Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 34 (1928)
Key file

Number 425 (14 January 1928)

Three-cylinder 4-4-0 passenger engine, L. & N.E. Ry. 1 + folding plate (illustration).

4-4-0 passenger engines: "Director" class L. & N.E. Ry. 1-2. illustration, table
No. 6394 Lord James of Douglas illustrated. Notes Great Northern pattern chimney and snifting valves fitted and list of all names (noting their duplicates)

Tank locomotives, Port of London Authority. 2-3. illustration
Hudswell, Clarke & Co. Ltd outside cylinder 0-6-0T Nos. 71-3 for working in Victoria Dock (No. 8 illustrated from an earlier series). 16 x 24in cylinders; 3ft 9in wheels; 718ft2 total heasting surface; 12.5ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressure

Pulverised coal fired locomotive. 3. illustration
2-8-0 built by Allgemeine Elektricitäts Gesellschaft (AEG)

[Nitrate Railways Co., Chile]. 8
Order for three 2-8-2+2-8-2 Beyer Garrett locomotives from Beyer Garrett for Iqueque to Carpas 1 in 25 incline.

[Peruvian Corporation]. 3
Order for 2 locomotives from Hawthorn, Leslie & Co.

L. & N.E. Ry. (G.E. Section). 3
B12 4-6-0 Nos. 8505, 8517 and 8523 fitted with ACFI feed-water heaters.

Recent "Garratt" locomotives. 4-8. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams (side & front elevations)
2-6-2+2-6-2 for metre gauge Assam Bengal Railway and for Trans Zambesia Railway and 2-8-0+0-8-2 compound locomotve for Burma Railways

Technical essays. No. XIX—On the rivals of the steam locomotive. 8-9.
For suburban working, electricity has decided advantages over steam traction:
(a) Increased acceleration, the resulting increase in average speed raising the traffic capacity of any given road on a running time unit basis.
(b) Elimination of terminal shunting, and therefore of signal movements.
(c) Reduction of train length per passenger seated.
(d) Current consumption is proportional to load.
(e) Greater cleanliness.
On the other hand, the following must be cited as disadvantages;
(a) Increased capital and maintenance costs.
(b) Greater wear and tear of permanent way, due to relatively low centre of gravity.
(c) Increased wear of brake gear and flattening of tyres, due in part to the greater inertia effects of the rotating armature.
(d) Minimum terminal time has been shown to be not less than that for steam traction, in part due to the time taken by the motorman and guard in transferring to the opposite end of the train.
(e) In the event of a breakdown at the power station the whole section concerned is affected, and the effects are not limited to an individual train. Further, frost, etc., will substantially reduce current transmission efficiency when the third rail system is adopted.
Considered that diesel engine had not yet developed sufficiently for railway traction (a rather unwise prognosis for 1928).

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Ry. 9-10. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Kitson inside-cylinder 4-4-0s. A1 class WN 2247-50; 2337-8 of 1880 and 2531-40 of 1883/4. They had 17½ x 26 in cylinders; 5ft 6in coupled whaals; 19,75ft2 grsate area; 1056ft2 total heating surface and worked at 140 psi. Continued page 81.

Piston valve chamber boring and facing machine, Swindon Works, G.W. Ry. 10-11. illustration
Supplied by Craven Bros.

Eight-coupled tank locomotive, Paris, Lyons & Mediterranean Ry. 12-14. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
4-8-4T four-cylinder compound

Stockton and Darlington Ry. locomotive history, 1825-1876. 14-15. 2 illustrations
Gilkes, Wilson & Co. WN 82-5; 88-93 0-6-0 initially had names (No. 125 Gazelle illustrated). Lost names when absorbed into NER (No. 1916 illustrated)

Douglas Seaton. On the footplate of the Cornish Riviera Express.  15-17. illustration, table
21 November 1927: Driver Wimhurst, Fireman W. Howkins and Locomotive Inspector H.J. Robinson. Locomotive No. 6005 King George II. Log of performance

Snow ploughs on the Highland Ry. 17-18. 2 illustrations
No. 73 Snaigow with small snowplough and with 0-6-0 pilot engine No. 138 with large snowplough (with snow) at Wick: photographs by C.R. Nunn

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 18-19. 4 tables

New express passenger "Garratt" locomotives, Sao Paulo Ry. 20-2. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Beyer Peacock 2-6-2+2-6-2 for 5ft 3in gauge with Belpaire firebox to requirements of H.E. Dalzell chief mechanical engineer

Electric welding for rolling stock. 23-4. illustration, diagram
British Secheron Co. equipment

Great Western Ry. 24
One of the 2-6-0 engines of the "4300" class has been rebuilt with a larger boiler and modified leading truck and re-numbered 8300. It is being tried in Cornwall (see 43xx page).

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 24
A further seven 0-6-0 superheater goods engines had been completed at Crewe and put into service on this section, Nos. 4439-45. Further deliveries of the same type comprise Nos. 4487-8 and 4502-6 ex North British Loco. Co., and Nos. 4379-81 ex Barclays. The last named complete an order for twenty-five engines (series 4357-81), all of which are at work on this section. No. 9654 is the latest ex-R.O.D. 2-8-0 type locomotive to be turned out at Crewe after reconditioning. Class "D" 0-8-0's Nos. 9006 and 9021 (old Nos. 1863 and 1876) had been converted to class G1 (superheater). No. 9067, formerly class G and now class G1 (which was noted last month), had been provided with a standard Belpaire boiler. Two additional Precursor class locomotives had been withdrawn from service, viz., Nos. 665 Mersey and 772 Admiral. Other withdrawals included 4-4-2 (Precursor) tank No. 1536 and 6 ft. 2-4-0 S.L. class Engineer, Manchester.

Composite first, second & third class sleeping cars, Danish Rys.  24. diagram (side & end elevations & plan)
General arrangement of one of the composite sleeping cars running on the Danish State Rys. between Copenhagen and Randers, and also to Esbjerg and Tingley. These cars had six third-class compartments with three berths in each, and six second-class divisions with two berths in each, but the latter can, if necessary, be converted to first-class with one berth in each; there was a lavatory at either extremity of the car. These vehicles were built in Denmark to the order of the Wagon Lits Co., who let them on hire to the Danish State Rys. The arrangements allowed for a day or night service, the seats being convertible into sleeping berths and vice versa. The cars are thoroughly warmed in winter by a separate stove in each car, so that no discomfort is experienced should the car be detached from the train or when on the train ferries.

[Wimbledon and Sutton branch]. 24
Work had commenced on the construction of the Wimbledon and Sutton branch of the Southern Ry. West of Wimbledon station, on the down side, near the E signal box, a siding had been laid in to allow of the formation of the earthworks.

Factors in the design of steam locomotives. Section VI—wheel arrangements, engine types, bogies and springs. 25-6.
The lcomotive as a vehicle

The first locomotives in Nova Scotia. 27-8. 2 illustrations
Coal from the Albion Mines at Stellarton led to the construction of a railway under the direction of Peter Crerar, originally from Breadalbane in Perthshire. in 1835 three locomotives were bought from Timothy Hackworth: Samson, Hercules and John Buddle. The first was shown at  the Chicago World's  Fair in 1883. Albion and Pictou were bought in 1859 and Vulcan in 1853.

G. Reder. Locomotives of the Madrid, Zaragoza and Alicante Ry. 29-30. 3 illustrations
Sharp Stewart outside-cylinder 0-8-0; Bourbonnais 0-6-0 supplied by Hartmann Works of Chemnitz and 2-4-0 designs supplied by Maquinista Terrestre y Maritima of Barcelona and from Sharp Stewart.

Wagon drawgear. 30-2. 6 diagrams
Railway Clearing House 1923 specification for traders' wagons: simple continuous drawbar

New railway bridge at Grantham. 32.
Over Great North Road installed by John  Butler & Co. in December 1927.

Correspondence. 33.

Early working pressures. Q
Contemporary accounts of the first locomotives on the Stockton and Darlington Ry. state that the working pressure was 52 lb. per sq. in., not 25 lb. as stated by Mr. . Brewer on page 395 of your December issue.
First Passenger Coach on S. and D. Ry,
On page 387 Household wisely calls attention to the difference between the crude model prepared for the Centenary procession (now' preserved at York), and the description given by Tomlinson in his History of the North Eastern Railway. The original sketch made at the time of the opening, and afterwards used as the basis for the well-known painting by Dobbin.* leaves little doubt that Tomlinson's description is the more correct, and that the crude model is a most unhappy mis-representation. This original sketch was exhibited in the Railway Centenary Exhibition at the Science Museum, and is reproduced as a frontispiece to the catalogue published in 1925. It shows an elaborate vehicle, with glazed sides, and a "box" seat for two flunkeys at the front. A flag flies from the back. Dobbin's painting. reproduces this coach and gives the flag, but omits the flunkeys.
But whether they had these attendants or not it seems incredible that the directors should have travelled on such an occasion in the primitive hen-house-like velJicle which appeared at the Centenary, and it is to be hoped !hat it may be now withdrawn from a prominence which it does not appear to merit.
* The North Eastern Railway, facing page 112.

[Heavy.snowfall]. 33
The heavy.snowfall of the evening of Christmas Day and the night of December 25-26 caused great delay on the railways in the North Glamorgan and Breconshire districts. The former Brecon and Merthyr Ry. main line was impassable until the early afternoon of Monday, when a Newport train got through from Brecon, starting out at 2 o'clock. On the Dowlais branch the snowfall was so heavy that it took three engines to haul five coaches from Nelson through Cwm- Bargoed to Dowlais. The L.M. & S. managed to bring through a train of five four-wheelers with two 0-6-2T's from Abergavenny about 12.10 into Merthyr. The spokes of the wheels of the. leading engine were completely clogged with snow. On many of the lines there were snow-drifts of a depth of from six to ten feet.
On Monday or Tuesday (December 26 or 27) a goods train from Carmarthen to Aberdare was proceeding up the long bank to Hirwain when the engine, a 2-8-0T of the "42" class, left the rails below Glyn-Neath station and fell down a thirty-foot bank into the roadway, turning on its left side as it did so. The buffers, cylinder and wheels on the left side were deeply buried in the soft earth of the embankment and road-side ditch. The engine was travelling chimney-first, and the driver and fireman appear to have had a marvellous escape, being uninjured except for severe shock

Reviews. 33

Locomotive Engineers' Pocket Book, 1928. The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
Among the new features in the 1928 edition of this useful book of reference is a section on locomotive ·valve gears, especially in regard to the arrangements for three and four-cylinder locomotives. Another section which has been re-written and brought up to date is that on "Running Shed Notes." New locomotive diagrams include the L. & N.E. Ry. three-cylinder Shire class 4-4-0 and the L.M. & S. Ry, three-cylinder 4-6-0 Royal Scot. Revisions had been made in other sections and the directory of railway officials extended, and additions also made to the list of industrial concerns using locomotives. The 300 pages are full of practical information and tables in every-day use by the locomotive man, whether in the drawing office, running shed or shop. The size is handy for carrying in the pocket.

Mechanical World Year Book, 1928. London and Manchester: Emmott & Co.
This well-known and useful annual requires no introduction. Its 348 pages are full of practical data for every-day use in the workshop and drawing office .A new section, which will no doubt be appreciated, is the British Engineering Standards Association tables of limits and fits, whilst another subject dealt with at some length is epicyclic or planetary gearing. Among the chapters which have been revised are those on steam boilers, and on ball and roller bearings. Alterations have been made in the section on belt .conveyors and in several of the tables. We notice also a very neat re-arrangement of the dimensions of pipe fittings, greatly simplifying reference thereto.

Calvert's Mechanics' Almanac, 1928, published by John Heywood Ltd., of Deansgate, Manchester, and 20-22 St. Bride Street, London, E.C.4.,
As usual, full of information useful to the engineer, machineman, fitter and erector. This year's edition, the fifty-fourth, contains many novel workshop hints in addition to the numerous tables, data, etc., invaluable to all engaged in mechanical engineering. The book is fully ilustrated and attractively printed

Number 426 (15 February 1928)

R.O.D. locomotives for Chinese Rys. 35-6. illustration
Surplus Robinson 2-8-0s, reconditioned by Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co at their Scotswood Works and fitted with new tenders (the original ones having been purchased by the LMS) and supplied to the Shanghai-Hangchow-Ningpo Railway. Fitted with Janney couplers, cow-catchers and Westinghouse brake and with new tenders.

Three-cylinder express locomotive, "Royal Scot", L.M. & S. Ry. 36 + Supplement
Supplement MISSING (photograph)

New tank locomotives, L.M.S. Ry.. 37-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Fowler design No. 2300 illustrated

Tank locomotives, Federated Malay States Rys. 38-9. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
0-6-2T for metre guage supplied by W.G. Bagnall Ltd. One photograph shows five locomotives loaded onto well wagons for transport from Stafford to King George Dock in London for loading onto the SS Glengarry for shipment to Singapore.

Southern Ry. 39
Nearly £1,000,000 tol be spent on new locomotives and rolling stock during this year, the bulk of the work being carried out at the works at Eastleigh, Ashford, Brighton, and Lancing. Thirty-eight new engines were under construction, including ten of the Nelson class, and these tol be named as follow: Lord St. Vincent, Lord Howe, Lord Rodney, Lord Hood, Lord Hawke, Howard of Effingham, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Richard Grenville, Martin Frobisher. Several of these were nearing completion at Eastleigh, and should be in service in the Spring. New corridor trains were being built at Eastleigh for the services between London and Plymouth, Ilfracombe, the Kent coast, Eastbourne, Deal, Ramsgate, and Folkestone, while others were being constructed for the Southampton boat traffic and the Bournemouth services. Ashford works to be mainly employed on the construction of 1,650 12-ton open goods wagons (costing over £250,000), while other vehicles to be built included general saloons for race and school traffic, general utility vans, refrigerator vans, machinery trucks, etc. A new locomotive depot to be built at Ashford, Kent, and alterations made to the locomotive yard at Horsham, with a new turntable.

Obituary. 39,
Death of Michael Longridge, C.B.E., which took place at Exeter on  18 January. Longridge was born at Bedlington, Northumberland, in 1847, where his uncle, R. B. Longridge, was head of the locomotive building works of Longridge & Co., Bedlington Ironworks. These works were disposed of in 1853, and closed in 1855. The father of Michael Longridge, James. Atkinson Longridge, was a pupil of George Stephenson. After leaving Trinity College, Cambridge, Michael Longridge was engaged in the construction of the Mont Cenis Ry. and later on the survey and building of the Central Ry. of Sweden. About 1875 he acted as consulting engineer for pumping plant in Italy, but soon after joined the staff of the Boiler Insurance and Steam Power Co., of Manchester. This is now known as the British Engine Boiler and Electrical Insurance Co., and Longridge had held the position of engineer in chief for many years. He was president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers during 1917 and 1918.

Mr. John Cowley. 39
Fireman on Stephenson's Locomotion, had recently died at West Hartlepool on the eve of his eighty-sixth birthday. During the Empire Exhibition in 1924, Mr. Cowley visited Wembley as a guest of the L. & N.E. Ry., and was photographed on the footplate of the engine of the first passenger train in the world, the engine he fired seventy years previously. Mr. Cowley was born in Ireland on 1 January 1842. His parents moved in 1849 to Durham City, and at the age of fourteen years, while working for a contractor at Durham, obtained employment as fireman on Locomotion, which had been lent to the contractor to convey stores from Leamside to Durham. Later in life Cowley moved to West Hartlepool, where he worked in a shipyard.

[Transandine Ry.] 39
The first section to be electrically operated was officially opened at the end of November. This is from Rio Blanco, in Chili, to Las Cuevas, in the Argentine. 'The absence of smoke when traversing the tunnel through the Andes will make travelling pleasanter, and also the running time will be reduced between these points.

The North British Locomotive Co. Ltd.  39
To build thirty-nine locomotives for the South African Rys.

[New Zealand Government Rys.] 39
Three Garratt locomotives ordered from Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. to be of the 4-6-2+2-6-4 type, with coupled wheels 4 ft. 9 in. dia., each unit to have three cylinders with Gresley valve gear, while the working pressure will be 200 lb. per sq. in. Another innovation will be the adoption of mechanical stokers for these engines. At 75 per cent. of the boiler pressure the tractive effort will be over 51,000 lb.

Messrs Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd., Nottingham. 39
Received from the Central Argentine Ry. an order for 1,500 all-steel bogie wagons: namely, 750 covered wagons and 750 high-sided open wagons.

"Garratt Union" articulated locomotive, South African Rys. 40-1. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
4-6-2+2-6-4 supplied by J.A. Maffei

Metre gauge passenger engines, Great Western of Brazil Ry. 41-2. illustration
Four 4-6-0 suppled by Henschel & Son with Belpaire fireboxes

Rolling stock for the Aden Ry. 42-3. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Metre gauge 4-6-0 supplied by Nasmyth Wilson in 1922 to standard design of Indian State Railways to work this line.

Shefflex rail car, West Sussex Ry. 44-5. 2 illustrations
With Ford petrol engine; supplied to requirements of Colonel H.F. Stephens

Victorian Rys. 45.
No, 300S had left Newport Works: three-cylinder Pacific with cylinders cast as single block and Gresley derived valve gear.

Technical essays. No. XX– On the acceleration of express passenger trains. 45-6.
Could be achieved by lighter trains, better bearings and more reliable services.

New vacuum brake apparatus. The "Prestall" cylinder. 46-7. 2 diagrams

Patent combined carriage wheel turning and grinding lathe. 48-9. illustration.

H.G.W. Household. The Railway Museum, L. & N.E. Ry., York. 49-52. 2 illustrations
Signalling exhibits;  documentation including Isaac Briggs Collection presented by his daughter on 31 May 1927

The District Railway of fifty years ago. 52-4. 2 illustrations
Photographs takren in May 1876 of train at West Brompton station and of loocomotive No. 4 at old Earl's Court station alongside "hole-in-wall" signal box.

Developments in the application of diesel engines to railway service. 54-5. illustration

Stockton and Darlington Ry. locomotive history, 1825-1876. 55-7. 3 illustrations
In 1858 the following 0-6-0 locomotives were added to stock: Nos. 129-31 named Stanley, Hutton and Long Hull from R. &  W. Hawthorn (WN 1026-8): these had 16½ x 22in. cylinders; Nos. 132-3 from Kitchings Hopetown Foundry named Appleby and Kirkby Stephen (17 x 20 in. cylinders); No. 135 Eden was built at Shildon as a banking engine, and Nos. 136-8 named Tebay, Deepdale and Belah came from R. Stephenson WN 1185-7. No. 130 Hutton is illustrated in its originnal state and former 132 and 135 as North Eastern Nos. 1132 and 1135.

T.H. Shields. Coiled springs— design and formulae. 57-60. 2 diagrams, 2 tables

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section).. 62
A series of fifty 0-6-0 freight tank engines, similar to the preceding engines of the same type but provided with carriage heating apparatus for working local passenger trains,was in course of delivery from the Vulcan Foundry —Nos. 16550 to 16599 inclusive. These engines  were all for service on this section, with the exception of the first five, allotted to the Midland division. They were being received and tested at Warrington, and afterwards sent away for service under their own steam. New class 4 0-6-0s Nos. 4477-86 (Western B division) and Nos. 4487-4506 (Western A division), had been delivered from the North British Loco. Co. Of those under construction at Crewe, the latest out was No. 4448. This series was to be followed up by thirty more of the same type. Class D 0-8-0s Nos. 9031 and 9046 (old Nos. 2539 and 1877) had been converted to class Gl (superheater). Of the seventy-five M.M. type engines recently taken over fifteen had been reconditioned and turned out at Crewe and bore L.M.S. Nos. 9646 to 9660 inclusive, and were previously R.O.D. Nos. 1891, 1835, 1837, 1865, 1871, 1924, 1926, 1938, 1832, 1912, 1851, 1934, 1850, 1803, and 1877 respectively. Of the remainder, several had been scrapped and others dealt with by Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. (see page 35). A few were still to be seen lying about in the Chester and North Wales district. The following engines, amongst others, recently withdrawn:- 6 ft. 6 in. SL class Nos. 381 Patterdale and 2186 Lowther; 6 ft. SL class No. 5108 Wyre; class F compound No. 352; class B compound No. 1233; and 4 ft. shunter No. 3060.

Knights of the Iron Road— old and new. 63-4. illustration
Drivers James Stephenson and Robert Morrow, early locomotive drivers on the Stockton & Darlington Railway and their working conditions

Observation saloons, Buenos Aires Pacific Railway.  64-5. illustration, ddiagram (side & rear elevations & plan)
Three luxury vehicles built by Birmingham Railway Carriage &  Wagon Co. under supervision of Fox & Mayo to design of Francis Bennett, late chief mechanical engineer. Lether upholstered armchairs with tables, of ample width, made of mahogany and covered with plate glass were arranged to be stored beneath the windows when not in use. The seats in the ladies' compartment were also upholstered in green leather. The side windows were 5 ft. wide, with drop glass frames .fitted with Rawlings' balancing arrangement. Further ventilation is provided by "louvre" frames to each window, covered with fine copper gauze. Stone's exhaust ventilators were fitted along the ceiling. The floor is covered with Spencer's rubber flooring, and the ceiling was of plywood, with Tynecastle covering. All metallic fittings are of oxidised silver. The lavatories are lined with white marble 1 in. thick, up to the waist line, then enamelled white boarding. Bereford's lavatory fittings; G.D. Peters' system of steam heating and J. Stone & Co.'s electric equipments for lighting and fans were installed. The observation platform at the end of the car has large curved windows and a centre door for affording entrance by the vestibuled gangway from adjoining coaches. In the attendants' compartment, a Willcox pump installed for lifting water to the lavatory tanks in the roof. Over 500 gallons of water are carried. Geo. Spencer, Moulton's patent spring bufftrs are adopted, and the automatic vacuum brake is fitted to all the cars.

Wm. Beardmore & Co. Ltd., of Glasgow. 65
Building a Diesel-electric rail car for the London, Midland and Scottish Ry., to be ready for service shortly.

Clayton Wagons Ltd. 65
Lincoln, received instructions to build six of their steam rail coaches to suit the requirements of the Great Southern Rys. of Ireland.

Great Western Ry. (Western Valley-Monmouth Line). 65
On the early morning of Tuesday, 24 January much hindrance to traffic was caused by a landslide of many tons of earth from the embankment between Cwmcarn and Cross Keys stations, the up line being completely blocked by the debris. Passenger trains were greatly delayed, and all traffic had to be worked on the down line pending the clearance of .the obstruction. The up line had hardly been cleared on the evening of the 26th, when another big fall of some 40 tons of earth and rocks, a number of the stones weighing about a ton, occurred on practically the same spot, again completely blocking the up line. All traffic had to be diverted to the down road, resulting in much delay. It is thought that the slides were caused by a downward movement of the mountain-side, and a strict watch is being kept in the event of further danger.

Failures of locomotive parts and their causes. 65-7.
Considered broadly, the locomotive is composed of two materials, which are (1) ferrous alloys and (2) non-ferrous metals and alloys. These very broad divisions are capable of being greatly sub-divided, and as the principal components of the complete unit is composed of iron and steel we will confine our remarks solely to these metals. To render the matter more clear, the ferrous group may be divided into cast iron, cast steel and forged or otherwise worked steel, while in this latter category are to be considered common carbon and high grade alloy steels.

South Devon Railway tank locomotive "Una". 67. illustration
During the 1860s most of the independent lines in South Wales were broad gauge (7 ft.), although there were exceptions, such as the Taff Vale Ry., which was built to the standard gauge. Among the broad gauge railways was the Llynvi and Ogmore. This railway was an amalgamation of two early lines in July 1866—the Llynvi Valley and the Ogmore Valley. The former dated back to early days, and was laid down to the 4 ft. 7 in. gauge as a horse tramway. Powers to work the line by locomotives were obtained in 1853, and the 7 ft. gauge was laid down in 1855 between Bridgend and Tondu, and to Maesteg in 1861. The Ogmore Valley Ry., incorporated 1863, was a branch from the Llynvi Valley Ry. to Nantymoel. The Llynvi & Ogmore Ry. was worked by the Great Western Ry. from 1 July 1873, and the twelve locomotives then taken over were described and illustrated in our issues of November 1926 and May 1927. To work the Llynvi line after the gauge conversion, four 2-4-0 standard gauge engines were transferred from the West Cornwall Ry. (Truro to Penzance), which had laid down a third rail to accommodate through broad gauge trains, and which were worked by South Devon Ry. engines. In exchange the S.D. Ry. received three heavy, broad gauge, saddle-tank engines, which had been built in 1862-3 for the Llynvi & Ogmore Ry. by Slaughter, Gruning & Co., of Bristol. These engines were named Rosa, Ada, and Una„ the first-named being of the 4-4-0 type and the other two 0-6-0. The accompanying cut shows Una after a few alterations had been carried out at the Newton Abbot shops of the South Devon Ry. These include the arrangement for filling the saddle tanks to suit the water columns on the South Devon Ry., and a peculiar type of sandbox on the front of the smokebox, on which the head lamp was carried. This engine had cylinders 16½ in. diameter by 24 in. stroke, coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 in. dia., with a wheelbase of 15 ft. 5 in., and had compensating levers to the springs. The South Devon engines were painted dark green with a black panel and fine, white lines on either side. The West Cornwall Ry. engines are said to have been painted light blue. When the eighty-five South Devon Ry. locomotives passed into the hands of the Great Western Ry. in 1876, these engines were numbered 2145-6-7, and they remained in service until the abolition of the broad gauge in 1892. One of them was concerned in a mishap near Bodmin Road on 3 July 1884. The 5 p.m. passenger train from Plymouth was being worked by engines 2123 Pluto and 2146 Ada, when one of the coupling rods of the latter broke. The engine was thrown off the road and fell over, killing the driver and fireman. The weights given then were 13 tons 6 cwt. on the leading wheels, 13 tons 6 cwt. on the driving, and 12 tons 12 cwt. on the trailing; total 39 tons 4 cwt.

