Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 40 (1934)

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Number 497 (15 January 1934)

British steam locomotives of 1933. 1

New 0-6-2 tank locomotives, Great Southern Rys., (Ireland). 2. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Small class of suburban tank engines: 5ft 6in coupled wheels; 18 x 24in cylinders (8in piston valves); 18ft2 grate; heating surfaces: 662 tubes; 112 firebox and 112ft2 superheater, designed by Harty.

Three cylinder express locomotive, Southern Railway. 3 + coloured plate (supplement)

L.M.S. Ry. Northern Counties Committee. 3.
Greenisland loop to be opened by Duke of Abercorn

Pacific type locomotives, Tientsin-Pukow Ry, China. 3-4. 2 illustrations

200 h.p. diesel-electric rail coach working on the L.M.S.R. 5-8. 3 illustrations, table

Diesel locomotive, Clogher Valley Railway.  8. 2 illustrations
Basically small lorry adapted to run on rails

Drewry saloon railcar, Burma Railways. 9. illustration
Four wheel vehicle capable of carrying 12-15 passengers. 24/26 hp engine. Built to Rendel, Tritton & Palmer specification

Penmeanmawr & Welsh Granite Co's. locomotives. 10-13. 9 illustrations
The Trevor quarry was served by 1ft 11½in gauge lines (which are neither illustrated, nor described in detail) and 3ft and standard gauge at Penmaemawr. Therec were 17 locomotives in service at that time: 10 steam, 5 diesel and 2 petrol. The oldest were De Winton machines with vertical boilers and four wheels: these were Puffin of 1893; Lilian (1891); Louisa (1892); Penmaen (1878); Llanfair (1895; illustrated) and Watkin (1893). There were five Hunslet loomotives (outside cylinder 0-4-0STs): Hughie (illustrated); Stephen; Singapore; Tiger and Donald. For the standard gauge line at the summit there were two Avonside Engine Co. diesel mecanical not electric as stated locomotives named Attic and Kimberley: these are illustrated by a Works photograph, and photographs of receipt  of Attic via a Sentinel well road lorry and Kimberley at foot of incline and on a steep pitch: tthere was also a steam "spare" locomotive an ex-L&YR 0-4-0ST No. 43 LMS No. 11245 miodified with Tecalemit lubrication (photographed at beginning of ascent). See also erratum om page 37 concerning diesel locomotives and additional de Winton Harold of 1894.

Rebuilt "Pacific" locomotive Paris-Orleans Ry. 14-16. illustration, 2 diagrams including side elevation and sectional elevation of boiler
See letter from W. Lubsen on page 97 and from Wiliam T. Hoecker on p. 98

L.M.S.R.—N.C.C.. 16
One new 2-6-0, No. 90, had been named Duke of Abercorn in readiness for the opening of the Greenisland loop. The other three 2-6-0 were named The Bann, The Bush and The Foyle.

The late Mr. G. J. Churchward. 17.
It is with deep regret that we have to record the death of Mr. G. J. Churchward, C.B.E., the former chief mechanical engineer of the Great Western Railway, in his seventy-seventh year. On Tuesday, 19 Dec., he was knocked down and killed by the 08.55 express train from Paddington for Fishguard, in the fog, within a few yards of his home, Newburn, Swindon.
Churchward was a native of Stoke Gabriel, Devonshire, and started his railway career as a pupil to John Wright, locomotive superintendent of the South Devon Railway at the Newton Abbot shops. He came to Swindon upon the amalgamation of the S.D. Ry , with the Great Western in 1876. In 1882 he was appointed manager of the carriage works a post he held until 1895, when he was transferred to the locomotive works as assistant manager. Upon his appointment as chief mechanical engineer in succession to William Dean, in June 1902, he commenced his task of standardising the boilers, engine parts, and types for which the Great Western Railway has become famous. The first locomotive of the Pacific type to run on a British railway, the famous The Great Bear, was built to his designs in 1908. Although at that date this class of engine was not altogether suitable for the permanent way, it was the forerunner of the present type of Pacific locomotive which is giving satisfactory service on other lines. Churchward was one of the first British engineers to appreciate the advantages of the superheater, and brought into general use on his engines a very efficient apparatus. He also developed the long piston stroke and the narrow piston ring and introduced the top-feed for boilers, by which the difficulty of introducing water at the top of the boiler was overcome. It was at his suggestion that the Great 'Western Ry. in 1903-5 purchased three French four-cylinder compound engines, designed by  A. de Glehn similar to those running on the Northern Ry. of France, between Calais and Paris. These engines gave excellent results on the GWR. though Churchward decided in favour of four cylinders with simple expansion. In 1910 he arranged an exchange of express engines with the L. & N.W.R. which led to the latter designing the Claughton class of four-cylinder express locomotives. Even more important was the work he did in the lubrication of rolling stock. He developed the use of resilient pads in oil-boxes which has proved so efficient that it is almost universally used at the present time.
Although a strict disciplinarian, Churchward was always devoted to the interests of his men, and in 1907 introduced a scheme enabling apprentices to attend techmcal classes without loss of pay. In addition he persuaded the directors of the railway to sanction payment of the school fees by the company and permit those students who distinguished themselves to spend part of the last year of their apprenticeship in the drawing office and chemical laboratory. He was, as always anxious to give full scope and opportumty to those who aspired to greater knowledge and achievement.
The Churchward era at Swindon may truly be considered that of speed and fine performance, while his designs kept to the simplicity and neat- ness of outline distinctive of British locomotive practice.
Mr. Churchward retired in January 1922, and was succeeded by C.B: Collett..

[W.A. Lelean]. 17
Death on 27 December 1933 of W. A. Lelean, who had been for many years in charge of the Locomotive Department of Messrs. Rendel, Palmer & Tritton, consulting engineers to the Indian Government. Lelean served his apprenticeship in the G.W.R. shops at Swindon, when he secured a Whitworth exhibition. In 1896 he was appointed by Sir Alexander Rendel as inspector in charge of contracts at the various Glasgow locomotive works, and remained there for 12 years. For some time he carried out the inspection in Continental locomotive shops, and then became chief of the locomotive staff of Rendel & Robertson, afterwards Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. During the last few years, in collaboration with Devon, and the locomotive builders, Lelean has been responsible for the designs of the standard locomotives for the Indian Railways. He also took the greatest interest in the development of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers, of which he was for many years one of the vice-presidents, and acted as president for the past year.

[F.J. Davis]. 17
Death occurred after a short illness on 31 December 1933 in his 72nd year was a partner in the engineering firm of Taite & Carlton, Iddesleigh House, 'Westminster. Davis was well known to many railway men as his firm introduced pneumatic tools, the Holden system of oil fuel burning, the Worsdell von Borries compound locomotive, the Whitaker water indicator, etc.

Personal. 17
At the end of 1933 A.S. Bailey retired from his position as managing director of the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co. Ltd., and . Archibald J. Boyd, M.A., has been appointed as his successor. Boyd served as a pupil at the steel works of Carnmell, Laird & Co. Ltd. and became assistant manager of the company in London in 1913. He went on military service, but returned from France in 1916 to become assistant general manager of the new works which had been built by Cammell, Laird & Co. at Nottingham for the manufacture of shells and guns. He returned to London in 1919 as assistant manager, and became London manager in 1921, and a local director of Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd., in 1925. In the same year he was elected a director of the Midland Railway Carriage & Wagon Co., Ltd.; the Leeds Forge Co, Ltd. and the Newlay Wheel Co Ltd. control of which had been acquired by Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd. On 1 January 1929, when the railway carriage and wagon interests of Vickers Ltd. and Cammell, Laird & Co. Ltd. were amalgamated, the name of the company was altered to the Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon & Finance Co. Ltd. and Boyd became a director, with charge of the London office and the foreign sales of the company. Mr. F. J. Hills has been appointed London manager of the company. Mr. Hills was formerly with the Bristol Wagon and Carriage Works and on its absorption by the Leeds Forge Co. he entered the service of that company, subsequently joining the rolling stock department of the London office of Cammell, Laird & Co.
At the Birmingham works of the company J.W. Kidd will act as commercial and production manager, under the direction of Boyd.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulse. Valve gears. 18-20. diagram, 2 tables
Baker valve gear and conjugate valve gears
summarised, the advantages of independent motions for each cylinder, as opposed to conjugate gears in general, are:
(a). Each valve is accurately set individually, uniformity of the valve events for all cylinders being in most cases easily achieved.
(b). Setting of valves and correction of errors facilitated: the adjustment of one valve does not affect that of others.
(c). Effects of wear are not cumulative to the same degree and lost motion is less extensive.
(d). Components of each valve gear are comparatively light in weight.

The Royal Scot L.M.S.R. return from U.S. and Canadian Tour. 20
The Royal Scot train, after its tour through the United States and Canada, was on exhibition at No. 6 platform, Euston Station on Friday 15 December 1933 and on Saturday and Sunday following. The engine and eight coaches were open to free public inspection. In addition to the electric headlight and bell, which engine No. 6100 was to carry as a permanent feature, commemorative plates had been affixed to the engine and in each of the coaches forming the train. The inscription on the engine plate reads:- "This locomotive with the Royal Scot train was exhibited at the Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago, 1933, and made a tour of the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America. 'The engine and train covered 11,194 miles over the railroads of the North American Continent and was inspected by 3,021,601 people. W. Gilbertson, driver. J. Jackson, fireman. T. Blackett, fireman. W.C. Woods fitter.
The inscription on the smaller tablets fixed in the coaches read:-"This vehicle formed part of the Royal Scot train, which was exhibited at the Century of Progress Exposition, Chicago, 1933 and made a tour of the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America. The train covered 11,194 miles over the railroads of the North American Continent and was inspected by 3,021,601 people.
A ceremony of welcome was accorded to the Royal Scot and its train crew when it steamed into Euston at 12 o'clock on Friday 15 Dec. by a distinguished company including the Rt. Hon. Waiter Runciman, President of the Board of Trade; Sir Josiah Stamp, President of the L.M.S. Railway, the directors, and a large company. Four of the crew who made the journey with the train wore smart gold braided uniforms. C.O.D. Anderson, who was in charge on the technical side, and T.C. Byrom, who looked after the publicity and general arrangements, were also present. They were given a cordial welcome and Sir Josiah Stamp handed to each of the six a gold watch inscribed with the names of the chief cities visited on the tour, and the thanks and appreciation of the directors of the L.M.S.Ry. Following the successful exhibition at Euston, where in three days over 33,000 people inspected the train, the Royal Scot is to be on show at about fourteen of the principal English and Scottish centres on the L.M.S. Railway during the present month.

Southern  Railway. 20
Following closely on their decision to extend the electrically operated portion of their system from Chislchurst and Bickley to Sevenoaks, via Swanley and from Orpington to Sevenoaks via Chelsfield, it was announced at the beginning of December that it had been decided to extend the main line electrification scheme from Wivesfield Junction to Eastbourne and Hastings and from Haywards Heath to Horsted Keynes at a cost of £1,750,000. The extension is expected to be, completed early in 1935. New rolling stock required to include seventeen 6-car units, five 4-car units. and eighteen 3-car units with a number of Pullmans. Platform extensions will be necessary at London Bridgc, Lcwes and Eastbourne and alterations at Bexhill Central. Notice has been given of an application to Parliament for powers to build a loop line four miles long, from a junction with the main line near Folkestone to a junction with the same line 557 yards east of Abborscliff Tunnel. This is a deviation to avoid the possibility of the main line being obstructed by landslips as happened during WW1.

L.M.S. Railway. 20
Placing orders for 2,000 new freight wagons on renewal account. All will be of the 12-ton open type for conveying general merchandise. and will be filled with the continuous brake. Four hundred of the wagons will be built in the company's workshops, and thc remainder have been ordered in equal proportions from the following firms: Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. Metropolitan Cammcll Carriage, Wagon and Finance Co Ltd. Charles Roberts & Co. Ltd. Horbury Junction, and Hurst, Nelson & Co. Ltd., Glasgow. The new wagons will be fitted with underframes constructed of British steel.

L. & N.E.Ry. 20
The widened lines between Gidea Park and Shenfield, including the burrowing junction at the last mentioned place from thc main line to the Southend branch were brought into operation as from 1 January a result of this the local service to Shenlield and intermediate stations has been augmented and improved, and a number of accelerations have been made in the services to the Southend branch, and also the Colchester main line. Colour light signalling has been provided, and the stations at Harold Wood, Brerntwood and Shenfield had been rebuilt.

Electric locomotive design. VII. Driving bogie design. 21-2. illustration, 2 diagrams
Gloucester Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. articulated multiple units for the South Indian Railway (Robert White & Partners, consulting engineers). General Electric Co., Schenectady Co+Co design for Russian Railways electrified at 3000 V.

