The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 29 (1923)

Key file to all issues of Locomotive Magazine

Number 365 (15 January 1923)

Four-cylinder tank locomotive, North Staffordshire Ry. 1-4. illustration, 3 diagrams (including side & front elevations)
John A. Hookham, Locomotive Engineer. Cranks set an angle of 135°. Cites Holcroft's paper oon four-cylinder locomotives

Rebuilt tank engine, Great Western Railway. 4. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
0-4-2T No. 1421 rebuilt with Belpaire domeless boiler with safety valve on centre, Cylinders were 14½ x 24; total heating surface 908.93ft2; grate area 14.70ft2; and 165 psi working pressure. Employed on Cardiff Railway rail motor service between Cardiff and Rhydyfelin. Information provided by C.B. Collett.

New compound locomotives, Type 8 Bis, Belgian  State Rys. 5-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Four-cylinder compound 4-6-0 design of de Glehn/du Bousquet type: orders spread over most Belgian manuufacturers

Indian notes. 6.
IRCA meeting at Simla from 9 October under Presidency of Brig.General Magniac (Madras & S.M. Rly). Aims automatic vacuum brake on all freight trains from 1 April 1924, approve rubber springs for draw gear etc, proposed automatic couplers for freight wagons and pooling of wagons on broad gauge lines.

New light lines consolidation locomotive, Victorian Rys. 7. illustration
2-8-0 designed for lines with 60lb rails and sharp curves, such as the Tallangatta to Cudgewa line designed by A.E. Smith, chief mechanical engineer and built at the Newport workshops.

Travelling cranes for railway service. 7-10. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams

An eighty year old locomotive. 10. illustration
Lion in situ as a pumping engine at Princes Dock, Liverpool, Dimensions obtained from W. Hughes, late L&YR Southport with access provided via Thomas M. Newell, eengineer of the Mersey Docks & Harbours Board.

An amalgamation proposal of 1852. 11
It is not, perhaps, generally known that so far back as November, 1852, it was then proposed to amalgamate the L. & N.W. and Midland Rys. At meetings held by these companies in that month, it was resolved to effect an amalgamation between them on the following terms :--" That the relative values of the two undertakings be ascertained and fixed by three referees of high standing, that their decision be given after the passing of the Act of Amalgamation; but in case the first application to Parliament fails, further application shall be made in the following and ensuing session. It shall, however, be competent. for either Company to call upon the referees to fix the relative value of the two undertakings, such values not to be in any case fixed until after the 31st of December, 1853." At this time L. & N.W.R. £100 stock stood at 124½, whilst the same amount of Midland marked 79 only. During the same month, three other lines also resolved on amalgamation, namely, the York and North Midland, Leeds Northern, and York, Newcastle and Berwick. The stock of the first and third of these stood at 61 and 76½ respectively. Thus, seventy years after finds two of our greatest companies not only amalgamated, but themselves part of a huge combination, and it is almost a pity that the old initials of the chief line in it are not to remain to cover the whole, as they are almost as much a national institution as, say, penny postage. And, ironically enough, the Eastern lines have adopted an almost similar designation, the initials L. & N.E.R.

London & North-Eastern Ry. 11.
Early last month a train was on view at King's Cross terminus made up of freshly- painted bogie carriages belonging to each of the constituent railways forming the Eastern group. Vehicles were sent by the Great North of Scotland, North British, North-Eastern, Great Central, Great Eastern and Great Northern Rys. for the inspection of the directors with a view to selecting a livery for the coaching stock of the new Company. The new North-Eastern Ry. Pacific type engine No. 2400, and the electric passenger loco. No. 13 were also on view together at York Station a week or so later with locomotives from each of the railways in the group, in the pre-war colours.

London & North Western Ry. 11
The series of 0-8-0 superheater goods engines (G2 class), which was referred to on page 290 of the October LOCOMOTIVE, is now in service, numbered 758, 1012, 2414, 2429, 2517, 231, 308, 403, 2178 and 13. The latter takes the place of the four-cylinder Claughton class engine Vindictive, which has been renumbered 2430.
No. 1950 Victorious was the latest four-cylinder compound passenger engine to be converted to Renown class (two-cylinder simple). A similar engine, No. 1976 Lady Godiva had been broken-up, and the remainder, it is understood, are to follow as they require heavy repairs; as are also the Renowns.
The following 4-4-0 Precursor class engines had been converted to George the Fifth class :-Nos. 1737 Viscount, 1309 Shamrock, 374 Empress and 990 Bucephalus. The 2-8-0 F class four-cylinder compound mineral engine, No. 2114, had been converted to simple as 0-8-0 G1 class. No. 1898, B class compound, had also been converted to G1 class.
The 6 ft. 6 in. 2-4-0 Precedents, Nos. 308, 403, 2178, 380 and 1677 had been broken-up. Others of the same type, including No. 1189, had been withdrawn for scrapping

G. Willans, Locomotive feed-water heating and boiler feeding. 11-13. 3 diagrams
Westinghouse locomotive feed pump based to great extent on brake pump supplied by Westinghouse of America; the Knorr system also exploitd brake pump technology. The Worthington-Simpson was a development of the McBride system. Moves on to the injector-type feed-water heaters.

Great Northern Ry. 13,
Twenty 0-6-0T tank engines were in hand at Doncaster to be Nos. 221-240. A third Pacific was also in hand. Several 4-4-2T tannk engines from the London area were having rhe condensing apparatus removed and higher chimneys and domes fitted: Nos. 1528 and 1533 were amongst those modified.

A.R. Bennett. The chronicles of Boulton's Siding. Chapter XIX. Conclusion. 13-17. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side elevtion & section)
The illustration is a photograph of Boulton's Yard at Ashton-under-Lyne taken in 1869 in which are grouped several of the engines noticed in the preceding chapters. The boilers to the left and right are those of the two Netley Burys: the two engines behind the left-hand boiler are Wotton before rebuilding, and Bristol. The tender in the foreground is that ascribed to Firefly, and in front of it is lying part of Ophir's leading axle, which was broken as she was being unloaded on arrival at Ashton. Behind the tender are Lady of the Lakes and Pugsy. To the right of the tender is Queen of the Forest and one of the Liverpool and Manchester engines before rebuilding.
Here and there in I.W. Boulton's voluminous diaries occur notes which, although not concerned with the building, buying or selling of locomotives, are yet sometimes of interest to the railway historian, and it is proposed to transcribe a few of them here.
April, 1860. They are making goods engines at Wolverton to work at 150 lb. pressure.
13th June, 1860. Engineman John Thomas, M.S. and L.R., Gorton, left Manchester 7-50 a.m. to Lincoln with passenger special; then to Retford empty; then to Barnsley with goods; to Lincoln empty; to Manchester with twenty-two coaches. Arrived 11-0 p.m.; finished at Gorton 12-0 midnight. Went out again at 3-45 a.m. on 14th.
John Thomas was evidently one of the sturdy old brigaders; to-day it would take about four men,
The main diagram is of Sir Benjamin Baker's Fowler's Ghost of the Metropolitan Railway.

Note. 17
Re the L. & N. W. Ry. engine No. 1129, of doubtful identity mentioned in the November number, a Crewe correspondent has been good enough to write: 1129 was without doubt old No. 2 of the Birkenhead and Chester Ry., No. 2 Zopyrus, 2-4-0 side-tank: 5 ft. 3 in., 14 in. by 20 in. : R. Stephenson & Co., 1857, makers' number 1082 : taken over by N.W.R., 20th November, 1860 re-numbered 404 and name retained: re-numbered 1129 in January, 1865: (when it was replaced by a 6-ft. 2-4-0 curved link passenger engine which took the same number and name) and sold to Boulton, March, 1866." There is, however, reason to believe that Zopyrus was an inside-cylinder engine, while Boulton describes his purchase as an outside.

Great Eastern Ry. 17
New goods engines up to No. 1294 were completed at Stratford during December. A further series of ten 4-6-0 express engines was in hand.

London & South-Western Ry. 17
No. 751 was the latest addition to the series of 4-6-0 express engines.

Somerset & Dorset Ry. 17
New 0-6-0 goods engines built recently by Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. were numbered 57 to 61. Old No. 57 engine was now No. 34.

Great Western Ry. 17
Another ten four-cylinder 4-6-0 express engines of the Abbey class would shortly be in service. The first two had left Swindon, these are No. 4063 Bath Abbey and 4064 Reading Abbey. These engines were provided with hollow crank axles.

Our supplement. The Great Northern Railway's 4-2-2 express engine, No. 215. 17-18 [Supplement not held and not  yet seen]
As our coloured supplement this month we illustrate the powerful express locomotive built to the designs of the A. Sturrock, so long ago as 1853, and which was many years in advance of its time, so much so that the machine was not given a chance to show her capabilities and remained the sole example of the type. The Great Northern main line was opened direct to London (King's Cross) in 1850 and No. 215 was designed with the idea of making it possible to reach Edinburgh from London in eight hours, making non-stop runs between London and Grantham, and also Grantham and York, and for this purpose she was provided with a tender of large capacity. However, the absence cif competition and no demand by travellers for this facility until many years later caused this idea to be abandoned, and Sturrock reverted to building engines of more moderate power. This engine was ordered from R. & W. Hawthorn, the predecessors of the present well-known firm of R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., of Forth Banks Works, Newcastle-on Tyne, in August, 1852, and delivered to the Railway Company in 1853, the makers' number being No. 821. The design bore marked traces of her creator's early experience under Daniel Gooch in the Great Western Works at Swindon. Of the outstanding features the most notable was the very large heating surface, especially of the firebox, which ~ was not equalled on the G.N. until the introduction of the large Altantics (251 class) nearly fifty years later.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. 18-21. 3 diagrams

Questions and answers. No. 29—How is the diameter of the chimney of a locomotive calculated? 20; 22-3.
Goss of Purdue University's experiments on blast pipe, smokebox and chimney dimensions; also von Borries and Troske in Germany.

Pressing bushes into coupling rods. 23. illustration
Niles Bennett Pond Co. 50 ton bushing press in the shops of the Atlantic Coast Line RR

Correspondence. 23

Another Indian Railway Man.
Anonymous correspondent referring back to anonymous correspodent in October Issue stating that accident occurred whilst descending Ghaut inclines and was due to partial braking of freight vehicles and sodden track.

[Appointments in India]. 23
A.E. Pearse, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, North Western State Railway appointed Locomotivet, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, Oude & Rohilkhand Railway. H.J. Charlton appointed Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, North West State Railway. A.J. Chase formerly with Oude & Rohilkhand Railway appointed chief mechanical engineer Railway Board

Tank locomotive for the West Cannock Colliery. 24. 2 illustrations
W.G. Bagnall Ltd. 0-6-0ST with 17 x 24in outside cylinders activated by Walschaerts valve gear with a boiler heating surface of 855ft2 and a grate area of 15ft2. It was named Topham. The second illustration shows it alongside two other Bagnall saddle tanks: a smaller 0-6-0ST for West Cannock Colliery, and a much  smalloer one for Pauling & Co., the contractors for Kilindini,

Steel sleeping cars for the International Sleeping Car Co. 25-7. illustration
Forty cars built by Leeds Forge with couplings, gangways and braking capable of joining to a wide variety of vehicles and both steam heating from a locomotive and an independent  coal-fired boiler. Constructed under supervision of Jault, Agent for the Company. These cars are working regularly on the train which runs direct from Calais to the Italian Riviera frontier via Marseilles in connection with the 11 a.m. boat train from Victoria. The train is known in France as the Train Bleu..

Reviews. 27

Mechanical testing. Vol. II. R.G. Batson and J.H. Hyde. London: Chapman & Hall. 446 pages, 313 illustrations.
This is the second volume of the excellent work, of which the first volume was reviewed in our September issue. Vol. II. deals with absorption and transmission dynamometers, the testing of gears, springs, and bearings, mechanical testing of lubricants, vibration tests in structures, static and dynamic balance, concrete slabs and beams, columns and struts, cutting tools and many miscellaneous tests.
Space will allow us to notice only those portions which are of direct interest to locomotive and rolling stock engineers. About twenty pages are devoted to railway dynamometer cars, in which full descriptions with illustrations are given of the latest cars on the Lancashire & Yorkshire and Swiss State Railways. In the former the dynamometer springs are of the compound type, one for the pull and the other for the push, and each spring is made of a number of independent plates separated from one another. The work integrator and inertia ergometer are fully described with the mathematical principles underlying them. The Swiss car is of an entirely different type, in which a hydraulic dynamometer is employed, since, for the capacity required, a spring dynamometer would have been cumbersome and have increased the difficulties of examination and recalibration necessary at regular periods. The authors point out that draw-bar dynamometers which depend for their action on the extension or compression of a helical spring are by no means satisfactory, even when the spring is heavily damped. In this connection we may point out that the old four-wheeled car of the L. & Y.R., with which Sir John Aspinall made his celebrated experiments on "Train Resistance" in 1899-1900, was fitted with two spiral dynamometer springs, and that Hughes in the new eight-wheeled bogie car has abandoned these for the separated plate springs mentioned above. The ordinary form of laminated spring, as used on locomotives and carriages, is not suitable as a measuring spring owing to the hysteresis action set up by the friction between the plates.
Prof. Dalby's experiments on laminated locomotive springs are described, together with the rougher commercial tests made on scragging machines.
Much useful information is contained in the chapters deaiing with the mechanical testing of lubricants, and friction tests on bearings. Vibration tests on springs and lock-nuts are described. In the latter tests two lock-nuts of each kind were used, and the number of vibrations necessary to produce slackness in each was observed and taken as a measure of their efficiency.
In the chapter on Static and Dynamic Balance we should like to have seen a description of Churchward's locomotive wheel balancing machine in use at Swindon and Doncaster. This machine might with advantage be described in a future edition. The chapter on Measurement of Movements and Stresses chiefly concerns the bridge engineer, but there is much of great value in it for the locomotive engineer in regard to the effect of badly balanced locomotive driving wheels. Other features of interest in the book include the testing of pressure gauges, and impact tests on railway screw couplings. A chapter on Tests of Cutting Tools is of interest to the works manager. The book is a valuable mine of information, and we can heartily recommend it. The numerous illustrations are extremely clear.

Railway signalling, automatic. F. Raynar Wilson. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.
This primer deals concisely with the different methods adopted by railways and signal firms to provide safe and efficient automatic signalling. Written as simply as possible, typical examples of the different phases of automatic signalling and track circuit have been selected. The salient features of the apparatus are briefly outlined, followed by explanations of the application of the different methods with the latest developments, without entering into lengthy descriptions of each piece.

"Patent" smokeless and semi-smokeless fuels. J. Arthur Greene and F. Mollwo Perkin.. London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd.
This little book is one of Pitman's " Common Commodities and Industries" Series. In simple language it gives a general idea of some of the many processes of making the so-called "Patent," "Smokeless" and" Semi-Smokeless" fuels, and includes a complete description of a modern coal-washing, drying and briquette-making factory. A novel installation illustrated is in successful operation on one of the Argentine railways; it is a travelling plant for making ovoid briquettes for locomotive purposes from waste small coal, cinders from smoke and fireboxes, etc. Smoke abatement is also dealt with in one of the chapters. The second section is intended to assist the scientific reader in the technical details of the carbonization of coal by various patterns of retorts.

Who's Who in Engineering. 3rd Edition. London: John E. Sears, Junr.
The new edition of this well-known book of reference has grown to a volume of 1,200 pages. The work entailed in collecting the material in the biographical section alone will be appreciated from the fact that there are now over 8,000 names included. It forms a unique record of the position and interests of our engineers, and should be extremely useful to manufacturers and traders having dealings with the profession. Much information not usually found in books of reference has been included in the present edition relative to current engineering topics, standard specifications, etc., etc.

Great Northern Ry. 28
Contracts have been placed for the widening of the main line between Ouse signal box and Huntingdon with Messrs. Logan & Hemingway, of Doncaster, for the excavating and general work, while the steel work for the bridges, including one of three spans over the River Ouse, goes to Sir William Arrol & Co., Ltd., of Glasgow. This work is in connection with the widening of the line between Peterborough and London and providing four lines of way throughout. A contract has also been placed with Messrs. Symington, Son & Co., of Glasgow, for clearing the disused gas works site adjacent to King's Cross terminus. It is intended to provide new engine sidings and a large turntable with coaling plant on the cleared area. The present locomotive depot will then be available for providing two additional platforms for suburban traffic.

[Railway electrification]. 28
Arrangements have been made by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., and the British Thomson-Houston and Co., Ltd., of Rugby, with the object of undertaking jointly the complete electrification of railways and the manufacture of electric locomotives and rolling stock. To those who have watched the recent trend of railway developments this announcement will occasion no great surprise, as the Directors of. the great armament firm have already shown that they are prepared to extend their activities to all the important branches of engineering industry. The locomotives and rolling stock will be constructed at Messrs. Armstrong's Scotswood Works. The output of steam locomotives from these works is now 450 a year. The British Thomson-Houston Co., Ltd., will be able to provide all the electrical equipment and machinery required, not only for the locomotives and rolling stock, but for the power stations and sub-stations as well.

Scale Models.Messrs. Bassett-Lowke, Ltd., Northampton. 28
152-page catalogue (Section B), devoted to stationary engines, dynamos, working models, engine and boiler fittings, castings and all requisites for making model railway engines. Prices have been reduced and in the castings section a number of new patterns have been added. Injectors are now added, and they are made in two sizes. Reference should be made to this firm's Oracle wireless set, which is claimed to be one of the most reliable on the market.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 28
Meetings announced: London Centre--The Engineers' Club, Coventry Street, W.1, on 25 Jan. The internal combustion locomotive for railway work, paper by J S. Tritton. On 22 Feb. Training of apprentices, by W.S. Edwards. Leeds Centre 16 Feb. South African Rys. and rolling stock, by H. Kelway Bamber, Manchester Centre- College of Technology, Sackville Street, 2 Feb. The theory and practice of steam jet instruments," by J.W Gresham. Glasgow Centre-Royal Technical College, George Street, 18 Jan. two best papers on Locomotive design from the points of view of shop production and maintenance, by Graduates. 15 Feb. Special steels, by Prof. J.H. Andrew, D.Sc.

Locomotive Magazine Souvenir No. 28. Locomotives built by Messrs. Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co., Ltd., Kilmarnock. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd. Price 6s.
Containing thirty-two sepia collotype prints of interesting engines built by this firm, this souvenir forms a record of their varied experience in modern locomotive building. Narrow-gauge tank engines, to burn coal, oil or wood fuel are represented by examples for Chili, Persia, Egypt, India, New Zealand, Greece, Burmah, Spain and South Africa. Articulated locomotives are illustrated by engines for India and Tasmania. Two curious tank locos. with separate tenders for Cuba and Peru are included as well as two examples of standard gauge combined crane locos. British practice is represented by standard gauge engines .for the Alexandra and Newport Docks and Railway (now G.W.Ry.), Waterford and Tramore Ry., Port of London Authority, Portsmouth Harbour, and the Llanelly and Mynydd Mawr Ry. Other engines illustrated are for the New South Wales Government Rys. and the Buenos Ayres Western Ry. and for various collieries and contractors. Fireless locomotives built for the Naval Cordite Factory and the Ministry of Munitions are also shown. Beneath each plate full dimensions and particulars are given.

Number 366 (15 February 1923)

Recent locomotives for the Java railways. 29-30. 2 illustrations
Beyer Peacock mixed traffic 4-6-0 (No. 397 illustrated) with Belpaire firebox; 827ft2 total evapourative heating surface; 306ft2; 19.37ft2 grate area; and 180 psi working pressure for the Netherlands Indies Railway and American Locomotive Company 2-8-8-2 compound Mallet for the Java State Railways.

The Jubilee of the Metropolitan Railway. 31-2. illustration
Diamond Jubilee. Brief history of the railway; note of special publication. Illustration of Beyer Peacock 4-4-0T and train on mixed gauge tracks at Hammersmith in the 1860s

Mersey Docks and Harbour Board. 32
We now learn from an authoritative source that there is no doubt whatever that the old locomotive illustrated on page 10 of our January issue was a Liverpool and Manchester Ry. engine, No. 57 Lion built in 1838 by Todd, Kitson & Laird. It was taken over, with other stock, by the Grand Junction Ry. in August, 1845, and the engine became at a later date No. 116, London and North Western Ry. It was sold in May, 1859, to the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board.

L & N.E.Ry.–Great Central Sectlon. 32
The first engines to leave Gorton shops with the initials of the new Company were No. 503 Somme, one of the new Director class, and No. 474, a new four-cylinder 4-6-0 goods engine. The initials L & N.E.R were painted in large characters on the tenders with the number beneath. The first six of the new 4-6-2 tanks which are now being built will bear Nos. 3, 6, 7, 30, 45, 46. They are to have two sliding side windows at each side of tlie cab.

Great Northern Section. 32
One of the 2-8-0 mineral engines, with new lettering on the tender L. & N.E.R., Xo. 482, was in service.

County Donegal Rys. Joint Committee. 32
G.T. Clover, locomotive carriage and wagon superintendent of the Great Northern Ry of Ireland, has been also appointed to take charge of the locomotive department of the County Donegal Railways, in place of R.M. Livesey, who resigned a few months back to take an engineering appointment in India.

Rail motor car, Victoria Rys. 33-4. illustration
Supplied by Associated Equipment Company

Oil-driven locomotives for Gold Coast Colony. 34-5. illustration
McEwan Pratt & Co. of Burton-on-Trent with 38-40 hp petrol engine or 10% less if paraffin used.

Narrow gauge locomotives for the Burma Mines Railway. 35. illustration
Three W.G. Bagnall 2-6-2 2ft gauge locomotives capable of operating on 1 in 25 gradients.

Barry Railway. 36-9. 5 illustrations

Railways in industrial plants. 39-42. illustration. 3 diagrams
Considers all forms of motive power with steam as the norm, including fireless; electricity including battery; internal combustion including petrol-electric and compressed air.