Great Western Ry.. 67
The Great Western Ry. Magazine for January gives a very interesting summary of the company's activities during 1927, and amongst other things we learn that 98 new engines have been built at Swindon and 130 taken out of stock. The new engines were : 10 Castle class 4-6-0 Nos. 5003-5012; 6 King class 4-6-0 Nos. 6000-6005; 50 45xx class 2-6-2 side tanks, Nos. 4575-4599 and 5500-5524; 32 56xx class 0-6-2 side tanks, Nos. 5685-5699 and 6600-6612. In addition, the reconditioning of the 2-8-0 type engines purchased from the Government had now been completed, the numbers added being 3036-3049 and 3077-3099. The withdrawals include 24 express passenger engines, one being No. 103 President (4-4-2 compound) and the others 4-4-0 type (various classes), viz., City class, No. 3178 City of Winchester; Badminton class No. 4105, 4114, 4116-4119 ; Atbara class, Nos. 4125, 4126, 4128, 4133-4136, 4144, 4146, 4147; Flower class, Nos. 4151, 4153, 4155, 4160, 4165, 4166. Of the unnamed engines, the withdrawals were mainly of the 0-6-0, 4-4-0, 2-4-0, 0-6-2T and 0-6-0T types.

Reviews. 68

The "Mechanical World" Electrical Pocket Book, 1928. London and Manchester: Emmott & Co. Ltd.
Among the new features in the 1928 issue of this useful handbook is a section on electrical calculations, in which the method of dealing with various problems is explained, with worked examples. Another section is that dealing with estimating for wiremen. Much information is furnished on the use of electricity in textile mills, with notes on the types of motors employed, also power for various operations and other matters. Revised tables are given on current taken by electric motors, power consumption of electrical appliances; lead accumulators, etc.; while a new table of insulated . copper conductors replaces that given in previous editions.

Correspondence. 68

Early Steam Pressures. F.W. Brewer
The boiler pressure of Stephenson's engine, Locomotion, No. 1 of the old Stockton and Darlington Ry., of 1825, is variously given by different authorities as' having been 25 lb., 30 lb., 30 lb. to 35 lb., 50 lb., and 52 lb. per sq. in. A brass description plate which accompanied Locomotion when the engine was removed from North Road station to Bank Top station, Darlington, indicated that the boiler pressure was 25 lb. Stretton, Sekon, and the older catalogues the South Kensington Museum, give the same figure. The later Museum catalogues, however, put the pressure at 50 lb. Joseph Tomlinson thought that it was from 30 to 35 lb. In THE LOCOMOTIVE for February, 1925* (vol. xxxi, page 45), it is stated that the pressure of No. 1is said to have been originally 25 lb., but that it was subsequently increased to 50 lb. The question seems to me to lie between the pressure for which the boiler of this engine was made, and the pressure at which the engine actually worked. It is curious, at any rate, that the N.E. Ry. people (who, one would think, would know the facts) should have allowed the words "Boiler Pressure 25 lb. per square inch" to be engraved on the brass title plate referred to, if the statement were inaccurate. Obviously, there must be some grounds for the frequency with which that pressure has been mentioned. .. * Vide "Stockton &Darlington Ry. Locomotive History, 1825-1876."

Trade notices, etc. 68

Rolling-stock equipment. 68
A considerable amount of useful information to railway rolling-stock engineers is contained in a new edition of the catalogue to hand from G. D. Peters & Co. Ltd., of Caxton House, Westminster, S.W.1. Among the numerous devices and fittings illustrated in the eight sections of the book, mention should be made of the patent "Moorgate" blind for railway carriages, etc. The bottom bar of the blind, in which the pinch-handle mechanism is located, is provided with metallic runners at each end; these work on guide rails of bulb section, which effectually prevent them from leaving the guide rails. The rails are fitted with notches at intervals, into which the runners engage, thus preventing the blind from creeping upwards.
The firm have specialised in heating apparatus for many years, and fully detailed descriptions are given of their atmospheric and direct (pressure) steam system, and also notes on the application of the hot water and "storage" systems, which they manufacture to meet special requirements. Particulars are given of the various radiators, fittings and valves used.
The merits of "Sundeala" impermeable panel board as the ideal panelling for railway carriages, being homogeneous, with rigidity and strength, combined with lightness, are detailed, with many illustrations of its application. It is an excellent non-conductor of heat, and is claimed to be un- rivalled for insulating and deadening sound. It is thoroughly waterproofed, and takes paint and varnish well. "Agasote" millboard for panels, roofs, etc., of railway carriages, and "Lincrusta Walton" panelling are so well known that any lengthy description is unnecessary.
G. D. Peters' seats for railway carriages, tramcars, and omnibuses, are of varied design, and sixty pages are devoted to descriptions and illustrations. Carriage fittings include balancing devices for windows, door furniture, parcel racks, draught excluders, ventilators, etc. Coach vestibule designs shown include examples adopted by the Australian and Indian Rys. The pneumatically operated sliding door apparatus, with which 700 coaches on the London Underground Rys. have been equipped, is described with many illustrations of this apparatus on omnibuses and tramcars.

Messrs. ]. H. Sankey & Son Ltd., of Canning Town, send us a folder "To the Furnace User," which will be read with interest by those who have studied our articles on Brick- arches. •

Number 427 (15 March 1928)

New passenger tank engines, London & North Eastern Ry. 69. illustration.
Modified (lower cab, dome and chimney) series of 13 4-6-2Ts of Robinson design supplied by R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. to work in North Eastern area.

Three-cylinder locomotive for the Philippine Islands. 70-2. illustration, diagram
Supplied by Baldwin Locomotive Works for the 3ft 6in gauge Manila Railway

Passenger and shunting tank locomotives, Austrian State Rys. 72-4. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
2-8-2T Series 378 (No. 27 illustrated) and 0-8-0T for shunting Series 478 No. 05 illustrated

2-10-2 three-cylinder superheater experimental locomotives, South African Railways. 76-7. 3 illuustrations
Built by Henschel & Son for coal haulage on the Germistonn to Whitbank section. See also letter from William Hoecher on page 169

Technical essays. No. XXI—Shunting methods and costs. 77-80. table
The table gives detailed costs forr comparison of horse power versus steam. Other mefods considered capstans, battery electric, internal combustion and simplified steam as well as tractors.

Freight locomotive with cast steel smokebox. New York, New Haven & Hartford R.R. 80. illustration.
Patented by W.L. Bean, mechanical engineer.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry.  81-3. 2  illustrations
Previous part began on page 9. In 1877 there was a great locomotive famine and led to thirteen locomotives being borrowed from other railways. Long delays were experienced to trains due to long single track sectios without loops. Footplate crews had to sleep out on the road.. From 1878 larger 0-6-0 freight locomotives were received from Kitson & Co: these were known as the K class. All were fitted with the automatic vacuum brake.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 83
Brief abstract of Paper 230 by J.N. Gresham: General meeting held at Denison House, on the 1 March. J. N. Gresham read an entertaining and comprehensive paper on "Vacuum Braked Freight Train Trials on the Paulista Ry. (Brazil)." The author first gave a de- tailed description of the apparatus used on the electric locomotives which have air brakes, and the 50 wagons used in the trials, with the dynamometer car employed for recording, etc. A series of tabulated diagrams were thrown on the screen which gave numerous interesting details of the stops made, degree of vacuum, length and time of stops, etc., together with weights of trains, formation, etc.
Briefly, six sets of tests were incorporated in the programme.
(1) 50 empty wagons, 949·3 tons, average brake power, 76%.
(2) 48 evenly loaded wagons, 1539'7 tons, average brake power, 41%.
(3) 50 evenly loaded wagons, 1610 tons, 14 in. vacuum, average brake power, 34%.
(4) 50 evenly loaded wagons, 1610 tons, 16 in. vacuum but with air brakes on locos. cut out, 25%.
(5) Similar train but loaded unevenly 33 loaded wagons in front of 16 empty, no engine brake, 35%
(6) Same as above, but with empty wagons in front. 16 in. vacuum was used for all except trial 3.
The trials demonstrated that all the railway's requirements could be satisfactorily met with the vacuum brakes arranged as described by Gresham; the reduced vacuum of 14 in. had little effect on the stops.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers Dinner. 83
On 2 March 1928 at Restaurant Frascati. Maunsell unable to attend due to illness.

Siamese State Railways and its locomotives. 84-8. 7 illustrations
Thailand: railway history. Railways developed on two gauges:: standard to the north and east of Bangkok and metre gauge to the south. The standard guage came first through King Chulalongkorn who travelled widely. In 1897 the first railway opened from Bangkok to Ayuthia. An eastwards line extended through the Dong-Phya-Fai Mountains, through almost impenetrable forest where fever afflicted both the Thai and European labour. A line also ran north from Baqn-Phaji Junction reaching Lopburi, Paknampoh in 1905, Pitsanulok in 1907 and Chiengmai. A bridge over the Manam Riverhelped to integrate the railways. For a time there was a strong German influence, but the British reasserted themselves via Malaya during WW1 and led to the standard gauge being rep[laced by metre gauge. Standard gauge locomotives in cluded a 2-4-0 design from the Hanover Locomotive Works, a  very efficient 2-6-0 from Krauss, an 0-6-0T from Henschel and a 0-10-0 with poppet valves and 175 psi boiler pressure from Hanover. On the metre gauge line to Petchaburi Krauss & Co. supplied 2-4-2 and 2-6-0 tender locomotives. These burned foddy (rice husks or wood)

T.H. Sanders. Coiled springs—design and formulae. 89-92. 2 diagrams
Modulus of rigidity or modulus of transverse elasticity

Stockton & Darlington Ry. locomotive history, 1825-1876. 92-3. 3 illustrations
Gilkes, Wilson & Co. 0-6-0 with 4ft 2½in wheels and 17 x 22in cylinders: Nos. 134 Kendal (WN 95/1858); 139 Crossfell (WN 96/1859), 140 Penrith (WN 97/1859), 141 Excelsior (WN 98/1859), 142 Wycliffe (WN 99/1859), 143 Windermere (WN 100/1859), 144 Ullswater (WN 104/1860).  On 10 May 1867 141 Excelsior suffered a severe boiler explosion near Shildon due to internal grooving near one of the lap joints. Many were rebuilt with Worsdell boilers, but No. 143 is shown in Fig. 62 as fitted with a McDonnell boiler.

Recent developments of special steels. 93-4
Sir Robert Hadfield research into Era heat resitant steels.

[Trevithick cottage]. 94
Cottage at Penponds, Cornwall, offered by its owner James Irvimey for preservation as a memorial and place in care of a trust.

G. Reder. Locomotives of the Madrid, Zaragoza and Alicante Railway: locomotive stock of the Valls-Villaneuva-Barcelona Ry.. 94-5. 3  illustrations
Locomotive stock entirely American built including Rogers mixed traffic 4-4-0 built in 1880; also passenger type 4-4-0 and a 2-6-0 for freight

Failures of locomotive parts and their causes. 96-8. 5 diagrams.
Flaws in ingots used for steel forging due to being cast at too high a temperature causing brittleness.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 98.
New class 4 0-6-0's turned out at Crewe bore Nos. 4449-56, these being the last of that particular order. A further ten engines of the same type would shortly be put in hand. One of the new 2-6-4 type passenger tank engines ex Derby was undergoing trials at Crewe, No. 2310. Further 0-6-0 standard shunting tanks had been received as follows:-Nos. 16555-83 ex Vulcan Foundry; Nos. 16600-6 ex Beardmores; and Nos. 16640-1 ex Hunslet Co.
Latest conversions to Class G1 (superheater) included the following:-Nos. 1802, 1822, 1827, 1846, 1880 and 2536 (formerly Class D); and Nos. 1540, 1556 and 1609 (formerly Class G). In the foregoing order, these engines are now L.M.S. Nos. 9016, 9005, 9018, 9039, 9037, 9033, 9111, 9094 and 9112. Engines withdrawn from service comprised Precursor, class No. 5191 Archimedes, (old No. 648); Renown, class No. 1933 Barfleur and No. 5148 Orion (old No. 1957); Precedent, class No. 5013 Pioneer, (old No. 1212); Waterloo, class No. 934 North Star, and side tank coal class No. 3711. The following Royal Scat class locomotives, amongst others, had been named as shown:-No. 6102 Black Watch, No. 6110 Grenadier Guardsman, No. 6113 Cameronian, No. 6134 Atlas, and No. 6139 Ajax .

Third-class sleeping accommodation. 98
Third-class corridor coaches to be adapted to provide third-class sleeping accommodation as an experiment by the G.W., L.M. & S., and L. & N.E. Rys. Experiments with enamelling steel coaches instead of painting, by the L.M. & S. Ry., are said to show very satisfactory results.

Great Indian Peninsula Ry.  98
Responsible for a novel example of enterprise. The Bombay Hunt being desirous of pursuing their sport in a more promising neighbourhood than that usually run over, but more remote from the city of Bombay, sought the assistance of the railway, and to accommodate the members a special train was provided comprising horse and hound vans (60 horses), two parlour cars, restaurant, and a bathroom and lavatory car. The train left Byculla (Bombay), at 5 a.m. and ran out to the selected locality of the meet (Dombioli), in about an hour. The horses and hounds were quickly detrained and the hunt took place. The train returned with the hunt, arriving at Bombay by noon.

Recent accidents. 99

London & North Eastern Ry. 100
The latest three-cylinder 4-4-0 engines completed at Darlington were No. 306 Roxburghshire, Morayshire and Peebleshire.
Among recent withdrawals from service were several 0-6-0 goods engines, Nos. 232 (59 class), 1076, 1080 and 1133 (398 class). No. 1076 was the last of the 81 class, express goods engines with 5 ft. 8 in. wheels. The Sentinel rail coaches to be named and are painted red and white in similar style to the Newcastle area electric stock. The first named Tally Ho, and made a trial run from York to Marylebone in February. Ex H. & B. Ry. 0-6-0 tank loco. has been fitted with an EI type boiler while the 0-8-0 tender locos. were being rebuilt with T.2 boilers, in both cases with domes and Ross pop safety valves.

Correspondence. 100

E.A. Forward
With reference to F.W. Brewer's letter in THE LOCOMOTIVE of February 15, I should like to point out that the earliest account of the Stockton and Darlington locomotives, published in 1825, states that the safety valve was loaded to 50 lb. per sq. in. Again, the report of the Prussian engineers, who visited the line in 1826-or 1827, stated that the usual pressure of the steam was 52 lb. per sq. in. It is known that the drivers on the S. & D. Ry. were in the habit of fastening down the safety valves when running, so that the pressure was actually higher, resulting in explosions and fines for the d ivers who failed to remove these fastenings when the engine was stopped. Nicholas Wood, in 1825, recorded that the steam pressure of the Killingworth engines, with which he had carried out experiments earlier, was 50 lb., and it is hardly likely that the first S. & D. engines would have had a lower boiler pressure. The probable explanation of the 25 lb. given on the plate shown with Locomotion is that when it ceased work the boiler was in a bad condition and that the pressure had been lowered in consequence.

William. T. Hoecker. 100
To one unfamiliar with the subject, your article on the A.E.G. pulverised fuel locomotive, in the January issue, will leave the impression that no work of practical value along this line has been done in the past. In fact, such a claim has already been made in other publications. Three months after the beginning of the preliminary trials with the A. E.G. locomotive, a Continental periodical called this "the first really serviceable machine of its type in the world." Such a statement is not well founded, and I hope to show that there is no ground whatever for calling this locomotive a pioneer in its field.
The pulverised-coal burning locomotives designed by Mr. J. G. Robinson for the Great Central Ry. need be only briefly mentioned, as they are well known to most of your readers, and complete descriptions and drawings may be found in The: LOCOMOTIVE for 1919, 1920, and 1922. Your issue of September 15, 1913, contains a note referring to the experimental use of pulverised peat on the Swedish State Rys. at that time. This experiment was successful, and a plant capable of pulverising 60 tons of peat per day was afterwards erected to serve' the locomotives operating over a section of line in southern Sweden. This installation has been described very fully in the German press. The first American attempts to burn "coal-dust" were conducted by the Manhattan Elevated RR. of New York City about thirty years ago, hut were unsuccessful, and no further development occurred for nearly fifteen years. Early in 1914 a large 4-6-0 locomotive of the New York' Central RR was fitted by the Locomotive Pulverised Fuel Co. with an apparatus for burning pulverised coal. Later in the same year an "Atlantic" type engine of the Chicago and North Western Ry, was also equipped, and in 1915 a very heavy 2-8-0 engine was built by the American Locomo- tive Co. for the Delaware and Hudson Co, to burn pulverised coal. Much enthusiasm resulted from the first trials and high hopes were entertained. In August 1917 the Central Ry. of Brazil placed in operation twelve 4-6-0 locomotives built by the American Locomotive Co., which burned pulverised coal supplied by a large plant at Barra do Pirahy, having a capacity of 15 tons per hour. It was stated at that time that the Brazilian Government had contracted to equip 250 locomotives for burning pulverised coal within the ensuing five years. Whether or not the contract was carried out I cannot say. The most recent Central of Brazil Ry. engines burn coal fired with a shovel. In January 1918, the Fuller Engineering Co. installed a pulverised coal burning outfit on a 50-ton 0-6-0 type saddle tank locomotive used in industrial work in Pennsylvania. This was apparently successful, and a year later a similar equipment was sent to New South Wales to be used on one of their 4-6-4 "S" class tank engines. About May 1919, the Fuller equipment was installed on a 4-6-0 locomotive of the Lehigh Valley RR  Early in 1920, two of the four-cylinder 4-6-0 express engines of the Netherlands State Rys. were equipped with the Fuller apparatus, and later in the same year two 2-8-0 pulverised coal burning locomotives were built by the American Locomotive Co. for the Italian State Rys,
Since 1920, very little has been heard of pulverised coal for locomotives in America. Up to 1922, at least thirty steam locomotives, in various countries, had been built or equipped to burn powdered fuel, and some of them un- questionably gave a fairly satisfactory performance for considerably more than a few months, yet the final result in most cases was a return to shovel firing. Should the A.E.G. locomotive eventually prove an unqualified success, it will undoubtedly be due to the fact that its designers have profited by the experience of the past, and in justice to those who have attacked this problem in former years, I do not feel that their efforts should be entirely ignored.

W. Cyril Williams. 100
With reference to page 40 of the February 15 issue of THE LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE, the question of the heaviest engine built has been raised. It is only fair, I think, to point out that Messrs. Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., of Corton, Manchester, built in 1926 three articulated engines for the Nitrate Rys. of Chile weighing 187 tons 3 cwt. and at the moment have a further three under construction. These engines have 141.5 tons adhesive weight and 68.8 ft2 grate. They develop 69,150 lb. tractive effort at 75 per cent, of the boiler pressure.

Reviews. 100-1

Railway signalling, theory and practice, S.T. Dutton, London: Crosby, Lockwood & Son. .
Dealing in a clear manner with the signalling system of the railways of this country, as worked mechanically by signalmen, and unaided by power or electric apparatus, this manual should be helpful to all who wish to study the subject of safe railway working from a practical standpoint. It will also be useful as a work of reference for operating officials. Fixed signals, single and double line working, rod connections, compensators and locking charts are dealt with, and a specification is given in an appendix to the book for signalling materials. The author's experience on the Indian Rys. enables him to make comparisons of the signalling systems of that country with the British systems.

The "Lord Nelson." London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd. 101
Complete set of drawings with description, giving leading dimensions of the engine, as well as a detailed table of parts. The folding plate ot the sectional elevation, reduced to a scale of 3/8 in. to the foot, is coloured to represent clearly and distinctly the various materials used in its construction, whilst every part is numbered in accordance with the key table. Another folding plate shows the plan and separate views depict the end elevation of the smoke box section through cylinders, and elevation of the footplate and section through firebox.

A history of railways in Ireland  J.C. Conroy. London: Longmans, Green & Co. Ltd. 101
Many books and pamphlets have been written dealing with the history of British railways, but that of the railways in Ireland has generally been touched on, if at all, merely incidentally, and as subsidiary to the main theme. Conroy endeavours to remedy this, and deals with the Irish railways as his principal subject. The book is divided into three sections. Part I, entitled "The Trunk Railways," consists almost entirely of a study of the relations between the railways and the State, the various commissions that have made investigations and issued recommendations as to the best means of helping the railways and the districts whose wants they provide for, and the effects of various legislation passed. As, for the greater part of the period covered, the Irish Rys. have been governed by Acts passed by the British Parliament, this section is in the main equally applicable to those in England or Scotland, though, of course, any special legislation affecting Ireland is duly considered. Part II deals with the Light Railways, and goes to show that these have not helped the country to the extent that might have been expected, or was intended, for reasons explained by the author. Part Ill, "The Irish Railways after Partition," gives a summary of the leading events since 1921, and generalises on the present position, both in Northern and Southern Ireland. The whole subject is treated very generally, and little mention is made of the individual history of any particular railway, nor have the mechanical or other engineering features been touched upon. The possibility of electrification as a means of reducing expenses is considered in the last chapter, but as Ireland was the birthplace of the electric railway it is strange that no mention should be made of the pioneer lines which employed this motive power. The author apparently assumes some knowledge of the physical features of the Irish Rys, on the part of his readers, as he mentions, for example, that "The Dublin and South Eastern Ry. must, at some time or another, be brought more inland south of Bray," without explaining why. The book is excellently printed in large, clear type, but one or two misprints appear to have been overlooked. Thus, on page 32, 1872 is given as the date of the abolition of the broad gauge in England, whilst, on page 203, the opening of the line from Keady to Castleblayney is attributed to 1909 instead of 1910.

History of the Great Western Ry., by E. T. MacDermot, M.A. Vo!. 1.,1833-1863, in two parts. London: The Great Western Ry. Co. 101
These two extremely interesting volumes, comprising in all some 900 pages, deal comprehensively and thoroughly with the conception and building up of the system of the Great Western Ry. from 1833 to 1863. Originated in 1832 by a committee of enterprising Bristol merchants, who selected Brunel as their engineer to survey the route, they sought financial support in London, where a similar committee was formed. It was in 1833 after a joint meeting of the two committees, that the first prospectus was issued and the title "Great Western Ry." was settled in place of "Bristol and London Ry." which had been the original name of the project. The history of the early days was not entirely one of harmony between the two committees which then constituted the board of directors, as the Bristol directors were somewhat extravagant in the designs of their station buildings, etc., and caused a remonstrance from their London colleagues in 1839. The Bill for making the line came before Parliament in 1834, and passed the Commons, but was rejected by the Lords. Next year it was passed after a lot of obstruction from opposing interests, and received the Royal Assent in August, 1835, and the line between London and Maidenhead was opened on July 4, 1838. The adoption of the 7 ft. gauge, on the advice of Brunei, and its extension, mostly by financing and promoting separate companies into Cornwall and through South Wales, is dealt with in a series of chapters. Although the directors of the G.W. Ry. gained a somewhat qualified victory during the "battle of the gauges," they soon began to realise that the narrow gauge would eventually win, especially when the mixed gauge track reached Paddington in 1861, and two years later when the absorption of the West Midland Ry. added nearly 300 miles of narrow gauge track.
The various small lines that now form part of the G.W. Ry., and the bitter Parliamentary fights with neighbouring lines, occupy the bulk of the two volumes, which are enlivened by a number of quaint but appropriate anecdotes. The lines in Devon and Cornwall will be dealt with more fully in the next volume, which it is expected to publish at the end of the year. There are three very interesting chapters on early signalling, train services and methods of working, and a lengthy section on locomotives and rolling stock, including of course Gooch's imposing broad gauge engines, written by E. L. Ahrons.
The two volumes are lavishly illustrated by early photographs of locomotives, stations, viaducts, signals, etc., with many portraits of the pioneers of the system which, even in 1863, covered the west of England from Penzance in the south to Birkenhead in the north. There are also three sketch maps showing the system at different periods. Mr. MacDermot has been allowed free access to the archives of the G.W. Ry. which have never before been made public, and therefore his work is an authoritative record and full of original matter.

Locomotives of the Southern (2nd Edition). London: Southern Railway, Waterloo Station, 101
The new edition of this booklet of seventy-two pages is a great improvement on its predecessor. Not only has the historical article on the S. Ry. locomotives, past and present, been revised, but it is now well illustrated by a number of nicely executed drawings of the earlier locomotives, including the designs of Beattie, Adams, Stroudley, Cudworth, Stirling and others. Several additional full page illustrations of the newer engines are included, with a striking frontispiece in colours of the Lord Nelson leaving Waterloo on the "Atlantic Coast Express."

Locomotive management from cleaning to driving. Jas. T. Hodgson and the late John Williams, London; The Railway Engineer. 102
The sixth edition of this handbook on the management of locomotives has been revised and brought up-to-date. As its title indicates, this manual is intended for the engine driver and the aspirant to that position, and it will be found also of assistance to members of tile running shed and shop staffs whose duties bring them into contact with the steam loco- motive. Every detail of the locomotive is .illustrated and described, while in addition there are chapters devoted to the regulations affecting the movement of engines and trains in traffic, signalling, etc., with which it is necessary that the engineman should be conversant both for passing the prescribed examinations for promotion and also in the course of his work. Questions and answers on the locomotive, break- downs, brakes and rules are so arranged that a study of their pages will assist the engineman in obtaining a grasp of these matters. A number of locomotive illustrations from official photographs and the tables of dimensions given below each, are a useful feature for reference by the student. In the appendix, footplate views are shown of various locomotives in service in this country with the fittings numbered and key lists provided giving the function and name for each part.