Vulcan Foundry. 22
Agreement with Frichs Locomotive Works of Aarhus, Denmark to use their design of diesel locomotives and railcars in the British Empire and British South American markets

Hartley Main Colliery. 22

Egyptian State Railways, excursion trains. 23. 3 illustrations
For the Cairo to Luxor service taking 12 hours coaches were being rebuilt with bunks, but still convertible for day use. The work was undertaken by W.D. Knight, chief mechanical engineer for Mahmoud Bey Shaker, general manager.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. 24-6
See separate page

[Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd.]. 26
In the last issue it was noted that Messrs. R. & W. Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. were building a 225 H.P. Beardmore-engined six-wheeled diesel-electric locomotive for the Air Ministry. This was not quite correct: the locomotive in question was a Diesel-geared locomotive [diesel mechanical].

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 26
Building an 80 h.p. eight-wheeled double-bogie diesel-mechanical locomotive for the 18 inch track of the Royal Arsenal Rys., Woolwich. For the Egyptlan Delta LIght Rys. they were constructing a 110 h.p. diesel-mechanical locomotive.

Mr. H.E. Allwood. 26
Works manager of the Nigerian Government Railways, appointed chief mechanical engineer SIerra Leone Government Railway, Cline Town, Sierra Leone, in succession to Mr. R. Malthus who had retired

Santa Fe type locomotives for the Turkish State Railways. 26-7. illustration, taable
Thirty locomotives were under construction at the works of Henschel & Sohn A.G., at Cassel, and the Friedrich Krupp A.G., of Essen, for the Turkish State Railways, five passenger 4-8-0 had been delivered by former and ten goods locomotives (2-10-2) had been delivered by latter firm. 2-10-2 illustrated.

A new light rail car. 27. illustration.
Micheline railcar with pneumatic tyres: Michelin Tyre Co.

Model Pacific locomotive. 28. illustration
3½in gauge built by J.W.G. Todd of Amsterdam

Great Western Railway. 28
New Castle class: No. 5023 Brecon Castle; No. 5024 Carew Castle; No. 5025 Chirk Castle; No. 5026 Criccieth Castle; No. 5027 Exeter Castle; No. 5028 Farleigh Castle; No. 5029 Nunney Castle; No. 5030 Shirburn Castle; No. 5031 Totnes Castle; No. 5032 Usk Castle.     

Feeder for stone and ore crushing. 28. illustration
Hadfield Ltd: conveyor  

London Midland & Scottish Railway. 28
1934 programmne: 232 locomotives; 159 boilers; 674 carriages; 5365 wagons; following orders with Vulcan Foundry and North British Locomotive Co. for 100 locomotives amd for 2000 wagons from British manufacturers. Since 1923 2500 new locomotives had been put into service and 4800 had been withdrawn. The number of types had been reduced from 393 to 204. The number of locomotives with superheaters had grown by over 2000.  

Longest through locomotive working in Great Britain. 29
New railway record established by the L.M,S, Railway with the introduction into regular service between London and Glasgow, and vice versa, of the new Pacific locomotives The Princess Royal and Princess Elizabeth, These engines were working daily on The Royal Scot express. Each engine makes one through trip every weekday from Euston to Glasgow or vice versa, and the distance of 401½ miles thus covered represents the longest through locomotive working in this country, if not in Europe, Changing of engines at Carlisle is avoided, and train loads up to 50U tons are worked over the summits of Shap and Beattock without assistance. The unpiloicd limit for the Royal Scot class of engine was 420 tons.

[Leigh-on-Sea]. 29
On Thursday, 4 January 1934, the Mayor of Southend on Sea formally opened the new LM.S, Station at Leigh-on-Sea.

Great Western Railway. 29
One hundred and three new locomotives were built at Swindon during 1933, comprising: 40 0-4-2 tanks, 48XX and 58XX classes; 13 2-6-2 tanks, 61XX class; 20 4-6-0 tender engines, 59XX class; 30 0-6-0 tanks, 97XX and 87XX classes. All except the 58XX class were fitted with autoruatic train control apparatus. Among ,the 93 locomotivcs condemned last year, were several 4-6-0 type, Stars and Saints; the last of the 4-4-0 Counties i.e. County of Somerset, and sornc of the 4-4-2 County tanks, It had been decided to equip the principal high-speed passenger engines with speedometers. As a cornmencement one hundred engines wer« to be fitted.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 29
At a meeting held on 21 December, at the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, the papcr on Steam Motive Power Operation, with special reference to enginc loading, was contributed by T.H. Shields. The subsequent discussion was participated in by Major C.E. Williams, O.B.E., who was in the chair, and Messrs. H, Chambers (L.M.S.R.), E.C. Poultney, Cyril Williams and H. Holcroft (S.Ry.).
The following elections, as recommended by the Council, were approved:-Membcrs: F.H. Hough (workd manager, L.C. & W. Shops, Nizarns Guaranteed State Ry, Lallaguda, Dcccan}, A. Lawrence and I. Midderigh (resident engineering inspectors in Glasgow for the Crown Agents for the Colonies), J. Cook (divisional loco. supt., F.C, Central, Cordoba, Rosario de Santa Fe, Argentine Republic), Associate Members:-.A.J. Benedetti (assistant to local works manager, Los Talleres, F.C. Sud (Seccion B. B. N.O.), Bahia Blanca, Argentine Republic), R.W. Kennaway (assistant: engineer, Diesel Traction Dept., Sir W. G, Armstrong-Whitworth & Co. Ltd. Scotswood Works, Newcastle on Tyne), R.I. Spencer (loco. mechanical inspector, LM.S.R Derby). Associates:- A. Bissett (manager in Scotland for C. C. Wakefield & Co., Glasgow), K. Fraser (managing director, The Yorkshire Copper Works, Ltd., Leeds), A.J.R. Walker(director and general manager, United Water Softeners, Ltd., London)

The Railway Club
The 27th annual dinner was held on Friday, 15 December 1933, at the Broad Street Station Restaurant. The president was in the chair supported by Lord Monkswell and W.A. Willox (vice-presiderts) and C J. Allen (past president), The function was very well attended and an enjoyabln evening was spent by the members and their guests. It a meeting held at 57 Fetter Lane. E,C., on 12 January a paper entitled Why the L.& N.W.R. was the the Premier Line was given by J,D. Goffey.

Stephenson |Locomotive Society. 29
The 24th annual meeting was held at headquarters, King's Cross. on 9 December S.H, Beaver was appointed headquarters (London) secretary; : J.H. Seaford retaining office as honorary general socrctnry. All the other officers, including tlu provincial branch secretaries , who were present, were re-elected. The vacant seat on the council was filled by the election of J. Sturt. Further lecture arrangements were announced for the remainder of the winter sessions in London, Manchester, Edinburgh and Glasgow. The president, J.N. Maskelyne took: thc chair at the annual dinner which was held later in the day at thc Midland Grand Hotel, St. Pancras, when the attendance was a record and an enjoyable evening spent. The Society is  willing to supply speakers or lantern-lecturers for boys' schools, young mens clubs or the like, upon railway and locornotivc subjects,

Hobbies and Models Exhibition. 29
The Third Annual Hobbies and Models Exhibition will be held in the City Hall, Deansgate, Manchester, from Monday, 15 January to Saturday, 27 January, inclusive. It will be opened by Commodore Sir Bertram F. Hayes, of the White Star Line, Readers who visit this exhibition will be assured of a very pleasant and interesting hour or two, inspectin the large display of models of all kinds, covering aviation, building, engineering, railways, road transport, shipping, yachting, etc. Features of special interest include the Largest Working Model Railway in the world, the Living Picture Zoo (a splendid collection of rare animals and birds staged in a novel setting), displays  of working models by Model Clubs, engineering firrns. and private individuals; a fine collection of foreign and colonial stamps, a home cine theatre, demonstrations of night photography, model aircraft in flight, and a host of other attractive exhibits.

Correspondence. 29-30

Steam locomotive design. J.C. Cosgrave
In the paragraph headed "Eccentric Rod " which appeared in the last instalment of Phillipson's articles on locomotive design Design, the author states that the length of the radius rod should not exceed that of the eccentric rod. While it is certainly correct that the length of the eccentric rod should not be unduly shortened in favour of the radius rod. it would be interesting to know of any special reason why the limiting proportion suggested by Phillipson should be rigidly adhered to: the writer of this letter is acquainted with several examples of apparently excellent layouts of Walschaerts' gear in which the radius rod is considerably longer than that of the eccentric rod. Response from Phillipson pp. 97-8

Invention of the link motion. E.A. Forward
Re F.W. Brewer article in the December issue on the Invention of the Link Motion. If the sketch of the original Williams link gear as reproduced by Colburn, but tirst published in 1846, is correct, then, as pointed out by J.G.H. Warren, it would appear that the Williams form was really the forerunner of the Gooch gear, while Howe convericd it into the shifting- link gear as adopted by Stephenson and Co. Howe's original wooden model, of 1842, still exists in the Science Museum.
Regarding the Forrestcr locomotive Swiftsure on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, it is now known that this engine had the Carmichael gear with one fixed eccentric and a double-gab eccentric rod, for it was seen on the L, & M. Ry. in 1834 by Mmrc Sequin, and its gear roughly sketched by him. It would appear, however, by Alexander Allan's evidence, that the later Forrester engines for the Dublin and Kingstown Railway had a four fixed eccentric gear.

Steam locomotive design. C.R. Caton. 30
Re article on Valve Characteristics and Events in the August Issue, where the different methods of locomotive workng were discussed mainly Irorn a theoretical point of view, two references to this subject have appeared in the Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers whicn may be or interest to your readers. They are as follows:-
Problems of Railways Mechanics, by Professor G. V. Lomonossoff, Vol. 120, page 650. Year 1931.
...but also establish programmes of action for locomotive drivers, who have a very strong prejudice against these programmes and instructions, and are usually quite right in their mistrust of theories. In accordance with Rankin's theory of the steam engine, ignoring the wire drawing of steam and the phenomenon of internal condensation in the cylinder, engine drivers were for seventy years instructed to have the throttle always fully opened, whrle at the same time their practice showed them that specially for saturated steam, this is often impossible and always unprotitable. The experiments made by the author on the Russian railways 1898-1924) and the above mentioned calculations conflrmed this entirely. Even for superheated steam cut-offs of less than 20 per cent. are not advisable."
"Some Factors affecting the Riding of Coaching Stock," by A. J. W. Dymond , Vol. 121, page 468. Year 1931
Longitudinal vibration of a coach is not a frequent cause of trouble. It may occasionally be due to soft butter springs but is more often caused by factors quite outside the vehicle itself. Slack couplings may cause it, or the type or locomotive which is hauling the train, or more particularly the way the engine is being driven. Two-cylinder engines in particular will cause longitudinal oscillations at high speeds when run in early cut-offs despite the relatively large proportion of reciprocating masses balanced. This trouble is practically eliminated if the locomotive is run at later cut-off at a partial regulator opening. Four-cylinder engines of the Great Western Railway, with their well known superior balance give no trouble in this respect."
While early cut-off working, under conditions approaching the ideal, is most economical, yet actually the most economical working in regard to fuel consumption and repairs varies with different classes of locornorivcs, and with some, early cur-off working is impossible. The most economical methods of working depends upon the type and design of valve gear, travel and lap of the valves, and the port area in relation to cylinder volume. The tables XLIV and XLV, page 250 of the August volume of the LOCOMOTIVE apparently give the valve settings of the two types of G.W. Ry. locornotives referred to by Mr. Dyrnond. They both have long lap valves and steam ports of ample area, yet the Walschaerts gear engine can be worked at a higher cut-off than the Stephenson. It has been the writer's experience that generally engines (including two-cylinder engines) fitted with the former gear can be notched up higher: than those fitted with the latter gear, although this is not always the case as the earlier Drurnmond saturated slide valve, Stephenson link motion engines of the L.S.W. Ry. were very successfully worked half a notch from mid-gear. Again, the writer has come into contact with engines or recent design, with long travel valves, etc., but owing to limited port area have to be worked with partial regulator opening and late cur-off. When worked by regular and capable drivers these engines are economical and light in fuel, but when worked by drivers "other than the best, " are pooled, or forced, longitudinal oscillations are set up resulting in driving box and big end trouble and heavy repairs generally.

Mechanical World Year Book 1934.-London: Ernmott &: Co. Ltd.,
The 1934 edition of this useful and handy work of reference contains the usual' large fund of data and information, which has been revised and brought up-to-date. It contains a comprehensive section on metals and alloys and metallurgi- cal muu.er s that concern engineers, and this is illustrated by plloto-microphotographs and explar ator y sketches. A further new section deals with machine tools. As is well known the use of these has become a specialised business which requires carelul consideration of each problem from the fundamental principles of machine tool design and construction. This section provides data useful to machine tool users as well as makers. Another section is allocated to the manufacture ot pressed parts from sheet metals and deals with the pro- cesses comprehensively. To many factories where it is de- sired to instal a pressing plant as an auxiliary to the main processes, this section will be found invaluable.

Trade Notes and Publications.