Questions and answers. No. 30.. 42-3.
Diameter of bogie and pony truck wheels, noting that it tended to be less in North America

Travelling cranes for railway service. 43-4. 4 diagrams.
Locomotive jib cranes

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Glasgow and South Western Railway.46-8. 4 illustrations
See also letter from William Gow page 156

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section A. Locomotives and tenders. 48-52. 4 diagrams, table

Reconstructed four-cylinder express locomotive—London, Midland and Scottish Railway (G. & S.W. Ry. Division). 52-3.  + Supplement (illustratiion), diagram (side elevation)

Southern Ry. (Brighton Section). 20-ton goods brake. 57-8. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations & plan)
Lettered "LBSC" with number 43: to design of A.H. Panter, carriage & wagon superintendent and built at Lancing Works.

New Bombay-Poona Mail train, Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 58-60, diagram (side elevation and plan)
Luxury train built at the Matunga shops of the GIPR and conveying 1st and 2nd class passengers only with provision for their servants in part of the brake van.

Obituary. 60.
James Watt Boulton who died on 14 January 1923 at his residence at Cheadle. He was the fourth son of Alderman I.W. Boulton, J.P; of Ashton-under-Lyne, the well-known engineer and propnetor of Boulton's Siding, and was born at Marple in 1859. He was educated at Harrow, afterwards becoming apprenticed to his father at the Ashton Works, where he remained in different capacities, ultimately having charge of one of the shops, until the dissolution of the firm. Subsequently he held several engineering appointments, but of late years was in business as a consulting enzineer at Cheadle on his own account. Boulton held several patents, the most noteworthy of which was one for tapered cross tubes for vertical boilers and another for axle-boxes for goods' trucks. It was chiefly from photographs, drawings and particulars furnished by Mr. Boulton that the Chronicles of Boulton's Siding concluded in our last issue, on the day following Mr.. Boultori's death, were written. Of an extremely genial disposition, Mr. Boulton was widely respected and will be missed by many friends. He leaves a wife and daughter to lament his loss.

Reviews. 60

Discoveries and inventions of the twenieth century. Edward Cressy. Geo. Routledge & Sons, Ltd.
For this revised edition. the greater part of the book has been re-written. During the war [WW1] progress in discovery and invention has been so extraordinarily rapid that the task of rendering it intelligible to the average reader in a single volume, has been a formidable one. The author is to be congratulated on the way he has dealt with the main features of development over a wide field of modern scientific triumphs by non-technical explanations. Chapters are devoted to the revival of water power, economy in the use of fuel, modern steam engines, gas, oil and petrol engines, and the generation and distribution of electricity. These are followed by sections on electric lighting and heating, new processes in the manufacture and treatment of steel, some typical modern devices in the workshop, and the number of manufacturing processes which have their oril?in in the electric furnaces. The artificial production of ice, cold storage and the liquefaction of gases are then described. The contents of the book are too numerous to give in detail, but mention should be made of the chapter on the Improvement of transport and communication. This portion has been but little altered, and some of the locomotive information is somewhat out of date. It is to be regretted, too, that although the book is profusely illustrated, no British locomotives are shown. A section on railway signalling includes cab signalling, and the latest developments in automatic signalling, as well as the railophone system, The chapter on electric traction is interesting, and that on some of the achievements of modern chemistry is new.

Uniflow Model Steam Engine. 60
hown by the Jackson-Rigby Engineering Co., Ltd. of Station Road, Shalford, near Guildford, at the" Model Engineer" Exhibition last month attracted a considerable amount of attention. The twin-cylinder model  makes an excellent little stationary engine for direct dynamo-driving. The Uniflow principle employed makes the engine economical in steam consumption, whilst the use of poppet valves, side exhaust and a high compression allows them to be worked continuously at speeds far above that obtainable from any ordinary slide valve engine.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers.60
The next meetings announced are as follows :-London Centre, 22nd Feb. Training of Apprentices, paper by E, S, Edwards, of Stafford, Leeds, 16th Feb. South African Rys. and Rolling Stock, by H, Kelway Bamber, M,V,O,; 16th March, Locomotive Running Repairs, by J. E. Mercer, Dundalk. Manchester, 2nd March, Training of Apprentices, by E. S. Edwards. Glasgow, 15th March, Special Steels, by Prof. J. H. Andrew, D,Sc.; 22nd March, The Glasgow Tramways, by Jas. Dalrymple

Number 367 (15 March 1923)

Three-cylinder "Mogul" locomotive, Southern Railway (S.E. & C.R. Section). 61-4. illustration, 5 diagrams. (including side and front/rear elevations), plan, 2 tables.
No. 822 with derived motion for inside cylinder: although Gresley's name is mentioned and the use of derived motion by the Caledonian Railway are mentioned Holcroft's name and patent are not.

The Ljungström turbine-driven locomotive. 67-70. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (sectional side and cross sectional elevations)
!800 hp condensing turbine locomotive: experimental steam turbine propulsion, by brothers Fredrik and Birger Ljungstrom in Sweden.

Railways in industrial plants. 71-3. 4 illustrations, diagram (sectionalised side elevation)
John Cockerill of Seraing vertical boiler 0-4-0 locomotive with 250mm x 260mm outside cylinders and a Field boiler operating at 10 atm. coupled wheels: 615mm; Peckett 0-4-0ST WN 1196 with 3ft 10in coupled wheels, 16 X 24in outside cylinders and 160 psi boiler; Robert Hudson narrow gauge (2ft) well tank with 6½ x 12in cylinders and 180 psi boiler pressure; W.G. Bagnall 3ft gauge 0-4-0ST for a steelworks; Andrew Barclay fireless 0-4-0 with 3ft coupled wheels

Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. 73
Wilsons dummy crank axle tank locomotive No. 530 seen at Crewe: named Windermere when on the Keswick & Windermere Railway; beame No. 67 on the Lancaster & Carlisle Railway; 530A in 1861 and No. 1133 in 1862. Withdrawn about 1864. LNWR locomotive No. 269 short of steam on Ashton Moss: not a DX 0-6-0, but a 2-4-0T formerly an 0-6-0 named Wyre of May 1851

London & North Eastern Ry. — North Eastern Section. 73
5ft 8in 4-6-0 [B16] Nos 2367-79 under construction, with Nos. 2362-69 in service. 15 superheated 0-6-0 were in hand as well as five 0-4-0T for use in docks. Ex-Hull & Barnsley Railway Nos. 3142 and 3143 were overhauled at Darlington and painted in North Eastern Railway colours. The 0-6-0T, 0-6-0 and 2-4-0 designed by William Kirtley of the LCDR and built in 1884-5 were being scapped

The Cheng Tai Railway, China. 76-9. 10 illustrations, map

[North London Ry. services over GNR suburban lines]. 79
New owners (LMS and LNER, respectively) evaluated MR 0-4-4T No. 264 and L&YR 2-4-2T

Locomotives of the London & North Eastern Ry. photographed at Neasden shed, Great Central Section, after being inspected by the Directors at Marylebone terminus on 22 February 1923. 80-1; 82. 5 illustrations, table
Nos. 1534,  No. 876 Waverley, No. 2169, No. 1472 and No. 3 (4-6-2T)

London & North Eastern Ry.  82. table
The table gives the total number of steam locomotives owned by the constituent railways forming the Eastern Group on 1 January 1923: figures given for the NER included engines taken over from the Hull and Barnsley Ry. Divided by Whyte notation with separate tender and tank locomotive listsing
At Marylebone terminus on 22 February 1923 twelve of the latest type locomotives belonging to the principal railways forming the Eastern Group were on exhibition for the directors' inspection with a view to deciding the new standard style of painting. On the track alongside departure platform No. 4 were nine passenger engines, while three goods engines and four bogie carriages were on view at arrival platform No. 1. At the head of the line of passenger engines stood No. 1534 of the Great Eastern section, one of the standard 4-6-0 express passenger engines, painted bright green 'with black bands and white lining, chocolate framing with a-fine vermilion line above the footplate, and black below, with the motion painted vermilion. On the tender were the initials in 6-in. gilt block letters, with the engine number in 12-in. letters underneath. Next came two Atlantics from the North British section (Haymarket Shed, Edinburgh). No. 876 Waverley was painted in the new style, while No. 874 Dunedin the next in the row, was in the old NBR brown livery, but with new lettering. Both engines were rebuilt as superheaters, at Cowlairs, in 1922. Behind these stood No. 1472, the latest Pacific for the Great Northern line, in the new style of painting and lettering. Following were two Z class NER three-cylinder Atlantics, No. 2207 in the new L. & N.E.R. colours and No. 2169 in the old NE style, but with the initials L. and N.E.R. and the engine number on the tender. Three engines from the GCR section completed the row at No. 4 platform. These were No. 449, 4-6-2 superheater tank in the new painting, No. 3, one of the latest of the same class, with side windows to the cab, and No. 503 Somme 4-4-0 Director class express engines painted and lined in the old GCR style, but with the new initials. At platform No. 1 stood No. 2368 of the NE section (S3 class), a 4-6-0 three-cylinder fast goods engine painted black with red lining and the new lettering on the tender, followed by No. 1183 of the GC section, a 2-8-0 mineral engine painted like the NE engine, and No. 474, also GC. section, 4-6-0 four-cylinder fast goods engine painted black with broad vermilion lining edged with fine white lines. The rest of the platform was occupied by four bogie coaches from York, Doncaster and Dukinfield shops. These were finished off in the old GN style with the new trade mark, L. & N.E.R." in various types of lettering.

The "Mackelson" coupling. 82.
New form of automatic coupling. being introduced by G. Turton, Platts & Co., Ltd., of Sheffield. As the result of the inspection of this coupling by officials of the Ministry of Transport and leading railway officers, certain improvements. have been introduced which have greatly assisted the value of the device.

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Glasgow and South Western Railway. 83-5.  3 illustrations, 2 diagrams. (side elevations)
James Stirling 4-4-0 with 18½ x 26in cylinders, 6ft 1¼in coupled wheels, 1065ft2 total heating surface. 24 constructed at Kilmarnock between 1882 and 1885. No. 718 (originally No. 151) illustrated. For many years these worked from Glasgow to Greenock, Ardrossan, Ayr and the Coast. They were known as Wee bogies or Greenock bogies. Many were rebuilt by Whitelegg in 1921-2 with larger boilers (1139ft2 total heating surface). The last Smellie engines were 4-4-0 type, but with 6ft 9½in coupled wheels and a larger firebox (1198ft2 total heating surface) and a 17½ft2 grate. Four engines built in 1887-9 were fitted with a peculiar form of extended smokebox and were given the nickname drummers.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section A. Locomotives and tenders. 86-7. diagram, table

New coaches for the London Underground Railways. 89-90. 3 illustrations
Supplied by Cammell, Laird & Co. (illustrated), Birmingham Carriage & Wagon Co., Gloucester  Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. and Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Co.

Number 368 (14 April 1923)

"Mogul" freight locomotives, Dublin & South Eastern Ry. 93. illustration
2-6-0 supplied to design George H. Wild by Beyer Peacock & Co.

L. & N.E. Ry., Great Northern Section. 93
The Cuffiey Hertford and Stevenage loop line is to be opened throughout for passenger traffic on Monday, 14 May 1923.

L.M. & S. Ry., London & North Western Section. 93
4-6-0 Prince of Wales class engines 964 Bret Harte and 867 Condor, have been fitted with Walschaerts valve gear. The former was stationed at Rugby.

London & North Eastern Ry. 93
It is announced that H.N. Gresley, C.B.E., locomotive engineer of the Great Northern Ry., has been appointed chief mechanical engineer of the L. & N.E.R., with headquarters in London. Further appointments in the Locomotive Dept. of the L. & N.E.R. were: A. C. Stamer, C.B.E., is to be chief assistant mechanical engineer at Darlington; Mr. F. Wintour to be assistant mechanical engineer of the Southern district with headquarters at Doncaster; R.A. Thorn is to be district mechanical engineer at Gorton, and C. W. L. Glaze will hold a similar position at Stratford. In the running depart- ment, Mr. W. G. P. Maclure is to be superintendent of the Southern Area with offices at Liverpool St., London, and J.H. Smeddle becomes running superintendent at York for the North Eastern Area. W.T. Chalmers becomes mechanical engineer for the Southern Scottish Area at Cowlairs, and T.E. Heywood is to have charge of the running department, as well as the mechanical engineers', for the Northern Scottish Area, with offices at Inverurie. O. Bulleid is assistant to the chief mechanical engineer.

4-6-0 tank locomotives, West Clare Railway, Ireland. 94-5. illustration, 2 diagrams. (side & front elevatios), plan.
Includes sectionalized diagrams. Built by Hunslet Engine Co. No. 3 Ennistymon illustrated.

London, Midland and Scottish Ry., Caledonian Section. New 4-6-0 engines for the Oban Line. 96. illustration
Pickersgill Class 191 (No. 191 illustrated)

Metre gauge eight-coupled engines for the Uganda Railway. 96-7.  illustration
Twenty 4-8-0 freight locomotives built by Vulcan Foundry to specification and inspection by Rendel, Palmer & Tritton, consulting engineers, 15 oil-fired; five coal-fired.

4-8-2 locomotives, Tasmanian Government Railways. C.F. Dewey. 97.  illustration
Supplied by Perry Engineering of Adelaide, Souith Australia. 3ft 6in gauge. See also Volume 34

Presentation to Mr. A.J. Hill. 97
At a smoking concert at Hamilton Hall, Great Eastern Hotel on 4 April to mark retirement of former chief mechanical engineer, Great Eastern Railway. Chair taken by C.W.L. Glaze

Four-cylinder compound locomotive, Italian State Railways. 98-9. illustration
Breda of Milan 2-8-2

A snow-storm in South Wales. 99.  illustration
LNWR (presumably 0-6-2T) with passenger train stuck in snow near Dowlais on 5 April 1922

Petrol rail motors, Kent and East Sussex Railway. 100. illustration
Ford rail buses operated back to back: petrol consumption claimed by Colonel Stephens

Underground Electric cars. 100
Orders placed for 191 cars based on six specimen cars operated on the Piccadilly tube. Order to be split between Cammell, Laird & Co.; Metropolitan Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co. and Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Trains for service on Hendon and Moorgate extensions

[LMSR train accelerations]. 100
3½ hour London Euston to Manchester expresses restored and 45 minute schedule from Liverpool Lime Street to Manchester Exchange.

L. & N.E. Ry., Great Eastern Section. 100.
4-4-0 No. 1805 fitted with 1500 class boiler with slightly smaller firebox

Dynamometric tests of locomotive type 8 bis., Belgian State Railways. 101-6. 8 diagrams, tables
No. 4650 four-cylinder compound tests on Brussels to Ostend, Brussels to Libramont (and returns) and Brussels to Jemelle and to Herbesthal

The Cheng Tai Railway, China. 106-7. 3  illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations and 1 front elevation)

Barry Railway. 108-9.  4 illustrations
0-8-2T No. 83 illustrated

F.W. Brewer. The genesis and early development of the British 4-4-0 tender engine. 110-13. 5 illustrations
William Bouch design for Stockton & Darlington Railway in 1860 (No. 160 Brougham illustrated); also D.K. Clark design for Great North of Scotland Railway (No. 33 as rebiult illustrated)

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. 113
We learn from Mr. Geo. Hughes, chief mechanical engineer, that the first of the new 4-6-4 tanks will be completed at Crewe works in about two months' time. This engine will be on the same lines as Mr. Hughes' four-cylinder 4-6-0 express passenger engines, but with extended frames to take the bunker and tank. Forty are to be built at Horwich and twenty at Crewe.

Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd. 113
In addition to the thirty-seven Indian locomotives referred to in our last issue it is now announced that Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., had received through their Lisbon Agents— Monteiro Gomes Limitada, an order for twelve locomotives of the 4-8-0 type, with superheaters, with double bogie tenders for the Loanda State Railways of Angola, Portuguese West Africa.

L. & N.E.R., Great Northern Section. 113
Further Pacific type express engines Nos. 1473, 1474, 1475 and 1476 in service. The two 0-6-2 tank engines, Nos. 1587 and 1590, used by the Government for working armoured trains on the East Coast during the war, had now been returned from Catterick Camp to Doncastcr. They were now being overhauled in the works.

Portable dome joinnt facing machine. 114. illustration
Manufactured by Beyer, Peacock & Co. of Manchester

Great Western Railway electro-hydraulic pumps, Cardiff Docks. 114
Automatic conntrol apparatus supplied by Electric Control Ltd

The theory and practice of steam jet instruments. 114-15.
Institution of Locomotive Engineers paper No. 141 by J.N. Gresham

London, Midland and Scottish Ry.- 115
The following additional appointments have recently been made in the locomotive department: Mechanical engineer, northern division, Wm. Pickersgill, St. Rollox, Glasgow. Assistant mechanical engineer, D.C. Urie, Inverness, In the carriage and wagon superintendent's department: Chief outdoor assistant to the carriage and wagon superintendent, J. Purves, Derby; Divisional carriage and wagon superintendents, E. ]. H. Lemon, Derby, and I. Kempt, Glasgow. Carriage and wagon works manager at Stoke, W. Sinelair. Carriage and wagon works manager at Barrow,. C.O.D. Anderson. Carriage and wagon works manager at Barassie, D. Smith. .

United Railways of the Havana and Regla Warehouses, Ltd.. 115
T. E. Keyworth  appointed locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent of this line with headquarters at Crenage, Cuba, and the signal and permanent way engineer was G.F. Sketch, Havana, Cuba.

Midland Railway locomotives fitted with water pick-ups.115
now work coal trains from Toton Sidings via Rugby, through to Willesden over the L. & N.W. line.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section B. Carriages and wagons. 116-18. 5 diagrams

Questions and answers. 118
Patching copper fireboxes.
Should patch be on water or fire side? Water side normal in Britain

The new Oerlikon system of train lighting. 119-20. diagram

A renewable firebox stay head. 121-2. 3 illustrations, diagram
Referes to patent held by C.J. Bowen-Cooke and T. Snelson (latter was chief foreman boilermaker at Crewe Works).

Interesting collection for a York Railway Museum. 122-3.
J.B. Harper's private collection

[Accident in Dombrowa district]. 123. illustratiion
Old German express locomotive used as a shunter became detached from its tender and ran into two coal wagons coming to rest on top of them and it was possible to haul the whole lot into Sosnowice statiion

[Southern Railway]. 123
Order placed with Cargo Fleet Iron Co. fior 7600 tons of conductor rail for South Eastern Section electrification.


Railway Group names. Economist. 124
Suggested that Southern had been sensible to drop the word "railway" from its locomotives and rolling stock and thought that other railways should have sought simpler titles, such as Eastern and Northern

Number 369 (15 May 1923)

Rebuilt 4-4-0 Express locomotive, London & North Eastern Railway, Great Eastern Section. 125. illustration
Hill rebuild of Claud Hamilton (D56) class with larger Belpaire boiler. No. 1805 illustrated in grey livery. Acknowledges C.W.L. Glaze, district mechanical engineer

Engine No. 333, "Remembrance", London, Brighton & South Coast Section, Southern Railway. 126. 2 illustrations
One illustration is of the memorial tablet

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (Division A L. & N.W. Section). 126
During the first quarter of 1923, considerable changes had been effected in the locomotive stock. Additions to stock total ninety-eight engines, of which ninety-seven were received from the North London Railway, and were being renumbered 2800 to 2896; only a dozen or so had yet been dealt with, the new numbers being transferred on to the side tanks. The remaining engine is number 380, which was the first of thirty 0-8-4 goods tank engines on order from Crewe shops; fitted with the automatic vacuum brake. The Crewe list number was 5722, and the plate date February, 1923. Twelve more of Webb's compound coal engines had been converted to 0-8-0 superheater goods G1 class, with piston valves and direct motion. Of these, Nos. 2575, 2060, 1276, 1894, 1088, 813, 1040, 1248 and 2342, were always 0-8-0 type (class B), but the other three, Nos. 1886, 2169 and 1064, were in 1906, converted to the 2-8-0 type (class E), retaining the original size boilers. These twelve engines, together with Nos. 1047 and 1242, rebuilt in December last, were the only compounds rebuilt as G1 class with direct motion.
Only 63 of the Webb compound coal engines remain, of which forty-eight were in their original form (class B); nine numbered 18, 905, 1017, 1042, 1222, 1585, 1888, 2558 and 2563, had been converted to 2-8-0 type (class El) by the addition of a leading radial axle; and the other six, Nos. 352, 647, 899, 906, 1247 and 1273, also converted to 2-8-0 type, had large boilers and known as class F.
Further engines of the Precursor class had been superheated, viz., No. 806 Swiftsure; 990 Bucephalus, 412 Marquis: 127 Snake and 804 Amphion ; while No. 323 Argus and 688 Hecate, which were superheated in 1917/18, without alteration to the cylinders, had their slide valves replaced by piston valves.
Several more of the earlier Prince of Wales class had been altered to direct motion like the Beardmore series, viz., Nos. 28, 33, 307 R.B. Sheridan ; 525 Vulcan; 745, Pluto; 1134 Victor Hugo; 1324 Falaba; 1620, 1691 Pathfinder; 1749 Precedent; 2152 Charles Lamb and 2408 Admiral Jellicoe.
The 5-ft. 0-6-2 passenger tank, No, 2037, built in 1899, had the piston valves removed and slide valves substituted. During the three months under review seven engines had been withdrawn, viz. 731 Croxteth and 739 Ostrich, 6-ft. passenger (2-4-0) class; No. 256 President Washington, 6-ft. 6-in. passenger (2-4-0) class; No. 1908, Royal George (Jubilee compound, 4-4-0 type); No. 1956 Illustrious (Alfred the Great compound, 4-4-0 type) ; No. 3256, (0-6-0 saddle tank) ; and No. 3494 (0-6-0, special DX goods).
Engines of the Claughton class had been named Nos. 169 Breadalbane, 30 Thalaba and 180 Llewellyn,

Tank locomotives for the Alexandra Docks and Railway Co. now Great Western Ry. 127. illustration
Hawthorn Leslie 2-6-2T: No. 18 illustrated

Drewry rail motor for India. 127-8. illustration.
Motor tank wagon. 5ft 6in gauge,

No. 1 locomotive, City and South London Railway. 128. 2 illustrations
In transit to the Science Museum

Shropshire and Montgomeryshire Light Ry. 128.
Ex-Brighton Terrrier No. 7 Hecate was now working, pressumably moved from Kent & East Sussex Railway, but still painted in LBSCR style with cast iron nameplates on tank sides.  Passenger train (ex-LNWR coaches) painted bright ulttramarine with vermillion ends

Four-cylinder express locomotives, Norwegian State Railways. 129-30. 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
4-6-0 with spcial valve to assist starting invented by Eriksen of Thunes Mekaniske Verksted

Danish State Railways, rebuilt light passenger engine. 130-1. illustration.
Outside cylinder 0-4-2 tender locomotive

Travelling cranes for railway service. 131-5. 6 illustrations, 3 diagrams
Capacities of Steel, Peech & Tozer Phoenix electro magnets; Stothert & Pitt Ltd. standard shunting crane; Grafton & Co. of Bedford 5-ton crane; locomotive yatd crane by Henry J, Coles Ltd.; gantry crane by Ransomes & Rapier Ltd.; 6-ton crane by Bedord Engineering Ltd., and J.H. Wilson & Co. Ltd of Birkenhead crane on travelling crane

Belfast and County Down Ry. 135.
4-6-0T being built for company by Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd.