Holiday haunts. 1928 edition. London: Great Western Ry., Paddington Station,
As usual, this very comprehensive and interesting record of the attractive holiday resorts served by the Great Western Ry., is lavishly illustrated by photogravure views. Full details of the hotel and boarding house accommodation, lodgings, etc., are given. Copies can be procured at any G.W. Ry. station or direct from the office of the superintendent of the line at Paddington,

Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd.,  102
Contract by the Great Western Ry. for fifty 0-6-2 type superheated tank locomotives. These locomotives will be built at the Scotswood Works and  to be completed before the end of the year. Also secured a contract from the Southern Ry. for fourteen six-wheeled tenders.

London and North Eastern Ry. 102
Orders placed with Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., for ten 4-6-0 inside cylinder tender locomotives, of the Great Eastern type; to be fitted with Lentz poppet valves. Order with the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., for ten 4-6-0 express locomotives cif a new design. Twenty additional Sentinel-Carnmell rail coaches had also been ordered.

Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd.,  102
Order from India Stores Dept. for sixty boilers for express passenger and freight locomotives; to be fitted with superheaters and intended for the conversion of existing engines. The Crown Agents for the Colonies have placed with Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., an order for two Garratt 2-6-2+2-6-2 type locomotives for the Sierra Leone Government Rys., a repeat order on the three supplied two years ago. The Sierra Leone Rys. are 2 ft. 6 in. gauge and the engines are of unique design, developing 15,000 lb. tractive effort at 75 per cent. on a maximum axle load of 5 tons.

Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd.  102
Contracts from the Crown Agents for the Colonies for five 2-6-4 tank engines for the Ceylon Rys. and six 4-8-0 tender engines for the Nigerian Ry, .

Railway Club. 102
At the headquarters of the Club, 25 Tothill Street, Westminster, at 7-30 p.m., on Monday 19 March., a paper will be read by W.A. Willox, entitled "A railway journey through Spain," illustrated with lantern slides. B. M. Bazley will read a paper on "South American Rys." on Monday. 16 April at 7.30 p.m.

[Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd.]. 102
C.L. Mason has been appointed a director and also been appointed managing director of their Sheffield and Penistone works. Mason previously held the position of divisional carriage and wagon superintendent of the L.M. & S. Ry., and was in charge of the carriage and wagon shops of that company at Wolverton.

The High Commissioner for New Zealand, 102
Sir James Parr. has received specifications relating to a New Zealand Government contract to be let for the manufacture, supply and erection of a pipeline approximately 2,464 ft. long, to connect with the Lake Coleridge power station. The pipes range from 60 in. to 84 in. in diameter, and the whole is to be complete with manholes. air inlet valves, etc. Another requirement by the same Government is for 7,500 KW. generator and turbine for the Public Works Department while, in connection with the new railway workshops which are in course of erection, tenders are now being called for the following:-Thirteen electric rivet heaters, four ventilating and heating units, four bat tery shunting locomotives and charging sets, four plane milling machines, two sand cutting machines, four automatic electric melting sets, four circular saw benches, three oil-fired spring furnaces, seven A.C. arc welding sets, two paint spray- ing machines. four uni versal type spot welding machines. Full details regarding all this material are obtainable from the High Commissioner for New Zealand, Strand, London.

Steel bars. 192
Kirkstall Forge Ltd., Kirkstall, Leeds, published a new illustrated catalogue of the various grades of steel they manufacture. As an introduction an interesting history of England's oldest ironworks is given. The monks of Kirkstall Abbey (founded 1152) are said to have estab- lished a forge on the site of the present works, and ledgers dated 1768 to 1786 are in possession of the present pro- prietors. The Butler family started at Kirkstall Forge in 1779, and the control is' now in the fourth and fifth generation of the same family. In the early years the manufactures were the best Yorkshire iron for railway work of all kinds, but with the march of time the evolution of steel has taken place, and the works now specialise on steel bars for all purposes and in all qualities required for modern conditions. The equipment of the works, including testing arrangements, chemical laboratory and research department, are described, and several pages are devoted to the com- position of steel, heat treatment and case hardening. A number of steel specifications, including several for railway work, are included. Other products of the firm are finished axles, drop forgings for locomotive builders, railways, wagon huilders, etc.

Signalling. 102
Westinghouse Brake and Saxby Signal Co. Ltd. a reprint from the Railway Gazette of an illustrated description of the colour-light signalling installation, combined with mechanical operation of points at York Road station, Belfast. Some of the route-indicating arrangements are unusual and very ingenious, and well adapted to the needs of the location.

Number 428 (14 April 1928)

The Winterthur high-pressue steam locomotive. 103-6. 4 illustrations, 2 diagrams (including side & front elevations)
Swiss Locomotive Co.: coal-fired 850 psi watertube boiler; three uniflow cylinders; drive via a jack shaft. 2-6-2T

 L. & N.E. Ry. 106.
Tennant 2-4-0 No. 1463 express locomotive overhauled and restored to near original condition for preservation in York Railway Museum, but prior to that exhibited at Hull on Sunday 25 March 1928 and at Leeds.

E.C. Poultney. New high-pressue steam locomotive for the Delaware and Hudson R.R. 106-9. illustration, diagram (including side & cross sectional elevations)
2-8-0 John B. Jervis designed by J.E. Muhlfield with a watertube boiler with a grate area of 82ft2.

4-6-2 passenger tank engines London & North Eastern Railway. 109-10. diagram (side & front elevations)

Ten-wheel express locomotives for the Turkish State Railways. 111. illustration.
Henschel 4-8-0 [which is a "twelve-wheel"] locomotive with a Kunze-Knorr braking system which included a Riggenbach counter-pressure brake for operating on steep gradients in the mountains

Auxiliary locomotives or steam tenders. 120-1. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)

Obituary. 121
Ralph Peacock: eldest son of Richard Peacock: died March 1928 aged 90. Began his engineering training at Gorton Foundry and in 1860 went to the E. Gouin et cie works in Paris. In 1889 he succeeded his father as managing director of Beyer, Peacock until he retired in 1905.

Application of A.C.F.I. feed-water heating apparatus to L. & N .E. Ry. locomotives. 118-19. 2 illustrations.
Gresley modifications to Great Eastern 4-6-0s Nos. 8505, 8517 and 8523 (last illustrated)

New dining cars, Southern Railway. 126-8. 3  illustrations, diagram (side & end elevations), plan
Kitchen first and third saloons with gas cooking. Photograph of interior of third class coach. Maunsell design

Failures of locomotive parts and their causes. 134-5. 2 diagrams
Continued on page 163.

 Number 429 (15 May 1928)

Recent non-standard German locomotives. 137-9. illustration., diagram (side elevation.), table
Four-cylinder 4-12-0 freight locomotve manufactured by Maschinenfabrik Esslingen for Wurtemburg State Railways.

Tank locomotive, L.M.S. Ry. 139.
William Beardmore & Co. 0-6-0T with vacuum brake for passenger service. No. 16613 illustrated. One of tranche of 25, also further order for 65, but without vacuum brake.

Servo Regulators supplied by Hulburd Patents Ltd. 139.
See previous Issue: locomotives for Delaware & Hudson RR and Turkish State Rys fitted with Servo Regulators.

Southern Ry. 139.
One of three Beattie 2-4-0WT No. E0314 sent to Eastleigh from Wadebridge with broken frames and "expected to be scrapped".

French railway electrification. 139.
Paris Orleans Ry converting from third rail to overhead system: comparison reverse taking place on Southern Ry.

The non-stop train to Edinburgh L. & N.E. Ry. 140-1. 2 illustrations
Corridor tenders for Flying Scotsman service. Illustration shows No. 4472 Flying Scotsman locomotive. Also description of rolling stock with hairdressing saloon, ladies' retiring room and new restaurant cars with all-electric kitchens.

4-6-0 passenger locomotive, Ceylon Government Railways. 141-2.illustration., diagram. (s. el.).
Beyer Peacock supplied nine locomotives with Belpaire fireboxes.

Electric locomotives for the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 142-4. 2 illustration.
Metropolitan Vickers 2600 hp freight locomotives and 2160 hp passenger locomotives supplied to specification of Mertz and McLellan. 1500V dc to operate over Ghats 1 in 40 inclines.

Non-stop runs from Euston to Scotland. 144.
Royal Scot Euston to Glasgow and Edinburgh trains run as separate trains hauled by Royal Scot No. 6113 Cameronian an 4P Compound No. 1054 on 27 April 1928.

Fireless locomotive for mustard works. 144. illustration.
Andrew Barclay four-coupled locomotive for J. & J. Colman of Norwich. States that painted yellow, but photograph does not appear to confirm this: 15 x 18in cylinders; 3ft coupled wheels..

Heavy shunting tank locomotive, German Federal Rys. 145-6. illustration.
2-10-2T with Krauss leading and trailing bogies built by Krupp fitted with three braking systems: Knorr compressed air, Riggenbach counter pressure and hand.

An early four-cylinder locomotive. 146. illustration, 2 diagrams.
See also Locomotive, 1898, 3, February designed by Haswell. Locomotive illustrated was designed by Henry F. Shaw of West Roxbury, Mass., USA and manufactured by Hinckley Locomotive Works, Boston in 1881. All the cylinders were outside the frames.

The West Highland Ry. notes and reminiscemces from an engineman's Diary. 147-9.
As related by A.E. MacAusland, Includes stories of whiskey and beer consumption by drivers at the dormitory in Fort William

Post Office Tube Railway (London). 149-52. 5 illus., map.
Tunnelling contract let to John Mowlem in 1912 and was completed by 1917. Contract for stations and permanent way let to Charles Brand. Track gauge 2ft.

Reder, G. Locomotives of the Madrid, Zaragoza and Alicante Railway. 152-4. 2 illus.
First railway to be takenover was the Cordoba to Seville in 1875.

Sanders, T.H. Coiled springs – design and formlæ. 154-7. 4 diagrs.

Technical essays. No. XXIII. – On the consumption of steam by auxiliaries. 157-8.
Brakes (vacuum or air brake); injectors, feed pumps and steam heating.

Bogie carriages – Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Ry. 158-61. 3 illus.
Clayton Wagons Ltd of Lincoln supplied eight three compartment coaches for all-season use with steam heating. Suspension system had to meet unusual limitations of narrow gauge. Electric lighting. Chocolate and cream livery.

New South Wales Government Railways. 161.
Order for twenty-five Mountain type (4-8-2) locomotives placed with Clyde Engineering Co., contract price is £20,815 each. Tractive effort estimated at 56,000 lb. Amongst details specified was a mechanical stoker, with a screw conveyor between the engine and tender operated by a horizontal engine on the footplate.

L. & N.E. Ry. 161.
Shire class D49 engines completed at Darlington Works: Nos. 310 Kinross-shire and 311 Peebleshire, and D49/2 class No. 320 Warwickshire.

Great Western Ry. 161.
Names allotted to first 20 engines of the St. Martin, 4-6-0 type: 4900 Adderley Hall; 4901 Aldenham Hall; 4902 Astley Hall; 4903 Binnegar Hall; 4904 Barton Hall; 4905 Bradfield Hall; 4906 Broughton Hall; 4907 Broome Hall: 4908 Blakesley Hall; 4909 Blaisdon Hall; 4910 Bowden Hall: 4911 Berrington Hall; 4912 Baglan Hall; 4913 Cranmore Hall; 4914 Condover Hall; 4915 Crumlin Hall; 4916 Crosswood Hall, 4917 Darlington Hall; 4918 Donnington Hall; and 4919 Dumbleton Hall.

New main line passenger stock, L. & N.E. Ry. 160-1. 2 illus., 2 diagrs. (s. els.), 2 plans
Courtesy of H.N. Gresley, chief mechanical engineer, L. & N.E. Ry.: exterior photographs and elevations of new open third class bogie vestibule carriages and bogie brake vans placed in service. Twenty-seven of the third class vehicles with seats for sixty-four passengers built by the Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Co. whilst brake vans supplied by Cammell, Laird & Co. The brake van was designed to carry six tons of luggage and parcels, and was equipped with electric lighting and the vacuum and hand brakes. Pullman vestibules fitted.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Ry. 162-3. 2 illus.
Continued from page 83.

Southern Railway. 163.
Smoke deflectors fitted to King Arthur class: notes that "contrivance" used in Germany for some time..

Failures of locomotive parts and their causes. 163-5.
Continued from page 135. Fatigue of loomotive axles.

Systems of heat insulation for locomotive boilers. 165-7. 3 diagrs.
Essential features of a good covering: high efficiency, durability, clean and easy application and removability. Classified into block type, plastic type and mattress type. The block type could be divided into wooden slats, asbestos blocks and magnesia and asbestos blocks. Blue or white asbestos considered.  Cost is considered, but not health and safety.

Netherlands Railways. 167.
Five four-cylinder 4-6-0 express engines and five 4-6-4 four-cylinder tank locomotives of a new design, have recently been ordered from Germany. These would be the first four-cylinder tank engines in Holland.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 167.
Further ten 2-6-4T engines ex-Derby in service: Nos. 2310-19. Additional 0-6-0T shunting tanks delivered: Nos. 16580-90 ex Vulcan Foundry; Nos. 16613-14 ex Beardmore, and Nos. 16644-47 ex Hunslet. Claughton class 4-6-0s, Nos. 5986, 5999 and 6017 rebuilt with large 200 psi boilers, but not Caprotti gear, but understood that later rebuilds would have this valve gear: No. 5999 was undergoing trials. Reconditioned ROD 2-8-0 locomotives turned out at Crewe bore Nos. 9662-4; formerly numbered 1801, 1888 and 1918 respectively. Recent conversions to class "G1" (superheater) were Nos. 9004, 9012, 9020, 9023, 9024, 9036, 9043, 9054 and 9058 (late "D" class), and 9084 (late "G" class). The last remaining 4-4-0 Webb compound, No. 1974 Howe had been withdrawn for scrapping – this engine was the only LNWR compound to be superheated. Other withdrawals included Experiment class 4-6-0s Nos. 5480 and 5489, and 6 ft. 6 in. 2-4-0 No. 1480 Newton.

L.M. & S. Ry.. 167.
New locomotives recently placed in service on the Northern Division: twenty Class 4 0-6-0s, Nos. 4312-4331 (built St. Rollox, 1927-8) and ten 0-6-0 shunting tanks Nos. 16615-16624 (built Beardmore & Co., 1928). Twenty 0-6-0s for Western "B" division were under construction – ten at Horwich, Nos. 4357-4366, and ten at St. Rollox, Nos. 4367-4376. New engines – ex Derby – had appeared on Midland Division – 10 new type 2-6-4T passenger Nos. 2300-2309 and seven 4-4-0 class 2 passenger Nos. 563-569.

Obituary of Mr. William Pickersgill, C.B.E. 167.

The Model Railway Club. 168.
-A very successful exhibition was held by the ab ove club at the Kingsway Hall, W.C..l, from April 18 to 21. The exhibition was well attended by the public, which appeared to admire and appreciate the exhibits, for the most part of amateur workmansh;l>. These, in addition -to a numerous and wide diversity of models in various gauges of locomotives and rolling stock, included stations, bridges, coal elevators, tracks with switching mechanism, signalling appliances, etc. The general standard of skill was high, and if, as we gather, many of the models were due to quite youthful members, it would.4;eem that the hobby of model railway construction should fi1ve a valuable educative influence by instilling habits of observation com- bined with manual dexterity. Visitors were pleased with the club's running tracks, upon one of which passengers were carried by locomotives operating under steam. Further entertainment was provided by a kinematograph show of railway subjects. The model engineering trade was also represented, as well as firms specialising in the tools and materials required for the model railway man's art. Any information respecting this club may be obtained from the hon. secretary, Colonel R. Henvey, White Cottage, Shirley, Croydon.

Railway exhibition at Leeds. 168
Examples of the latest . rolling stock of the L. & N.E. Ry. were on view at the exhibition at Leeds New Station on Sunday, April.22, . organised on behalf of charities. The exhibits also included the Kitson-Still engine built last year by. Kitson & Co. Ltd.. Airedale Foundry, Leeds, and a 50 ton break down crane lent by the L.M. & S. Ry. The L. & N.E. Ry. showed the Pacific express engine Gladiateur, Shire class engine Lincolnshire, the Tennant 2-4-0 express engine No. 1463, a shunting tank engine with crane, 4-6-0 three-cylinder goods engine, and the Sentinel-Cammell car Perseverance. The passenger stock ranged from the Pullman car Iolanthe, a sleeping car, a restaurant car, to a horse box and mail van. Models illustrating brake valves, motion, etc., were also on view. The Lord Mayor of Leeds (AId. G. Ratcliffe) opened the exhibition, and was accompanied by the Deputy Lord Mayor, Town Clerk, Chief Constable and other officials of the Corporation. Geo. Davidson (Divisional General Manager of the L. & N.E. Ry.) presided, and was supported by A. Brown (Dist. Goods Manager), S.T. Burgoyne (Asst. Goods Manager), J.J. Miller (Engineer), A. Cameron (District Engineer), T. Storey (District Passenger Supt., and Chairman of the Exhibition Committee), J. H. Smeddle (Loco. Supt.), Col. E. Kitson-Clark, . R. B. Kirkland (Secretary of the Exhibition Committee), T. Brown (Treasurer), and others. Davidson, in welcoming the civic party, explained that this was the fifth exhibition held in the North Eastern area on behalf of charities-the N.E.R. Cottage Homes and Benefit Fund, the Leeds Workpeople's Hospital Fund, and the Railway Servants' Orphanage, Derby. About 20,000 people visited the Exhibition.

Electric arc welding. 168. illustration 
Electric arc welding machines, both stationary and portable, are now an essential in a workshop. The machine illustrated represented a great advance in welding equipment, and embodies the latest developments. Both the sets shown were ordered by the East Indian Ry., who entrusted their manufacture to Alloy Welding Processes Ltd., of London.

Reviews. 169.
A century of permanent way. F. Bland. Edgar Allen & Co. Ltd., Sheffield.
Reprint of a very interesting paper read before the Permanent Way Institution at the Sheffield Convention in July, 1925. Bland had co-ordinated a mass of information which forms practically a concise history of the progress of rails. As director of the Tramway Dept. of Edgar Alien & Co, Ltd. he has specialised in permanent way engineering, and apart from the interesting details of the early railway lines, he also gives sketches of the careers of the engineers that built them. Printed on art paper, the numerous illustrations show clear and effective. Bound up in this publication is also a reprint of Bland's paper on Atmospheric Railways, as well as another on Joseph Locke." Section 2 of the book is devoted to Modern Manganese Steel Trackwork, which deals thoroughly with one of the most important develop- ments in permanent way practice. How the rails are made, methods of tests, and results in service are detailed, while the illustrations of special trackwork serve to prove the practical wearing properties of this material.

.Correspondence. 169.

South African railway locomotive. William T. Hoecker. 169
The locomotive depicted provides an excellent object lesson for those who continually proclaim that the steam locomotive has made little progress in efficiency since Stephenson's day. Just a quarter of a century ago, the first "Santa Fe" type locomotives made their appearance, and were duly illustrated and described in the Locomotive Mag for February, 1904, as the then "largest and most powerful locomotives in the world." (How often that phrase has been repeated since 1904!) One of these ponderous and awkward machines was run on the locomotive testing plant at the St. Louis Exposition during September, 1904. Unfortunately, the plant was not in condition to permit the development of the full capacity of this locomotive, but enough reliable data was obtained on which an estimate may be based. If we accept 6,000 lb. of coal as the greatest amount that can be fired per hour, by hand, then we may safely say that the maximum capacity of this engine in normal working would be reached at about 1,700 I.H.P., basing our calculations on the data obtained from the tests of 1904. .
The experimental 2-10-2 locomotives of the South African Rys. may be rated, according to F. J. Cole's ratios, at 2,040 I.H.P., based on the evaporative capacity of the boiler. Using another more" rough-and-ready " method, and assum- ing an evaporation of 12½ lb. of water per square foot of evaporative heating surface per hour, and a steam consumption of 20 lb. per I.H.P. hour (both figures being quite conservative in this case), the maximum capacity of these engines in regular working may be taken at 3,223 x 12½/20+2015 IHP which agrees very closely with the figure obtained from Cole's ratios. Let us, for the sake of comparison, rate them at 2,000 I.H.P. Though 8 per cent. lighter in weight, these narrow-gauge engines can produce 17·6 per cent. more horsepower than the greatest engine in existence twenty-five years ago, and can do it with probably less fuel than was required by the clumsy machine of yesterday in developing its maximum output. And yet we often hear loud assertions that the locomotive of to-day is an enlarged but unimproved" Rocket."

Post Office Tube Railway. Alfred Rosling Bennett.. 169
AIthough this railway has been described in many publications and has had such terms as "First of its kind in world" (Times Trade and Engineering Supplement, 9 February), and "Underground wizardry" (Times Weekly Edition, 16 February) applied to it, no indication has been given as to who was its inventor or first proposer. In the absence of such information writers and others are, quite naturally, assuming that the idea originated with the Post Office or one or other of its engineers. J
Such, however, is not the case. In 1891 I read a paper entitled "An Electrical Parcel Exchange" at the British Association meeting at Cardiff, in which an underground tube railway with electrical driverless trains was proposed and explained in much detail, the main difference from the present Post Office tube being that it was not meant to serve Post Office purposes only but to accommodate goods traffic between busy centres in London as well, with the view of mitigating the street congestion that was already in evidence. I indicated the position of my driverless trains in the tunnels, and signalled and shunted them, by means of track circuits (then, I believe, proposed for the first time) and used rising gradients to reduce momentum on entering stations; anticipating, in fact, practically all the essential devices employed on the Post Office tube.
My paper was discussed and pronounced practicable by Sir Frederick Bramwell, F.R.S., M.LC.E., etc., and A.C. Elliott, D.Sc., M.LC.E., etc., then Professor of Engineering at the University of Wales, and others; facts which were reported in the Times and other journals. The paper was published, with diagrams, in the chief engineering and electrical weeklies. A reprint was issued by Chorlton & Knowles, Manchester, in 1891, and that being sold out, a second edition by Whittaker & Co., London, in 1892. Copies of these pamphlets may be seen at the library of the Institution of Electrical Engineers, at the British Museum and elsewhere. The project was admitted by the Patent Office as an invention and protected by patents Nos. 12,934 and 13,961 of 1891.
The late Sir William Preece, then chief engineer of the Post Office, was a member of the British Association Engineering Committee (section G), and was present at that Committee when it accepted my paper. Sir John Gavey, who succeeded Sir William as chief engineer, was likewise present at the British Association meeting. The postal officials of the period were not, however, ripe for such an innovation, placing full reliance on their horse-van service to the railway stations; and the fact that such a paper had been read and very widely published and discussed appears to have been forgotten. Although electric traction was not so fully developed in 1891 as it is in 1928, it was still quite equal to tube railways, and my British Association plans could, without substantial modification, be put into practice to-day. Relief to street vehicular traffic becomes increasingly urgent, and I believe can only be obtained by the connection of the docks, railway depots and other congested centres by an underground system such as I proposed at Cardiff thirty-seven years ago.

Number 430 (15 June 1928)

Reboilered "Claughton" class locomotive, L.M.& S. Ry.. 171. illustration
No. 5999 Vindictive illustrated.

Three-cylinder Pacific type express engines: Buenos Aires & Pacific Ry, 172; 173-4 + Supplement (double sheet). illustration, diagrams (including side & front elevations & plan)
Design of Francis Bennett, former chief mechanical engineer under inspection of Fox & Mayo, Consulting Engineers. Built by Sir W.G Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd..

4-6-2 passenger locomotives for the Federated Malay States Rys. 174-6. 3 illustrations
A.W.S. Graeme design built North British Locomotive Co. with Gresley derived motion for three-cylinder layout. Photographs include one of front of derived motion and another the cab layout.

Victorian Government Rys. 176

Douglas Seaton. London and Edinburgh non-stop, "The Flying Scotsman". 176-7. 2 illustrations.
Portrait of Driver Pibworth, Sir C. Batho, Lord Mayor of London in top hat, and Gresley wearing a bowler both of latter on footplate on No. 4472 prior to departure of inaugural non-stop Flying Scotsman. Seaton observed a punctual arrival in Edinburgh on 1 May and on the following day a punctual arrival back in London, although a severe signal check near Selby caused concern on the return run.

Pacific type passenger locomotive: Victorian Railways. 178-80. illustration
A.E. Smith design of three-cylinder locomotive with Gresley derived motion for the inside cylinder

Long non-stop runs. 180; 181-2. 2 illustrations,
Written mainly in response to event on 27 April 1928 when the LMS as a publicitystunt to offset the impact of the L.N.E.R.non-stop Flying Scotsman. The run did not require any exceptional locomotive performance, but did require special tenders: photographs show No. 6113 Cameronian at Shap summit with Glasgow portion and 4P compound No. 1054 at same location  with Edinburh portion.

Diesel-electric train, L.M. & S. Ry. 182-3.
Manchester to Bury electric train modified ith a 500 h.p. Beardmore diesel engine and an English Electric generator. Work done at Horwich Works andv unit tried on Blackpool (Central)-Lytham-Preston services.

