Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 32 (1926)

Key file with links to all volumes

No. 401 (15 January 1926)

Southern Railway: three-cylinder tank locomotive. 1-2. illustration, diagram. (side & front elevations)
No. 890 River Frome illustrated: K1 class with three 16 by 28-inch cylinders and outside Walschaerts valve gear with inside cylinder actiivated by extension rods.

New 2-6-0 locomotive, London, Midland and Scottish Ry. 2. diagram (side elevation)
Fowler credited with design of Hughes "Horwich" 2-6-0: neither of which are mentioned

4-6-2 locomomtive, Leopoldina Railway. 3.   illustration
Beyer Peacock: metre gauge: Belpaire boiler/ bogie American equualised bar  frame type with disc wheels

Munich Exhibition. 3.
43 steam, 18 electric, 5 diesel, 5 air, 2 accumulator, 1 fireless locomotives

Next cold season trains. 3
Bombay to Calcutta P&O Mail cold season "buff and blue" services

New locomotives for the South Australian Railways. 4-7. 2 illustrations., 3 diagrams (side & front elevations)
Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. Ltd.. had shipped 4-6-2, 2-8-2 and 4-8-2 types. Mechanical stoker fitted to Mountain type  

Narrow gauge, superheater locomotive, North Western State Ry. of India. 7. illustration
2-8-2: 2ft 6in gauge supplied NBL to specification of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton.

Obituary. 7
J.B.N. Ashford of Plymouth. died 5 December aged 62. author of Locomotives of the South Devon Ry published in Moore's Monthly in 1896. Notes his quest for acccuracy

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 7
Speakers: R.A.H. Weight on 4 February on Descriptive runs and records and on 7 January W.J. Reynolds on Mixed traffic locomotives

The "Sentinel" Patent steam locomotive. 8-10. 3. illustration, diagram
Illustrations: works photograph weight 17 tons (trial on Derwent Valley Light Railway with train of 365 tons; sectional elevation diagram; NCC [No.91] with one six-wheel and one bogie passenger coach; Sentinel locomotive at LNER Lowestoft sleeper depot.

A link with Brunel and Stephenson. 10-12. 2 illustrations.
North Star: reconstruction exhibited at Stockton & Darling Centenary and at Wembley Exhibition. Original constructed by Robert Stephenson for broad gauge.

Veteran locomotives on the Spanish railways. 12. 5 illustrations.
Outside cylinder 0-6-0 supplied by Sharp Stewart (WN 2826/1879) for Madrid Saragosa Alicante line; inside cylinder 0-6-0 built Neilson c1865; 0-4-4T rebuilt from Sharp Stewart 0-4-2 WN 2684/1877; 2-4-0 on Andalusian Railway built Haine, St..Pierre WN 54/1874; Sharp Stewart 2-4-0 WN 3418/1888 acting as assisting engine on Toledo express.

Questions and answers.13-14.
No. 66. Which was a the first contionuous brake in use in this country?
Fay, Newall and Clark chain brakes introduced in 1860s. Fay & Newall on L&YR and B&MR. Wilkin & John Clark on Metropolitan Railway and LNWR: in case of latter as modified by Webb. Steel & McInnes c1871 introduced a compressed air brake on two Caledonian Railway trains. The system was heavier and more cumbersome than the Westinghouse system. An American John V. Smith took out a British Patent for a simple vacuum brake in 1874. It was improved by Hardy, an Englishman, working in Austria. Sanders and Bolitho invented an automatic vacuum brake in about 1877. Aspinall patented a form in 1878 whilst on the Great Southern & Western Railway.
No. 67. Does notching up a locomotive "very high" cause axleboxes to knock?
Suggested that cut-offs should not be shortened to lessw than 20%.

Correspondence. 14

[Timothy Hackworth]. J.G.H. Warren
The article on Timothy Hackworth in your issue of December 15th contains statements in regard to the loco- motives and working of the Stockton and Darlington Ry., 1825-1827, and in particular in regard to the "Royal George," which are not correct.
These statements are merely a repetition of the fabulous history of that period published many years ago, after his father's death, by John W. Hackworth, who, at the critical time of which he wrote afterwards so assuredly, was about six or seven years old.
Many of these statements have been completely disproved by the official records of the railway company, now pre- served at York, and by the reports of independent engineers who visited the line.
The most important of these—all of which are now available to students are:
(1) The exhaustive report by Von Dechen and Von Oeynhausen, published in Archiv für Bergbau und Hüttenwesen, Berlin, 1829.
(2) The notes by Rastrick, 1829, preserved at the Goldsmiths' Economic Library, University of London. These reports show, inter alia, that the four engines which preceded the Royal George performed duties more than in proportion to their capacity and weight, as compared with the heavier engine Royal George. The normal loads were not as given in your article,
(3) The minute book of the committee of the railway company, which recorded on 10 July 1827, the superior economy of steam to horse traction, as ascertained on the working of the first four engines not less than four months before the Royal George was put to work.
(4) (a) The article by John Farey on Steam engines (in Rees Cyclopredia) 1819. (b) Bulletin de la Societe d'Encouragement d'Industrie, 1815. (c) Woods' Treatise on Rail-Roads, 1825 (first edition). (d) Coste and Perdonnet's report on the Bolton Railway, Annales des Mines, 1829. (e) Woods' Treatise on Rail-Roads, 1831 (second edition).
These authorities show that, so far from the Royal George or Hackworth's later engines having been the first locomotives to embody certain features claimed, the facts are; A six-wheeled engine had been at work before 1819; a spring safety valve was in use on the Blenkinsop-Murray engine in 1815; an exhaust steam feed heater had been applied by Robert Stephenson & Co. early in 1827; wrought iron tyres for locomotives were probably first tried by Nicholas Wood at Killingworth.
As for the "Blast Pipe" controversy, so much has already been written that one is almost afraid to refer to it. The use of the exhaust steam, carried in a single pipe to the chimney, is shown on the earliest known drawings of the Killingworth (or Hetton) type of engine long before 1827; it is shown on a drawing published in 1823, and is definitely recorded in 1825. There is, however, no evidence of a contracted nozzle, which indeed would not have been required with the large straight single flue.
This contraction appears to have been carried out first by Hackworth on the Royal George, which had a return flue, about 2½ times as long as the single flue of the Locomotion type, but a fire grate area by no means in propor- tion to the increased heating surface.
The contraction of the nozzle to meet these conditions was less an "invention than the accentuating of a principle, and moreover, it cut both ways, for it could only stimulate combustion at the expense of increased back pressure. The contracted nozzle was, in fact, an easy remedy obtained by introducing a new disease. If we reflect that locomotive engineers have ever since been struggling to free the exhaust and enlarge the nozzle. we may realise how all sense of perspective and proportion has been lost in this controversy. There are, I think, few locomoti ve men to-day who would consider the contraction of the nozzle as anything but an evil, or who, in their sober moments, would wish to hang a laurel wreath round it as an idol. Timothy Hackworth indeed deserves his statue, as a railway pioneer who accomplished a task of great difficulty with honour to himself and profit to his company; as a designer who added a definite link in the chain of locomotive improvement, and as a man who has left an enduring memory and tradition for personal worth and piety. It is doing ill service to such a man to repeat as history the extravagant statements and claims made for him by John W. Hackworth, no doubt in good faith, but with great bitterness, and since found to be unsupported, or to be definitely contradicted by the evidence of engineers who were responsible men when he was a child.
I would add that I have neither hope nor intention of converting any of your readers who belong to the Shildon school of locomotive history. I observe that they continue to believe the Sans Pareil to have been a better engine than the "Rocket." As the whole subsequent history of locomotive development contradicts such a view, one can only conclude that in questions concerning Timothy Hackworth's work as a designer their critical faculties are in abeyance.

Side stays for locomotive fireboxes. 15-16. 3 illustrations
Previous part in Volume 31 page 319.

Electric blower for raising steam. 16-17. diagram System adopted by Baltimore & Ohio RR.

Some interesting Palatinate Railway locomotives. 17-19. 6 illustrations.
Four Cramptons supplied in 1853: No. 28 had been recobsructed for the Nuremberg Museum.

General Electric Company Traction Department. 19.
Orders received included rolling stock for Euston to Watford swervice and for Undergriund Railway extensions.

Closure of the Wantage Tramway for passenger traffic. 20. illustration
Ceased 31 July 1925,

The Dover Boat Train - Southern Railway, 21-3 + plate. 2 illustrations. Plate (sepia photograph by A.L.P. Reavil)
Depicts N15 No. E771 Sir Sagramore??. Other photograph of L? class near Sevenoaks. Text refers to new rolling stock rather than motive power

Railway Centenary Celebrations, Shildon, Statue of Timothy Hackworth. 23-4. illustration.

Jacquet, A. German locomotives of the Belgian State Railways. 24-5. 2 diagrams (s. els.)
Next part see page 47.

London & North Eastern Ry. problem. 25.
Tanfield branch required rolling stock to be fitted with hanging buffers to enable coupling to chaldron wagons and to act as a timber dog for cable due to the sharp curvature. To avoid straightening the sharper curves the LNER was offering a reward for a solution.

Travelling cranes for railway service. 25-7. illustration, 4 diagrams
Previous mentioned 31, 360. Exhibited in Munich. Max Ostoff of Cottbus. Gebruder Dickertman. Intended to assist with wagon repairs by lifting wagon. Also description of plough steel rope (high tensile strength) supplied by George Cradock & Co, Wakefield.

London & North Eastern Ry. 27.
Thirty five J38 class 0-6-0 under construction for Scotland. Five X class 4-8-0Ts being delivered to Hull. New A1 class 2568, 2571, 2572, 2574, 2575, 2576 and 2580 Shotover.

Ahrons, E.L.. The early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 28-30. 6 illustrations
Previous: 31, 351.

Novel oil tank wagons, Iraq Railways. 30-1. illustrations, diagram (s. el.) Hurst Nelson metre gauge.

Articulated diesel-electric rail cars, Canadian National Rys. 31. 2 illustrations Fitted with Beardmore engines.

40-ton well wagon, London Midland & Scottish Railway. 32. illustrations

Rolling stock built during 1925: Cammell Laird & Co.'s report. 32-3.
Included Sentinel-Cammell steam railcars built for LNER, LMS (NCC) and for overseas.

Centenary of Matthew Murray. 33.
Appeal for memorial plaque to be placed in City Square, Leeds.

Serious accident involving Owen J.P. Wray. 33
Lubrication expert involved in motoring accident on Lynton Hill.

Southern Ry. 33.
John B. Elliot brought in to merge publicity and advertising activities. F.V. Milton to become assistant advertising manager and continue to edit SWouthern Railway Magazine.

Reviews. 33-4.
Building the Pacific railway. Edwin L. Sabin. Lippincott.
Union Pacific RR.

No. 402 (15 February 1926)

New 0-6-2 tank engines, London and North Eastern Ry. 35; 37. illustration.
N7 type as per GER with cab modified and condensing apparatus for working into Moorgate: No. 952 illustrated.

Standard locomotives for the Government Railways of Colombia. 36-41. 2 illustrations, 4 diagrs (incl. 2 s. els.)
P.C. Dewhurst was Chief Mechanical Engineer. 1 in 30 (even 1 in 23.5) gradients and sharp curvature. Kitson 4-8-0 for 3ft gauge and Baldwin 4-8-0 for metre gauge.

London & North Eastern Railway. 40.
Reorganisation of Locomotive Running Department. J.H. Smeddle remained in charge at York. Assistants C.H. Stedman and H.J. Stephenson, formerly at Gateshead which had closed.

North Western State Ry. India. 40.
J.H. Smellie CME at Lahore: successor to T. Gregson who had retired.

Benguela Ry. 41.
Order placed with Beyer Peacock for six Beyer Garratts: 4-8-2+2-8-4: 3ft 6in gauge: Lentz poppet valves

Great Western Ry. 41.
Order for six 0-4-0Ts placed with Avonside.

Isle of Man Ry. 41.
Decision to fit automatic vacuum brake to all rolling stock.

Crown Agents. 41.
Orders placed: with Vulcan Foundry: eight 4-6-0 passenger locomotives for Ceylon Government Railways; fifteen 2-6-2 for Uganda Railway. With NBL three 4-6-0 for Nigerian Railway. With Kerr Stuart two narrow gauge 4-6-2 for the Mysore State Railways. Kitson-Meyer 2-6-6-2 were being supplied to the Colombian Northern Railway Girardot & Fachtativa line with 1 in 25 gradients.

A link with Brunel and Stephenson. 42-4. illustrations, 4 diagrams
Correspondence between Robert Stephenson and Brunel

Alexander Allan. 44.
When in charge of Scottish Central Railway locomotives at Perth he introduced a cylindrical firebox which formed an extension to the boiler barrel and was wholly ssurrounded by water.

New tank engines for passenger traffic, London, Midland & Scottish Ry., Northern Division. 45. illustrations
Caledonian Railway 439 Class constructed at Barr 's behest Supplied Nasmyth Wilson for G&SWR Section, No. 15267 illustrated..

London and North Eastern Ry. 45.
R. & W. Hawthorn Leslie Supplied thirteen 4-6-2Ts: No. 1712 sent to York; remainder to |Newcastle. K3 Nos. 202 and 203 formerly at Faverdale moved to Neasden. No. 200 exhibited at Wembley moved to Eastfield. J38 Nos. 1400-7 had been completed at Darlington Works..

Wantage Tramway. 45.
J. Bullock was the manager. An old South Devon Railway and No. 4 hsad been scrapped. No. 6 had been constructed to the patented design of James Matthews of Bristol and was tried on Liverpool tramways in 1881 and was acquired by the Wantage Tramway in 1885.

Garratt locomotives for the Bengal Nagpur Ry. 46. illustration..
Beyer Peacock 2-8-0+0-8-2.

Metropolitan Ry. electrification of Widened Lines between King's Cross and Moorgate. 47 + plate
Plate shows No. 0-4-4T No. 316 leaving Aldersgate & Barbican (sepia photograph by A.L.P. Reavil) 

Jacquet, A. German locomotives of the Belgian State Railways. 47. diagram (s. el.)
Previous part ended page 25. 0-8-0.

Goods locomotive with poppet valves, London & North Eastern Railway. 48-51. 4 illustrations. 3 diagrams.
J20 (Great Esatern Railway D81 Class) modified with Lentz poppet valve gear

Ahrons, E.L.. The early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 52-4. 5 illustrations
2-4-0T with condensing apparatus for working over Metropolitan Railway. 2-4-0 tender locomotives (481? class)

Questions and answers. 54-5.
No. 68. What are meant by "Cole's Ratios" in estimating locomotive horse-power.
Five references given
No. 69. Why are some locomotives arranged with the horizontal outside cylinders about 2½in above the level of the centre line passing through the driving axle?
We do not know.

Poultney, E.C. Locomotive dimensions and proportions of the Pennsylvania R.R. 55-8. 6 diagrams.

Matthew Murray and the locomotive. 58-60. illustration.
Written to commemorate the centenary of the death of Matthew Murray on 20 February in Leeds.

Closing of the Portush & Giant's Causeway Electric Tramway. 60. illustration.
Precise date not given: "about two months ago"

London Midland & Scottish Ry. (L.& N.W. Section). 60.
Delivery of standard compounds: order completed with Nos. 1110-1114 (from Derby Works) and 1128-1134 (from Horwich). All 75 standard 4-4-0s in service formed from: 20 ex-Derby (1051-6; 1076-84; 1110-14); 20 ex-Horwich (1115-34); 10 NBL (1150-9) and 25 from Vulcan Foundry (1160-84). Ten Experiment class being rebuilt with Belpaire boilers including No. 2630 Buffalo. Two 0-6-2T Nos. 692 and 2355 fitted with motor train apparatus. Knott End Railway Jubilee Queen in Crewe Works for scrapping?

The Lambert patent wet sanding apparatus for locomotives. 61-2. 2 diagrams.
Fitted to latest series of Somerset & Dorset Joint 2-8-0s.

An electric works locomotive. 62. illustration
Trolley and battery electric locomotive used at the Westwood Works of Baker Perkins

Remodelled cars, Central London Ry. 62-3. illustration.
More comfortable seats, pneumatic doors, better lighting and ventilation and faster running

Number 403 15 March 1926

The "Poultney" locomotive. 70-3. diagram
Steam tender combined with limited cut off and more even torque: Proposed 2-8-2+0-8-0.

La Guaia and Caracas Ry., Veneuela. 74
3ft gauge: electric traction supplied  via double diesel power plant

New South Wales Govt. Rys. 74.
2-8-0 locomotive No. 5363 ran away for 7 miles down bank at Blaxland

1,000 h.p. diesel oil-electric locomotive. 75. illustration.
Baldwin shunter with two bogies

Locomotives for South African mines. 76. illustration.
Andrew Barclay 4-6-0T (3ft 6in gguage) for Simmer & Jack Ltd

The Corcovado Rack Railway, Brazil. 76-8. 3 illustrations, diagram
Includes gradient profile.

Modern locomotive superheating. 78-80.
Report on ILocoE paper by Geer

The Khyber Railway, India. 80-1. 2 illustrations

Southern Heights Light Ry. 81.
Ministry of Transport Enquiry held in Orpington on 3 March 1926.

[Great Western Railway]. 81
Wireless reception experiment on down Cornish Riviera on 2 March 1926 with five loudspeaakers in dining saloon.

Jacquet, A. German locomotives of the Belgian State Railways. 81-3. 2 diagrams (s. els.)
2-8-2T and 0-10-0T

Worthington feed check valve. 83. diagram

London Midland & Scottish Ry. 83.
Widening of Acton Bridge to Weaver Junction section.

Southern Ry. 83.
New engine shed at Exmouth Junction.

Metropolitan Ry. 83.
Electrification of Widened Lines

Evolution of passenger travel on the L.M.S.R. (Midland Section). 84-7. 3 illustrations
Contribution made by T.G. Clayton and later by R.W. Reid.

A link with Brunel and Stephenson. 88-92. 4 illustrations, 2 diagrams

Order from South African Railways for Beyer Garratts. 92.
Order placed with Beyer Peacock for 3ft 6in gauge locomotves.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 93-4. 3 diagrams
Link motion. Nos. 38 Rokeby and 39 Ruby were 2-4-0 passenger engines introduced in 1847.

London Midland and Scottish Ry. (L and N.W. Section). 94.
Crewe built 20 superheated 0-6-0 (4F) for Midland Division (Nos. 4157-66). B class compound 0-8-0 No. 405 converted to G1 class and superheated. No. 2624 Saracen fitted with Belpaire boiler and superheated.
"We understand" that a further series of George the Fifth class to be built at Crewe with Stephenson link motion; also further G2 class.
Locomotives broken up at Crewe included No. 193 Rocket; No. 1518 Countess; NLR Nos. 2841 and 2869; 4ft 6in tanks Nos. 521, 1440 and 1448 and Special DX No. 3127.
0-6-2T No. 3119 equipped with motor gear (push & pull). Sentinel Cammell railcar working between Bletchley and Oxford

Ahrons, E.L.. The early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 95-6. 4 illustrations

Dewhurst, P.C. The modern counter-pressure brake as used on steep-gradient railways. 96-7.
Terms it the repression brake. Fitted to Kitson-Meyer. Seals blast pipe from smokebox fumes and ashes.

London and North Eastern Ry. 97.
Corrects statement in previous Issue that Pacifics were working through from London to Newcastle.

Great Western Ry. 97.
0-6-2T class: series built to 5656

Questions and answers. 98.
No. 70. Can you explain how the Midand compound works as a semi-compound.
See Volume 18 page 36.
No. 71. Does a slide valve fall off its face when coasting?
The rattle indicates when the change takes place.
No. 72. Whaen a locomotive — such as the heavy 2-8-4 has an external pipe to the superheater header.

Underground locomotives. 97-9. 2 illustrations
Refers back to August Issue. Metropolitan District Railway purchased Metropolitan Railway No. 22 (4-4-0T Beyer Peacock WN 709/1866, rebuilt Yorkshire Engine Co. in 1916): became MDR No. 35 painted a deeper chocolate colour. MDR No. 34 (Beyer Peacock WN 2056/1881) painted black (formerly olive green).

The 20-ton wagon. 99. illustrations
Inducements by GWR to switch to higher capacity wagons in South Wales; also by North Eastern Railway.

Bogle's Bridge. 99.
Over Perth to Dunkeld road crossed at angle of 45°: reconstruction.

A miniature railway for the Sultan of Morocco. 99.
Present from King of Belgians with locomotive called Occident.

Matthew Murray Centenary Commemoration Service. 101.
Held on 21 February 1926 at St. Matthew's Church in Holbeck, Leeds. Conducted by the Vicar Rev. R.J. Wood with Lord Mayor of Leeds, John Arnott; Deputy Lord Mayor, Harry Briggs; Lieut Colonel E. Kitson Clark (representing the Newcomen Society) and Mr E. Kilburn Scott and Frederick Smith representing the Boyne Engine Works.

Model Railway Club. 102.
From index

GERMAN STATE RAILWAYS -According to the statistical charts of the D,R,G" which were shown at the recent Munich Exhibition, the rolling stock of the German system in 1924 was as follows:- Locos. (steam and electric) 29,700 Passenger vehicles .. 67,900 Other coaching stock 22,900 Freight vehicles 678,000 In comparing the latter item with British figures it must be remembered that the present standard German open wagon is of 20 tons capacity, and very few wagons are running of less than 15 tons. The locomotive stock includes 2,000 of the " S" (Schnellzug) or express class, and no less than 12,000 goods tender locos. can be worked by the driver from either side of the engine. Four positions arc provided by the reversing lever - two forward, and two backward. By mani- pulation of a foot-pedal, direct connection from the steam pipe to the atmosphere is effected, completely isolating the boiler. By reversing the engine this device acts as an air-compressor for braking purposes. One man can easily attend to the running and driving, and this, coupled with the low main- tenance charges and economical fuel consumption when working, offer obvious advantages not only for shunting duties but for short distance passenger and goods traffic. These locomotives are built in three sizes of 10, 15 and 20 tons, with maximum speeds of 40, 25 and 18 miles per hour respectively. The engine is the same in each type, with the gear ratio altered to suit the work.

On the L.M. & S.R., Northern Counties Committee section, one of these locomotives is used to work a train of two main line coaches. By gi ving a frequent and convenient service at a low cost of operation, it offers promising possibilities of an increase of revenue by inducing traffic.

.-Nos, 1125-7 are the latest 4-4-0 compounds ex Horwich to be delivered to Crewe for service on this section. The Crewe-built 0-6-0 now run up to No. 4154, while Messrs. Kerr, Stuart &Co. have completed their order for twenty-five similar engines, the last, No. 4106, being noted at Crewe during the Xmas holidays. Engines recently turned out at Crewe rebuilt with Belpaire boilers include" Prince of Wales" class Nos. 433 and 974; also 18-in. class goods Nos. 1030 and 2326. The old 6-ft. curved link type engine, " Engineer Bangor," has been withdrawn for scrap. This engine, which is the last of its class, will in due course be replaced by one of newer 6-ft. type with straight link motion. Other withdrawals include the following :-0-6-0 special tank shunters Nos. 3185, 3222, 3238 and 3611; 0-6-0 special D.X. goods Nos. 3242 and 3262 and 0-4-0 tank shunter No. 3103. The following additional 0-6-2 side tank coal engines are now running adapted for working motor trains :-Nos. 582, 771,928 and 7794. Image

Image A LINK WITH BRUNEL AND STEPHENSON. HE" North Star," supplied to the Great Western Railway by Robert Stephenson & Company in 1837, was one of the most celebrated locomotives in the world, and has perhaps been as frequently described and illustrated as the famous No. I loco- motive of the Stockton & Darlington Ry. But the "North Star" (Fig. I), as she was to be seen at -Swindon in the last days of her retirement, differed in many important respects from the original engine, having been altered in various ways during her work- ing life. The re-constructed engine (Fig. 2) which was ex- hibited at Darlington and afterwards at Wembley, has been built by the Great Western Ry. Company at their Swindon Works as an essential exhibit for the railway centenary celebrations in 1925, and has been made as nearly as possible to represent the original engine ordered from Robert Stephenson by his friend Isambard Kingdom Brunei, who wrote on 4th July, 1837 :- " My dear Stephenson, If you are satisfied with the verbal order of course I am; however, this will confirm it, that I expect you will furnish us with an engine of the best con- struction in as short a time as you can .... And I look forward to having such an engine as never was before. Yours very sincerely, 1. K. BRUNEL." In 1836, Brunei had issued an enquiry to various manufacturers. inviting them to undertake the supply of locomotive engines" best adapted to the objects of the Great Western Ry." These objects, he says, "must principally relate to the speed and to the T

No. 404 (15 April 1926)

Tank locomotives for India, Eastern Bengal and Madras & Southern Mahratta Rys. 103-5. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrs (s. els.)
Kerr Stuart 2-6-4T for 5ft 6in gauge designed under supervision of Rendell Palmer & Tritton with inside cylinders (20 x 26in) and Belpaire fireboxes.

Oil burning locomotives for Jamaica. 105-6. illustrations
2ft 6in gauge 2-6-0T for Jamaican Sugar Estates.