L.M. & S.Ry.  135
Forty Baltic 4-6-4T "in hand" at Crewe and twenty at Horwich.

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Glasgow and South Western Railway. 136-8.  4 illustrations
Ayrshire & Wigtownshire Railway locomotives acquired in 1892; first Manson locomotives 0-6-0 and first 4-4-0: No.8. Also Whielegg rebuild of 4-4-0 No. 441

J.C.M. Rolland. Australian railway notes. 138-9. illustration.
Melbourne suburban ekectrification scheme was releasing steam locomotives:. 4-6-2Ts were4 identical to D class 4-6-0 and many were being converted to tender engines at the North Ballarat workshops. Fifteen of the C class 2-8-0 were running (Nos. 1 to 15), chiefly, if not entirely, on the two main lines to. the North (to Bendigo) and the North East (to Seymour). Both these routes entail a vertical rise of 1,500 to 2,000 ft., with ruling grades of about 1 in 50 and loads of 554 tons were handled on these routes. For very heavy extra passenger trains at holiday times they were also occasionally used.
Of the smaller consolidation engines of the K class, which could go anywhere, six were running, Nos. 100 to 105, and the full order of ten that the Newport shops were engaged on,  nearing completion. The first electric locomotive, No. 1100, and her companion, were now awaiting the installation of electric gear. They were intended for handling goods traffic in the suburban area. Already a non-electric passenger train was being handled electrically by electric traction at electric speed. The Mornington trains come by steam locomotive to Frankston and there two electric suburban passenger cars were attached as motors and the train ran the remaining 26 miles to the city by them.
Slow progress is being made with the pulverized fuel burning experiment. The Electricity Commission who controlled the brown coal deposits at Morwell have to arrange for the installation of the pulverizing machinery and this is not yet available. Meantime the tender of one of the A2 class is being prepared with the requisite hopper and channels. The Morwell coal deposits seemed to promise an immense fund of power for the future, and great things for Victorian industry under the vigorous leadership of Sir John Monash, the head of the Commission, .
The Railway Department, under the chief commissionership of Clapp, had done a great deal in the matter of up-to-date Improvements, and should, despite its big interest bill on non-paying lines, developed as a matter of policy, about pay its way for the current year. The South Australian Rys. had a new head in the person of W.A. Webb, from the United States, and B.R. Rushton, for many years chief of the locomotive branch, had resigned. This department bought about twenty of the 2-4-2 tanks, E class, from the Victorian Rys. as mentioned above, and turned these out in very smart livery of black with red lining. The South Australian Rys. take a special pride in the appearance and polish of their engines, while the Victorian engines are absolutely unrelieved black. The South Australian Government in turn sold a number of their 4-8-0 3-ft. 6-in. gauge T class engines to the Tasmanian Rys. They had also superheated one of these engines and converted five to the 5-ft. 3-in. gauge for the very light lines running up towards the Murray River and the Victorian border. Illustration shows the Adelaide Express entering Spencer Street Station, the Melbourne terminal. The engine is 1076, one of the lsuperheater A2 class of the Victorian Rys.

Crewe Works. 139
It was almost eighty years since the formal opening of these works by the Grand Junction Railway took place a note on same may be of interest. The first superintendent and chief mechanical engineer were the late Allan and Trevithick respectively. The former designed the first passenger and goods engines constructed at the works, both designs becoming generally known as the Crewe pattern, and having outside cylinders. In the case of the passenger engines, the driving wheels were single 6 ft. dia. and cylinder 14½ in. by 20 in. whilst the goods had coupled wheels of 5 ft. and cylinders 15 in. by 20 in. Mr. Allan also invented the Allan straight link motion. His Crewe goods hauled the goods and mineral traffic on the northern division of the L. and N.W.R. for many years, and when displaced by the six-coupled Ramsbottom engines they were converted to tanks for branch line passenger service. Mr. Trevithick designed and built at Crewe the famous 8-ft. 6-in. single, Cornwall (original No. 173) in 1847. She had for years the largest driving wheels of any locomotive in actual running. The southern division works of the L. and N.W.R. were at Wolverton. where some very fine engines were also turned out under the superintendency of the late Mr. McConnel1. When the fusion of 16 July 1846, took place, Crewe became the northern division works of the L. & N.W.R. Wolverton was closed as a locomotive building centre in the 1860s, Crewe then became the hub of the entire system. The census of 1841 gives the population of the then pleasant Cheshire village as 396, a striking contrast to that of to-day.

Steam rail motor coach, Jersey Railweays & Tramways Company. 140-1. illustration, 2 diagrams
Diagrams incllude cross-sectionms of boiler and patent engine. Sentinel Cammel with engine unit manufactured at Sentinel Wagon Works,

F.W. Brewer. The genesis and early development of the British 4-4-0 tender engine. 142-3. 5 illustrations
Designs include Wheatley inside-cylinder 4-4-0 for North British Railway, Bouch 4-4-0 for Stockton & Darlington Railway (Ginx's Baby); James Stirling 4-4-0 types for Glasgow & South Western Railway and David Jones outside-cylinder design for Highland Railway.

Railways in industrial plants. 144-6. 5 illustrations
Illustrated: Hudswell, Clarke & Rogers 0-4-0ST Alpha built in 1878 for construction of Eastern & Midlands Ry.; Hudswell, Clarke & Co.n standard 0-4-0ST Waleswood; Avonside Engine Co. narrow gauge (2ft) 0-4-0T and 0-6-0T and  powerful standard gauge 0-4-0ST for South Suburban Gas Co

Questions and answers. No. 32. Wheel base in relation to curves. E.L. Ahrons. 146-9. 3 diagrams
Diagram given for 2-6-2T, but bogie type locomotives also considered

Questions and answers. No. 33. Some locomotive cylinders placed at an inclination. 149

Stone's Patent cylinder cock for locomotives. 149. diagram

Lucknow meeting (1923) of the Locomotive and Carriage Superintendents' Committee. 150-1.
Group photograph includes: C.J. Spurgeon, Deputy Locomotive Superintendent, North Western State Railway; W.G. Hornett, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, Bengal Nagpur Railway; N. Marryat, Acting Locomotive Superintendent, BB&CIR (broad gauge); W.J. Tomes, Locomotive Superintendent,EIR; H. Armitstead, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, BB&CIR (metre gauge); B. Lawrence, Manager Gwalior Railways; W.A.C. Thorpe, Acting Locomotive & Carriage Superintendent, Madras & S.M. Ry; C.G.H. Danby, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, EIR; A.R. Hill. Acting CME, Bengal Nagpur Railway; F.S. Tweedie, Acting Locomotive & Carriage Superintendent, S.I.R.; J.M.D. Wrench, Chief mechanical engineer, GIPR; T.D. McIntosh, Secretary, District Locomotive Superintendent, BB○ A.F. Hosken, Locomotivet, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, Nizam's G.S. Ry; E.C. Dauibeny, Locomotive Superintendent, Baroda State  Ry; A.M. Bell, Chairman, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, GIPR; A.E. Pearce, Locomotivet, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, O and R State Ry., and H.J. Charlton, Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, N.W.  State Ry. Items discussed included electric fans,, vacuum brake statndardization, wagon couplings, and axle box face-plotes       

Peterborough Motive Power Mutual Improvement Class, L. M. & S. Ry. 155. illustration
The group illustrated shows the Peterborough Motive Power Mutual Improvement Class of the London, Midland and Scottish Railway. This class was one of fifty-one held by drivers, firemen and cleaners over the Midland Division. They were voluntary and self-supporting, and held entirely in the men's own time, usually on Sundays, in the Mess Rooms, Institutes and Waiting Rooms, the use of same having been granted by the Company. The subjects discussed were connected with the working of the locomotive engine and the various duties appertaining to same. The members of these classes numbered over 4,000, which is proof of the interest taken.

Reviews. 155

The Railway Year-Book for 1923. London: 33, TothiIl Street, Westminster, S.W.I.
First published in 1898, the new edition of the Railway Year Book for the year 1923 is the twenty-sixth of its line, and its advent is welcome to those accustomed to consult its pages when railway facts and figures are in question. It is evident that in the compilation of the 1923 edition, which consists of over 400 pages and contains some two dozen maps, every effort has been made to conserve each useful feature of railway information the book provides. In arrangement this new edition of the Railway Year Book differs greatly from its predecessors, but all that is essential has been retained and everything that is requisite and necessary has been incor- porated. As examples, the special articles describing the London, Midland and Scottish, London and North Eastern, Great Western and Southern Railways; the analysis of joint, leased and worked railways as affected by the new railwav situation; the fuller traffic and operating data in the statistica'l sections; and the systematic information in regard to the steamships, docks, harbours, etc., now grouped.
Special mention may be made of the new section on permanent way and structure dimensions. etc.; new statistics of numbers of railway employees; signalling statistics of principal British railways; analysis of railway facilities in 1922; comparisons of British and Foreign express train services; capital of the new railway companies, etc. In the biographical portion the change is particularly noticeable.

Line charts for engineers. W.N. Rose. London: Chapman & Hall.
Describes the principles and methods of drawing line charts or nomograms to be used in the rapid solution of technical problems. The author defines a nomogram as a chart designed to correlate the variables associated in a law by the simple expedient of drawing straight lines on the diagram. When once constructed such a chart expresses a certain law, and can be used with ease by one who lacks all understanding of the significance of the law and of its manipula- tion. It does away with much transformation of formulas and calculation; though the author rightly points out in the preface that it is possible to place too high a value on mechanical aids since slavish reliance on them tends to lessen the ability to make calculations. No book can include a chart for every type of equation; all that can be done is to indicate on broad lines how to adapt a formula: for representation by a chart, and to show how the chart may be most easily built up. Only elementary mathematics and a knowledge of logarithms are required.

The locomotives of the L.B. & S.C. Ry. W.G. Tilling. London: 106, Great Dover Street, S.E.1.
A new edition of this interesting book published; revised to  1 May 1923, with additional matter and illustrations, as well as a list of all named engines built since 1811, with dates when scrapped. There is an interesting note on the Brighton engines sent to France, and also a frontispiece of No. 333 Remembrance. It comprised 56 pages of matter, with 18 large illustrations on art paper, and one diagram.

Correspondence.  155-6

Chronicles of Boulton's Siding. R.H.I.
Rr. Bennett's articles:
Cbaplin Coffee Pots: Quite a number of this type of locomotive were built in the North of England between the late sixties and late eighties, by such firms as Head, Wrightson and Co., Cochrane, Grove & Co., also on the Continent this appears to have been a favourite type, numbers being built by John Cockerill, Seraing, Belgium, and by J. F. Cail, in France.
Lewin's Engines (Stephen Lewin, Engineer, Poole):-I.W. Boulton states that the Laxey Mines engines, built by this firm, had the cylinders on the top of the boiler. I think he is right in regard to the Guinness's Brewery engines, but not the former, two of these being the Bee and Ant; with inside cylinders 4 in. by 6 in., wheels 10 in. diameter, wheel-base 30 in., with feed pump and injector, built in 1877, for 19 in. gauge. Height to top of chimney from rail 4 ft. 9 in., circumference of boiler 2 ft. 3 in., width of footplate 2 ft. 3 in., engine fittedjwith link motion. Lewin also built a number tramway engines for Spain and 0-4-0 10 in. by 18 in. cylinder tank engines for use of contractors and collieries, ironworks, etc., with the eccentrics between the wheel and frame, a most awkward arrangement, similar to those built by Borrowes, of Sutton Engine Works, St. Helens Junction.
Boulton's had one or two engines built by John Harris, Darlington, through their hands. I see no mention of them in the Chronicles. These would be either four-coupled or six-coupled saddle tanks, with the cylinders inclined on the smokebox somewhat acutely and, I consider, were sufficiently interesting to illustrate.
Some information about engines constructed by the Pendleton Ironworks would be of interest. This firm built a number of locomotives during the sixties and seventies, 0-4-0 and 0-6-0 standard gauge, these latter had the valve chests on top of the cylinders and driven with a long valve rod "a la tank." Locomotive building was abandoned over some forty years ago and no records are to be found to-day. I can remember seeing several of these peculiar old engines running in the county of Durham many years ago.
(I am much obliged for the varied information embodied in this correspondent's notes. Boulton's records, so far as submitted to me, contained no references to engines by John Harris of Darlington. It is possible that Victory and Exeter, mentioned in the last chapter, may have been them; or Fairy, the engine of unknown design, purchased from J. Aird & Sons.-A. R. Bennett.)

Smellie 0-6-0 goods engines. William Gow        
Regarding the 0-6-0 goods engines by Smellie, on page 48, Nos. 25, 58, 100, 207 and 220, were the only engines of the whole sixty-four of the class which had not been put on the "A" list at the time of the renumbering in 1919. They were renumbered 135, 136, 137, 138 and 139, but were not all rebuilt by Mr. Manson with large boilers, as was the case with the Neilson engines 281-3 and 285-290. Some of the five, 135, 136 and I think 138, are still running with the old domeless boilers, while 137 and 139 were rebuilt with domed boilers in Drummond's time. Of course, manv of the 560-616 engines had been fitted in   Manson's -time with domed boilers and were almost indistinguishable from Manson's 306-325 class (or 178-197 new numbering). Some of the Smellie 6-ft. 9½in. 4-4-0 engines had been given domed boilers of the Manson type in Drummond's time, but retained the Smellie (or Stirling) cab. Of these, 459 and 461 were then stationed at Ardrossan.
Regarding the four-cylinder Lord Glenarthur, the tender is a rebuilt one, belonging to the Manson 4-4-0, No. 341, which is now running with Lord Glenarthur's (old No. 11) original tender.

[Michigan Central Railway's Mikado type locomotive No. 8000]. William T. Hoecker
Re article concerning the Michigan Central Railway's Mikado type locomotive No. 8000. It is claimed that this locomotive" has a higher ratio of power to weight, etc., than any locomotive hitherto built." This is rather a broad statement and I certainly agree with you in questioning its accuracy. If the engineers of the Lima Works are really sincere in making the claim, they show an amazing ignorance of facts. It may be, however, that the statement is merely another piece of cheap advertising. Let us ignore the performance of Continental compound express engines and consider only two-cylinder and four-cylinder simple superheated goods locomotives. Table gives fuller results: Chicago, Burlington and Quincy 2-8-2, class 0-2, 2-cylinder simple 2920 indicated horsepower;  Pennsylvania 2-10-0, class I-I-S, two-cylinder simple 3486 IHP; Austrian Southern 2-10-0, series 580, two-cylinder simple 1700 IHP (but much lighter engine which produced a high IHP in relation to its weight); Belgian State-2-10-0, type 36, four-cylinder simple 2135 IHP; Pennsylvania-2-8-2 type, class I.-1-S two-cylinder simple 2954 IHP; and  Michigan Central No,. 8000 3070 IHP
There is also another matter which I would like to call to the attention of your readers. A few months ago you published an article on top-feed for locomotive boilers. Recently an accident occurred on the Southern Pacific lines near Humble, Texas, which brought to light an advantage of top-feed that I have not yet seen claimed for it. A passenger train side- swiped an engine standing on a siding and tore the injector delivery pipe and boiler check valve from the side of the standing engine. The passenger train came to rest with the window of a carriage directly opposite the opening from which the check-valve had been torn. Steam and boiling water entered the carriage with such force and volume that twenty-one persons were scalded to death, Top-feed, in this instance, would have saved twenty-one human lives.

J. Hanrez, of Monceau sur Sambre, Belgium catalogue of locomotives
Series of large illustrations of the workshops indicate the scale on which they are laid out for dealing expeditiously with a large output. They are equipped with the latest lifting and carrying appliances, and are well lighted with ample floor space. Illustrations are given of a number of modern locomotives built by the firm ranging from the largest type four-cylinder express engines of the Belgian State Rys., as well as other standard designs of goods tender and tank engines, to a 4-6-0 tender engine for the Pekin-Hankow Ry. of China, and a number of serviceable designs of six and four-wheeled coupled tank engines for industrial work.

Westinghouse Brake & Saxby Signal Co., Ltd.,
Publication describing the Vane Relays they are manufacturing for use on track circuiting. Two types can be supplied, viz., single and two-element, the distinctive features of which are described in detail. As compared with other types of relays for alternating current operation, the vane relay offers special advantages by reason of its simplicity of design and consequent reliability in service. As the name implies, the principal operating member consists of an aluminium vane, which is suspended in a vertical air gap in an iron core, and swings under electro-magnetic action, its move- ment being transmitted through link connections to operate the desired contacts. On de-energization of the magnets, whether intentionally or by failure of the current, the vane returns by gravity to its neutral position.

London and North Eastern Railway (Great Northern Section). 156
Reference is made on page 32 (ante) to one of the 2-8-0 mineral engines running with the initials L. and N.E.R. on the tender: the number of the engine should have been given as 484. This engine, and one or two others, e.g., Nos. 1442, 1601 and 1604, have not so far been supplied with standard number-plates, although re-lettered.
Several of the express passenger engines, and a few of the goods engines, have been repainted; the passenger livery is much as formerly, without the olive green edging to tanks and tenders so familiar to G.N.R. practice: the lining is slightly altered at the corners, and tank engines do not carry their numbers on the back of the bunker. Goods engines are black, with red lining, any brass beading being painted over.
Mixed traffic engines and passenger tank engines are now being painted like the goods engines, although a few, including 2-6-0, No. 1007, 1645 and 0-6-2 T, Nos. 1570, 1589, 1605, appeared in the passenger livery. No. 1000 and the 0-6-2 T, Nos. 1571, 1600 and 1565 are, however, black, lined in red.

G.E. Section
Claud Hamilton is the second Stratford engine to be painted green: goods and passenger tanks are being painted black.

G.C. Section
No. 447, one of the Gorton passenger tanks working in the London district is also black. Also Nos. 6 and 45 with new cabs.

N.E. Section
Three more "Pacific" type express engines are in hand at Darlington shops.

Number 370 (15 June 1923)

An altered valve gear on a London, Midland & Scottish locomotive. 157-8. illlustration, diagram (side elevation)
External  Walscharts valve gear fitted to Prince of Wales 4-6-0: No. 964 Bret Harte illustrated

New tank locomotives, Great Central Section, London & North Eastern Ry. 160. illlustration.
J.G. Robinson design of 4-6-2T

Contractors' locomotives for India. 160-1. illlustration
Seven narrow gauge (30 inch) 0-8-0Ts for working on steeply graded Tansa water main contract supplied by John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd. to Braithwaite & Co. (Engineers) Ltd who held cotract for Bombay Municipality

New locomlotive, Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway. 161-2. diagram (side elevation)
Henry Greenly design of 2-8-2 built by Davey Paxman & Co. of Colchester

South Devon Ry. tank locomotive "Etna". 162. illlustration
Photograph of 4-4-0T submitted by J,B.N. Ashford of Plymouth. Locomotive was built by Rothwell & Co.

Retirement of Mr. J.G. Robinson. 162.

Rack locomotive for the Therezopolis Railway. 163. illlustration
Swiss Locomotive & Machine Works at Winterthur for metre gauge line in Brazil

Southern Railway. 163.
55 Class 4-4-0 rebuilds: Nos. 55 and 60 inservice; Nos. 45, 50, 52 and 70 to be rebuilt. Twenty Urie 4-6-0 express locomotives inn service: Nos. 736-755.

Rail motors on the New South Wales Government Railways. 164-6. 4 illlustrations, diagram (side and front elevations and plan)
Two petrol railcars: one very bus-like seating 33 passengers and based on a Moreland road lorry (emplored on Lismore-Grafton line) and the other seating 60 based on an  American type suburban car. Employed on Tamworth-Barraba branch.

Simple Mallet type locomotives, Chesapeake & Ohio R.R. 166-7. diagram (side elevation)

Tourist trains in India. 167-8. 2 illlustrations, diagram (side elevation and 2 plans)
Aimed at foreign tourists, who arrived for a limited season. Converted from Bombay suburban carriages with sleeping accommodation arranged in Pullman fashion. Great Indian Peninsula Railway

Barry Railway. 169-71. 6 illustrations
2-4-2T supplied by Hudswell, Clarke WN 473-5/1897, and Sharp Stewart WN 4467-9/1898 and 4497-4501/1899. Outside cylinder 0-6-2T supplied by Cooke Locomotive Works of Paterson, New Jersey. 0-6-4T designed by J. Auld and ten built by R. & W. Hawthorne, Leslie & Co. Two steam railcars (rail motors) were supplied by the North British Locomotive Co. WN 16466-7/1905.

Review. 186

Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive. Robert Young, . 406 pages, 168 illustrations. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd., Reviewed by E.L.A

[G.W.R. locomotives-stock total as at 31 st December, 1922. (including absorbed stock)]. 188. table.

London & North Eastern Ry. 188
Doncaster Works were to build fifteen 2-8-0 three-cylinder mineral engines, ten 0-6-0 shunting engines, sixty-four carriages for suburban service, 1,000 twelve-ton open goods wagons, forty brake vans, and two twin-bogie sleeping cars. Contracts had also been placed with Clayton Wagons, Ltd., Lincoln, for 750 twelve-ton coal wagons, Charles Roberts & Co., Ltd., Horbury, Wakefield , for 500 twelve-ton open wagons, the Metropolitan Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co., Birmingham, for 800 covered wagons, the Midland Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd., of Birmingham, for 750 twelve-ton mineral wagons and 500 twelve-ton open wagons and the Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd., of Smethwick, for thirty goods brake vans. Orders had also been given for a number of new locomotives lo be built at Stratford, Darlington and Cowlairs.