Diesel-electric engines on the "Royal Scot". 30
Petter four-cylinder diesel generators coupled to G.EC. electric generators. were fitted in two 60ft long kitchen cars, one of which went with the Royal Scot train to North America

Number 498 (15 February 1934)

Operating economies. 31
Mainly through civil engineering: notes the cut offs on the Great Western Railway route to the West of England and the widening between Guidea Park and Shenfield on the Great Eastern main line and the Greenisland cut-off in Northern Ireland: both of the latter were covered in this Issue. See letter from WGT on p. 166

New 2-6-0 locomotives, L.M.&S. Railway. 32-3. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Stanier design: No. 13245 illustrated

New ten-coupled compound locomotives, Nortern Ry. of France. 33-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

[Erratum]. 37
Penmaenmawr Granite Co. diesel locomotives had mechanical not electric transmission. Also another de Winton Harold of 1894.

Opening of the Greenisland Loop Line, Northern Counties Committee. 37-8. illustration
Political theatre staged 17 January when the Governor of Northern Ireland, the Duke of Abercorn assisted by the Prime Minister Lord Craigavon, opened the Greenisland Loop. Josiah Stamp, W.V. Wood and Harold Hartley were there to represent the LMS. Major J.A. Torrens Chairman of the NCC with Malcolm Speir, manager and secretary. Thew special train was driven by John Young and fired by C.E. M'Cune. The concrete viaduct involved W.K. Wallace, D. McLellan, LMS Divisional Engineer, Scotland, R.L. M'Ilmoyle, A.M. Scott, the resident angineer and A. Davidson

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 39
Meeting held on 25 January R.I. Kirkland, Associate Member, read a paper on "Locomotive Boiler Repairs in Headquarters Shops." .. The author dealt at some length with the condition of boilers as revealed on examination pnor to the commencement of repair, and to trace each of the defects back to Its origin with the object of enabling a sounder judgment of the ensuing repair to be formed. Material used as precis for Paper 321.

L.M.S.R.- Nortiiern Counties Committee. 39.
Engines Nos. 59 and 67 were being rebuilt at Belfast as Class V2 and would be re-numbered 85 and 86. They were to have names of Castles in Northern Ireland. Two new 2-6-0 tender engines were to be constructed and numbered 94 and 95. New coaches were to be built for the new fast business train from and to Portrush, to be similar in design to the stock of the "Royal Scot" train, and will comprise one brake 3rd class, one buffet car, and one 1st, 2nd and 3rd composite.

Guidea Park to Shenfield widening L.&N.E. Ry. 42-4. 4 illustrations, diagram (track layout and gradient profile)
Also included the dive under for the down Southend line beyond Shenfield. Contrctor Sir Robert McAlpine & Sons. Design C.J. Brown and immediate supervision of R.J.M. Inglis.

Centralised traffic control. 55-9. 4 illustrations, 4 diagrams
Including its adoption on the Metropolitan Railway's Stanmore branch

Oil-electric trains in Germany. 63
Dr. Dorpmueller, managing director of the German State Railways, plan involves a change over to heavy oil motor- trains on branch and main-line stopping services, and it is anticipated that a number of services in popular travel areas will be converted before the end of the year. High-speed units to travel at 93 miles an hour will be run radially from Berlin to Hamburg, ·Western Germany, Leipzig and Dresden. Four motor-trains of the Flying Hamburger type, suitable for such work are now being built by a Goerlitz firm. Motor-trains capable of 75 miles per hour will be put into service on main-line stopping services for all purposes except in the case of heavy business trains, while units running up to speeds of 50 miles an hour will be used on branch lines.

Armstrong Whitworth railbus. 63. illustration
Demonstrated at King's Cross in August 1933 and after carrying out trials was put into regular service on the western local branches from Newcastle Central Station on the 25 September 1933. It ran for eleven weeks in that service covering 137.5 [miles] per day at a fuel consumption which averaged 8.5 miles per gallon and a lubricating oil consumption of 390 miles per gallon including periodical draining of the sump. On December 11 1933 the vehicle was put into a more severe turn connected with this service and was running 223 miles per day on the Heaton No. 1 turn of duty which included round trips from Newcastle to Morpeth, Newcastle to Blackhill and Newcastle to Hexham. It had maintained the schedule timings without effort. The. smooth running, comfort, absence of noise and vibration of this vehicle were favourably commented upon by passengers and the vehicle had become very popular in these services. Absence of smoke and dirt is in particular favourably received. Illustration showed railbus leaving Newcastle Central Station.

Mechanical coaling and ash disposal plants. 63
Will be completed at ten locomotive centres on the L.M.S. Railway during 1934. In addition to the provision of new equipment, the layouts of the engine sheds will be improved to enable locomotives to be dealt with more rapidly when starting and finishing shifts. The ten centres concerned were Rugby, Monument Lane and Aston (Birmingham), Edge Hill (Liverpool), Longsight (Manchester), Springs Branch (Wigan), Bescot (Staffs.), Walsall, Lancaster, and Farnley.

H McIntosh. .63 
Appointed Assistant Mechanical Engineer and Running Superintendent of the Great Northern Railway of Ireland

L.M.S. Ry. 63
The following appointments had been approved by the directors:-
Chief Operating Manager's Department.
R.F. Harvey, District Locomotive Supt., Edge Hill, to be Assistant Divisional Supt. of Motive Power, Manchester.
J.S. Elliott, District Locomotive Supt., Toton, to be District Locomotive Supt., Edge Hill.
R. T. Clews, District Locomotive Supt., Patricroft, to be District Locomotive Supt., Toton.
E. M. Ambler, District Locomotive Supt., Bescot, to be District Locomotive Supt., Preston.
W. E. Blakesley, District Locomotive Supt., Preston, to be District Locomotive Supt., Bescot (including Aston and Monument Lane).
J. C. Foster, Assistant to Superintendent of Motive Power, Derby, to be Assistant to Divisional Supt. of Operation (Motive Power), Crewe.
Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department, Mr. F. G. Umpleby, Technical Assistant (Outdoor Machinery), Euston, to be Outdoor Machinery Assistant, Crewe.

Athens-Pireaus Electric Railway. 63
Line being extended to Kifissia which is about ten miles to the north of Athens. It will run on the surface from Pireaus to Monasterion and from there underground through Omonia (the present terminus near the centre of Athens) to Third of September Street and Patissia, which are two new underground stations. Thence the line will again come to the surface as far as Kifissia, This railway is British controlled, although the trains were built in Belgium and the stations by German labour. They are a great improvement on the stations of other railways in Greece, as they are built in the British style, with the platform level with the footboards of the trains.

U.S.A. Notes. 63
Baltimore and Ohio R.R. are buildjng two new engines of the 4-6-4 type and rebuilding two of the 2-10-2 type as 2-8-2's. The Pennsylvania are building a further 121 electric locomotives and are completing the electrification of the main line between Philadelphia to Washington. The Burlington stream line train is about to run trials

Reviews. 64.

Richard Trevithick, the engineer and the man. H.W. Dickinson and Arthur Tilley. London: Cambridge University Press. 64
Among the several ways selected by the committee appointed to celebrate the centenary of the death of Trevithick, which occurred last year, was the publication of a biography, and this work was trusted to the joint authors of this volume who had for some time been collecting material for the purpose. As most of our readers are aware, a voluminous "Life" was published by Trevithick's son, Franciis, in 1872, but this was not only somewhat disconnected but very verbose, and its two volumes bored the reader rather than gave him an adequate impression of the remarkable individual whose life story they told. The present writers have freely drawn on this "Life" for their story, but have also collected a quantity of material which came to hand since the former work was written and have turned out a very satisfactory and informative book, although condensed into half the size. Richard Trevithick was a most remarkable personality, full of energy and inventive faculty, and it is impossible to enumerate here the many ingenious ideas which he either originated or developed. The most important of these was, of course, the high-pressure engine, and this led the way to the most startling of all, the steam locomotive, of which he has justly been styled the father. His first successful trial of a road locomotive, when for the first time in the world's history human beings were conveyed by mechanical power, took place at Camborne on 24 December 1801, whilst that of a railway locomotive was at Pen-y-daren on 13 February 1804, both dates of outstanding irnportnnce in railway history. The full story of these momentous events is succinctly given as well as all that can be found out concerning the road and rail locomotives which Trevirhick exhibited in London in 1803 and 1808 respectively, arid it must always be a matter of regret that others were left to reap the harvest of the seed which he had sown. He died in poverty at Danford on 22 April 1833, aged 62 years, and the precise spot in which his remains were interred is unknown. Although the honour which was justly due to one to whom the world owes so much was not accorded to Trevithick during his lifetime, it is satisfactory to know that some attempt has been made to atone for this on the occasion of the centenary of his death. The work under notice is entertainingly written and contains all that can be reasonably wanted concerning the life and character of this remarkable genius. It is abundantly illustrated and contains an appendix with particulars of Trevithick's many patents as well as bibliographical and genealogical details. We may add that its production at a reasonable figure is in a large measure due to the enterprise and generosity of Messrs. Babcock and Wilcox Ltd.

Engineering workshop principles and practice, A.G. Robson, (Fourth edition). London: Emmott & Co. Lld.,
This text- book should enable the engineering student or apprentice to thoroughly grasp the essential principles of workshop practice. The text is in plain language,

Number 499 (15 March 1934)

Road versus rail. 65
Paper 322 read at the February meeting of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers by an eminent consultmg engmeer, and reported in brief in another column, the author made some very drastic comparisons between the operating tactics of the "progressive" road car managers and the "conservative" methods of the railway men. In some of these we think Mr. Tritton has cause for his remarks; in others we are inclined to doubt his deductions. As an instance, to secure rapid and frequent running of rail cars in congested areas, he suggested cars might follow each other "on sight," as opposed to the restrictions of block working. We believe the trains of the New York Elevated Railway when worked by steam, years ago, did run "on sight" —that is to say, the rear of one train was a signal for the followmg one, but there the atmospheric conditrons are presumably good and the tracks run in long, straight stretches, with stations almost equidistant—ahout three to a mile. On approaching curves, junctions, etc., automatic signals and obligatory traffic stops were arranged. To railway men this running "on sight" will not, we think, appeal, and we are not sure that more rapid services could not be made with automatic signals. On the road a following car can be diverted to right or left to pass a stationary obstacle; but not on the rails; there, there. is the absolute necessity to remain on the track.
In his remarks on the comparative tare of road and rail vehicles, he will probably receive more support from railway rolling stock experts. We believe this subject has often been referred to in other papers read before the Institution. One in particular we remember gave some very convincing figures regarding the heavy dead-weight hauled. One speaker at the last meeting thought that railway men purposely added weight to the rolling stock, presumably, in their opinion it was necessary to keep the vehicles on the track.
The principles of railway carriage design have not varied for many years, but there are signs of these standards givlng way. An instance quoted by Mr. Tntton is in the design of seats. Quotations were received for bucket type luxury seats from two firms, one specialising in the manufacture of railway material. In the railway type the seat offered weighed 125 lb. at a cost of about £19, whilst the road body specialists offered a seat to the same design which had a weight of 65 lb. at a cost of £11. Now that materials are available which combine lightness of weight with great mechanical strength it should be possible to modify construction. to withstand the rough usage of railway service with a low tare weight, combined with suspension giving smooth riding.
Compared with an up-to-date steam train, the figures given for rail cars built during the past two years appear hopeless, for the weight of passenger stock has been steadily going up. Fifty years ago on the old L.B. & S.C. Ry. a suburban train of ten carriages hauled by a Terriertank locomotive had seating accommodation for 424 passengers, and provided this on a dead weight of 370 lb. per seat, excluding the motive power. To-day the weight per seat in a suburban train is from 450-500 lb. without the locomotive.
If the cost of working a railway is directly influenced by the gross ton miles operated, then a reduction in tare weight of the rolling stock would assuredly prove an economy which would make itself very evident in the balance sheet. Other remarks of interest from the author and other speakers were the possibility of running motor rail cars as multiple-unit trains. This us being done to a certain extent, as evidenced in many descriptions of rail cars we have published in this journal; but we do think it could be much further developed—in fact, there should be no serious reason why the multiple-unit electric train could not be duplicated with motor-driven rail cars.
The supposed necessity for sufficient power being provided in rail cars for the haulage of a horse-box, or milk van, appears a bug-bear with some railway men. Why this should be we cannot understand, for any traffic of that sort could just as easily be sent by road as by train. As a matter of fact, we have been told that one progressive railway manager turned round on such a question being raised and bluntly said, "leave the d—d thmg behind."
Another and rather important difference between road and rail operation which calls for attention is the arrangement of the timetables. Road vehicles generally leave at clearly defined mtervals, so that there is little need to refer to a time-table. Rail trains could just as easily be started on their journeys at regular intervals and at even timmgs. Of course there are instances where this has been arranged, but there is still room for radical improvement on some lines.
See also Julian Tritton's reservations on this editorial

Rebuilt Atlantic type engine with poppet valves, L. & N.E.R. 66. illustration

Diesel-hydraulic railcar for the L.M.S. Ry. 76-9. 4 illustrations, diagram (side, end & section elevations & plan)
Leyland Motors four-wheel rail-bus: trial run from Euston to Watford and back. Sir Arthur Rose, a Director of LMS, took controls on return journey. Includes description and pictures of braking mechanism based on automotive practice. See also p. 127

