light engine. The farmers were killed and the car caught fire.

Rutherford, Michael. Travelling through. Part 1. (Railway Reflections No. 156). 689-98.
Through trains and through coaches. The carriage of Mail began with the opening of the Liverpool &: Manchester Railway, but the first mail ttrain did not run until 1855 (from Paddington to Bristol). Until the main line network was completed coastal steamship services remained an important method of passenger travel. The Railway Clearing House was established on 2 January 1842 under the leadership of George Carr Glyn, Chairman of the London & Birmingham Railway, and a partner in Glyn, Mills & Co., bankers. This vwas initially known as the Railway Society and employed the methods developed for inter-bank transactions. The Railway Clearing House original members were the London & Birmingham Railway, the Midland Counties Railway, the Birmingham & Derby Junction Railway, North Midlands Railway, Manchester & Leeds Railway, Leeds & Selby Railway, Hull & Selby Railway, York & North Midlands Railway and Great North of England Railway. Maps were prepared by Zachary Macaulay and then by John Airey, clerks at the RCH.. Illus.: Jubilee No. 5594 Bhopal (in LMS crimson lake) hauling LMS train south from York in 1949 (colour: Ernest Sanderson); NER Z Class (LNER C7) No. 2163 hauling through Swansea to Newcastle train at Beningbrough, north of York (H. Gordon Tidey); Furness Railway 4-6-4T No. 11101 hauling through coaches (still in LNWR livery) from Euston to Whitehaven; 43XX No. 6332 fitted with Westinghouse brake pump for working air-braked stock off Southern Railway; N15 No. 742 Camelot at Oxford in April 1939 with train for Bournemouth (colour); page 691 lower Hall hauls mainly former MR stock on Paignton to Nottingham near Asley Hill Bristol (see letter from Peter Davis on page 125 of Vol. 24 for further detail); Saint class No. 2978 Kirkland on down Dover express at Handsworth Junction; C1 Atlantic at Steventon with a Swansea to Sheffield train; J71 No. 8286 in apple green at York in August 1947 (colout: H.N. James); A1 No. 60160 Auld Reekie on up West Coast Postal crossing Dee Viaduct, Aberdeen in 1962 (colour D.R. Bissett); p. 694 lower: No. 5919 Worsley Hall at Brewham on Weymouth line with train of Great Central stock (see letter from Peter Davis on page 125 of Vol. 24 for further detail); page 695 upper: No. 5053 Bishop's Castle passing Stoke Gifford on a Birmingham to Bristol express (see letter from Peter Davis on page 125 of Vol. 24 for further detail); NER R class 4-4-0 No. 1207 with train of Midland GWR stock at Beningbrough; p. 698 upper: CR No. 903 Cardean possibly on Up Corridor (H. Gordon Tidey) led to a strange letter from Andrerw Barrowman in North America on page 125 of Vol. 24 concerning £5 day return excursion from Glasgow to London "to celebrate" electrified services; No. 4082 Windsor Castle on LNWR Royal Train conveying King Edward VIII to Weymouth, 

Sporting life. 699.
Colour photo-feature of handbills in the David V. Beeken Collection: LNER excursions from Teesside and North Yorkshire for the FA Cup at Wembley on 23 April 1927 when The Arsenal lost to Cardiff City; LNER excursions to the Scarborough Cricket Festival (when the Gentleman met the Players) on 1 September, and an LMS handbill for excursions to the Royal Dublin Horse Show from 8 to 11 August 1933: the route was via Holyhead and "Kingstown" (Dun Laoghaire in rather small print).

Rolling Stock Focus. David Percival. 700-1.
Black & white photo-feature: DE320153 March breakdown train on 29 July 1967 (clerestory brake third: GCR vehicle?); No. 040871 at Lincoln on 18 February 1968 (52ft 6in Diagram 216 tourist open third of 1936) caption notes that two preserved, but letter from Malcolm Brown notes that one was partially destroyed whilst at Carnforth; No. 040877 at Stratford on 15 December 1986 (NER open restaurant first of 1922 withdrawn in 1956); No. 321033 in grey livery at Staveley Barrow Hill on 23 March 1969 (Tourist BTO either E16845E or E16846E); No. 320328 Signal Engineer's Mess & Tool Van at Foxton on 16 April 1966 (formerly Diagram 203 Ilford ten compartment third); No. 320427 at Sunderland on 27 June 1970: Tyne Dock Breakdown Train Unit Staff & Tool Van (Gresley Diagram 34 BCK probably built for Flying Scotsman in 1924, preserved North Yorkshire Moors Railway); No. 320661 Signal Engineer's Mess & Tool Van at Stevenage on 27 March 1965 (Gresley BCK in black livery).:

Readers' Forum (correspondence). 702.
Railways and No. 10. Derek J. Winter
See article by Sandy Mullay on page 484: Lloyd Geoge had considerable experience of narrow gauge railways when practicing as a young solicitor in Wales including use of services on the Festiniog Railway between Porthmadoc and Blaenau Ffestiniog in Caernarvonshire and.Merioneth
An introduction to steam locomotive testing. Martin Johnson.
See series of articles on locomotive testing by Adrian Tester(First Part page 199, Part 2 page 308 and Part 2A page 564). Cites Dickinson and Jenkins James Watt and the steam engine and notes the involvement of James Holden who adopted the Crosby Indicator on the GER. Notes John Duncan's Steam and other engines not available in Norjoke library, wonders if analogue computers were used to process indicator data on BR. On the practical side connecting pipes should be short and straight. Notes that indicator diagrams taken at high speed suffer from overrun especially at high speed. Considers that multiple sets of valve gear as fitted to A1 Tornado produce far more even exhaust beat than any form of derived gear whether as adopted at Swindon for Castles and Kings, by Stanier on the Duchess class, or by Gresley.
Here comes British Railways. M. Hainsworth.
See feature on page 442 which includes a photograph of Pateley Bridge station during its decline. This leads to anecdote concerning Harry Thompson, the last station master thereat. In 1948 or 1949 the permanent way gang set up to do some lengthy work, but lacked a mess van and had to make use of the station house for cooking and toilets. This upset Mrs Thompson and he appealed to York for some provision to be made and a withdrawn first class dining car was attached to the daily goods from Starbeck and provided superior services for the PW men.

Rear cover: correct caption: picture from October Issue repeated: corrected in December Issue.
See also letter from Barney Trevivian on page 764.

Number 12 (December)

LNER A2/3 4-6-2 No.60500 Edward Thompson awaits the 'right away' from St. Neots with a train for King's Cross on 31 May 1962. Alan Tyson. front cover
See also same locomotive and train leaving St Neots on page 721

A traveller's tales. Michael Blakemore. 707.
The joy of refreshments on Eurostar services between St Pancras and Lille. The excessive number of announcements and criticism of arriving "into Doncaster" on what used to be Britain's best mainline.

Diesel Work at Swindon. Paul Joyce (phot.). 708-9.
Colour photo-feature: Hymek diesel hydraulic locomotive No. D7015 outside Workss in 1960s; D95XX Type 14 nearing completion in 1964/5 inside Works; Class 08 No. 08 656 in W"orks under repair in 1981; Class 101 DMU under repair; and Class 03 diesel-mechanical shunter under repair possibly for NCB.

Nisbet, Alistair F. Tay Bridge Disaster and the Press. 710-16.
28 December 1879. Reaction to the disaster as expressed in Dundee newspapers: The Advertiser owned by John Leng and The Courier & Argus owned by D.C. Thomson. The accident took place on a Sunday and travel on that day was regarded as Sabbath breaking and some newspapers were highly judgemental implying that the disaster demonstrated the anger of the Almighty. The views of the Reverend Dr Begg of Edinburgh were reported in the St. Andrews Gazette and were reflected in The Christian Herald, but far less severely in The Christian News of 10 January. The Press also reacted to the Board of Trade's railway inspectorate as Major-General Hutchinson had inspected the bridge prior to its opening and both he and Major Marindin had been sent north to investigate, but Henry Law was commissioned to examine the remains. There was a considerable contemporary correspondeence in the newspapers including The Times. See also letters in Vol. 24 page 125 from Nick Daunt (on Julius Caesar) and from John Macnab (latter on Sabbath breaking). Sequence on page 302 of Volume 24..

Sinclair, Neil T.  A Christmas journey in 1904. 717-19.
Journey made by Malcolm Blane from Stone House School in Broadstairs to Nairn with a break of journey in London, before travelling overnight from Euston. This should have been on the following evening, but due to fog it was not possible to reach Euston station and departure had to be posponed until the evening of 23 December. The rolling stock for the train was late in arrival and departure was about an hour behind schedule due to fog, which was very thick as far as Willesden. The traveller noted a Great Central Railway pass above the train as it approached Rugby. After Atherstone he slept until near Perth, but remembered Crewe, Carlisle and Beattock which he associated with "for Moffat", but which was dark and cold in the December night. As arrival was nearly two hours late the connecting train for Inverness had left, but the Highland Railway provided a locomotive for the three through coaches which ran as a special only stopping at Pitlochrie, Kingussie and Aviemore. The train regained about 45 minutes and ran through snow-covered mountains in sunshine.
The Christmas/New Year festivities included a party shared with the William Whitelaw family at their house Monkland. The return journey on 20 January 1905 was made over the Highland line to Perth thence over the Forth Bridge. The crossing was of considerable interest to Malcolm as he had seen the structure from one of the ferries during the previous summer when on holiday in Edinburgh. The overnight journey to King's Cross was accomplished in deep sleep. The account is based on Volume 7 of the Diaries of Malcolm Gilbert Stewart Blane held in the Highland Council Archives. See also letter from Michael Hardy in Volume 24 page 189 who notes that Malcolm Blane was killed during WW1 and that there are references to a talk given by him at the Railway Club (Rly Mag., .January 1914) and an obituary in Locomotive Mag., 1915, 15 October).