Isle of Wight railways. 188
The old 2-4-0 tank locomotive Sandown of the Isle of Wight Ry., was sent to Eastleigh Works, presumably to be withdrawn from service. Two 0-4-4 side tank engines of the L. & S.W. section Nos. 206 and 211, had been equipped with the Westinghouse brake and sent to work on the I.W.R. (Ryde to Ventnor) section. LW.C.R. locos. worked special and excursion trains from Newport, through to Ventnor (I.W.R.) via Sandown Junction.

Continuous brakes on goods trains in India. 188
By a resolution of the R.C.A., passed at their Simla meeting it is intended to have the continuous automatic vacuum brake working on all goods trains of the broad gauge railways on 1 April 1924. To be prepared for this very desirable arrangement the different railways are making great efforts to get the equipment already on the wagons into working order. The Locomotive, Carriage and Wagon Superintendents' Committee have been considering the best means to take to assist the work, and they have recommended at their recent Lucknow meeting that the train pipe through

[Nizam G. State Railway]. 188
G.R.G. Huddleston had been appointed locomotive superintendent in succession to A.F. Hosken

Number 371 (14 July 1923)

Southern Railway tank locomotive for the Isle of Wight. 190. illustration.
O2 class Nos. 206 and 211 fitted with air brake and sent from Southampton by barge: No. 211 illustrated (in LSWR livery)

An old L. and N.W.R. express locomotive. 191. illustration.
Jones & Pottts  outside-cylinder 4-2-0 with 6ft 6in driving wheels: photograph shows No. 189 at Vauxhall shed in Birmingham with Driver Bowker on the footplate

A new form of radiial axle locomotive. 191-3. diagram (side elevation and plan)
Luttermöller patents shown on ten-wheel 2ft gauge tank locomotive

Railways in industrial plants. 194-6. 4 illustrations
Locomotive manufacturers statndard products: Beyer Peacock 0-6-2ST with 4ft 3in coupled wheels, 18 x 24in cylinders and boiler pressure of 160 psi; outside-cylinder 0-4-0ST with 16 x 24in cylinders actuated by Walschaerts valve gear, 3ft 10in wheels and 180 psi boiler pressure. John Fowler products: 0-4-2T for 2ft gauge estate and plantation railways with 22 in. coupled wheels; 7 x 12 in outside cylinders actuated by Walschaerts valve gear and 180 psi boiler pressure; aand another narrow gauge design: 0-6-2 with 9½ x 12 in. cylinders actuated by Joy valve gear; 25 in. diameter coupled wheels and 180 psi boiler pressure.

The Merrybent and Darlington Ry. 196-7. 2 illustratiuons, map, 2 diagrams. (side elevations)
Branch off Darlington to Barnard Castle line. 0-6-0ST Merrybent built at Hopper's Britannia Foundry at Fencehouses

F.W. Brewer. The genesis and early development of the British 4-4-0 tender engine, 198-200.
Cowan Great North of Scotland Railway design with outside (16 x 24in) cylinders and 5ft 6½in coupled wheels. Continued page 240. See also letter from Sam A. Forbes on page 250.

Visit of the Institute of Transport to the Penistone Works of Cammell Laird & Co. Ltd. 201-4 
In connection with the third congress of the members of the Institute of Transport, held at Sheffield, on  Friday, 15 June a visit was arranged to the Pemstone Works of Messrs. Cammell, Laird. A number of guests representative of the British, Foreign and Colonial Railways were also invited as well as members of the technical press. The party travelled by special train, leaving Marylebone at 09.15, picking up the Institute of Transport members at Sheffield and running direct into the works at Penistone. Breakfast was served on the down journey and tea and dinner on the return Marylebone being reached at 20.20. Amongst those present were Sir Sam Fay, President of the Institute of Transport, Sir J. G. Broodbank (President Elect), A.C. Carr (Sir J. Wolfe Barry & Partners), C. Hitchcock (Robert White & Partners), T. Ryan (India Office Stores Department), R.A. Thorn (District Mechanical Engineer, L. & N.E.R., Gorton), S.A. Parnwell (General Manager, Southern Area, L. & N.E.R.), C.C. Champeney (Midland Carriage & Wagon Co.), S.J. Kendrick (Deputy Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, East Indian Ry.), J. Davis (Consulting Engineer, New South Wales Government Rys.), F. Coates (Consulting Engineer, Victorian Rys.), R.W. Reid (Carriage & Wagon Superintendent, L.M. & S. Ry.), R.H. Selbie (General Manager, Metropolitan Ry.), A.M. Bell (Carriage and Wagon Superintendent, G.I.P. Ry.), E.P. Goldney (G.I.P. Ry.), C.E. Lillie (Secretary East Indian Ry.), F.C. Coleman (Modern Transport), J.A. Kay (Railway Gazette), A.R. Bell (Locomotive), etc., etc. Representatives of Cammell Laird & Co., Ltd., included W.L. Hichens (Chairman), J. McNeal Allan (Managing Director, Sheffield), A.S. Bailey (Managing Director, Nottingham), L. Munns (Director and Secretary, Sheffield), J.M. Dewar (London Director), A. Good (Director, Sheffield), and others.
The Penistone works of cover an area of approximately sixty acres, situated on both sides of the London & North-Eastern Railway, and adjacent to Penistone Station. The original works with an area of twenty-two acres, were purchased by Charles Cammell & Co., Ltd., from Bensons, Adamson & Garnetts, on 31 May 1864, having been built a few years previously. From 1864 until 1917, they were employed exclusively in the production of acid Bessemer steel, which was manufactured into ingots, rails, structural sections, fishplates, railway axles and tyres, etc. Various modifications were made from time to time as the development of steelworks practice permitted, but generally the plant and buildings remained very much in their original condition and were employed principally for the original purpose until 1917, when the Company was called upon by H.M. Government largely to increase the country's output of gun steel. About forty acres of land were purchased on the south-west side of the railway, and on this a complete open hearth steel melting plant was installed which it has been laid out. In 1919 the Company decided to consolidate their three railway tyre producing plants, adjacent to the New Side Steel Works at Penistone. With this object in view, buildings were erected and equipped with what is considered to be the most efficient plant in existence for this class of work.
The tyre ingot is received from the open hearth melting shops in a sliced, but unbroken, condition. It is broken by special automatic gear, charged into continuous gasheated furnaces,· and removed from these furnaces by electrically operated machinery, which deposits it on the press, for the first manufacturing operation. On leaving the press, the bloom is a round pierced disc, and this is pla;ed upon a roughing mill which brings it to its approximate final dimensions. It is then consisting of three basic and three acid-lined furnaces, each with a nominal capacity of sixty tons per charg.e. At the same time the original or Old Side Steel Works were practically re-built. The 34-in. rolling mill, which forms the main item of manufacturing plant, was increased by the addition of another train of rolls, and all its details, such as roller gear, manipulators, saws, shears, etc., were brought thoroughly into line with the most modern practice. The finishing end of the mill was · separated from the cogging, and driven byanelectricmotor giving a maximum peak load power of 19,000 B.H.P. New underground soaking pits of the most modern design were installed for the heating of the mill ingots, and mechanical overhead charging and discharging apparatus fitted. placed on the finishing mill, which it leaves as a complete tyre. The marking is done hydraulically and at one operation, during which time the finishing temperature of every tyre is taken and recorded for future reference. The finishing end of the plant for the cutting, planing, and drilling of rails and sections, was thoroughly overhauled and re-arranged, and it may generally be taken that at present the Penistone works as a unit, is at least equal to any plant in the country for the efficient production of the semi-finished material for Illustrations: Cammell Laird & Co. Works in Penstone from across Great Central main line; interior of mills, soaking pits, charging furnace and electricity sub-station

Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Lt. Ry. 204
An improved set of petrol rail cars has been put into service: the train comprises three cars—a motor car each end and a dummv in the centre—giving accommodation for sixty persons. The run of 23 miles from Shrewsbury to Llanymynech over an undulating section with gradients of 1 in 30 and sharpest curve of nine chains with a full load is made on a consumption of 1.75 gallons of petrol.

Railway exhibits at the Gothenburg Jubilee Exhibition. 204
Swedish Government Rys. showed in the Transportation Section a model of the first locomotive engine Forstlingen, built in Sweden by Nunktells at Eskilstuna in 1848 for a small railway in the iron ore district on the 3-ft. gauge. There was also on view a model of the first locomotive built for the Government Rys., named Vastergotland. There were also models of locomotives of classes A, B and F, and passenger carriages from 1856 and 1857, as well as modern sleeping cars, 1st and 3rd class. One ,,·ill also find exhibited here the locomotive Fryckstadt, as built by Nunktells in 1855 for the Fryksta-Klarstvens Ry. 43-in. gauge. This engine has cylinders 230 mm. dia. by 395 mm. stroke. There are also complete axleboxcs in use at the present time-ordinary bearings, ball bearings for ore trucks and passenger vehicles, N.K.A. bearings, S.K.F roller bearing, etc. The Knorr Brake Co. exhibit and demonstrate the Kunze Knorr brake then being introduced on the Government Rvs. and manufactured bv the Nordiska Co. Djurson's slack adjuster was exhibited in this section. A rail joint of 1849, designed by C. Adelskold for the small Frykstad-Klaralven Ry was shown as well as sundty models of bridges, including one over the Ors River in the North for a weight of 18 tons per axle, the span being 297 ft .
A\ model of the steam ferry Gustav V, ferry pier and arrangements at Trelleborg and plans and drawings of the proposed train ferries between Sweden and England wer shown. Signalling and interlocking arrangements formed an interesting exhibit. These included a number of Aga flash lights for railway crossings, etc. The Aktiebologat Ljungstroms Angturbin exhibit sundry parts of the turbine condensing locomotive were described recently.

Snailbeach Railway, 204
Extensions of this narrow gaue Shropshire line were in progress to the Stiperstones and to the mines on Bog Moor. It is to  acquire four new tank engines and fifty wagons

Col. H. F Stephens. 204
of Tonbridge engineer. has been appointed Civil engmeer for maintenance and loco. supt. of the Festtiniog and \Welsh Highland Ry,;., except the section between Portmadoc and South Snowdon which wouldl be maintained bv the contractors-Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons-until the end of 1923.

Colne Valley & Halstead Ry. 204
Taken over by London & North Eastern Ry. on  1 July..

E.L. Ahrons. The locomotives of the Glasgow and South-Western Railway. 205-6. 4 illustrations
Continued from page 138. Manson rebuilt four of the No. 8 class with larger boilers, similar to those of the 240 class to be described later. These under the new classification were known as the 375 class. No. 103 was rebuilt in 1910, 77 and 115 in 1911, and 85 in 1912. A large number had been completely rebuilt, 1920 to 1922, by Whitelegg, as shown in Fig. 43. The cylinders, wheels and wheelbase remain unchanged, but the larger boilers are in two parallel rings, the smokebox is extended, and the pressure increased to 170 psi. The centre of the boiler was raised from 7 ft. 6 in. to 8 ft . 3 in. The tube heating surface was 1193 ft2. , firebox 125 ft2. , total 1318 ft2. . Grate area 18.36 ft2. Weight in working order :-Bogie 16 tons 7 cwt., driving 17 tons, trailing 16 tons 10 cwt., total 49 tons 17 cwt. A diagram of these engines Locomotive Mag., 1920, 26, 142.
In 1893 ten 0-4-4 side tank passenger engines (Fig. 44) to Manson designs were built bv Neilson & Co. (4646-4655). The number of passenger tank engines on the G. & S.W.R. had always been very limited, and such as had previously been in service were rebuilds of older 0-4-2 goods and mixed traffic engines. The new engines, Nos. 326 to 335, (subsequently 520 to 529), were built to replace some of these older engines. The cylinders were 17¼-in. by 24-in., and though of comparatively small size, Manson placed the valves above them, and used a rocking shaft valve gear similar to that of the express engines. The coupled wheels were 5 ft. 2 in. diameter, and the bogie wheels 3 ft. 1 in. The wheelbase between the coupled wheels was 7 ft. 6 in. , from driving wherl to front bogie wheel 8 ft. 9 in., and between the bogie wl1 ee ls 5 ft. 6 in. Total 21 ft. 9 in. Length over buffers 31 ft. 9-l in.
The original boilers contained 238 15/8-in. tubes, the heating surface of which  was 1056·24 ft2 ., and the firebox added 105.16 ft2. Total, 1161 ·4 ft2. Grate area 16·43 ft2. Pressure 150 psi. Manson reboilered them when the original boilers. were worn out from 1903 onwards, and the new boilers differed slightly in dimensions, having a total heating surface of 1,169 ft2, of which the firebox provided 101 ft2. Grate area 16·5 ft2. The weight in working order was :-Leading 15 tons 5 cwt., driving 17 tons 17 cwt., bogie 18 tons 7 cwt. , total 51 tons 9 cwt. The tank capacity was 1000 gallons, and the coal bunkers held 35 cwt. of fuel.
Recently :\Ir. \\'hitelegg has modified these engines, as shom1 in Fig. 45. The later :\J anson boilers have FIG

Paris-Brussels non-stop trains. 207
315km in 3h 45min using Nord Pacifics. Line rebuilt after suffering damage in WW1.

London & North Eastern Ry. Great Eastern Section. 207
Five 4-4-0 Nos. 1780-4 painted green

London & North Eastern Ry. Great Northern Section. 207
Two new Pacifics Nos. 1476 and 1477

Palace Gates connection. 207
Between Great Northern and Great Eastern Sections

Steam dryer for locomotives. 208. 2 diagrams
Due to the high evaporation rate of locomotin' boilers. and the consequential violence of ebullition, water in liquid form is entrained by the outgoing steam in quantities that may amount to anything from 5 per cent. to 15 per cent. \When the boiler is being " forced," with the result that much fuel is wasted and injurious effects to the ,·alves and pistons are frequently induced. Since the earliest davs of the locomotin' it has been customary to provide· an elevated , ·cs:::-el or a length of piping perforated on its upper surface so that moisture suspended in the stl'am may return by gravity to the body of water, leaving comparatively "dry" steam to pass the regulator. but as loading gauge restrictions forbid the use of tall domes or steam drums on large modern engines, this expedient —never ,·ery thorough-tends to become ineffective, and with increased boiler powers and the more delicate steam distributing mechanisms now employed, the mischievous consequences of "wet" steam (both thermally and mechanically considered) are sufficiently serious to warrant the study of ameliorative measures. It is essential, however, that devices intended//\\'hen it is realized that there is an approximate reduction of I per cent. of the fuel consumed for each 1 per cent. of water separated when using saturated steam, the importance of an efficient anti-priming apparatus is obvious, and if superheating is employed its benefits are equally manifest, since with initially dry steam an increase of 17°C to 45°C. (depending upon the rate at which the boiler is evaporating and also upon the water level) of superheat temperature is attainable without additional expenditure of fuel because the superheater is not required to convert the suspended drops of water into steam before fulfilling its true function of imparting more heat to a fluid already gaseous. Furthermore, the life of the superheater tubes is lengthened and their efficiency improved by the • elimination of solid particles of dirt and mud, which are also swept away with the moisture through the tangential outlet. Tompkins patent dryer, the rights of which are exclusively held by: Tangential Dryers, Ltd., thouglt here illustrated as fitted in a dome fairly ample in vertical measurement and in conjunction with a doublebeat regulator, is also made in forms suitable for the most restricted spaces and for slide type throttles, only slight modifications of the steam pipes and operating links being required for fitting in the majority of cases. Dryers on this principle are in wide use for marine and stationary boilers, and they are also being employed with considerable success for removing moisture from lines conveying compressed air and other gases.

T.H. Sanders..Laminated railway springs..Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section B. Carriages and wagons. 209-11
Continued from page 173

Questions  and answers. 211-12
36.-How can a railway vehicle be weighed by means of a system of cantilevers?
Our correspondent evidently has in mind the "portable weighing machine," which has been for many years employed for taking particulars of wheel weights, especially with locomotives-in which spring adjustments are frequently required. One machine has to be employed under each wheel, and to ensure correct results, all wheels have to be simultaneously weighed, that is, the whole weight of the vehicle has to be carried by the machine. The load is put on to the machines by means of a screw foot, and transmits itself through compound levers on to a weigh beam of the usual type. An improvement on this pattern has recently been introduced by S. Denison & Co., Ltd., of Leeds, and is called the Dilo SelfIndicator with a large dial.
37.-In the case of an engine with brake blocks placed in front of the wheels, against which horn cheek is the pressure exerted when the brakes are applied
Depends whether engine is running chimnev first, or bunker first and involves a consideration of the forces applied to the wheels, and transmitted thence through the axleboxes to the horn cheeks.

Pullman cars on the  L.M. & S. R. (Caledonian Section). 212-16. 3 illustrations, 7  diagramms includindg side and  end elevations and plans
Clayton Wagons, Ltd. of Lincoln, provided the accompanying drawings and particulars of four Pullman Cars designed and built by them to the specification and approval of the Pullman Car Co., Ltd., for service on the Caledonian Section of the London, Miidland and Scottish Railway.. Three of these vehicles were first-class dining cars, and the other a third-class buffet car. Whilst preserving all the qualities of luxury and easy running which characterize the Pullman cars in service on the Suuthern Rv. and L. & N.E.R., the new cars incorporate many decorative and constructional features which are quite original, and differ from most previous Pullman stock in having four-wheeled bogies. The first class cars were named Meg Dods, Lass O' Ballochmyle  and Mauchline Belle. The buffet car had No. 80

GIPR accident on 2 June 1923.  216
Accident emphasised the necessity for early action by the Government of India to secure a better method of coupling up heavy goods trains and also the operation of the continuous brakes throughout the trains. A goods train bound for Bombay had brakes working on the front part only, was running on a down grade between Atgaon and Khardi, about 61 miles out, when the train parted about its middle. The breakaway was noticed by some gangmen on the permanent way, and they signalled to the driver who applied his brakes and stopped the front portion, with the result that the rear part ran into it and a very serious smash-up was caused. Both tracks were blocked and as it was Saturday morning, the trains with the outgoing mails were delayed for some hours, transhipment had to be resorted to and the Mail boat did not leave Bombay until late that night.

Great Western Ry. 216
Amongst improvements introduced in the summer train services was a train which holds the premier position in the British Isles for speed. This is the 14.30 from Cheltenham to Paddington, which is timed to perform the run from Swindon to Paddington — 77 miles, 24 chains — in seventy five minutes, which gives an average speed between these points of 61.8 miles per hour from start to stop.

North British Locomotive Co., Ltd. 216
Moved London Office to 13, Victoria Street, Westminster, S.W.1.

New Zealand Government Rys. 216
Arthur's Pass Tunnel, five miles in length, and the longest in the Southern Hemisphere,  was open. It is bored through the range of the Southern Alps and opens up railway communication between the west coast of South Island of New Zealand with the rest of the island

Great Western Railway new express trains. .217-19. 4 illustrations, 7 diagrams (including side & end elevationns & plans
Collett bow-ended corridor stock with  Laycock Buckeye couplers and drop-down buffers and Pullman gangways  within  sets. For  South Wales services..  Tip up seats in dining cars. Leather table tops  and seating. Decolite surfaaces in toilets for cleanliness. Extractor fans for kitchens and pantries

Correspondence. 219

Firebox patches. Bulawayo. 219-20. diagram
Re the question of firebox patches those inside the water space are generally favoured and some 'boilermakers prefer the studs to have threads through both patch and plate. Although I prefer inside patches my experience in beddmg the patch to the plate inside the narrow water space is that, although bolts may have been carefully tightened up in every alternate hole, jarring takes place between the laps during the bedding operation, unless a dolly, wedge or hammer can be apphed at the back. Under such circumstances it is d1fficult to obtain a good metal-to-metal joint, especially if there are threads for the studs in both patch and plate. Further when the temporary bolts are removed the laps separate shghtly and the metal-to-metal joint is lost unless a clearance hole for the stud is made in the top plate to enable the stud to pull together. With a countersunk stud, bedding well into the countersink of the top plate, the head projecting 1/8 inch, as shown at C, and then caulked over as at D to form an overlap, no wastage of the head can take place, and a tightfitting and lasting job may be expected. At A is shown a suitable stud, eleven threads to the inch, for firebox patching, and B shows the countersink in the top plate. Care should be taken to tool the edge of the head as at Din the same direction as the stud has been screwed in. It is also important that the square heads of the studs should not be wrenched off until all the studs are properly inserted and well screwed up by going over them two or three times. They should then be wrenched off one by one, and the edge of each head tooled down to the plate before the square end of the next stud is wrenched off. The heads are finally caulked to finish them off, and the patch caulked with a fuller. I should be glad to see the subject of firebox patches fully discussed. (We invite the opinions of our practical readers on the important subject of firebox patches, on which there seem to be some differences of opinion. Under what conditions should patches be placed on the fireside, as is sometimes done, and what are the best methods of securing the patches to give the most efficient results in service ? There are various forms of studs and collar bolts in use, and a discussion on their various merits would be of considerable interest

Engineer, Darlington
The following are the names of the three officers on the F. R. de C. A. Guatemala-Central America :-Superintendent of motive power, M. Turton; master car builder, J. Alyward ; sighals and permanent way, C. Chandler. The names of other mechanical engineers on Central and South American Rys. appear in the Locomotive Engineers' Pocket Book.

Reviews. 219-20.