Southern Railway: new 4-4-0 type engines. 106. illustrations
L1 No. A759 illustrated.

Single driver locomotive, Netherlands State Railways. 106. illustrations
Preserved Beyer Peacock 2-2-2 of 1863.

The late Mr. E.L. Ahrons. 107.

"Mountain" type express locomotive, Northern Ry. of Spain. 107-9. diagram (s. & f. sections and plan)

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L and N.W. Section). 109.
New 4F 0-6-0 type Nos. 4167-71 built at Crewe for Midland Section: Nos. 4172-6 to follow. Nos. 1994 Scottish Chief and 2630 Buffalo fitted with Belpaire non-superheater boilers. D class No. 1873 and G class No. 2656 converted to G1 type and superheated. No. 675 Adjutant converted from Precursor to George the Fifth. Nos. 1264, 1743 and 2623 fitted with Belpaire boilers. 19 inch goods No. 1645 fitted with bogie brakes. Following broken up: Nos. 766 Shap, 1045 Whitworth, 2180 Perserverence and Renown No. 1962 Aurora.

Broken Hill. 109.
Severe water shortage at Broken Hill in Australia. Water having to be transportred by railway 73 miles from Darling River

Welded locomotive tenders. 109.
Boston & Albany RR.

Vulcan Foundry. 109.
Contract to supply fifty 4-4-0 type to LMS

[Visit of American hotel proprietors to Britain]. 109
300 hotel proprietors from the USA were met at Plymouth by the GWR Superintendent of the Line, R.H. Nicholls, and conveyed to Paddington in two special trains hauled by No. 4085 Berkeley Castle and 4083 Abbotsbury Castle which performed the journey in 3 hours 53 minutes and 3 hours 54 minutes respectively: dinner was served en route.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 110-14. 6 illustrations, map.
A.G. Herbert, William Panel, Cyril Hitchcock and S.J. Sarjant (Locomotive Superintendent) assisted with writing the series.
James J. Berkley was resident engineer from 1849. J. Stuart Wortley was the chairman.

Rubber for rolling stock — its use, application and development. 114-16. 2 diagrams
Load deflection diagram. Use in auxiliary bearing sprins.

4-8-0 locomotive for the Government Railways of Colombia. 116-17. illustrations diagram (s/f and section)
3ft gauge. To work on gradients as steep as 1 in 23½. Ordered by Dewhurst from Berlin Locomotive Works.

Dynamometer car, New York, Chicago & St. Louis RR. 118-19. 2 illustrations, plan

Instittution of Locomotive Engineers. 119-20.
A.M. Bell's Automatic mechanical couplers for railway rolling stock (Paper No. 199)

Vacuum operated application valve for air brake on the locomotive. 120. diagram

Locomotive with pay carriage Great Southern Railways of Ireland. 121-2. illustrations, diagram (s. el.)
0-4-2T: originated as 0-4-4T with combined pay carriage in 1873, but separate vehicles from 1889. Sprite had run 1,221,257 miles. Also gives dimensions of Fairy.

L.B. Billinton. 122.
Appointed general manager of R.Y. Pickering of Wishaw (not mentioned in Marx biography)

A.E. Williams. 122
Appointed manager of GIPR carriage & wagon works at Matunga.

LNER orders. 122.
Twenty 0-6-2T from Beardmore and steam railcar from Clayton

Some recent Spanish locomotives. 122-4. illustrations, 4 diagrams (s. els.)
Babcock & Willcox 0-8-0T, 0-6-0T for Santandar-Mediteraneo and Langrio Railway. 2-8-0 for mining company in South of Spain.

An experimental cut-testing apparatus. 124-5. 2 diagrams

New South Wales Government Rys. 125.
Western section of City Railway in Sydney.

SS Induna. 125
Purchased by Railway Commissioners to cross Clarence River at Grafton.

Ahrons, E.L. The early Great Western standard gauge engines. 126-7.
0-6-0T of 1077 type; 2-4-0T of 627 class and 455 class.

Steam deflector. 127. illustrations
No. 450 Sir Kay with "wings" alongside chimney.

65 ft. engine turn-table Bengal Nagpur Railway. 128-9. 2 diagrams
Spelling of turntable with hyphen is unusual. Supplied by Patent Shaft & Axle Tree. Consultants: Sir John Wolfe Barry & Partners.  

York Railway Museum. 129.
Preparations for Queen Street museum; including installation of Hetton Colliery 0-4-0, etc.

Bristol Port and Pier Ry. 129.
See also November & December issues. Locomotives Nos. 1 and 2 were Bury type 0-4-0s and had come from the South Yorkshire Railway after its takeover by the MSLR and included No. 1 Vampire. The MSLR had purchasedd six Beyer Peacock goods engines with South Yorkshire Railway number plates.

Large coloured chart 4F 0-6-0 LMS. 129
To be published with a price of 1s 6d.

Japanese passenger stock. 130-1. 6 illustrations

A new locknut. 131. diagram

Cordoba Central Ry. 131.
Fifteen narrow gauge 4-6-4 supplied NBL and five 4-6-2 by Kitson.

Narrow gauge cane and sisal wagons. 132. 2 illustrations
Supplied John Fowler of Leeds to tropical plantations.

A new lifting jack. 132. 2 diagrams
Duff governor controlled. Consolidated Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Smith's patent unloading hopper. 133. illustrations
Demonstartion at Uxbridge High Street station.

Correspondence. 134

John W. Hackworth and locomotive history. J.G.H. Warren.
After reading Young's letter in February issue, I feel worthy to be counted among the victims of J. W. Hackworth's dialectical umbrella, as depicted in S. T. Richardsons' witty caricature of 1876, and reproduced by Young in his own book, (Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive," face p. 212.) although it is an obvious satire on certain violent methods of argument.
But the sense of humour which led Young to publish this caricature seems to have deserted him, and he is now very angry with me, though some years ago—in spite of my previously published opinion of John Hackworth's history—he expressed a wish to meet me. I would like to ignore the angry expressions of his letter to you and recollect Mr. Young as the pleasant companion of an hour's discussion when, though I confirmed and emphasised my published opinions of his uncle as a historian, we parted friends.
I am sorry that Mr. Young has brought his family relationship into the present public discussion, for I have been more considerate of it than he thinks, and it has no real bearing on the historical questions raised.
In regard to these, I have nothing to add to my last letter except answers to two questions—or challenges—which Young puts to me:
1. Referring to early six-wheeled locomotives, there is a strong implication from the drawings of Dodds & Stephenson's 1815, and Losh & Stephensons 1816 Patent Specifications, that Stephensorr's early six-wheeled locomotive was coupled throughout, and Farey 's description, published in 1819, states distinctly that the six wheels were applied "to relieve the weight upon the rails and obtain a greater reaction to advance the carriage;" in other words, to obtain greater adhesion (A Century of Locomotive Building, pp. 23, 24.).
2. Referring to feed-heating by exhaust steam, Van Dechen and Van Oeynhausen's report shows that this apparatus had been fitted to a locomotive which was completed before the Royal George was built. This engine was subsequently sent to the Stockton & Darlington Ry., and was called Experiment. John W. Hackworth's account makes out that it was constructed after the Royal George and as a counterblast to that engine (Timothy Hackworth and tbe Locomotive,  p. 163)—a very good instance of his unreliability.
But those of your readers who are interested and so far unbiassed, must study the evidence for themselves—that is all I ask.
To the majority, who are interested only in the "modern side" of locomotive history, John W. Hackworth's merits may well appear as irrelevant as King Charles' Head; but those who, whether for duty or pleasure, commence to study the early history of the locomotives, and working of the S. & D. Ry., will soon find themselves faced with the utterly confiicting opinions of later historians. To them the question of Mr. Hackworths credibility as a witness becomes of the first importance.
My own attempts to resolve this question involved a great deal of work, but they led directly to the discovery of detailed contemporary evidence which seems to have been unknown to previous writers, and is still ignored, or brushed aside by the Shildon school.
To me, and to most of my critics, these evidences have seemed conclusive on the fundamental question we are now discussing. Those who wish for a third, and presumably unbiassed, opinion of Mr. Hackworth as a historian, will find it in The Engineer, 28 September 1923, in an article on "Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive."

Early locomotives of the G.W. Ry. J. N. Maskelyne.
With reference to the delightful articles by E. L. Ahrons, on the above subject, and particularly with regard to the 481 Class, I am enclosing a photograph of Engine No. 487, which may be of interest. The photograph was taken at Reading in January, 1920, at which time No. 487 was the last survivor of her class, and was usually employed as shunting-pilot at Reading station. A study of the photograph reveals some modifications which must have been made at a later date than those mentioned by Ahrons, and I think that several other engines of this class were. similarly modified, especially Nos. 489, and 588 both of which were well known to me.
The most conspicuous, apparent alterations, are the Belpaire firebox and the somewhat extended smokebox, as well as the shortened chimney. The tender, also, although of an.old pattern, differs considerably from that originally supplied, and has had a raised coping added to the sides of the coal-space. No. 487 had disappeared from Reading in April, 1921 .: and was scrapped at Swindon in July of that year, some two years after all the other engines of her class had been scrapped.

Three-cylinder locomotives.  William T. Hoecker. 134-5
In view of the remarks made at the meeting of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in Newcastle, last July, it is rather surprising to read, on page I of your January issue, that the new 2-6-4 tank engine No. A890 River Frorne, of the Southern Ry., is equipped with the same design of valve gear that was applied to the 2-6-0 engine, which was built for the same railway several years ago.
The writer had hoped that the matter of " combined valve gears for three-cylinder engines" would be thoroughly discussed at the meeting referred to above, when a paper was read on" Three-Cylinder High Pressure Locomotives," but, beyond a few slight criticisms ,the subject was passed over very lightly, the author of the paper contenting himself with saying that the gear is "giving entire satisfaction." It is, however, significant that he did not see fit to publish any indicator diagrams taken from three-cylinder engines.
There is ample evidence from America and Germany to prove that these combination valve-gears do not give a satisfactory steam distribution in the central cylinder, when the engines are run at a cut-off of less than 50 per cent. It seems to make no difference what kind of combination is used,whether vertical or horizontal levers, whether 8 or 28 pin-joints, the result is always the same, namely: As the speed is increased and the cut-off shortened, the power developed in the central cylinder increases out of all proportion to that developed in the other two cylinders.
There are nearly 2,000 three-cylinder locomotives of 2-10-0, 2-8-0, and 4-6-0 types in Germany, equipped with two different arrangements of combination valve-gear, for the inside cylinder. Some of these engines have been in service since 1914, so that ample opportunity has been provided to observe the performance of the valve-gear, and to make possible improvements. Nevertheless, several hundred of the new Mikado (2-8-2) passenger engines have been built with three separate gears (as illustrated in the LOCOMOTIVE MAGAZINE for September, 1922, pp. 253), because it was found utterly impossible to secure proper steam distribution at high speed with the combined lever gears. Some of the foremost Continental engineers, among them Robert Garbe, and Hans Steffan, have condemned the combination gears used on the Prussian engines in no uncertain terms. These facts are, certainly, well known to you, but apparently, English locomotive engineers are not generally acquainted with them. While on this subject, it may also be noted that after three years' experience with two heavy 4-8-2 type, 3-cylinder goods locomotives, equipped with the combined valve-gear, the New York Central Railroad is now placing in service 100 locomotives of the same type, similar in many respects to the 3-cylinder engines, but having two cylinders only, and using steam at 225 pounds pressure, an increase of 25 pounds over that used in the 3-cylinder locomotives.
This seems to demonstrate that, although the piston loads of a two-cylinder locomotive may be 30 per cent. greater than those of a similar 3-cylinder engine, and the two-cylinder locomotive may be inferior in torque and balance, yet the net results measured in terms of reliability, and cost of maintenance and operation, may be favourable to the two-cylinder type. See also E. Joslin page 306

Recent Spanish Locomotives. K. Warne. 135
Re article in the December 1925 issue, it is stated a belief that Spain was at present the only country in which 4-8-4 tank locomotives were in service on the standard gauge. May I be allowed to correct this statement. Within recent years the Yorkshire Engine Co. have constructed six locomotives of this type for the standard gauge lines of the Chilian Nitrate Rys.  As these engines were designed by the makers and in view of the knowledge, skill and organisation necessary to pro- duce such an advanced type of locomotive, I think it only fair to point out in these days of self-depreciation the energetic way English locomotive manufacturers have attacked and solved difficult haulage problems by introducing powerful locomotives of such rare design to such distant countries.

Reviews. 135

The development of the locomotive.
We have received from the Central Steel Co., of Massillon, Ohio, U.S.A., a copy of a nicely finished book they have recently published with the above title. As may be expected, the general tendency of the record is to show that the evolution of the modern locomotive has taken place in America, and, whilst ready to admit that great credit must be attributed to our 'cousins' across the Atlantic for the wonderful stndes made dunng the last ten years in developing the huge power units we now see in service, we cannot accept all they say as being Gospel. We are somewhat surprised such an authority as J. Snowden Bell, who is responsible for literary matter in the book, should say, when referring to the improvements effected in America :-" The first, and doubtless the most radical and universally approved one, was the swivelling truck, in the absence of which high-speed service would be impossible "-(the italics are ours). Surely, Mr. Bell cannot be ignorant of the fact that nearly all the high-speed trains this country became famed for were hauled by locomotives built without bogies, so that it is not logical to say such would be impossible. We fear that Mr. Bell cannot read his LOCOMOTIVE carefully. The illustrations are good, and give attractive represen- tations of the different historical locomotives put on the various pioneer American railroads. Vve regret to note a similar fault as that which seriously discounted the effect of the pictures given in Major Pangborne's book, viz.:-" Engines depicted as running without tenders or trains." The Stourbridge Lion is. shown thus, with the engineman standing on a naked foot-board outside what appears to be intended to represent the Baltimore Station of the day.
Among the other early locomotives shown careering along without tenders or trains are the" Atlantic" of 1832, " Sandusky" of 1837, and the first American 4-4-0 type. Over 50 locomotives are shown, from Cugnot's, of 1769, to the" Horatio Alien," of 1924; but perhaps one of the most interesting illustrations is the frontispiece showing the interior of the erecting shop of the Norris Works, at Philadelphia, about 1855. See leter from C.B. Chanet on page 204

Lokomotivversuche in Russland.. G. Lornonossoff. Translated from the Russian into German by H. Mrongovius-Berlin:-V.D.I. Verlag, G.M.B.H., 330 pages, 647 illustrations arid diagrams, 3 plates, etc. 136
The author records numerous experiments with the working of locomotives over the extensive railway systems of Russia, affording theoretical and practical information of considerable value. The trials, which are carried out under the personal supervision of Prof. Lomonossoff; with superheated and non- superheated locomotives, help to elucidate many problems connected with steam distribution. Graphs are liberally used to assist the reader.
Other matters concerning traffic control,and fuel consumption are treated upon. The book is neatly printed and strongly bound in cloth.

Essai sur les remarques maxima du trains de marchandises; Essai sur les proportlonelles dee freinage a main des trains de marchandises, L.E. Creplet. London: Locomotive Publishing Co. 136
The two essays, compiled by L. E. Creplet, Technical Inspector, Belgian State Rys., are of considerable value to those having to provide for satisfactory and sufficient brake power on heavy goods trains. The author gives forrnulee and data compiled from numerous practical tests on trains of various lengths and weights, 'over lines of different grades, etc.; he also gives definite figures of value for vehicles with brake arrangements of varying types in a form which must appeal to transportation officers and others actively engaged in traffic operation.

The Cader country. Published by the Great Western Ry., Paddington, and obtainable free at the principal G.W.R. stations and offices. 136
This well written guide to the district round Cader Idris is beautifully illustrated with 44 views of the unequalled scenery of Merionethshire. Commencing at Bala, which is reached by the G.W.R. by way of Ruabon and Llangollen, the sections are arranged under the following headings, Mawddwy, Dolgelley and Cymrner Abbey, the Ganllwyd valley, the coast and mountains of Ardudwy, Barmouth, Dolgelley and Cader Idris, Aberdovey, Pennal and Corris, and finally, the coast of Merioneth. An excellent map of the Cader Idris district (three miles to an inch) is included, as well as the usual large folding map of the G.W.R. system.

[The romance of a railway]. 136
An illustrated booklet, nicely printed, has just been issued by the Albion Publishing Co. Ltd. Opening with a section on the genesis of railways, the remainder of the book is practically a condensed history of the Great Western Railway, with chapters on the battle of the gauges, and the development of the line and its rolling stock. There are many illustrations and a map of the G.W.R. system. Ottley 5952 gives Great Western Railway as author and does not mention Albion

Sentinel Wagon Works Ltd. 136
Orders for one double articulated type Sentinel-Cammell rail coach for the Buenos Aires & Pacific Ry., one rail coach for the Irak Rys. of Mesopotamia, one for the Salvador Ry. and two for the London & North Eastern Ry. The Great Western Ry. ordered a 20-ton Sentinel locomotive.

Hythe, Dyrnchurch and New Romney Light Ry. 136
Work commenced on the construction at the New Romney end of the line. We understand it will be a double line, of 15-in. gauge.

Southern Ry. 136
Between Holborn, St. Paul's and Elephant and Castle stations, the four-aspect colour light signalling installation was brought into use on the 21 March. Electric power operated the signals, enabling five signal boxes to be dispensed with.

[Electric trains, Sydney]. 136
On 2 February the first electric train made its trial run on the Illawarra line from Central station, Sydney, N.S.W., to Hurstville and back. The trials were very satisfactory, but it would be a few weeks before electric trains were in service. Later, the service will extend to Waterfall, fifteen miles further out. Tenders are now being called for the overhead work on the Bankstown line from its junction with the Illawarra line at Sydenham to Canterbury.

Loetschberg Ry. 136
To put into service this spring two powerful electric locomotives built by the S. A. des Ateliers de Secheron, at Geneva, in conjunction with the Ufficine Mechaniche Ernesto Breda, of Milan. These engines of the 2-6-6-2 wheel arrangement; their equipment to include six twin motors of 700 H.P. each. They will be able to take 560-ton trains (exclusive of engine) up grades of 1 in 37 at a speed of 50 km. per hour.

No. 405 (15 May 1926)

New tank locomotive, Isle of Man Ry.. 137-8. illustrations
No. 16 Mannin: supplied Beyer Peacock: 30% more powerful than existing motive power. J. Bradshaw was the locomotive, carriage & wagon superintendent

The Royal Gorge — Denver & Rio Grande Western RR. 138 + plate (sepia photograph) facing page

New South Wales Government Rys. 138.
Electric trains introduced on Illawara line between Mortdale and Sydney.

Rebuilt 4-coupled express engine, London & North Eastern Ry., G.E. Section. 138. illustrations
D16/2: No. 8813 illustrated

Locomotives for the Madras Harbour Board. 139. illustrations
Hunslet 0-6-0ST: 5ft 6in gauge, but capable of shunting metre gauge vehicles.

Rebuilding and reorganisation of Crewe Works. 139.
Including steelworks.

Narrow gauge locomotives for the Polish State Railways. 140-2. 2 illustrations, diagram (s. el. & plan)
Flexible 0-10-0T manufactured Berlin Machine for 785mm gauge railway in Upper Silesia: used Professor Czezcott (Czeczott) system

Stephenson Locomotive Society visit to Bacton works of Gas Light & Coke Co, 142.
Led by J.N. Maskelyne.

Tank locomotive for South Africa. 142. illustrations
Hudswell Clarke 0-8-0T: 3ft 6in gauge: Komati

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 142-5. 3 illustrations
Locomotive Superintendents and Chief Mechanical Engineer listed:
C.W. Hawkins — 1869-1875
S. Jackson — 1875-1889
R.I. Trevithick — 1889-1901
S.J. Sarjant — 1901-1915*
W.H. Traill — 1915-1916: Acting
T.W. Bonner — 1916-1919
T.S. McNeill — 1919-1920 Acting
J.M.D. Wrench — 1920- Chief Mechanical Engineer
Erecting shop at Parel illustrated

DSP. Some Argentine locomotives. 145-8. 6 illustrations

Rubber for rolling stock — its use, application and development. 148-9. 2 diagrams
Hose. Dumbbell test pieces.

New hooping press for laminated springs. 149-51. illustrations, 3 diagrams
Leeds Engineering and Hydraulic Co. Woodheads.

Babbacombe Cliff Railway. 152. 2 illustrations
Electrical operation.

Technical essays. 152-3.
Lubrication. Objections to trimmings: prefered mechanical lubrication. Evidently written by E.A. Phillipson.

A sectional locomotive for demostration purposes. 154-5. 3 illustrations
Smokebox and portion of oval boiler of locomotive No. 1 of the Palatinate Rys.

A.R. Bennett. New notes on the early locomotives of the L.B. & S.C.R. —1. 155-6.
In July 1918 the Author had several conversations with G. Aylwin of Brighton who spent the whole of his working life in the service of the London, Brighton and South Coast Ry., first as mechanic in the Brighton works and on the Brighton Company's steamers, and afterwards successively as fireman, driver and locomotive inspector. He laboured in turn under Messrs. Craven, Stroudley and Billinton, senior, and there is evidence to show that with the last two his position was one of trust and confidence.
Mr. Aylwin, not always quite content with his subordinate position in the stirring railway world, was ambitious to embody the fruits of his matured experience in locomotive design, and produced two well-executed drawings of engines such as he would have liked to have seen tried on his line. The drawings were commended by Mr. Stroudley, but the ideas, except in one small detail, were not adopted. At the time Mr. Aylwin made his communications to me objections existed to their publication, but these obstacles having recently been removed, they are now given to the readers of THE LOCOMOTIVE with his consent and authority.
Mr. Aylwin entered the erecting-shop of the Brighton works on 8 March 1858, at the age of eighteen. In this shop, when he joined, there was one of the early Sharp Roberts engines, No. 25, built m 1839, mounted on a frame, the wheels being removed, engaged in pumping water and in driving the machinery of both the erecting and boiler-shops by means of a pulley fixed on the driving shaft, work she continued to perform for a good many years. This remembrance throws some light on the little outside-cylinder 2-2-2 saddle-tank No. 25 which worked on the Littlehampton branch in the 1860s. In the very well-known History of the Locomotiues of the L.B. and S.C. Ry. (Locomotive Publishing Co.), at page 91, it says that this tank engine was "built out of parts of a single engine made by Sharps in 1839" (this could only have been No. 25, since no other bore that date). "How much of the original locomotive went into the new one we cannot say, but probably only the wheels and framing." Mr. Aylwin's recollection settles this point, since the original engine, minus the wheels only, was located in the erecting-shop. This accords entirely with the probabilities, for the Littlehampton tank which I knew well (see my Supplement to the Brighton Railway History, THE LOCOMOTIVE, October, 1909), bore no sort of resemblance to a Sharp, Roberts single. No doubt, when the Sharp was well-established in her stationary job, Mr. Craven built the new 25 on her wheels, honouring the ancient motto, "Waste not, want not." Old 25 was the oldest engine but one that fell to the share of the L.B. & S.C. Ry.· on the dissolution of the Joint Committee in 1846, and it is gratifying to be able to trace her to her last employment.
It is to Mr. Aylwin that I owe an interesting fact about the early history of the original Crystal Palace Company. The Palace at Sydenham was opened on 10 June 1854, but at first there existed no proper railway access to it for visitors arriving by the Brighton main line. A spur to the Palace from Norwood Junction had been made for the conveyance of material during construction, but for some reason the railway company did not utilize it for passengers after the opening. These accordingly had to tramp up to the Palace from Penge or Anerley stations. There was good access to the Palace from London Bridge (Victoria did not then exist) by the special spur line from Sydenham, but as there were no main-line platforms at that station, passengers could not change there. The Crystal Palace Company endeavoured to better this state of affairs by running a train of their own from Norwood Junction. To this end they purchased an old Sharp Roberts single and three coaches from the L.B. and S.C. Ry., and with that company's approval, started a shuttle service that continued for several years. They repainted the engine blue, polished her up and put her in charge of a competent driver. Unfortunately, Mr. Aylwin does not recollect her Brighton number—on the C.P. .& N.]. Ry. she was undoubtedly No. 1—but he knew her engineman, and is able to say that the Palace train was still running in 1859, for, in October that year, the engine of a goods train exploded between Lewes and Falmer, killing her driver. This man was a brother of the captain of the "C.P. Sharp," and Mr. Aylwin recollects that he was granted leave to attend the inquest. However, the L.B. & S.C. Ry. eventually condescended to work the Palace spur. The engine was then laid aside, and after a time either sold or broken up. It is a pity that the idea of preserving her amongst the antediluvian relics by the lake did not occur to the C.P. directors; she would be an asset to-day.
Of these early Sharp Roberts engines Mr. Aylwin speaks quite favourably, saying they were very good for their weight, and specially mentions Nos. 20 and 24. They had ceased main-line work when he joined the company, and in the 1860s were mostly performing on the various branches. Several had been turned into frame-tank engines—19 and 77 were two such—and both tenders and tanks worked a good deal between Croydon and Wimbledon, making occasional trips to London (Supplement to the Brighton History, THE LOCOMOTIVE, May 1907). In addition to the duties enumerated in this Supple- ment, Mr. Aylwin says that No. 19 also worked at one time between Polegate and Eastbourne. Another exercising ground for the tender Sharps was be- tween Brighton and Lewes, a duty they shared for max:y years with the smaller type of Jenny Lind engines.
I state in my Supplement to the Brighton History, (March 1908, and May 1908) that in the late 1850's the principal Brighton engines working on the Bricklayers' Arms branch were 112 and 113, built by Longridge, and 44 and 46, built at the Brighton Works; also that a goods train left Willow Walk every evening about 7 o'clock. Mr. Aylwin confirms all this, and says that the exact time was 7-45. A few years later, in the 1860s, he himself drove goods engines to Willow Walk, and frequently worked the 7-45. He also confirms my recollection that it was a heavy train, and agrees that the engines were powerful and did take forty loaded trucks, and more on occasion, up the exacting gradients. He especially commends the Longridges, which had all the wheels in front of the firebox, for pulling.
He often drove the big Sharp, Stewart engines, 117 Orestes and 121 Europa, and agrees, as stated in the Brighton History, page 66, that they were at the time the most powerful in England. With one of them he once took 83 trucks up the New Cross-Forest Hill bank unassisted. The firebox was recessed to allow the trailing axle to pass under it. This caused a horizontal water-bridge, which divided the box into two compartments, and it was customary to keep the forward one fed with coke and the rear one with coal, which had the effect of burning the smoke before it reached the tubes; so smoke was prevented without a brick arch. The orders were very strict about keeping the top of the bridge uncovered by fuel, and whenever the engine was cooled down, to have it carefully examined and swept. There was a wash-out plug in each of the corners of the firebox, and to undo these-wash out with a flexible pipe and nozzle of hot water passed in through the damper, and screw them up again-ensured to the operator the enjoyment of a Turkish bath for which the company charged nothing, but which rendered a good rub down of the temper afterwards, a very necessary procedure. With the water in the horizontal bridge kept away from the top surface by the steam generated, as it probably was, the danger of burning would not appear remote, but no accident of moment was recorded or is remembered. The attention required by the water-bridge was probably found embarrassing as time went on, for Mr. G. F. Burtt informs me that Mr. Craven later on fitted a firebox with a mid-feather and a sloping grate that passed over the trailing axle. This looks like a Cudworth firebox.
It does not seem to have been thoroughly recognised that the admitted and admired superiority of these two engines was attributable to their large boilers and heating-surface (1,572½ sq. ft.), for Mr. Craven continued to build his own goods engines with about 1,000 sq. ft. only, and Orestes and Europa ultimately had theirs cut down to about the same figure, after which there was no more boasting about their exceptional prowess.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 156
Paper read at the meeting on 29 April, by T. Grime, member, on Steam Locomotive Performance (theoretical and actual). The author not only gave his investigations as to why certain economies, etc., were to be expected from superheating compounding, etc., but also quoted results from practice which confirmed his deductions. The benefits of "long" travel for the valves, higher steam pressures, etc., were fully discussed, and there is little doubt Grime's paper will figure amongst the most valuable the Institution have so far secured. An animated discussion followed the reading of the paper, after opening remarks by Kelway Bamber, who occupied the chair. Messrs. Clayton, Tritton, Dendy Marshall,. Rogers, Saunders, Poultney, Tomes and Holcroft, took part, .and whilst the speakers appeared to be generally in favour of the attitude taken by the author as regards future development of the steam locomotive, some interesting criticisms were raised.