In praise of famous men. 720-1.
Colour photo-feature: A4 No. 60007 Sir Nigel Gresley on Grantham shed (Derek Penney); Ivatt modified Duchess class Pacific No. 46256 Sir William A. Stanier F.R.S. in crimson lake livery in Carlisle Citadel (Gavin Wilson); No. 60500 Edward Thompson leaving St Neots with a stopping train for King's Cross on 31 May 1962 (Alan Tyson) see also front cover; Castle class No. 7017 G.J. Churchward at Old Oak Common in October 1962 (A.C. Sterndale).

Wells, Jeffrey. Thanet's Railways. 722-9.
The railways in Thanet had been created by the unfettered competition between the London Chatham & Dover Railway and the South Eastern Railway and this led to duplicate lines between Ramsgate and Margate and the lack of adequate passenger fascilities in both towns. The South Eastern & Chatham Railway started to rationalise and improve the stations at Margate, and the Southern Railway completed this task in 1926 by building a new station in Ramsgate and connecting the two formerly competing lines thereat. See also letter in next Volume on page 189 from from John Duddington which notes former SER track in Margate still in use for stabling stock until early 1960s and lack of tramway connection to new Ramsgate station as distinct from old SER station...

Hennessey, R.A.S. The meta motors: a lost railway technology. Part 2. 730-5.
Part 1 see page 612. Design of CC1 and CC2 by the Southern Railway by Oliver Bulleid and Alfred Raworth. They were designed to be able to work within the limited Hastings line gauge. They were fitted with motor-generators (Metamotors) with flywheel boosters to enable them to traverse gaps in the conductor rail. Bastian & Allen horizontal boilers were fitted to provide steam heasting for passenger trains. CC3 incorporated modifications introduced by C.M. Cock including a degree of field weakening. The locomotives could not cope with the higher voltage (750V dc) adopted for the Kent Coast electrification and were limited to the Central Division and were withdrawn in 1968/9. Further locomotives, the Class 71 Bo-Bo type, were built for the Kent Coaast electrification. These retained the motor-generator principal, but added a considerable amount of Swiss practice especially that from Berne Lötschberg-Simplon Bo-Bo Class Ae4/4 machines manufactured by SLM. The application of the sophisticated Metadyne by London Transport led to a system where acceleration and deceleration was achieved smoothly, but at the cost of added weight and this was abandoned from 1955. The system was probably invented in Italy by J. Pestarini. Split phase traction was developed by a Hungarian Kálman von Kandó of Ganz. The system was initially adopted by American coal haulage companies. Illus.: Umformer lokomotive 1-E-1 Austrian State Railway (single phase 15kV 16.6Hz converted to three-phase AC, Kandó split phase locomorive No. 1470.001 with Kandó in the picture; Anglo-Hungarian Festival of Inauguration on 24 July 1925 with MAV Kandó 1-D-1 about to leave Budapest for Gyor;  p. 732 lower Metadyne unit at "Moorgate" (see letter from Michael J. Smith which suggests Ealing Common depot); .

At Doncaster. 736-8.
Colour photo-feature; A2 No. 60533 Happy Knight in May 1956 (Trevor Owen): WD Austerity 2-8-0 No. 90001 (see Editorial correction 24, p. 125) with express headlamps on breakdown crane heading north in August 1961; new A1 No. 60129 in dark blue livery in June 1949 (H.M. Lane); ex-Works B1 No. 61119 in August 1961 (John C. Hart); J50 No. 68965 in September 1959 (J.C.B. Sanderson); O2/2 No. 63943 (with Great Northern cab and group standard tender) ex-Works in June 1962 (J. Davenport); and A1 No. 60156 Great Central ex-Works in July 1961 (Trevor Owen). 

The boat train. 739.
Colour photo-feature: No. 34072 257 Squadron on down Cunarder near Earlsfield in September 1964 (Derek Penney); Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76040 with corridor stock on boat train for Tilbury (J. Mitchell); and rebuilt West Country No. 34031 Torrington on 10.35 ex-Waterloo passing Vauxhall on Union Castle Express on 9 April 1964 (David Idle):

Baker, Allan C. and Fell, Mike G. Thomas Weatherburn Dodds. Part 1. 740-5.
Article opens with a criticism of two main sources for locomotive history of North Staffordshire Railway, namely those by J.R. Hollick (Manifold) and by Christiansen and Miller which both perpetrate a calumny that Thomas Weatherburn Dodds was in some way less than professional in introducing his father's (Isaac Dodds) wedge motion to the North Staffordshire Railway.