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. "Rail cars"— a paper read by Mr. J.S. Tritton, Member. 80-1
Paper 322 read at the meeting held on 22 February: abstract the author gave a concise survey of the recent rapid development of the rail car for various uses as a guide to linking up the requirements of the operatmg department with the many types of vehicles now available.
Until about two years ago railway authorities insisted on standards of weight and accommodation which road designers considered excessive. The original "Sentinel" coach built ten years ago for the Jersey Railways weighed eighteen tons to carry 56 passengers. To meet railway requirements the design was modified again and again, untII.to-day the same type of vehicle is running on a British railway, but weighing 30 tons. This state of things is now being remedied and railway authorities during the last two or three years have gIven wholehearted co-operation to the car builders m their experiments.
Dunng the war all sorts of road vehicles were converted to run. on railways, but none of these designs has survived, The snag is that the road type. power unit and transmission, when no longer cushioned by the pneumatic tyre, will not stand up to the high frequency vibrations of the railway track.
The problem of specifying requirements from the traffic point of vlew is no easy one. A preliminary classification indicates their use for four pnmary purposes:-
(1) To meet road competition m sparsely populated districts.
(2) To develop branch line traffic.
(3) To pick up and distribute between main line junctions.
(4) To provide economical high-speed interurban services for light loads.
In considering the first two categories it must be realised that more people live along a road than around a station or along a railway line, and the bus which passes .the door will always have preference for short Journeys over the train or railcar, unless compensating advantages of speed comfort and safety are offered, frequency of servIce bemg a common factor. From this it follows that the rail car must operate in sparsely populated districts under conditions as similar as possible to those under which the road bus operates, i.e., wIth frequent stops, high acceleration, close headway and punctuality. Some rail cars in service in Northern Ireland carry a notice advising passengers that "This car will stop any- where on request," and such a provision could readily be made on many branch lines, giving an effective increase in availability. On certain sections it should also be possible to dispense with the usual signalling systems, and allow cars to run "on sight" during certain periods of the day. Effective braking and powerful headlights should allow such services to be run with as much safety as a tram car in busy streets, while allowing for increased speed. For such services, cars of the light 4-wheeled type with seating for 40 passengers, and accommodation equivalent to the road bus, low level mounting platforms, and a power-weight ratio. of 5 to 8 h.p. per ton, offer the mast economical solution, Where higher capacities are reguired, with luggage accommodation, the bogie railbus, with a seatmg capacity of 40-70 passen gers, will be called for, the same power-weight ratio being maintained.
Instances have occurred .in which a rail car service has increased traffic beyond its capacity, and the car has been replaced by the older type of steam train, but running to the original train timings. The result has been that traffic has again fallen off. The obvious remedy was to. increase the number of rail cars or to increase the capacity of the units, wIthout decreasing their speed and frequency.
For the third category, in which cars are used as pick-up and distribution units between main line junctions, a more expensive type of car is indicated. More comfortable accommodation and luggage compartments will be required, while a higher power-weight ratio becomes necessary to enable the cars to clear sections rapidly between express trains. In the fourth category, the use of rail cars for ultra high-speed inter-urban services is of more recent origin—following on the technical developments of light-weight streamlined body construction. Here the advantage ot high speed between terminals compensates for fbe extra time involved in reaching and leaving the termmals, and high speed can be accomplished with greater safety and comfort than on the road.
There will be a certain amount of overlapping in these categories, but the more precise the operatmg department can be in their requirements, the more efficiently can the car be designed and operated.
At present rail cars are being run in experimental services to the timing of the corresponding steam trains in the same service. Indeed it has become a criterion of rail car efficiency to say that a rail car has replaced a train unit under identical conditions for a given period of time. This denies the rail car of two of its greatest advantages, namely, its increased availability and its capacity for accelerated schedules as compared  with the train service.
A consideration of the foregoing will assist the designer in meetmg the requirements.
The thorny question of trailers must be dealt with in considering the seating capacity of the rail car. To load a rail car with a heavy trailer, defeats to a great extent its own object, which is to increase the capacity of a high-speed frequent service. If a road .bus company finds a 70-passenger load available at a given time and place, there is no question of carrying the odd twenty passengers in a trailer, but a second bus is put on, capable of the same speed as the first, and running to practically the same timing. Under similar conditions the railway is hampered by block section working, which may enforce a considerable interval between the two units, unless "on sight" running is permitted. To avoid this, a standard coach is attached as a trailer, thereby probably doubling the weight and halving the power-weight ratio of the combination. To take this trailer, either the original booked speed must be reduced or the original rail car must be overpowered for solo running. The correct solution is to provide a second rail car capable of coupling with the first under unit control, thus maintaining the power-weight ratio, and the combination can run to the original timings and block section working. Continental practice favours the provision of standing room to take fluctuating overloads. If a trailer is essential, it should be specially built of the lightest possible design.
It will be maintained that for branch line working, it is necessary to haul the occasional wagon and the inevitable horsebox, but this surely is the 'work of the light locomotive handling mixed trains, and should not be allowed to prejudice the high-speed passenger service, which is the raison d' etre of the rail car. It must be remembered that to enable the rail car to couple with and haul a standard vehicle, the increase in weight and power required is cumulative. A solo rail car was designed to carry fifty passengers. The weight came to 24 tons for the class of service required. To enable this car to haul a standard coach as a trailer, the extra weight in the under frame, standard buffers and couplings, brake gear, etc., worked out at 30%. To haul this extra weight, in addition to that of the trailer, at schedule speed increased the engine power required by 75 %. The larger engine, in its turn, weighed more and took up more space. It also meant heavier transmission, bigger tanks and auxiliaries, so that the weight of the original car was increased from 24 tons to 31 tons, and the cost nearly in proportion. It is doubtful whether the occasional necessity to haul a trailer can justify the increased running expenses, interest and depreciation charges which will be entailed throughout the life of the vehicle. As an instance of how railway standards are giving way is in the design of seats. Quotations were received from two firms for bucket type luxury seats, one specialising in the manufacture of railway material and the other in bus material. In the railway type the seat offered weighed 125· lb. at a cost of about £19, whilst the road body specialists offered a seat to the same design which: had a weight of 65 lb. at a cost of £11.
The author considered the vital factor at present in rail car design is the power-weight ratio on which depends not only the maximum speed but also the acceleration of which the car is capable. Whereas ratios up to 4 h.p. per ton were considered adequate up to five years ago, figures of 8 to 10 h.p. per ton now rule, while for high-speed cars ratios of 25 to 30 h.p. per ton are used. When considering acceleration, comparison is frequently made with that of electric suburban services where acceleration of 1.5 m.p.h. per second is available. The comparison is of course fallacious, since with an external power supply the acceleration is only limited by the overload rating of the traction motors, which may momentarily be 200 per cent., and by adhesion of the driving wheels. With the rail car, however, the limit of power available is the overload of the power unit, and acceleration therefore depends on' the power-weight ratio of the vehicle. A power-weight ratio of 5 h.p. per ton will give an acceleration of 1 m.p.h. per second. This appears to be about the limit called for, so long as rail cars. are operated on steam train schedules. The steam power unit scores here, since it can take advantage of power stored in the boiler, while the steam engine working in late cut-off can increase its output by 75 per cent. for short periods. Steam cars have shown to advantage in recent trials in this, respect.
The power-weight ratio is also being increased by reducing the tare weight of the car. Various methods of doing this in recent designs were given, among them being:-Elimination of the standard railway under frame; draw and buffing gear is dispensed with, except for a light spring bumper and emergency coupling bar; designing- the body as a box girder to eliminate under frame ; welded units and steel pressings replace castings and forgings wherever possible; hollow axles and lightened wheel centres, with reduction in wheel diameter; internal expanding brakes replace cast iron brake blocks and standard gear; bus type- seats and internal fittings replace railway patterns. It is interesting to see how the foregoing considerations have been given effect to in recent practice. A comparison of over forty designs of British and Continental rail cars built during the past two years shows the following average figures:-
20 seats per axle.
3.2 seats per ton of tare
8.2 h.p. per ton of tare.
It is realised that averages such as these do not take into account the special conditions under which certain cars have to work.

A track depression indicator. 83-5. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams
Stone Cardew device fitted to locomotive

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 86-8. 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams (including side elevation)
Blorsig 2-4-0

2-8-0 locomotives, Udaipur-Chitogarh Railway, India, 89.
W.G. Bagnall locomotives for metre gauge line with 3ft 7in coupled wheels, 16¾ x 22in cylinders, 1163ft2 total heating surface (including 175ft2 superheater), 23.5ft2 grate area.

Sir W.G. Armstrong Whitworth & Co. 89
Received an order for ten K3 class 2-6-0 from LNER; and for four locomotive boilers from Buenos Ayres Greatv Southern Railway.

Robert Stephenson & Co. 89
Received an order for ten K3 class 2-6-0 from LNER.

E.E. Joynt. Reminiscences of an Irish locomotive works. Last years at Inchicore. 90
See separate file

Rebuilding of three Derbyshire viaducts. 90
Work had begun in the Derwent Valley between Derby and Arnbergate on the reconstruction of three big viaducts, carrying over the river the L.M.S. main line from London and Derby to Manchester and the North, which were to be rebuilt to carry the heaviest types of locomotive. The three viaducts concerned were Belper Pool, Broadholme and Swainsley. All three to be constructed in steel and concrete.

A remarkable small-scale model locomotive. 91.

Institution of Loco. Engineers, Annual Dinner. 91-2.

Diesel shunting locomotive Great Western Railway. 92. illustration
0-4-0 diesel mechanical locomotive supplied by John Fowler & Co. (Leeds) Ltd for use at Swindon Works.

Twin dining cars, "Protea," South African Rys. 93-5. 4 illustrations, 3 diagrams
63 ft long and 9 ft 3 in wide: one car served as a dining saloon, the other as a spacious kitchen. Special bogies were designed for the coaches

Reviews. 97

Cross Channel and coastal paddle steamers. F. Burtt. London: Richard Tilling. 97,
In this volume we have a comprehensive record of the paddle steamers which have seen service round our coasts. The historical narrative commences with the experiments ;n 1786 on a loch near Dumfries, followed by the Charlotte Dundas built by Williarn Symington for traffic on the Forth and Clvde Canal, which appeared early in 1802.
The first steam boar to carry passengers was the famous Comet, designed by Henry Bell and launched in 1812 to run on the Clyde between Glasgow and Greenock. Development was slow until the General Steam Navigation Company, formed in 1824, put into service two small steamers, the Lord Melville and the Earl of Liverpool. By the end of that year this company owned ten steamers, adding five more in 1825.
In 1862, the old London, Chatham and Dover, South Eastern and London, Brighton and South Coast Railways availed themselves of the recently granted Parliamentary powers to operate cross-Channel services—which replaced certain French Government services apparently started in 1820 with the pioneer cross-Channel boat the Henri Quatre (ex Rob Roy.) The British Admiralty also ran mail packets for the Post Office cross-Channel services and had quite a fleet of steamers in commission, to be replaced later by a smaller series, owned by the Post Office.
In 1863, the Great Eastern Railway obtained powers to run steamers from Harwich to the Continent. These also replaced earlier services of a more or less regular character.
The author also outlines the history of the various services of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire, London and South Western, Great Western, London and North Western and L. & N.W. and L. & Y. Joint Railways, and gives complete lists of the paddle steamers employed, with copious notes of their careers. The Irish cross-Channel services of the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company, Dublin & Glasgow S.P. Co. and Burns and Laird Lines—the Dundee, Perth & London Co., the Clyde Shipping Co., and David McBrayne's steamers, as well as those of the Isle of Man Steam Packet Company, are fully dealt with.
The author expresses regret at the passing of the paddle steamer for the few remaining examples are almost exclusively reserved for short trips. The book is particularly well illustrated, with ninety reproductions of paddle steamers. including a coloured frontispiece and five excellent plates printed by the offset-litho process. The volume provides pleasant reading. apart from being a historical record of the steamers. Mr. Burtt has apparently handled his subject with the same meticulous care for details that he exhibited in the compilation of the History of the Locomotives of the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway. The print and finish of the blocks is all that can be desired, and there is a useful index at the end of the book to some eight hundred steamers mentioned in the text. We know of no other volume dealinq with the British Paddle Steamer and we consider it to be a useful addition to any librarv, as the host of dimensions and details it contains are arailable in no other book.

Correspondence. 97

Rebuilt Pacifics P.O. Railway.  W. Lubsen
In January issue, you describe a P.O. Pacific rebuilt with 4-8-0 wheel arrangement. It seems to me that the grate of the new boiler with its narrow width and its enor mous length is too small in area for the rebuilt engine. Even with a coal of very high quality, the amount to be burnt hourly per square metre of the grate are" will be very considerable. On the other hand, although the grate is steeply inclined, by its enormous length of 3.7 m. it will be difficult for the crew to keep the fire even over its area. When the engine is heavy working for a long time the econ- omy in combustion will suffer from both reasons. Of all the types of modern passenger and express engines with the same wheel arrangement as the P.O. engine, this machine has the largest dr iving wheels and other general dimensions, but almost the smallest grate area, as may be seen by the following table. Only the grate area of the very light class 401 of the Spanish Andalusian Ry. is smaller.