E.L. Ahrons. Early Great Western standard gauge engines. 156-9. 5 illustrations
Twelve 0-6-0T built at Wolverhampton for freight working: Nos. 633-637 in 1871 and Nos. 638-644 in 1872. Had inside frames and 4ft 6½in wheels and 16 x 24in cylinders, later increased to 17in x 24in at Swindon. Built with weather-boards, later replaced by cabs and these removed for working over Metropolitan Railway to Smithfield. In 1871 No. 56, a 2-4-0 was built at Swindon and this was follwed by Nos. 717 to 726 in 1872: "they were notable for their length". By the time they were withdrawn thhere were marked differnces between those allocaterd to the Southern Division (mainly at Weymouth) and those on the Northern which were "rarely seen south of Bordesley".

Great Western Ry. 159
During 1925, seventy-eight new engines were added to the stock, all of which were built at Swindon. These comprised ten 4-6-0 four-cylinder express engines. of the Castle class, Nos. 4083 to 4092; ten 2-6-0 tender engines Nos. 7320-1, and 6362-69; eleven 2-8-0 tanks, Nos. 5245-55; and forty seven 0-6-2 tanks, Nos. 5603-49. Among noteworthy withdrawals were the three motor-fitted 4-4-0 tank engines taken over from the Taff Vale Ry., and numbered 999, 1133 and 1184 and the 4-4-2 tank No. 4600 built at Swindon in 1913. Several of the ex-T.V.R. older pattern 0-6-2 tank engines have also been taken out of service. During the present year the series of thirty 2-8-0 tank engines, commenced in the latter part of 1925 had been completed, and further 0-6-2 tanks of the 5600 class were now in hand. These to be followed by ten more 4-6-0 of the Castle class, the first of which No. 4093, would shortly be out. Several of the forn:er Midland and South Western Junction Railway locomotives, both goods and passenger, had been rebuilt with Swindon standard taper pattern boilers and superheaters. The tender fuel capacity had also been increased.

Narrow-gauge (2 ft. 6 in.) lines of the Victorian Government Railways. 159-61. 3 illustrations
Though many broad-gauge (5 ft. 3 in.) branch and even main lines run through hilly country and.with.l in 50 and even 1 in 30 grades, there are four lines mto country so mountainous as to warrant the setting up of branches of special narrow gauge, even though the transhipment costs are a senous contra to the plan. These feeder. lines ran from Wangaratta on the main Sydney line to Whitfield (30 miles); from Colac on the Western District lines to Crowes in the coastal forests (43¾ miles).; from Ferntree Gully to Gembrook at no great distance from the capital (18 mles); and from Moe, on the main Gippsland line into Walhalla (26 miles). Except in the case of the first, these lines follow routes that no broad gauge line could penetrate. Locomotives included 2-6-2 narrow gauge Vauclain compound tank locomotive No, 2a and two 2-6-0+0-6-2 Beyer Garratts to work timber traffic

New sleeping cars, New Zealand Government Rys. 161-2. diagram (side elevation, plan)
Nine two berth compartments. Doors into compartments angled to enable passengers to pass each other. LMS crimson livery. G.S. Lynde CME

A.V. Pawlowski. Locomotive fire grates—the removal of clinker, etc. 162-3.
Polish State Railways: contribution to International Railway Conference in London in 1925

Royal saloon for Siamese State Railways. 163-5. 3 illustrations, plan
Built by Craven's Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. of Sheffield. Metre gauge. Sleeping saloon with a central entrance; teak body and steel underframe. Swing link bolster bogie. Built for Prince Purachatra. C.P. Sandberg consulting engineer.

Wheel turning and its machinery. 165-7. illustration
Photograph shows a Joshua Buuckton of Leeds wheel lathe. Article describes operation in general terms

York Railway Museum. 167
The Aire and Calder Navigation management presented to the museum some early tramway rails and chairs from the Silkstone Ry, of 1809. These were unearthed during work in the neighbourhood of the Barnsley Canal. The Silkstone Ry., of which these rails and chairs formed a part, connected the Silkstone colliery with the Barnsley Canal. The rails are made of cast iron and of the channel type; they are made to accommodate wagon wheels which had no flanges, the rims of the wheels being held by the sides of the channel. The chairs rested on stone sleepers.

Methods for investigating failures of locomotive components.  167-8
The science which enables us definitely to ascertain the causes of failure of any metallic component of a locomotive or, indeed, of any other mechanical structure is comparatively new, and is also a science of extreme importance. In all branches of engineering failures occur, and in many cases, especially when no serious accident or stoppage of traffic happens it is thought sufficient merely to replace the offending part without going to the trouble of finding the exact reason for the breakage. Sometimes the metallic fracture is casually examined by eye or by the aid of a pocket lens, and from the appearance of this fracture a haphazard guess, which is deemed sufficient, is made about the probable cause of failure. Such crude, unscientific, and very unsatisfactory methods are obviously of little value and do not tend to progress either in metallurgy or engineering, which two branches of science are very closely allied. It is now an accepted fact that the exact reasons for failure can generally be discovered, and so it will perhaps be of interest to know how these troubles are diagnosed. In railway engineering in particular such methods are of great importance, not because failures are more prolific in this branch of engineering than in others, but for the reason that locomotive or general rolling stock failures are liable to be attended with more serious consequences than in most other cases.
It will be well to consider the fact that most failures are generally attributed either to fatigue or to crystallization of the metal. Every engineer is familiar with these terms, and possibly because there exists a certain amount of mystery about them, when failure is said to be due to either of these causes it is frequently accepted without question. In point of fact, failures are rarely due to fatigue, and indeed fatigue has been aptly compared with the medical practitioner's influenza, meaning that when causes of failure or illness are not known, fatigue and influenza are very convenient terms to apply to the trouble. Crystallization, on the other hand, is never the cause of failure at normal temperatures because metals do not crystallize at such temperatures. The habitual mistake of suggesting that steel failures are due to crystallization of the metal has probably come about owing to the fact that a considerable number of fractured steel parts exhibit very crystalline structures, and it is sometimes thought that this coarseness has been developed whilst the steel was in use. Steel does not crystallize at normal temperatures; and so, unless the faulty part has been considerably heated whilst in use, one can unhesitatingly say that crystallization is not the cause of failure, and any coarse-grained fracture must have been in the steel when the article was manufactured.
Failures may be due to one or several of the following causes :-(1) Wrong material, (2) Faulty design, (3) Faulty machining, (4) Faulty stamping, forging or heattreatment and (5) bad steel. then proceeds to test methods: microscopy and physical test for hardness

Japanese Government Rys. 168
Introduction of automatic couplers and the Westinghouse brake to all rolling stock, both freight and passenger.

Obituary. 168.
M.W. Mook, Locomotive instructor of the Dutch Railways and author of de locomotief (6th edition). Member ofb Theosophicalm Society of Utrecht.

Rain fell at Broken Hill. 168
Ample supply for twelve months

Tank locomotive for the Engineers' Dept., Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith Railway. 169. illustration
Bought from contractor for doubling Penrith to Kendal Section: A.T. & E. Crow in November 1901: Manning Wardle 0-6-0T WN 1064/1888 Strachan No. 7; sold to Isaac Miller of Carlisle in 1913

Questions and answers, No. 73. 169
Relative values of effective firebox heating surafces using Holden oil fuel system of bare copper plates and with 4 or 9 inch layers of firebricks and the effect of additional coal burning or extra nozzles.

Egyptian State Rlys. 169
Order for forty 2-6-2T locomotives placed with North British Locomotive Co.

Egyptian Delta Light Rlys. 169
Order for 24 CE type Sentinel 10 ton locomotives.

Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. 169
Order received from Nigerian Rlys for eight 4-8-2 locomotives to be fitted with MLS superheaters.

Sao Paulo Rly., Brazil. 169
Order for ssix 2-8-4T locomotives placed with North British Locomotive Co.

Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Co. Ltd. 169
Order received for 100 covered goods wagons for Rhodesia Rys.

T.N. Brocklebank. 169
Had been Managing Director of Kitson & Co. of Leeds for fifty years

Locomotive superheating and feedwater heating. 170
A supplement to The Lomotive Mag.bearing the above title, had been published by the Locomotive Publishing Co, we venture to think will be much appreciated by railway officials, locomotive engineers, builders, designers and others interested in the steam locomotive. We have endeavoured to incorporate in a convenient volume some account of the early attempts to secure benefits from superheating and economy from heating the feed water. Com- bined with this we have recorded some of the best known modern developments in apparatus; many of these have reached a very practical and efficient stage. Among the pioneers in these efforts to obtain more satisfactory utilisation of the heat units generated in a steam locomotive must be mentioned such prominent names as Cudworth, Beattie, McDonnell, etc., etc. Several illus- trations of the arrangements adopted by these capable designers are included in the book, and form interesting records in the gradual progress of the work of improving the locomotive.
The advent of the Schmidt "fire tube" superheater, of course, represents a notable milestone in the gradual adop- tion of superheating; the recent rapid development is remarkable, for it is more the exception than the rule to-day to chronicle in our pages the construction of a new locomotive utilising saturated steam in its cylinders. In the feed water heating section similar attention is given to the progress of this important means of securing economy in locomotive operation. Details of early apparatus is illustrated and described, whilst many of the latest developments in Europe and America form the subject matter of careful enquiry and study

Reviews. 170

Pyrometers, Ezer Griffiths, London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, Ltd.
Dealing with recent pyrometric appliances and methods of measuring temperature, rather than with the design of the instruments, this book should have a wide interest amongst engineers and scientific workers. It may be described as an intermediary between the text-books on heat on the one hand and the advanced treatises on pyro- metry on the other. Special mention is made of outfits designed to meet novel requirements as suggestions for solving problems that may arise in practical experience. Commencing with a short account of temperature scales, the succeeding sections describe expansion thermometers and their calibration, thermoelectric pyrometers, resistance thermometers, optical pyrometry-dealing with the dis- appearing filament type only-and total radiation pyrometers. Notes on electric furnaces are given in the concluding chapter. There are forty-nine illustrations, a good index and a useful bibliography of the subject.

The Railway Year Book, 1926. London: Railway Publishing Co. Ltd.
The re-organisation due to the grouping of the British Railways having been completed, as well as the amalgama- tion of the Irish lines, there are not so many changes in the new volume of this useful annual as in the last editions. An article on the Great Southern Rys. (Ireland) gives the statistical and historical information in a form that will cover the situation for some time ahead. New maps for the Southern, London Underground, Australian and Canadian Rys, are included. In the case of all railways dealt with, the particulars as to the staff, organisation, and general information, have been revised practically up to date, and everything has been done to make the book useful in railway offices and trading and manufacturing firms, as well as among general readers.

Recent accidents. 170.

Major Hall's report on the level crossing accident at Fenny Stratford, L.M. & S.R., on 7 December 1925, showed that the responsibility rested entirely on the driver of the road coach, who, together with eight of the passengers, lost his life as a result of crashing through the gates and being run into by the 18.30 passenger train from Cambridge to Bletchley, six other passengers being also injured. Major Hall finds that there was nothing amiss with the equipment of the road vehicle or in the arrangements at the level crossing, but suggests that the presence of a passenger on the driver's seat may have had some bearing on the tragic sequel. He attaches no blame whatever to any of the railway staff. The passenger train was drawn by engine No. 117—of the 2-4-0 type and weighing 60 tons 12 cwt., and consistfd of three eight-wheeled coaches and a six-wheeled van weighing 93 tons in all. The road motor coach was demolished and the crossing gates badly damaged, whilst the leading bogie of the second vehicle in the train was derailed and slight damage inflicted on the engine and other vehicles, but none of the company's servants or passengers sustained any injury.
The first accident of 1925 inquired into by the Ministry of Transport took place at Clevedon, G.W.R., on 23 January. The 13.02 motor train from Yatton on this date failed to stop at the proper place and came into collision with the stop blocks, causing injuries of a minor character to five passengers and more serious injuries to five others. The motor train consisted of steam motor coach No. 75 and.a trailer coach, both on eight wheels. The former had a length of 59 ft. 6 in. over mouldings and weighed 38 tons 16 cwt., of which 25 tons 4 cwt. was carried on the engine bogie and 13 tons 12 cwt. on the trailing bogie. The trailer car had a length of 70 ft. and a weight of 30 tons 13 cwt., equally distributed over the two bogies. The seating accommodation of the two cars was 45 and 70 respectively. Major Hall is of opinion that the mishap was due to the driver approaching the terminus at too high a speed and failing to apply his brake sufficiently early, and that he was misled as to his position by the singularly heavy rain which started as they passed the distant signal. The stop blocks were badly bent and broken and the station wall shaken, whilst the steam motor suffered broken buffer castings and beam and other minor damage.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 170.
The first of the new series of 0-6-0 superheater goods engines, referred to on page 109  was hand at Crewe, No. 4302. These engines were intended for service on this section, and not the Midland division, as previously stated. The preceding series, Nos. 4107-76, were all in traffic, as follows:-Western "A" division, Nos. 4107-56; Midland division, Nos. 4157-75; Northern division, No. 4176.
Latest conversions to class Gl (superheater) were class B compound No. 1226 and class G simple No. 2104. Experiment class 4-6-0 No. 1405 City of Manchester rebuilt with a standard Belpaire boiler (non- superheater). Two further 18-in. goods had also been similarly treated, viz., Nos. 1235 and 1269. Since rebuilding, these engines had been re-numbered 8323 and 8319 respectively.
Engines recently withdrawn for scrapping included  6 ft. 6 in. S.L. class, No. 1521 Gladstone; 4 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2T. No. 1446; 4 ft. 3 in. 0-6-0 T Nos. 3261, 3513, 3587 and 3616; also the ex-Knott End 0-6-0 T Jubilee Queen (L.M.S. No. 11300).

L.N.W.R. pattern signals. 170
With flat top posts and metal grooved arms were appearing on the Midland suburban lines of the L.M.S.R.

No. 406 (15 June 1926)

Garratt locomotives for the Nitrate Railways of Chili. 171-2. illustration
Three 2-8-2+2-8-2 supplied by Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd to requirements of T. Jefferson, locomotive superintendent in Chile. Locomotives had bar frames

New six-coupled goods engines, London & North Eastern Railway.  172. 2 illustrations
Thirty five Darlington-built 0-6-0 for Fife and Edinburgh Districts coal traffic, J38 class with 4ft 8in coupl;ed wheels. No. 1400 illustrated. One photograph shows cab controls

Large non-articulated locomotive for the Union Pacific Railroad. 173-4. illustration
4-12-2 supplied by American Locomotive Co. with 108.25ft2 grate area and three cylinders.

Rebuilt six-coupled goods engine for the M. & S.W. Jn. Section of the Great Western Ry. 174-5. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Ex-Midland & South Western Junction Railway Beyer Peacock 0-6-0 rebuilt as GWR No. 1005 with taper boiler, right hand drive and tender with increased capacity by fitting side sheets.

0-6-0 side tank locomotive for India. 175.
John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd. for Forestry Department, Gorakhpur

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 182-5
Tayleur WN 324-331 were supplied by the Vulcan Foundry as the original locomotive stock. There was also Falkland supplied for construcing the line possibly also supplied by Tayleur and probably taken into GIPR stock. The cylinders were 13 by 20 in, the coupled wheels 5 ft, the grate area 13.5 ft2, heating surface 777.25  ft2 and 120 psi boiler pressure. The tendeers carried 600 gallons of water. Nos. 1, 2 and 8 were sold to the Bombay, Baroda & Central India Ry and converted into tank engines for construction work, whilst Nos. 3, 4, 6 and 9 were used as stationary engines in workshops. No. 5 was sold to the Viegas Slip Co. who hade a contract in Mormugao in Portuguese India. No. 7 was sold to Ebrahim Dadur for contracting. No. 3 was said to be still driving a rolling mill in the Parel Locomotive shops in 1916. No. 5 was at Vasca-de-Gama driving the sawmill at the cdepot of the Portuguese West India Ry. Engines Nos. 10 and 11 were said to have been built by Dodds of the Holmes Works in Rotherham and may have been sent to Poona to work the Khandala branch and were sold to the BB&CI in 1862 for construction work and numbered 31 and 32. The first carriages were shipped out from England.
A further eight 2-4-0 weree supplied by Kitson and numbered 12 to 19 and was part of an order for 43 and bore numbers up to 54, but the WN are not known but wer between 494 and 576. They had 15 by 21 inch inside cylinders and 5 ft 6 in coupled wheels. Some were reboilered between 1872.and 1878 with boilers built at Byculla:  these had a 1075 ft2 total heating surface, 12.75 ft2 gratee area and operated at 120 psi. They had both water pumps and Giffard injectors.  Tenders carried 3 tons of coal and 1200 gallons of water. A few were fitted with 16 inch diameter cylinders. After damage in a collision near Lonvala in 1867 No. 39 was rebuilt at  Byculla in 1873 and latterly named Dadur. Nos. 18, 22, 25, 27. 44 and 46 were sold to the Indian Midland Ry in 1886. No. 44 was named Sindh and workd at the shops in Jhansi
Illustrations: Byculla running shed s in Bombay about 1875; 2-4-0 built by Tayleur & Co. in 1851-2  Nos. 2 to 9 (diagram: sside elevation); Kitson passenger 2-4-0 No. 44  built in 1860 as reboilered and as preserved in front of locomotive offices at Parel; Diksal station with Kitson 2-4-0 on passenger train in "early days".

London Midland & Scotttish Ry. 185
Locomotive Nos. 1059, 765 and 527 had been fitted with oil burners and used experimentally between Derby and Manchester and Derby and Birmingham.

[Cramlington deliberate derailment]. 185
On 10 May during the General Strike an up East Coast train from Edinburgh was deliberately derailed by the removal of a rail near Cramlington. The locomotive was 2565 Merry Hampton and several criminal miners were arrested and sent to penal servitude. There were about 500 passengers on the train, but few were hurt as the train was running slowly

[Romney, Hythe & Dymchurch Ry.] 185
Ministry of Transport issued a light railway order on 26 May

Operation of steam locomotives during an emergency. No. 1. 185-6.
Clearly aimed at the General Strike and the volunteer workers and the deficiencies in the railway hardware. Lack of mechanized signalling. Lack of continuous brakes on freight vehicles. Lack of powerful headlights. Lack of mechanical firing and modern maintenance facilities, including coaling, ash disposal and modern lighting..

New South Wales Govt. Rys. 186
State controlled tramway between Kogarah and Sandringham on Botany Bay experienced an accident on 1 April when a three-car train hauled by engine No. 83A left the rails at a street intersection and collided with a large pole carrying electricity and spun the locomotive round and fell on its side trapping the driver. The locomotive had been built in the 1880s or 1890s and was totally enclosed. Few passengers were on the train and none were injured. The driver was killed and the conductor was badly injured

Three cylinder mineral locomotive, London and North Eastern Ry.. 186-7 + folding plate f.p. 172. 3 diagrams., plan.
Detailed working drawings of O2 class.2-8-0

E.L. Ahrons. Early Great Western standard gauge engines. 191-2. 2 illustrations
645 class 0-6-0ST built at Wolverhampton in 1872 and 1873. They had 4 ft 6½ in wheels; 16 x 24 inch cylinders and the tanks held 1000 gallons. Between 1880 and 1890 "a number" were fitted with 17 x 24 inch cylinders. Four were sold to a liine connected with the Glyncorrwg Colliery and  three went to the Carmarthen & Cardigan Ry when it was converted to standard gauge. Cabs were added a few years afteer they were built. From 1879 most were based either at Birkenhead or Chester. No. 769 based in South Wales was rebuilt at Swindon in 1887; and the remainder at Wolverhampton from 1889.They received 17 inch cylinders if not already so fitted and larger saddle tanks. At the same time Swindon was building fifty 727 class engines. These were 0-6-0ST, but with double frames and outside cranks, The dimensions were very similar. For many years they worked coal trains from Aberdare to Swindon. The boilers had a total heating surface of  1314.5 ft2 and grate area 16.85 ft2. Several were stationed at Brimscombe to bank trains to Sapperton. From 1888 they were rebuilt with larger (1455.3 ft2 and 17.2 ft2 grate area) boilers.

Flexible metallic joints for railway work, 193-5.  3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Flexstel joints developed and manufactured by W.H. Dorman & Co. of Stafford. Used on steam heating pipe between engine and tender on Central Uruguay Ry., waater pipe connections betweeb engine and tender on Nitrate Rys in Chile, feed water connections for Garratt locomotives; for loading oil tank wagons, and by LMS to convey lubricating oil to locomotive axleboxes. Joints are used by Kerr, Stuart, & Co., Ltd., on the flexible pipe lines for testing boilers;

Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith Ry. 195
Engine Strachan was originally built for and supplied to the Manchester Ship Canal, and was then named Oldham. Two others of same date and dimensions were 1065 Rochdale and 1066 Bolton, both by Manning, Wardle & Co., 1888.

Great Indian Peninsula Ry, electrification. 195
Contract placed with Metropolitan-Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd., of Trafford Park, Manchester, for forty-one electric freight locomotives for the main line electrification from Bombay to Igatpuri and to Poona. Both lines pass over the Ghats, where gradients of 1 in 40 and 1 in 38 are regularly encountered. The locomotives were mounted on two six-wheeled trucks, coupled together with an articulated joint, a single body being mounted on the pair of trucks, and the motors located above the deck. Each truck has a twin motor of 1,300 H.P. rigidly mounted on it, and driving a jack shaft through single reduction gearing on each side of the motor. The pinions are of the flexible spring type, in order to transmit the power resiliently to the jack shaft. The jack shaft transmits its power to the rear axle of the truck, through long connecting rods, and to the other two axles from the rear axle by means of coupling rods. Each truck has the same electrical equipment. The motors are provided with forced draught to enable a high continuous rating to be obtained. The total horse-power of each locomotive was 2,600 H.P. on the one hour rating. The centre of gravity of the locomotive is comparatively high and the main axle boxes are inside the wheels, which gave a very good combination for smooth running. The locomotive speed is about twenty miles per hour on the gradient, with a maximum speed of forty-five miles per hour. Regenerative braking is provided to enable heavy trains to be safely handled on the hilly section of the line.