Sentinel-Cammell gear-driven rail cars, L. & N.E. Ry.. 183-6.illustration, 3 diagrams. (including side elevation), plan.
Includes sectionalized diagrams. Nettle is illuistrated at Leyburn Includes details of a demonstration run from York to Northalleron, on to Leyburn and back to Harrogate where lunch was consumed in the Hotel Majestic. The list of those present is interesting and is appended:.
The party included the following: Sir Trevredyn R. Wynne, KC.S.L, KC. I.E. (managing director, Bengal Nagpur Ry.): The Hon. Sir Clement D. M. Hindley, V.D. (chief commissioner of railways, India); Sir Seymour R Tritton, KB.E.; Sir Robert S. Highet, C.B.E. (managing director, Nizam's Guaranteed State Ry.); Brig-Gen. F. D. Hammond, C.B.E., D.S.O.; and Messrs. J. H. Follows; CB.E., M.V.O. (vice-president, L.M. & S. Ry.); J. S, Von Willich (advisory engineer, Union of South Africa); J. B. Stephens (general manager, Great Northern Ry., Ireland); E. M. Bland (general manager, Nigerian Rys.); A. C. Carr (Sir John Wolfe Barry and Partners); W. J. Hosgood (Sir Douglas Fox and Partners); Bruce G. White (R. White and Partners); J. E. Anderson, C.B.E. (superintendent of motive power, L.M. & S. Ry.); H, Chambers (technical assistant to Sir Henry Fowler), G. T. Glover (locomotive engineer, Great Northern Ry., Ireland); J. R. Bazin (chief mechanical engineer, Great Southern Rys., Ireland); W. K Wallace (locomotive superintendent and engineer, Northern Counties Committee, L.M. & S. Ry.); J. L. Crosthwait (locomotive superintendent, Belfast and County Down Ry.): W. L. Watson (Crown Agents for the Colonies); D. Dawson (Egyptian State Rys.): R. J. Harvey (consulting engineer, New Zealand Government Rys.); J. Wilson (chief electrical engineer, Buenos Aires Western Ry.); H. C. Brocklehurst (R. W. Hunt & Co.); and R. A, Cummings (Bermuda), together with the following officers of the L. & N.E. Ry.: Messrs. G, Davidson, C.B.E. (divisional general manager, north eastern area); H. N. Gresley, C.RE. (chief mechanical engineer); A. C. Stamer, C.B.E. (assistant chief mechanical engineer); C. M. Jenkin Jones (superintendent north eastern area); J. H. Smeddle (locomotive running superintendent, north eastern area); J. T. Naisby (passenger manager, north eastern area); S. T. Burgoyne, M.V.O., O.B.E. (assistant goods manager, north eastern area); and W. Murray (motor vehicle department). Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd., were represented by Mr. W. L. Hichens (chairman) and Messrs. A. S. Bailey, A, J. Boyd, G. E. Cockburn and E. J, Hornby, and the "Sentinel" Wagon Works, Ltd., by Messrs. S. E. Alley (chairman and managing director), Commander H. V. Gaud and Captain H. T. Williams. The run was most successful, and on the main line a speed of over 40 miles per hour was easily maintained without vibration or oscillation; the silent running of the gears was remarked upon. Following the demonstration run the party adjourned to the Hotel Majestic, Harrogate, for luncheon. Sir Clement Hindley, in proposing the toast of "The Builders," said the thanks of all railway managements were due to the Sentinel Wagon Works and Cammell, Laird & Co., Ltd., for the assistance they had received from them in providing a practical solution of the problem of dealing with the traffic on branch lines. Mr. H. N. Gresley, in associating himself with Sir C. Hindley's remarks, paid a tribute to the enterprise and initiative of Mr. S. E. Alley, who has spent so much time in perfecting the new car. Mr. W. L. Hichens, in responding, said his colleagues much appreciated the facilities afforded by the L. & N.E. and L.M. & S. Rys., and the interest shown by so many railway officers and engineers in attending the demonstration, and trusted that that interest would be translated into action in solving their problems of dealing with branch line services.

Indian State Ryss. 186
The Railway Board evidently do not intend to rest satisfied with a wagon tare of one half the weight of load for coal traffic on the broad gauge railways, and new sample four-wheeled wagons are under construction which secure a 3 to 1 ratio, whilst the axle load does not exceed 22½ tons; over 30 tons of coal will be carried in each. The adoption of mechanical couplers facilitates the design.

Steel wagons. 186
Observation and record of wagons built with steel containing a percentage of copper confirms the opinion that the use of such material would ensure a lengthened life. Present indications over a considerable number of vehicles promise an increase of 33,33 per cent.

Great Western Ry. 186
Fifty 0-6-0 tank locomotives have been ordered from the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd.

Pennsylvania R.R. 186
The proposed combined railway and air transcontinental service, utilising the railway for night travel and the air by day, will doubtless form the pioneer of other routes in the world, possibly in Africa, India, and Australia.

Stockton & Darlington locomotive history, 1825-1876. 191-3. illustration, 2 tables
See also Volume 37 page 35 for letter by W. Beckerlegge
concerning No, 159 York

A veteran engine driver's retirement. 203. illustration (portrait)
J. Sokell, of Grimsby, whose portrait appears above,  was a driver on the Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Ry., and latterly the L. & N.E. Ry. He couldclaim a total of about 1½ million miles on the footplate. :In 1884 Sokell was fireman to driver Fred Hargreaves on No. 221, M.S. & L. Ry., which he states was a most satisfactory engine for fast goods and passenger work. He had several adventures and experiences on this engine as well as others he has driven. No. 221 engine, M.S. & L. Ry., was one of the first class of Mr. C. Sacre's goods engines. There were about 100 in all with only slight modifications, and they were all afterwards included in class 23. They were built between 1859 and 1867, and had 5 ft. 3 in. wheels, and cylinders 16 in. by 24 in. This particular engine, 221, was built by Sharp, Stewart and Co. in 1806, and was one of an order for twenty (S.S. & Co. 1736-1755), delivered during 1866 and 1867. Sokell's last engine was G.C.R. 427 City of London, 4-6-0 express engine, working between Cleethorpes and Leicester, a 240 miles run, timed sharp with a heavy train.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. 203
The following appointments were announced:-. S. J. Symes to be personal assistant to the chief mechanical engineer, Derby;  H. G. Ivatt to be works superintendent, Derby; R. A. Riddles to be assistant works superintendent, Derhy; . S. H. White- legg to be works manager, Horwich; T. H. Adams to be chief chemical analyst, Derby; . P. L. Dale to be assistant chief chemical analyst, Crewe; . W. P. Henderson to be head chemist, Horwich; .W. Darcy to be head chemist, St. Rollox.

Obituary. 203
Charles Lewis Edwards, C.B.E., M.Inst.T., chief accountant of the L. & N.E. Ry., who was much interested in locomotive matters, died on the 11 May. Edwards was born in Winchester in March, 1865; entered the service of the L. & S.W. Ry. in 1881; was appointed accountant to the North West Argentine Ry., Tucuman, March, 1890; appointed accountant to the Buenos Aires and Rosario Ry., July, 1895, and upon amalgamation of that company with the Central Argentine Ry. was appointed chief accountant in July, 1902; was appointed chief accountant of the Great Northern Ry., England, March, 1903. He was appointed chief accountant of the L. & N.E. Ry upon its formation on l st January, 1923. Edwards was a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Secretaries and Incorporated Society of Accountants and Auditors, Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society, and of the Royal Horticultural Society; a Freeman of the City of London, and a liveryman of the Worshipful Company of Turners, was Chairman of the Accountants Standing Committee and of the Railway Clearing House from 1913 to 1920 and 1925 onwards, and Chairman of the Finance Committee of the Railway Benevolent Institution, a post which he has occupied since 1922.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (L. & N.W. Section).. 203
The first two of a series of fifty class 4 goods engines (0-6-0 type) had been turned out at Crewe, Nos, 4507-8. They were painted plain black and otherwise conform to the latest standard finish for their particular class. Two additional 2-6-4 passenger tank engines ex Derby were in traffic, Nos. 2320-1. New standard shunting tanks recently delivered were Nos. 16591-9 ex Vulcan Foundry and Nos. 16648-9 ex Hunslet Co. In each case they completed the series ordered from the firms mentioned.
A further seven "Claughton" class 4-6-0s had been rebuilt with large boilers, viz., Nos. 5906, 5910, 5953, 5970, 5972, 5993 and 6004. These retained the Walschaerts motion: No. 6029, of the same type, is similarly rebuilt, but had been provided with Caprotti valve gear. Of the others mentioned above, Nos. 5953 and 5972 were stationed at Holyhead for working the Irish mails between there and Euston. N.S. section 4-4-0s Nos. 595-9 had been renumbered 5410-4. Withdrawals included Experiment class 4-6-0 Nos. 5505 Eunomia, 5516 Hugh Myddleton and 5540 Oxfordshire; Renown class No. 1909 Crusader and Precedent class No. 5039 Corunna. One of the srnall-boilered 2-8-0 class E compounds had also been withdrawn, No. 18. Ten 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines were on order at Crewe for the Northern division.
Alterations have been made in the naming of the Royal Scot class engines as follows:-No. 6124 was named London Scottish instead of Perseverance, and No. 6125 was now Lancashire Witch.
On page 167 of the May issue, the numbers of the new 0-6-0, now building at Horwich and St. Rollox, were given incorrectly. They should read 4457-66 and 4467-76.
In connection with the widening of the Birmingham and Gloucester line of the L.M. & S. Ry. between Longbridge and Barnt Green, the work of opening out the Cofton tunnel, 440 yards long and 80 ft. deep, had progressed so far that it was intended to destroy one of the last sections on Sunday, May 13, but the roof suddenly collapsed on the previous Friday, burying several workmen, and four were killed. The line was completely blocked until Tuesday evening following, and the L.M. & S. trains were diverted on to the G.W. Ry, line via the connecting line at Bordesley and also via Kidderminster and Galton (Smethwick) Junction, whilst the up Pines express travelled via Worcester and Dudley to Walsall.

Number 431 (14 July 1928)

"Consolidation" locomotive Satander-Mediterraneo Ry.  205-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Babcock & Wilcox of Bilbao built to specification of Couper & Kerr in cololabortion with A.C. Carr of Sir John Wolfe Barry & Partners

"Consolidation" locomotive, Central Railway of Brazil. 206-7. illustration
Metre guage built by Henschel of Cassel.

London & North Eastern Ry. 207
Four further 4-4-0 engines of the Shire class completed at Darlington, Nos. 322 Huntingdonshire, 327 Nottinghamshire, 329 Inverness-shire and 335 Bedfordshire, as well as four of the order for fifty-two 0-6-0 J39 class, Nos. 2691 to 2694. Sentinel rail motors Hero, Liberty, Neptune, and North Star working in the Bishop Auckland area, from Shildon shed. The True Briton coach working the Harrogate-Knaresborough service, from Starbeck shed, while the six-cylinder gear driven car Nettle, described in our last issue, was also attached to that depot. Two Sentinel locomotives, Nos. 81 and 90, had been working the service between Pickering and Seamer (June). No 79 engine, of this class, was at Hull.

A. Allen. The "Atkinson-Walker" steam locomotive. 207-10. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Steam locomotive illustrated was a distinct departure from the general conception of a locomotive. The manufacturers, Atkinson-Walker Wagons Ltd., of Preston, were the makers of the Atkinson-Uniflow steam wagon, and experience gained in this vehicle had been embodied in the design and construction of the new locomotive. Modifications had been made in the design of the engine and boiler in order to conform with the requirements for railway work, and the suspension and transmission gear had been designed with this in view. These power units are made in weights of from five to forty tons, and to suit any gauge of rails. They are especially suitable for use on branch lines for hauling light passenger trains, performing shunting operations and for use on public works contracts for the handling of contractors' trucks on narrow gauge track. One of the medium-powered locomotives is claimed to be equal in hauling capacity to an ordinary shunting engine with cylinders having a diameter of 14 in. and a stroke of 20 in.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Summer Meeting in Germany. 228-30. 7 illustrations
The Council of the above Institution made a happy choice in Germany as the venue of their summer outing, for, as events turned out, they received a most hearty welcome from their German colleagues; nothing could exceed the warmth of their reception, and a most enjoyable week was spent in mspecting railway shops, modern rolling-stock and seeing the sights.
Leaving Liverpool Street station (L. & N.E. Ry.) on Saturday evening, 9 June, a party of about one hundred, with vice-presidents, H. Kelway- Bamber, J. Clayton and A. M. Bell, proceeded via Parkeston Quay and the Hook of Holland to Cologne where they were officially welcomed at the Hauptbahnhof by von Guerard, the district chief on behalf of the German State Rys. Co. (Deutsch Reichsbahn). An afternoon trip up the Rhine by steamer to Konigswinter was the first excursion undertaken, with trips up the rack railways ascending the Petersberg and Drachenfels from which magnificent views could be obtained. After dinner, the party returned by rail to Cologne.
On Monday, 11 June, visits were made to the railway workshops at Schwerte, some fifty miles from Cologne, where much interesting work in connection with the repair and maintenance of locomotives and rolling-stock was shown. An alternative excursion was taken by many to the Thyssen Steel Works at Mulheim, where all the wonders of modern steel tube making were inspected, including the manufacture of weldless steel tubes for super high pressures. After lunch, motor-buses conveyed the visitors to the Uerdmgen Rolling-stock Works, where more up-to-date procedure in the building of steel cars for passenger and goods was shown. The large high-capacity coal wagons for the Reichsbahn were seen in process of manufacture, as also the "ring-spring" buffers now so generally used in Germany. These specialities were the subject of special attention, and innumerable tests, etc., were made for the benefit of the visitors. Cologne was reached about 10 p.m. by road.
On Tuesday, June 12, the party took train to Cassel, where the railway workshops were visited in the afternoon. On arrival, Herr Martin received the visitors, and gave an outline of the size, lay-out, etc., of the workshops, with a note on the re-arrangement taking place to ensure satisfactory output being maintained. Over 2,000 men are usually employed in these shops. Many interesting details were noted and much attention devoted to the methods adopted for efficient and economical repair work.
On Wednesday, 13 June, the historic works of Messrs. Henschel & Sohn were the attraction Founded in 1810, the first locomotive, the "Drache" (Dragon), was built in 1848 for the old Frederick-Wilhelm-Nordbahn. Since then more than 21000 locomotives have been built, the normal annual capacity being about 1,200. Among the notable locomotives seen here were the super-high-pressure engme No. 17,206 of the Reichsbahn with two boilers — one with steam at 200 lb. pressure per sq. in. and the other at nearly 900 lb. per sq. in. A large 4-6-2 superheater, high-pressure locomotive (No. T.38,3255), with a turbine tender for auxiliary power (about 300 H.P.), which has been built for experimental running on the Reichsbahn, several 4-8-4 tanks of the type recently illustrated in THE LOCOMOTIVE new 4-6-4 tank engines Nos. 62001 and 62002 and a large Garratt for the South African Rys.
After lunch at Wilhelmshohe; a pleasant afternoon was spent in the charming grounds of the castle and viewing the wonderful cascades of water which are turned on for display on Wednesdays and Saturdays. In the evemng the members of the Institution were entertained at dinner by the Schmidt Superheating Co., at which Dr. Flohr presided. Speeches were made welcoming the visitors by Dr. Flohr, Herr Wagner, and Herr Henschel, and replied to by Messrs. Kelway- Bamber, Clayton and Bell. Telegrams were read from Sir Henry Fowler and Messrs. Maunsell and Gresley, regretting their unavoidable absence.
From Cassel, Mitropa special sleeping cars were provided for the run to Berlin, which was reached soon after 7 a.m. on Thursday. The Heningsdorf works of the A.E.G. were visited in the morning, and much interest aroused in the pulverised fuel arrangements as applied to locomotives.
The newest developments of the furnace, as being applied to some locomotives for service in Hungary were inspected, whilst the locomotive illustrated in THE LOCOMOTIVE for January last was at hand in steam, for practical demonstration. Several large express engmes of the 4-6-2 type for the Reichsbahn were under construction, as also some tank locomotives for different services.
The Institution dinner took place in the evening at the Rheingold Restaurant, the .guests including the chief representatives of the Reichsbahn administra- tion, who had been entertaining the visitors. On the following day, Friday, 15 June, the members of the Institution were taken to the railway testing plant at Grunewald, where the various methods adopted for testing locomotives, rolling-stock and appurtenances were investigated. Dynamometer cars, for studying the behaviour of locomotives in running, carriage and wagon stock in service and for determining the correct functioning of' contmuous brakes on long goods trains were on view. A coal gas rail motor car, which is undergoing tests, was on view, as well as a Diesel and others. Perhaps the most unique item of plant was a combined traverser and turntable, on which a locomotive can be turned whilst being traversed to its shed position. After lunch, at the Luna Park, a popular resort in Berlin, a number of the visitors were taken for a trial run with the pulverised fuel locomotive No. 2906, with dynamometer car, furnished with complete equipment for registering all results obtained, draw- bar pull, analysis of gases, consumption of water, etc. Another section of the party visited the Technical Academy at Charlottenburg, where Professor Kloss received them. In one of the lecture rooms Professor Meinecke briefly outlined the line of study for locomotive engineering pursued at the college.
In the evening, the German State Ry. (Reichsbahn) entertained the members of the Institution to dinner in the hall of the Kaiserhof Restaurant, famous from the fact that it was the room used by the Berlin Congress in 1878, at the termination of the Russo-Turkish war. The following representatives of the Reichsbahn were present: Dr. Weirauch, vice-president of the Administration, supported by Herren Wendler, Fuchs, Wagner, Gunter, Reutener, Goltdammer, Woschin, Pausin, Wechmann, Kuhne, Solveen, van Hees, Zimmerman, Nolde, Harprecht, Iltgen, and Neumann. After a very cordial speech in English by Dr. Weirauch, Mr. Kelway-Bamber replied, expressing on behalf of all members present their sincere appreciation of the graceful and unprecedented hospitality they had received. Mr. J. Clayton also emphasised the appreciation of the members for their reception. Telegrams were read from the absent president and ex-president. A useful souvenir was presented to each guest, and the festive meeting, which formed a very effective finale to a most enjoyable tour, broke up about midnight, with cordial farewells.
On Saturday, most of the visitors returned from the Frederichstrasse station, Berlin, by the train leaving 13.02 for the Hook of Holland and London. A few of those who remained behind took the opportunity of seeing more of Germany, and journeyed to Munich, there to inspect the German Museum, with its wonderful collection of models, locomotives, ships, aeroplanes, etc., illustrating the development of transportation by land, sea and air. Members of the Institution had excellent opportunities of studying many of the latest developments in railway and locomotive engineering as practised in Germany—the working of continuous brakes on long goods trains, the large and powerful locomotive types recently introduced on the Reichbahn, the better utilisation of the fuel used, the fine new passenger cars, anticipating the reduction of classes to two, I and n, high capacity goods stock, and automatic couplers.
Special mention must be made of the very able and concise arrangements for the tour made by the organising committee—Messrs. J. Mitchell, J. Leclair, H. E. Geer, G. W. Clubley-Armstrong, F. Burtt, Herr Stein, and the honorary secretary, Mr. J. C. Sykes.

Improvements in continuous brakes. 230. 3 diagrams
The comprehensive work of Dr. W. Hildebrand, recently published in Germany, (Die Entwicklung der selbattatigen Einkammer-Druck- luftbremse bie den Europaischen Vollbohnen: Berlin: Julius Springer) forcibly reminds .us how far behind the UK is in the use of continuous brakes on goods trains. A reference to recent railway mishaps recorded in the daily press confirm the opinion that the time is rapidly approaching when the problem of complete equipment will have to be seriously considered especially now that the railways must make every effort to speed up transport if they are to successfully meet the severe competition of the road. The volume referred to illustrates and describes, among many different brake systems, the approved apparatus which is now in general use on the German State Rys., and with which the passenger and goods stock is provided. Drawings and complete details of the equipment, particularly applicable to passenger trains of excessive length and running at high speeds, are given, as also full particulars of the arrangements used for long and heavy goods trains. We are indebted to the publishers for the diagrams herewith used to illustrate the Kunze-Knorr apparatus installed on goods vehicles.

Obituary. 236
The death has occurred at Swindon of F.W. Marillier, C.B.E., aged seventy-two. Starting his rail- way career as a pupil of Mr. Pearson, locomotive superin- tendent of the Bristol & Exeter Ry., when that line was taken over by the G.W. Ry, in 1876 he went to Swindon as draughtsman. In 1898 he became manager of the G.W. Ry, wagon works at Saltney, and in 1914 was appointed carriage and wagon superintendent at Swindon. He retired from this position in 1921.

W.J. Tarrrant. 236
The death of W.J. Tarrant, of Poole, on 13 June, at the age of eighty-two years, removes a link with the once flourishing locomotive works of S. J. Lewin in Mount Street, Poole. A native of Devizes, Tarrant was apprenticed to a foundry in that town, and after two years' experience in America, he returned to the shops in which he served his apprenticeship. In 1873 he became foreman at Lewin's works at Poole, which were on a site now occupied by Messrs. Butler and the South Road schools. When Mr. Lewin retired from business in 1879, Tarrant established the Dorset Iron Foundry Co. Ltd., and held the position of managing director up to the time of his death. Tarrant was a very capable foundry engineer, and also interested in locomotive work.

London, Midland & Scottish Railway (L. & N. W. Section). 236
A further eight, class 4, 0-6-0s have been completed and turned out at Crewe, Nos. 4509-16: all for service on this section, as well as Nos. 4507-8, which were noted last month. Two additional 2-6-4 type passenger tank engines ex Derby were now running, Nos. 2322-3. 4-6-0 four-cylinder Claughton class engines, Nos. 5948 Baltic and 5975 Talisman (old Nos. 2445 and 12), had been rebuilt with large boilers and Caprotti valve gear, similar to No. 6029. The power classification shown as 5X. Class 4 compounds, Nos. 1175-84, had recently been transferred to the Northern division and included in the stock of the latter.

Recent accidents.  236
L.M. & S. RY.-As the 19.50 express passenger train from Aberdeen to Euston on 3 October was approaching the Den of Cowie viaduct, between Muchalls and Stonehaven, the four leading- coaches were partially derailed, but, fortunately, although some 350 people were in the train, no one was seriously hurt and only seven passengers subsequently complained of shock. The train was hauled by two 4-4-0 type engines, Nos. 14489 and 14316, the latter being next the train, weighing 107 tons 15 cwt. and 86 tons 1 cwt. respectively. The coaching stock comprised a twelve-wheeled Pullman car Diana Vernon, two twelve-wheeled sleeping cars, nine eight-wheeled vehicles and a six-wheeled saloon; thirteen vehicles in all weighing 380 tons, the total moving weight, including engines, being 573 tons 16 cwt., and the total length 863 ft. The point of first derailment was 385 yards north of the viaduct, the length of the latter is 130 yards, and the front of the leading derailed vehicle came to rest 80 yards south of it, the total distance run from the first derailment being thus 595 yards. It was mentioned that the maximum height of the viaduct from ground to rail level was 66 ft. and that the leading wheels of the Pullman car had been within 15 in. of the ballast plate which supported the railing on the edge of the viaduct. After the derailment it was found that the air brake reservoir had been detached from the tender of No. 14316, and more or less damage was done to nine vehicles in the train. A detailed and critical examination of the wreckage was made by Lt.-Col. Mount, who concludes that the derailment was primarily caused by the fracture, due to vibration, of the leading brake stretcher rod on the tender of engine 14316. He adds that this piece of rod would not have fallen from the tender had the cotter been properly split and in place, and as another cotter was missing from the trailing rod he considers that the examination of the engine before leaving Ferryhill shed was ineffective. Finally, he states the case reflects upon the maintenance and inspection services at Ferryhill shed. This particular engine was dirty, and its history of brake stretcher rod failures was bad. In the latter respect apparently it was not alone, and it is interesting to note that Lt.-Col. Mount describes it as of a light class (it was actually one of the original Dunalastairs), used mainly for local services at fairly high speed, involving heavy brake usage and a considerable mileage with the tender leading.

Number 432 (15 August 1928)

Tank locomotive for the Kelani Valley Line, Ceylon Government Rys. 239. illustration
Two 4-6-4T supplied by Hunslet Engine Co., under supervision of the Crown agents for 2ft 6in gauge

Metropolitan Ry. 239
Neasden Power House to be remodelled with twenty boilers to be replaced by six Lopulco bent-tube vertical boilwers burning pulverised fuel.

Pacific type express locomotive. Indian State Railways. 240; 241. + folding supplement  (detailed sectional diagrams and plan)
Standard Pacifics built Vulcan Foundry to inspecation of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry, (L. & N.W. Section). 240
Nos. 4517-22 were latest class 4 0-6-0s to be turned out at Crewe. These, together with the next four, Nos. 4523-6, were allocated to the Midland division. New 2-6-4 passenger tank engines ex Derby, Nos. 2323-4, which were intended for service on this section, were now working on the Midland division and stationed at Buxton, Those included in Western division stock—hirteen in number—were stationed as follows: Nos. 2310-14 at Longsight and Nos. 2315-22 at Swansea.
Latest four-cylinder Claughton class engine rebuilt with large boiler and Caprotti valve gear was No. 5962 (old No. 194).
The following 4-4-0 Renown class engines, amongst others, were at work on the Midland division :-Nos. 5117, 5133, 5135, 5155, and 5157. Some fifteen Claughtons were also working on that division, chiefly between Leeds and Carlisle.
Class  B 0-8-0 compounds Nos. 8900 and 8946 and class E 2-8-0 compound No.. 9601 had been withdrawn for scrapping. Only seven other mineral compounds remained in service: Nos. 8916, 8919, and 8938 (0-8-0 class B); Nos. 9603, 9606 and 9608 (2-8-0 class E), and No. 9614 (2-8-0 class F). 4-6-0 Experiment class No. 5521 Wordsuiorth (old No. 1661) has also been withdrawn.

London & North Eastern Ry. 240
With the exception of the principal types of express locomotives, the Pacifies, Atlantics, and Shire class, all the passenger engines in service on this system were to be painted black with red lining, instead of the green now in use. The red lining would be omitted for goods engines. The latest J39 class goods engines completed at Darlington were Nos. 2695 to 2697. Clayton steam rail cars, Rapid, Royal Sailor, Wellington, Wonder, Union, and Comet, were working in the Newcastle area from Heaton shed. A Sentinel car of the new type, named Integrity, was also stationed at Heaton. Clayton car, Chevy Chase, was working between Grantham, Lincoln, and Market Rasen.

Petrol rail cars. 240
The petrol rail car supplied by the Shefflex Motor Co., of Tinsley, Sheffield, for passenger service on the West Sussex Railway (Selsey Tramway Section), had been running over twelve months. For the first year's working of the rail car combination on this line, the cost of running, including petrol, oil, waste, driver's wages, spare parts and renewals, and insurance, came to 3.l2d. per mile.
The car was illustrated and described on pp. 44 and 45 of our issue of Feb. 15 last. It seats forty-six passengers.