Railway & class

Driving wheel  diameter

Grate area  m2

Weight in working order tons


P.O Rebuilt 4521




Austrian Fed. 113




Polish State Os2




Hungaria 424




Andaluces 401




Broad gauge

M.Z.A. Spain 1301




Broad gauge

M.Z.A. Spain 1401




Broad gauge

Nor e Spain 4301




Broad gauge

Baira-Alta 101




Broad gauge

In all cases, where it is impossible to build up a wide firebox "over frame and wheels," the classes with a trailing axle such as Mikado, Mountain, and 2-8-4, are preferable to the 4-8-0 arrangement. See also letter from Metzetlin on p.165 .

Steam locomotive design. E.A. Phillipson. 97-8
I do not think it can be inferred from my text that equality of length for the radius and eccentric rods of the Walschaerts gear, although desirable from the ideal point of view, is rigidly essential. Actually, the respective lengths are ultimately determined by the location of the link trunnion which, in any given design, is usually restricted by the diameter and disposition of the coupled wheels, frame design and other extraneous factors; for this reason the lengths frequently do vary in practice, as stated by Cosgrave.
Now, neglecting their respective displacements, which form but a small proportion of the total, the distance between centres of the eccentric crank pin and point of attachment of the radius rod to the combination lever respectively may be regarded as a predetermined and more or less fixed dimension in any design. For reasons which are given below, both the eccentric rod and the radius rod require to be as long as possible and, as both are affected and limited by this fixed dimension, this condition may be satisfied, to the great- est advantage of both rods, by a compromise, i.e., by equalising as nearly as possible their lengths.
Both rods require to be as long as possible, as also does the link slot, in order to reduce slip; maximum rod lengths are also required in orrler to minimise the heavy dynamic loads on the valve spindle guide and link trunnion bearing, and also that they may be satisfactory, from the point of view of design, when treated as columns.
Considering the rods individually, the eccentric rod needs to be as long as possible in order to minimise the effects on the steam distribution of the vertical movement of the engine on its springs, and also to reduce the effects of angularity, thus tending to symmetry of link swing. In the case of the radius rod, optimum length is required in order that the link radius may be as great as possible, and that the load transmitted m ay be as nearly as possible normal to the combination Iever.
I was very interested in Caton's remarks on the different methods of locomotive working, but am not pre- pared to agree that the arguments for and against working with early cut-offs were discussed in my article "mainly from a theorct ical point of view"; in this particular instance theory and practice are, I think, substantially unanimous. As stated by Caton, and by myself in earlier articles of the series, the feasibility of running with early cut-offs depends on a number of factors, e.g., valve characteristics and dimensions, port areas, blast pipe and chimney proper- tions. My footplate experience leads me to the conclusion that, provided proper regard be paid, when designing, to th c properties of the valve gear employed (to take a random example, the increase occurring in the lead as the Stephenson gear is notched up), the type of motion adopted does not in itself play a decisive part in the matter. With regard to the two excellent papers, of which extracts are given by Mr. Caton, from the Journal of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, I can only concede a qualified agreement with Prof. Lomonosoff's remark that "drivers (and, I am tempted to add, many other sections of the community!) .... are usually quite right in their mistrust at theories." This may be true in some cases, but as a general- isation is distinctly dangerous; at the same time it must be admitted that much depends on the intrinsic worth of the theory concerned! Prof. Lomonosoff's subsequent statement that "for superheated steam cut-offs of less than 20 per cent. are not advisable" is contrary to my experience; I am acquainted with several classes of engine which give satisfactory results with a much earlier cut-off. Turning next to the question from Dymond's paper, I personally consider the chief cause of those longitudinal dis- turbances in the train which may be traced to the locomotive itself lies in imperfect balancing, the effect of which varies with the square of the velocity, rather than in fluctua- tion ef m.e.p. due to running with an early cut-off. The extent of recurring impulses arising from fluctuating piston loads, excessive compression occurring with insufficiently long valve travels, or excessive lead, is a linear quantity and therefore directly proportional to the speed. At high speeds of revolution the fluctuations are so rapid as net to be perceptible in the train, and at low speeds the probabilities are either that the engine is working with a late cut-off, in order to accelerate the train, or running with the regulator shut. The four-cylinder G.W.R. engines are certainly very well balanced, but the choice of these engines, as an example to support this particular argument, is unfortunate in that practically all of them run habitually with a full regulator opening and early cut-offs.

Paris-Orleans Railway 4-8-0 type locomotive. William T. Hoecker. 98
Some of the statements made concerning the performance of this locomotive, especially in view of its rather small boiler, are most extraordinary and would perhaps be more convincing if accompanied by detailed data of the trial runs. It is to be hoped that the remarkable claims for increased power and economy rest upon a more solid basis than do the extravagant figures which purport to represent the maximum theoretical tractive efforts. An effort of 57,470 lb., "with high pressure steam admission to the large cylinders," involves a factor of adhesion of only 2.9 and may be dismissed without further comment. If it is assumed that the power is equally divided between high-pressure and low- pressure cylinders, the maximum tractive force of 45,930 lb., working compound, requires a mean effective pressure of 212 lb. in the H.P. cylinders and of 100 lb. in the L.P. cylinders. It would be both interesting and useful to know just how a mean effective pressure of 212 lb. can be maintained in the H.P. cylinders with a boiler pressure of 290 lb. and a back pressure of at least 100 lb.
(The figures in the article are those officially given by the Railway company, and the tractive effort is calculated on the assumption of 100%. The corresponding factors of adhe- sion are officially stated to be: simple expansion, 2.895; working compound,.-Ed.)

Trade notes and publication. 98

Light-weight Motor Trains. 98
Title of an attractively produced illustrated brochure issued by Sir W. G. Arrnstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. (Engineers) Scotswood Works, Newcastle-upon-Tyne. These new vehicles should enable railway companies to give the public a frequent passenger service, to compete more successfully with road traffic. The light motor train as compared with the steam power unit has the advantage of increased availability and in the saving of time for raising steam and for boiler washouts, etc. Shuttle services can be run continuously all day, without locomotive movements or duties. The turn-round time is limited only to the time taken for the driver to walk from one end of the car to the other.

Powdered and granulated aluminium. 98
Both employed for a number of purposes in engineering, and these are detailed in a practical and interesting booklet just issued by the British Aluminium Co. Ltd. of Adelaide House, E.C.4. Probably the largest use of aluminium powder is for making metallic paint, either in its natural colour or tinted with aniline dye to obtain gold, bronze and other effects—so- called silver paint is usually bright aluminium paint. Apart from its use as a decorative medium, aluminium paint possesses a high protective value against sun, rain and impure atmospheric conditions generally. As a light reAector tests have shown that the paint is capable of refecting up to 70 per cent. of the light that falls upon it, and rather more of the ultra-violet rays that are so destructive to the varnish or oil medium contained in paint. It reflects not merely the light waves but also the heat waves, and this property is made use of fer oil storage tanks, tank wagons, refrigerator cars, and a variety of similar objects more particularly in countries which are more favoured with sun than these Isles. As a heat conserver aluminium paint is made use of for reducing the radiation of heat from hot objects such as boilers, furnaces, steam pipes, annealing ovens and similar plants. Many other impertant purposes for which aluminium powder has superseded other compounds are detailed. Another development in the use of aluminium both powder and so-called "granulated" as a protective agent is known as "calorizing" which consists of driving aluminium into the surface of another metal, usually mild steel or cast iron, to form an aluminium alloy x, This alloy is immune to oxidation up to 9500 C. and is entirely resistant to the corrosive attack of gaseous sulphur products. Quite a number of other uses and methods are clearly detailed in this artistically produced booklet.

Number 500 (14 April 1934)

The 500th Number of the "Locomotive". 99-101.

Diesel locomotve forv Woolwich Arsenal. 101-2.
Twin three axle bogie Hunslet Engine Co, Ltd. for eighteen inch gauge with McLaren four-cylinder engine and drive through a gearbox and clutch..

Three-cylinder 2-6-4 passenger tank engine, L.M. & S. Ry.. 102-4. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 2500 illustrated: three-cylindersd for maximum acceleration

Mikado type express engine, Polish State Railways. 104
For service in Danzig Corridor

Project for a locomotive of high capacity. 106. diagram (side elevation and plan)
Chapelon scheme for a six-cylinder compound 4-8-4 with divided drive and double blast pipe and thermic syphons.

O.J. Morris. The rolling stock of the Portsmouth Gas Company: industrial locomotives in service. 111-12. illustration

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. "One hundred years of railway coaches." .119
At the meeting held on the 15 March. a paper with the above title was read by A.N. Moon Assoc. Member. The president, Major C.E. Williams, O.B.E., occupied the chair and a large number of members were present. The author of the paper introduced his subject with a reference to the early history of wheels and wheeled vehicles prior to the advent of the locomotive. He then gave on the screen a reproduction of a well known illustration of trains on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway describing many of the outstanding features in these. Following up the evolution of the railway carriage, Moon showed a number of different attempts at improvement in accommodation introduced be- tween 1840 and 1870 including an early smoking saloon for the Eastern Counties Railway and a mail coach for the London and Birmingham Ry. The comforts of third class travellers must have been very limited judging from the illustration of such a carriage built for the Manchester and Leeds Railway. Great advance was made m the years immediately following 1870.
By 1872 the Midland Railway's third class compartment had been increased in size to 6 ft., the first class being 7 ft. 3 in. and in the following three years the second class was abolished. The third class was then further improved by the provision of cushioned seats and backs. One oil lamp still did duty for two compartments, however, the partition being cut to accommodate the introduction of the roof lamp.
First class sleeping cars of the transverse berth pattern now familiar, were introduced in 1873 on the orth Eastern Railway, arousing some criticism at the time. Sleeping cars of the Pullman Car Co. of America commenced running in the following year on the Midland Railway, presumably fitted with the American type of longitudinal berth; these cars ran until 1888. The Pullman Company not only ran sleeping cars but "parlour" or "drawing-room" cars on the Midland Railway. They were all introduced at the same time, 1874, and constituted an important step forward, for they were the first bogie coaches run in this country. Midland drawing-room car No. 8 was shown, probably one of the 1874 importation and almost certainly of the same type. The bogie for locomotives was an English invention, being patented in 1812 by William Chapman, a locomotive builder, but it was not used in this country for passenger stock until after Ross Winans had applied it to such vehicles in America. Locomotives were first mounted on bogies in England in 1833. The bogies on the Pullman car illustrated seem to have had a composite wood and iron framework and to have been similar in general features to modern American and Continental practice. The mtenor of this "drawing-room" car was illustrated. The traveller sat on a swivel chair beside what must then have seemed an embarrassing expanse of glass window. These open saloon coaches were not received with great favour by the conservative British public, who preferred the additional privacy of the old type of compartment stock. The Midland Railway were quick to see the advantage of the bogie and built bogiie coaches of their own. There is a drawing m existence at Derby dated 1874 and showing what must have been a very early attempt at a carriage bogie design. The rivalry which existed between this railway and the London and North Western prevented the latter from adopting the bogie. Instead, in 1882, they produced their first coaches with radial wheels. These carrages were 42 ft. long mounted on six wheels, of which one pair was arranged to swivel so as to take up a more or less normal position on a curve. Eventually this railway adopted bogies.
The author's reference to the introduction of continuous brakes on the British railways was followed with interest especially the mention of Barker's hydraulic system on the old Great Eastern Railway. Further, the cord communication in use before the introduction of the present alarm signal apparatus awakened memories of a device which seldom worked when called upon. Tram lighting contributed to the very comprehensive contents of Moon's paper as also did train warming. Finally, a number of recent examples of metal construction were thrown on the screen and the chief features explained.
In the discussion which followed, the magnificent examples of private cars used bv Indian princes were mentioned and several speakers contributed items to the interesting historical details recorded in Moon's paper especially on the extended use of six-wheeled carriages with radial wheel bases. See also letter from W.B. Thompson on page 195.

German State Railways. 119
In the course of his remarks at the recent Berlin Automobile Show, Dr. Dorpmueller, Director-General of the German State Railways, referred to the application of the internal combustion engine for railway traction, and said that the German Railways had ordered a large number of express railcars to work about 23 main line services. Dr. Dorpmueller also gave some details of results of railcars on the German State system, and mentioned that accumulator railcars had been abandoned. The manufacturers had been able to increase the power output up to 400 h.p. per engine. The "Flying Hamburger" had two 400 h.p. engines, making a total output of 800 h.p., and top speed of over 100 m.p.h.; it would soon be surpassed by a type of expres railcar equipped with two 600 h.p. Maybach 12-cylinder engines, i.e., a total power output of 1,200 h.p. While the average speeds of the quickest trains in Germany to-day is 43.4 miles per hour, the average speed with the diesel motor train will be 64 miles per hour, cutting the timings by over 30 per cent.
Besides the Berlin-Hamburg fast services, the railcars will shortly be introduced on the Berlin-Leipsig and Berlin-Dresden sections with a seating capacity of about 180 in each train.