Wolverton and Stony Stratford Tramway. 195
Operated by the London, Midland & Scottish Ry., had closed down. Originally the line, built on the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge, extended from Wolverton to Deanshanger, about four miles; opened in 1886. Subsequently the portion from Stony Stratford to Deanshanger was abandoned reducing the length to 2½ miles. The L&N.W.R. acquired the line in 1919. An illustrated article on the tramway appeared in Vol 30 page 48 (1924).

Alfred R. Bennett. New notes on the early locomotives of the L.B. & S.C.R. 195-7. 2 illustrations
Continued from page 156. Part 2.
In connection with the Bricklayers' Arms traffic Aylwin refers to the 0-4-0 Bury tender engine, No. 999 (Brighton History, Fig. 18, Locomotive Mag., 1908, 14, 45. He agrees with me that it worked to Deptford Wharf, but says that it was a nocturnal bird also, and at nights—when good little boys like myself were necessarily in bed—was in the habit of banking heavy good trains up the 1 in 100 grade from New Cross to Forest Hill, and that, on several occasions in his experience, when the load was such as to require help at places further on, she came on in front and piloted all the way to Brighton. He was fond of this Bury engine, and describes her as "a wonder" for her weight (about 20 or 22 tons), and steam pressure of 100 lb. Mr. Aylwin likewise says that in her early days (she was one of the engines ordered by the Joint Committee, and delivered only a few months before its dissolution) she was painted blue.
When I knew her in the 1860's she was of the standard Brighton green, with vermilion buffer-beams and polished brass dome and splashers, but survived well into the 1870s to wear the Stroudley yellow livery. She had the small 9 added to her old number (she had been 99 both of the Joint Committee and Brighton Company) when the new 2-4-0 No. 99 (Brighton History, Fig. 54, .Locomotive Mag, 1909, 15, 190 came out in 1862. The new boiler mentioned in the History as having been supplied to 999 was a characteristic Bury one, since even in her later days she bore a strong resemblance to Old Copper Nob, the original No. 3 of the Furness Ry., except that the latter had a longer boiler and a smaller dome which was sheathed in copper instead of brass, and lower wheels. The History suggests that 999 probably had a pair of trailing wheels added at some stage in her career. Asked about this Mr. Aylwin said, "Not in my time." Neither did he know of her having run the boat express to Newhaven for a period. That she had had a new boiler was indicated by the working pres- sure of 100 lb., since when a sister engine which had been allotted to the S.E.R. at the dissolution of the Joint Committee, blew up with fatal consequences at Blue Anchor Road bridge in the 1850's, it was given in evidence that she carried only 50 lb. In connection with the banking of trains on the New Cross-Forest Hill incline, Mr. Aylwin says that once when he had Orestes, the old Stothert and Slaughter 2-2-2, No. 95 (History, Fig. 17, Locomotive Mag, 1908, 14, 45 and Locomotive Mag, 1909, 15, 190 ) hooked on behind with. the view of lending a friendly shove, but on reaching the top of the hill failed for some reason, probably slipping or loss of pressure, to slacken the coupling sufficiently to enable her to hook off and was dragged willy-nilly as far as Stoat's Nest by the train engine before she could secure release.
Another of the Bury engines taken over from the Joint Committee was the four-wheeled, single driver, No. 4, dating from 1842 (History, Fig. 2, Locomotive Mag, March 1908: KPJ cannot verify) which Mr. Craven had re-boilered in the Bury style and turned into a 2-4-0 frame tank engine. I have remarked of her that she was in evidence at New Cross in the 1860s after the new 2-2-2 saddle-tank No. 4 (History, Fig. 51, .Locomotive Mag, 1909, 15, 190 ) came out in 1862, and that without having her number altered. She, too, was a staunch little engine. When she did finally disappear I thought she had been scrapped, but Mr. Aylwin tells me that, like 999, she was sold. Mr. Aylwin was well acquainted with Mr. John Gray's 2-2-2 engines built by Timothy Hackworth and converted by Craven into so many different forms. He seems to particularly well remember the three 0-6-0 frame tank engines, 49, 50 and 51 (History, page 41,Locomotive Mag, 1907, 13, 131), which he justly describes as powerful machines. In the early 1860s the site of the present Brighton running-shed was a huge chalk hill lying between the London and the Shoreham lines which the Company determined to remove. A force of navvies was set to work and No. 49 commissioned to convey the resulting spoil to Steyning and the West Sussex lines for the purpose of building embankments. In the course of time she carted away the whole of the hill and left the site clear for building. Brighton Station, works and approaches are peculiarly situated, since they are dug into the high slope of a hill .on the west side and built up from the lower slope on the east. It has not proved the happiest location for a large station, but, of course, the scale of modern developments could not be accurately foreseen by the pioneers of the 1840s. No. 49 was broken up in 1868. For the views of the old chalk hill (rreproduced in original) the writer is indebted to F.G.S. Bramwell, of Brighton.
No. 50 was also stationed at Brighton and did the shunting at the goods depot which, during the 1860s and 70s, consisted of the Upper Goods Yard (Lovers' Walk), where the loaded trains arrived, and the Lower Goods (Trafalgar Street), where they were discharged. The connecting link was a single line on a very steep gradient up which No. 50 used to bring long strings of empties with little fuss and apparent ease. When withdrawn from service in the mid-1870s she was succeeded by Stroudley's E class 97 Harfleur, 98 Marseilles, and 99 Bordeaux. These were superseded in their turn by Billinton goods tanks. No. 51, as stated in the Supplement, was stationed at West Croydon, took the first train up to London Bridge every week-day morning, shunted there all day, and brought the 11-15 train down at night for years and years, having only her Sundays off. Mr. Aylwin knew her driver — who I described in the Supplement as wearing yellow oilskins in wet weather —  and it is curious that after the lapse of more than fifty years we should both recollect and agree as to this man's appearance and characteristics. No. 51 does not, however, seem to have lasted so long as the other two. She was at her old job when I went to India in 1869, but in 1873, when I returned, there was a new 51, a 2-4-0 side-tank (History, Fig. 115), although it is true that the old one may still have been working somewhere as a duplicate.
Of the Gray-Hackworths turned into 2-4-0 tender engines Mr. Aylwin remarks that they were "very useful." That used to be my impression too, particularly as to No. 53. I saw her run a Royal train into Bricklayers' Arms terminus in 1858 or 1859. I speak of this engine, together with Nos. 55 and 60 (THE ,Locomotive Mag, 1907, 13, 150 , as doing good work about London. No. 53 was used as a pilot in Battersea Yard at the end of her career and had previously, together with No. 55, been employed in bringing chalk from Stoat's Nest to Pimlico when the line was being made across the river to Victoria. She was seen no more after about 1866. Mr. Aylwin adds that No. 60 ran the goods service between New Cross, Croydon and Wimbledon for years in the 1860s and finished up in 1867 as pilot and shunter at Brighton station, having seen all the other Gray-Hackworth tender engines out. No. 50, tank, which ontinued some eight years longer, was the last of that famous lot.
In my Supplement ( Locomotive Mag, 1907, 13, 183 and 1910, 16, 177) Bennett described the Gray-Hackworths Nos. 56 and 58 which were turned into nside-cylinder dummy-shaft Cramptons after the 3.E.R. "Folkestone" style and had Mansell pattern hiving wheels or wheels packed with varnished wood, Mr. Aylwin is the only man I have met for nany years who recollects them. The fact that they only ran as Cramptons for some two years has probably contributed not a little to the oblivion in which they have fallen. I enquired of Mr. Aylwin whether he could throw any light on the construction of the driving-wheels. He thinks they were Mansell's but without having any special reason to be sure. I still doubt it. At that time Mansell wheels had never been employed for drivers (the S.E.R. 0-6-0 goods engines which sported them came years later), and for a line with which Mr. Mansell's was in a not too friendly rivalry to build 6-ft. drivers straight away seems at least unlikely, especially as in converting from 2-2-2s the old 6-ft. driving-wheels would be at hand and ready for use. So I continue to imagine that the wheels were the old ones with the interstices between the spokes filled in with wood, possibly with the idea of making them heavier and contributing somewhat to the adhesion which these engines certainly lacked. Mr. Aylwin remembers Nos. 56 and 58 best in their subsequent form of 2-4-0s with low wheels ( Locomotive Mag, 1907, 13, 183), which he tells me were of cast-iron, a fact I had not previously realized. I recollect them chiefly shunting about New Cross, occasionally taking a passenger train, but he says they also sometimes worked goods trains to Brighton and latterly were placed on ballast duty. The excellent record of these Gray-Hackworth engines testifies eloquently to the soundness of their original construction by the famous Stockton and Darlington engineer.
My chief recollection, and a vivid one, of the two temporary Cramptons goes back to 1858 or 1859. I had then an elder brother staying at Brighton who, having been up for the week-end to the paternal mansion was returning southwards on the Sunday evening from London Bridge, whither our father and I accompanied him. On getting to the station we found a notice that the main-line platform (now Nos. 3 and 4) being blocked the Brighton train would leave from the left-hand, or Crystal Palace, platform (now Nos. 1 and 2). There we found a crowd but no train, and during the ensuing wait) which was a prolonged one, I wandered away to the extreme end of the platform with the idea, I think, of trying to find out what was wrong with the other one. I forgot all about that, however, for, at the platform end, on an adjacent track, was standing a .big wheel in a position which, though not common, did not astonish me, as I was familiar with the S.E.R. Cramptons both with inside and outside cylinders, but by the gleam of the platform lamps I saw that it was made of light-coloured varnished wood! Hurriedly I made my way back to the family group and hastily ejaculated, "Father, along there is an engine with a wooden wheel!" They both laughed) and then Papa, putting on a serious look, solemnly reproved me for —well, romancing. I re-affirmed my surprising assertion emphatically, and just then there was a stir amongst the crowd and cries of "Here she comes"; and with her twin brass domes shining under the lamps, an engine came slowly alongside No. 2, followed by what seemed a long train, and stopped just beyond us. Wonder of wonders! she too had a wooden driving-wheel! Triumph of contemned virtue and stupefaction of unbelieving relatives! We had to hold back to let the incoming passengers clear away, and I saw the elderly, red- faced driver in his white jacket—in those days all self-respecting enginemen wore clean white jackets on Sundays—climb to the back of the tender, remove the water-tank cover, take up one of the fire-irons, dip it into the tank) pull it out again and look at the water mark upon it. Probably he had been kept waiting about on account of the accident and wanted to know how much of the indispensable H20 he had left. The train was no doubt taken away by the other Crampton, but I had no opportunity to verify the fact.
Mr. Aylwin recollects that the tyres of the re- builds Nos. 56 to 60 gave a deal of trouble at one time by working loose) and that ultimately resort was made to rivets to counteract this tendency.

Recent accident. Southern Ry. 197
When the 15.00. train from Lewes to Brighton was running into No. 10 platform road at the latter station on Sunday, 7 March, it came into slight collision with five vehicles standing against the buffer stops. The train consisted of four eight-wheeled vehicles and 4-6-4 type tank engine, No. 329, weighing about 98 tons and running chimney first. Very slight damage was done to the train, but the stationary vehicles suffered more extensively and the last one mounted the platform, the cross beam of the buffer stops and two of the centre back rail struts being broken. Three passengers and the guard suffered slight injury. Major Hall, who investigated the case, found that there was nothing irregular in the signalling, equipment or working, and makes no recommendation as the result. He considers the driver was misled by his fireman, who did not warn him sufficiently early of his inability to see the standing vehicles owing to steam blowing across from an engine on the adjoining road, whilst owing to the curvature of the line he was unable to see them from his side of the engine. Some degree of responsibility must therefore attach to both.

Improved windows for locomotive cabs. 198. diagram
Beclawat sliding windows supplied by Beckett, Laycock and Watkinson Ltd.

L. & N.E.R.— G.N. Section. 198
Last of Pullman cars acquired in 1870s and 1880s had been withdrawn: No. 2992 built in 1880 had been working between Nottingham and Skegness as a buffet car [strangely KPJ read this item after reading that East Midlands HST which had been used on Nottingham to Skegness summer servives would not be available in 2021]

New side-tipping wagon. 198. illustration
Manufactured Robert Hudson Ltd., Gildersome Foundry, Leeds

Saloons for H.E. The Governor of Bengal. 199-201. 5 illustrations, diagrams (side & end elevations & plans)
Built at the Kanchrapara carriage & wagon shops of the East Bengal Ry to the design of H.H. Spalding: much use of teak. Illustrations include both interior and exterior views. Full length baths were provided for the governor and his lady and Calbonite (imitation marble) was installed to protect the teak.

New carriages & wagons, Isle of Man Railway. 201-2. 3 illustrations
Bogie third class and third brake composites fittede with electric lighting and four-wheel ballast wagon supplied by Metropolitan Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co. Ltd from its Saltley Works to the requirements of J. Bradshaw, locomotive, carriage and wagon superintendent.

Reviews. 203

Correspondence. 204

[Development of the Locomotive, published by Central Steel Co.]. C.B. Chaney
Re Issue of April 1926, there is a review of the book Development of the Locomotive, published by the Central Steel Co., in which appear several adverse comments.
Though the writer has no authority to speak for the Central Steel Co., permit me to make the following reply. The subject matter of this book was originally prepared by laymen, not conversant with the details of locomotive history, who used cuts of early and important locomotives, adding thereto artistic embellishments to catch the eye, in a series of advertisements placed by the Steel Co. in the American technical press. The series was nearing completion when the Steel Co. decided to publish the series in the more substantial book form, and about this time the well-known locomotive historian, J. Snowden Bell, and the writer, were among those whose services were enlisted in an advisory capacity. Many of the cuts were already made and the artist, located upwards of 1,000 miles from New York, was not in a position to consult Bell or the writer as to the very minor details of surroundings of the subject of illustrations-the locomotive engine itself. These minor details were, of course, recognized, but the work was too far advanced to re-make many of the illustrations-hence the discrepancies mentioned in your criticism, such as the "Stourbridge Lion" shown without tender and in front of a building suggesting a depot at Baltimore-when, as a matter of fact, the "Lion" was tried on a line of road several hundred miles from the city mentioned.
The efforts of Mr. Bell and the writer were therefore confined to seeing that accurate representations of the engines themselves were made (in several instances where incorrect locomotives had originally been depicted, the cuts were discarded and new ones made) and that the descrip- tive data contained in the text was accurate. In these endeavours the results were quite successful, inasmuch as but one real error crept in-a very commonly made error, stating that Hinckley's "Lion" (page 30) was the first by that builder, whereas Hinckley built several engines before the "Lion" was constructed.
It was not the intention of Mr. Bell in his foreword to slight foreign practice or accomplishments, nor ignore the existence of the very fine British express engines, many of which made their records as built without truck or bogie. His statement concerning the necessity of a bogie applied solely to American practice-on the average road in this country, with its "banks" and curves, no exceedingly high speeds could be safely negotiated with a locomotive having no leading truck, and no competent railroad man would attempt such an experiment.
As to the engines shown without tenders. The original engine Atlantic did not have a tender when first operated; its supply of water was contained in a cask, and, with the coal supply, both were carried on the footplate of the engine. The Atlantic, now restored by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. still runs under its own steam at exhibi- tions, without tender, the coal and water being stowed as above. As to Campbell's engine, the first 4-4-0 (page 27), all that has ever been unearthed concerning this pioneer design is the outline drawing and patent specifications. The type of tender remains unknown. Referring to type designs, it is a fact that practically all of the designs of wheel arrangement of tender locomotives have been evolved in America, whilst of tank engines, the reverse seems true; nearly all tank designs being the product of our British cousins.
No comparison of the Steel Company's publication with Pangborn's "World's Railway" should be made. In the latter case, the compiler was a railway man, with a great railroad backing his efforts to make a complete and accurate history. That some of the illustrations and text of his book were erroneous was due only to the compiler himself in not being a mechanical man and not obtaining proper and competent authority to advise and correct the work. In the case of the Steel Company's book, the original aim was to get out a series of catchy advertisements calling attention to the products of the company. In this they succeeded admirably.
The resultant publication by the Central Steel Co. is without doubt superior in many respects to, and more nearly accurate than any similar brief treatise tracing the evolution of the locomotive through its early days abroad, thence through its American development of the last 96 years; and the little brochure is one of which its publishers, the Steel Co., as well as its makers, may well be proud.

Oil not too plentiful in Stores Department. Malcolm M. Niven
The essay on lubrication is very good; it is exhaustive in fact, but one thing I would ask locomotive men who pride themselves on designing engines and turn out magnificent work. Oil to-day is stinted on a great degree — drivers do not get enough oil to syphon their engines to save them from extensive cutting of journals and brasses, not to speak of valve and piston disturbances.
I heard of a recent case on a famous line where the trimming on a journal consisted of about two strands of worsted to feed a very important part. The company will not give out oil — oil hunters are on to gauge oil; some of these men were firemen at one time, but not technical men who could see that to stint oil is false economy. Oil inspectors should be technical men.
In 1897, when I was on a Scottish railway, the Scottish-English engines then were supplied with Gallipoli olive oil, and I believe S.W. Johnson, of the Midland, used olive oil on his famous Midland 4-4-0s all the period of his reign.
While olive oil in these times may be out of the question, the oil supplied might be greater in quantity, and the quality could be improved, there would then be less heating engines, and if your technical essays were acted on, life in the round- house and on the footplate would be less anxious than it is to-day.

Beckett, Laycock & Watkinson, Ltd.,  204
Acton Lane, N.W.10, have just issued a well illustrated catalogue comprising all their Beclawat specialities for railway rolling stock, ships and road vehicles. The publication has been very carefully designed, and should be of great interest and value to all railway officers and rolling stock builders, as it is probably the only one of its kind illus- trating actual modern fittings. The excellent reproductions of the numerous fittings and appliances manufactured by this firm are accompanied by good descriptive matter and prices. The section headings are :-Sliding door equipment with balanced frameless windows, steel jalousies for ships' windows; Frictionless ball race runners for sliding doors; Grid roof ventilators for ships; Locks and catches; Hat and coat hooks; Silent window channels; Corrugated dove- tail section steel flooring; Window tightening devices; Ash trays; Elastic axle journal packing; Spring clips for wagon labels; Window balances; Sliding windows for locomotive cabs; Vestibule gangways (Pullman type), and sliding ventilators for railway carriages.

No. 407 (15 July 1926)

Freight locomotive, South Australian Railways. 205-7. illustration
2-8-2 designed F.J. Shea; bulit Sir William Armstrong Whitworth & Co.

Oil-burning locomotives on the London, Midland & Scottish and Southern Railways. 207-8.
LMS 4P compound No. 1059 and SR E1 4-4-0 No. A163 illustrated; latteer with Mexican trough system: other classes modified on both railways are listed.

4-6-0 locomotives for mail trains, Eastern Bengal Railway. 208. illustration
Supplied by William Beardmore & Co. Ltd and similar to other 4-6-0 type supplied to Indian railways to requirements of H.H. Spalding, locomotive superintendent and to specificatuion of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton

Tandem compound locomotive, South Western Ry. of Russia. 209-10.  illustration, diagram (side elevation)

Rail-roading in the Philippines. 210-13. 5 illustrations
Sugar cane transport was primary purpose, but the Manila Railroad also operated a slaeeping car service to Damortis known as the Baguio Special. The Philippine Railway operated on the islands of Panay and Cebu.

Rubber for rolling stock — its use, application and development. 213-14. 4 diagrams
Spencer Moulton & Co. blocks for mounting carriage bodies. Beckett, Laycock & Watkinson rubber window channelling

Operation of steam locomotives during an emergency. No. 2. 214
Mechanical stokers used in United States; rocking grates; clinker removal.

4-8-0 type locomotive for Colombia. 215. illustration
Supplied Berlin Locomotive Works to specification of P.C. Dewhurst, chief mechanical engineer

Unification of railway gauge in Australia. 215.
The first sod had been cut of the Grafton-Kyogle-South Brisbane standard gauge line on 23 June 1926.

Setting locomotive piston valves. 216-18. 5 diagrams, table

F.W. Brewer. The last of the N.E.R. two-cylinder compounds. The historic "Aerolite". 219-21. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
2-2-2 constructed by Kitson, Thompson & Hewitson exhibited at the Great Exhibition of 1851. In 1869 a replacement 2-2-2 Aerolite was constructed under Fletcher; this was converted into a 2-2-2T  in 1886 and finally as a 4-2-2T in 1892 and was subsequently reboilered. See also letter on p. 407 from R.E. Bleasdale.

A novel double-deck railway carriage. 221
South African Railways for Capetown suburban services: seated 120 passengers.

LNER. 221
To paint locomotive headlamps white.

Gauge transfer trucks. 221-3. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
German Railways Dresden Division

Ahrons, E.L. Early Great Western standard gauge engines. 223-4. 3 illustrations

An out-of-gauge load on the L.N.E.R. 225. illustration
Bedplate for marine engine transported from Taylor's Foundry at Hilda Hole near Tyne Dock to Doxford's Siding at Pallion.

T.W. MacAlpine. Locomotive building for overseas markets. 225-6.

Liquid fuel for locomotives. 226

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 227-9. 3 illustrations, 3 diagrams

Alfred R. Bennett. Some notes on the early locomotives of the L.B. & S.C. Ry. 230-2. illustration

Southern Heights Light Railway. 234.
Ministry of Transport had approved a light railway from Orpington to Sanderstead to be worked by electric traction with stations at Farnborough, Downe, Cudham for Biggin Hill, Westerham, Tatsfield, Chelsham, and Warlingham, Hamsey Green and Mitchley Wood. The line was to be sigle track with passing loops. A summit of 448ft was reached near Tatsfield. The engineer was Colonel Stephens.

Canadian Pacific Ry. 234
Running hospital cars in the Laurentian to provide medical fascilitiess in remote locations

Blackfriars Station District Ry. 234.
Subway access to main line station

[Panther class for Stockton & Darlington Railway]. page?
Built R. & W. Hawthorn. Cited MacNair Backtrack, 2021, 35, 386/.

No. 408 (14 August 1926)

New Mogul type locomotive, London, Midland & Scottish Ry.. 239. illustration
No. 13000 illustrated. 2-6-0 design credited to Fowler: H.G. Burgess, General Manager, received initial acknowledgement for locomotive built at Horwich Works.

Three-cylinder 4-6-2 express locomotives, Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry. 240-1. illustration, diagram (side, front & rear elevations)
Supplied by Vulcan Foundry to requirements of P.C. Saccaggio, Cheif Mechanical Engineer abd Livesey, Son & Henderson, Consulting Engineers. 19 x 26 in. cylinders.

Freight locomotive with poppet valves, Bengal Nagpur Railway. 241-4. illustration, 4 diagrams (including side elevation)
2-8-0 constructed Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. Ltd, . to requirements of H.I. Cole, Chief Mechanical Engineer and Sir John Wolfe Barry & Partners. Fitted with Lentz reciprocating poppet valve gear.

Diesel freight locomotive. Russian State Railways. 244-5. diagram (elevation & plan)
George Lomonosoff design built Hohenzollern Works at Dusseldorf: diesel mechanical 1200 BHP

H.G.W. Household. The Corris Raailway: a Mid-Wales light railway. 246-8. 6 illustratiions.

Ahrons, E.L.. Early Great Western standard gauge engtines. 248-9. 2 illustrations

Technical essays. 3. On boiler feeding and superheating. 249-50.
Boiler feed water heating and problems of maintenance with superheaters, including increassed risk of priming. Hull & Barnsley Railway located superheater between boiler and the regulator. Evidently by E.A. Phillipson.

Wheel turning and its machinery. 251-5. 4 illustrations, 4 diagrams

Smoke ducts for locomotive sheds. 255. illustration.
At Greensfield locomotive shed in Gateshead. Asbestos ducts supplied by Turner Bros. Asbestos Co, Ltd.

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876.  256-7. 2 diagrams
Rokeby and Bouch feedwater heater which gave a water space of about 3 in. around the chimney proper. The products of combustion from the tubes and the exhaust steam from the blast pipe passing through the chimney heated the water in the chamber to a considerable degree. At the foot of the chamber a pipe passed the heated feed water to the left-hand pump and thence to the left-hand clackbox into the boiler. By closing the cocks "A" and "C" the heater could be put out of commission and cold water fed direct from the pumps into the boiler. The results obtained by the use of this device are said to have been of a very satisfactory nature, so much so that orders were given for six large mineral engines Nos. 145-150 of the Panther class, then under construction at R. & W. Hawthorn's works at Newcastle, to be fitted with an improved form of this feed heating apparatus. We regret that we are unable to give any data as to the economies effected by this appliance. Amongst the older school of enginemen the device was somewhat irreverently nick-named " Bouch's Coffee Can."