Passenger electric locomotive, Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 242-6. 4 illustrations

Locomotive with turbine tender. German Federal Rys. 252-3. illustration
Henschel condenser. Zoelly three stage turbine for forward movement and sigle stage one for reverse. Cited from Locomotive Mag., 56, p. 54.

Electric wheel drop for locomotive sheds. 254-5. 3 illustrations
Ransomes & Rapier wheeldrop at March, LNER. Invented by Sir Wilfrid Sokes.

Electric locomotives for the Chilean Transandine Ry. 258-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Three metre gauge locomotives with combined rack and adhesion drive operating at 3000 V DC supplied from Switzerland by Brown, Boveri & Co. in association with the Swiss Locomotive Works

L.M. & S. Ry. 262
T L. Williams has been appointed resident mechanical engineer, Bow Works, in succession to S. H. Whitelegg, who has recently been appointed works manager, Horwich. W. E. Blakesley has been appointed district locomotive superintendent of the L.M. & S. Ry. at Carnforth, and T. A. E. Rigby to a similar position at Longsight, Manchester.

Great Western Ry. 262
New 4-6-0 passenger engines completed at Swindon: No. 6016 King Edward V., 6017 King Edward IV., and 6018 King Henry VI. The latest 2-6-2 goods tanks were Nos. 5531, -3, -4 and -5.

[Contracts]. 262
A contract for locomotive boilers for the Rhodesia Railways had been awarded to the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., and another for locomotive boilers for the railways of the Peruvian Corporation, Ltd., to R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie and Co. Ltd.

[Afghanistan]. 262
The only railway at present in Afghanistan is five miles long, between Kabul and Darulaman. Following King Amanulla's visit to Europe, agents of American, French and German firms were invited to Kabul to make surveys for the construction of roads and railways. It is now announced that the Lenz Company of Berlin, have secured an option on all public railway construction and operations in Afghanistan.

The first railway locomotive travelled by road. 262-3. 3 illustrations
In August 1825 George Stephenson's Locomotion was hauled by a team of horses from the Forth Banks through County Durham to Aycliffe level crossing near Darlington where the locomotive was placed on the track of the Stockton & Darlington Railway.

Technical essays. No. XXVI — On the lay-out of locomotive running sheds. 263-4.
Dead-end, through road and round-house

New pulverising mill for powdered fuel. 266-7. diagram
Conquest Mill Engineering Co. Ltd patented design

New restaurant cars, L. & N.E. Ry. 268-9. 3 illustrations
Triple articulated restaurant cars for Flying Scotsman service with electric kitchens. Interiors designed by Sir Charles Allom of White, Allom & Co.

New Pullman all-steel trains, London, Edinburgh and Glasgow. 270
Queen of Scots Pullman: from 9 July Harrogate and Edinburrgh Pullman extended to Glasgow

25-ton goods brake vans, Southern Ry. 270-1. 2 illustrations, diagram (side & end elevations & plan)

Reviews. 271-2

The book of remarkable machinery, Ellison Hawkes. London: Geo. G. Harrap & Co. Ltd.
Commencing his book with the story of the steam engine, both in locomotion and in industrial application, the author then deals with machinery on board ship, including, of course, an account of the steam turbine. The chapter on internal combustion engines covers not only automobiles, but also submarines, as well as the Diesel engine, particu- larly for ships. The processes and machinery employed in manufacturing iron and steel follow, with an account of a large testing machine and some remarkable machine tools. Hydraulic presses for bending plates, machines for cutting steel, and gear-cutting machinery are all dealt with. Another interesting chapter describes the machines used for the mechanical composition of type—the linotype and monotype, and also the rotary machines used in printing newspapers. Other remarkable machines include one for making brass rods, a toffee wrapping machine, the cash register and calculating machine, and also the glass bottle making machine. Electrical machines are omitted, for they will be dealt with in another volume. Simply written and profusely illustrated, the author is to be congratulated on an intensely interesting volume which can be recommended to both old and young.

The railways of the Isle of Wight. P.C. Allen. Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd.
Although necessarily limited in extent, the railways of the Isle of Wight have always appealed to a large number of those interested in such matters, partly no doubt owing to their detachment, and partly to the interesting old types of rolling stock which until recently were to be found there. All these will appreciate the work of Mr. Allen in collecting and pub- lishing the particulars contained in the present volume. The book is divided into sections dealing respectively with the history, the pre- and post-amalgamation, administration, and the locomotive stock, the latter also separated into the periods before and after the Southern Railway absorption. Much of this has no doubt appeared previously, particularly in the pages of this journal, but readers will find it convenient to have the whole data under a single cover. Illustrations are both numerous and well produced on art paper insertions, there being thirty of these in addition to a couple of line drawings embodied in the text. Many of them are from the camera of A.R Bennett, who resided on the island. The value of a work of this description depends very largely on the care and accuracy bestowed on its compilation, and with one or two exceptions great pains appear to have been taken to ensure this. We think, however, the author is mistaken in attributing the failure of the Newport Junction line to its having terminated for five years at Shide. Although this obscure spot may have served as a terminating point for a brief period when the line was first opened in 1875, it can only have been a very temporary arrangement, as a time table dated September, 1876, definitely shows the passenger service as then running through to Pan Mill, whilst the connection with the Cowes and Newport line was opened on 1 June 1879. The first of the L.B. & S.C.R Terriers purchased by the Central Co. was, we believe, No. 75 Blackwall, and not as stated on page 54. The complete list of the locomotives, showing all alterations effected by the Southern Railway to the end of 1927, will no doubt be welcomed, and now that so much of interest concerning the smaller railways of the past is being lost sight of, it is to be hoped that Mr. Allen or some other enthusiast may perform a similar service for some of the other minor concerns.

Old london coaching inns (now ticket offices of the L.M. & S. Ry). Arthur Groom. London: L.M. & S. Ry., Euston Station, 43 pp. 272
This artistically printed publication records the connection between the old coaching inns of London, which with passing years have been demolished, and the railway booking offices of the L.M. & S. Ry. erected on the sites, and still known by the names of the inns which preceded them, and some of which bear replicas of the signs. The author has succeeded in producing a historical work of a highly original character, the interest of which is largely augmented by the excellent reproductions in colour and half-tone of old-time pictures, selected to illustrate the romance of travel in the days before the railways. With the decline of coaching, the inns identified with road travel, in many instances, became connected with the railways and the coach proprietors were appointed parcels and cartage agents. For example, the "Golden Cross" which had been the starting point of the "Birmingham High-flyer" coach, then saw the departure of omnibuses conveying passengers for Birmingham to Euston station, from whence the journey was made by train. The book will appeal to all who are interested in the history of London, and especially to travellers and traders who, on the same ground and under signs which have been well known for centuries, take advantage of the facilities afforded in these days by the L.M. & S. Ry.

Land of the Vikings, H.V. Morton, Published for the L. & N.E. Ry., by Richard Clay & Sons, Ltd., The Chaucer Press, Bungay. 272
This little volume serves to portray the romance of that historical part of our country between the Thames and the Humber, represented to-day by the counties of Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire, but known to our Saxon ancestors as the Danelaw. After explaining how the five counties got their names, the author offers advice as to how to enjoy each county in turn, with details as to how to reach the towns of interest. Notes on "places to see" include short accounts of the famous cathedral towns, quaint villages and the historic churches, castles, landmarks and buildings of note in East Anglia, all easily accessible and well worth exploration. The book is illustrated by a number of pen and ink drawings by Frank H. Mason..

Revue Generale de Chemin de Fer. 272
Our French contemporary send us their interesting jubilee number Since it was founded in 1878 the Revue Generate has provided a most complete chronicle of railway and locomotive engineering. The special number gives particulars and illustrations of locomotives and rolling stock as running in the year of the commencement of the journal, as well as up to and including the present day. Not the least interesting is the plan of a sleeping car of the Compagme Internationale Wagons Lits of 1878, which had twelve berths, running on six wheels, with a weight of 14 tons. Compansons are made of the train services of France in 1878 and 1927; the 'weights and lengths of trains, and the speeds, with diagrams which illustrate the advancement made. Electrification of the main lines and the introduction of continuous brakes on goods trains are noted, and much information given. A survey of the railways in the French Colonies and Protectorates during the fifty years also forms part of the contents of this number, which is a most useful addition to a library of mechanical data.

Tanganyika Ry. 272
Order for three 4-8-2 tender engines placed with the Vulcan Foundry, Ltd., by the Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Bombay, Baroda and C.I. Ry. 272
Nineteen superheated boilers for H class locomotives to be supplied by the Vulcan Foundry Ltd.

Somerset and Dorset Ry. 272
We understand three of the new Class 2, 4-4-0 tender engines now building at Derby are intended for this line. This railway has also placed an order with W.G. Bagnall Ltd. for seven 0-6-0 side tank locomotives of the L.M. & S. Ry. standard type, but they will be fitted with vacuum brake, screw reversing gear, and carriage heating fittings for use on local passenger trains.

Buenos Aires and Pacific Ry. 272
Order for three Garratt locomotives placed with Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., and for six superheated locomotive boilers and twelve boiler shells with the Vulcan Foundry Ltd., and also twenty-five superheated boilers and six boiler shells with Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd.

South African Rys. 272
Two 4-8-2+ 2-8-4 Garratt locomotives on order from Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., and a contract for thirty-six locomotives had also been placed with the Swiss Locomotive Works of Winterthur.

Indian State Rys. 272
Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth and Co. Ltd. had secured a contract for the construction of a large number of superheated locomotive boilers and other locomotive details.

L. & N.E. Ry. 272
Electrically operated carriage washing plants to be installed at Ilford, Cowlairs, and York.

Buenos Aires & Pacific Ry. 272
Eight Mikado type locomotives ordered from Beyer, Peacock & Co. This firm had also secured a contract for three Garratt locomotives from the Guayaquil and Quito Ry.of Ecuador.

Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd., 272
To build an exact replica of George Stephenson's famous locomotive, Rocket, which performed so well at the historic Rainhill trials in 1829 and secured the prize offered by the Directors of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway. Unofficially it is said that the engine has been ordered by Henry Ford, the American. motor-car manufacturer.

Number 433 (15 September 1928)

New passenger engines, London, Midland & Scottish Ry. 273. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Fowler 2P 4-4-0: fifty to be built at Derby, with three allocated to the Somerset & Dorset Joint line. No. 563 illustrated.

The "Flying Scotsman". 274

Tank locomotives for South Africa. 274-5.  2 illustrations
4-10-2T built North British Locomotive Co. for Witbank Colliery Ltd and 4-8-2T for City Deep Ltd.

2-8-2 type tank locomotive for the Antofagasta (Chili) & Bolivia Ry. 276. illustration
Built by North British Locomotive Co.: metre gauge: oil-fired (Mexican trough)

Three-cylinder express engine with Lentz valves, L. & N.E. Ry. 278-9. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Oscillating cam version fitted to No. 318 Cambridgeshire. Superheat increased from 246.1ft2 to 271.8ft2

2-6+6-0 Mallet loocmotive Java State Rys. 284. illustration
Fourteen built Werkspoor (WN 1601-1614) and sixteen by Swiss Locomotive Worksn Winterthur

Battery locomotives for passenger service in Italy. 285. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations & plan)
Built by Brown, Boveri & Co, Milan for use on line between Pisa and Marina di Pisa

An old Spanish six-coupled loocmotive. 287. diagram (side elevation)
Andre Koechlin & Cie outside cylinder 0-6-0 with firebox behind the coupled wheels (Stephenson  long boiler type) built in 1870 for the Tarragona, Barcelona and France Railway. Fitted with Gooch valve gear.

Two early "booster" locomotives. 296. 2 illustrations
Krauss & Co. single driver and Atlantic locomotives modified with an extra axle to boost adhesion if required: loomotives built in 1896 for Palatinate State Rys and Bavarian State Rys but see Macmair Backtrack, 2017, 31, 347

Barsi Light Ry. 296
Seven 2-8-2 built by Nasmyth, Wilson & Co. were in service and new type 4-6-4 were on order from Nasmyth for 2ft 6in gauge railway

A new gear cutting machine. 297-8. 2 illustrations
Maag Gear Co.

F.W. Brewer. Superheater tank engines. 298-301
Generally speaking, the best results from locomotive superheating are obtained on "non- stop" runs, during which, apart from si~nal and service slacks, the regulator is kept open contmuously for relatively long periods of time, the steam thus having a virtually uninterrupted flow through the superheater tubes before jpassing to the cylinders. It follows that the heavier the load and the greater the mileage covered between stops, the higher will be the degree of superheat (all other things being equal) and the greater will be the economy in coal and water consumption.
Provided, therefore, that the work done is such as to ensure the generation and maintenance of the superheat, it signifies but very little, if anything, from the general efficiency point of view, whether the engines be of the tank or the tender variety.
As compared with tender engines, however, .tank locomotives are in most cases-there are exceptions, of course-engaged in running short journey or stopping trains. The latter kind of work. neces- sarily involves the more or less frequent opening and shutting of the regulator, and consequently the s~per- heat, when reached, is maintained for comparatively brief intervals of time, varying according to the number of stops made in a given distance. With a heavy load, good coal, and skilful firing, the full degree of superheat can perhaps be generated in four or five minutes, but even these short lengths of, time between stops are not always available where, as in densely populated areas, the stations are extremely close together. Nevertheless, in spite of all such drawbacks, the application of superheating to tank engines, more especially those used on suburban and mixed traffic duties, is now in most instances acknow- ledged to be justified by the results obtained, This does not mean that every modern-built tank engine is provided with a superheater. Even in cases in which the conditions would appear to be favourable to superheating, certain tank engines put into service during the past few years have been of the saturated steam order. Still, the more usual practice nowadays is to fit superheaters to all the leading types, and non-superheated tank engines, if coming within that category and of recent build, are probably in the minority.
The credit for first applying superheating to non- tender engines in this country, in 1908, belongs to the old L. B. and S. C. Ry. The engines concerned, designed by Mr. Douglas Earle Marsh and built at Brighton Works, were of the 4-4-2 type. Mr. Marsh's initial tank engines of this wheel notation came out in 1906-7, and these were of the non-superheated kind. They were designed for working local passenger trains, and had 17~ in. by 26 in. cylinders, and 5 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels. A non-superheated express 4-4-2 tank engine, with 6 ft. 9 in. wheels and 19 in. by 26 in. cylinders, was also built, in 1907, this being the well-known No. 21.
The superheated engines followed in 1908, and consisted of five of the fast passenger class, Nos. 22-26, class I3, which had 21 in. by 26 in. cylinders, 6 ft. 7t in. wheels, and Schmidt superheaters. In the same vear came five 5 ft. 6 in. suburban tank engines, Nos. 31-35, class I4, also fitted with the Schmidt apparatus, but with cylinders 20 in. by 26 in. .
Of the express tank engines of the 4-4-2 type constructed in 1908, one, No. 27, was turned out minus a superheater, and five others, also of the "saturated" kind, Nos. 28, 29, 30, 75 and 76, were built in 1909-10. All of these engines had 19 in. by 26 in. cylinders, and 6 ft. 7½ in. coupled wheels.
In 1910, however, the same railway put into service five, and in 1912~13, ten, additional tank engines of the 4-4-2 superheated express class, num- bered, in order of date, 77-81, and 82-91. These had cylinders and coupled wheels of the respective sizes used in Nos. 22-26.
The superheaters fitted to all of the engines of this class, I3, consisted of 21 elements, housed in 4i in. dia. smoketubes, and the heating surface of the superheater steam tubes (according to informa- tion recently suppJied to the writer by Mr. R. E. L. Maunsell, the chief mechanical engineer of the Southern Ry.) was in each case 254 ft2 Owing to differences in the sizes of the ordinary small tubes, the evaporative surface proper varied somewhat, being originally (including 120 ft2 in the firebox) 1,188.0 ft2 for the 1908 engines, 1,307.0 ft2 for the 1910 series, and 1,246.0 ft2 for the 1912-13 batch. The grate area of all was 23.75 ft2, and the steam pressure, down to 1918, was 160 lb. per sq. in. In 1918, the pressure of the twenty engines (Nos. 22-26, 77-91) was increased to 170 lb., and in 1923 to. 180 lb. In working order, the engines weighed 76 tons, of which total 38 tons were available for adhesion. At one period, the weight of No. 22 was given as 74½ tons, and that of No. 21, in 1908, as 73 tons.
Run in competition with the non-superheated express tank engines (more particularly Nos. 21 and 27), the superheated 6 ft. 7 in. engines proved to be more economical than the former to the extent of about  15 per cent. in coal, and about 30 per cent. in water. The Southern Belle Pullman express was -often hauled by No. 22, the water carried by the engine, 2,110 gallons, being more than sufficient for the journey of 50i miles from London to Brighton. The beneficial effect of superheating was even more strikingly demonstrated in the case of the Sunny South express, which in 1909 ran through from Brighton to Rugby, L. & N.W. Ry., via Addison Road and Willesden, and vice versa. The train was worked on alternate days from and to Brighton by a L.E. & S.c. Ry. 4-4-2. tank engine and by a L. & N.W. Ry. 4-4-0 tender "Precursor" class loco- motive, each taking the train through to Rugby or Brighton, respectively. The L. & N.W. Ry. engine was old No. 7 Titan, and the L.B. & S.c. Ry. tank engine was usually either No. 23 or No. 26, the work being shared between them. Between Willesden and Rugby, and return, no stop was made, yet it was found that the tank engine could cover the 92 miles from Rugby to Croydon without stopping to take water, the consumption being roughly 19 gallons per mile, whereas the North-Western tender engine, which was not superheated, used approximately 36 gallons per mile. On this service, the coal saving of the Brighton tank engines is said to have been over 16 per cent.
It may be added that the non-superheated express tank engines, which weighed 73 tons, had 170-180 lb. steam pressure, and a total heating surface of 1627 ft2, with a grate area of 24 ft2 The writer understands that most, or all, of these engines, have now been provided with superheaters.
The superheated suburban engines had smaller boilers than those of the express class. the diameter being 4 ft. 6 in. as against 4 ft. 10 in., while the length between tube-plates was about 6 in. shorter. They were, accordingly, equipped with 18-element superheaters. The large fiues, as in the other series, were 4¾ in. in diameter 'outside. The superheater steam tubes provided 215 ft2 of heating surface, and the evaporative surface, when the engines were built in 1908, amounted to 886.36 ft2, of which 97 ft2 belonged to the firebox. To-day, owing to a slight reduction in the number of ordinary small boiler tubes, the evaporative surface is 876.62 ft2 The steam pressure is 160 psi, as originally, and the grate area is 17.35 ft2 The engines are numbered 31-35. They weigh 70¼ tons, and have 36¼ tons jointly on the driving and coupled wheels. In consequence of the generally intermittent character of the work performed, and partly, perhaps, because the men had not become accustomed to them, these suburban superheated tank engines were not at first particularly economical, but in course of time they showed a saving in fuel of some- thing like 14 per cent. over the non-superheated 5 ft. 6 in. class engaged on similar duties.
In 1910, Mr. Marsh brought out a 6 ft. 7½ in. superheated 4-6-2 express tank engine, and a second example was built in 1912. Mr. Marsh's successor, Mr. L. B. Billinton, designed a development of these in the shape of a 6 ft. 9 in. superheated 4-6-4 engine in 1914, and of this larger type six others have since been constructed, five of them in 1921-22. The cylinders of the 4-6-2s are 21 in. by 26 in., and those of the 4-6-4s 22 in. by 28 in., and in each type are placed outside the frames. The 4-4-2s, however, had inside cylinders.
For experimental purposes, the late Mr. A. J. Hill fitted one of two 0-6-2 G.E. Ry. tank engines with a Robinson superheater. Both engines were designed by Mr. Hill, and were built at Stratford in 1914, the "saturated" engine being No. 1000 and the super- heated one No. 1001. Each had 18 in. by 24 in. cylinders, 4 ft. 10 in. coupled wheels, 180 lb. pressure, and 17.7 ft2 of grate area. The total heating surface of No. 1000 was 1394.2 ft2, and the corresponding evaporative surface of No. 1001 was 1189.3 ft2, the firebox, of the Belpaire type, con- tributing 113.0 ft2 in both engines. The superheater steam tube surface of No. 1001 was 102.4 ft2 In running condition, the non-superheated example weighed 61 tons 12 cwt., No. 1001 weighing, probably, a ton or two more. The load carried by the three pairs of coupled wheels was 49 tons 4 cwt. The coal economy obtained with No. 1001 was not considered satisfactory—it was only about 3 per cent. —and the result was that when Mr. Hill built ten further 0-6-2s, Nos. 1002-1011, in 1921, he did not fit them with superheaters. On the other hand, ten more of Mr. Hill's type, Nos. 990-999, which came out after the grouping in 1923, were provided with 18-element superheaters, the steam tubes of which had an area of 134.2 ft2; The evaporative surface of the boiler was 968.3 ft2; that of the firebox, the grate area of which was, as· before, 17.7 ft2, being 110.2 ft2 The steam pressure and the respective sizes of the cylinders and coupled wheels remained the same as in the original 0-6-2 engines of 1914. The weight of the 1923 engines was 62 tons 8 cwt., of which 49 tons 18 cwt. rested jointly on the coupled wheels.
These later 0-6-2s have undoubtedly been sucessful, and large numbers of similar engines, modified by Mr. H. N. Gresley as regards certain details, have since been built for what is now the L. & N.E. Ry. Some were constructed at Gorton Works, and twenty others were built by Stephensons in 1925. Last year, Beardmores also supplied twenty, the general dimensions, apart from an increase in weight, being as in the case of Nos. 990-999. Twenty more were ordered from Hawthorn, Leslie & Co., and nine from the Yorkshire Engine Co., while at the present time a series with round-topped fireboxes is being com pleted at Doncaster Works.
In 1918, Mr. Gresley, then chief mechanical engineer of the G.N. Ry., decided to give superheating a trial in one of his 0-6-2 suburban tank engines, which had 18 in. by 26 in. cylinders, 5 ft. 8 in. coupled wheels, 1250 ft2 of heating surface, a grate area of 19 ft2, a steam pressure of 175 psi, and a weight in working order of 65 tons 17 cwt. The engine experimentally fitted with a superheater was No. 1598, built at Doncaster in 1912. The superheating surface of this engine was 192 ft2, and the evaporative surface, with 120 ft2 in the firebox, totalled 972 ft2 The weight of the engine was about one ton less than that of the others, being 64 tons 18 cwt. Comparing the working of No. 1598 with that of the non- superheated engines of the same series, during a period of about four years, the economy in coal con- sumption in favour of the former came out at 18.7 per cent., No. 1598 burning on an average 52.3 lb. per mile, and the "saturated" engines 64.4 lb. As a result of this test, Mr. Gresley designed an im- proved class of superheater, 0-6-2 "G.N." tank engines, of which sixty were subsequently put into service in 1920-21, and of these ten were built at Doncaster and fifty at the works of the North British Locomotive Co. These newer 5 ft. 8 in. engines had 19 in. by 26 in. cylinders, 998 ft2 of evaporative surface, and 17-element superheaters, the latter pro- viding a superheating area of 207 ft2 The steam pressure was 170 psi and the weight of the engines 70t tons, with an adhesion weight of 55! tons, as against the 51i tons of No. 1598. The Doncaster- built series were numbered 1606-1615, and the North British Locomotive Co engines, 1721-1770.
Careful trials with one superheated and two non-superheated tank engines were carried out in 1922 on the former North Staffordshire Ry. (now part of the L.M. & S. Ry.) by Mr. J. A. Hookham, at that time chief mechanical engineer of the smaller line. The engines tested were again of the 0-6-2 notation, and each of them had 18i in. by 26 in. cylinders, 5 ft. coupled wheels, 175 psi and a grate area of 19.5 ft2 The non-superheated examples were Nos. 18 and 72; these had a total heating surface of 1,000 ft2, and they weighed, including 48 tons 6 cwt. on the coupled axles, a total of 63 tons 17 cwt. The superheated engine, which weighed 64 tons 19 cwt., and had 50 tons 19 cwt. available for adhesion, was No. 25. When built in 1920; it was fitted with an 18-element apparatus, having 195 ft2 of superheating surface, while the total evaporative surface of the boiler was 936 ft2, with 118 ft2 in the firebox. The three engines in question were specially employed in working local stopping trains, the stations, however, being somewhat further apart than those, for instance, in the London suburban district. It was no doubt chiefly for this reason that the saving in fuel effected by No. 25 averaged as much as 20 per cent., or equal to that usually obtainable in express passenger service. It should be added that No. 25 was not the first tank engine on the N.S. Ry. to be superheated, Mr. Hookham's predecessor, the late Mr. J. H. Adams, having applied superheating to tank engines of the 4-4-2 type in 1911, and subsequently, in 1914, to non-tender engines of the 0-6-4 wheel arrangement.
As regards other lines, not previously mentioned, the G.W. Ry. adopted superheating for tank engines in 1909, the former L. & N.W. Ry. and Great Central Ry. in 1910, the S.E. and C. Ry. in 1913, and the L. & S.W. Ry. in 1921. G.J. Churchward, when chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western Ry., once stated that 625 superheated engines, which presumably included tank engines, had in one year saved 60,000 tons of coal. Substantial economy also accrued from superheating in the case of the L.&N.W. Ry. locomotives. This line, in 1910, built a couple of 4-6-2 tank engines, one, No. 2670, with, and the other, No. 2665, without, a superheater. Both had 5 ft. 8½ in. coupled wheels and similar boilers, the steam pressure of which was 175 lb. and the grate area 23.9 ft2· The superheater engine, which had 20 in. by 26 in. cylinders, was fitted with a 21-element Schmidt apparatus, having a steam tube superheating surface of 248.2 ft2 The evaporative surface of the boiler was 1085.4 ft2, and the weight of the engine, including 44 tons available for adhesion, was 77 tons. The "saturated" engine weighed a ton more and had 44½ tons on the coupled wheels. The cylinders of this engine were 18½ in. by 26 in., and the total heating surface was 1475 ft2, of which 137 ft2 were in the firebox, the last-mentioned figure being applicable to both engines. Taking the coal consumption for the year 1911, it was found that the superheated 4-6-2 burnt 44.6 lb. per mile, while the non-superheated engine consumed 58.9 lb., the difference in favour of the former being, therefore, 14.3 lb. per mile.
The foregoing various results—those of the experimental G.E. Ry. engine of 1914 excepted—are on the whole eminently satisfactory. They afford proof, if such were now needed, that the adoption of superheating for tank engines is, in the majority of cases, fully warranted on the score of economy in coal and water consumption. In addition, there is, of course, an appreciable increase in tractive power where, for a given driving wheel diameter, larger cylinders are used without reduction in boiler pressure.
Tank engines in this country which are intended primarily for shunting purposes, are not as a rule superheated. In this connection, opinions differ as to whether superheating is of any advantage, yet it is conceivable that circumstances might arise which would render the application of superheating to all but comparatively small engines advisable, the engines being then available for other duties, if required. It will be remembered that Mr. H. N. Gresley, out of a number of 0-6-0 shunting tank engines, built for the G.N. Ry. in 1914, equipped one of them, No. 167, with a Robinson superheater, and that Mr. R. W. Urie, then of the former L. & S. W. Ry., constructed four tank engines in 1921, Nos. 492-495, of the 4-8-0 type, for shunting in the hump yard at Feltham, and provided them with Eastleigh superheaters. These last-mentioned engines, which had 22 in. by 28 in. outside cylinders, 5 ft. 1 in. coupled wheels, and 180 psi pressure, weighed approximately 96 tons. The boilers had an evaporative surface of 1,406 ft2 and a superheating area of 231 ft2 The grate area was 27 ft2 .
The G.N. Ry. 0-6-0 tank engine weighed 56 tons 12 cwt.; it had 18½ in. by 26 in .. cylinders, 4 ft. 8 in. wheels, 170 psi, and a grate area of 17.8 ft2The heating surface of the super- heater was 229.5 ft2, while the ordinary evaporative surface of the boiler was 761 ft2,
It is obvious that tank engines like the G.N. Ry. 0-6-0s and the L. & S.W. Ry. 4-8-0s are equally suitable for hauling trains on the line, and the writer believes that some of these latter engines have, in, fact, lately been employed on "running" duties.