Welded light weight German coaches. 120-1. 2 illustrations
Vereniningente Westdeutsche Waggonfabriken A.G. for German State Railways seating 84 third class passengers.

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. 121-2.  2 diagrams.
GB 8741/1840 (16 December 1840): a device by which the driver could adjust the weight available for adhesion on a single driving wheel locomotive.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulse. Chapter XI. Compound expansion. 123-5.

Obituary. 125
It is with great regret we have to record the death of William Temperley Batho, who died suddenly of bronchial pneumonia in his sixty-eighth year at Rio de Janeiro March 26, 1934. He was educated in England and in Bonn, Germany, and then entered his father's office, the late W.F. Batho. His apprenticeship was served with Dubs & Co. of Glasgow and afterwards he was associated for a period with Gaulcher & Co. Batho then joined the East Indian Railway as a civil engineer and remained in India for a number of years. Upon his return to England he took an active part in the formation of the Diesel Engine Co. and was its managing director until merged with the firm of Carels Freres of Ghent into The Consolidated Diesel Engine Manufacturers Ltd. with whom he occupied a similar position. Batho was thus largely responsible for the early commercial development of the Diesel engine in this country in which work he was closely associated with the late Dr. Rudolph Diesel. In 1914 he joined Sulzer Bros., London, and has been in charge of the Diesel Department there since. Upon the formation of Sulzer Bros. (London) Ltd. he was elected to the board of directors, a position he occupied until his death. He was a man of firm character, integrity and strong personality and his death will be regretted among a wide circle of friends in all parts of the world.

[E.H. Purser]. 125
We regret to record the death of E. H. Purser formerly chief locomotive inspector of the L.B. & S.C. Railway, on 25 February, at the age of 73. Purser joined the Brighton Railway at the age of 14 and became fireman, driver and finally chief locomotive inspector of the Southern Railway. He served under five chief mechanical engineers, W. Stroudley, R. J. Billinton, D. E. Marsh, L. Billinton, and R. E. L. Maunsell. He was the first driver to have the 4-6-2 tank engines Nos. 325 and 326 Abergavenny and Bessborough , and handled the latter for several years. After 51 years on the railway, Mr. Purser retired in August, 1926.

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 126-7. 2 diagrams including side elevation
Former broad gauge locomotives built by Robert Stephenson & Co. as 2-2-2 in 1861-4 and named Castor, Pollux, Amstel and Maas, These were rebuilt between 1879 and 1881 as 0-4-2 (as shown in diagram). They were equipped with the Thierry system for smoke consumption. They were scrapped between 1897 and 1909.

Diesel-hydraulic railcar, L.M.S. Ry. 127
See page 76 et seq: failure to record that Timken axleboxes fitted to vehicle

London Transport. 127
Osterley station opened on 25 March 1934: it replaced Thornbury Road. The new station had a tower and beacon and faced thee Great West Road.

Stationary steam engines. 127
The LMS owned two stationary engines which between them had give 222 years of service. The older at Holyhead was 121 years old and pre-dated the arrival of the railway. It was used to pump out the graving dock and operated at 5 psi. The 101 year old Swannington engine provided power for the incline. It had been instaled in 1888 and was built by the Horseley Coal & Iron Co.

Persian State Railway. 127
Beyer Peacock had received an order for five 2-8-0 locomotives: 3 to work on the Southern Section to the Persian Gulf and two for the Northern Section from the Caspian Sea to Tehran

New passenger cars for the Barmen-Elberfeld Suspension Ry. 128. illustration

Fast steam trains on the Netherlands Railways. 128-9. table
Trial of 4-cylinder 4-6-0 hauling a light trainn between Amsterdam and Arnhem.

An ingenious reduction gear. 129-30. illustration
Pierce of the Welsh Granite Co. improvised a reduction gear for a conveyorusing an old locomotive firebox as the base.

A Russian "booster" of the 'sixties [1860s]. 130. diagram
Mahovo flywheel invented by C. von Schubersky and shown fitted to a bogie

Reviews. 131

The wheels of Ind. John W. Mitchell. London: Thornton Butterworth.
Railway men in different parts of the world have unusual opportunities for contact with the people they labour amongst, have unique expenences and many interesting episodes to talk about, but unfortunately few have the inclination to write them down for publication, Here we have a notable exception; we have seldom read a more interesting narrative of railway experience than Mr. Mitchell's. He recounts his life, experiences and adventures, whilst filling the appointment of a D.T.S. on the Bengal Nagpur Railway in India, providing a most interesting and instructrve volume.
If only some of our politicians would get some first hand information from the huge innocent rank and file of India before committing themselves to so much talk and criticism of the work of European officials it would be better for all.
Mr. Mitchell gives his experiences frankly and freely. He tells of the artifice, cunning and deceit of the native staff as well as of the passengers and merchants; of all these we have ample confirmation from others who have seen service on the Indian railways. The author comments on the ingratitude displayed by Indians to a service which has done so much for the advancement of their country.
Mr. Mitchell's national pride when he noticed that the locomotives he came in contact with were of British build does not appear to be shared with many of the Britons still at the head of the railway administration for every effort seems to be made to secure supplies of stores and even rolling stock from any country but this, notwithstanding the fact that when the Government of India wants money, it does not hesitate to come here for it. The number of Europeans in the railway service has decreased by 2,300 in the decade 1922-1932, not much encouragement for the Briton to do his best in helping to secure for India a satisfactory and successful transport system. Whether the gradual extinction of the European element in the personnel is going to eventually prove a benefit remains to be seen; we very much doubt it.
The tricks of the traffic staff and unreliability of many of the workers is undoubtedly true to life. The sportsman will find much to amuse him as the district the author was in charge of happens to be one of the finest in India for big game; further, those interested in the customs of the Hindu religious system will find much to entertain them in the author's description of the huge pilgrimages he personally attended in his official capacity. The Juggernaut festival at Puri calls for traffic arrangements by the B.N. Ry. which few railway men in this country can really appreciate.
Finally, the author reminds readers of what the "Wheels of Ind " have done to help the followers of Vishnu to enjoy- cessation of famine, freedom and peace, the exploitation of natural and commercial resources of India and the provision of markets for his produce, thus providing employment for the people. "These same folk on religion, pleasure or business bent are flung from Duzdap to Tinsukia, from Tuticorin to Peshawar in but a fraction of the time of pre-railroad days. "
On November 5th, 1932, a special pilgrim train left Howrah station, Calcutta, to visit the majority of the most sacred spots of the Hindu faith. The fortunate ones, who thus encompassed in the space of a few weeks what would have formerly taken a lifetime, lived and slept in the train. In a great sweep, south, west, north and south again they rolled from shrine to shrine gathering merit and absolution at each move of the wheels." A most interesting narrative from life.

Die Diesellokomotive mit Unmittelbarem Antrieb. Arnold Langen, VDI. Untersuchungen Ueber den Spuelvorgang an Zweitakt-Maschinen .W. Lindner, VDI. VDI-Forschungsh~ft 363. Published by VDI-Verlag G.m.b.H., Berlin.
The first article in the above publication is a report on the trials made by Langen for the Research Department of the Humboldt-Deutzmotoren A.G. of airless-injection diesel engines, in their possible application to railway traction. Tests were made with a stationary vertical 4-stroke airless-injection motor of 250 mm. bore by 450 mm. stroke developing about 50 h.p. per cylinder; and the informatlon sought was mainly as to the results of super-charging and data for the necessary compressor plant. A section of the work is devoted to tests of a method of starting in which combustion takes place in the air used for initially putting the engine into motion; and this is followed. with results of trials undertaken with a modified gear-driven locomotive using an engine of normal construction and weighing about 20 tons.
Aided by comprehensive illustrations, the author reports upon experiments made with various arrangements of motor, gears, and auxiliaries to overcome te:chnlcal dlfficulties and in particular the pronounced fluctuations of starting torque. Following a suggestion made by Wagner, an arrange ment similar to that of a. steam locomotive was tried, i.e., a horizontal double acting 2-cylinder engine directly connected to the road wheels. The new constructional problems arising from this design are explained, and the results of the tests are given. . .
In the second article Lindner deals with engines working on the two-stroke principle, and chiefly aims at elucidating the scavenging processes in such motors on an experimental basis in the light of knowledge. gained from the study of gas-flow in models and from. prevlous research on existing engines. Cylinder scavengmg is dealt wIth under two aspects; the flow-pictures showing the effects of high or shallow scavenging. These experiments, conducted both with stationary and locomotive engines, give many indications useful for computing the areas of the scavenging ports, the flow-resistance of cylinders having varying port areas was measured. and a simplified method of calculation, avoiding flow-equations, has been evolved. Numerous observations on the engines tested justifies the application of figures derived from experiments made with the piston at rest to an engine in motion. A section dealt with the computation of the scavenging efficiency and its relation to the output of the motor.

Facts about British Railways. 131
The British Railways Press Bureau has published a new edition of the booklet bearing this title. It contains the figures for the year 1933, and records many interesting facts. The railways collectively have a capital of £1,100,000,000 invested by private subscribers, and as an investment this has shown a very moderate return. In 1913 the net revenue represented only 4.38 per cent. on the capital, and in 1933 this had fallen to 2.64 per cent. No one can say the shareholders rob the public, in fact a large proportion of the railway shareholders are themselves a part of the public. Luckily the business of the railways is conducted on enterprising lines, and of late years has shown increasing activity in improving services. One great merit of the British railways is their safety; there were only two passenger train accidents involving loss of life to passengers in 1933, six passengers being killed. Yet, as we all know, many of the express services are run at over 60 miles per hour.

Number 501 (15 May 1934)

Steam still predominant. 133

Three cylinder 4-6-0 passenger engine with tapered boiler, L.M.& S.R.. 134-5. illustration, diagram  (side & front elevations)
No. 5552 illustrated and one exhibited at Euston station on 23 April 1934 (St. George's Day). Text refers to "rebuilt Claughton", but with taper boiler. Locomotive illustrated had high-sided version of Fowler tender. No. 5552 built at Crewe.

"Hunslet" diesel locomotive No. 7403, L.M.S.R. 136-7. 2 illustrations

4-8-2 three-cylinder passenger locomotive. Czecho-Slovakian State Railways. 137-8. illustration

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. New President. 138, illustration (portrait)

Trevithick Centenary. 138

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulse. Chapter XI. Compound expansion. Factors affecting distribution of work over cylinders. 139-40.

J.C.M. Rolland. Inspection tour on the Victorian Railways. 140-4. 7 illustrations

Broad v. narrow gauge. Great Western Ry. 144. illustration
Photograph taken by Edmund Broderip from a train of another train approaching on the opposite track which was a broad gauge train on mixed gauge track near Highbridge or Brent Knoll

The Flying Hamburger. 144-6. illustration, diagram
Der Fliegender Hamburger was a light weight articulated streamlined train capable of 100 mile/h running and powered by a Maybach engine. Livery was mauve and cream.

Some aspects of modern railway traction. 146-9
The world-wide economic crisis had, in France brought about a disastrous collapse in railway finances, and anxious scrutiny was given to all proposals for reducing operative expenses and recovering something of the traffic lost to other methods of transport. Whilst some would find a remedy in the wholesale electrification of railways, others maintained that a better solution was to be found in the improvement of motive power equipment, but retaining the principle of self-contained locomotives, either in the form of steam or internal combustion motors according to circumstances and conditions. Considered impartially, it would seem that all these expedients, i.e., steam, internal combustion, and electric traction, had a place in the scheme of railway reformation, but the proper function and scope of each is still undetermined, and the problem is not clarified by the violent and sometimes obviously prejudiced propaganda addressed to a lay-public totally unfitted to judge so highly complicated and technical a matter. A most useful contribution to this subject had been made by Pierre Lavarde at a conference of the Civil Engineering Committee of the Societe Industrielle du Nord held last May, a now published under the title of "Les Elements d'une Traction Autonome Modern sur les Chemins de fer." Space permits us only a summary of the author's statements, and it must be borne in mind that he is chiefly concerned with the question as relating to French railways, but so much of his data has a general application that his conclusions are valuable in an almost universal sense.
Considers the costs of diesel versus electric traction for express trains, for shunting. Mentions the Micheline railcars and light weight rolling stock.