Operation of steam locomotives during an emergency. No. III. 257
Clean  tubes are essential if free steaming is to be secured with a locomotive boiler. Once the tubes become partially choked with soot it is hopeless to expect good results, no matter what attempts are made with the firing, the gases are impeded in their passage to the smokebox, the conduction of heat to the water is impaired and indifferent combustion of the fuel on the firegrate imposed. The orthodox method of cleaning tubes on British locomotives is, as is well known, by means of a piece of waste or strand of spun yarn attached to a long thin rod which is pushed down each tube from the open smoke box end. The operation is a dirty one at all times, but when performed with the boiler under steam despite the fact that the blower may be kept on "full" during the time, the worker is sure to get full benefit from the stray soot blown about.
In answer to the query, Can this be obviated? we are inclined to say it can, provided the direction of cleaning is reversed, that is, the work undertaken from the firebox instead of the smokebox end. In America it has been the practice for many years past to permanently fasten up the smokebox or front end, as it is called, and clean all tubes, etc., from the firebox.
Many attempts have been made to meet the British conditions but apparently the readiness of the staff to do such low-grade work (it would not be tolerated in some more advanced countries) has prevented appliances being adopted. The most successful arrangements rely on a steam jet or jets introduced through suitable openings in the firebox being so manipulated, either automatically or by hand, that they will successively clean all the tubes of the tubeplate, blowing the soot through into the smokebox. Such appliances can be used during the run and can be put into operation at any time foulness of the tubes is anticipated, although it would appear desirable to select the locality for the operation, or complaints from the public who happen to be adjacent to railway property are to be expected.
A rough and ready means of cleaning tubes often adopted with oil burners is to first introduce a few pieces of wood into the fire, presumably to make sparks, and tend to ignite the soot, then drop the engine into full gear and throw into the firebox a bucket or two of clean, sharp sand-what passes the brick arch goes through the tubes like a sand blast- and a cloud of smoke, soot and dirt is usually thrown into the air from the chimney. Where labour is expensive and difficult to obtain, locomotives are running fitted not only with tube cleaning appliances but with self dumping arrange- ments for cleaning the smokebox.
Lubrication of the locomotive, although now almost entirely controlled from the footplate or cab, is still an interesting detail to study if more facile operation is to be secured. The lubrication of a motor car can be manipulated by its lady driver without moving from her seat, and there is no reason why the requirements of a locomotive cannot be similarly arranged for. The use of grease for all the motion parts, axleboxes, etc., of the large locomotives in the U.s.A. has contributed largely to their easy working and automatic lubrication, its benefits are loudly proclaimed by those who use it and are so satisfied with it. Grease must be more easy to apply and manage and, further, it must require far less attention than oil. We believe axleboxes of rolling stock have been sealed up for periods of six months with suitable grease as the lubricating medium, requiring no attention or renewal. How often do the main axle bearings of motor cars require inspection? Doubtless the ball bearings used have their influence on this, but it certainly seems as if there is room for advancement in providing our steam locomotives with more facile means of automatic lubrication and so reduce the necessity for so much manual attention.

New Zealand. 257
The announcements that have been made from time to time of the extensive railway workshop undertakings in New Zealand, have excited very considerable interest amongst British manufacturers. A number of contracts have already been let in this country, and it is hoped by the New Zealand Government that virtually the whole of the necessary material will be obtained here. Four workshops, fare included in the scheme, and at present tenders are being invited by the High Commissioner for New Zealand for a new carriage and wagon works at Otahuhu, Auckland. Plans and specifications are on exhibition at the Chambers of Commerce at Glasgow, Manchester, and Birmingham, at the Offices of the British Engineers' Association, the Board of Trade, London, and the Offices of the High Commissioner for New Zealand, 415, Strand, London, W.C.2. A sum of about one-and-a-half million sterling is involved in the general scheme. Tenders are similarly being invited for re-modelling undertakings at the workshops at Addington (Christchurch). and Hillside (Dunedin).

Swedish locomotives for light traffic. 258. 2 illustrations
2-2-0T for Bergslagermas Railway to power light passenger trains and slightlly more powerful 0-4-0WT for Swedish State Railways. Both were built by Nydquist & Holm of Trollhattan.

Rubber for rolling stock—its use, application and development. 258-60. diagram, table
Tensile strength and elongation at break and the effect of heat and moist heat.

Alfred R. Bennett. New notes on the early locomotives of the L.B. & S.C. Ry. 260-2

Queensland Government Rys. 262
Order for 25 heavy goods locomotives placed with Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. to be built at the Scotswood Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne

Cast steel cylinders. 262
Reduction in dead weight if cast steel replaces cast iron on heavy American locomotives.

New bridge near Perth, L.M.S. Ry. 263. illustration
Bowstring lattice girder bridge about 2 miles north of Perth station across main road to replace Bogles Bridge erected by Aloexander Findlay & Co. of Mothrewell.

Tank locomotive, East Kent Ry. 263. illustration
0-6-0ST No. 7 former LSWR Beyer Peacock built in 1862

London & North Eastern Railway. 263
New passenger stations at Brookmans Park and at South Harrow & Roxeth opened on 19 July 1926.

"D" class locomotives on the East Indian Ry. 264-7. 6 diagrams (side elevations)
Their original numbers were 473, 475 and 514, but were renumbered 1473, 1475 and 1514 in 1902, and in 1919 had an A fixed behind their numbers in consequence of other engines arriving bearing the same numbers. They have recently been renumbered again, and are now running with Nos. 1458, 1459 and 1460 respectively. These engines will probably be replaced in the near future, and with them will go for ever one of the connecting links with the infancy of the East Indian Ry.
We regret to learn from India that the writer of the above article, H.T. Kerbey, in charge of the locomotive depot at Moharneh Jn., East Indian Ry., passed away on June 13 as the result of a heat stroke. Kerbey was formerly a driver on the Great Eastern Ry, at Stratford, and took part in the trials of Holden's Decapod.

Automatic mechanical couplers in India. 267
Advocacy for adoption of the M.C.B. type of coupler in preference to any newer device has been largely dependent on being the accepted standard of America and is in general service on a most extensive scale there. I aturally, when such an adoption is quoted, it has its effect on those held responsible for an adjudication on the selection of a coupler for India.
It appears' to us, however, that the value of such a recommendation may be considerably discounted when it is known that the alternative coupler is the outcome of years of experience with the M.C.B., and its design has been undertaken by the same experts who are largely responsible for the most approved development of the latter.
The report of the Coupler Committee of the A.RA. at the recent Convention held at Atlantic City, substantiates our view that the standard D coupler cannot be accepted as a perfect coupling device devoid of all troubles. Of a total of 1,534 standard D couplers with small (5 in. x 7 in.) shanks removed from service during six months on the eight railways represented on the Committee, 466 were condemned for failures in the head and 1,106 from defects in the shank, whilst of 906 couplers having large (6 in. X 8 in.) shanks removed during the same period, 805 suffered in the head and only 141 in the shank, showing that the increased strength in the shank throws more strain on the head and this consequently suffers more.
For the 1,271 couplers which failed in the head a total of 1,453 detailed defects were recorded, made up as follows: Guard arm or outer wing 247 approx. 17% Face of coupler 696 48% Side of cavity for knuckle tail. 370 25% All other defects 140 10% Experience in this country, too, with the M.C.B. coupler confirms the impression an improved device is worth trying.
The Willison is a vertical plane coupler, functioning in very similar manner to the M.C.B. but devoid of a revolving knuckle, able to operate with far less slack and so arranged that all strains are equally distributed on both sides. Claims can therefore be urged that it possesses advantages over the M.C.B. as a mechanical coupler. Further, and of immense importance to India, it possesses means for transition whereby inter-coupling with the ordinary stock is assured without any rearrangement, addition of parts, etc. This is amply confirmed by the large number of vehicles fitted and in regular service.
By the kindness of a corresponden t on the spot, we are enabled to illustrate a recent application to the carriages forming the Madras- Bangalore mail train of the M.S.M. Ry. Other trains equipped with Willison couplers are the Lahore-Kalka express of the N.W.R, a passenger train of the B.N.R, and finally, the Bombay-Poona mail train of the G.I.P.R. This last we may say was the first train in India to be fitted with automatic mechanical couplers of the M.C.B. type, and these have now been replaced with Willison couplers.

Vickers Ltd. 267
Indian Ry. officials will read with interest of the recent appointment of George G. Sim as secretary of this world-famed undertaking. Sim has had a long and varied career in the Finance Dept. of the Government of India and until recently held the post of Financial Commissioner to the Railway Board, in which capacity he earned the good wishes of all by his common-sense handling of the intricate financial conundrums he often had to deal with. We are also notified that A. Cartwright had been appointed a director of Vickers Ltd.

Convertible sheep and cattle wagon, Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry. 268-9. 4 illustrations

Mass production of steel wagons in France. 270. diagram

Trials of Sentinel-Cammell rail auto-car. 270

Electrification of the G.LP. Ry. 270

:Electric lighting of trains and stations—Indian State Railways. 271
The cars of the Calcutta-Darjeeling mail train of the Eastern Bengal Railway have been equipped with external electric lights, so arranged that when the train stops at a station the lamps automatically light up and illuminate the platforms; they continue alight until the train has started and reaches a speed of 8 miles per hour. A similar arrangement is in use on the Postal trains in this country and was proposed on the G.I.P.R. some years ago for suburban trains to improve matters at the smaller and badly lighted stations between Bombay and Kalyan. As, however, only a portion of the trains employed had electric light, and with the electrification then proposed, power would be available throughout, the scheme was dropped.
A disadvantage of this temporary illumination of the platforms is that often (in the intense dark night of India) when the "train has left, the whole of the station offices, buildings, etc., are plunged into what appears to be a deeper gloom, pro tem, than that which prevailed prior to the arrival of the train, and this affords the opportunity for thieves, etc., prowling about the premises.
The satisfactory and economical lighting of railway stations in India is a live problem and offers a most promising field for manufacturers of such arrangements.
In our opinion an automatic electric installation similar to those used for country houses and good for 30 to 50 lights, would meet the case, provided a well organised -.System of supervision, stock of duplicate parts and spares for repair was installed at the same time. Independent and isolated equipments have no friends and soon become un- reliable and unworkable.
A whole section or division should have its stations equipped with one make of apparatus and regular inspection instituted. If the plant included a water pump for station needs it would, in many cases, be acceptable, and there is no reason why at locomotive watering stations the plant should not include the pumping for the water tanks: it would all tend to economical working.

New South Wales Government Rys. 271
The Railway Department is disposing of eleven 2-8-0 goods engines, class Z 29 (late J class). These engines, which had been more or less idle for some time, were imported in 1891 from the Baldwin Loco. Works, and were typically American with bar frames and other features and had cylinders 21 in. by 26 in. and 4 ft. 3 in. diameter driving wheels. They were in their day the most powerful engines on the system, and lately six of them were rebuilt and superheated, the cylinders being increased 1 in. in diameter and the pressure reduced to 140 lb.
It is many years since a serious accident happened to a mail train in N.S.W., but on the 10 June, just after the Brisbane Limited had passed through Aberdeen, a small village 187 miles north of Sydney, and was approaching a viaduct that connects with the steel bridge over the Hunter River, a wheel of either an engine or tender or coach left the rails while the train was travelling fast, the result being the collapse of the viaduct and the precipitating of the train engine, brake van "and five coaches on to the river fiats below. The drawbar connecting the two engines snapped leaving the leading engine on the track, though its tender was partially derailed. The three last coaches also kept the rails. Fortunately the coaches were of the latest modern type and withstood the severe strain remarkably well, though the second coach was split in two, one of the ends being smashed to pieces. Four passengers were killed, and thirty-nine injured including the fireman of second engine, the driver being unhurt. The sufferings of the injured were rendered more acute by the cold night and the remoteness of the locality. The train engine, which lay half buried in the earth, was No. 3504, NN type cylinders 22½' in. by 26 in., 5 ft. 9 in. drivers, 170 lb. pressure (recently illustrated in the LOCOMOTIVE magazine), while the pilot engine was a 4-4-0 express, 18 in. by 26 in. cylinders, 6 ft. 0½ in. drivers, 3 ft. 6 in. bogie wheels, 140 lb. pressure and weighing 65 tons. The cause of the derailment was difficult to locate as everything was apparently in first-class condition.

Retirement of Inspector Flewellen, G.W.R. 271. illustration (portrait)
Chief Locomotive Inspector George Henry Flewellen, a well-known official in the railway world, had retired from the service of the Great Western Ry. Born at Wiveliscombe in August 1861, he joined the G.W.R. at Bristol in June, 1878. Starting as a cleaner and fireman at Bristol and Birmingham, he went to Taunton as a driver and was afterwards transferred to Plymouth. In June, 1901, he was appointed District Inspector for the Newton Abbot Division, and in February, 1908, he went to the head office at Swindon. He has received diamond tie pins from H.M. King George and H.R.H. King Albert of the Belgians. The late Maharajah of Cooch Behar, India, presented him with a silver cigarette case. He has had charge of many notable trains including about 100 Royal specials, Princess Marys honeymoon special, the Prince of Wales' special from Plymouth on his return from India, June 21st, 1922. On May 19th, 1904, he ran an ocean mail special train from Plymouth to Paddington in record time on the City of Truro when a speed of 102·3 M.P.H. down Wellington Bank was attained. He took an active part in the trials between the L.N.W.R. and L.N.E.R. tests against G.W.R. engines. He was in charge of the engine Windsor Castle when H.M. the King drove it from Swindon Works to the Station in 1924. In July, 1925, he was made a Member of the British Empire in connection with the Centenary of British Railways. He retired on 4 August having spent 48 years in the Company's service.

Personal. 271
E.S. Tiddeman, Chief Draughtsman at Stratford, L.N .E.R., retired at the end of June, and is succeeded by Mr. W. F. McDermid, who has been in charge of the Works Drawing Office. Mr. Tiddeman started as a pupil under Mr. T. W. Worsdell at Stratford in 1882. In November, 1890, he was placed on the Drawing Office Staff, and in July, 1907, was appointed Chief Draughtsman on the retirement of Mr. W. D. Craig.

[Reviews].  272

Through the window, No. 3. Paddington to Killarney, via Fishguard and' Rosslare.
London: G.W. Ry. Co. Office of the Superintendent of the Line. Uniform with Paddington to Penzance and Paddington to Birkenhead , this book of 135 pages describes in detail the points of interest seen through the carriage window on the journey of 415¾ miles from Paddington to Killarney, and the 54 miles by G.W.R. steamer from Fishguard to Rosslare, across St. George's Channel. Each page of the letterpress covers about six miles of the line, faced by a map of the same section on which points of interest are identified by reference numbers corresponding with those used in the text. Passengers who make the journey from Paddington to Killarney represent only a portion of the much larger number who will travel this route by shorter stages, and the book therefore serves a much wider purpose than that of reaching a single destination in the south-west of Ireland. Incidentally the glimpse afforded of the works at Swindon and the experience of passing through the Severn Tunnel, are suggestive of the engineering achievements of the G.W. Railway.

Correspondence 272

Reversing gears. Malcolm M. Niven..
Re technical essay on Footplate arrangements, the reversing gear comes in for analysis, and I would like to point out that James Stirling's reversing gear of 1875 applied to the Glasgow & South Western Ry. 240 class 0-4-2 engines by Neilson & Co. of that date, was a very efficient gear and capable of adjustment equal to the balance wheel hair-spring of a chronometer. I need not describe it, better experts than I know it very well; it is still used on all the engines attributed to Mr. Hugh Smellie, both goods and passenger, and was adopted by Manson on every engine he built. Prior to 1875 Stirling's screw gear was used, from about 1873, a horizontal wheel, vertical column and, of course, a trunnion block and screw to a bell-crank below the footplate. A brass plate indicated "Fore" or " Back" gear positions and the percentage of cut-off. No lever and sector was fitted to any G. & S.W. locomotive after the 2-4-0 No. 8 class, and I can say that there never was a "surge" throughout the train when a driver notched up either with the screw or Stirling steam gear.
After a driver had had an engine for perhaps some months on the work allotted to him, he took a file and put a little mark at the running position where the engine worked best, and in the dark he could feel the place with his forefinger on the plate. The screw gear was used on the Caledonian 4-4-0 engines of the 83 to 90 class of Drummond, and an exactly similar gear was employed by Matthew Holmes on the 4-4-0 classes he turned out for the Waverley route to Carlisle; however, these engines now have a lever and sector after rebuilding, about 1922.
The Caledonian-Oban 4-4-0 bogies of Brittain, i.e., the 181 class now 1181, etc. (or, of course, 14,000 odd in L.M.S.) had direct Stirling steam gear, the only ones fitted on this railway.
The screw seems to be coming in again, as I see that the Stirling gear is not being perpetuated any longer on the L.M.S. engines, in fact the 15,260 series of suburban engines have the Caledonian lever as used in Drummond's old Cathcart engines of the 'eighties.

Cammell Laird and Company Limited, Nottingham. 272
Received an order from the London and North-Eastern Railway Company for two additional Sentinel-Cammell Coaches and thirty-four all-steel luggage brake vans. Cammell Laird's associated Company, the Midland Railway-Carriage and Wagon Company, Limited, Birmingham, have also received an order from the L. and N.E. Ry. for four articulated trains comprising thirty-two coaches in all.

Stablex. 272
A treatise on the structure and uses of stabilized bitumen has been published by D. Anderson & Son, Ltd., of 63, Fenchurch Street, London, E.C.3. This patented protective coating- Stablex-has the following qualities. By the addition of a protective colloid the latent gases of ordinary bitumen are dispersed; its structure be- comes consolidated, and a higher degree of ductility is attained. This means greater durability, computed to give at least double the life of ordinary bitumen. It is also acid-resisting and as it is claimed that a full coat of Stablex is equal to three coats of paint it should be of value for coating the roofs of railway vehicles, and for the protection of metal work in engine sheds, bridges, viaducts, etc. .

Steels for general purposes. 272
Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., issued a book printed in excellent style with well chosen illustrations very clearly reproduced. It contains a number of technical articles, which deal with modern views on steel and its properties and especially with the value of mechanical testing to engineers. Data on results of the various tests together with information on the inspection of ingots and forgings for internal defects will acquaint engineers with the characteristics of the steels manufactured at the Armstrong plants. The properties of the new Vibrac steel, claimed to be the super steel of the age, and its softening for machining by heat treatment, are dealt with in detail, as well as other steel products made by the firm. The book is substantially bound in imitation leather.

Electric cranes. 272
Herbert Morris, Ltd., of Loughborough, issued Book 109 descriptive of the Morris Electric Overhead Cranes, designed for use in various industries as shown. Dimensions of standard patterns are included and in the middle page of the book is a coloured diagram sbowing some useful signals for instructing the operator of an overhead crane.

The Clayton Forge 272
Clayton Wagons, Ltd., Abbey Works, Lincoln, in a 20-page artistic booklet give a description of the heavy and light drop forge plants, heat treatment plant, press shop and tool room at the Lincoln works. A few facts and illustrations of the productions of the Forge are also given. Another booklet issued by this firm, illustrates and describes the" Dewandre Vacuum Servo " for motor vehicle braking.

Fabrikoid seat covering for railway carriages, etc. 272
The Welin-Higgins Co., Ltd., of Morley House, 314-322, Regent Street, W.1\., booklet, with cover Fabrikoid leather cloth, and describing the uses and advantages of this material as a seat covering for railway carriages and public conveyances. A closely woven cloth base of great tensile strength, is coated with no less than twenty-seven applications of Pyroxylin, one of the toughest wear-resisting substances known. This Pyroxylin, in ad- dition to its long wearing properties, is pliable, sunproof, heatproof and waterproof, and is impervious to grease, dust or dirt. It can be washed easily with soap and water and without any fear of becoming threadbare or shabby. Fabrikoid can be supplied to match any colour desired. Insects and vermin will not attack it; mould and mildew will not harm it. In spite of these advantages, this material costs no more than inferior artificial leather and less than leather itself. The sample sent us appears to fulfil all the claims made by the manufacturers.

No. 409 (15 September 1926)

Express passenger locomotive. New South Wales Government Rys. 273-4. 2 illustrations.
E.E. Lucy Class C36 4-6-0 with round-top conical boiler and bogie tender

Goods locomotives for the Eastern Bengal Ry. 274-5. illustration, diagram (side, front and rear elevations).
Four 0-6-0 supplied by Kerr, Stuart & Co. Ltd of Stoke-on-Trent with tender cabs and Belpaire fireboxes to specification and inspection of Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. Further information (heating surfaces) p. 403

In memory of John Ericsson. 275.
Postage stamp issued by United States to commemorate his work; also short biography.

Tank locomotives for Swansea Docks, G.W. Ry., 276. illustration
Avonside standard products modified for G.W.R. conditions.

New locomotives for the Rhodesian Railways. 276-9. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations).
Twenty 4-8-2 supplied by North British Locomotive Co. Ltd at Queen's Park Works, Glasgow to specification and inspection of Sir Douglas Fox & Partners and 12 Beyer Garratt 2-6-2+2-6-2 supplied by Beyer Paeacock & Co. Ltd

New turbine locomotive, Bavarian Section—German State Rys. 279-81. 2 illustrations, table.
Turbine located at front of locomotive. Had a condensing tender.

The Howard petrol locomotive. 281-3. 2 illustrations, diagram, table
J, & F. Howard Ltd. of Bedford, Locomotive supplied to Leicester Corporation to work on sewage farm at Beaumont Keys. Shown with Ruston steam excavator/

[Contracts]. 283
Two 2-6-2T engines ordered by Crown Estate Agents for the Colonies for Tanganyika Railway from Vulcan Foundry.
Five 2-6-0+0-6-2 ordered for Entre Rios Railway from Beyer Peacock in Manchester
Sixteen metre gauge 4-6-0 ordered from Robert Stephenson Ltd for South Indian Railway
Eight Class K 0-6-0 (broad gauge) ordered from Nasmyth Wilson for South Indian Railway

Berlin Locomotive Works. 283
High pressure locomotive being built

W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. 283
Twenty five 4-8-0 locomotives with bogie tenders being shipped complete to Brisbane for the Queensland Government Railways.

Rolling stock for the Brazzaville Railway, French Congo. 284-5. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations, plan)
General arrangement drawing of 3ft 6in gauge 0-6-0 and illustration of a goods wagon

Locomotive tests on the Burma Railways. 286-7. 4 illustrations
Tests of a 2-8-8-2 Beyer Garrett versus an 0-6-6-0 Mallet on the Ghat incline of the Lasio branch organised by H.A. Craig, Locomotve Superintendent. Photographs by E.V.M. Powell, Assistant Locomotve Superintendent.

Recent Italian locomotives (electric). 288-9. 3 illustrations
Triple-phase asynchronous induction motors supplied by Westinghouse of Italy in Vado-Ligure and Brown-Boveri.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. 289-90. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Neilson & Co. supplied 20 0-6-0: running numbers 78-94; WN 746-765 in 1882-84, These had 16 by 24-inch inside cylinders inckined at 1 in 10; 5-ft diameter driving wheels; 1079 ft2 total heating surface, 14.5 ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. They were fitted with both feed water pumps and Giffard injectors. Eight were rebuilt with Z type boilers, 17-inch cylinders and stronger valve rods. In about 1885 there was a shortage of passenger engines and one was running with its front couling rod removed. No. 82 was sold to the East Coast Railway, subsequently the Bengal & Nagpur Railway. All the others had been broken up by 1901. Twenty passenger engines were built by Robert Stephenson & Co. of Newcastle: 2-4-0 running numbers 120-139; works numbers 1341-1360. They were similar to the Kitson 2-4-0s and had 15 by 22-inch cylinders; 5-ft 6-in coupled wheels, 1096  ft2 total heating surface, 15ft2 grate area and 120 psi boiler pressure. They were fitted with both feed water pumps and Giffard injectors. The last were broken up in 1888.. No. 138 was named Thanna and shunted at the Parel works.