On the Somerset & Dorset. 746-7.
Colour photo-feature: Br Class 4 4-6-0 No. 75071 entering Radstock North with 15.20 Bath to Templecombe train in October 1963 (P.A. Fry); 3F 0-6-0T No. 47276 shunting at Midsomer Norton in August 1964; 4F 0-6-0 No. 44557 with train of Maunsell stock at Stalbridge in August 1960 (C.R. Gordon-Stuart); 9F No. 92220 Evening Star crossing Cole Viaduct with 15.40 Bournemouth to Bath; 8F 2-8-0 No. 48309 climbing through Midsomer Norton South with coal train. 

Rutherford, Michael. Travelling through. Part 2. (Railway Reflections No. 157). 748-55.
The transfer of family and invalid saloons between railway administrations must seem quaint to the contemporary reader who is expected to cross such places as Warrington to change from the East Midlands franchise to Virgin territory. The pains of mid-Victorian travel are listed: poor permanent way; poor signalling, brakes manually operated; all passenger vehicles were four-wheelers (as per Pacers); luggage was a major subject for discussion and lighting was primitive. Co-operation between adjacent administrations led to the development of the magnificent joint stock on the three main Anglo-Scottish routes. It also led to trains like the 07.50 from Perth to Inverness including three through carriages from England, three private family saloons, two private carriage trucks and 13 horseboxes. Illus.: Cardiff to Newcastle express formed of Great Central Railway rolling stock and hauled by GWR Bulldog 4-4-0 passing Hook Norton station; large Ivatt Atlantic No. 279 hauling Special Scotch Express (Flying Scotsman) past Hadley Wood (colour: "F. Moore"); LYR Barton Wright 4-4-0 No. 902 at south end of York station; NER V Class Atlantic No. 898 with through Newcastle to Liverpool express on Wiske Moor troughs (colour: "F. Moore");  .

Gilks, David. Masonry, munitions and myth. 756-61.
Stone quarrying for Bath stone in and around Box and Corsham adjacent to the Great Western Railway's Box Tunnel where stone has been quarried since Roman times, although the discovery of further excellent Bath stone during the digging of Box Tunnel led to an expamsion of quarrying especially near Corsham. Randall and Saunders were major quarry owners in Corsham. The underground workings took on a strategic role during WW1 and WW2 when explosives were stored in the former workings and this role continued into the Cold War period. During the Second World War Spring Quarry became an underground factory for the manufacture of Bristol Aeroplane aircraft engines and BSA gun barrels. There are maps of the quarry railways. The citations are weak on mainstream railway-related literature notably that on Brunel's Box Tunnel. Illus. maintenance men outside Box Tunnel c1900?; Corsham goods yard with dumb buffer wagons, three horses on stone narrow gauge tramway; unloading ammunition at Farleigh Down sidings in 1943 and Central Ammuntion Depot sidings at Thingley in 1959.. See additional information from David Pollard in letter in Volume 24 page 125..

King of 'Kings'. 762.
Colour photo-feature: No. 6000 King George V with souvenir bell from its visit to America in 1927: passing though Reading station with up express No. 600 in August 1947 (H.N. James); at Old Oak Common coaling stage in April 1962 (C.R. Gordon-Stuart), and as preserved with preversed set of Pullman cars in blue and cream livery near Pilning en route from Bulmer's at Hereford to Birmingham on 2 October 1971 (J.S. Gilks).:

Readers' Forum. 764.
Back cover – November Issue. Barney Trevivian.
See back covers of Issues for October (repeated in November: Oh how easy it is to make that mistake with machine-readable documents) and for what should have been there this Issue)
Eulogy for the 4-SUBs. Nick Stanbury
See feature on page 338 et seq: delights of seaside excursions from Fulwell to Littlehampton or Bognor with long stops at Epsom on return journeys for relief of crews and passengers.
Eulogy for the 4-SUBs. Charles Long.
See feature on page 338 et seq: sets were not allocated to specific depots for most of time units were in service.
'Schools' days. Julian Bowden-Green.
See caption to bottom photograph on page 675: argues that must have been No. 30915 Brighton as No. 30919 Harrow never received BR green livery nor Lemaitre chimney.
Departmental coaches. Malcolm Brown.
See picture of vehicle No. 040871 on page 700: caption notes that "two preserved", but one was partially destroyed whilst at Carnforth, although frame is being used for construction of petrol electric railcar.
A sense of belonging. Nick Stanbury
See Editorial on page 643 on apostacy of apostrophe.

Index to Volume 23. 765.

Cold morning on the Midland. Mike Kinder. rear cover.
WD Austerity 2-8-0 passing Royston shed with Class 7 freight in low sun of a cold January day in 1967.