Locomotives on the Military Camp Railway, Catterick. 150-2. 8 illustrations
Catterick was a major army training ground extending over 25 square miles and developed during WW1. It was capable of holding 45,000 soldiers and there was an airfield on the edge of the camp. A 4½ mile branch linked the Camp Centre to Catterick Bridge on the North Eastern Railway Richmond branch. As well as troops the branch had to handle military stores including both food and armaments. A passenger service operated beween the Centre and Catterick Bridge. The locomotive and carriage stock is both described and illustrated. The LNER took over the former Camp Railway on 30 September 1923.,
Illustrations: Camp internal train formed of former North London Railway four-wheel coaches and LSWR 4-4-2T; 2-4-0T WD No. 42 (former Stratford & Midland Junction Railway No. 5 built by Beyer, Peacock WN 2466/1885); former LSWR Adams 4-4-2T No. 0424 which had previously been at Longmoor and had been overhauled at Darlington Works (and slightly modified before going to Catterick); WD Nos. 102 and 104 were 0-6-0ST locomotives (No. 102 was an ex-Rymney Railway (one of three acquired by the War Department and had been built by Sharp, Stewart & Co. in 1872) It is illustrated next  to No. 104, a Hawthorn Leslie & Co. 0-6-0ST (possibly WN 1361/1875) and was one of twenty purchased by the NER and was disposed to Messrs Wake and acquired from them by the War Department. After disposal from Catterick it worked at a colliery in the Barnsley District. WD No. 86 was a side tank, former North Eastern Railway No. 968 and after WW1 was working at Milford Haven Docks. WD No. 104 was formerly NER No. 1361 (and in the photograph on p. 152 clearly displays its NER origin. Finally, Manning, Wardle & Co.' s standard four-wheel saddle tank engines 0-4-0ST, No. 2, R.A.F. was supplied by Messrs. Wake to the Royal Air Force, but so far, we have been unable to trace the aerodrome at which it worked and may not have been Catterick..

Great Western Railway. 152
The first two of the new  series of Castle class engines were into service: Nos. 5023 Brecon Castle and 5025 Chirk Castle. New 0-6-0 goods tank engines were Nos. 8700 and 8795-8. Engines withdrawn recently were 0-4-2 tanks Nos. 542, 829 and 833, 2-4-0 tanks Nos. 907, 975. 983 and 980, 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 639, 642, 1390, 1399, and 1535; 2-6-2 tank Nos. 3919, 0-6-0 tender engine No. 1094, and 4-4-0 tender engines Nos. 3328 and 3343 Camelot.

Russian Railways. 152
A Diesel-electric streamlined train of four coaches, capable of carrying 185 passengers at over 100 miles an hour, is to be introduced on the Leningrad-Moscow line this year. By equipping the train with special wheels and springs, M. Poluyan, the inventor, hopes to increase this speed by more than 50 per cent. The special wheels would, however, necessitate reconstruction of points and crossings.
Cravens Ltd. were building for the Russian Government what was believed to be the world's largest railway wagon. Its load capacity is 200 tons. It will be of the well type and 100 ft. in length, supported at each end on two siix-wheel bogies.

Partial re-numbering of locomotives. L.M. & S. Ry. 152-3
Comprehensive scheme of locomotive re-numbering had been adopted on the L.M. & S. R. and  was being brought into operation. When completed all standard engines will have numbers below 10000 and, when the older types are scrapped, all five figure numbers will automatically disappear. To reduce to a minimum the amount of re-numbering necessary, the new scheme is arranged so that well-known types, such as The Princess Royal, the Royal Scots and the Midland Compounds will not have their numbers changed.
The numbring was scheduld for three stages
First stage; 193 engines to be renumbered immediately
1. 2-4-0 ex-LNWR Precedent class
No. 5001 to be renumbered 25001
2.  4-6-0 3-cyl. 5X class (The Baby Scots) to be renumbered as follows:

old new old new old new
5971 5500 5983 5514 5996 5528
5902 5501 5902 5515 5926 5529
5959 5502 5982 5516 6022 5530
5985 5503 5952 5517 6027 5531
5987 5504 6006 5518 6011 5532
5949 5505 6008 5519 5905 5533
5974 5506 5954 5520 5935 5534
5936 5507 5933 5521 5997 5535
6010 5508 5973 5522 6018 5536
6005 5509 6026 5523 6015 5537
6012 5510 5907 5524 6000 5538
5942 5511 5916 5525 5925 5539
5966 5512 5963 5526 5901 5540
5958 5513 5944 5527 5903 5541

3. 4-6-0 ex L.N.W.R. Experiment and Prince of vVales classes.
Existing engines numbered between 5500-5552 and 5600-5664 to be re-numbered by adding 20000 to their present number.
4. 2-4-0 ex M.R.
The eight survivors numbered between 1 and 90 to have 20000 added to their present number, thus, No. 2 will become 20002.
5. 2-6-2 standard passenger tanks.
The seventy engines of this class, now Nos. 15500-15569 have already been re-numbered 1-70, whilst twenty more of this class now under construction will be allotted Nos. 71-90.
Second stage: Engines of standard types are to be re-numbered as they pass through the shops.
When any engine in the following nine groups is re-numbered should there be another engrne bearing its new number under the old classification, the latter will immediately be re-numbered also.
1. 0-4-0 Dock engines.
    Nos. 1540-1544 to become 7000-7004.
2. Diesel shunters.
    Nos. 7400-7408 to become 7050-7058.
3. 0-6-0 Dock engines.
    Nos. 11270-11279 to be re-numbered 7100-7109.
4. 0-6-0 Tanks.
    Nos. 1900-1959 to become 7200-7259.
    Nos. 7100-7156 to become 7260-7316.
    Nos. 16400-16764 to become 7317-7681.
5. 2-6-0 mixed traffic engines.
    Nos. 13000-13284 to be re-numbered 2700-2984.
6. 0-6-0 ex M.R. Nos. 2700-2984.
    Existing engines to have 20000 added to their present numbers.
7. Former L.N.W. and N.L.R. tanks.
    Surviving engines numbered between 7200-7399 and 7423-7681 to have 20000 added to their present numbers.
8. 4-6-0 ex L.N.W.R. "Experiment" and "Prince of Wales" classes
Engines not included in the First Stage of the programme mentioned above to have 20000 added to their present numbers.
9. 2-4-0 ex M.R.
    Surviving engines numbered between 91 and 279 to have 20000 added to their numbers.
Third stage: The remaining non-standard engines numbered below 10000 will have 20000 added to their numbers only when they are required by engines of standard type.

From the above, it will be seen that under the new scheme the standard type locomotives are allocated numbers as follows;-.
1- 399 2-6-2 tanks                                                                     Class 3
400- 799 4-4-0 simple                                                               Class 2
900-1199 4-4-0 compound                                                       Class 4
1200-1999 0-6-0 (proposed)                                                    Class 2
2000-2499 2-6-4 tanks (2 cylinder)                                          Class 4
2500-2699 2-6-4 tanks (3 cylinder)                                          Class 4
2700-3834 2-6-0                                                                    Class 4
3835-4899 0-6-0                                                                    Class 4
4900-4999 0-6-6-0 Garratts
5000-5499 4-6-0 mixed traffic                                                  Class 5*
5500-6099 4-6-0 Baby Scots                                                  Class 5X
6100-6199 4-6-0 Royal Scots                                                 Class 6
6200-6299 4-6-2 Princess Royals                                           Class 7
6400-6999 0-4-4 and 0-6-2 tanks                                             Class 2
7000-7049 0-4-0 dock tanks
7050-7099 Diesel shunters
7100- 7199 0-6-0 dock tanks                                                   Class 3
7200-7999 0-6-0 tanks
8000-8699 2-8-0
9500-9799 0-8-0                                                                      Class 7
* The new 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines will be classified 5 for both passenger and goods and will carry two separate indications, namely, 5 P and 5 F.
The Sentinel locos. are Nos. 7160-4 and 7190-1 and presumably these will be re-numbered in duecourse.

Repairing the Bransty Tunnel, Whitehaven.153
To connect the termini of the Whitehaven Junction Railway and the Whitehaven and Furness Junction Railway at the town of Whitehaven, a single line tunnel, 1320 yards in length, crossing the town, was built 80 years before. It is between Corkickle and Bransty stations on the L.M.S.R. coast line from Barrow in Furness to Carlisle. After an interval of 80 years since the tunnel was built the lining of red sandstone and brick has perished owing to the action of weather and engine fumes, and it is now being repaired in sections of 8 feet at a time, each section taking three weeks to complete. Owing to railway traffic, work can only be carried on between the hours of midnight and 4.30 a.m. and the repairs which started in 1932 will not be completed until 1936. Two squads of miners are engaged in the work. The first removes the crown of the tunnel arch, and this is followed by another squad which strips the tunnel lining from the crown to the foundations. A gang of bricklayers follows the miners, relining with bricks the portions removed by the latter, and about 20 men are engaged on the work,

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie. 154-5. 3 diagrams
First part. Second part: combustion and boilers: refers to Samuel Hall and Dewrance and Hawthorn in early attempts to burn coal. GB 13782/1851 enabled a mixture of coke and coal to be burned in the firebox. GB 69/1853 Certain improvements for economising fuel in the generation of steam (split firebox)

Electric locomotive design. VIII — Individual axle drives. 156-7. 2 illustrations, diagram
Jeaumont design applied to 1-Co-1 of the Midi Railway; subsequently adopted by Swiss Locomotive Co. The Buchli-SLM drive was applied on 41 2-Co-1 supplied by Metropolitan-Vickers to the GIPR. The Soc. Alsacienne de Constr. Mecanique supplied 2-Bo-Bo-2 to PLM; GEC/Hawthorn-Lesle with Oerlikon equipment supplied 2-Co-2 express locomotives to GIPR; Skoda drive was used in 1A-Bo-A1 for Czechoslovak State Railway; 1-Co-1+1-Co-1 for New York, New Haven & Hartford Railway used Westinghouse system with helical springs to relieve torque stresses;  and modified S.A. de Secheron AEG Kleinow on E04 and BLS series 201.

Single-driver tank locomotive, Bergslagernas Ry., Sweden. 162. illustration

H.C.S. Bullock. Miniature Pacific type locomotive. 164. illustration
Engine illustrated was built for 10¼ in. gauge by the writer to his own designs to produce a machine of maximum hauling power and at the same time obtain accessibility to all working parts. The two cylinders are 5 in. stroke by 3t in. bore fi.tted with piston valves 1 ~ in. dia. and 1! in. travel. The valve timing is 1/64 in. steam lead, 75% cut-off in full gear, 1/64 in. exhaust clearance or negative lap. The valves are actua- ted by a modified Baker gear. The cylinders are lubricated by a mechanical lubricator having separate pumps, one for each cylinder. A combined snifting valve and oil doping cup is fitted to each cylinder. Water pressure relief valves are fitted to the cylinder covers ; the drain cocks being operated from the foot plate. Inspection covers are provided opposite the four ports so that the valves can be set by sight instead of the usual measuring off on the valve spindle. . The driving and coupled wheels 12 in. dia. are heavy and wide on the treads and the gauge is decreased slightly to enable the engine to run freely around curves of small radius; a curve of 35 ft. radius can be taken with ease. The bogie wheels are 7 in. in dia. The inside framed bogie is allowed 1½. in. lateral play. The rear truck is fitted with outside frames in order to clear the ash pan which is sloped forward and drops the ash on the track; a front damper only is fitted. The pivot of the rear truck is in front and below the firebox. The wheels are 6 in. dia. and the axle which on an uneven track at times is heavily loaded, runs on ball bearings. A powerful steam brake is fitted ; all brake blocks are compensated. The boiler, which is after the pattern of the G.W.R. The Great Bear, is 13½ in. dia. at the front and 14½ in. at the firebox end. The barrel is 4 ft. long and the firebox outside is 2 ft. long, 6 ft. overall. Twenty-eight ~ in. dia. and five 1 in. dia. tubes are fitted ; the latter accom- modate a 5 element Swindon type superheater. The grate area is 262 square inches and the heating surface 37 square feet. The combined safety valve and top feed is designed in the form of a small dome from which the steam is collected. This dome is detachable and provides the inspection hole cover required by the insurance companies. The boiler is fed by one injector when standing and a double acting pump worked from the cross head when running. A by-pass control valve is fitted and can be operated from the foot plate. The engine is 10ft. long and 21 in. wide over foot plates, and 2 ft. 6 in. high to top of cab. The tender running on two four-wheel bogies fitted with ball bearings, carries 28 gallons of water and provides ample seating accommodation. All controls are easily accessible to the right hand from the driving position. The length of the tender is 5 ft. 4 in, making a total length of 15 ft. 9 in. over buffers. The weight in working order is 21 cwt. The loco. is so designed as to be easily converted to 9½ in. gauge

Raiway Club. 164
On Friday, 11 May a paper was read at headquarters, 57 Fetter Lane, London, by the Rev. R.B. Fellows. entitled The History of the British Non-Stop. Express.