Electric stock for Sydney suburban lines, New South Wales Govt. Rys. 291-4. 9 illustrations
Mixture of new new all-steel power cars with quest for fire resistance and reconstruction of former steam stock to act as trailer cars

Technical essays. 4. On tractive force and its attainment. 294-5.
Evidently by E.A. Phillipson.
considerable benefit has been derived from the adoption of the long stroke engine, in which the diameter of the cylinder may be only 3/5 of the stroke. Piston speeds have in consequence increased enormously in recent years, with a reduction of cylinder condensation. The only danger to be averted lies in the possibility of the piston speed tending to exceed that of the steam admitted to the cylinder. It is quite a simple calculation to determine the velocity of steam at a given pressure passing, say, a nozzle, but the actual speed of flow of steam into the cylinder of a locomotive, subsequent to passing the regulator, superheater elements and valves, and overcoming the frictional resistances offered by more or less tortuous ports, is largely a matter of conjecture. That the velocity does suffer a large reduction is amply proved by the existence of wire drawing, and in laying down the normal maximum piston speed to be attained, a reasonable factor of safety must be allowed to counteract this. Incidentally this difficulty may be largely obviated in engines working with superheated steam which, at a given pressure, possesses a higher velocity than saturated steam.
Considering the two-cylinder engine, the following advantages may be claimed when the cylinders are placed between the frames:-
(a) The engine may ride more steadily, owing to the arm of the couple which gives rise to lateral disturbance being less.
(b) The cylinders are more protected, and the losses by condensation are therefore minimised, and
(c) The motion is not so exposed to dirt, grit, etc., flung up from the ballast whilst running.
On the other hand, the outside cylindered engine
(a) Is more accessible, and therefore easier to examine, lubricate and repair.
(b) Is not so severely restricted as regards diameter and other dimensions in the transverse plane, and
(c) Does not involve the use of crank axles.
Engines with three and four cylinders can show appreciable advantages over the two-cylinder design, such as
(a) More even torque, giving improved acceleration and at the same time increasing the life of crank axles, motion, tyres and permanent way.
(b) Smaller dimensions of the individual cylinders, permitting greater freedom in design.
(c) Softer and more regular blast on the fire, reducing the rate of combustion and thereby ameliorating the thermal efficiency.
(d) Split drive is easily arranged, reduces stresses set up in the crank axles and enables a satisfactorily long connecting rod to be employed.
(e) Reduced weight of reciprocating parts in the valve gear if two motions are arranged to control three or four cylinders, and
(f) More favourable disposition of the reciprocating masses from the point of view of balancing.
Whilst an efficient and eminently successful design of four-cylinder engine has its adherents, the devotees of the three-cylinder cult appear to be increasing in number at the present time. In his recent paper before the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Mr. Gresley dealt very fully with the subject of the three-cylinder engine, and it is therefore unnecessary here to expand this theme. One advantage which it possesses over the four-cylinder engine, however, cannot be over-emphasised; there is one less piston valve to maintain. Even when inside admission is employed, the amount of lubricant lost by blowing through at the glands is surprisingly high, and its continuance is liable ultimately to cause seizure. On the other hand, the correctness of the steam distribution in the inside cylinder, when effected by connections to the outside valve gears, is a debatable point.
As regards working boiler pressures, it is interesting to note that they now exhibit a rising tendency again. At one time, a pressure of 200 lb. psi. was by no means uncommon; with the advent of superheating, this figure dropped rapidly to 180 or even 160 lb. psi. At the present time, however, the S.R. King Arthurs are working at 200 psi, while the Castles maintain the G.W. 225  psi tradition. There is no doubt that a high initial pressure in conjunction with an early cut-off, permitting the steam to be completely expanded before release, is the nearest practical approach to Carnot's ideal cycle. At the same time, from the purely mechanical standpoint, for a given tractive effort, the higher the pressure the smaller will be the requisite cylinder dimensions. Nevertheless, the maintenance costs of a high pressure boiler are disproportionately heavy. It is well known that the small boilers pressed to 160 psi or less, in spite of the fact that they were designed to work at a higher rate of combustion, are, pro rata, much lighter on repairs than the large modern boilers working at a higher pressure.
While boiler pressures are on the upward grade, coupled wheel diameters are shrinking. This is due in part to the tolerance of higher piston speeds, previously mentioned, but chiefly to the change in opinion which has taken place during the last forty years regarding the suitable speed of revolution at which a locomotive should run. In the days of the 7 ft. 6 in. and 8 ft. singles, 250 r.p.m. was regarded as the maximum. This figure has, however, been gradually increased in the interim, and in modern design is assumed to be, for purposes of calculation, as much as 340.
It is now generally recognised that wheel diameter is no criterion of the maximum peak speed attainable. The 0-6-0 suburban tanks on the G.E. section, L.N.E.R., with drivers only 4 ft. in diameter, have been timed by that eminent authority, Rous-Marten, at 60 m.p.h., while the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge South African Rys. engines have achieved wonderful performances; although the diameter of their coupled wheels is only in the region of 5 ft. The attainment of high piston speeds by adopting long stroke cylinders together with small coupled wheels has, like other details of locomotive practice, its limitations; in this case the limiting factor is very obvious, and so, on occasion, has been overlooked- ground clearance.

John Riekie. A new valve gear. 296-8. 2 diagrams, table
Article presumably shares much in common with the Patent (GB 222,257 Improvements in and relating to valve gear for steam and other fluid pressure engines. Applied 27 July 1923. Published 2 October 1924) although not actually cited. Table based on model data: travel, lead, port opening, cut off, release as percentage and as an anglle, compression and lead.

E.L. Ahrons.The early Great Western standard gauge engines. Llanelly Railway & Dock Company. 298-300. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Llanelly Railway & Dock Company absorbed into Great Western on 1 July 1873, when the locomotive stock was 21: the four-coupled engines became Nos. 894-901 and the goods engines 902-914. RCTS Locomtives of the Great Western Railway Part 3 page C44 et seq claims to be more accurate than this article: this section was written by P.J.T. Reed. Thus only the illustrations will be described:  tender engine No. 899 formerly Victoria (drawing); 2-4-0 No. 900 formerly Amman; 2-4-0 Napoleon III; No. 894 formerly Napoleon III.

An echo of the Railway Centenary Celebrations. 300-3. 3 illustrations
Locomotive of early Stphenson type illustrated in John Brewster's The parochial history & antiquities of Stockton-on-Tees. 2nd edition 1829; also refers to Report on railways in England in 1826-27 by Carl von Oeynhausen and Heinrich von Dechen giving its German title Archive fü Bergbau und Hüttenwessen (later translated by E.A. Forward in Trsns. Newcomen Soc., Tomlinson's The North Eastern Railway and Rastrick's Notebooks and Wood's Treatise on rail roads. Mainly interested in wheel construction and how the early locomotives performed

London, Midland and Scottish Railway. 303
Contract placed with the Sentinel Waggon Ltd., for thirteen Sentinel-Cammell rail coaches with all-steel bodies to be steam-heated and lighted by electricity. It was proposed to use these cars on the following services: Red Wharf Bay; Llandudno and Colwyn Bay; Llandudno and Llanfairfechan; Oxford and Bicester; Wakefield and Edlington ; New Brighton and Heswall; Llandilo and Carmarthen; Halifax and Stainland; Southport and Downland ; and on one of the Scotch branches.

Operation of steam locomotives during an emergenncy—No. 4. 304.
Argues that primitive torch oil lamps used in Britain should be replaced by electric lighting supplied by a turbo gennerator as used in America: in Canada on oil burning locomotives the exhaust is illuminated to show whether the controls are set correctly. Filling the water tank is greatly asssisted if the location of the filler cap on tenders and tanks is standardised. In Austria filling is greatly assisted by the ability of the water crane to extend to the locomotive. In Britain time is wasted positioning the locomotive.

The Stroudley engines of the L.M.S.R. 304-5. illustration
No. 16118 (originally No. 56, Highland Ry.) was working ballast trains on the Dingwall and Skye section. It differs somewhat from the other two, having been reboilered with a steel firebox at Lochgorm, and fitted with both larger tanks and bunkers as well as the vacuum brake for service on the Dornoch Light Ry., in 1895. Cylinders were 14 in. by 20 in. and driving wheels 3 ft. 7 in. Heating surface: tubes, 578 ft2.; firebox, 63·6 ft2; grate area, 12.5 ft2; tank capacity, 750 gallons; weight in working order, 26 tons. Of the other two engines of the class, No. 16, H.R St. Martins,was L.M.S. No. 16119, but No. 57 Lochgorrn, was still at work, named and in the familiar Highland green.

Gwalior Light Ry. 305
It is proposed to mount the locomotive and tender used for his private train on a suitable pedestal to be erected in front of the Palace at Laskhar as a monument to His late Highness the Maharajah Scindia, who often acted as driver of this engine. It was illustrated in the Locomotive for October 1905, and is a small 2-4-0, with outside cylinders, and a six-wheeled tender. Further extensions to this system of light railways amounting to some 200 miles are proposed in the immediate future.

London, Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N.W. Section). 305
New 0-6-0 superheater goods engines Nos. 4302-11 had been completed at Crewe, but none were yet in traffic. Work was proceeding with the order for 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines several frame plates had already been laid down. A series of forty 0-6-0 shunting tanks of the 7100 class was being delivered to Crewe by the North British Locomotive Co. Those already received and put into traffic bear Nos. 16420-4 (Hyde Park Works) and 16430-51 (Queen's Park Works).
The following engines were running fitted to burn oil fuel: Claughton class, Nos. 968, 1345, 2046, 5900, 5911, 5912, 5926, 5931, 5939, 5950, 5960, 5964, 5980, 5984, 5986, 5992, 6003, 6012, 6015, and 6028; Prince of Wales class Nos. 86, 142. 146, 241, 242, 246, 362, 388, 433, 1620, 1679, 2075, 2175, 2198, 2213, 2249, 2359, 5600, 5607, 5628, 5630, 5638, 5651, 56:15, 5671, 5696, 5750, 5791, 5829 and 5841; Standard Compound, Nos. 1054, 1055, 1080, 1120. 1121, 1123-8, 1131, 1164, 1168 and 1179; L. & Y. class 8, Nos. 10450, 10452, 10458, 10459, 10462 and 10474.
No. 675 Adjutant (now LMS 5246) had been converted from Precursor class to George V class (superheater). Latest conversions to class G1 (superheater) were class C simple No. 1855 and class D simple No. 1871, these engines being now L.M.S. Nos. 8964 and 9030.
Recent withdrawals included the 4-4-0 Renown class engine No. 1907 Black Watch, others being as follow:- 6 ft. 6in. straight link class No. 619 Mabel: 4 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2 passenger tank Nos. 1073 and 2523; special Dx goods class Nos. 3128 and 3278; special tank class Nos. 3190, 3316 and 3598.

South Shields, Marsden and Whitburn Colliery Ry. 305
The train of old four-wheeled carriages off the Great North of Scotland Ry. which took part in the Railway Centenary procession fram Stockton to Darlington in July 1925 was in service on the South Shields, Marsden and Whitburn Colliery Ry.

Belgian State Rys. 305
One of the latest 4-6-2 locomotives was being equipped with a mechanical stoker and experiments wer to be made to ascertain the adaptability of such a device to the large locomotives in service.

Southern Ry. 305
Maunsell's four-cylinder express locomotive, No. E850 Lord Nelson had been completed at Eastleigh, and was running trial trips.

Metal fittings for restaurant cars. 305
The attractive alloy known as Monel metal has recently been introduced for the cooking utensils and other fittings of the kitchens of restaurant cars. It consists approximately of 67 per cent. nickel, 28 per cent. copper and 5 per cent. other metals, made directly from the ores; it contains no tin, zinc or antimony. In appearance it is very similar to pure nickel, but possesses a more silvery lustre. Monel metal can be rolled, drawn, cast, forged or welded and is consequently applicable to numerous uses where a strong and non-corrodable alloy is required. At a temperature of 750°F. a forged rod of this metal has seven times the strength of a similar one of brass or bronze. Messrs. G. & J. Weir, Ltd., of Cathcart, Glasgow, are responsible for its introduction in this country.

Great Western Ry. 305
Further engines of the 5600 class completed at Swindon, the last being No. 5671. Six coupled tank engines, Nos. 2194 Kidwelly and 2195 Cwrn Mawr (ex Barry Port & G. V. Ry) and No. 359 Hilda (ex Llanelly & M.M.  Ry) had been rebuilt at Swindon. Kidwelly was stationed at Wey mouth. Of the new series of Castles 4-6-0 express engines, built at Swindon, No. 5002 Ludloll' Castle was running.

New South Wales Government Rys. 305
Though scheme after scheme has been discussed for the last thirty or more years the first practical step towards the unification of Australian railway gauges has been taken by the New South Wales and Queensland Governments, assisted by the Commonwealth Government, in commencing the building of the Kyogle- Brisbane Ry, to the standard (N.S.W.) gauge. Kyogle is on a spur line off the main North Coast Ry. and 27 miles from the border. From the point where the railway enters Queensland territory to Brisbane is 70 miles, and the line is being con- structed through country not served by present railways. When completed the distance between the two cities, Sydney and Brisbane, will be shortened by roughly 117 miles. This North Coast line is at present connected by a train ferry at Grafton with the rest of the State system, and under the agreement, N.S.W. has to bridge this gap over the Clarence river. A double deck bridge is proposed, and it will also be necessary to strengthen the track from Grafton to Kyogle, 83 miles, to carry heavy main line traffic.
At the enquiry into the Aberdeen smash which occurred on 10 June, it was found to have been caused by the heavy rains weakening the embankment, the deflection causing a wheel of one of the vehicles to leave the track 200 feet before entering on to the viaduct. The application by the driver of the brake seems to have caused the wheel to cut into the viaduct causing the collapse of the structure.
Excavation for the Town Hall Station of the City Ry. section has just been commenced.
The introduction by statute of the forty-four hour week has cost the railways £51,387 in additional expenditure, according to figures published by the department for the quarter ending March 31st. The extra expenditure on the State Tramways was £33,279 for the same period. In connection with the Sydney Suburban Railways Exten- sion, The Westinghouse Brake & Saxby Signal Co., Ltd., have received an order from the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Co. Ltd .. for 101 Motor Driven Air Compressors, Type DH.

An unusual mishap. 305
On Saturday, 6 February 1864, a locomotive belonging to the North British Ry., which had been repaired at the North Eastern Ry. shops, at Newcastle (Central section), had its coke fire lighted to raise steam preparatory to being sent back into Scotland. As the morning was stormy, the shed doors were shut; the fire in the locomotive raised steam too fast, and a damper was put on the chimney, with the result that the fumes and noxious gasesl from.the coke fire, having no egress, filled the shed. The men at work appeared oblivious of the state of affairs, until the fumes affected one of them sufficiently to cause him to feel sick and giddy. On reaching the open air he fell, four others became insensible, one was considered dead for a time; in all six men suffered severely.

Reviews. 306

Diesel engines—marine, locomotive, and stationary, D.L. Jones, New York: The Norman W. Henley Publishing Co. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
Without going deeply into thermo-dynamics, the writer presents' a practical manual for the operating engineer, giving the principles, care and operation of the Diesel oil engine, as well as information likely to be useful in everyday work. It should also be interesting to the advanced engineer and designer. No engine is more susceptible to bad attention and handling than the Diesel. There are a number of somewhat intricate units in the machinery, each of which is vital to the working of the whole plant, and anyone of these, if allowed to operate at less than a fair percentage of full efficiency, can cause consider- able trouble. It is only fair to say that the necessary adjust- ments of these parts are as readily remedied as they are liable to require attention, provided the engineers are as well trained in expert observance as they are versed in the means of making correct adjustments and repairs. To obtain best results a thorough understanding of the principles of operation of the engine is essential; afterwards constant attention to every detail on the part of the engineer in charge.
Although the main portion of the 558 pages is devoted to the construction, operation and maintenance of the Diesel engine for marine and power house work, a lengthy chapter describes the latest developments in Diesel locomotives in America. The book is particularly well printed and contains 241 illustrations, principally very clear line drawings.

The locomotive in service—driving, light repairs, management; London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
Written by practical men for the guidance of all engaged in the work of running locomotives, this book should also prove a valuable manual to those who need information in preparing for higher positions in railway locomotive departments. The 187 pages are divided into 31 chapters, copiously illustrated by means of 87 illustrations with a large folded sectional chart of a 4-6-0 express locomotive and tender for the Great Indian Penin- sula Ry., clearly figured to correspond with a table of the vario~s details. There are very few half-tone illustrations but this is not to be wondered at in a practical work. Among the subjects to be dealt with are locomotive driving and firing, the care of boilers, bad steaming engines, and engine failures and remedies, while consideration is also given to protecting boiler plates, fire grates, brick arches, superheating, lubrication, brake rigging, connecting rod big-ends, etc. Information is also given on such important matters as testing valves and pistons in steam, re-metalling and fitting eccentric strap liners, re-grinding steam cocks, wheeldrops for runnmg sheds, and all important subjects connected with locomotive running, shed management, breakdown work and repair organisation, while smaller details have also received attention.

The Highlands of Donegal via the Londonderry And Lough Swilly Ry.
A nicely prepared guide book has been issued from the General Manager's office of the L. & L.S. Ry. at Londonderry, describing the attractions offered to the sportsman and holiday visitor in the district serv:ed by the railway and its extension to Burtonport. It IS well Illustrated, with a folded map of the line, and includes particulars of all excursion and reduced fare arrangements as well as list of hotels, etc.

Correspondence. 306

[Three-cylinder locomotives]. E. Joslin.
Hceckers letter is very interesting, but makes no mention of the fact that the Southern Pacific and the Union Pacific have between them some forty engines of the 4-10-2 type, all three cylindered. Granted, the outside cylinders have 32 in. stroke, while the inside one has only 28 m., but the engines must be satisfactory or they would not have so many in service. Hcecker has also overlooked the fact that the Southern Ry. cannot run much more than 20½ in. cylinders (outside) over the S.E. section, so multi-cylinders must be used. Again the work of the two 4-6-2 types (L.N.E.R.) seems to be equal; they have both done their 80 rn.p.h., both have worked 530 tons out of King's Cross, and kept time.
The Gresley gear used may have refinements that, the German and American gears lack. Again, the new 4-8-2 s for the Central may be limited cut-off, which, I believe, has great advantages for a freight engine with two large cylinders, but loading gauge restrictions prevent their use m England. . I was very interested in the Spanish 4-8-2 m the Apnl number, but would like to ask His Grace of Saragossa, If a two-cylinder or three-cylinder simple, with booster would not be as effective, and cheaper? The new 4-8-2li of the S.A.R. I have in view, but, of course, smaller, say with 23 in.:x 28 in cylinders, 200 lb. steam and 66 in. wheels, and 10,000 lb. or so in the booster. European designers appear to hesitate in adopting this very useful device. I hope it will come into more general use.
Just about the time you published the Apnl number the rainfall occurred at Broken HIll, and put about 20 feet in one day into the reservoirs, so that the extra rolling stock was unnecessary. No tears were shed, needless to say. The line from Port Augusta to Redhill wIll be under construction very soon, and we shall then have the 5 ft .3 m. and the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge from here to Adelaide. They intend to lay the 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge inside the 5 ft. 3 m. on the third rail system and to broaden the gauge from Brinkworth to Gladstone.

The United Kingdom Metallic Packing Syndicate Ltd.,
14, Cook Street, Liverpool, inform us that. in addition to the other specialities mentioned, Umted Kingdom Metallic Packing was also fitted to the new Mogul type loco- motive of the L.M. & S. Ry., the 4-6-2 express locomotives of the Buenos Aires Great Southern Ry. and the 2-8-0 Freight locomotive of the Bengal Nagpur Ry. described on pages 240, 1, 2 and.3, of our last issue.

The Buenos Aires and Pacific Railway Co.  306
Contracted with G. D. Peters & Co., Ltd., for the supply of their steam-heating apparatus and fittings for the eqUIpment. of a further 105 carriages. ThIS IS the third order placed WIth them by the B.A.P. Railway during the past 10 months. An illustrated pamphlet issued by G. & J. Weir, Ltd., of Cathcart, Glasgow, entitled" How to mcrease the capacity of new and existing locomotives," graphically Illustrates the savings of fuel by the adoption of the Weir system of Feed heating by exhaust steam. The Weir feed pump IS built specially to handle hot feed and to cope with sudden fluctua- tions of load, its construction IS strong and SImple, WIth facilities for easy inspection and IS designed to use the least possible amount of steam.

No. 410 (15 October 1926)

Recent Italian locomotives (steam). 307-9. 2 illustrations
Four-cylinder 2-6-2 designs with Caprotti Valve gear built by Breda for the Italian State Railways..

Suburban train—Eastern Beangal Railway. 309; 308. illustration
Built at Kanchrapara Carriage & Wagon Works under direction of H.H. Spalding, Locomotive & Carriage Superintendent. Well seasoned teak used.

2-6-0 type locomotive for the Colombia Railway & Navigation Co. 309. illustration
Built by Hunslet Engine Co. for 3ft gauge line. 3ft 9in coupled wheels. 15 x 22in cylinders. 880ft2 total heating surface. Belpaire boiler. 13.5 ft2 grate area. 170 psi boiler pressure

Southern Railway—new express locomotive, "Lord Nelson" class. 310-11. illustration
Main dimensions and future names. Noted that had been used on Atlantic Coast Express on 12 October between Waterloo and Salisbury

Garratt locomotive, Sierra Leone Railway. 311. illustration.
2ft 6in gauge 2-6-2+2-6-2 built to Crown Agents for the Colonies inspection by Beyer Peacock & Co,

Mixed traffic locomotives, Chilian Northern Ry.  312. illustration
Two 2-8-0 locomotives built by Nortyh British Locomotive Co. at Queen's Park Works under supervision of Livesey, Son & Henderson. 3ft 8in coupled wheels, 19 x 24in cylinders. 1704ft2 total evaporative heating surface plus 371ft2 superheater. 29.6 ft2 grate area. Oil burning.

Goods locomotive, Romney Hythe & Dymchurch Railway. 312-13. diagram (side elevation)
The Bug: 0-4-0T: designed by Henry Greenly and Roland Martens formerly of Krauss & Co.

Tank locomotives for the Admiralty. 313-14. illustration
Two Avonmouth Engine Co. 0-4-0ST engines for use in Portsmouth Dockyard and Royal Naval Cordite Factory,

Heavy metre gauge locomotive for Bolivia. 314. illustration
Borsig 2-8-2 for Villazon-Atocha section of the Bolivian State Rys with long 1 in 34 gradients. Wood burning with large grate.

Technical essays. 5. On small boiler tubes. 314-15.
Evidently by E.A. Phillipson.

The Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 316
See J. Instn Loco. Engrs., 1926, 16, 743. A very full attendance marked the inaugural meeting of the winter session held on Thursday evening, 30 September, at the Engineers' Club, Coventry Street, W.l. The President was supported by R W. Reid, C.B.E., the retiring chief officer; H. Kelway- Bamber, H.N. Gresley and J.C. Sykes (secretary of the Institution). The retiring President, R. W. Reid, (L.M. & S. Ry.), after reading letters of apology from Sir Henry Fowler, ((L.M. & S. Ry), and A.C. Stamer. (L. & N.E. Ry'.), welcomed the new President, Sir Seyrnour B. Tritton, on behalf of the Institution, and stated that he was sure that an engineer of his standing in the profession would give impetus to the work of the Institution. Although the Institution of Locomotive Engineers was not so old as some others, it formed an important part in the Information Bureau of Locomotive Engineers, and from the expressions of opinion he had received, not only from British but foreign and colonial railwavs, he was sure that it was much valued.
Sir Seymour then gave his address. After commenting on the wonderful work done bv the pioneer locomotive builders with most elernentarv and crude material, Sir Seyrnour gave a word of advice to those intending to follow the profession of locomotive engineering. He particularlv emphasised the necessity for students to follow carefully the best methods of manufacture and also the behaviour of details and material under test. He expressed his disappointment at so many of the candidates for India and colonial appointments, who had passed high qualifying examinations, being unable to describe intelligently how such a thing as a locomotivc tyre was manufactured.
He also touched upon the question of heat treatment. showing the great importance which it held in the manufacture of modern steel, and how want of, or improper, heat treatment, might be the cause of failure of the very best steel being used, and even become dangerous. He illustrated this point by alluding to the method of manufacture of screw couplings, amongst other parts, and suggested that a Paper on the properties of materials and their relation to locomotive design would be of interest. Sir Seymour expressed the opinion that the British railways might profitably utilise some of the time spent by apprentices in the mechanical department, for inspection and test work, so that they might be better qualified for responsible positions on colonial and foreign railwavs.
Without making any historical retrospect, the President said it was somewhat difficult to bring forward a subject of fresh interest in connection with locomotive and carriage and wagon work. It is often said that the steam locomotive has reached its zenith, that it will before long be replaced most probably by the electric locomotive, and engineers should concentrate their energies on the latter. In countries where water power is abundant (such as Switzerland) and coal and oil are dear, there is little doubt that the steam locomotive will gradually die a natural death. During a recent visit to Switzerland, as one who had all his life been connected with the steam locomotive, he was rather startled to see a large and central railway station without any signs of any steam propulsion whatever, whilst the "Orient" express by which he was ahout to travel towards England, came in to the minute, hauled by a magnificent electric locomotive. These are signs of the times. But in spite of coal and other troubles it would appear in this country the steam-propelled locomotive will be used for long distance express and goods traffic for many years to come, and it would be interesting to enquire what arc the chief causes which stand in the way of its still further development.
A very important subject next engaged Sir Seymour's attention, namely the loading gauge of railways, and some verv interesting notes were given on the different composite gauges now being worked to in Great Britain and on the American continent, with some comparisons made with the new outline adopted for the 5 ft. 6 in. gauge in Injdia. The loading gauge restriction, although a serious drawback to the development of larger and more powerful locomotives, has perhaps brought out certain developments, because the designer, being unable to get the cylinders of his locomotive within the space required, has been driven to turn his attention more closelv to three and four-cylinder engines. Although, no doubt, the permissible axle load has been the principal factor in the development of the articulated engines, such as the Garratt, the Mallet and other tvpes, the restriction of the loading gauge has no doubt also affected the development of their design.
When called upon for advice for new rolling stock for the metre gauge railways in Iraq, Sir Seymour, in discussing the matter with the General in authority, asked as to the limits of the loading gauge prevailing, and was informed that it was represented by "the sky above and all round you." A very satisfactory condition.
Referring to the efforts made by the Ministry of Transport to secure some improvement in the British load limits to permit of more liberal interchange of rolling stock with the Continent, Sir Seymour said it was found that the improvements required on the single route from Dover to London would incur expense of such magnitude that it could not be proceeded with.
For war service on the continent vehicles built to the French dimensions were adopted, as the capacity of the wagons was increased by 10 per cent. over tbe British. As some 3,400 locomotives and 73,796 wagons were built, the question of dimensions was of importance. Apart from the limitations of load gauge the progress of the steam locomotive in this country appeared to be somewhat handicapped by the type of boiler used. Much higher pressures. were being experimented with in Germany and elsewhere. He pointed out that developments were now being pressed forward for steam locomotives, in the form of Poppet valves and much higher pressures, and that the Diesel engine had passed the experimental stage, and the combined steam and internal-combustion engine on the "Still" system was being developed, and that new methods of transmitting the power generated in the engine to the road wheels were engaging the attention of the engineers of to-day. He asked that members who had studied these subjects from various points of view would contribute papers to the Institution upon them.
At the conclusion of the address, a vote of thanks was proposed by C.N. Goodall (R. Stephenson & Co.), who congratulated the new President in thinking out a new line in his address, adding his testimony to the value of the Insitituton. This was seconded by Major S. E. Williams, (Crown Agents for the Colonies) who stated that the success of the Institution has been greatly due to the zeal and ability of its Presidents. He had known Sir Seymour Tritton for many years and had co-operated with him in railway matters concerned with the Crown Colonies, and his advice had inevitably led to success.
H. N. Gresley, (L. & N.E. Ry.) touched upon several points in the address, confirming the great value he had derived when a pupil by a term in the testing and inspection department where he learnt not only about the strength of materials but methods of-manufacture and stating that, following on a suggestion by Sir Seymour Tritton, his pupils were given the opportunity of going through those departments. Gresley also alluded to the loading gauge, pointing out the British loading gauges took into account the lengths of the vehicles and the "throw over" on a curve, and fixed structures are set back to allow for this, but in the Continental loading gauge this was not so and great care had to be taken on this account. He was a member of the comrnittee which had to consider a possible increase in the loading gauge on British railways, when the "Berne" gauge was considered, and he confirmed Sir Seymour's note that the cost proved prohibitive. He concluded by saying that he was glad to note that the President was of opinion that the steam locomotive was not yet dead as regards this country, and although experiments were being made in much higher pressures, in his opinion this alone would not affect economy unless special consideration was given to improved steam distribution

E.C. Poultney and J. Kupka. Czecho-Slovakian State Rlys. Prairie type locomotives. 318-21. illustration, 3 diagrams (including side elevation)
2-6-2 fitted with Krauss-Helmholz bogie versus a 4-6-0

Electric headlights. 321
Lack of headlights on the mnetre gauge Bombay, Baroda & Central India led to the derailment of a train in darkness at Abu Road when a train ran into a washout throwing the locomotive and train into the river. Fortunately all the crew on the freight train survived

L.M.&S.R. Scottish Section. 321
Pickersgill 4-6-0 Nos. 14630-6 completed at St. Rollox Works and stationed at Carlisle Kingmoor. Ex GSWR Nos. 16400-27 renumbered 14900-27 and ex-CR 14500-6 renumbered 16950-6.

E.L. Ahrons.The early Great Western standard gauge engines. Llanelly Railway & Dock Company. 322-4. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
0-8-0 banking engine GWR No. 902 Leo had 20 x 24in outside cylinders, 4ft 9in wheels and was built by the Llanelly Railway in 1865. It had been scrapped by 1881. Arthur and Louisa were "fearsome looking engines" with outside cylinders buil;t by Fossick & Hackworth in 1858 and 1860. They had 4ft 9in wheels. They became GWR Nos 903 and 904, A similar engine Victor was photographed at Swindon: it had come there via the Carmarthen & Cardigan Railway (it had been sold by the Llanelly Railway in about 1883. In 1865-6 the Llanelly Railway placed four inside cylinder 0-6-0 locomotives into traffic. Two were built by the Llanelly Railway and may have been designed by the locomotive superintendent. They were Alexandra and Wales built in 1865: they became GWR Nos. 907 and 908. Ernest and Edinburgh were built by Fossick & Hackworth in 1866 and were similar to Beyer Peacock products: they became GWR Nos. 905 and 906. The next engines were actual Beyer Peacock products WN 828/1868 Dunvant (GWR No. 913) and WN 829/1868 Towy (GWR No. 914). Four marginally larger Beyer Peacock products WN 889-92 were supplied in 1870: they became GWR Nos. 911-12 and 909: they had carried the names Grongar, Stradey, Teilo and Royal.

New "Mitropa" sleeping car. 324-5. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation and plan)
Designed to be capable of being conveyed on train ferries and capable of carrying twenty passengers and an attendant with his own compartment with small stove, refrigerator and bedding.

Cleaning locomotives and rolling stock. 325-6

Tasmanian Government Railways 75 h.p. bogie rail motor. 326-7. illustration, diagram (side elevation & plan)

Snailbeach District Railway. 328-9. 5 illustrations
Very small photographs of narrow gauge which served quarriess/mines. Locomotives illustrated: No. 4 Baldwin 4-6-0T ex-WW1 (one of two) and Kerr Stuart & Co. 0-4-2T WN 802/1911.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 329-30. 2 illustrations
Refers to five Kershaw designed 4-6-0Ts built by Sharp Stewart and put into service in 1863.

Buckton's spring tester. 330-1. illustratiion
Manufactured by Joshua Buckton & Co. of Leeds for Southern Railway Ashford Works

M.M. Niven. A Royal Glasgow & South Western Railway engine. 331-2
Hugh Smellie 4-4-0 No. 70 was used to work Royal Train carrying Queen Victoria from Renfrew where she stayed with Lord Blythswood to International Exhibition staged in Kelvingrove Park. Driver Adair drove the locomotive.

Sydney suburban railway electrification. 332-5. 3 illustrations, map
1500 volts DC system with Metropolitan Vickers electrical equipment following recommendation of J.J.C. Bradfield, chief engineer  of the Sydney Metropolitan Railway Commission.

Correspondence. 335

Messrs. Stirling and Stroudley. Malcolm M. Niven.
Re account of Inspector  Aylwin's experiences there is no allusion to the Grosvenor, No. 151, 2·2-2, which was sent to the Railway Jubilee celebrations, 1875. In his account of the 0-4-2 engine Edward Blounit; at Paris, mention is made of the James Stirling 4-4-0 being temporarily converted into a 4-2-2. .I think that was perhaps the reason that she may not have given a good account of herself. I do not think the 7-ft. Stirlings could be depended on uncoupled: even as coupled engines they were inrlined to slip on greasy metals at the start.
When Grosvenor went to Darlington in 1875 a Glasgow and South Western engine was sent there also: it was one of the famous 7 ft. 1½ in. class, No. 106 of the No. 6 series. So that Stroudley and Stirling seemed in those days to be it in locomotive design.
It is interesting to relate that No. 6, the first Stirling bogie, ran for a time with a pair of her bogie wheels removed. I was speaking to a gentleman who can be relied upon. that this was the case, and it may have been sometime in 1873 when she came out. The rear wheels of the bogie were removed and the bogie frame suitably supported so that she ran as a 2-4-0 engine.
It must be remembered that Stirling developed the No. 6 class from the 6 ft. 7½ in. No. 8 class of 1868 or 1870. which were 2-4-0 engines.
There was a class with 6 ft. 1½ in. wheels built for the Greenock section, known as the 59 series. I think one is still in existence; if not, only recently removed ; she had her original perforated splashers and motion of the Stirling swing link pattern. No. 71a was her old (G. & S.W. number, built in 1870. This class came out simultaneouslv with Patrick Stirling's No. 1 8-ft. singles on the G.N. Now that all these Stirlings are disappearing I think the LM.S. ought to preserve one Stirling bogie, the precursor of the dorneless Stirlings of the S.E. Railway.

French-polishing machine for railway carriage work. 335
Distributors in the United Kingdom E. Quitmann, Ltd.

Early locomotives Dublin and Kingstown Ry. 336-7. 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Original locomotives supplied in 1834: three from Sharp, Roberts & Co. named Britannia, Hibernia and Manchester and three from George Forrester: Dublin, Kingstown and Vauxhall. The Sharp engines had vertical cylinders and drove via a bell crank motion. The Forrester locomotives were the first to have horizontal motion. These 2-2-0 had 5ft driving wheels. Two further Forrester locomotves were obtained in 1836 named Victoria and Comet: these were similar to the other Forrester products, but conveyed the coke and water on the locomotive. The other Forrester products were similarly modified, but the Sharp engines retained their tenders. In 1839 two locomotives were constructed at the company's own workshops in Serpentine Avenue, Ballsbridge, Dublin and were the first locomotives to be constructed by a railway company in the British Isles. These were Star and Jupiter and had 5ft 3in coupled wheels and 11 x 18in cylinders and had a 2-2-2T arrangement. Three further engines followed:  Princess, Shamrock and Erin. Both Hibernia and Princess are illustrated: the latter based on the original drawing sent us some time back by the courtesy of George H. Wild, locomotive superintendent of the former Dublin and South Eastern Railway. The wheels of the Princess were of cast iron with spokes of I section, and were made at the Dublin works. The valves were driven by a rocking shaft, with gab motion. The boiler carried a working pressure of 90 psi. The cylinders were 11 in. diameter by 16 in. stroke and the driving wheels 5 ft. 6 in. diameter. The front carrying wheels were 4 ft. diameter and the rear 3 ft. diameter; the wheelbase was 6 ft. 1 in. leading to driving and 4 ft. 11½ in. driving to trailing. It is said the original iron fireboxes of these engines were welded up, that is, the front and back plates, crown and sides at the joints. Other engines built at Ballsbridge of the same type, and soon after the Princess, were named as follows: Bellisle, Albert, Burgoyne, Cyclops and Vulcan. At this period the Dublin and Kingstown was 4 ft. 8½ in. gauge, but the gauge was converted to 5 ft. 3 in. in 1854-5, when the line was leased to the Dublin, Wicklow and Wexford Ry. The alteration of the engines entailed three new straight, longer axles, and lengthening the frame stays only. See also letter from C.F. Dendy Marshall in Volume 40 page 165

New South Wales Government Rys. 337
The bridge across the Clarence River in connection with the new main line between Sydney and Brisbane is to be of the double decked type and built jointly by the Railway Department and the Public Works Department, the upper deck forming a roadway 22 ft. 6 in. wide and 27 ft. above rail level, which is 33 ft.above high water, though floods may reduce this level to about 5 ft. at times.

"The Model Engineer" Exhibition. 337
An exhibition of model engines, boats, etc., was held at the Horticultural Hall, Westminster, from the 18 to 25 September. There was a fine display of exhibits and a great attraction was the Wireless control of trains by Major Raymond Phillips, the inventor. Demonstrations were given and were well attended. One very fine 1½in. scale model was that of L. & S.W.R. 4-6-0 express engine, No. 486. It is stated that this model took 30,000 hours to build and the material cost £200. It is now worth £2,000, and is to be on view at the Science Museum, South Kensington. Another exhibit worthy of mention was an engine named Stanley Baldwin, built by Bassett Lowke, Ltd.,, for H.F.R. Franklin's Garden Railway, at Radwell, Bedfordshire. This is to run on a 10¼ in. gauge track and weighed about one ton. On the working model track J.C. Crebbin gave exhibitions in 'steam of his four-cylinder compound model locomotives, Aldington (4-6-2) and Sir Felix Pole (4-8-0). An excellent 4-4-2 type L.M.S.R. (Tilbury Section) tank engine model was also in steam.

London Midland & Scottish Ry. (L.& N.W. Section). 337
Several of the new Crewe-built 0-6-0s (series 4302-11) had been put into traffic unpainted, including Nos. 4308 and 4310. The first ten of a new series of 25 similar engines had been delivered to Crewe by the North British Loco. Co. bearing Nos. 4382-91 (ex Queen's Park Works). All the new 0-6-0 shunting tanks from the same firm were now in traffic, Nos. 16420-9 (ex Hyde Park Works) and Nos. 16430-59 (ex Queen's Park Works). The preceding twenty, Nos. 16400-19 (ex Hyde Park Works) were in service on the Northern Division. A further series of fifty engines was being supplied by the Vulcan Foundry Co. as follows: Forty to LNWR section, Nos. 16460-99-the first of which has recently arrived, and ten to the Midland Division, Nos. 16500-9. |
Claughton class engine No. 1327 Alfred Fletcher (L.M.S. No. 5917) had been fitted with Caprotti valve gear as shown on the Italian State Railway locomotive described on p. 308, and is to. be tried against another Claughton, No. 1567 Charles J. Cropper (L.M.S. No. 5908), the latter being similar to the former as before conversion, excepting that it had been provided with new cylinders. In its preliminary trials, the converted engine appeared to have come fully up to expectations.
The following additional engines were running fitted to burn oil fuel: Claughton class, Nos. 63, 119, 163, 208, 1334, 1335, 1726, 2239, 2426, 5901, 5907, 5943, 5983, 5989 and 5994; Prince of Wales class, Nos. 56, 252, 1732, 2392, 5602, 5641, 5645, 5661, 5666, 5702, 5703, 5712, 5731, 5741 and 5774; Standard Compound, Nos. 1112, 1115, 1117, 1118, 1122, 1151, 1155, 1165, 1173 and 1182. Nos. 1821 and 1848, formerly class D simples, and No. 1842, formerly class C simple, had been converted to class " G1 " (superheater). These engines were L.M.S. Nos. 9064, 9022 and 8966 in the order given. Latest withdrawals from service were as follows: Renown class, Nos. 1921 John o' Gaunt and 1973 Hood; Precedent class, No. 514 Puck ; 4 ft. 6 in. 2-4-2T, No. 946 ; 4 ft. 6 in. 2-4-0 , No. 1443 ; N.L.R. 4-4-0T, Nos. 2803, 2813, 2819, 2838, 2847 and 2864 ; Special DX class, Nos. 3006, 3036, 3082, 3132, 3145, 3270 and 3358 ; 17 in. coal class, Nos. 881, 2419, 3318, 3330, 3357 and 3573 ; Special Tank Shunters, Nos. 3340, 3409, 3536, 3538 and 3588 ; and 2 ft. 6 in. shunter, No. 3017

G. Benoit-Levy. Instruction cars, Paris-Orleans Ry. 338-40. 3 illustrations

No. 411 (15 November 1926)

Great Western Ry.: "Castle" class locomotive with new pattern tender. 341-2. 3 illustrations, diagram (side & front elevations.)
No. 5000 Launceston Castle illustrated as well as 4000 gallon self-trimming tender. Also note on work by locomotive between Euston and Crewe and Crewe and Carlisle.

Ljungström turbine condensing locomotive built by Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. 342-4. illustration
2000 hp turbine with quill drive, large air-cooled condenser. Tests on LNER from Gorton to Woodhead; announcement of move to LMS at Derby.

An oil-burning shunting locomotive. 344. illustration
Yorkshire Engine Co. 0-4-2T for 2ft 6in gauge with Holden system oil-firing.

Superheater goods locomotives, London and North Eastern Ry. 345. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations).
Gresley J39 0-6-0: had 5 ft 2 in driving wheels and a boiler 6 in longer than that of the J38 type.

Southern Ry. four-cylinder "Nelson" class express locomotive. 346. diagram (side & front elevations)
Official Maunsell diagram of No. E850 Lord Nelson

Rebuilt passenger tank engines, L.M. & S.R. 347-8. illustration
Reboilering of the Johnson 1881 0-4-4Ts with Belpaire boilers. Noted that although many Midland designs as different as 0-6-4T and 2-4-0, the 0-4-4Ts had not been so-modified until recently. No. 1383 illustrated. Noted that Nos. 1371, 1373, 1283 and 1416 had been noted so-fitted in London suburban area. Notes indebtness to Sir Heny Fowler.

0-6-0 tank locomotive for hauling potatoes. 348. illustration
60 cm gauge 0-6-0T built by John Fowler & Co. (Leds) Ltd for J.H.Dennis to use on Nocton Estate near Lincoln.

F.W. Brewer. The introduction of modern locomotive superheating in Great Britain. Pioneer work on the G.W.R. 352-4.
Asserts that Churchward took the lead in fitting a Schmidt superheater to No. 2901 Lady Superior in May 1906 over George Hughes who followed in November 1906 by fitting 0-6-0 goods engine No. 898 (and in December No. 900). In 1907 fitted a Cole type superheater to four-cylinder 4-6-0 No. 4010 Western Star. In 1907 Churchward in association with G.H. Burrows and G.C. Champeney of Swindon patented a superheater which became known as the No. 1 type. It was fitted to No. 111 The Great Bear. In December 1908 what was termed the No.2 type (but covered by the 1907 Patent was applied to the two-cylinder 4-6-0 No. 2922 Saint Gabriel. The Number 3 Paptent was first fitted to No. 4021 King Edward in June 1909. Details of the 1909 Patent appeared in Locomotive Mag., 1910, 16, 240. Part 2 see Vol. 33 page 161.

A tube cleaning blast pipe. 354-5. diagram
Kylala arrangement as used on Paris Orleans Railway and other French railways.

Questions and answers. 355-6. 3 diagrams
No. 74: Point of cut-off with Stephenson link motion when running forward and backward
Equal lead and cut-off cannot be obtained with Stephenson link motion when running in both directions: suggests should seek equal leads and cites Valve gears and valve setting
No. 75: Walscharts valve gear arranged for outside admission
Geometry of inside and outside admisssion Walschaerts valve gear: locomotives working mainly in forward direction should have the die block at the bottom of the link for the sake of more direct action.
No. 76: Baker valve gear diagram
Questioner confused Baker valve gear with Young gear as used on Union Pacific Mountain type. Early Baker valve gear was known as the Baker-Pilliod gear, but this was obsolete by then.
No. 77: Tender filling on Austrian State Railways
Diagrams shows hinged lids, rather like desk tops on sides of tender which made filling simpler as was less dependent on position.

Technical essays. 6. On running shed equipment. 356-7.
Manual locomotive cleaning; boiler tube cleaning (disadvantages of both steam and compressed air), boiler washing out (mainly hot water); mechanical coaling plants; issue of engine oil (difficulty of cylinder oil due to high viscosity); loading sand (more advanced in America) and cross vanes used on American watering in round houses. Evidently by E.A. Phillipson. 

Wireless on trains. 357
Radio communication between conductor and driver on long freight trains on New York Central Railway; an through loudspeakers in yard at St. Paul.

New boat train for Nigerian Rys. 358-61. 6 illustrations, plan
For 705 mile journey between Lagos and Kano. First class compartments with sleeping berths and day accomodation, for 3ft 6in gauge built by Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd.  

Horse box—Eastern Bengal Railway. 361. illustration

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 362-3. 2 illustrations
2-4-0 No. 66 ex Priam and NER No. 1068 Woodlands. See also Volume 45 page 56

Swedish railway relics. 363-4. 2 illustrations
0-6-0 tank engine Frykstad narrow gauge Frysta-Kralalvens branch line; built by T.H. Munktell of Eskilstuna

A novel shunting tractor. 364. illustration
Chase Side Motror Co. of Enfield

The transport of milk. 364. illustration
Scammell Lorries Ltd six-wheel truck for transport of bulk milk from West of England to London.

Foreign coal on British locomotives. 364
Leading to delays, breakdowns, etc. Also Southern Railway fitted a Titan tilting grate to 4-4-0 No. 504A at Battersea.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsular Railway. 365-6. illustration, diagram
E.B. Wilson back-to-back 0-4-0+0-4-0 and Sharp Stewart 0-6-4ST for working Ghat inclines: both types with sledge brakes. Continued page 395

Mallet type logging locomotives. 367-70. 11 illustrations
Great variety of locomotive types: both 2-6-6-2 and 2-8-8-2 with side tanks or saddle tanks or tenders. They were built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. The last illustration is of a Mallet dwarfed by its train of huge logs crossing a tressle viaduct on the Clemons Logging Company's road.

Recent accidents. 371
Mostly minor: most serious was at Bishops Stortford on 10 May when a goods train driven by a volunteer from Cambridge (as in University) ran into the rear of a passenger train killing a passenger alighting from the train and seriously injuring another. Colonel Mount was relatively gentle in his criticism of all concerned

Reviews. 371-2

The iron road. Cecil J. Allen. London: John F. Shaw & Co.
Divided into two sections: railway buildind and Locomotives and their work.. Feature of the book is the 15 colour platres and 255 excellent half-tone illustrations

Correspondence. 372-4

Old Engerth locomotives on French and Belgian railways. R. Greiffenhagen
Re articles by Albert Jacquet the following may be of interest. In the issue of April, 1922, those built for the C. de F. du Midi are described on p. 104, and a diagram given p. 105. There is at least one of these locomotives still at work, or at any rate she was on 17 September 1926. This is No. 334, a 0-6-4 engaged on shunting work at Montauban, on the Bordeaux-Toulouse main line.

Further notes on the early locomotives of the L.B. & S.C. Ry. Fredk. Wm. Holliday. diagram
Re Mr. Bennett's "Further Notes on the Early Locomotives of the L.B. & S.C. Ry." (May 15, 1926, issue of THE LOCOMOTIVE). I well remember the L.B.S.C. tank engine No. 25. I came in contact with her every day, I think, in the year 1867. I enclose a rough sketch. She had a Sharp's moulded bright brass dome cover; a saddle tank with rounded corners; was a four-wheeled coupled engine; the coupling rods were square cottered, not bush rods; the weather board was curved over at the top. The motion was distinctly Mr. Craven's design, but the wheels appeared to me to much resemble "Bury's" design—they were cer-tainly not like any of Mr. Craven's—they always looked odd ones. I should say the coupled wheels were 5 ft. The boiler was pressed to 120 lb.

Further notes on the early locomotives of the L.B. & S.C. Ry. A.R Bennett
I have read with interest F.W. Holliday's recollections of old No. 25, but these must be ascribed to 1869 not 1867, as she was not rebuilt as a coupled engine till May in that year. The 5-ft. coupled wheels would not improbably be those from a Bury engine, since the 5 ft. 6 in. Sharp Roberts' wheels which she had as a 2-2-2 would naturally not serve, and Craven would continue to use up suitable old stuff. Holliday's sketch is accurate except as regards the moulded brass dome cover; this was not of the Sharp design but had a round curved instead of a square base. Other engines with this form of dome were No. 51, 55, 60 and 145. The curved base was invariably painted red by Craven, the top part of the dome being polished bright. The illustration of No. 25 in THE LOCOMOTIVE of October, 1909, is from a sketch I made in 1865. These. domes had belonged originally to some of the Gray-Hackworth engines, part of which had two small square-based domes, like Nos. 53, 56, 58, and part one of these larger curved-based domes on the boiler barrel and a safety-valve pillar on the firebox. No. 25 tank, in its original state, was one of the four outside-cylinder engines (all tanks) designed and built by Craven. These were the 2-2-2 No. 4 (rebuilt as a 2-4-0); the 2-2-2 No. 25 (rebuilt as a 0-4-2); the 4-4-0 No. 144 (rebuilt as a 2-4-0, and the 4-4-0 No. 136 which was never rebuilt.
It would be interesting to learn from Holliday where No. 25 was working when he knew her so well in 1869. As a single tank she worked the Littlehampton branch but as a coupled engine may have 'been assigned other duties. Her career must have extended well into Stroudley's time can Holliday say when she was scrapped? I take this opportunity to correct a mistake which crept into Aylwin's recollections. The statement that the Crystal Palace Company purchased an engine and train and ran a railway service from Norwood Junction was questioned by A.C.W. Lowe, who opined that it was really the West of London and Crystal Palace Railway Company, which had to do with the early stages of Victoria Station. This company's lines were worked by the L.B. and S.C. Ry., but it is on record that they did purchase an engine and coaches in May, 1858, with which a service to the Crystal Palace was inaugurated. On putting this to Aylwin, he agreed to its correctness. Lowe also doubted whether the engine purchased was a Sharp, but on this point Aylwin is quite firm. That being so, Lowe considers that No. 42, built in 1841, was in all probability the engine

Three-cylinder locomotives. William T. Hoecker
In reply to E. Joslin's letter in your September issue, the writer wishes to point out that his criticism of the 2-6-4 tank engine No. A890 of the Southern Ry. was confined entirely to the type of valve gear employed for the central cylinder. I am quite familiar with the clearance limitations on the Southern Ry., and feel thoroughly conversant with the theoretical and practical advantages of multi-cylinder engines, but until confronted with indisputable evidence to the contrary, from indicator cards taken in actual running, I cannot admit that any com-bination valve gear will give a satisfactory steam distribu-tion in the central cylinder of a three-cylinder locomotive at all percentages of cut-off, regardless of the "refinements" which the gear may possess. The adoption of a shorter stroke for the inside cylinder will certainly tend to equalise the horse-power developed in the various cylinders at short cut-offs with a combination gear, but this does not eliminate the valve gear defect. In regard to the L.N.E.R. locomotives, Joslin may be interested in the statement of Sir Vincent Raven, to the effect that "he used the three sets of valve gear, and if he went back to rail work to-day he would do the same again." If the Gresley gear is entirely satisfactory, why is it not used on any of the engines sent out from England to the Argentine? And why has the Baldwin Works used Borsig's arrangement of three separate gears on the largest 4-8-2 locomotives yet constructed, which were recently delivered to the Denver and Rio Grande Western Ry.? The fact that there are 74 three-cylinder locomotives of the 4-10-2 and 4-12-2 types in service, or on order for the Southern Pacific and Union Pacific Rys., is no secret. Three cylinders were used on these engines for the simple reason that it was impossible to develop the necessary power with two cylinders within the prescribed clearance and axle-load limitations. The writer hopes that he will not be accused of prejudice against the three-cylinder locomotive, but he believes that if the required power is within the capacity of a properly designed two-cylinder engine, that type of machine will prove more satisfactory and economical, when all factors are considered. Several American railways, in addition to the New York Central, have experimented with three-cylinder locomotives in comparison with two-cylinder engines of equal capacity, but have reverted to the latter type in their most recent orders. The Missouri Pacific, Louisville and Nashville, and Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific may be mentioned in the above connection, and I know of at least one very large American system that would not accept any type of multi-cylinder locomotive as a gift.
The new 4-8-2 locomotives of the New York Central are equipped with the Baker valve gear, giving a maximum cut-off of 82 to 84 per cent. in full gear.. In view of the speeds at which these engines will run, it was not deemed advisable to adopt the "limited cut-off" arrangement. While there are others far better qualified to answer Mr. Joslin's question regarding the "Mountain" type engines of the Northern Ry. of Spain, I may be permitted to say that the primary object in designing these locomotives was to obtain maximum power with minimum weight. The perfeirmarice of the De Glehn compounds in this regard is too well known to require elaboration. If there are any two or three-cylinder simple locomotives in existence, capable of indicating one horse-power for each 87i lb. of total engine weight, the engineering world is still waiting to hear of them.