A handbook of testing.the theory of prime movers. C.A. Middleton Smith, and A.G. Warren, London: Constable & Co., Ltd. 295 pp. 246 illustrations.
The authors are the professors of Engineering and of Physics respectively in the University of Hong Kong, and have written a handy book on the Theory of Prime Movers, the first part of which contains up-to-date information on the properties of saturated and superheated steam, and of liquids and gases. This physical portion of their subject occupies 144 pages. The remaining 150 pages are concerned with the dynamics of engines, valves and valve-gear mechanisms, theory of steam nozzles and steam turbines, air compressors, including refrigerators and combustion. The book is a theory of engines, in which all the salient points have been included in a condensed form. as stated in the preface, it consists chiefly of notes which the authors have compiled during the last ten years. The title A Handbook of Testing, appears to be somewhat of a misnomer, since no practical work on testing of engines appears to be included, though a large number of theoretical examples point the way in which the theory of heat engines can be used in calculating and judging the results of such tests.

Pioneer railway engineeríng.. H. Stringer, London : H. F. and G. Witherby. 219-20.
In this book the author, who is the resident engineer of the Pekin-Mukden Ry., deals with the economics and details of construction of pioneer railways in overseas countries, and has compiled a large amount of very useful information in a concise form. The first chapter on Railway Economics, deals with the rail weights, gradients, curves, gauge, permanent way, land, rolling stock, etc. Chapters II., III. and IV. are concerned with " Railway Location and Survey," "Conduct of Construction," and "Earthwork" respectively. Chapters V. on Temporary Bridges, Trestles, etc., and VI. on Track and Track Maintenance, also contain many valuable features. In the following chapter on Building Construction, the author has included useful particulars of locomotive engine sheds, engine pits, and smoke jacks, which we do not remember having seen in any other book. Water supply for locomotive and other purposes also receive due consideration in chapter VIII. The remaining chapters concern Stations and Signals, and Reinforced Concrete and Steelwork. The book is in effect a railway engineer's notebook on an enlarged scale. It contains a large number of sketches, tables and formulce, and is well written in a condensed style, which facilitates easy reference. The illustrations, which consist entirely of diagrams, seven being folded plates, are well and clearly executed. To enable constant and handy use to be made of the book, a number of blank pages for notes have been inserted. In the first chapter, which contains particulars of coal and oil consumption of locomotives in India and China, we note with interest that the oil allowance per 100 miles on Chinese railways for engines running on 60 and 85 lb. rails is 10 lb. engine oil, 9 lb. castor oil, and 2½ lb. cylinder oil. On the Pekin-Mukden Railway, with ruling gradient of 1 in 120 an engine hauling 1,400 tons is allowed 65 lb. of coal per mile, and ·with 1,000 tons 50 lb. per mile. In the same chapter the author states that " the importance of long bogie lead for locomotives on lines of much curvature is not to be overlooked, as this at any rate prevents derailment of the driving wheels, though it pulls the road about." Possibly the author has not expressed his meaning in the way he intended. A properly designed leading bogie saves both engine and track, othenvise the bogie would have been discarded long ago. But if engines with long wheel base run tender first on curves for considerable distances with the bogie at the back end. as may be the case on the railways of which the author has experience, it is possible that in certain cases the track may suffer. In regard to widening of gauge on curves the author on page 21 states that for 500 ft. radius and under it is usual to widen the gauge , but this shouuld never exceed 5/8 inch.  But on ?page 164 he writes :-" For curves over 1 000 ft. radius widening is unnecessary, but widen ½ in. for this radius, ¾ in, for 500 ft. radms, and 1 in. for 300 ft. radius curves." These two statements do not agree ; nevertheless there are considerable differences of opinion in regard to the amount of widening allowable. The author recommends the use of old steel boiler tubes where available, for making gates. ' The book is very well printed and the dimensioned sketches are v_ery _clear. To railway engineers, more especially those working m extra European countries, the book will prove of great value.

The book of the Ford. R.T. Nicholson. London: Temple Press, Ltd., 220.
A new and seventh edition has just been issued. It is the most practical handbook of instruction on the construction driving, and upkeep of the Ford car extant. It is writte~ specially for the Ford owner-driver, in the simplest nontechmcal language. Stated briefly, there is everything in this handbook that one ought to know about the Ford. There is a wealth of practical information profusely illustrated on adjustment, minor repairs, and economical upkeep. The latest model with the right-hand drive is dealt with in a new chapter, and the new carburetter, hood and other details are treated and new illustrations included.

1923 Livret-guide official des Chemins de Fer de Paris a Orleans. 220.
Although compiled for the benefit of travellers over the lines of the P 0. Railway, the contents of this beautifully printed and liberally illustrated guide should be of interest to a great m~ny who are _not able to ':"isit the territory served by that railway. Detalls such as distances, number of inhabitants, postal facilities, features of interest, are given in connection with the smaller as well as the larger towns. The industries of the various localities served are also tabulated in a convenient form. A time table printed on tinted paper is bound in at the end of the guide, followed by a list of hotels and restaurants. " On page 187 of the June number it was erroneously stated that Robert Stephenson's letter in regard to the blast pipe question appeared in The Engineer during 1858. This letter, though written in 1858, did not appear in that journal, but was published in Smiles's Lives of the Engineers, 1862 edition, vol. III., page 501. As Robert Stephenson died in October, 1859, it does not seem to have been published during his lifetime."-E.L.A.

Garratt loco. for South  Wales. 220
Vivian & Sons, Ltd., of the Hafod Copper Works, Swansea, placed an order with Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., for a 0-4-0+0-4-0 Garratt type articulated locomotive of standard gauge to be used for dealing with heavy traffic over the exceedingly difficult piece of line connecting the Hafod Works with the GWR. main line. As this will be the first locomotive of the Garratt type to operate in Great Britain its performance will no doubt be watched with considerable interest.

Snowdon Mountain Ry. 220
The stock of this line has been strengthened by the addition of three more 0-4-2 rack locomotives constructed by the Swiss Locomotive Works of Winterthur. No. 6 Sir Harmood dated 1922, and Nos. 7 Aylwin and 8 Eryri dated 1923.

Swedish State Rys 220
Work had started on the electrification of the main line from Stockholm to Gothenburg-458 kilometres. Electric traffic is expected to commence about 1 October 1925.

Welsh Highland Ry. 220
On 19 May a trial trip was made over the new line from Portmadoc, through the Pass of Aberglaslyn to Rhyd-ddu (or South Snowdon) and thence over the metals of the former North Wales Narrow Gauge Ry. to Dinas Junction, a total distance of 21 miles. A Fairlie locomotive and three coaches were used.

Basingstoke and Alton Light Ry. 220.
After lying derehct for seven years, it has been decided to relay this line. Clearing the track was commenced on the 18 June.

Southern Railway. 220
The following appointments were officially announced, dating from 1 July 1923. R.E.L. Maunsell, C.B.E., to be chief mechanical engineer for locomotives, carriages, wagons and road vehicles. S. Warner, O.B.E., to be assistant mechanical engineer for carriages, wagons and road vehicles. A.H. Panter to be deputy-assistant for carriages and wagons. A.D. Jones, O.B.E., to be locomotive running superintendent. C.J.W. Francis, C.B.E., to be stores superintendent [KPJ Locomotive may have got intials mixed up]] and A.P. Innocent to be assistant stores superintendent. Herbert Jones to be electrical engineer and H. Richards to be assistant electrical engineer. The appointment of stores superintendent dated from 1 January. R.W. Urie, chief mechanical engineer of the L. & S.W. R., and L.B. Billinton, locomotive engineer of the L.B. & S.C.R. retired.

London & North Eastern Ry. 220
Further appointments in the chief mechanical engineer's department are as under:North Eastern section:. R.A. Copperthwaite to be locomotive works manager of Darlington and Gateshead shops, with office at Darlington;r. E. Thompson to be carriage and wagon works manager with office at Darlington, and to have charge of the shops at York, Shildon, etc. . F.W. Carr to be assistant manager, carriage and wagon shops, York. H.B. Emley to be assistant manager, locomotive shops, Gateshead. Great Northern section:. F. Eggleshaw to be locomotive works manager, Doncaster. . A.H. Peppercorn to be carriage works manager, Doncaster and W H. Brown to be wagon works manager, Doncaster. Great Central section:r. D.R. Edge to be carriage and wagon works manager, Dukinfield. In the running superintendent's department, S. Groom is to be assistant running superintendent of the Great Northern section-Southern area, and C. Stedman a similar position on the Great Eastern section_

The first railway in France. 220
Early in June 1923 at Andrezieux on the Loire the centenary of the first railway in France was celebrated, a tablet being fixed on the spot where the first station was built. The line, which was first worked by horses, ran from Pont de 1' Ane, on the River Furens, through Saint Etienne to Andrezieux and was used for transporting coal to the boats on the River Loire. The concession for constructing the railway was signed by Louis XVIII., on 28 February 1823 ; work was begun immediately and it was first used in April, 1828.

Vickers-Petters. 220
Heavy oil engine manufacturers, Ipswich, announced appointment A.P. Laughland as their Midland representative, with offices at Union Chambers, Temple Row, Birmingham.

Sir  W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co., Ltd., 220
Secured order for twenty-five heavy locomotives for the Buenos Ayres Great Southern Ry. intended for goods traffic, were 4-8-0, three-cylmder superheated type with bogie tenders. They were to burn oil. They were to be built at the firm's Scotswood Works.

Number 372 (15 August 1923)

Auxiliary driving motor on Atlantic type engine, London & North Eastern Ry. 221-5. 3 illustrations, 5 diagrams., (including side elevation).
Booster fitted to Ivatt Atlantic No. 1419

Tank locomotive for the Sarawak Government Rys. 225; 227. illustration 
Two metre gauge 4-4-0T with outside frames supplied by Peckett & Sons Ltd. for railway in vicinity of Kuching in Borneo. Bulan illustrated

New Horwich-built express locomotive, L.M.S.R.. 226-8.  illlustration, 2 diagrams. (side & front elevations)
Hughes 4-6-0

Travelling cranes for railway service. 228-31. 5 illustrations
Supplied by John M. Henderson & Co. of Aberdeen (electric one for locomotives illustrated); John H. Wilson & Co. of Birkenhead (designed to act as a locomotive); Ransomes & Rapier Ltd. (electric wharf crane); Wellman-Smith-Owen Engineering Co. electric crane in use at Taylor Bros. Trafford Park disc wheel plant and rather alarming electric crane fed by overhead wire produced by Alexander Chaplin & Co. of Glasgow

Albert Jacquet. Early express locomotives of the Eastern Railway of France. 231-34. 6 diagrams (including 5 side elevations)
Edwards, the Chief Engineer of the Paris Strasbourg Railway oedered twelve Crampton 4-2-2 from J.F. Cail of Paris: WN 186-97 of 1868/9. They had 7ft 7in driving wheels. Further Cramptons were obtained from Schneider (WN 196-210) in 1856. Regray later increased the adhesive weight by emplyig heavier driving wheels and the addition of the Westinghouse brake. In 1869 twelve Cramptons were purchased from the PLM. In 1890 No. 609 was rebuilt at Epernay Works with a double-barreled boiler designed by Flaman.

The Meister rail motor. 234.
A. Meister Sons Co. of Chicago as supplied to Nevada, California and Oregon Railway petrol railcar

Model, Dublin & S.E. Ry. locomotive. 234-5. illustration
Sharp Stewart 0-4-2 Bray as rebuilt in Dublin model steam locomotive built by A.R.W. Montgomery of Bray: scale 1 inch to foot

The Central Railroad of Brazil.. 235-8. 7 illustrations
Describes journey from Rio de Janeiro to Bello Horizonte where there were large hematite deposits. Major centres served included Lafayette and Burnier, a major junction. Beyond Burnier the track was very rough as the loine was new. Two types of Mallet were in use: 0-8-8-0 at the Rio end and 0-6-6-0 beynd Burnier. Locomotives with bar frames were simpler to repair. Brazilian coal was used in a pulverized form for a time, but most coal had to be importyed.

[Aviemore direct line of the Highland section of the L.M. & S.R.] 238
Extensive damage was done to the Aviemore direct line of the Highland section of the L.M. & S.R. at several places in the neighbourhood of Carr Bridge by floods resulting from a cloud-burst on Sunday, 8 July and it was not expected to have the line in use before the end of September. Meantime railway traffic is being sent by the alternative route of Grantown and Forres to Inverness. Five railway bridges had either been completely destroyed or seriously damaged, while large stretches of embankment, of about twenty-five feet high, have been swept away or undermined.

London, Midland and Scottish Railway (L. & N.W. Section). 238
Two more 0-8-4 side tank shunting engines were in hand at Crewe, Nos. 1904 and 609. These engines were fitted with Pop safety valves, as are also those mentioned on page 371 of the July Locomarive. No. 2511 Croxteth, of the four-cylinder Claughton class, had been painted experimentally in the Midland style, and with the number 5971 on the tender sides. The old number-plates had been removed, and in their place appear the initials " L.M.S." in gilt letters. Recent conversions to G1 class with direct motion were: F class 2-8-0 compound No. 899, and G class No. 1228. The latter was simplified in October, 1910. No. 723 Coptic was the latest Precursor to be rebuilt and superheated as the George the Fifth class. The following Princes had been altered to direct motion —Nos. 27 General Joffre, 57, 88 Czar of Russia, 146 Lewis Carroll, 1373 and 1466 Sphinx. No. 3373, a Special Tank class shunting engine (originally No. 1139), had been broken up.

Aids to engineering calculations. 238-9. 2 diagrams

New 4-8-2 passenger locomotives. Canadian National Railways. 239
Canadian Locomotive Co.  No. 6000 used on Montreal to Toronto expresses. Fitted with Robinson superheater.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 239
A.C. Stamer was president-elect and Irvine Kempt was chaiman-elect for the Scottish centre

F.W. Brewer. The genesis and early development of the British 4-4-0 tender engine. 240-2. 3 illustrations
Previous part began page 198. Considers 4-4-0 design as implemented on some of the "lesser" railways. following the Dugald Drummonng inside cylinder layout developed on the North British Railway and the Dunalastair type on the Caledonian. These included the William Kirtley design built by Neilson & Co. for the London Chatham & Dover Railway; and the Sharp Stewart locomotives on the Cambrian Railways introduced by William Aston (the Beaconsfield class) and on the Furness Railway under R. Mason. (Brewer cites him as "W.R. Mason").

East Indian Railway. 242
Thirty 2-8-2T being built by Beyer Peacock

Cape Central Railway, South Africa. 242
Two Garratt 2-8-2+2-8-2 with 15 x 22 in cylinders being built by Beyer Peacock

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section B.  Carriages and wagons. 242-5. 5 diagrams

R.E.L. Maunsell, C.B.E. 245. illustration (portrait)
Appointment as Chief Mechanical Engineer, Southern Railway

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. 245
We understand that the locomotive stock of the L.M. & S. Ry. is to be divided into four groups, and numbered in the following series:
Midland, Stratford and Midland Junction, and North Staffordshire From 1 to 4,999
London & North-Western & Wirral. 5,000 to 9,999
Lancashire & Yorkshire, Furness, Maryport and Carlisle and Cleator and Workington Junction 10,000 to 12,999
Scotch lines 13,000 upwards.
The train engine in the accident at Diggle on 5 July was an Experiment No. 1406 George Findlay. It was piloted by an 18-in. goods No. 1027, which was so badly damaged that it is likely to be scrapped. We understand the L. & Y. engine involved was an ordinary 0-6-0 goods.

W. Wells Hood. 245
Announced that appointed assistant works manager of the FaverdaleWagon Works, North Eastern section of the L. & N.E.R., Darlington.

H. G. Norman White. 245
Appointed carriage and wagon superintendent of the North-Western State Ry. of India, with headquarters at Moghalpura, Punjab.

Improvements in pressed steel wagon details. 246-7. 2 diagrams

Flame cutting in railway work. 247-9. illustration, diagram

L.M. & S. RY. (Midland Division). 249
The 328-357 Series, originally with slide valves, 6-ft. 9-in. wheels, and 18-in. by 26-in. cylinders, were being reconstructed at Derby with superheaters and piston valves as sister engines to the 403 and 483 Series. No. 353, which had recently been reconstructed, was stationed at Edge Hill (L.N.W.) to run the through Cromer and Lowestoft expresses from Liverpool (Lime St.) to Nottingham and back via Stoke, in place of the L.N.W.R. 1911 Centurion which worked these trains during July. Nos. 358 to 377 (7 ft.) and some of the 378 class, such as 399 to 402, had also been reconstructed as standard superheater engines of the 483 class.

London and North Eastern Railway (G.N. Section). 249
No. 1447, one of Ivatt's Atlantics, had been fitted with a new dome and chimney to conform to the loading gauge of the N.B.R. section, where she is now stationed. Three of the G.N. Atlantics were now stationed at Sheffield and Annesley sheds and work trains on the G.C. Section to Leicester and Woodford, their numbers being 1420, 1422 and 1433. They have taken the place of some of the G.C.R. 4-6-0 engines Nos. 1100 to 1104, working over the G.N. & G.E. Joint line from March with fish, fruit and vegetable trains.

London, Midland and Scottish Railway (L.T. & S.R. Section).  249
A series of ten 4-4-2 tank engines was nearing completion at Derby. The first two or three were already in service and bore Nos. 2110 upwards, the engines formerly bearing these numbers being altered to 2209 up. The new engines are practically identical with the Thundersley class of the former London, Tilbury and Southend line.
New 0-6-2 Tank Locos. built at Stoke were Nos. 1 and 2, while the old No. 1 (2-4-0 Tank)  became 1A.

London and North Eastern Railway (Great Central Section) . 249
The series of ten 4-6-2 tank engines had been completed at Gorton Works: numbers 3, 6, 7, 30, 45, 46, 88, 153, 156 and 158. Three of Robinson's early 4-4-0 engines Nos. 104, 110, and 113 were being rebuilt with larger boilers and superheated, and also new cylinders with piston valves. No. 184, 4-6-0 small wheeled Immingham class engine, had been rebuilt with a larger boiler with superheater 84 class, also the new style of cab with sliding windows. No. 443, Glenalmond class 4-6-0, was the only oil engine running on the G.C. Section. Work had been commenced on ten four-cylinder 4-6-0 express goods engines, 9Q class, and the first would soon be in service. Some alterations were being made in the cylinders and the chimneys, dome and cab made to suit the smaller loading gauge of the G.E. and N.B. Sections. They were to bear numbers 473 to 484. No. 1166 Earl Haig and No. 1167 David Lloyd George, 4-6-0 four-cylinder express engines had been working between Doncaster and King's Cross over the G.N. main line. No. 433 had also been working on the G.N. Section in the Leeds district.

The Great Western Railway. 249
Issued revised editions of their series of booklets, each describing a particular holiday district, well illustrated and containing a map of the locality dealt with. Five of these dainty little volumes were now ready and others are in preparation. Copies can be obtained free of charge at the principal G.W.R. offices and stations, or will be forwarded on application to the Superintendent of the Line, Paddington Station, W.2. The five books are entitled: 1, The Cornish Riviera; 2, Devon the Lovely Land of the Mayflower ; 3, Shakespeare Land; 4, Wonderful Wessex; and 7, The Severn Valley.

Correspondence. 250

Genesis and early development of the 4-4-0 British express engine. Sam A. Forbes.
Is not contributor in error in saying that the six engines built for the G.N. of S.R. by Kitson & Co. in 1883-4, were to Manson's design? I always understood that these engines, which differed considerably in almost every detail from Manson's 4-4-0s built later by Kitson's, Stephenson's, and at Kittybrewster Works, were originally for a South American Railway, either Chilian or Uruguayan. They were thrown on the builders' hands and bought by the G.N. of S.R., and finished to Manson's outward design. I recollect them when working on the Buchan section before being rebuilt, and then they had some initials F.C. stamped on the motion, which is very much lighter than is usual in this country. They are now working between Aberdeen and Banchory, Maud Junction and Fraserburgh, and one on the Lossiemouth line, but of course reboilered. They have swivel link bogies.

Reviews. 250

Railway map of Great Britain, showing new railway groups, W. and A. K. Johnston, Ltd., on cloth, folded in manilla cover.
This useful map of the railways of Great Britain clearly shows the grouping resulting from the operation of the Rail-ways Act. The scale is fifteen miles to one inch, but it is so clearly drawn that every station is shown. Each group of railways is distinguished by a separate colour, and joint lines are indicated by alternating colours of the groups concerned. Thirteen small inset maps, on enlarged scales, show the lines around London, Liverpool and Manchester, Birmingham and Wolverhampton, Glasgow, South Wales and other congested areas. The map may also be obtained mounted on rollers and varnished, while a cheap edition on paper, folded, iwa sold for 3/6 net. The size is 45 by 35 inches.

Locomotive catechism. Robert Grimshaw. New York: Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. London: Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
The thirtieth edition of this very popular work on the locomotive has reached us and a perusal of its pages confirms the claim made on the title page of the up-to-date character of its contents. Over 4,000 questions connected with the construction and working of the steam locomotive, as well as the electric, are given practical answers to. Firing, and information on working the brakes are also included, although the latter is limited to the air-pressure system. Oil firing and mechanical stokers are dealt with in a very practical way, the notes on the latter being particularly opportune now the dimensions of the locomotive boiler are gradually passing the limits permissible for hand firing. Compounds and superheaters of American type are described and their features explained. We recommend the book to all students of locomotive design and also to those who are in constant touch with the operation and maintenance of railway rolling stock.

The Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway.—the smallest railway in the world, H. Greenly. Published by the Company, Ravenglass.
A very interesting account of the railway is given by Mr. Greenly in this handbook, with full particulars of the re-conditioning and re-equipment of the line, for which he, as Engineer of the Railway, is mainly responsible. A considerable number of half-tone photographs and several drawings are reproduced. The latter will appeal particularly to model railway readers, as the drawings of the general arrangements of the three types of passenger engines in use (15-in. gauge) are fully dimensioned as well as the 2-8-2 goods locomotive now building, and explanations of the main features of the designs given in full. The new stone crushing plant at Murthwaite and the tipping apparatus for the stone traffic at Ravenglass are described. From personal experience we can confirm the scenic attractions of the Eskdale district which the writer depicts in this guide, and the illustrations also will help to give some idea of its beauty and interest.