Chemins de Fer de l'Est, France. 302
Refers to page 39 of Volume 29: twenty Sharp, Stewart & Co. 0-8-0 built for the Swedish & Norwegian Railway, but ten of which went to the Baden State Ry and under the reparation treaty at least one (WN 3440) was sent to France. The original destinations of the other 1888 batch included the Barrry and Palatinate Railways.

A reversible booster. 301-2. 3 illustrations, diagram
Franklin Supply Co.. includes photograph of booster equipped Norfolk & Western Mallet working in reverse

Fourth-class coaches in Germany. 302-4. 2 diagrams (side & end elevations & plans)
Four-wheeled vehicles with lavatories and electric light and suspension boasted by Waggonfabrik Uerdingen.

Ballast wagons for the Bengal Nagpur Ry. 304-5. 2 illustrations
Built Leeds Forge & Co. Ltd.

Factors in the design of steam locomotives. Section VIII—Adhesion, tractive effort, performance. 305
A four-coupled locomotive travelling at 76 mile/h could experience 19% slip. Ivatt conducted tests on the GNR with an 0-8-0 which could exert 7.6 tons at the drawbar at 10 mile/h, which fell to 0.9 tons at 40 mile/h and was computed to fall to 0.1 tons at 50 mile/h. Tests with a single wheeler showed that3 tons at the drawbar at 20 mile/h fell to 0.6 tons at 80 mile/h. tests with a Precursor between Crewe and Rugby showed that 2 tons could be exerted at the drawbar at 61 mile/h which equated with 730 hp, but that the locomotive was exerting 1174 hp: the loss being due to internal resistance

London & North  Eastern Ry. 305
J39 0-6-0 up to No. 2704 into service. No. 2697 first to be painted without lining. Nos. 193 and 602 (Class 124) were almost last of class to be in service and were at Boston. Latest N7 0-6-2Ts into service Nos. 2622 and 2623 (Doncaster WN 1691/2). Three  new Pacifics: No. 2743 Felstead, 2744 Grand Parade and 2745 Captain Cuttle.

Reviews. 306

Voitures et wagons-materiel, freinage, eclairage, chauffage. J. Netter. Paris: Libraire, J. Bailliere Fils (Paper covers).
One of a series of encyclopsedias of industries, entirely devoted to the design, construction and maintenance of carriages and wagons as built for the principal French railways. It is an exhaustive treatise on the subject, written by an author who evidently has unique facilities for investigating and testing the different methods of construction and furnishing which he describes. The book is profusely illustrated, and contains detailed particulars of the most up-to-date passenger vehicles, their furnishing and equipment; further, there are several chapters devoted to the different brake systems, arrangements of electric lighting, as well as heating, as adopted in France. In the wagon section, several of the latest French designs are shown and discussed, but there is no mention of the new German high capacity stock, although the large coal cars of the Virginian Road, in the U.S.A., are illustrated. The references to improved coupling arrangements might be amplified in a future edition, and we should like to hear more of French practice in painting and finishing passenger coaches. There are more than 400 drawings, and some 600 pages of letterpress in the production.

Exhaust steam engineering. C. S. Darling. London: Chapman and Hall Ltd.
The author has produced a most useful treatise on a subject of which we have little literature or reliable data. He has collected a mass of information which should be invaluable to those engaged in designing modern power plants or attempting to secure more economical prime movers.
The chapter on "Exhaust Steam and Locomotive Design" ap- peals especially to us now so many attempts are being made to produce a more efficient locomotive. A full description with diagram is given of the Cristiani-Sacertedo type of closed- circuit locomotive, wherein a Diesel or other oil engine is used to drive compressors for compressing the exhaust steam from the cylinders to a point corresponding with that of the pressure of the original boiler used for generating the steam for the engine.
A locomotive built on these lines .has been tried in service and some very interesting results recorded. It has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain 28.7 per cent. overall efficiency with such an engine, and this should commend itself to designers. Very valuable particulars are given of nearly all the best known forms of exhaust steam engineering.

L.M. & S. Ry. 306
The practice of putting boiler dates on the rebuilt plates on Midland division engines has been discontinued. Original "built" dates are being substituted in cases where the class has not been altered. Goods engines converted from class 2 to class 3, and 4-4-0 of class 483, are having rebuilt plates giving the date of conversion irrespective of the date of the boiler.
The following engines had been rebuilt with Belpaire boilers:-
1928 No. 204, 1357, 1729.
1927 No. 221, 1692, 1842, 3451, 3468, 3739.
1926 No. 219, 1032, 1820, 1821, 1882, 2961.
1925 No. 207, 1286, 1765, 1952, 2920, 2922, 3016, 3023, 3730.
No. 2472, a "Kirtley" 0-6-0 was similarly rebuilt in 1923 and was reclassified  class 2.

[A. Rosling Bennett]. 306
Under the will of the late Mr. A. Rosling Bennett, he gave £100 to the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, £2 10s. thereof to be used annually as a premium to the author of a meritorious paper by a member, associate or student, and the balance of the income to their benevolent fund. Mr. Bennett left £9,115, of which £9,000 is net personalty.

Ransomes & Rapier, Ltd. 306
Order from the Bengal Nagpur Ry. for four 75-ton steam breakdown cranes of the "Stokes" relieving bogie type.

The Superheater Company, of New York. 306
Latest publications, which are indeed interesting additions to our locomotive literature. The first deserving notice is a reprint of a valuable paper read by Mr. C. A. Brandt, chief engineer of the Superheater Company, before the Canadian Railway Club, at Montreal, in February last, entitled The Design and Proportion of Locomotive Boilers. A second pamphlet, entitled Elesco Operation, sketches briefly the varied services the Superheater Company offer to railways and the wide application of their locomotive devices, whilst the third, 1928 Locomotive Progress, illustrates and gives chief particulars of a considerable number of modern Amencan locomotives recently built and equipped with Elesco superheaters, and either feed-water heaters or exhaust injectors.

British Aluminium Co. Ltd. 306
A handy booklet of illustration sheets published by .the British Aluminium Co. Ltd., Adelaide House, Kmg WIlliam Street, London, entitled Railway and Tramway rolling stock, deals with the many uses of aluminium for rolling stock In the reduction of dead weight, advantage is taken of the light- ness of aluminium for panelling, mouldings and ceilings, as well as for seat ends, window frames, and other interior fittings. For doors, aluminium alloy lends itself to casting in specially thin sections, and as they can be shaped to the contour of the car, afford a rigidity which is lacking in non-metallic doors. The malleability of aluminium has a bearing upon Its shaping and also upon re-shaping at times of reconditioning or repaIr, whilst its non-absorbent, rustless surface and the economy with which it can be painted give additional reasons for its adoption for coach work.

Sulzer Bros. 306
A well illustrated catalogue, descriptive of the Sulzer Diesel engines, is to hand from Sulzer Bros., of 31 Bedford Square, London, W.C. I. In the first part of this catalogue, after a few general remarks on the Diesel principle, and on the thermal efficiency of various types of engines, particulars are given of the principal fuels which can be used on these engines. The essential features of a Diesel plant are then considered, as well as the advantages of Diesel engines over other types of prime movers. In the second part, after a short historical survey of the development of the Diesel engine as constructed by Sulzer Bros., the essential features and special advantages of their engines are briefly described. A number of VIews in the works at Winterthur, give an idea of the actual manufacture. Finally, examples are given of installations for many various purposes.

Number 434 (15 October 1928)

New 4-6-0 express locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. (G.E. Section). 307. illustration.
Gresley Beyer Peacock series with Lentz O.C. poppet valve gear.

Victorian Rlys. 307.
Pacific No. 3005 stationed at Benalla used on Up Sydney Limited and return 16.00 to Abury non-stop from Melbourne to Seymour. The Up train left Benalla 38 minutes late, but arriuved in Melbourne only two minutes late.

New South Wales Government Rlys. 307
Ten S or 300 class 4-6-4T were converted to tender engines by Clyde Engineering Co. for use on up country light lines.

Steam rail coaches, Egyptian State Railways. 308-9. 3 illustrations
Five articulated units supplied Clayton Wagons Ltd of Lincoln with first and third class accommodation and lavatories. Built by Clayton Wagons Ltd. On Sunday 23 September 1928 the car was demonstrated with run from Lincoln to Woodhall Junction and back in thev morning and again in the afternoon by a different route with lunch being provided in between presumably. The people present are listed. Party included J.M.E. Langton, CME of the EGSR and R.G. Peckitt, his predecessor. O.V. Bulleid, V.M. Barrington-Ward and E.H. Causer of the LNER, John Strachan General Manager of the Federated Malay States Railway, W.L. Watson of the Crown Agents, Rudgard, A.C.F. Calladine, S.J. Symes and H. Chambers of the LMS, C. Crump and H.L.Wilkinson of the GWR and Day and A.G. MacLeod of the Southern.

L.M. & S. Ry. 309
Closure to passenger traffic of the railway between Desford and West Bridge Leicester. This included Glenfield Tunnel which demanded rolling stock of very limited dimensions. The paragraph noted that Glenfield Tunnel was not the oldest railway tunnel: this was on the Brecon & Merthyr line between Tal-y-Llyn station and Brecon an had been constructed by the Hay Railway

4-8-0 tender locomotives, Ceylon Government Rys. 310. illustration
Hunslet Engine Co.: 4ft coupled wheels, 17 x 22in cylinders and 170 psi boiler pressure.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 310
Very short precis of paper by Byrne.

New locomotives for the Assam Rys and Trading Co. Ltd. 311. illustration
Two 4-6-0 locomotives supplied by Bagnall with 16½ x 22in cylinders, 4ft 9in coupled wheels, 180 psi and Belpaire fireboxes.

Sleeping cars (1). 311-15. 6 illustrations, plan
Introduction of third class sleepers on the GWR, LMS and LNER preceded by a brief history of sleeping cars elsewhere then in Britain. Influence of George Pullman, George Nagelmackers and W.D. Mann and the Mann Sleeping Car Sleeping coaches were introduced for first class [passengers by the LNWR, GNR, Midland (using Pullman cars) and GWR

Drewry railcars, Great Southern Railway of Ireland. 315-16. 3 illustrations.
5ft 3in gauge car for Goolds Cross to Cashel line and 3ft gauge car for West Clare line.

A novel shunting tractor. 317-19. illustration, diagram
London Engineering Co. marketed the Locomotor whereby the weight of the adjacent wagon could be added to that of the tractor to assist adhesion. Patent by Breuer

Alfred Rosling Bennett. The Railway Annex at the Edinburgh International Exhibition of 1890. 320-5. illustration.
Probably, with the exception of the great assembly of ancient and modern locomotives at Darlington in 1925, the most striking British collection was that at the Edinburgh International Exhibition of Science and Art, held in 1890, to com- memorate the opening of the Forth Bridge. The present writer was appointed a member of the En- gineering and Mechanical Committee of the exhibition, of which Regius Professor Armstrong, who then occupied the chair of Engineering at Edinburgh Uni- versity, was the convener or chairman. I suggested to the Committee the formation of a railway section, my leading idea being the exhibit side by side on three parallel tracks of specimens of the locomotives and rolling stock used on the three routes from London to Scotland, viz., the West Coast (L. & N.W.R. and C.R.); the Waverley route (Midland R. and N.B.R.); and East Coast (G.N.R. and N.E.R.), and that, by way of contrast, several of the older types should be included. The Engineering Committee and Executive Council approving, I was entrusted with the details and the obtaining of exhibits. Applications to the companies and others concerned were soon in the post, but it soon became obvious that the task would be a prolonged one if left to correspondence alone, so I planned a journey round the headquarters of the principal English lines. Having previously secured promises to exhibit engines from the Caledonian and North British Railways, I started for Gateshead, where I found Mr. T. W. Worsdell far from enthusiastic at first go off, but after some conversation about his compound engines and the pity it would be if the North Eastern were excluded from such a show, he veered round and I ultimately came away with the promise, subject to the consent of his directors, of one of his latest two- cylinder single-driver express compounds then working the chief trains between Newcastle and Edinburgh; a first-class saloon carriage and George Stephenson's original Stockton and Darlington engine, Locomotion No. 1, together with her tender and one of the old chaldron coal hutches, all standing on a length of the primitive S. and D. permanent way.
Next morning I had a pleasant interview with Mr. Patrick Stirling at Doncaster, and in ten minutes got the promise, subject to the approval of his Board, of one of his famous 4-2-2 express engines with outside cylinders and 8-ft. driving wheels, which he said should go through to Edinburgh under her own steam if the N.B.R. would allow it. Mr. P. Stirling was polite but terse, confining his conversation to the business in hand, which I was quite content to settle so promptly and satisfactorily.
I then proceeded to Derby and had a long and interesting conference with Mr. S.W. Johnson, the genial and urbane locomotive superintendent of the Midland Railway. The object of my visit had been made known by correspondence, and when I told him of my success at Gateshead and Doncaster, and that Mr. Holmes, of the N.B.R., had agreed to exhibit one of his express engines to represent the northern section of the Waverley route, he at once offered to transfer his big 4-2-2 express locomotive, No. 1853, then at the Paris Exhibition (the year was 1889), to Edinburgh and so complete the Midland route. But he was particular in subjecting his promise to the approval of his directors. We then talked of various matters. He claimed the attainment of very high speeds with his latest engines, but I do not now remember what the figures were, and stated his opinion that the size of locomotives was about approaching its limit ! Referring to a drawing of a Jenny Lind engine on the wall of his office, Mr. Johnson said that the men of forty years ago, that would mean 1849, built very good engines but they were small, in harmony with the lesser traffic requirements of the day. We had not done very much beyond increasing the boiler powers, sizes of cylinders and adhesion weights. This I thought was a very interesting as well as modest statement on the part of such a famous designer.
I then went on to Crewe, where Mr. F. W. Webb had given me an appointment for the same afternoon. This call I viewed with some apprehension for Mr. Webb had the reputation of being a difficult man to deal with. I was kept a long time in the waiting-room, but there was a table there covered with engineering and railway publications, amongst which I found a recent copy of the "British Workman," a weekly penny illustrated sheet I had known in my boyhood's days and had thought to be long extinct. And another paper contained an article by Mr. Michael Reynolds, author of the then very well-known book, "Engine-driving Life," which discoveries served to while the time away.
Mr. Webb I found to be somewhat sharp of speech and, perhaps, a bit dictatorial, but when I had proved to him the bona fides of the exhibition and explained what I had done towards showing the three routes side by side, he at once took an interest in the affair. My statement that Mr. Worsdell had promised one of his compounds to illustrate the East Coast route, a fact I took:care to bring out pretty early, evidently impressed him, for he began to talk about his own three-cylinder compounds and their performances; about his recent invention and application of the single loose eccentric, which had overcome the sole remaining difficulty; about the Pennsylvania Railway having ordered an engine, not, unfortunately, fitted with the eccentric, which Beyer, Peacock's had built and shipped. I showed him that I was no stranger to his compounds and their doings, whereat he was evidently pleased. At last he said that I had come in good time as he had a new engine under construction which would be completed in a few months and which we could have. And, further, in order to demonstrate what his compounds could do and to give the exhibition a first-class send-off advertisement—get it into every newspaper in the country—he, on the opening day, would run a Press train of one or two saloons and a brake-van from Euston straight into the exhibition grounds without a single stop and there pull up in front of the grand stand if we chose to provide one. That would be a world's record run of 400 miles, but he knew his compound could do it. How would I like that? Of course, I was enchanted, but enquired how he would overcome the water difficulty since the Caledonian Railway had no pick-up troughs between Carlisle and Edinburgh. "By taking water for that section in an extra tender," he replied. And went on to say that "of course the Caledonian must be got to agree, which, considering the splendid advertisement it would be for the West Coast route, they would be foolish not to do." I undertook that the exhibition should do its best to achieve that very desirable end.
To counterpoise Mr. Worsdell's promised saloon carriage .I enquired whether we might have a West Coast representative vehicle. "How would one of the third-class lavatory coaches with side corridors that we are just putting into use do?" Splendidly; and so that was settled.
Mr. Webb was then experimenting on goods engines with an all-steel, stayless firebox shaped somewhat like the figure 8. Such a novelty I thought would be attractive and enquired whether one could be spared for the exhibition. "Yes, I can promise one of those."
I then approached the relic question and told of Mr. Worsdell's offer of Locomotion No. 1 and of our hopes in other directions. For this section would the L. and N.W.R. care to let us have the Cornwall, Mr. F. Trevithick's famous old engine with 8-ft. 6-in. driving wheels? Mr. Webb said we could have the Cornwall, if desired, but as she had been very much reconstructed with a new boiler and no longer bore any resemblance to the original he was afraid she would not be considered much of a relic. Alternatively, or in addition, he would lend us his full-sized wooden model of George Stephenson's Rocket as she appeared at the Rainhill trials; and also, if we wished, a genuine Richard Trevithick stationary engine with cast-iron boiler which he had been fortunate enough to discover and purchase a few years since. I accepted both with many thanks and left the Cornwall in abeyance.
Mr. Webb then said that as his new compound was going to a Scottish exhibition, a Scotch name for her would be desirable, could I suggest one? I mentioned several that occurred to me at the moment and promised to send on others by post after consideration. This I subsequently did, but received a reply that Mr. Webb had already determined to call her Jeanie Deans. As a very familiar name associated with Edinburgh this was certainly very appropriate.
I then broached another subject. I had written to the Baldwin Locomotive Works, Philadelphia, with particulars of the forthcoming exhibition, enquiring whether they would care to exhibit an American locomotive of their design and build calculated to equal or excel the performances of the British machines working on the three London-Edinburgh routes. After consulting with Mr. Dugald Drummond, then the locomotive superintendent of the Caledonian Railway, and ascertaining that his Company would give every facility for such an American engine to be tried in actual service on the chief trains between Carlisle and Aberdeen, I wrote Baldwin's that after the close of the exhibition their champion, manned by an American crew if desired, should be worked in fair competition with the British locomotives with the actual daily trains. In reply they asked for time-tables; contours of the railways; their loading gauges, and full particulars of the locomotives employed in working them. These were forwarded, and they then offered to build and send a competitive engine if one of the British railways would undertake to buy her after the trials. I now asked Mr. Webb whether his Company would purchase such a locomotive if she performed reasonably well on the West Coast route. His reply was a most decided negative. The L. and N.W.R. could not find use for an engine of the American type and he did not think that any other Company could. I was disappointed but not surprised. The interview concluded by Mr. Webb saying that one of his latest compounds would be leaving Crewe for London with a heavy train in an hour's time. If I liked he would give me an engine pass on her and I could then see for myself how well his system worked. I had to decline, however, as I had arranged to spend the night at Chester and to return to Scotland the following morning. Mr. Webb, in promising his exhibits, made no reservations about obtaining the consent of his directors.
I ascertained from Mr. Dugald Drummond that in his opinion, too, there would be but small likelihood of a British railway company buying the American engine, and so had reluctantly to write Baldwin's to that effect. They thereupon offered to build an engine all the same if the exhibition would pay for her shipment to Glasgow and back again to New York, or get one of the shipping companies to carry her free. And they sent me drawings of the locomotive they proposed to build, some of the details of which I found very surprising.
To persuade a shipping company to transport a big engine twice across the Atlantic for nothing seemed a pretty hopeless sort of undertaking; nevertheless I tried and was somewhat astonished and highly gratified to hear from Messrs. Henderson, of the Anchor Line, that they would carry it to Glasgow and, if necessary, subsequently back again without charge. I lost no time in advising Baldwin's, but before they could acknowledge my letter Messrs. Hendersons wrote that their New York agent reported that there were no facilities for loading such an engine at their wharf, and that they were consequently under the necessity of withdrawing their offer. That finished the American competitive idea, much to my regret. I think it only fair to state that Baldwins showed no signs of trepidation in having to meet on their own rails such champions as the 8-ft. single drivers; the 4-4-0 classes of the Midland, North British and Caledonian, or the two and three-cylinder compounds of the North Eastern and North Western.
Mr. W. Dean, of the Great Western Railway readily agreed to lend the famous old broad-gauge champion Lord of the Isles, which I had asked for. No locomotive for the 7-ft. gauge had ever been seen in Scot-land and the Lord was, therefore, certain to prove an attraction in the relic department.
The South Eastern Railway obligingly promised to exhibit the four-wheeled coach built for the use of the great Duke of Wellington when he was Warden of the Cinque Ports and a frequent traveller between London and Deal.
I applied to the South Kensington Museum for the loan of George Stephenson's Rocket, but they felt themselves unable to comply with this modest demand. But from the Edinburgh Museum we obtained Hedley's Wylam Dilly, own sister to the redoubtable Puffing Billy. The Museum Committee engaged an engineering firm to transfer the engine to the exhibition, for which operation we were charged £40. We could have done it ourselves for £10.
The principal French railways contributed valuable items. The Nord exhibited a section of their per-manent way with a recently-introduced crossing controlled by interlocking points, as well as numerous drawings and photographs of their locomotives and rolling stock. The Ouest, Est and Orleans provided similar pictures on a lavish scale, so that one wall of the Railway Annex was nearly covered with French illustrations. The opposite wall bore fine frames of photographs from the principal British locomotive builders.
At the great Paris Exhibition of that year (1889) there was a circular double-tracked railway round the grounds, with some half-dozen stations, on which passenger trains ran every few minutes, drawn by narrow-gauge Mallet compound articulated engines each with two groups of four-coupled wheels, one set driven by two high-pressure and the other by two low-pressure cylinders. Under the idea that it would be a good move to complete the two-cylinder and three-cylinder compounds exhibits by a specimen of a third and four-cylinder system, I tried to get one of these for Edinburgh, but the Decauville Company, to which application had to be made, hesitated so long that the idea was eventually given up and the space provisionally reserved in the Railway Annex allotted elsewhere. But only a few days before the opening of the exhibition they notified us that they had despatched an engine and some samples of rolling stock. The only thing to be done was to stand them in the main machinery hall. The locomotive proved to be highly ornate and beautifully got up, so that with its little train of trucks it proved an attractive exhibit. There it was seen by Messrs. Denny Brothers, the famous shipbuilders of Dumbarton, who bought it for delivery to their works after the close of the exhibition. I believe it worked very well at Dumbarton.
On approaching the Caledonian Railway about Mr. F. W. Webb's projected non-stop run from Euston to the exhibition, it soon became apparent that that Company would agree to nothing of the kind. They first said that it couldn't be done, and then that it would be so difficult to arrange that they really could not consent. Although the L. & N.W.R. and the C.R. were partners in business as regards the West Coast route, the idea of using the Caledonian rails from Carlisle to Edinburgh for an exhibition of solely L. & N.W. prowess obviously did not commend itself to those responsible for the Scottish line. And so the interesting feat and its accompanying glorious advertisement both for the exhibition and the West Coast traffic had to be abandoned. This sensitiveness as regards L. & N.W. pretensions showed itself, too, in other ways. When the time came, the Jeanie Deans was not allowed to proceed to Edinburgh under her own steam but was condemned to make the journey as a mere part and parcel of an ordinary goods train. And on explaining how I proposed to arrange the West Coast exhibit in the Railway Annex—Jeanie Deans and the Dugald Drummond C.R. 4-4-0 No. 79 with the L. & N.W. corridor coach between them, both engines heading in the same direction, the C.R. wished to have No. 79 Carbrook turned the other way so that she, too, might appear to be pulling the coach. This, however, I would not permit as the designed symmetry with the East Coast exhibit alongside on parallel rails would have been thereby destroyed.
We had a great disappointinent with the Midland Railway. The directors, and more particularly, if not exclusively, the chairman, Mr. Matthew William Thompson, declined to confirm Mr. S. W. Johnson's offer of the Paris express engine which, they said, was wanted for traffic as soon as possible. Shortly after this ungracious ruling Mr. M. W. Thompson came to Edinburgh to attend a ceremony at the Forth Bridge, then on the verge of completion. Professor Arm-strong, chairman of the Exhibition Engineering Com-mittee, Professor A. C. Elliott, D.Sc., and myself, members of the Committee, were also invited and we took the opportunity to endeavour to persuade the Midland chairman to change his mind. The interview took place standing on the Forth Bridge, Professor Armstrong being our spokesman. Mr. Thompson, however, would not only not recall his decision but expressed himself in offensive terms, charging us with wanting the engine for our own profit. She had, he said, been in existence for over a year and owing to absence in Paris had not yet earned a ha'penny for the shareholders. If transferred to Edinburgh her services would be lost for well-nigh another twelve months and he was not going to permit it. No, not on any account! That left us very sore and put an end to the Waverley route exhibit, so Mr. Holmes had to be notified that the N.B.R. engine would not be required. The Midland failure enabled the dimensions of the Railway Annex to be curtailed, there being now only two parallel tracks to be provided instead of three. Another consequence was that there would now be no room for the Cornwall and so Crewe was advised. The date of the opening of the exhibition was May 1, 1890, and the railway exhibits began to arrive early in April.
The Lord of the Isles came from Swindon loaded on several trucks, which were put into the Caledonian exhibition siding by one of Mr. Brittain's 0-4-4 tank engines used on the Leith branch. A gang of fitters followed in charge of a foreman who said that his father had turned the Lord's original axle. They soon had the engine erected on a length of G.W.R. longitudinal sleeper 7-ft. track, and, imposing she looked in spite of the proximity of the modern express locomotives. It was certainly a grand design, that of Sir Daniel Gooch. The Great Northern 8-footer, No. 776, came through from Peterborough to Edinburgh one Sunday under her own steam, in charge of her usual driver and fireman with, after York, a N.E.R. driver on the foot-plate as pilot. Things had gone well until close to Prestonpans when the cap of the chimney struck a bridge that was lower than the G.N.R. loading gauge. After that, they practically stopped at every over-bridge they came lands. The Society of Locomotive Superintendents held a meeting in Edinburgh during the exhibition, Mr. James Stirling acting as secretary. Scottish rail-way men came specially to see Lord of the Isles, the 8-footer, and Locomotion which, like the Lord, was making her first appearance in Scotland. One day I met in the Annex an aged man who said that in his youth he had worked on engines of the Locomotion type and knew what really good work they were capable of. Their weakest point, he said, was in the coupling rods, which were liable to failure at the cranks on the rear wheels. to in order to make sure there was room, and consequently got late. They stopped at Portobello to pick me up and then proceeded to the exhibi-tion via Waverley station, Haymarket tunnel, the suburban circle line to Craiglockhart and the branch that the N.B.R. had then made into the exhibition and Railway Annex. At the bridge under the Portobello Road at St. Margaret's Works the chimney again scraped for several feet. It was found clear at the east end but the bridge being a long one and the line rising beneath it contact was made at the further end just before emerging. After that things were clear and 776 got safely to the Railway Annex. It was found there that the cast-iron chimney cap was broken and another had to be requisitioned from Doncaster.
Mr. Wilson Worsdell, then his brother's chief assistant at Gateshead, came in charge of the N.E.R. two-cylinder compound, No. 1521; the saloon, which was a six-wheeled first-class, the flanges of the middle pair of wheels having some extra play; and Locomotion with her tender and chaldron wagon. I proposed that the old veteran should be jacked up and her wheels and motion turned by an electro-motor, but Mr. T. W. Worsdell would not hear of it, saying the ancient machine was too fragile and his Company valued her too much to take any risks. Nevertheless, the idea was not so wild for the feat was actually accomplished in after years both at Wembley and the Centenary Exhibition at Darlington in 1925. I have mentioned the existence of something sug- gestive of jealousy in connection with the C.R. and Jeanie Deans. The N.B.R. and the N.E.R. although partners in a great enterprise-the East Coast route between London and Scotland-did not appear altogether free from a similar sense of rivalry. Mr. Wilson Worsdell, who was often at the exhibition and always a welcome visitor there in view of his genial and engaging personality, proposed that after the close of the exhibition, the N.E. compound, draw- ing the saloon carriage, should make a trip from Edinburgh to Perth over the Forth Bridge, carrying a number of prominent engineers and citizens as guests of the two companies. But the N.B.R. promptly vetoed the scheme. The N.E.R. possessed running powers into Perth although they had never exercised them and, may be, the N.B.R. suspected that the suggested excursion might prove the insertion of the thin end of an unwelcomed wedge. Anyhow, they wouldn't have it. The illustration on page 320 is a reproduction of a photograph of the Railway Annex. To the right is seen an end ofthe Duke of Wellington's so-called saloon, with the Lord of the Isles on the track beyondi t. On astandard gauge track in front of the G.W.R. veteran is visible the back of the tender of No. 79, Carbrook, Caledonian 4-4-0 express, one of the engines built by Mr. Dugald Drummond with a working pressure of 200 lb. to the sq. in. which, after extended experience, was ulti- mately reduced to 175 lb. Beyond No. 79, Carbrook, stood the L. &N.W. third-class lavatory corridor coach, a great novelty in 1890, and in front of that was Jeanie Deans, the Webb three-cylinder com- pound, destined to prove in actual service almost exclusively on the 21p.m. Scotch express from Euston,' J and its return train from Crewe, the best engine of her class. By the side of Jeanie stood a fine working model of the three-cylinder compound Dreadnought, which collected pennies for the Railway Orphanage. Standing by itself and obstructing the view of the Caledonian representative was Hedley's Wylam Dilly, with her tender and water cask, an engine Which, granted the ability of the boiler to stand pressure, appeared to be in good working order and only waiting for steam. In front of the Dilly was the Chemin de fer du Nord:s permanent way and interlocking crossing; and beyond that and level with Jeanie Deans Mr. F. W. Webb's all-steel firebox.
On the left of the picture is a pressed steel under- frame for a goods wagon made by the Leeds Forge Co. Then Locomotion with her tender and chaldron hutch. Dependant from the rear of this last but somewhat obscured by the railings, was an iron cresset or brazier which, filled with live coals, used to be carried on the last truck of the original Stock ton and Darlington coal trains by way of tail light. Beyond Locomotion is seen No. 776, G.N.R. 8~footer; then the N.E.R. saloon, and finally No. 1521 N.E.R. two-cylinder single-driver compound.
At the rear end of the Annex, not shown in the picture, stood the L. &N.W.R. full-sized model of the Rocket; the Trevithick stationary engine with cast- iron boiler; a fine working exhibit of the Westinghouse Brake Company, showing the result of applications and releases of the brake, using actual air pressure, on each carriage of a train of six or eight vehicles, together with several smaller matters.
The Railway Annex proved a favourite resort of visitors and attracted railway engineers from many lands. The Society of Locomotive Superintendents held a meeting in Edinburgh during the exhibition, Mr. James Stirling acting as secretary. Scottish railway men came specially to see Lord of the Isles, the 8-footer, and Locomotion which, like the Lord, was making her first appearance in Scotland. One day I met in the Annex an aged man who said that in his youth he had worked on engines of the Locomotion type and knew what really good work they were capable of. Their weakest point, he said, was in the coupling rods, which were liable to failure at the cranks on the rear wheels.