L.B. & S.C. R. history. William E. Briggs.
Response to: letter from F.W. Holliday on page 33 of Volume 33: and fpom Malcolm Niven A.R. Bennett's contribution to the above subject by the publication of his interviews with G. Aylwin. The locomotives of the L.B. & S.C.R. seem always to have enjoyed a goodly measure of popularity, and there are one or two points of interest connected therewith which to my knowledge have never appeared in print, and so I pass them on in case they are of interest to other readers. The first locomotive to be built at the Brighton works was a 2-2-2 tank engine, numbered 14 and turned out in May, 1852. The last locomotive to be built at the same establishment, under exclusive L.B. and S.C.R. ownership, was the 4-6-4T No. 333 Remembrance so that both first and last were tank engines having a symmetrical wheelbase in each case. But what a wonderful chapter of locomotive development lies betwixt the two, and I have often thought how instructive and interesting it would be to build models of each of above named engines in order to realize more fully the extent of such development, and would like to ask if Bennett, or any other reader, could supply a sketch showing a front elevation of the old 2-2-2 tank of 1852. The illustration on page 59 of your book on "Brighton Loco. History" clearly sets forth the broadside appearance of this engine and would serve a model-maker's purpose very well, but of course a front view is also indispensable for modelling purposes. I should be very grateful if any reader could help in this matter. Another point of interest to students of Brighton locomotive design is that Mr. Stroudley's standard express type was the 0-4-2 type, while his successor R.J. Billinton, adopted the 4-4-0 type as his standard, but Mr. Marsh combined the two in his 4-4-2 or Atlantic type. In Mr. Bennett's articles I had hoped to have seen some reference to the old rebuilt Craven engine Sussex, a noted 2-2-2 in her day, also famous on account of the type of Joy's gear with which she was fitted towards the close of her career.

The late Mr. E. L. Ahrons. M.M. Niven
It is very sad and pathetic to read the "History of the Great Western Locomotives," and to know that the writer of them will never again entertain any of us to share his recollections. In more than one technical paper have I read his historical papers, and can say that although I never knew him in the flesh I had great intimacy with him through correspondence, and I for one feel I have lost a great friend. The late Mr. Ahrons had a style in dealing with engines that never became dry or uninteresting, and humour came into his descriptions from the most unexpected situations. For example, he tells us that the cylinders of an engine placed high on the smoke box were "ensconsed like cats up a tree," and the connecting rods " were like a clothes prop."
In another time he once wrote to me and asked if a certain engine which had a feed heating apparatus on the top of the boiler "still carried the distillery." This engine had just the appearance Mr. Ahrons suggested, for it. looked as if a small vacuum pan like those used on a sugar estate was fitted above the boiler. Many situations claimed humorous allusions, and like Dickens Mr. Ahrons' description of engine drivers, fitters and foremen, made them all seem to become real living creatures, not only to him but to those who read his works. He must have had a good memory, for he described his engines so that even photos or drawings were superfluous.
We can say with the poet :—
"A tale like Waverley we yet may scan,
But shall we read a lay like Marmion."
We certainly owe Mr. Ahrons a great debt ; on whom shall his mantle descend?

Trade notes and catalogues. 374

London & North Eastern Ry.
Novel booklet of illustrations which have to be viewed through the red and green spectacles tucked in the cover: the pictures then present a pleasing stereoscopic effect. Edinburgh, Harrogate and Scarborough are among the views, and the. illustrations of the dining and sleeping cars represent the efforts made by the L. & N.E. Ry. to ensure the comfort of its passengers.

No. 412 (15 December 1926)

"Mikado" type engines for the Sudan Government Railways. 375. illustration
Robert Stephenson 2-8-2 for 3ft 6in gauge to dseign of C.G. Hodgson, Advisory Engineer to Sudan Government.

L. & N.E. Ry. — Great North of Scotland Section. 375.
Great Eastern Section 1500 class (B12) sent north to test capacity of four span bridge across River Spey at Craigellachie for deflection. Rumour that some of class to be transferred north.

Palestine Railways. Re-building and conversion of 4-6-0 Baldwin tender engines to 4-6-2 tank engines. 376-7. 3 illustrations
Work performed at Sir W.G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co, Ltd. at Scotswood Works, Newcastle.

The "Imperial Mail" train. G.I.P. and E.I. Rys. 377
Started 5 November 1926 from Ballard Pier, Bombay to Calcutta

Recent non-standard German locomotives. 378-9. illustration, diagram (side elevation and plan)
2-8-2 four-cylinder compound with Krauss-Helmholtz bogie built by Richard Hartmann of Chemmnitz in 1918

The Leeds, Bradford & Halifax Junction Railway and its engines. 390-3. illustration, 2 diagrams (side elevations)
Leeds Central station came into being in 1849 to serve the LNWR, L&YR, Leeds & Thirsk and Great Northern Railways. The Leeds, Bradford & Halifax Junction Railway was worked by the GNR, but in 1858 it decided to worh the Gildsersome branch with its own locomotives. There were two small batches of Kitson & Hewitson tank engines: three 2-4-0 tank engines: Nos. 1-3 (WN 790-1 of 1859). These had side tanks. Two furthrt 0-6-0 tank engines became Nos. 4-5 (WN 794-5/1859) snd are described as pannier tanks. No. 6 was a tender 0-6-0 supllied by Hudswell & Clarke (WN 14/1863). They were all absorbed into the GNR stock in 1863.  See also erratum in Volume 33 p. 32

Technical essays. VII—Works lay-out. 393-4. diagram
The accompanying figure shows diagrammatically a hypothetical lay-out of locomotive shops which, it is suggested, would give a relatively short path for all components, irrespective of whether they comprise new or repair work. It will be seen that the machine shop is divided into bays dealing with heavy work (cylinders), wheels and axles, medium work (e.g., connecting and side rods, axleboxes, eccentrics, piston heads and rods, crossheads, valves and buckles, etc.), small work (including plain turning of brake and motion pins and similar details, and also a battery of automatic machines), and "brass" (using the term in a generic sense to include bronze, gun metal and all non-ferrous metals respectively). Annexes are provided for grinding, toolmakers (including plant for the heat treatment of steel), whitemetallers and millwrights. Incidentally, in equipping the shop, the proportion of grinding and milling machines may be increased with advantage, replacing to a certain extent shapers, planing and slotting machines. All components pass direct from the fitters to the erecting shop, the frames and subsequently the boiler being delivered from the boiler shop. Boiler mountings (stays are not here included in this term) proceed direct from the machine shop to the boiler testing annexe, where they are mounted; having passed the hydraulic and steam tests, the completed boiler is then lagged and goes to the erecting shop. Tender wheels, axles and boxes are sent direct from the machine shop to the tender section of the boiler shop. There the tender is completed, the frames having been marked off, cut out and drilled in an adjacent part of the boiler shop, and the finished unit is then coupled to its engine in the paint shop.
It is most important that the erection of the motion and all undergear should be completed before the boiler is placed on the frames. This facilitates the work of the erector. Further, the boiler should be delivered as a complete unit before erection, so that, having been bolted down and secured in the expansion brackets, only the erection of the ashpan and making of pipe joints remains to be done in the erecting shop.
Turning now to repair work, we would suggest that for the purposes of stripping, the engine be assumed to consist of two units only, viz., boiler and undercarriage. On receipt of the engine from the running department, the boiler is immediately taken out of the frames bodily, and subjected to a protracted steaming with dilute hydrochloric acid. At the same time the frames, cylinders, motion, wheels, etc., are" boshed " piecemeal in a large tank. After this it is possible to make an accurate examination and to estimate fairly closely the extent of the repairs required. The tubes, stays and mountings are removed from the boiler, and also, if necessary, the firebox, and the shell goes direct to the boiler shop. The rest of the engine is stripped and all details, together with the boiler mountings, sent to the fitters, the only exceptions being the springs, which are dealt with in a special section of the smithy, and the cylinders and frames, which proceed to the erecting shop, or if not acceptable there, to the yard temporarily. After re-conditioning, the motion, incidentally, is " tried out" by the fitters on a skeleton frame before being passed on to the erectors. It will be noticed that the erecting shop building includes a finished details stores. This should be stocked with completed details, e.g., piston heads and rods, axleboxes and crossheads, etc., ready for im- mediate use, and so reduce both the time spent in shops by the individual engine, and delay in satis- fying outstation requirements. The same stores may also be conveniently used for pumps, lubricators and other proprietary articles purchased as complete units.
Transport of details between shops can be greatly accelerated by the provision of runways and conveyors, which may of course also be employed in the shops themselves in preference to the more usual runners with their limited range of action. These appliances- should be considered as auxiliary to the travelling cranes, which are essential for the heaviest lifting in the foundry, machine, boiler and erecting shops, and in the lay-out here suggested they would also be necessary in the stripping shop. The more general appointment of engineers as progress men in the shops, who would investigate and analyse delays, and prevent their recurrence, would undoubtedly expedite the manufacture and repair of locomotives in railway works. Under present conditions, the percentage of its life spent either awaiting or undergoing repairs is exorbitant for the average engine, and represents a large sum on the capital involved.

[Southern Ry. of the United States]. 394
The Pacific type engines of the US Southern Ry. used for express work on the main line between Atlanta and Washington, and for hauling the famous Crescent Limited and Queen and Crescent Limited fast trains were decorated in an attractive colour scheme. The tenders, cabs, chimneys, and other projections above the boiler,' as well as the wheels, were painted green, while the whole of the lettering and striping was carried out in gold leaf. The cylinder covers, brass fittings, coupling and connecting rods were highly polished, adding to the smart appearance of the locomotives. In adopting this bright colour scheme the Southern Ry, had reverted to a practice followed in the early days of American railways, when all locomotives were elaborately decorated. It is said the drivers of the Southern line take a personal pride in keeping their engines clean, even on freight service. The engines allocated for working the Crescent Limited had their tenders lettered with the name of the train in gilt, with gold crescents on the sides of the cabs and cylinder covers and on the front number plates.

Southern Ry.—Isle of Wight Section. 394
The line between St. John's Road, Ryde and Smallbrooke Junction had been doubled, and the section between Brading and Sandown was to be doubled and the work completed by next summer[1927]. The allocation of the locomotive stock on the island was as follows :-Nos. 1 to 12 were former Freshwater, Yarmouth and Newport Ry., and IW. Central Ry. engines Nos. 13 Ryde, 14 Shanklin, 16 Wroxall, and 18 Bonchurch. were ex-Isle of Wight Ry. locomotives, whilst Nos. 19 to 29 were 0-4-4 Adams' side tanks off the L. & S.W. section.

The locomotive history of the Great Indian Peninsula Ry. 395-8. 5 illustrations, diagram (side elevation & plan)
Previous part see page 365. Difficulties with inferior quality of Indian coal; limited imports of coal and fuel oil, problem of timber being attacked by insects, use of old rails for structural work, heavy rainfall especially on the Ghats inclines, much of the passenger rolling stock very primitive without adequate bracing. Uniform colour scheme to indicate class: first class white. Lists the following as being in charge of locomotives on the GIPR: S. Glover from February 1866 to December 1867; then W. Charlton until May 1869 and Hawkins fom thence [another source notes that Sarjant in charge from 1901 until 1915].

New South Wales Government Rys. 398
The report of the Railway Commissioners shows a loss on the railways of £830,671 for the year closed 30 June, 1926, compared with a profit of £32,937 for the previous year. This deficit on the railways coincides with the coming into power of a Labour Government and the reduction of working hours from 48 to 44 per week and no reduction in pay, although possibly a dry spell in the country was a contributory cause.
Two new platforms have been brought into use at the Central Station, Sydney. These are for use by electric trains and will later be used in conjunction with the City railway. Electric trains have commenced to run on the Bankstown line. This line serves a suburban residential district and is nearly 12 miles long.

Goods engine, East Kent Railway. 398. illustration
Beattie Ilfracombe Goods 0-6-0 No. 3

Pure iron for rolling stock requirements. 309-402
Armco ingot iron

Bullock v. locomotive. 402. 2 illustrations.
John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd 0-6-0 hit a bullock on the Balinda, North Coast Line in Queensland when hauling a load of timber to the Balinda Central Mill.

Cleaning rolling stock. 402-3
Perfectol supplied by Henry W. Peabody & Co.

Goods locomotives for the Eastern Bengal Ry. 403
See pages 274-5: details of heating surfaces, including grate area (25.3 ft2) and superheat, also weight available for adhesion

Inness, R.H. (unattributed): Locomotive history of the Stockton & Darlington Railway, 1825-1876. 403-4.
No. 63 Birkbeck: drawing (s. el.), Bouch 0-6-0; diagram of Hackworth plug wheel Next Part Volume 33 page 122

Bilbao River and Cantabrian Ry. 405-6. 3 illustrations
Narrow gauge railway (3ft 9in) built to convey iron ore to port for export.

Bogie petrol tank wagon, Assam-Bengal Ry. 407. illustration
Built by Hurst, Nelson & Co. Ltd of Motherwell. Noteworthy for its corrugated iron hood to protect it from heat and for being catalogued by KPJ in his youth

Correspondence. 407

Three-cylinder locomotives. Diamond.
Two letters have recently appeared in your columns from which it would appear that W. T. Hcecker (response p. 65 Vol. 33) does not approve of combination valve gears for the inside cylinder of three-cylinder locomotives. Since Hoecker.writes from Texas it is probable he has had little opportunity of observing the work of the various classes of three-cylinder engines on the L.N.E.R. fitted with the Gresley gear. To those who are acquainted with the running of these locomotives under all conditions of load and at revolutions per minute equal to any obtained in normal practice no doubts as to their thorough success remain, but the letters referred to do not give a complete picture of the use of the Gresley gear elsewhere. It should therefore be mentioned that the largest non-articulated locomotive in thc world, the three-cylinder 4-12-2 built for the Union Pacific R.R. by the American Locomotive Co., employs. the Gresley gear, and Its builders' advertisements in the technical press are now especially devoted to the three-cylinder engine.
Although Hcecker professes to distrust refinements in gear design and construction, it is generally held that the successful service of valve gears having numerous pin joints is largely dependent upon elimination of wear at the joints and the lightening of all moving masses to the greatest possible extent. In this direction the Great Northern designs would seem to be in advance of general practice, this applying to all motion parts, though it is gratifying to observe apparently similar care has been devoted to the motion of the Southern Ry's Lord Nelson class.
Besides a general antipathy Hoecker mentions only one definite point against the Gresley gear, which he states gives rise at high speeds to the inside cylinder doing above its fair share of the work. No proof is adduced for this statement, but were it true it is surely difficult to devise a more desirable form of varied loading at high revolutions.
To refer for a moment to a different subject, the note on foreign coal on page 364 of your current issue, the adequate boiler and grate dimensions of their locomotives, including especially the three-cylinder classes, appears to have enabled the G.N. section engines of the L.N.E.R. to keep time with all loads to a degree which, as far as my not inconsiderable travel- ling experience goes, has been unique during the past six months, when the fuel has frequently consisted of an incombustible looking slack.

The last of the N.E.R. two-cylinder compounds. R.E. Bleasdale.
The historic "Aerolite".
Re N.E.R. compound Aerolite article by F.W. Brewer it may be noticed that the early 2-2-2 engine, as constructed by Kitson, Thompson and Hewitson, was of the type first developed in 1846 by John Gray, on the Hull & Selby and Brighton railways, and brought into prominence in 1847 by the well-known firm of E.B. Wilson and Co., whose famous Jenny Linds competed with Sharp Bros.' singles for a number of years. The Jenny Linds differed from Aerolite, however, in having their cylinders inside. Although a small engine, Aerolite must have been an attractive exhibit at the 1851 Exhibition; resplendent in a brilliant blue uniform, it vied for popularity with the Lord of the Isles, Cornwall, Folkestone, Little England, The Hawthorn, and Ariel's Girdle.
Of these famous locomotives the only other survivor is the metamorphosed Cornwall, which does similar duty on the L.M. & S. Ry. as the L. & N.E. Ry. Aerolite. In regard to the Worsdell-von-Borries system of compounding, the writer is given to understand that the H.P. and L.P. cylinders were cast together and placed between the frames at different angles, so that the smaller H.P. cylinder overlapped the other. By means of Joy radial valve motion, high pressure steam was admitted to the smaller cylinder, after which it was conveyed by a receiver pipe provided with a flap valve and at a lower pressure to the larger one. In starting 'the engine, the driver could by the action of a hand operated valve, admit steam simultaneously to both cylinders. See also letter drom F. Brewer in Volume 33 p. 202.

Modern locomotive superheating. J.S. Gillespie. 407
See also F.W. Brewer in Volume 33 page 33..
In his interesting article in your issue of 1 ovember 15th on the" Introduction of Modern Locomotive Superheating in Great Britain," I notice that Mr. F. W. Brewer states that the G.W.R. Co. must be regarded as the actual pioneers of latter-day locomotive superheating in this country, the L. & Y. Ry. coming next, and he refers to both experiments as taking place in 1906. It may be of interest to point out that on page 80 of Charles S. Lake's The World's Locomotives, published in 1905, is given a diagram and description of a superheater fitted to one of J. F. Aspinall's inside cylinder Atlantic locomotives of the 1400 class. It would appear, therefore, that the L. & Y. Ry. were the first in the field as regards modern locomotive superheating in Great Britain.

Reviews. 408

The railways of Great Britain, Lord Monkswell. London: Geoffrey Bles
A large part of the contents of this book were embodied in the first edition published in 1913, but so many changes affectmg British Railways have taken place since then, that it has had to be very much revised and largely re-written, and with new matter added.
It presents a general study of most of the leading departments of railway activity in this country, suitable for the lay reader. Although the author gives credit for the high efficiency of our railway organisation, he severely criticises some features of the administration, especially the tendency to allow political considerations to influence matters that are essentially economic, and the extremely slow progress made in some directions. It is certainly deplorable how some questions have been treated by the railway administrations. Railway officers, individually, are as progressive as other people, but the elaborate officialdom that controls the administration effectually throttles all attempts at initiative. As instances in which requirements have been held up, he mentions the unwillingness to adopt block signals and continuous brakes, the use of superheated steam, the need for acceleration of express trains and making up lost time, improved rail joints, and the introduction of third-class sleeping carriages.
In addition to the many interesting illustrations, there are four gradient profiles of the main lines between Victoria and Brighton, Paddington and Plymouth, via Westbury, Marylebone and Manchester, and Carlisle and Glasgow, via Beattock.

The world's railways. G.G. Jackson, Raphael Tuck & Sons, Ltd.
An entertaining book for boys, the greater part is devoted to the story of the steam locomotive and its work. The author writes in an agreeable style, and although probably most of the information is gathered from other writers, he tells his narrative well, and the younger generation will find it neither tedious or dull. Several of the old yarns about early railway days are of course included. The illustrations include six coloured plates and another six printed in two colours only. The primary colour chosen for the latter is a bright amber, and the result in the case of one of Stirling's" eight-footers " is theStroudley livery and somewhat vivid. The colour of the G.I.P.R. express engine at the head of the Viceregal tram is much too bright, whilst the permanent way should be supported by chairs or pot-sleepers, and not spiked to the sleepers as shown. There are also a number of striking pen and ink sketches of engines and trains. It will make a capital gift-book for boys.

Railway Club. 408
At the new headquarters of the club, 25 Tothill Street, Wesrrninster, on 13 December, a paper was read by W.H.R. Dawson on the "Underground Railways." The premises of the Railway Club are now very conveniently located within one minute's walk of St. James' Park station, and onlv a few doors from Victoria Street. The excellent library of railway books is always accessible to members, and current railway literature available for reference in the reading room. Full particulars as to membership wiIl he furnished on application to the Hon. Secretary,

Railway carriage fittings.
Laycock Engineering Co. Ltd., of Victoria Works, Millhouscs, Sheffield, new general catalogue of specialities for rolling stock and steamships. It illustrates and describes the Laycoek vapour system of steam heating for railway carriages, the Laycock-Buckeye automatic coupler, spring window blind!', window lifts, torpedo ventilators, etc. Half-tone reproductions are given of a variety of railway seats, also net rod brackets, parcel racks movable arm-rests, destination indicators, etc.

New signalling on the Southern Ry. 408
A nicely prepared and well illustrated booklet describing the Resignailing of the Southern Railway-Charing Cross to Cannon Street, has been published by the Westinghouse Brake and Saxby Signal Co. of York Road, King's Cross. The system of signalling adopted by the Southern Ry. is the"three block" or "four aspect .. system, using long range colour light signals, with the object of giving adequate braking distance to the main line trams without imposing undue speed restrictions on the electric suburban trains; and this is the first occasion on which the four aspect system of colour light signalling, as recommended by the Committee of the Institution of Railway Signal Engineers, has been employed. The diagrammatic plan of the area which has been resignalled which accompanies the booklet, shows the magnitude of the work involved. Besides the building of new signal cabins at Charing Cross and Cannon Street, and the conversion of two others at Borough Market and Metropolitan Junction to electro-mechanical operation, the new signalling system called for the demolition of the large cabin on Cannon Street railway bridge, the closing of three cabins at Belvedere Road, Waterloo East and Union Street, and as the daylight colour light system has been selected—the removal of all semaphore signals in the area.

Horseley Bridge and Engineering Co. Ltd., of Tipton, Staffs. 408
Interesting illustrated brochure entitled A Century of Progress, In this historical account of the firm's activities in general engineering and bridge-building in particular, it is noted that: " In 1837 we have a record that steam locomotives were con- structed at the works, and tested on temporary rails in neigh- bouring fields, to the natural excitement of the local populace, for it should be noted that the first railroad in the country-m fact, in the world, had only been laid seven short years before, in 1830. These engines were among the first used on the railway from Birmingham to Manchester and Liverpool. Un- fortunately the details of that achievement are lackmg; we can simply accept the item as it is-brief and isolated---:but how fascinating a story of those early achievements might have been left us had the men of those days only realised the lively part they were taking in the making of history! .. . It is to be regretted that so far we have been unable to obtain details of these engines, although their service on the Grand Junction Railway has been referred to at times.

Balata belting. 408
A very attractive and well-produced booklet of 64 pages has been issued by E. & J. Dick Ltd., of Greenhead , Glasgow, as a catalogue of their famous Balata belting and driving;; rope. Balata is a vegetable gum of a nature somewhat similar to gutta percha. It exudes as sap from trees Jound principally in the forests of Venezuela and the Guianas. The properties which distinguish it from other gums and make it specially valuable for belting are its great toughness and cornparati ve lack of elasticity. These characteristics in connection with a specially woven fabric ensure a very strong and practically stretchless belt. Also Balata belting will take no harm by being exposed to the weather, to water, or to steam. In addition to full particulars of prices, information is given on the important factors of conveyor practice, methods of splicing, fastening, etc., as well as useful rules for belting calculations.