The romance of modern railways, by T.W. Corbin. Seeley Service Co., Ltd.
Nearly all boys have, in their young days, wished to be engine drivers, and though few ever realize their ambitions, the story of a locomotive is always fascinating. In this book, which describes how a locomotive is made, how it works, how rails are made, etc., a story is written which should be of educational value to all boys intending to adopt locomotive engineering as a profession. There are also chapters on Railway Pioneering; ' Bridges, Working of Single Lines, Signalling, Brakes, and various other mechanical features. The illustrations, of which there are several, are very clear, and the text is written in not too technical language for youngsters to understand. All boys interested in railway subjects should find a place for tlit book on their bookshelves.

The glories of the Thames, from Lechlade to Kingston. Published by The Great Western Railway Co., Paddington Station.
Without attempting to deal exhaustively with the Thames, this beautifully illustrated book of fifty pages relates in an interesting style the delights of the journey down stream from Lechlade to Kingston. It details the sites and scenes en route and also provides useful information. The Great Western Ry. is the link with most of the spots of natural beauty on the banks of the famous river and provides an excellent service of fast trains to Maidenhead, Reading and Oxford as well as other choice starting points for river excursions.

Grinding of metals and cleaning of castings. Home Office Report. H.M. Stationery Office,
That the importance of improved conditions of working in the metal grinding industry and also the dusty operations in cleaning castings, is evident from a perusal of this report which deals thoroughly with the methods, plant and con-ditions of working. Part I is a survey of the whole of the industry, classified in trades, and includes particulars of abrasive substances employed; grinding apparatus; descriptions of grinding processes; grinding in general metal and engineering work; measures for improving hygienic conditions, etc. Part 2 is a report on the physical examinations of workers with special reference to the effects of dust inhalation ; while Part 3 summarises conclusions and suggests new regulations for grinding in certain trades.

The London and North Eastern Railway. 250.
Issued a-new series of useful handbooks as guides to the special attractions and characteristics of the tourist districts served by their system. They are profusely illustrated and most are furnished with excellent maps. Holiday Suggestions is a booklet containing artistic illustrations in photogravure and giving brief particulars of over sixty resorts served by the L. & N.E.R. Other publications include Lodgings and Hotel Guides for the Eastern Counties, North-Eastern Counties, Scotland, and Other Districts reached by the L. & N.E.R. respectively, also a complete list of Golf Courses reached by their lines, as well as books giving details of Tourist Fares and other cheap travelling facilities. Any of these publications may be obtained from the Passenger Managers at Liverpool Street, London ; York ; Waverley Station, Edinburgh ; Aberdeen ; or any L. & N.E. Ry. enquiry office.

Southern Railway. 252
The South Eastern and Chatham Construction and Power Company, Limited, have intimated to The English Electric Company, Limited, Queen's House, Kingsway, and the Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Company, Limited, Trafford Park, Manchester, that their two tenders for motors and control gear respectively had been accepted. These equipments are required for the electrification of the first section of the South Eastern and Chatham division of the Southern Railway, and will cover the conversion to electrical operation of the suburban services within a 15-mile radius of Charing Cross. The equipments consist of no less than 508 traction motors, each of 300 H.P., with the appropriate controlling apparatus. The two contracts are possibly the largest for multiple unit equipments for main line railway electrification which have ever been placed. The work, which will give employment to many thousands of people spread over a period of nearly two years, forms part of an expenditure of £5,500,000 which was the subject of a guarantee under the Trade Facilities Act. The new trains will consist of eight bogie coaches, including trailer cars which will be added at busy times, the system being the same as that in operation on the South Western section.

Virginian Ry. electrification . 252
To increase its traffic capacity and to secure operating economies, the Virginian Ry. decided to electrify 213 miles of its track between Roanoke, Va., and Mullens, West Va. This undertaking will involve the expenditure of $15,000,000. The order for the electric locomotives, power house, transformer stations and other apparatus has been awarded to the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, and forms the largest railroad electrification contract ever placed. The division to be electrified crosses the Alleghany Mountains. The alternating current, single phase systen will be used. Power for operation will be supplied by a 90,000 horse power generating plant to be erected on the New river. This will supply 88,000 volt current to the main transmission line. For use on the trolley wire from which the locomotives will draw their power, this high-voltage current is to be stepped down to 11,000 volts by transformer stations placed at regular intervals along the line. On the locomotives, this is reduced to a low value for the operation of the motors. The electrical apparatus will be built at the East Pittsburgh Works of the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Co., where the large order for the electrification of the Chilean State Railway is nearing completion, and work on contracts for the Pennsylvania, Long Island, Norfolk and Western, and New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroads is in progress.

The Larne and Stranraer Mail Steamers Princess Maud and Princess Victoria. 252,
Belonging to the P.P. & W. Joint Rys. and the M.R.-N.C.C. now have the funnels coloured as follows :—Broad black band at top, narrow red band, lower portion yellow. Formerly they were entirely yellow. The new arrangement appears to be a compromise between the Midland, L. & N.W., Caledonian, and G. & S.W. colours for steamer funnels, which were—Caledonian, all yellow ; L. & N.W., black top, yellow below ; G. & S.W., black top, red below ; Midland, black top, white stripe, red below.

London and North Eastern Railway carriage stock. 252.
The coaching stock of the various railways in this group is being distinguished by letters, the old numbers being retained at present. The following is the classification: E.C.J.S. = J, N.E. = Y, G.N. = N, G.E. = E, G.C. = C, N.B. = B, G.N. of S. = S. Brake Vans coming out of Dukinfield shops (G.C.) brown with red ends and lettered N.E.

Number 373 (15 September 1923)

Four-cylinder "Claughton" class locomotive, London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 253. illlustration
No. 5971 Croxteth showing painted in standard (former Midland Railway) livery with number on tender and "LMS" on cab side. Number on smokebox door. For inspection by Directors. Picture courtesy of F. Dingley, superintendent of motive power LNWR or "A" Division

Four-cylinder express locomotive, "Caerphilly Castle", Great Western Railway. 254-6. 2 illustrations., diagram (side elevation)

[D.L. Rutherford retirement]. 256
Mentions that retired to practice as a consulting engineer in Edinburgh

Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway. 253.
Working trains from South Lynn through to Nottingham: an express formed of WCJS coaches from Cromer and Lowestoft to Manchester and Liverpool. No. 53 worked this train. Another 4-4-0 No, 26 worked from Spalding through to Nottingham.

Great Western Railway, 256
Nos. 7 and eight had been completed at Swindon: two narrow gauge 2-6-2T locomotives for the Vale of Rheidol line.

"Garratt" Patent locomotives for the New Cape Central Railway. 256-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
2-6-2+2-6-2 for working between Ashton and Mossel Bay over steep gradients (1 in 40) and sharp curves. Belpaire firebox and piston valves.

Rebuilt 4-4-0 locomotive, Lancashire and Yorkshire Ry. 257-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Nos. 982, 999 and 1003 rebuilt with larger Belpaire boilers.

Narrow gauge locomotives for tunnel work. 258. illustration
W.G. Bagnall 0-6-0ST for G. Phipps Ironside Mines of Northampton

Recent Italian State Railways steam locomotives. 258-60. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
2-8-2 and 2-10-0

Railways in industrial plants. 260-1. 4 illustrations

Petrol rail motor, West Australian Government Rys. 262. illustration.

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section B.  Carriages and wagons. 264-6. 3 diagrams

Albert Jacquet. Early express locomotives of the Eastern Railway of France. 267-70. 7 diagrams (side elevations)

Improved rotary driver's valve for the air brake on the Dutch Railways. 270-1. 3 diagrams

Southern Ry., L.B. & S.C. Section. 271
Ten of the 4-4-0 express engines had been rebuilt, similar to No. 55, illustrated in our October, 1922, issue. The numbers being 43, 45, 50, 52, 55, 56, 60, 67, 70 and 71. We understand two more are to follow. The last five or six had been fitted with apparatus for operating the vacuum brake in addition to the air brake.

Jersey Railways and Tramways Co. 271
The engines of this line had now been repainted green. They were formerly painted red. Another steam rail motor with Sentinel engine and boiler was on order, embodying various improvements.

An extraordinary Australian mishap. 271-2. 2 illustrations
Train wreck of the most comprehensive character that had yet occurred on the New South Wales Government Rys. At about one o'clock on Sunday morning, 20 May, a goods train was proceeding from Eskbank to Sydney consisting of twenty-nine loaded wagons and a brake-van, a gross weight of 676 tons, exclusive of the 2-8-0 engine, which weighed 108 tons. The train was equipped with automatic air brakes in full working order, the loco. having a pump 10 in. dia. steam ; 105/8 in. dia. air ; 10 in. stroke, and reservoir of 30 cubic feet capacity. At the summit of the Blue Mountains, on the level, at a place called Katoomba, a "stop dead all goods trains" notice board was fixed, and there was a hut for examiners who were on duty continuously throughout the year. These men examine the brakes throughout the trains and make any adjustments that may be necessary.  On restarting the driver failed to realise that the brakes were not properly connected and the train ran away eventually being wrecked at Springwood. The locomotive suffered severe damage wgen put into reverse gear yet the train crew survived with only minor injuries

White metal melting furnace. 272-3. diagram
Monometer furnace as supplied to Crewe Works

[J.B. Adamson retirement on 30 July]. 273

[Armstrong Whitworth & Co. Ltd]. 273
Order for 25 three-cylinder 4-8-0 freight locomotives from Buenos Ayres Great Southern Ry.

F.W. Brewer. The genesis and early development of the British 4-4-0 tender engine. 274-6.

G. Willans. Locomotive feed water heating and boiler feeding. 276-7.

Automatic couplers and vestibule gangways, G.W.R. 277=

Canadian National Railways. 282.
In May the first consignment of Western Canadian cattle was shipped from Quebec aboard the SS Manchester Division. The 576 head made the journey by rail in twenty-six C.N.R. stock cars, leaving Transcona, on the outskirts of Winnipeg at 12.05 a.m. on May 22nd, and being unloaded on the pier at Quebec at 7.20 a.m. three days later. They arrived in perfect condition, and were embarked without fright, panic or trouble. To meet this increased traffic, 1,000 30-ton steel frame box cars were being converted to stock cars. Running on two diamond-framed bogies, with disc wheels, these cars were 36 ft. long, 8 ft. 6 in. wide, and 8 ft. high. The changes involved the re-spacing of the side lining, new side doors, new door fixtures,. and four feed racks. Thus converted, these box cars will be standard dimension stock ones, modern in all respects. The rate of conversion is 200 cars per month.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway, L. & N.W. Section. 282
Further 0-8-4 side tank shunters were in hand at Crewe. These, together with 1904 and 609, which had their number plates removed, were to be painted in the Midland style, similar to 5971 Croxteth of the four-cylinder Claughton class. Nos. 2024 and 2074 were the latest B class compounds to be simplified and superheated, and fitted with direct motion and reclassified as G1. The 0-6-0 18 in. goods engine No. 1027, which was badly damaged in the mishap at Diggle, was being repaired for service again. The following engines had their cabs narrowed for working on the Midland section: Prince of Wales class, Nos. 122, 388, 812, 1132, 1321 and 1341; George the Fifth class, Nos. 228, 363 and 2242; Precursor class, Nos. 837 and 1433. Recent withdrawals included two further compound passenger engines, viz.: Nos. 1955 Hannibal and 1979 Nelson

Review. 284

The principal factors in freight train operating. Philip Burtt. London George Allen & Unwin, Ltd.
This is the first book we have seen on practical freight transport by rail, as practised on the British Railways, and it is rendered more valuable by the fact it is from the pen of an English railway official of some standing. Mr. Burtt gives some very interesting statistics in support of his statements and there is no difficulty in discerning his tendency to support larger wagons, heavier trains and up-to-date working. The chapters on the drivers' reports and the guards' journals will prove very satisfactory reading for many railway men, whilst the notes on the tractive capacities of locomotives will especially appeal to those employed in the motive power department. The author gives some excellent notes on " wagons and tares," discussing the pros and cons of the arguments for large and small vehicles ; his remarks point to the economy which would be obtained by the adoption of high capacity wagons. The table on page 92 does not look very favourable to British operating. Whilst the American (Pennsylvania R.R.) have gone from an average load per car in 1903 of 22.40 tons to 30.98 tons in 1920, the North Eastern Ry. of England has only risen from 5.11 tons to 5.26. Some very lucid explanations are given which tend to smooth off the sharp edge of these figures, but the author admits they are not satisfactory. That the "common user" system of wagons is desirable few will deny, and its successful introduction in this country is commented on by the author. Most students of railway operation will admit that the British Railways haul far too much dead weight for their paying loads, and Mr. Burtt calls attention to this in a striking manner in many parts of his book. He also deals with the varied factors affecting the train load, the organization of a goods station, the marshalling yard, transhipping, engine capacities, standardization of wagons, andIthe functions of statistics in railway operating. It is essentially a book for railway students, and a welcome addition to the literature on problems of railway working.

Powdered coal as a fuel. C.F. Herington. London : Constable & Co., Ltd. 84 illustrations.
Although the number of plants using powdered coal in this country is relatively small, there is little doubt this method of utilizing coal as fuel has taken its place as a most promising one in industrial heating operations. For several years the author has been investigating the economies and uses of pulverized fuel, erecting and operating plants under all kinds of con-ditions, and records his experience in this work. The book forms a systematic account of development and progress in the application of pulverized coal to many industries. The evolution of the many forms of burners and furnaces to their present state of efficiency ; the problems connected with the effective utilization of powdered coal in metallurgical furnaces ; the advantages, economic and mechanical, which accompany the use of fuel in this form for different furnaces, are dealt with in the light of recent experience. In dealing with the application of powdered coal for loco-motives, the author discusses the conditions the equipment must fulfil to produce maximum hauling capacity and obtain full benefits. Reference to the accompanying illustration, for which we have to thank the publishers, will give a general idea of a practical application on a modern American freight engine. The entire regulation of combustion is placed under three hand control levers in the cab ; i.e.—fuel feed, air supply and induced draught (the last employed when the locomotive is not using steam). The process of feeding and burning the powdered coal may be described as follows :—the prepared fuel, having been supplied to the closed fuel tank, gravitates to the conveyor screws, which carry it to the fuel and pressure air feeders, where it is thoroughly mixed with and carried by the pressure air through the connecting hose to the fuel and pressure air nozzles and blown into the fuel and air mixers. Additional air is supplied in the fuel and air mixers, and this mixture, now in combustible form, is drawn into the furnace by the smokebox draught. The flame produced obtains its average maximum temperature of 2,500° to 2900° F. at the forward combustion zone, under the main arch ; and at this point auxiliary air, induced by the smokebox draught, finally completes the combustion process.

"The 10.30 Limited." W.G. Chapman. London: The Great Western Railway, Paddington Station. 119 pages, 120 illustrations.
Designed to describe the non-stop run of 226 miles from London to Plymouth by the famous 10.30 a.m. Cornish Riviera express, which is performed every weekday in 4 hours 7 minutes, this attractive little book will entertain boys of all ages. Opportunity is taken here and there to explain such railway appliances and operations as are of interest, by the aid of numerous illustrations and simple words, and to also embody a few statistics regarding the traffic dealt with by the Great Western. Mention should be made of the excellent frontispiece in colour of the 10.30 at full speed. The details of rolling stock are described, as well as the actual vehicles, whilst the chapters devoted to electric train lighting, automatic continuous brakes, and the various signalling devices are particularly lucid. In the notes on freight traffic, the reference to the " Grocer's Express " through fast goods from London to Aberdeen, emphasizes the enterprise of the G.W.R. in maintaining their reputation for speed and efficiency in transport. An appropriate reference to Railway Grouping and a chapter drawing attention to the attractions of Glorious Devon with the advice to Go Great Western, completes the interesting narrative.

Number 374 (15 October 1923)

The "Harrogate Pullman Limited," L. & N.E. Ry. 285. illustration (photograph by H. Gordon Tidey)
So successful have been the results of the enterprise of the Pullman Company in running the luxurious new train between London and Newcastle via Leeds and Harrogate, since its introduction on 9 July last, that it has been decided to continue the service through the winter months. This train is given a non-stop schedule between King's Cross and Leeds, the 185¾ miles being covered in 205 minutes. It leaves King's Cross at 11.15 arrives Harrogate 15. 15 and Newcastle at 17.00. In the reverse direction the train leaves Newcastle at 09.20, Harrogate 11.15., Leeds 11.50 and is due at King's Cross at 15.15 p.m. Our illustration shows this handsome train passing Belle Isle signal box, between the tunnels at King's Cross, headed by G.N.R. 4-4-2 locomotive, No. 1460. The train consists of six Pullman cars, four third-class and two first-class, with two bogie brake vans. Alongside the train is one of Robinsori's 4-6-0 four-cylinder express engines, No. 1167 Lloyd George, waiting to go into King's Cross, being now employed on the G.N. Section of the London & North Eastern Railway. Since the photograph was taken the name- plates have been removed from No.. 1167.

[P.C. Dewhurst]. 285
P.C. Dewhurst, M.I.Mech.E., who for some years has been locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent of the Jamaica Government Rys., had been appointed chief mechanical engineer to the Government of Colombia, South America, having charge of the mechanical departments of the various railways under its control. These departments have hitherto been operated separately, but they are' now to be unified under Dewhurst, whose principal offices will be in Bogota, the Capital of the Republic. It was understood that Dewhurst would make inspections of the other departments of the government-controlled railways and report on the administration and operation generally of the various lines.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 285.
The five latest 0-8-4 side tank shunters built at Crewe had been turned out in the new livery, and were numbered from 7943 onwards, while two others, Nos. 7948-9, would shortly be running. These new engines were all fitted with "Pop" safety valves.
Nos. 1237 and 1436, "B" Class 0-8-0 compounds, and No. 1247, " F" Class 2-8-0 compound, had been converted to G1 Class 0-8-0 and fitted with direct motion. Two further compound passenger engines were being converted to two-cylinder simple, Renown Class, viz., No. 1915 Implacable and No. 1977 Mars.

London & North Eastern Ry. (Great Norhern Section). 285.
Twelve Pacific type express engines were in service Nos. 1470 to 1481. The last of the series, No. 1481, had been fitted with a shorter chimney for working over the North British line. No. 1051N, one of P. Stirling's six-coupled saddle tanks, fitted with condensing gear, had been rebuilt with a domed boiler.

Four-cylinder express locomotives, Great Southern & Western Ry. 286. illustration
For working heavy passenger trains between Dublin and Cork, Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., had completed at their Scotswood Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, six 4-6-0  locomotives, a photograph of No. 404 reproduced. Three of the engines were superheated and three plain saturated. There were two cylinders inside the frame and two outside, 14 in. x 26 in. stroke, with Walschaerts valve gear. We understand the locomotives are glvmg every satisfaction in actual working. The locomotives were built under the supervision of J.R. Bazin, chief mechanical engineer  [KPJ: actually designed by Watson].

Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Ry. (Ford rail motor train). 286
We understand these vehicles, illustrated in our last issue, were supplied by Edmonds of Thetford, and that Col. H. F. Stephens had another train on order.

Southern Ry.. 286
A new corridor train for the Continental Boat service completed at Ashford painted the new colours, green with yellow lettering.

Great Western Ry. 286
The two well-known four-coupled bogie engines, No. 7 Armstrong and No. 8 Gooch, were then numbered 4171 and 4172. The former was at Chester and the latter at Shrewsbury. No. 3417, Francis Mildrnay had been renamed Lord Mildmay of Flete.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry.. (Midland Section). 286.
During 1922, thirty-three new 0-6-0 goods engines were put into service, Nos. 3967 to 3986 and 4014 to 4026, and three 0-4-0 side tanks, Nos. 1535 to 1537.

New 0-8-4 tank locomotives, London, Midland & Scottish Ry. 287-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Crewe Works photograph of No. 380 (LNWR number plate) with "LMS" on tank. "Courtesy of George Hughes"

Horwich-built eight-coupled mineral engine, London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 288. illustration
Hughes superheated coal engine with side-window cab: No. 1427 illustrated with "LM&SR" on bogie tender (works photograph)

A modernized works engine. 289-90. 2 illustrations
Manning Wardle WN 786/1881 owned by Lucas & Aird and used inconstruction of Suakin & Berber Railway in the Soudan for which fitted with a tender; then on Assuan Dam contract; then returned to Britain and employed on Avonmouth Docks extension contract; then sold to Metropolitan Water Board for use at the Battersea Works where under the supervision of Henry E. Stilgoe it was overhauled at the Lea Bridge workshops.

Recent Italian and Austrian electric locomotives. 292-4. 3 illustrations, diagram
La Società Italiana Ing Nicola Romeo & Cia of Milan 3500V three-phase locomotives with rod drive and Herr Homfrat R. von Littrov locomotive constructed at Florisdord Locomotive Works with Brown Boveri equipment fitted with jack shaft drive

Travelling cranes for railway service. 294-7. 8 illustrations, diagram

The Caprotti locomotive valve gear. 297-302. illustration, 7 diagrams
As applied to Italian locomotive

The Welsh Highland Railway. 303-4. 2 illustrations
Photographs show Russell at Beddgelert and Baldwin 4-6-0T with number 590 on tank sides and Little Giant at Dinas.

[Extension of the Hampstead Tube Ry.]. 304
From Golders Green to Hendon due to opren within a few weeks; further 3 miles to Edgware involving double tunneels at Colindeep beneath the Burroughs (Hendon) and the Midland main line  whhere the tube is only 3½ feet beneath and a brick lined tunnel beneath the Great Northern line to Edgware.