A curious compound locomotive : Holland Railway Co. 325.  2 illustrations
A remarkable two-cylinder compound engine, built in 1888 for the Holland Ry., by A. Borsig, of Berlin, is shown in the accompanying two illustrations (showing both sides), and long since scrapped. This engine, named Simon Steven, after a famous Dutch mechanic living about 1600, was one of four built on this very unusual system of compounding; the names of the others were Van Oldenbarneveldt, Paul Potter, and Rembrandt. Both high and low pressure cylinders had the same diameter, 456 mm. (18 in.). The right-hand side shows the high-pressure cylinder, which has a stroke of 400 mm. (154 in.), whilst the left-hand view shows the low pressure cylinder with a stroke of 800 mm. (312 in.). On the high pressure side may be seen also the starting valve on the smokebox for admitting live steam to the low pressure cylinder. It is somewhat difficult to understand the reason for this exceptional method of securing an arrangement of compounding, for although there was an equal distribution of power between the two cylinders, the initial force on the high pressure piston was about double that on the low pressure, and this naturally made the engines unstable on the road, with a decided "nosing" movement. Again, the very large throw of the low pressure crank was more than once the cause of a broken coupling rod when the engine slipped at full speed on greasy rails. Like their sister simple engines of the "type Frans Hals," illustrated in the Locomotive Mag. of February, 1900, p. 19 the driving wheels were 7 ft. dia. The boiler was also exactly the same, having a total heating surface of 1,221 -83 ft2, and a grate area of 22.47 ft2, with a working pressure of 150 lb. per sq. in. Their weight in working order was 43,100 kg. Tractive force when working compound was 2,611 kg., and when working simple, 3,918 kg. With the light trains running at the date these engines were built (1888), they proved very economical on fuel.

Queensland Government Rys. 325
Walkers Ltd., of Maryborough, were building ten engines of the C17 class. These were 4-8-0 locomotives with 17-in. cylinders (see THE Loco-MOTIVE, p. 222, 1922).

Victorian & South Australian Rys. Joint Stock. 325
Two 80-ton Pullman sleepers had been imported recently for service, and as patterns, on the Adelaide-Melbourne expresses. A Pullman diner has also been imported for service on the South Australian portion of these runs.

South Australian Government Rys. 325
At their Islington shops the S.A. Rys. are now building further Mikado engines, similar to the "700" class built by Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., with, of course, some variations.

Great Western Ry. 325.
New 0-6-2 Goods Tank Engines, Nos. 6650 to 6679, delivered by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. Nos. 6631 to 6641 of the same class completed at Swindon.

H.G.W. Household. The Sand Hutton Light Railway. 326-9. 5 illustrations.
Eighteen inch gauge estate railway which connected with York to Market Weighton line at Warthill. Served the land owned by Sir Robert Walker and managed by S.C. Foster. Includes details of ex-War Department 0-4-0Ts built for use at Deptford in 1917.

The "Rocket". 329.
A correspondent had asked how joints in early locomotives were sealed, especially those in critical locations, such as the steam dome and cylinders. Rust joints thought to have been used in places were unsuitable for dealing with high pressures.

T.H. Sanders. Coiled springs – design and formulae. 330-1. 2 diagrams

German State Rys. 331
Most passenger trains were formed of second and third class carriages: first class was limted to a few express trains

L.M. & S. Ry. widening. 331
Coppenhall Junction to Winsford and Hartford Junction to Acton Bridge.

Southern Ry. 331
Containers were introduced for the Southampton to London meat traffic: they were capable of carrying 4 tons.

Stockton & Darlington Ry., locomotive history, 1825-1876. 332-4. 4 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Refers back to Fig. 72 which had an error in the caption: it was a Gilkes Wilson 0-6-0 No. 170. This part describes 0-6-0 built by the Shildon Works Co.: Nos. 171 Gladstone; 172 Barrow built in 1863 and 173 London and 174 John Dixon built in 1864. They had 4ft 11in wheels, 17 x 24in cylinders; 120 psi boilers and midfeathers. No. 175 Contractor was the first engine to be built by the Shildon Works Co.at the North Road Engine Works in Darlington in October 1864. It had 4ft 11in wheels, 17 x 24in cylinders; 120 psi boilers and a midfeather. It was scrapped in 1908.. The next series was constructed by Robert Stephenson & Co. and were bigger: 17 x 26in cylinders; 5ft 0½ wheels; a total heating surface of 1308ft2; a grate area of 14ft2; 130 psi and midfeathers. They were Nos. 176 Windsor, 177 Osborne, 178 Balmoral, 179 Edinburgh, 180 Dublin, 181 Malton, 182 Elton, 183 Acklam, 184 Lark and 185 Swallow.

Factors n the design of steam locomotives. Section VIII – Adhesion, tractive effort, performance. 334-5.

New covered vans, L. & N.E.. Ry. 338-9.  3 illustrations, diagram (side & rear elevations & plan)
Bogie non-gangwayed vans built at Dukinfield Works with a capacity of 21 tons and fitted with folding shelves for comveying fruit, etc., or enabling bulky consignments. Fitted for oil lamps and Westinghouse and vacuum brakes.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 339
No. 4536 is the latest 0-6-0 class 4 goods engine to be completed and turned out at Crewe. Several of the later ones had been transferred to the Midland division, e.g. Nos. 4520-4. Presumably twenty in all are to be transferred, Nos. 4517-36. On completion of the present order at Crewe for fifty class 4 goods engines (Nos. 4507-56) work will be commenced on a series of ten 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines of the 13,000 class.
The following additional 4-6-0 four-cylinder Claughton class locomotives are now running, rebuilt with large boilers and Caprotti valve gear :-Nos. 5927 Sir Fraucis Dent, 5496 Duke of Connaught, 6013 (no name), and 6023 Sir Charles Cust. In the former L. & N.W. list these engines were numbered 2221, 2427, 156, and 207 respectively. Some new 0-6-0 standard shunting tanks ex W.G. Bagnall, Ltd., are now in service and stationed at Stafford, Nos. 166/5-9. Of the same type, Nos. 16685-6 ex Beardmore and Co., have recently been delivered to Crewe. Another of the reconditioned 2-8-0 MM. engines was now running, No. 9665. In the (late) R.O.D. list this engine was numbered 1853 and was built by the North British Loco. Co. in 1918 (makers' No. 21830).
Wirral section 0-4-4T No. 3 (L.M. & S. No. 6776) had been withdrawn. Only ten of the 6 ft. 2-4-0 Jumbos now remain in service, viz., Nos. 5084, 5085, 508/, 5088, 5090, 5092, 5095, 5097, 5102, and 5104. About forty of the 6 ft. 6 in. type are still left. These classes originally comprised ninety engines and 166 engines respectively. Claughton class 4-6-0 No. 6001 (old No. 23) is now at work on the Midland division and stationed at Kentish Town.

Reviews. 339

The economics of rail transport in Great Britain, C. E. R. Sherrington, M.C., M.A. Edward Arnold & Co., Two vols.,
The importance of efficient transport to the national welfare of any civilised country makes the study of problems of railway administration and theories underlying operation of the greatest interest and especially so at the present moment. These are made clear by the author in this well-written work not only to the railway man, but to general readers who are interested.
Before discussing and analysing the present economics ot rail transport in Great Britain, the writer outlines the historical facts that .have led up to the position of to-day, and surveys the development of the nuclei of the four groups. Then follow chapters on the development of the permanent way, the steam locomotive, and carriage and wagon design. The final sections of Vo!. I are devoted to a resume of the growth of Government regulations, leading up to the Railways Act of 1921.
In the second volume, after giving the broad reasons why rail transport must be operated with maximum efficiency if the nation and society as a whole are to benefit, making it the most important industry in all countries, the writer emphasises the necessity for closer co-operation between the railways and the traders and travelling public. Owing to the rise of road motor competition, the importance of co-operation has never been more necessary than it is to-day: In India, Advisory Committees have been intro- duced and a summary of the proceedings published in the newspapers-a contrast to the secret policy which characterises meetings of this nature in this country. Since the War [WW1], however, there have been improvements, but the author points out the extraordinary delay which has occurred in the setting up of the Local Joint Committees under the Railways Act of 1921, for discussing local problems of service and complaints.
A description of the origin of the Railway Clearing House is given, with a review of its organisation and method of working. Considerable space is devoted to the theory of charges made for the various services and their application. Considerations of the main characteristics of passenger train operation and freight train service, with their complications and economic problems, lead up to a chapter on traffic control, marshalling yards, etc., mentioning increased locomotive power as one method of improvement. In his remarks on the economics of electric traction, the author emphasises the disadvantage of its dependence upon a centralised power supply, as well as its high capital cost. Railway statistics, road competition and State ownership are studied at length in the concluding chapters. Mr. Sherrington is well known as a lecturer on transport, and secretary of the Railway Research Bureau of the London School of Economics, and has had exceptional opportunities in the study and teaching of economic and transport questions at Cambridge, Cornell, and London Universities and from his reports and surveys of the conditions abroad, is able to handle his subjects in their practical aspects. The volumes are clearly printed and well produced, and form a valuable text book for students.

The Locomotives of the Southern Ry. (Eastern Section), W.G. Tilling. London: 106 Great Dover Street.
This is a well-produced book of some sixty pages that will appeal to all those interested in the old South Eastern and Chatham section of the Southern Ry. We do not remember any previous publication dealing with this subject beyond some articles that appeared in the pages of THE LOCOMOTI VE MAGAZINE some twenty years or more ago. The book, there- fore, covers new ground. It contains a full list of the engines of this section of the Southern Ry. as at July 1928, together with appropriate reading matter, a short description of the various classes, and a folding table showing the principal dimensions of all types at a glance. There are ten excellent full-page illustrations, including a collotype frontispiece of No. A759, one of the new L1 4-4-0 class, and also a very good photograph of one of the latest 2-6-0 rebuilds, No. A797. From a careful perusal of the list, we notice that none of Mr. W. Kirtley's well-known bogie express engines are included. We ourselves saw the last of these, No. A463, working a local goods train at Rochester as recently as April 28 last, and it has evidently been withdrawn from service since that date.

The steel highway, by Cecil J. Allen, London, New York, and Toronto: Longmans, Green and Co. Ltd.
This entertaining addition to the long list of recent rail- way books is divided into two parts: (1) Railway planning and making; and (2) Trains and their control. Each part contains ten chapters, while there are included eight excellent full-page plates in colour, in addition to forty-eight pages of fine half-tone illustrations from photographs, most of which are quite new.
The first part is mainly devoted to railway pioneering and the story of the planning of the main trans-continental routes, among the mountains, underground, across the sea, and even the miniature railways. This follows on with the laying of the track, and its equipment for the traffic it has to carry.
In Part 2 the author describes the building of a modern locomotive, follows it to the stable at which it is cared for, and travels with its crew over a day's journey. This is a description of Mr. Alien's first-hand experience on the footplate of one of the "King" class engines on a non-stop run with the "Cornish Riviera Limited" from Paddington to Plymouth. Rolling stock of all types is reviewed; trains, and the subj ect of railway speeds are dealt with; how freight is handled, including the new method by containers; the systems of controlling the trains and every other factor bearing on safety of operation are discussed. In his dissertations on the "why" and "wherefores" there is much that has not been published before, and of interest to young and old alike, and most important of all, the author, as a practical railwayman, conversant with his subject, has taken the trouble to state his facts with accuracy.

The Missouri Pacific, J. L. Kerr. New York: The Railway Research Society.
This outline history of the Missouri Pacific Ry. is an interesting addition to the stories of the romantic beginnings of the pioneer American railways, forming, as it eventually did, the strongest link in the great Gould system of railways, extending throughout the south-west of the United States of America, starting from St. Louis. The writer comments on the somewhat questionable methods of the famous financier, Jay Gould, and records many interesting details of the struggles for supremacy among the American railway magnates of the "seventies."

Glorious Devon, S.P.B. Mais. London: Great Western Ry, Co., Paddington.
Attractively bound in a coloured picture cover, this informative and interesting guide should prove a powerful inducement to see the beauties of Devon, an ideal companion to take on the journey down, and then to help on a tour through and round the county. It is well written, and one of the best illustrated travel books issued by the G.W. Ry, There is a profusion of charming full page illustrations and many excellent pen and ink sketches in the text. Also several small maps, with a double-page map of the county inside the cover.

The Cornish Riviera, S.P.B. Mais. London: The Great Western Ry. Co.
This book is quite as interesting as its companion noticed above, and the same high standard of production is maintained. Nothing seems to have escaped the author's keen observation, and those who take this book for their guide have only themselves to blame if they do not see all the places of interest and enjoy the beauties of the Cornish Riviera thoroughly.

Baldwin Locomotive Works. 340
Two very interesting papers by S.M. Vauclain, one on "Locomotive Development," read before the Mechanical Division of the American Railway Association, and the other entitled "Development of the Locomotive," read before The Rotary Club of New York in 1926. Both are most interesting contributions to locomotive history.

Caledonia fireless locomotives. 340.
This is the title of a well-produced brochure issued by Andrew Barclay, Sons and Co. Ltd., Caledonia Works, Kilmarnock. It contains several illustrations of these very efficient locomotives at work under various conditions. In cases where the haulage work is not particularly heavy nor continuous, and particularly where there is danger from fire, or special inconvenience resulting from smoke or cinders, the fireless locomotive has a distinct field of usefulness. On intermittent shunting the receiver of one of these engines stores sufficient steam to keep it at work four hours or more. The upkeep is small, and no fireman is required. The locomotives are used in food factories, explosive works, paper works, chemical works, gas works, electricity generating stations, petrol stores, docks and harbours, etc.

Number 435 (15 November 1928)

2-6-2 tank locomotive, Great Southern Rys. of Ireland. 341-3 + folding plate.. illustration, 4 diagrams. (including side elevation.), plan. .
Includes sectionalized diagrams: Bazin design No. 850.

Rebuilt express locomotive, Great Southern Rys., Ireland. 343-4. illustration, 2 diagrams. (side elevations)
No. 402 was rebuilt as a 2-cylinder engine with Walschaerts valve gear by Bazin.

[Diversions following Charfield accident of 13 October 1928]. 343
Several LMS trains were diverted via Barkeley Road over the Severn Bridge to Severn Tunnel Junction (where in some cases the locomotives were turned and then through the Severn Tunnel to Bristol (probably the first time locomotives of another company worked through the tunnel].

Obituary. 343
Sir William Collingwood

4-6-4 tank engine, Cordoba Central Railway. 344-5. illustration
Lightly Simpson design built North British Locomotive Co.

0-6-2 tank locomotives, London & North Eastern Railway. 345. illustration
N2/3 was a non-condensing version built for Scottish services. The N2/4, condensing locomotives, differed from the 1920 series in detail. Built by Yorkshire Engine Co. WN 2220-2228: RN 2682-4 with condensing gear (No. 2684 illustrated) and RN 2685-90 for Southern Scottish area.

New Pacific type locomotives, L. & N.E. Ry. 345-6
Term A3 not used: but new series (Nos. 2745 Felstead, 2744 Grand Parade and 2745 Captain Cuttle) had higher boiler pressure, reduced diameter cylinders, longer valve t ravel and left hand drive. Names for series Nos. 2746-52.

"Mikado" mixed traffic locomotive. French State Rys. 346-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Poultney locomotive, Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway. 348. illustration
Built by Yorkshire Engine Co.

Mallet locomotives, Java State Rys. 348. illustration
Built by Swiss Locomotive Co. and fitted with ACFI feed-water heating.

Electric locomotive for the Bernina Railway, Switzerland. 349-51. 3 illustrations
Swiss Locomotive Co.: see also page 381 which notes that gradients encountered stated to be 1 in 25 are 1 in 15.

J.C.M. Rolland. New rolling stock, Victorian Rys. 351-3. 4 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
An assortment of new photographs from Norman C. Harris, chief mechanical engineer: sleeping car, petrol electric railcar, Buick motor car adapted to run on rails to convey senior oficials; mechanical coaling tower and diagram of X class Mikado (2-8-2) freight locomotive..

London & North Eastern Ry.  353.
The latest J39 class goods engines to be completed at Darlington were Nos. 2711 to 2713; these were fitted with both vacuum and air brakes. Further 0-6-2 tank engines had been delivered by Hawthorn, Leslie and Co., Nos. 2663 to 2665, for service in the Scottish area. Ten 4-6-0 express engines for the Great Eastern section, Nos. 8571 to 8580, built by Beyer, Peacock and Co. Ltd., were in service.

Great Western Ry. 353.
New 0-6-2 goods tank engines, Nos. 6665 to 6689, had been delivered by Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. Nos. 6642 to 6649 had been completed at Swindon, and also 2-6-2 type tank engines Nos. 5545 and 5546.

Narrow gauge tank locomotive for Mauritius. 353
Locomotive built by W. G. Bagnall Ltd., of Stafford: diminutive 0-6-0 side tank engine illustrated intended for the Mauritius Ry. to suit the 2 ft. 6 in. gauge, and was built under the inspecion of the Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Sleeping cars. (II). 354-5. illustration, 2 diagrams (elevations & plans)
Includes diagrams of broad gauge Great Western Railway sleeping carriages introduced on the Paddington to Penzance  night service in 1878. In 1928 both the LNER and LMSR introduced third class sleeping cars (the interior of an LMS compartrment is illustrated). Apropos of this introduction of lower class sleeping cars on British railways, a valued contributor sends us his proposals for a sleeping car constructed on the articulated and double deck principle, somewhat of the pattern of the South African experiment: drawing reproduced and suggests possibilities which are sufficient to justify publication. In the triplex arrangement shown, built to dimensions which would pass the restricted British gauge, no less than thirty-four separate compartment berths could be accommodated, with four lavatories, with a tare weight of probably not more than two ordinary sleepers.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L.& N.W. Section). 355
New 0-6-0 class 4F superheater goods engines ex Crewe in traffic up to No. 4341, the last four of which had been allocated to the Central division (L. & Y. section). Further 0-6-0 standard shunting tanks had been received Nos. 16687-99, ex Wm. Beardmore & Co., and No. 16680 ex W.G. Bagnall Ltd.
Claughton class 4-6-0 No. 5957 (old No. 2368). running rebuilt with new standard boiler and Caprotti valve gear. Including No. 5908 with original boiler, there were now ten Caprotti engines in service, all stationed at Longsight.

Locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 355-7. 3 illustrations
Continued from page 258.) Before recording the particulars of locomotives taken over by the Great Indian Peninsula Railway from the Indian Midland Railway, we must refer to five engines received from Government on the inclu- sion of the Wardha State Railway into the G.I.P. system in January, 1891. This was a short line of some 44t miles from Wardha, on the Iagpur section, to the Warora coalfields; it was eventually continued to Ballarshah. The engines were numbered in the State lists 152, 170, and 253-5. On the G.I.P. Railway they received the numbers 34, 36, and 47-49. The first two were six-coupled engines built by Sharp Stewart & Co. in 1877, and were almost identical to the engines built by the same firm for the G.I.P. Ry. about that period, and corresponded with the L/23 class. It seems possible that these were built to an indent prepared by the consulting engineers, and handed over to the State Railways to meet an emergency at the time.
The other three engines were quite different from any others running on the line, being of the 0-4-2 type, with coupled drivers leading. They were built by Kitson's in 1867 includes photograph of one of these engines, as built (Fig. 36). Nos. 47 and 49 were scrapped soon after receipt. No. 48, after rebuilding with Y type boiler lasted until 1904.
The Indian Midland Railway was constructed 1886-9. L.E.H. Brock was locomotive superintendent; a former GIPR divisional superintendent. Brock moved to the Southern Maahratta Railway in 1900 and was replaced by W.H. Traill.
Nearly all IMR locomotives were modern machines, built for the railway, and put into service on its completion in 1888. The exceptions consisted of seven 2-4-0 tender engines, built by Neilson & Co. in 1865, for the Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway, and purchased by the l.M. Railway for use in shunting yards in 1899. These engines were numbered 141-147 in the stock of the railway, and were never renumbered by the G.l.P. Railway, as they only survived the amalgamation for a year or two. At the time one performed shunting at Bhopal, two at Bina, and four at Jhansi. We illustrate No. 146 by Fig. 37, which shows they were smart little engines in their day. They had cylinders 16 in. dia. by 26 in. stroke, and driving wheels 5 ft. dia. Three of the engines-Nos. 143, 145 and 147 had four-wheeled tenders, whilst the other four had six-wheeled tenders, carrying 1,900 gallons of water. The boilers had been renewed by the B.B. & C.I. Railway at different dates between 1879 and 1886, but had a working pressure of only 120 lb. per sq. in.
We should also mention here the six engines of Kitson's build, purchased from the G.l.P. Railway in 1886. These were used on construction, and only one remained on the line at the time of amalgamation, performing shunting at the Jhansi shops and running the staff train morning and evening between the station and shops. It was not numbered, but named Scinde.
As nearly all the locomotives built for the I.M. Railway were running in 1902, they are considered in numerical order, commencing with No. 1, which became No. 1001 in the G.l.P. Ry. books. Nos. 1-29 and 33-42 (thirty-six engines in all) were 4-4-0 passenger engines, built by Kitson & Co. in 1887-8; they were in general design closely similar to the G.I.P. Ry. 500 class. The cylinders were 18 in. dia. by 26 in. stroke, and driving wheels 5 ft. 6i in. dia. Forty- two engines were actually built, makers' Nos. 3011- 3052, but three of these—Nos. 30, 31 and 32 (3022- 3034) were sold to the East Coast Railway prior to the amalgamation. Nos. 43-50 were blank.
Nos. 51-55 were 2-6-0 compounds for goods working on the Worsdell-von-Borries system, built by Neilson in 1892. The high pressure cylinders were 20½ in. dia. and the low 28 in. dia. by 26 in. stroke. The driving wheels were 4 ft. 6 in. dia. Fig. 38 shows one of these engines. As compounds they were not favoured by the staff, and whether from neglect or error in design they were continually under repairs and therefore gave low mileage. All were converted to simple engines in 1904, with 18 in. cylinders

The New Zealand Ry. Department. 357
Requiring a further quantity of machines and electrical equipment for the new workshops in the Dominion, now in course of erection. Amongst the requirements are screwing machines, rectangular chucks, a piston ring grinder, twist-drill grinding machines, a pattern- maker's lathe, and freight elevator.

Institution of locomotive Engineers. 357-8
Meeting held at Denison House, on 25 October, a comprehensive paper on Pulverised Fuel Locomotives, by J. Clubley Armstrong (member) [Paper 239], was listened to by a large audience. R. E. L. Maunsell, the new president, was in the chair. Prior to the reading of the paper, H. N. Gresley, the retiring president, introduced his successor with suitable remarks, and on the conclusion of the lecture, Maunsell combined his inaugural address with comments on the very interesting subject discussed that evening, emphasising his opinion that there was a good deal to be done with pulverised fuel in the attempt to secure more economy in railway operating expenses, and further-which was more to the point-recording the fact that upon his recommendation the Southern Ry. intended to make some trials. Mr. Armstrong, after quoting some figures on the extensive employment of pulverised fuel in marine and power plants, etc., gave descriptions illustrated with lantern slides of the early efforts of the A.E.G. to secure a satisfactory arrangement of firing for locomotives. He next explained in detail the different successful improvements made and the latest construction of the various component parts of the furnace, burners, etc., as applied to the locomotives built for the German Reichs Bahn, and which were shown to the members of the Institution on their visit to Germany last summer. In supplement to the actual arrangement of the apparatus on a locomotive and tender, Mr. Armstrong showed illustrations and full details of the plant used

T.H. Sanders. Coiled springs – design and formulae. 358. diagram

L.M. & S.R. 358
The series of fifty 0-6-0, Class 4, superheater goods engines being turned out at Crewe had been allocated as follows: Western division, Nos. 4507-16; Midland division, Nos. 4517-36 and 4547-56; Central division, Nos. 4537-46. Only one of the ex M.R. 4-2-2 singles was left, No. 679.

Tasmanian Rys. 358
Walkers Ltd., of Maryborough, Queensland, were building two 4-8-2 tender engines of the improved HQ type. The original engines of the class were built several years ago by Perry & Co., Gawler, South Australia (Locomotive Mag., p. 97, 1923).

Stratford and G.E.R. locomotives sixty years ago. 359.61. illus.
Drawing by F.H. Stingemore of 2-2-2 Numbers 26 and 51. Probably the most fascinating period in the locomotive history of the old Great Eastern Rail- way is that round about the "sixties" and "seventies," which embraces the latter part of the regime of Robert Sinclair up to the resignation of S. W. Johnson. The, at the time comparatively new, unified organisation, was then beginning to make the extraordinary development which continued well into the "nineties,"
At the time under notice the shops and sheds at Stratford could provide a positive feast to the student of locomotive history whenever he felt inclined to visit them, see illustration below.
The various locomotives originally owned by the subsidiary lines which had been incorporated in the Great Eastern represented a most diverse collection of types, as will be seen from a perusal of the historical record given in Vols. VI. to XII. of this magazine. The actual shops were almost as constructed in 1847, and the whole of the plant of the locomotive, carriage and wagon departments, was at that time situated on the east side of the Cambridge main line, from the end of Stratford station to Chobham Farm bridge.
The carriage cleaning shed was then located between the Chobham Farm and Temple Mill Lane bridges, and empty carriage trains were worked to and from Bishopsgate. As more siding room became badly needed for up-goods and coal traffic, a new carriage shed was built to the west of the main line, on a site opposite the shops and nearer the Stratford station, where it stands at the present day; it dates from about 1864.
There are two points upon which the old Great Eastern Railway could fairly have claimed records, the numbers of locomotive superintendents and of the builders of their locomotives. Up to the recent group- ing there had been fifteen locomotive chiefs, and engines had been supplied by some thirty outside makers. Many of the engines at the time we write of, bore signs of preceding ownership, and only a limited number had been altered from their original condition. A few which had been rebuilt had been to Kitson's, at Leeds, for the work to be carried out.
When Mr. Sinclair was appointed locomotive superintendent, the locomotives were numbered up to 279, and about 100 of these had "domed" fireboxes, with a steam pressure of 90 lb. per sq. in.
In 1859 the first few of the long boiler engines were rebuilt with Sinclair standard domes and safety valves. Three of these-Nos. 181, 184, and 187 were 2-4-0 engines; No. 181 had been built by the Vulcan Foundry in 1847; Nos. 184 and 187 by Jones & Potts in 1848; whilst No. 152 was an 0-6-0 goods engine with a "domed" firebox, built by the last-named firm in 1847; the working pressure of the boiler of this engine was 120 lb. per sq. in,
The various types that were rebuilt will be mentioned later on. The manufacture of boilers in the days under notice was a slow process, and engines requiring new boilers were often lying by for a year or two before they could be dealt with.
At this time what are now known as the "up" and "down" goods roads past Stratford on the Cambridge (or Loughton) side were two long sidings for the recep- tion of old engines waiting their turn to be repaired or broken up. One was known as the "hospital" road, and was mostly used for engines sent up from Norwich, Cambridge, Ipswich, Peterborough, and King's Lynn. The Stratford engines on the waiting list were usually stowed away in sidings abutting on the Chobham Farm bridge, and at one period (before the old printing office, now foundry, was built), forty- three old engines, partly dismantled, were lying about the yard where it bordered on Angel Lane. In a former supplement issued with the LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE a photograph by the late Mr. Geo. Spencer was reproduced, showing a number of old engines, among others No. 92, a Jones & Potts 4-2-0, Slaughter, 0-6-0 of the No. 160 class, and one each of Longridge's and Sharp's build.
As most of the occupants of the "hospital" road have been described in the history of the Locomotives of the Great Eastern Ry. already referred to, it is interesting to note that, although several old photo- graphs were taken of engines on the" clock" line, there does not appear to be any of the engines standing on the old "hospital" road in existence.
There were many young locomotive enthusiasts even in "the sixties," and to keep in touch with fresh arrivals in the "waiting repair" roads youthful specialists used to ride to and from Stratford and Leyton for the purpose of surveying the contents of the sidings. Several items of interest are brought to mind by reference to these expeditions by the writer of this note. An old engine that was an object of curiosity to many was closely sheeted up for years; it was a long boiler, 0-6-0 tender engine by Stephenson (maker's No. 619), and the date was 1847. It stood there until 1871, when it was purchased by Sir Morton Peto, and repaired at Stratford, painted light green with black bands and white lines, before being shipped to Newquay and placed on the Treffrey Estate line. It was named Lord Robartes.
A. R. Bennett, in his interesting Chronicles of Boulton's Siding (p. 87), mentions that in 1875 Boultori's bought two Stephenson 0-6-0 engines with "haycock domed" fireboxes and six- wheeled tenders, which had been employed on the construction of Portland Breakwater. According to Boulton's ledger they were named Lord Warden and Lord Roberts, but it is quite certain that at that date there was no one with the latter title, and we feel fairly confident that this engine was the Lord Robartes. The engine was scrapped at Ashton.
Other engines repaired at the same period were the four 2-2-2 well tanks-Nos. 13, 14, 15 and 16, built by Sharp's for the Eastern Union Railway. The first three had closed brass domes and safety-valve covers, similar to the old Furness engine No. 36; whilst No. 16 had the standard "Sharp's" dome with open top on a square base and a small safety valve column over the firebox.
No. 103, the Jenny Lind that came to grief at Tottenham on February 20, 1860, was another object of interest when it arrived after the accident. This engine left the shops with a large brass dome on a square base, which had originally done duty on No. 184 (this engine had previously been rebuilt with a Sinclair dome), and a Gooch safety-valve casing over the firebox, the original fluted dome and safety valve column having been smashed in the accident. No. 103 was the last of the Wilson singles and was broken up in 1874.
In 1871, Nos. 5 and 6 Gooch tanks came to shops for scrapping. These were two of the three engines built by Longridge in 1851 at a cost of £ 1,lOO each, in exchange for Nos. 162, 164 and 169, goods engines, without tenders, at £1,050 each.
In front of the main office building, facing the Cambridge main line, on a stone pedestal, stood old No. 119, a Bury single, which had to be removed in 1871 to make way for the turntable which became necessary for getting the larger engines in and out of the erecting shop and obviate crossing the main tracks. The old engine became neglected and had a rusty and dirty appearance when removed from its stand. An amusing incident occurred when an attempt was made to haul it along the rails. After half a revolution or so it became immovable, and no explanation could be found until an old worker who had assisted in re-conditioning the engine when it was first placed on its pedestal remembered that one of the connecting rods used was taken from another engine of similar type but was much shorter than that used originally; the stroke of cylinder being less, it became jambed on reaching the end of the piston's stroke and locked itself. The "good-looking" single express engines, origin- ally built by Stothert & Slaughter for the Eastern Counties Railway and rebuilt by Mr. R. Sinclair, often had a representative example in the shops; as also had another class by the same makers, Nos. 1570, 1580 and 1590.
Two engines built by Jones & Potts were also visitors at times, prior to their extinction in 1877 and 1879. Stephensori's four-coupled, with long boilers and "domed" fireboxes, were noticeable engines which underwent many changes, but which never received the favour of Johnson's chimneys.
Among the many locomotives scrapped in the "seventies" may be mentioned Wilson's four-coupled, with low set boilers and long, slender chimneys. Engines coming to the shops for heavy repairs usually stood on what was known as the" clock" road already mentioned-a siding which runs parallel with the "round" shed and its extension, and the "up" Loughton-Cambridge line; it received its name from the large clock at the end of the round shed which was used for timing the locomotive movements. It was seldom that two engines of one type were seen at one time on this siding, such was the miscellaneous character of the locomotive stock. It is to be remarked that the older types of engines seemed to invariably suffer in appearance after rebuilding, etc.; the newer chimneys, cabs, and plainer mountings did not seem to suit the slender, spidery looking engines of the "fifties."
The old engines of the Norfolk Railway, built in 1847, and Gooch's single tank engines, with the express engines built at the Canada Works, Birkenhead, all have been seen standing on the "clock" road awaiting their turn for the shops.
A curious little locomotive was No. 8 (latterly 08), provided with a small saloon behind the bunker, which was used by Mr.J.H. Nettleship, when at Cambridge, he afterwards became superintendent of the line. It was a pretty little combination, and kept very spick and span, as the officer named was a man of spartan neatness.
Sharp's single express engines for the Eastern Union Railway, and the East Anglian Railway goods engines, with front-coupled drivers, originally the Lion and the Tiger, passed the limits of their prescribed term of action about this time, as did many other locomotives of limited class.
Probably the most attractive engines of all were the "Butterflies" -so called from their bright yellow paint. These engines were originally built by Mr. Gooch and re-modelled by Mr. Sinclair. They had been great favourites on the railway, and were only withdrawn from traffic late in the "seventies," when completely outclassed.
Most of the new engines urgently wanted in the latter part of this period to meet increasing traffic came from various builders of repute, and were generally to accepted standard types. Two engines, however, which were forerunners of Mr. S. W. Johnson's famous 4-4-0 express engines of the Midland Railway, were built at Stratford-Nos. 301 and 302, afterwards renumbered 305 and 306. These two engines made a reputation on the G.E.R. Their appearance helped them, and, as they were frequently chosen for hand- ling some of the chief express trains, they were well known all over the system. When first built, they had old, low tenders allotted them, originally built by Rothwell & Co. These did not assist their appearance, but when later standard Johnson tenders were coupled to them, they looked very smart.
Of other engines built at the shops, some 0-4-2 side tanks, which were also painted bright yellow with black bands and fine red and white lines, deserve mention. They were intended to work passenger trains, but as these rapidly increased in weight, larger and more powerful engines became necessary, and the locomotives mentioned were relegated to shunting duties.
As time progressed and 1880 dawned, the diverse array of locomotives at Stratford became more striking. Larger and much heavier types of engines became the accepted form of power, and to see some of these sandwiched between the remaining representatives of a bygone era was indeed interesting. Eventually the "New" shed built on the far side of the railway on what had hitherto been marsh land known as "Spike Island," absorbed the later types of goods and tank engines, and the works side became a preserve for the engines engaged in main-line passenger service.

Electric arc welding in railway workshops. 361-4. 6 illustrations, diagram  
In the construction and repair of locomotives and rolling stock, as well as in the repair and upkeep of the permanent way, electric arc welding is now in every- day use by railways all over the world, and the economy effected in the cost of labour and material is very considerable.
In order to compare rivetted and welded joints in the construction of wagons the Belgian Rys. had built at their main workshops at Cuesmes two 20-ton coal wagons, one of which is entirely rivetted, while the other has been electrically welded through-out.

Technical essays. No. XXIX—On the limitations of railway comparisons. 365-6.
Seems to be mainly aimed at difficulty of comparing British with Americvan railways.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L.& N.W. Section). 366
The following 0-8-0 mineral engines had been converted to class "G1" (superheater): Nos. 9032, 9114, 9139 and 9140. Of these, the former was previously class D and the remainder were class G. Ex. N.S.R. K.T. class 4-4-0 superheater No. 38, which became L.M.S. No. 599 and then No. 5414, had been withdrawn from service. Recent L. & N.W. scrappings included two 2-4-0 Jumbos, viz., No. 883 Phantom (6 ft. 6 in type), and No. 5090 Marquis Douro (6 ft. type). .

A  historic colliery engine. 367
Two years ago the West Auckland Colliery, owned by Messrs. Bolckow, Vaughan & Co, Ltd., was closed down. The lease of this old Durham colliery had been obtained in 1828 by the firm of Edmund Backhouse & Co., and in 1833 it was opened, the main seam being reached in 1838. In the recent dismantling operations there has been revealed to public notice a very interesting relic in the winding engine, which gave unceasing service to the colliery for ninety years and has the distinction of having been built by Timothy Hackworth about 1835.
Hackworth is best known to fame as one of the early pioneers of the locomotive, with which his name will ever be associated, but at his works in Shildon winding and pumping engines and others for stationary purposes were also constructed. Of this particular engine, Mr. J. Bowman, writing in The Engineer some six years ago from personal ' knowledge, gave the following brief description ;- "There are several unique features about it which prove the genius of Timothy Hackworth. . . .. It is a single vertical type, fitted with a special slide valve-probably may have been the first easing valve introduced into steam engines-it being so balanced that an ordinary workman could move the handle with his finger and thumb. This valve can be worked by hand by means of a weighbar and lever, or actuated by a single excentric sheave, strap and, rod operating on a link of special design, so that in the ordinary case of winding the brakesman uses the hand lever for 'decking' purposes, and after starting the winder, by means of a smaller lever, he throws over the end of the excentric rod-which is fitted with a star-shaped die-to either side of the link motion, depending upon which direction the engine is running. *
This easing valve, called by Hackworth a relieving or equilibrium piston, was applied to the back of the ordinary slide valve, and by its operation greatly simplified the starting, stopping and reversing of powerful engines, as well as varying the speed rapidly and with ease,
For many years this engine was used both for winding and pumping. Its ordinary work was to make 1,500 "winds" a day or the raising of 600 tons up a shaft 324 ft. deep, while its reputation even in later days was that of being the cheapest engine as regards working expenses in the whole coalfield. A point of interest in its history is that for 75 years it was worked by four generations of the Bayles family, of West Auckland, from the great-grandfather in direct succession to the present Mr. T. Bayles, who had charge of it when the colliery was closed down. It would seem that an engine built by so distinguished an engineer, and after a working career lasting nearly a hundred years, is worthy of some better fate than extinction, and that it might be preserved by some public body as an example of a type of which probably there are few remaining. * The Engineer, March 17, 1922.

The Newcommen Society. 367
A very pleasant evening was spent by members of the above Society in the Lecture Room of the Science and Art Museum, South Kensington, on Wednesday, the 17 ult., when a lecture was given by W. H. Deakin (member) on the Development of Railway Signalling. The lecture was illustrated with a number of excellent lantern slides. The history of signal and signalling was very fully discussed by the lecturer, and models of all the early forms of railway signals shown. Mr. Deakin gave some interesting details concerning the introduction and development of interlocking, many of which were decidedly original, he having been in personal contact with several of the pioneers. The introduction of such safety devices as the "locking-bar," "block system," "track circuit," etc., etc., were closely dealt with by the lecturer, who wound up his most interesting discourse with views and descriptive notes of some of the extra large modern installations. He supplemented his lecture with some very amusing anecdotes connected with his experiences on Indian railways. The chair was taken by Mr. John W. Hall, M.l.e.E., M.I.M.E.

A combined traverser and turntable. 368-9. illustration, diagram (including plan)
Siegener design installed in Berlin

Reder, G. Locomotives of the Madrid, Zaragoza and Alicante Railway. 369-71. 4 illustrations.

Correspondence. 371-2
Sevenoaks derailment, August 1927. M. Noel Ridley, M.I.C.E.
Diagram which is part of querying how and where the derilment of the Bissel truck occurred

Recent derailments. 373
On Great Western Railway: 19.45 Shrewsbury to Hartlebury on 13 January 1928: whole train derailed, except locomotive No. 5508 leading wheels between Linley and Bridgnorth: Colonel Mount blamed decayed sleepers and lack of lateral support. Sheet missing from copy owned..

Number 436 (15 December 1928)

Our supplement. Arnside Viaduct & Standedge Tunnel, L.M. & S. Ry. J.M.  Tomlinson, photographer. 375 + plate
High quality sepia prints of train on Arnside Viaduct and of train leaving New Tunnel at Diggle. Plate missing from copy owned.

"Lord Nelson" class engines, Southern Ry. 375. illus.
Six-wheel tenders for locomotives used for Continental services from Victoria to Dover and Folkestone. No. 852 Sir Walter Raleigh illustrated.

Cordoba Central Ry. 375.
Order placed with Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd for ten Beyer Garratt 2-8-0+0-8-2 locomotivves to work Alta-Frias metre gauge line.

Standard Locomotives for the Indian State Railways s – broad and metre gauge. 376-9. 3 illus., 3 diagrs. (s. els.)
XC class 4-6-2 and XD classs 2-8-2 for broad gauge and YD 2-8-2 for metre gauge.

0-6-2 tank locomotives, Great Western Ry. 380-1. illustraation, diagram (side elevation)
6650 series supplied by Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. Ltd..

4-8-4 Passenger Locomotives, Canadian Pacific Ry.  381. illustration.
Built at the Angus workshops in Montreal to design of C.H. Temple, Superintendent of Rolling Stock.

Electric locomotive Bernina Railway. 381.
See page 349: notes that gradients encountered stated to be 1 in 25 are 1 in 15.

[Singapore Naval Base works]. 381
Sir John Jackson Ltd., contractor for Singapore Naval Base works placed order with Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. for thirteen 0-6-0 side tanks. Hunslet also supplying eleeven boilers to South Indian Ry. for F and O class locomotives.

The Kitson-Still locomotive. 382-3. 2 illustrations.
A general description of the design. Photographs show locomotive on test with dynamometer car  at Bank Top station, Darlington and interior of cab.

Petrol rail wagon for the Argentine. 383.
Motor Rail and Tramcar Co. Ltd. of Bedford for Buenos Aires Great Southern Railway.

Beyer Peacock & Co. Ltd. 383
Order for two 2-6-2+2-6-2 Garratt Locomotives from Rio Tinto Ltd. for their 3ft 6in gauge mineral railways in Huelva province in Spain. Also contracted for three six-coupled tender engines for Uruguay State Railways.

L.M. & S.Ry. 383.
Beardmore & Co. delivering thirty 0-6-0T standard shunting tank lcomotives Nos. 17000-29 to Midland division to be followed by twenty Nos. 17030-49 to Western division,.

Feed-water heating apparatus, Gt. Southern Rys. (Ireland). 384-5. illustration, diagram.
Bredin-Burnell feedwater heater fitted to Bazin two-cylinder 500 class 4-6-0

London & North Eastern Ry. 385
Fonr more of the J39 0-6-0 goods engines had been completed at Darlington, Nos. 2714 to 2717.

Leopoldina Ry. 385
The North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. to build two six-wheeled metre gauge tank locomotives fitted with a centre rail gripping device on the Fell system.

Bengal & North Western Ry. 385
Robert Stephenson & Co. Ltd., of Darlington, received an order from this company for two tender locomotives similar to six recently ordered from them.

Great Western Ry. 385
The first of the fifty 0-6-0 tank locomotives built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd. to be ready early in the New Year; bearing Nos. 5700 to 5749.

Great Western of Brazil Ry. 385
Sir W.G. Arrnstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. secured an order for ten locomotives for this railway. Two of these were 2-6-2+2-6-2 articulated locomotives, four of the 4-6-0 tender type, and four of the 4-8-0 type. These engines to be built at Scotswood Works, and shipped to Pernambuco in fully erected condition.

Twelve wheels coupled locomotives. 386-8. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
History: Philadelphia & Reading Railway employed a 0-12-0 banking engine in 1887; this was designed by James Millholland. The locomotive was mentioned in Locomotive Mag., 1911, 17, 160. The Hanover Locomotive Works manufactured a 2-12-2T forv the Java State Railways (the Javanic type) described in the Locomotive Mag., 1912, 18, 163 and Locomotive Mag., 1922, 28, 335. Rack & pinion and adhesion 269 class 0-12-0T for Austrian State Railways described in Locomotive Mag., 1913, 19, 75 4-12-0 freight locomotve manufactured by Maschinenfabrik Esslingen for Wurtemburg State Railways was described on page 137. One of ten 0-12-0T built by the Hanover Locomotive works is illuatrated. Proposed Orenstein & Koppel designs have included an 0-12-0T for a 900mm gauge line which would have had Luttermoller drive (see Locomotive Mag., 1923, 29, 192). A Union Pacific RR 4-12-0 was descibed in Locomotive Mag., 1926, 32, 173.

T.H. Sanders. Coiled springs – design and formulae. 389-90. illus.

Stockton & Darlington Ry., locomotive history, 1825-1876. 390-1. illustration
0-6-0 Numbers 191 Autumn (N.E.R. No. 1188) and 190 Summer (N.E.R. No. 1190)

The New Piccadilly Circus Station. 391-2.

Railway exhibits at the Norwegian Industrial Exhibition. 392-3. 4 illustrations
Including Robert Stephenson Co. 2-4-0 with outside cylinders of 1862; rotary snowplough with marine engine to drive plough

Locomotive instruction car, New South Wales Govt. Rys. 394-5. 3 illustrations