4-6-0 passenger locomotive, L.M. & S.R. (Caledonian Section). 305 + Supplement (missing from copy)
Oban Line locomotive: sectional elevation

[Singapore linked to Johore]. 305
From 1 October 1923 trains ran across the causeway to Singapore

New narrow gauge tank engines, Great Western Railway. 306. illustration
For Vale of Rheidol narrow gauge railway from Aberystwyth to the Devil's Bridge, forming part of the Great Western system, two new 2-6-2 side tank engines Nos. 7 and 8 had been built at Swindon Works, for the summer traffic. So successful for the service have been the original engines built for this line by Davies & Metcalfe, Ltd., in 1902, that the new ones are very similar in design and dimensions. They have outside cylinders 11½-in. dia. by 17 -in. stroke with valves on top actuated by Walschaerts' valve gear and snifting valves, instead of the Stephenson motion as in the earlier engines. A boiler with Belpaire firebox is supplied and this carries a working pressure of 165 lb. per square inch as against 150 lb., giving a tractive effort of 10,510 lb., enabling an additional two coaches to be handled on the journey up the valley to Devil's Bridge, 680 ft. above sea level, which includes grades of 1 in 50 for nearly 4 miles, and very sharp curves. In view of the narrow gauge of only 1 ft. 11½ in. the centre line of the boiler is kept as low as possible. The width overall is 8 ft. The coupled wheels are 2 ft. 6 in. dia., and the rigid wheelbase 6 ft. , while the pony trucks at each end allow a side play of 4i in. in either direction; the leading and trailing pony wheels are 2 ft . dia. The side tanks hold 520 gallons of water, and the total weight in .working order is 25 tons. The engines are fitted with both vacuum and hand brakes and are also equipped with all G.W.R. standard fittings, including steam heating, etc. Four new open bogie cars for the summer traffic have also been built at Swindon for this line. Each is 32 ft. long and 6 ft. wide, with seating accommodation for forty-eight passengers. The sides of the cars extend to a height of 3 ft. from the floor, the remaining portion to the roof being open. The cars are steel panelled to a height of 2 ft., with wire netting above, with a timber hand rail above extending the full length of the vehicle. Waterproof curtains for covering the open portions in wet weather are provided. The ends of the cars are closed, but are fitted with large windows. There are four doors, one at each corner. The weight empty is 7 tons 8 cwt.

L. & N. E. Ry., Great Eastern Sectiion. 306
All of the new series of .4-4-0 tender engines up to No. 1789 in service. Work has been commenced at Stratford on ten 0-6-0 tank engines which are to be numbered 31 to 40. Great Central 4-6-0 goods engines are being tried on the G.E. main line from London.

Fairlie passenger tank engine, Swindon, Marlborough and Andover Railway. 310. illustration
Avonside Engine Co. bult in 1878. Fitted with Walschaerts valve gear; 16 x 22in cylinders; 5ft 8 in coupled wheels (0-4-4T); 1094ft2 total heating surface; 15.5ft2 grate area. Withdrawn 1892.

Apparatus for weighing locomotives. 310-11. illustration
Henry Berry & Co.

Rebuilt 4-4-2 tank engine, L. & N.E.R. — G.N. Section. 313. illustration
No. 1537 illustrated: modifications included removal of condensing apparatus and taller chimney. Transfer to Nottingham and West Riding Districts. Class X: later C12

Reviews, 314-16.

Friction. T.E. Stanton, Superintendent of the Engineering Dept. of the National Physical Laboratory. 180 pp., 71 illustrations. London; Longmans, Green & Co.
One of the benefits of the N.P.L. to British engineering is that the expert· members of the staff are now writing books of value, in which not only the results of their own research work but also of that of other workers, at home and abroad are recorded. Dr. Stanton's book is intended to deal concisely and as simply as is consistent with clear exposition, with the whole subject of the mechanical friction which exists between bodies in contact, solid, liquid or gaseous, under forces producing or tending to produce their relative motion. It collects in a single volume the results of modern investigations into the nature and laws of friction .
In pointing out the wide differences in the laws of friction correlating the magnitude of the frictional forces produced with the magnitude of the external forces acting, due to the nature of the substances, the author instances that  the friction between the wheels of a locomotive and the rails depends on the weight on the wheels and not on the speed of the wheels, whereas the frictional resistance of the water to the motion of a ship floating on it depends on the speed of the ship and is independent of the pressure of the water. The book is intended to place the subjects of friction on a sound theoretical basis, and consequently mathematical treatment occupies considerable space. But the conclusions to which the results of this treatment point are plainly stated, so that those who cannot follow the mathematics can benefit. In addition to the introduction there are seven chapters: I. The viscosity of fluids; II The external friction of fluids; III. The fluid friction of lubricated surfaces; IV. The boundary friction of lubricated surfaces; V. Solid friction; VI. Rolling friction; VII. Friction and heat transmission. Attention may be drawn to one or two points of i:nterest to locomotive engineers. The property of a lubricant, vaguely referred to as "Oiliness," is discussed in Chapter IV., and it is pointed out that its determiuing factor is the chemical composition of the lubricant. When perfect or film lubrication cannot take place the chemical composition of the surface of the bearing itself largely determines the frictional resistance. Mr. Archbutt has recently found that under the same .conditions of speed and nature of lubricant the lining of a bronze bearing with white metal enables double the load to be carried. Brake blocks are considered in Chapter V.. and mention is made that in recent practice the use of metal for the friction surfaces of brake blocks for railway carriages has been in many · cases discontinued owing to the discovery that woven fabrics can be made which give a higher coefficient of friction with greater dissipation of heat without burning or sparking, and have a much greater durability than can be obtained with metals. Chapter VI. on "Rolling Friction," is very interesting. Prof. Osborne Reynolds conclusions and experiments showed tbat "a hard roller on a soft surface rolls short of its geometrical distance, and that a soft roller on a .hard plane rolls more than its geometrical distance, and that when both roller and plane are of equal hardness the roller rolls through less than its geometrical distance." Although the author does not refer to what is known as "imperceptible slipping" of locomotive driving wheels, the explanations appear to ' account for this phenomenon. The effect of surface roughness on heat transmission which is discussed in Chapter VII., is important in connection with the heating surface of boilers and cooling surface condensers. Experiments with water passing through tubes It-in. diam. with roughened and smooth internal surfaces, showed that the heat transmitted by the roughened tube was greater.

Railways for all. J.F. Gairns. London: Ward, Lock .&Co., Ltd.
This book is very wide in its scope and describes the general working and construction of railway machinery and plant. Though prominence is given to the British Railways, the lines of most countries find a place in its 378 pages. Several chapters are devoted to a survey of the mechanics of the locomotive, its various details and fittings, and its numerous types. In the historical section the date of the first locomotive is given . as 1789 ; this is probably a printer's error for 1769, although Cugnots' engine at Paris is dated 1770. We doubt if the Stephenson motion is the most usual if present-day universal practice is considered. Valve gears are briefly described, but in referring to the Walschaerts gear the link is moved only by the return crank or eccentric. It is not affected at all by the crosshead, the motion derived from which is concerned alone with the working of the combination or lead lever. In the chapter on " Flexible Locomotives" information is given on the Fairlie, Garratt, Mallet, Kitson-Meyer and Shay types, but the first Mallet came out in 1889, not " half a century ago." Probably the author intended referring to articulated engines in general. In a book of this size slight errors are bound to occur, but t aking it altogether the writer has compiled an entertaining contribution to railway literature which will appeal to all who are interested in the subject. Features of the book are the large number of excellent illustrations, particularly the' reproductions of Mr. Mackay's photographs of modern expresses.

Gear wheels simply explained Alfred W. Marshal!
Screw cutting George Gentry.
Clock repairing and adjusting W.L. Randell.

Nos. 48, 49 and 50 of the Model Engineer Series of Handbooks. London: Percival Marshall and Co.
These useful handbooks are intended for those anxious to underst and the principles of the subjects dealt with. The book on gear wheels wil! also be of assistance in designing or making them, while that on screw-cutting covers all points of theoretical and practical value, and simply explained. For those who have had no experience of clockwork, the book on clock repairing will not only serve as an. introduction to a fascinating branch of mechanics, but will enable the reader to undertake cleaning and repairs to clocks usually found at home. In each case the books have been compiled by experienced writers and are well illustrated .

Laminated springs. T.H. Sanders, London: Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd. New York: Spon & Chamberlain. 509 pages, 282 illustrations. 315-16
In view of the importance attaching to the design and manufacture of laminated springs, it is curious that the literature dealing with this subj ect is so meagre as to be practically negligible. From time to time, odd papers read before technical institutions, or articles in the technical press, appear in connection with plate springs, but so far as is known, no text book has been published in any country dealing specially with this essential rolling stock detail.
In his treatise on " Laminated Springs," Mr. Sanders has done much to fill the gap existing in technical literature on this subject, and the author's pages bear evidence of his exceptional qualifications to undertake a work of this n ature; since his intimate knowledge of theoretical detail is obviously sustained and expanded by experience of the special manufacturing conditions and commercial applications which have such an important bearing on the purely academical aspect. Mr. Sanders is to be corn mended for his treatment of a highly mathematical subject with the use only of elementary mathematics, and those readers whose recollection of the calculus is but a painful memory, need have no apprehension as to their ability to follow the author through bis theoretical disquisitions.
This volume is divided into two portions; Part" A " deals with ." Calculations and Design," and Part "B" with " Manufacture." In the first, the author discusses first principles involving the deflection of beams at considerable length, and has derived therefrom the key formulre relating to the corresponding deflections of laminated springs These have b een carefully traced, and various correcting factors are studied in detail in order to provide for the accurate calculation of any design of plate spring. In this connection, we note what we believe to be a novel method of determining beam deflections, namely, by the development of stress diagrams. Whilst the author holds that, owing to the diversity of design, for all practical purposes the standard spring deflection formula given in the book is sufficiently accurate, he suggests the use of the stress diagram for any special study or investigation which maY arise regarding either unit deflection or cause of failure. The "backwards working" of qua rter-elliptic, or true cantilever springs, is touched upon, and indicated as a field for practical research of special importance to the automobile trade ; the usual designing arrangements for this type of vehicle including either true cantilevers, or semi-elliptics which are virtually d ouble-cantilevers owing to the width of the axle-pad bearing. Certain practical measures involved in spring manufacture are considered from the purely theoretical aspect, and it is worth noting that Professor Coker's recent researches with the aid of polarized light in connection with stresses in . en gineering structures, h ave been introduced as illuminating the subject of " centre holes " in spring plates, and the stresses caused thereby: The chapter entitled "A study in Skin Stresses" is of interest, as from the information therein given, and the high authorities quoted, it would appear that the very discrepant figures yielded by standard formulre in connection with beam stresses require much further elucidation. This the author has attempted to do, and whilst we must admit the ingenious manner of the reconciliation, we should

Avonsside Engine Co., Fishponds, Bristol. 316
Revised edition of their Locomotive Catalogue. This is an exceptionally well-produced publication profusely illustrated with the various types of locomotives designed and built by this firm for light railways, docks, contractors, steel works, collieries, gas works, sugar plantations, tea estates, nitrate works and all industrial purposes. All kinds of locomotives in general use at the present time are shown, with tables of dimensions for a wide range of service and for all practicable gauges. The 'firm usually have a number of their standard types of locomotives going through the shops, or on hand for immediate delivery. In a historical note at the beginning of the catalogue it is pointed out that the firm was founded by Stothert &Slaughter, nearly ninety years ago. The earliest locomotives built by them appeared in 1841, and were built to the desigus of Sir Daniel Gooch for the 7-ft. gauge of the G. W. Ry. In 1844 when the Bristol & Gloucester Ry. opened, Stothert &Slaughter not only built the first eleven locomotives, but contracted to work the locomotive department of the railway, for which they supplied the labour and stores during a period of two years. In 1856 the firm exported locomotives to Portugal, and between 1857 and 1871 built a number of engines for the Indian Rys. In 1864 ten 7-ft. single-driver express engines were supplied to the G. E. Ry., and for twenty-five years they worked some of the principal trains . The first eight-coupled engines for this country· were built in 1864 for coal traffic on the Vale of Neath Ry. and in 1865 ten eight-coupled tender engines were supplied to Spain and some of these are still at work. The 834th engine built by the firm went to Japan in 1871, and was the fifth locomotive to work in that country. In 1871, the Avonside Co. took up the manufacture of the Fairlie locomotive and a number were exported to India, New Zealand and South America. After 1878 the firm was reorganized by Edwin Walker, previously of the firm of Fox, Walker & Co., and he equipped adjoining works in BristoL The capital was increased in 1904, and in 1909 the firm was incorporated as a limited company. The present new and larger works at Fishponds were built in 1904, and have since been extended and equipped with the most up-todate machinery.

Trans-Zambesia Ry. 316
Beyer, Peacock & Co:, Ltd. received an order for two Garratt Articulated locomotives for this railway.

William Beardmore & Co., Ltd., 316
Locomotive works at Dalmuir have fair amount of work in hand for the Burma ;Railway and Indian State Railways, have recently booked another order for the North-Western Railway of the latter system. This is for five standard passenger superheated 4-6-0 type engines with six-wheel tenders, similar to the thirty a lready in hand for the Indian State Railways.

Electric Arc Welding. 316
One of most satisfactory methods of joining ferrous metals for structural purposes is described in a new circular issued by the Consolidated Pneumatic Tool Co., Ltd. (No. 82). The welding generators made by this firm are fitted with windings which give a drooping characteristic and so automatically and without loss of energy adjust the pressure of the generator to the voltage required at the arc. The current is controlled by two small shunt regulators. Effective use of nearly the whole of the energy at the welding point is made with this special direct current generator. Portability is a vital factor in welding machinery, and special light plants have been designed for this purpose. One plant not only supplies current for making the weld, but is combined with an air-compressing plant to operate the pneumatic tools for preparing and finishing the joint The equipment is made 10 varying capacities. Transformers are also supplied where alternating current only is available. Particulars are also given of the various accessories for electric welding

Great Western Ry. Lecture and Debating Society. 316
For the 1923-24 session, an attractive programme of lantern lectures , short papers and debates has been prepared. On Thursday, Oct. 18th, Captain F. Kingdon Wood will lecture on "Travel and Plant Hunting in Eastern Tibet." On Nov. 1st, Mr. C.M. Jenkin Jones of the L. &N.E.R will open a discussion on "The case for and against common user of wagons." "How the mind works," will be the subject of a paper read on Nov. 15th by Mr. Morley Dainow, B.Sc. (Psychologist). The annual subscription is one shilling, and application for membership should be made to Mr. L. Williams, Hon. Secretary, General Manager's Office, Paddington. The meetings are held in the General Meeting Room, Paddington Station, and commence at 5.45 p .m.

Number 375 (15 November 1923)

New 0-6-4 side-tank locomotive, Belfast and County Down Ry.. 317. illustration
No. 29 illustrated: Beyer Peacock designed to negotiate tight (170ft) curves. J.L. Crosthwait Locomotive Engineer

Locomotives at the Gothenburg Exhibition. 318-19. 2 illustrations
Exhibits at the tercentenary celebration of the city's foundation: Aktiebolaget-Lindhollmen-Motala 0-8-0 with outside valve gear and cylinders No. 1468 for Swedish State Railways and 0-10-0 constructed by Nydqvist and Holm for the 5ft gauge Russian State Railways

Side tank locomotives for New Zealand. 319-20. illustration
Three Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 0-6-0T with outside cylinders supplied

Rebuilt 0-6-4 tank locomotive, Great Western Ry. 320. illustration
Three former Barry Railway 0-6-4T rebuilt at Swindon Works with 42XX type boilers (with 180 psi boiler pressure). Nos. 1349, 1351 and 1357

Southern Railway. 320.
A.D. Jones locomotive running superintendent took over the running departments of the South Western and Brighton sections from 1 October 1923; with B. Whittle of Eastleigh and E.S. Moore of Brighton reporting to him.

Works locomotive with spark arrester. 320. illustration, diagram
Peckett & Sons Ltd 0-4-0ST modified by Peckett with spark arresting chimney supplied to J. Brotherton & Co. of Stourton near Leeds to work at large chemical works 

2-6-4 tank locomotives for the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway. 321-3. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Inside cylinder type with Belpaire firebox and patented steam reversing gear with locking device based on gun technology developed by Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. under the supervision of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (L. & N. W. Division). 323
The new 0-8-4 tank engines illustrated in last issue had cylinders with a piston stroke of 24 in. only, and not 26 in. as stated. The heating surface of these engines given as 2,046 ft2. is made up as follows :-saturated 1687.4 ft2. superheater, 358·6 ft2.

North Staffordshire Section. 323
Two more New L class of 0-6-2 tanks, Nos. 10 and 48, had been completed at Stoke, both the old engines being now on the duplicate list. The four-cylinder tank engine No. 23 was being converted into a tender engine with the side tanks and bunker removed.

Knott End Railway. 323
The four engines taken over from this line, Jubilee Queen, New Century, Knott End and Blackpool, numbered 11300, 11301, 11302, and 11680 respectively in the L. M. & S. R. List.

Southern Railway.  323
S. E. & C. goods engine No. 696 had been painted in the standard L. & S.W. colours with the word Southern and the number in large characters on the tender.

Cast-steel coupling chains. 323
Many improvements in the manufacture of the three-link coupling chain have been made during recent years. The adoption of the Gedge device enabled shackles and pins to be abandoned, with the result that weld less links were introduced made by drop stamping, etc. Now it is proposed to make the links of cast steel by an improved method of moulding. It is claimed that chains so made are double the strength of welded ones. The steel is of special tensile strength, and is heat-treated after casting. In cost the cast couplings are about 33 per cent. cheaper than weldless cast iron and steel.

A modern M.C.B. coupler. 324-5. diagram
Buckeye Company: spread of coupling: standard in North America: to Japan, India and Australia, but not to France and Germany

Passenger locomotive for the Ceylon Government Rys. 325-6. illustration
Vulcan Foundry 4-6-0 tender locomotive with side tanks and tender with three axles; the rear two of which in form of a bogie: 5ft 6in gauge. 18½ x 26in cylinders activated by inside admission piston valves driven by Walschaerts gear. 4ft 5½in coupled wheels. Total evaporative heating surface 993.3 ft2. Robinson superheater. 23.52 grate arrea; 160 psi boiler pressure.

An early Chilean locomotive. 326-7. illustration
For Port Caldera to Copiapo railway, first in Chile and South America, and constructed by Guillermo Wheelwright opened in January 1852. 4-4-0 supplied by Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson in 1859.  This had 5ft 2in coupled wheels an 16½ x 24in cylinders

Erecting Mallet locomotives on the Peking-Suiyuan Railway. 327-8. 5 illustrations
American Locomotive Co. 2-8-8-2 Mallet compound locomotives erected at Nankow for working through tunnel with 1 in 30 gradient where enginemen had to wear respirators. Special staging had to be erected to fit the cabs and asbestos lagging was added to the boiler in China (all illustrated). the total heating surface was 5538ft2. The grate area was 95ft2.

F.W. Brewer. The Great Northern Atlantic type express locomotives. 329-33. 5 illustrations
Includes No. 983 which had outside bearings on the bogie, and No. 271 which originated as a four cylinder simple ,but was rebuilt firstly as an outide two cylinder locomtive with Walschaerts valve gear and then as an inside-cylinder locomotive. These are illustrated. The large Atlantics are also described, but not illustrated.

The modern railway wheel. 333-6. illustration, 3 diagrams

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 336
The last of the second series of 0-8-4 side tank shunting engines, No. 7949, is now in service, and is painted black, thus differing from the five preceding ones, Nos. 7943-8, which were painted red. A further series of the same type was in course of construction. These engines, all of were fitted with Pop safety valves, would be finished similar to No. 7949, and numbered from 7950 upwards. Under the new scheme of numbering, the first engine of this type, No, 380, had been allotted the No. 5730. Likewise, the first of the 0-8-2 type, No. 289, would become No. 5700, followed by the others (which will be renumbered in order of building) up to and including No. 5729. Several more passenger engines of various types were being painted in the new livery. These included two of the rebuilt 4-4-0 Precursor type, viz., No. 310 Achilles and No. 2578 Fame, as well as the 6-ft. 6-in. straight link engine No. 860 Merrie Carlisle. The two former re-numbered 5290 and 5309 respectively, while Merrie Carlisle beaome No. 5050. No. 1927 Goliath (Jubilee class) and No. 1952 Benbow (Alfred the Great class) were being converted into two-cylinder simple (Renown class). No. 1284 was the latest B class 0-8-0 compound to be converted to G1 class (superheater). Nos. 2843, 2850 and 2863, 4-4-0 outside cylinder tank engines, N.L.R. type, had been broken up at Bow Works. These engines were formerly Nos. 50, 58 and 83 respectively in the N.L. list.

Great Western Ry. 336
O.E.F. Deverell, assistant to the chief draughtsman, hads been appointed chief draughtsman at Swindon, and F.W. Hawksworth appointed assistant chief draughtsman.

London & North Eastern Ry.-N. E. Section. 336
On 8 October 1923, whilst working the 12.38 train ex. Darlington to Tebay, No. 366, Fletcher 2-4-0 passenger engine broke the right-hand connecting rod at Kelleth, near Gaisgill. The broken rod pierced the firebox, scalding badly both driver and fireman.

Hull & Barnsley Section. 336
A number of the Stirling 0-6-0 goods engines had been rebuilt at Dariington with superheater boilers. These engines were fitted with domes and N.E. design of chimneys and form a great contrast to the original Stirling straight backs.

E.L. Ahrons. Locomotives of the Glasgow and South Western Railway. 337-9.  5 illustrations
Between 1897 and 1899 eighteen 0-6-0 were built. These had Manson cabs, direct valve motion with the weight shaft below. These were known as dromedaries. 160-2 were built in 1897; 163-9 and 172-6 in 1898 and 177-9 in 1899. Nos. 164 and 168 were leent to the GWR during WW1. They had 18 x 26in cylinders; 5ft 1½ coupled wheels; 1193 ft2 total heating surface; 16.5 ft2 grate area and 150 psi boiler pressure. The 34 361 class (later 101 class) 0-6-0 were larger: Nos. 361-80 were built by Neilson Reid (WN 5655-74 in 1900); 391-402 (North British Locomotive Co. WN 17884-95 in 1907) and Nos 12 and 13 at Kilmarnock in 1910. They had 18 x 26in cylinders; 5ft 1½ coupled wheels; 1208 ft2 total heating surface; 18 ft2 grate area. Whitelegg rebuilt them in 1920-2 with 1361 ft2 total heating surface boilers. In 1903 Manson introduced the 4-6-0 type to work over the steeply graded line between Glasgow and Kilmarnock with gradients as steep as 1 in 67/1 in 70 and long climb south from Kilmarnock. Nos 381-90 were supplied by the North British Locomotive Co. WN15734-43: these had 20 x 26in cylinders; 6ft 9in coupled wheels; 1852 ft2 total heating surface; 24.58 ft2 grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure; Stephenson link motion; steam reversers of the James Stirling type; Belpaire fireboxes and I section connecting rods. Seven further were constructed at Kilmarnock: Nos. 119, 120, 123-5 in 1910 and 126-7 in 1911. Whitelegg rebuilt them in 1920 with 1861 total heating surface; 27 ft2 grate area and 175 psi boilers. A steam rail motor (steam railcar) was introduced in 1904. The locomotive portion had a traditional boiler and 9 x 13in cylinders and 3ft 6in coupled wheels

Industrial railways. 340-1. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Overhead electric type supplied by Sanderson Bibby Co. Also mentions battery power.

British Empire Exhibition. 342
Model of Post Office Tube Railway constructed by Bassett-Lowke to be exhibited

London & North Eastern Ry. (N.E. Section). 342
Nos. 2383-92, superheated 0-6-0, constructed at Darlington. Nos. 982-6, 0-4-0T, constructed for use at Hull docks; fifteen 3-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines being constructed with reduced height boiler mountings for wider use within system.

Four-wheel drive lorry for road or rail. 342-4. 7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation), plan
Wheels designed to be changed between flanged type for railway and either pheumatic or solid rubber. Capable of hauling trains and being tried on Derwent Valley Railway. Built at Slough by FWD. C.F. Cleaver Managing Director.

Corrosion and locomotive boilers. 344-5.
Stainless steel and Apexior coatings

J.C.M. Rolland, Victorian Railways notes. 346-7. illustration

Number 376 (15 December 1923)

Three-cylinder locomotives for suburban service, Buenos Ayres Great Southern Ry. 349-50. illustration, 2 diagrams (side & front/rear elevations)
2-6-4T supplied by Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.; further fifteen being supplied by North British  Locomotive Co. Ltd under supervision of Livesey, Son & Henderson

New shunting engines, North Eastern Section, London & North Eastern Railway. 351. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Five inside cylinder (14in x 20in) 0-4-0T locomotives built at Darlington Works and numbered 982-986 (number 982 illustrated). Acknowledges both Gresley and A.C. Stamer.

Southern Railway (L. & SW. Section) re-built 4-cylinder express engine. 352-3. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Urie rebuild of Drummond design which retained its four cylinders, but removed the cross tubes from the firebox: No. 449 illustrated.

Rebuilt goods engines, Great Southern and Western Ry. of Ireland. 353. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Originally built as 355 class of 0-6-0 under R. Coey in 1903: seven supplied by Sharp, Stewart and numbered 355-61. In 1907 rebuilt as 2-6-0s with radial leading axle. Further rebuilt under Bazin with pony trucks and larger Belpaire boilers with higher boiler pressure, improved larger cabs and mechanical lubricators.

Mallet articulated locomotive, North Western Ry. of India. 354. illustration
2-6-6-2 compouind supplied by the Baldwin Locomotive Co. for the 5ft 6in gauge.

The "Still" system internal combustion locomotive. 355-7. 3 diagrams (including side elevation sections), plan
Cites Patent GB 200, 586 held by Margetson and Robinson

E. Lassueur. New "Baltic" type tank locomotive for the Java State Rys. 358-9. illustration
4-6-4T thirty supplied by Henschel & Son (who prepared the drawings); fifteen by Saxon Engine Works of Chemnitz and thuirteen by Esslingen Machinery Co,

The modern railway wheel. 359-62. 5 illustrations, diagram
Davis wheels made from manganese steel with treads subjected to heat treatment to harden them. Testing to destruction.

F.W. Brewer. The Great Northern Atlantic type express locomotives. 362-5. 3 illustrations
No. 251 protype large Atlantic, and two experimental compound Atlantics: No. 292 built at Doncaster and No. 1300 built by Vulcan Foundry.

Golders Green-Hendon Extension of the Hampstead Tube Ry. 364; 365. 4 illustrations
Opened on 19 November 1922 by Sir Philip Lloyd-Greame, President of the Board of Trade, driving the first train.

"Garratt" locomotive for the Burma Railways. 366. diagram (side elevation), plan
2-8-0+0-8-2 built Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd.

Great Western Ry. 366
Orders placed at Swindon: 45XX 2-6-2T Nos. 4555-4574; 42XX 2-8-0T Nos. 5215-5264 and 43XX 2-6-0 Nos. 6355-6359. Three further Castles were almost complete, leaving six more to come.

[S.E. Tyrwhitt appointment]. 366
Second assistant to Diistrict Locomotive Superintendent, Barry, GWR.

New motor cars for the Mersey Electric Railway. 367-9. illustration
Built by Cravens Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. of Sheffield with Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. electrical equipment. Five car sets: two motor cars and three trailers. First car motor car illustrated. Control gear designed to interface with that fitted to earlier stock.

Indian Railway Conference Association. 369-71. 2 diagrams
Held at Simla on 11 October 1923. Ptresident G.L. Colvin. Report on automatic couplers by Sir Henry Freeland. Diagrams are of Willison coupler.

Monel metal. 373. diagram
Marketed by G. & J. Weir Ltd. of Glasgow. Relatively high tensile strength at high temperatures, thus making it useful in applications involving superheated steam: firebox sxtays and locomotive piston rings.

Machine sshop drives. 373-4. illutration
David Bridge & Co. of Castleton, Manchester. Line shaft drives, friction clutches, and all-electric drives

T.H. Sanders. Laminated railway springs. Section IV. Spring suspension. Sub-section B. Carriages and wagons. 375-6. diagram

Ladies' compartments. 376. illutration
Indian railways logo for identifying coaches for female passengers

On bogie driving wheels trailing The genesis and early development of the British 4-4-0 tender engine. F.W. Brewer
W. B. Thompson, whose knowledge of early locomotive matters is well known, has raised the following queries in connection with this article:-
1. That there were twelve, not eighteen, of D. Drummond's 4-4-0s of 1877-78 on the North British Ry. Mr. Thompson thinks that the first one was built in 1876.
2. That these N. B. Ry. engines had a steam pressure of 140 lb. per sq. in., and not, as stated in the article, 150 lb.
3. That the boiler pressure of Wm. Adams's 135-146 class, built for the London and South Western Ry. in 1880, was at first, if not afterwards, 160 lb., although 140 lb. is the pressure usually assigned to this batch. .
4. That the weight of S.W. Johnson's original 4-4-0s on the Midland Ry., Nos. 1312-1321 (1876-77), ought to have been 40 tons 6 cwt., instead of 47 tons 7 cwt.
Taking these points seriatim, I find that . Thompson is quite correct in stating that there were only twelve of Mr. D. Drummond's 4-4-0 tender engines on the N. B. Ry. According to particulars just supplied to me by the L. & N. E. Ry. Co., the engines were built in the following order :-
Nos. 476-479 Neilson & Co. 1877
Nos. 486-489 Neilson & Co. 1878
No. 490 N. B. Ry. Co. 1878
Nos. 491-493 N. B. Ry. Co. 1879
The railway company also inform me that the boiler pressure was 140 lb. for all these engines. On the other hand. the figure of 150 lb. mentioned in the article (August issue, p: 240) was given me a year or two ago by the North British Locomotive Co., Ltd., and this higher pressure they have now confirmed as being correct for the Neilson engines. As regards the steam pressure of Adams's 4-4-0's, Nos. 135-146 of 1880, the makers, Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., have  examined their records, and from these it is clear that the boilers were constructed and tested for 160 lb. working pressure. This was a relatively high pressure in those days, the much more usual one being 140 lb. only, though 150 lb. was in use. It is curious that all the ordinary sources of information—and they are fairly numerous—put the pressure for these particular 4-4-0s at the latter figure. The next succeeding series of  Adams's 4-4-0 express engines, Nos. 445-456, constructed by Robert Stephenson & Co., Ltd., in 1883, undoubtedly did have 160 lb , and hence it is evident that Adams earlv favoured what was then deemed to be a. fairly high pressure. In 1890 he employed 175 lb., again ahead of most of his contemporaries.
The weight of the first Midland Ry. 4-4-0's, Nos. 1312-1321, ought to have been 40 tons 7 cwt., made up as under

tons cwt
On bogie 13 10
driving wheels 14 10
trailing 12
Total 40 7

These figures were obtained from the makers, Kitson & Co., Ltd., before the article was written, and the weight given in the June issue, p. 176, viz., 47 tons 7 cwt., was due to a typist's error.
In addition to the queries above referred to, Thompson calls attention to the omission of particulars as to whether the boilers mentioned in the article generally were either telescopic or butt-jointed, as the case might be, the diameter being more or less affected thereby. In several instances, no doubt, such information could have been furnished, but, personally, I think that the particulars actually given are sufficient for the purpose of the article.
I take this opportunity to make clear the fact that I have dealt solely with the British eight-wheeled engine with tender, and with four-coupled wheels and a leading four-wheeled bogie. .

London & North Eastern Ry. 378
Work was to be commenced on a connection between the former Hull & Barnsley Ry. main line and the N. E. Ry.-Bridlington branch-for the purpose of diverting traffic from Cannon Street Station to Paragon Station. When the new line is completed Cannon Street Station is to be converted into a goods depot.

Reviews. 378

A century of locomotive building by Robert Stephenson & Co., 1823-1923. J. G. H. Warren. Newcastle-on-Tyne: Andrew Reid & Co., Ltd. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
On June 23rd, 1823, Robert Stephenson, George Stephenson, Edward Pease and Michael Longridge signed the agreement establishing the firm, ever since known as Robert Stephenson & Co., which was the first in the world exclusively devoted to locomotive building, and which has consequently this year completed its one hundredth year of business. To commemorate this event the volume with the above title has been published, its author, who has been for many years the firm's chief draughtsman. being specially qualified for his task, both by reason of his intimate acquaintance with the work turned out by the firm and by the facilities at his disposal for searching their records. Since, during the first seven years the firm was in business, no other exclusively locomotive building works existed, and that this period covered the time during which the locomotive was being developed into a practical form, it necessarily follows that its early history is, in effect, the history of the locomotive during that period. It is not surprising, therefore, that the first 263 pages of the 461 con- tained in the book are devoted to this most interesting era, and it may be said at once that a good deal of new and impor- tant information concerning the events of this period is now for the first time given to the public. One of the most valuable features of the book is the author's careful exclusion of the numerous hearsay statements, mostly originating many years after the events to which they refer and which have been so frequently repeated by modern writers, and his painstaking collection of evidence relating to the material facts, which is as nearly contemporary as possible. Of course, during the long history of the firm, it has been concerned in most of the issues around which controversy, more or less heated, has centred, such as the origin of the blast pipe, inside cylinders, the multi- tubular boiler, the relative merits of four or six-wheeled engines, the link motion, etc., and all these are dealt with by Mr. Warren in a conspicuously fair and unbiassed manner, the best available evidence, the authority for which is in most cases quoted, being given to the reader, who is then left to form his own conclusions. Concerning the link motion very full particulars are given of the events leading up to this :nost important discovery which leave little room for doubt as to whom credit is due for it, and a tracing of the drawing, still in the possession of the firm, showing the first engine so fitted, is also given. The fact is established that it was delivered to the North Midland Ry. at the latter end of 1842, but it is to be regretted that no attempt has been made to follow up the history of this, undoubtedly one of the most historically interesting locomotives ever built. On page 356 a photographic illustration is reproduced of one of the firm's early six-coupled, inside cylinder goods engines, with the inscription "Long Boiler Engine, Hercules Type." Beyond the date 1845, there are no further particulars, and the author is possibly unacquainted with its identity. The photograph was, in fact, taken at the Stratford works of the Great Eastern Ry., where the engine was repaired about fifty years ago. It was named Lord Robartes, and is understood to have been sent to Cornwall. As the builders' number of the engine was 619 it was apparently of a slightly later date than that stated. The early chapters deal with the lives of the two Stephensons and follow the various steps in the gradual improvement of the locomotive from Trevithick's first effort in 1804. Then follows a very full account of the early productions of the firm leading up to the " Rocket" and the RainhiIl trials of which a more authentic and comprehensive description is given than any which we believe to be now available to the general public. A number of the early Liverpool and Man- chester Ry. engines are next described, followed by the "Patentee" and the "Long Boiler" engines, whilst, after a chapter on the gauge experiments, the later history of the firm is discussed, though naturally somewhat more briefly, bringing it right down to the present time and including the transfer of the establishment from Newcastle to Darlington in 1902, and a short note of the firm's activities there during the war period. Whilst the chief object of the book is the tracing of the various stages in the design of the locomotive from its earliest conception with, of course, particular reference to those features which have, at one time or another, been the speciality of the Stephenson firm, there is, in addition, a good deal of valuable light thrown on the practice and experiments of other builders, particularly in the early period; thus on page 258 it is shown that Bury's engine" Liver" for the L. & M. Ry. was constructed with outside frames on the Stephenson principle though retaining the Bury form of boiler, and on page 338 there is a most interesting reproduction of a broad-gauge 8-ft. single for the Great Western Ry. by the firm of Tayleur. The work is embellished with a very large number of excellently executed illustrations, including many hitherto un- published photographs and copies of old working drawings, together with facsimiles of unique and early letters and other documents, all of which add very considerably to its value and interest. There can be little doubt that for many years to come it will rank as a standard work of reference for matters appertaining to the early history of the locomotive and the celebrated firm in honour of whose centenary it is now produced.

The railways of Great Britain. G.G. Jackson. The Religious Tract Society. 379
This is a most interesting book for the young railway enthusiast. Written in a pleasing manner and profusely illustrated it gives the story of the British Rys. as they were up to midnight, December 31st, 1922, although the Lancashire and Yorkshire is treated separately just as if it had remained independent until that date. Many photographs of old locomotives and rolling stock are included to show the great progress in construction. The writer has made a slip when he states that the North Wales Narrow Gauge Ry. (now Welsh Highland Ry. by the way) connects at the foot of Snowdon with the only mountain rack railway in this country. The lines are on opposite sides of the mountain.

Universal Directory of Railway Officials, 1923. London: The Directory Publishing Co., Ltd., 379
This useful directory appears for the twenty-ninth successive year, and on this occasion is published later than usual in order to include the changes consequent on the grouping of the British railways. In this edition the tramways have been eliminated and the directory re-arranged in eleven sections. It is divided as follows: Official, Great Britain, Ireland, Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, North America, Central America, Mexico and the West Indies, South America and Personal Index of Railway Officials. In addition to giving the principal officials of the railways and their addresses, particulars are included of the gauges of the lines, rolling stock, figures and mileage. In future editions we would suggest the Midland and Great Northern Joint Ry. should be included as well as the Weston, Clevedon and Portishead, Snailbeach, North Sunderland, and Swansea and Mumbles Rys., as these lines are not affected by the Railways Act so far.

Railway Amalgamation in Great Britain, Major W. E. Simnett. 379
An important work on has just been published by the Railway Gazette, Price 15/- net. Both as officer of the Amalgamation Tribunal and as a former director of the Ministry of Transport, Major Simnett is exceptionally qualified to treat of this subject. The work deals with the whole.course of railway amalgamation from the earliest years up to 1923. It describes the Government Control during and after the war, the railway agreements and compensation, the Railways Act, the Ministry of Transport, the work of the tribunal, and the new railway system and its organization. Surveying the railway problem in other countries, both in Europe and America, the author shows that this is a question of world-wide importance. In a brief concluding chapter, he deals thoughtfully and authoritatively with the future of the railway system of this country. The exceptionally full original documents reproduced in the appendices, especially the detailed financial terms of amalgamation and absorption, should lend an added value and interest to the volume.

Hampstead Tube Ry. Extension.. 380
After five months' work, one of the new tube tunnels beneath the Burroughs Hendon, was completed on 27 November 1923, when the miners broke through at a point near Hendon (Central) Station. The tunnel, which is nearly three-quarters of a mile long, is part of the Edgware extension and a connection wiII shortly be made at Hendon to enable through trains to run from Golder's Green to Edgware. It is interesting to note that so accurately has the driving of the tunnel been accomplished, that the deviation from the centre line only amounts to five-sixteenths of an inch.
Work started at Colindeep where the tunnels pass beneath the Midland main line at right angles. Here the excavating had to be done by hand, the progress being necessarily slow. Once clear of the main line railway, however, rotary excavators were employed, which enabled the engineers to complete about 60 ft. per day with two shifts working day and night. Those excavators take the form of a large wheel, on the spokes of which are knives. By means of electric motors, a rotary motion is imparted to the wheel which gouges its way through the clay. The dislodged earth falls on to a travelling belt which carries it to where it can conveniently be transferred to skips and so to the tunnel mouth. About 5,000 tons of earth will have to be excavated to form these two tunnels. All this earth has been transported to other parts of the railway, to form embankments and fill up natural hollows in the land. Excellent progress can be recorded on the construction of the new line between Colindeep and Edgware. The station buildings at Colindale, Burnt Oak and at Edgware, the terminus, are in advanced stages of construction, and it is anticipated that the spring of 1924 will see fast through trains operating between Edgware and the city.

Mr. J. G. H. Warren. 380
At the King's Head Hotel, Darlington, on Monday, 26 November 1923, a complimentary dinner was given by the directors of Robert Stephenson & Co., Ltd., to Mr. J. G. H. Warren, on the occasion of his retirement from the position of chief draughtsman. Lord Daryngton, P.C., a director of the company, presided, and he was supported by . C. N. Goodall, managing director; . J. M. Galt, works manager; Mr. Charles Hyde, secretary; Mr. A. C. Stamer, assistant chief mechanical engineer of the L.N.E. Railway Co. ;  A. P. Whitwell, . A. H. Bone (New York), S. E. Thornton (London representative of Robert Stephenson &Co., Ltd.), Mr. S. Cockshott, and a number of inspecting engineers, together with the staff of the company.
A smoking concert followed the dinner, when Lord Daryngton took the opportunity of presenting Mr. Warren with a handsome writing table, which had been subscribed for by the staff and friends.
Lord Daryngton spoke of the excellent service rendered to the firm by Mr. Warren during his nineteen years' service as chief draughtsman, and paid a high tribute to him as author of the book, A Century of Locomotive Building, which had just been issued, and expressed the hope that the air of Bath, to which resort Mr. Warren is retiring, would restore him to good health and strength. Messrs. Goodall, Stamer, Galt, Hyde and Cockshott also spoke in support of the toast. Mr. Warren thanked those present for the handsome souvenir, which he would treasure as a reminder of his connection with the company and the friends he left behind him in the town and district. Other toasts were" Robert Stephenson & Co., Ltd." (Mr. Stamer), "The Drawing Office" (Mr. Galt), "Our Guests" (Mr. Hyde). Songs and violin solos were contributed by Messrs. Salmon, Lawson, Hey, Bruce, Brown, Laws and Collier, and a very pleasant evening terminated by the singing of . Auld Lang Syne.

Southern Ry. 380
For the approval of the directors three S. E. & C. locomotives had been painted in different styles experimentally. No. 686 (0-6-0) black with green lines, not No. 696 as stated in our last issue. 728 (4-4-0) green with white lines and 825 (2-6-0) black unlined. The numbers in large figures on the tender sides, with the word Southern above. The numbers were also painted on the buffer beams and inside the cabs.

South African Rys. 380
The South African Rys. placed an order with Beyer, Peacock & Co., Ltd., for twenty Garratt type locomotives of four different designs, viz., six 2-8-2, 2-8-2, six 2-6-2, 2-6-2 and six smaller engines of the same wheel arrangement. These are all for the 3-ft. 6-in. gauge. For the 2-ft. gauge they are to build two 2-6-0, 0-6-2 engines.

New chart of pacific or 4-6-2 type express locomotive, London & North Eastern Ry. 380
A graphic representation of up-to-date locomotive practice is portrayed in the large chart of Mr. Gresley's fine three-cylinder express locomotive just published at the offices of the LOCOMOTIVE. Price 1/6 per copy. On this large engraving (32 in. x 17 in.) the complete details are numbered distinctly, and the correct name of each part is mentioned in the list below, affording practically an abridged locomotive dictionary.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 380
The last of the new 0-8-4 tanks would shortly be in service, No. 7959. Work was proceeding on the new 4-6-4 tanks, the first of which was already in an advanced state of construction. No. 1967 Cressy was the latest passenger compound to be converted to two-cylinder simple, Renown class, while No. 1404, B class compound, had been converted to G1 class (superheater). The new numbers for the 0-8-2 tanks would commence at 7870 (old 1185), and not as stated on page 336 of the November issue.

Locomotives at the Gothenburg Exhibition. 380-
In our article last month (p. 318), the engine exhibited by the Motala Works for the Swedish State Rys. should have been given as No. 1466, the 700th locomotive built by them. The engine illustrated is identical, but is No. 1468, the number given under the block.

Locomotives—light class (spare parts list). 380.
The foregoing is the title of a very interesting booklet received from Andrew Barclay, Sons & Co., Ltd., the well-known locomotive builders of Kilmarnock. So far as we can recollect, this is the first instance of a booklet of this type being published by a British locomotive builder-and its production by Barclay's is due to the fact of the popularity of their standard 0-4-0 and 0-6-0 narrow gauge engines, Classes "E" and "F" respectively, which were introduced by them a few years ago. Generally speaking, such diversity of types are presented in small engines, owing to compliance with customers' demands, that it has not been worth while to compile a spare parts list, and it is compli- mentary to Barclay's to find that their standard unamended design is acceptable to such an extent that this list has become a necessity. A brief introduction appears in the booklet, following which instructions in connection with demands by cable are given. Classes" E " and " F" are then described and illustrated, the code words being given for the three cylinder sizes and four track gauges of "E," twelve types in all; and two cylinder sizes and four track gauges in "F," eight types in all- or a total for the two patterns of twenty types. The" standard" gauges are 2 ft., 2 ft. 6 in., metre, and 3 ft. 6 in. A few illustrations of these locomotives at work in gas plants, quarries, etc. are shown, and the important part of the booklet is then reached. This opens with a key diagram of the engine, with a separate boiler diagram, having every visible part numbered and keyed to a name list. The following pages give half-tone illustrations of practically every detail, with a comprehensive title and key number attached. Standard drawgear for these engines follows, and the booklet concludes with" instructions for drivers" and enquiry forms, which the firm are justified in thinking will bear fruit as their reward for the compiling of this most useful publication- intended to make light the work of those having control of Classes "E" and "F."