Polish State Rail\ways. 164
Supplementing the note regarding the locomotive classification on the Polish State Railways in our last issue, page 104, the following will be of interest. The letter P denotes express locos., O means passenger, and T goods and mineral, while an additional k indicates a tank engine. Further indications are: c, 2-4-0;: d, 4-4-0; e. 2-4-2; f, 4-4-2; h, 0-6-0; i, 2-6-0 or 0-6-2; k, 4-6-0; I, 2-6-2; m 4-6-2; n, 2-6-4; p, 0-8-0; r, 2-8-0; s, 4-8-0; t, 2-8-2; u , 4-8-2; w, 0-10-0; y, 2-10-0; z, 2-10-2. Thus Pt 31 means a 2-8-2 express locomotive designed in 1931, Pu 29 is a 4-8-2 express locomotive designed in 1929, and Os 24 a 4-8-0 passenger engine of 1924. Smaller figures Pk 1, Pk 2, Ok 1, Tp 4, denote types in existence before the Great War, mostly of German origin, and some Austrian. Russian and other types are marked in hundreds, thus: Oi 101, Tr 103, Tp 102. Since the formation of the Polish State Railways Administration the following classes of engines have been designed: Tr 20, 2-8-0, built by Baldwins. Tr 21, 2-8-0, built by Chrzanow. Ok 22, 4-6-0, Ty 23, 2-10-0, various builders. Cs 24, 4-8-0, Chrzanow. Old 27, 2-6-0 Tank, Ceaielski. Pu 29, 4-8-2, Cegielski. Pt 31, 2-8-2 Chrzanow. Okz 32, 2-10-2 Tank,Cegielski. (The first of these is now on trial).

Backworth Colliery Co. 164
Acquired six coupled saddle tank locomotive No. 813 of the Great Western Rly. now No. 12 in their list, whilst the Seaton Burn Colliery have bought  No. 815, G.W.R. and numbered 2 in their stock. :

Frazer & Sons of Newcastle. 164
Sold G.W.R. engines Nos. 724 and 747 to the Hartley Main Collieries; now Nos. 24 and 25.

L. &: N.E.R. 164
Engines Nos. 900, 1308 and 1310 working on the Pelaw Main Collieries Railway.

Correspondence. 165.

Dublin and Kingstown Railway.  C.F. Dendy Marshall.
Re article issue for 15 October 1926, page 330 actually p. 336), on the early Dublin and Kingstown engines. There it is stated that the first two engines built by the company were the Star and Jupiter. From the minutes of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway (see his Centenary History, pages 105 and 106) it is clear that the Star was built by the Horseley Iron Company (designed by Isaac Dodds).

Rebuilt Pacifics, Paris-Orleans Ry. Metzeltin.
Re correspondence of Mr. Lubsen in March issue. After my experience the length of the grate of 3.7 m. does not prevent so very much a good distribution of the fire as the writer thinks. When I was a young man I had to fire locomotives with steeply inclined grates and I must confess that it was a very easy task. I had to put the coals at the back end of the grate only, and occasionally to spread some shovels evenly over the other parts of the grate. By the vibration of the engine the coal worked down to the front. Of course, a good distribution of the burning coal depends upon the incline and the type of coal, but this experience can be very soon gained by the fireman. Furthermore, when condemning the small grate area the writer has overlooked that the P.O. engine has a deep firebox with 50% to 70% more heating surface than the other locomotives alluded to. Therefore it is possible to burn efficiently more coal per square foot of grate area than usual with flat fireboxes, with the same economy. If the heavy draught lifts more particles of coal, one must consider that the way and time for burning out is a proportionally longer one than for flat fireboxes.

Rail cars. Julian S. Tritton. ,
Re editorial comments on my recent paper on Rail Cars I am credited with suggesting "on sight" running of cars "in congested areas." In my paper this suggestion was purposely limited to "certain sections," and I should perhaps have made it clear that branch line working was prirnarily referred to. There are many branch lines, especially abroad, where traffic at present does not exceed two or three mixed trains a day in each direction. By restricting these trains to freight only their number could be reduced, and their timings arranged to leave the line free for a "bus" service of passenger rail cars.
2. In such circumstances "on sight" working would be perfectly feasible, and would have many advantages, but the suggestion was not intended to apply to "congested areas.

Loco. No. 1, N.S.W. Govt. Railways. A.V. Green
As a keen student of railway history, and deeply impressed with the need of accuracy, permit me to draw attention to a matter which may cause great doubt to the engineer and historian of the future, if not explained to-day. On page 160 Locomotive 15 June 1921, and on page 410· Warren's Centenary of Locomotive Building," appears an illustration of Loco. No. 1 N.S.W. Govt. Railways. The description McConnel design and Stephenson's No. 958 is quite correct. But the corrugated iron cab, and its pillars were added after the engine commenced work here. What I wish to be noted, however, is that the tender shown is not the original. Old pictures indicate plainly that this was also of McConnel design with 6 wheels. Only the engine has been preserved; its tender was broken up long years ago. The tender in the illustrations I mention was a Beyer Peacock. I saw its maker's plate with year 1865 on it. Further, maker's No. 542 was stamped on its details, and this- was the maker's number of original No. 16 N.S.W.G.R. as per reports of Commissioners Rae and Goodchap to N.S.W. Parliament during the 1870s and 1880s. Will you do your best. to make this clear?

History of the London and South Western. locomotives. C.F. Dendy Marshall. 165-6
I have acquired a MS. "Report and Repairs Book" of this, line dated June 1849. It shows that 77 Wildfire was originally named Hecla; no doubt the name was changed in 1850. when No. 120 came out.
But what is more important, it is clear that the following engines were already in existence: 17 Queen, 18 Albert, 19 Briton, 20 Princess, and (21) Prince.
I shall be much obliged if any reader can give me some information about them (especially builders and dates).
In the articles which you published in 1903 no engines with. these names, nor with these numbers (the omission of the latter is significant; there is no reason why they should, have been left blank) are mentioned until the year 1852.
Beattie is said to have introduced numbers. My book. proves they were in use by June, 1849. In the Locomotive Magazine for 1903, Vol. 8 page 326, it says: "About 1850 Mr. J. V. Gooch resigned" In the volume for 1904, page 138, in. one of the articles on the G.E.R. locomotives, -it says he became locomotive superintendent of the latter railway in. August 1850.
Prior to Adams' arrival, there were three generations of engines numbered from 1 to 44 (alterations in the names- being made in only three cases), with the following exceptions : some of which can be explained, and others cannot. It may be noticed that the practice on the South Western. was to keep the numbers very close up, and not leave blanks.
Generation  I was 1838-44; II, 1852-6 (except Nos. 27-30) ,. and IIII, 1870-5.
The following are the exceptions referred to;-
3 Transit. No second generation. The first was a Tayleur- of 1838; the third a Beattie of 1870.
7 Venus and 8 Vesta. No second. The first were Sharps of 1838; the third Beatties, 1870.
22 Giraffe, 23 Antelope, 24 Elk, 25 Reindeer. No second. The first were Fairbairns of 1843; the third Beattie's, 1871-2. Nos. 27:30 can be easily understood. They were large Gooch singles of 1843-4, and, the second generation came later, namely 1862-3.
38 Vizier had no second generation; the first being a Rothwell of 1838, and the third a Beattie of 1871.
According to the articles in the Locomotive Magazine, there-is yet another, 45 Titan, but this can I think be explained, by an engine of 1855 being given as 145 Titan (Vol. VIII p. 394). This is almost certainly a mistake for 45 as they had not quite reached 145 by then, and 145 Hood came out in 1858. It therefore appears possible that Beattie may have built the following, or some of them, in the early fifties, which have been missed, namely 3, 7, 8, 22-25 and 38.
In the article in the Locomotive for 1906, pages 41 and 89, four goods engines by Beyer, Peacock and Co. which were dated April and May 1878, were omitted, namely 151 Montrose, 152 Marmion, 160 Thames and 162 Severn. Nos. 229 and 230 were also left out, but supplied in the corrective article in 1919. [cross references not checked, KPJ]

Operating costs. W.G.T.
Re leading article in February issue suggesting that "operating costs offer perhaps the most likely field for fruitful economies" on our railways. ' As a frequent traveller on the Weymouth line of the Southern, I have often thought that Dorchester is just such an instance. Here every passenger train has to run past the station and be flagged back into the old 1845 terminal platform. There appears to be no reason why a new platform could not be built on the up through line. The land required is only used as allotments and, from its position, ought to be obtainable very cheaply. The G.W.R. are now modernising their station at Dorchester ; perhaps one day the Southern will follow suit.

New L. & N.E.R. sleeping cars.. 166
On the sleeping cars used on the East Coast services, in order to make the compartments more distinctive, a scheme of different colours has been adopted for the decoration. For the first car shades of blue, yellow, green and pink were selected for the different pairs of compartments. Each berth is panelled in mahogany to a height of 3 ft. 6 in. above the floor, the panelling being plain without redundant moulding. Above this panelling the walls are finished in colour up to the ceiling, which is also coloured a lighter shade of that used on the wall. The blankets used in the different compartments are of colours which harmonise with the wall colours. The Wilton carpet is in blue and fawn laid over sponge rubber to deaden sound. All fittings are chromium plated. An ingenious illuminated toilet indicator is provided in the corridor so that a passenger can see if the lavatory is vacant or not from the door of his compartment. These cars with ten sleeping compartments, are 61 ft. 6 in. long, 12 ft. 10 in. high, and 9 ft. wide, and weigh 37 tons.

Special evening excursions to Southend on Sea. 166
From Liverpool Street and Ilford, at return third class fares of 2/- and 1/3 respectively have been introduced by the L. & N.E.Ry. They were run on Saturday and Sunday, 12 and 13 May, and will be repeated on the 26 and 27 May. The down journey will be covered in 63 minutes and the return in 62 minutes. Evening tickets are also being issued to Brighton by the Southern Rly. on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Thursdays at 4/- return from Victoria

Societé Nationale des Chemins de Fer BeIges. 166
Ordered eleven heavy-oil motor-trains. This brings the total of such units in Belgium up to twenty-nine. Ten of the new motor-trains are intended for short main-line and branch line working, and seat between 60 and 104 passengers; while a larger, 410 H.P. motor-train is to serve on long distance routes.

Great Southern Railwavs. 166
Nq. 335, a 4-4-0 mixed traffic engine. had been rebuilt at Inchicore with a Belpaire firebox, extended smokebox and superheater, but retains its original cab. The other engines of the 333 class which had been rebuilt have the new "canopy" cab. The new 0-6-2 tank engines Nos. 670-674 are all at work and are on the Dublin (Amiens Street) to Bray section. "-

Peruvian Corporation Ltd. 166
Lessees of the Central Railway of Peru, placed a contract for three oil-fired 4-8-0 locomotives with Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd. They were required for passenger service over a heavily graded track.

W. D. Knight, 166
Chief mechanical engineer, .Egyptian State Railways, retiring in July. Knight served as apprentice under Drummond of the L. & S.W . Railway. In 1907 he joined the Egyptian State Railways as divisional superintendent, later becoming assistant chief mechanical engineer. He was appointed chief mechanical engineer in June, 1933.

Michael B. U. Dewar. 166
Chairman and managing director of British Timken, Ltd., sailed for the United States to study industrial conditions in that country. Dewar was elected a vice-president of the Federation of British Industries.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers.166
At the general meeting held on 15 March the following were elected:-
Members: Cyril Eyers, deputy chief mechanical engineer, East Indian Railway; Edward Hodson Gray, chief mechanical engineer, Rhodesia Railways, Bulawayo, S. Rhodesia; Thomas Hornbuckle, chief· technical assistant to C.M.E., L.M.S. Rly., Euston; Friedrich Joseph Kuretschka, director Caprotti Valve Gears, Ltd., 66, Victoria Street, S.W.I.; Charles Robert Mayo, consulting engineer (Fox and Mayo), 155, Dashwood House, Old Broad St., E.C.2.
Transferred from Associate Member to Member: J oseph Campbell, chief draughtsman, F.C.P., Junin : Harold Montague Feltham. asst. traction supt., F.C.P., Buenos Aires; Harold Charles Moxon, asst. to C.M.E., F.C.C.C., Alta Cordoba; Leslie Barnett Norrish, asst. to C.M.E., F.C. Central del Uruguay. Penarol, Montevideo; David William Powell-John, asst. to C. & W. Supt., F.C.C.A., Rosario de Santa Fe.
Transfer from Graduate to Member: P. L. Falconer, Loco. Works Manager, F.C.C.A., Perez.
Associate members: Ernest Bradshaw, loco. running foreman, L.N.E. Rly .. Bradford, Yorks.; John Marshall Shedden Dale, junior draughtsman. L.M.S.R., St. Rollox, Glasgow; Frederick Turner, asst. traction engineer, Messrs. Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co., Ltd., Scotswood Works, Newcastle-on-Tyne, Transfer from Graduate to Associate Member: Sydney Thomas White, progress engineer, L.N.E.Ry., Openshaw Manchester. Graduates: Anil Nilmani Mukerji, special class apprentice of Indian State Railways, L.N.E. Ry. Running Shed, Newcastle-on-Tyne : John Inglis Scott, engineering apprentice, St. Rollox Loco. Works, L.M.S. Ry., Glasgow; Ramaswamy Subbiah, probationer, Indian State Railways, Motive Power Department, L.M.S. Rly., Kentish Town, N.W.

Southern Railway.166
The 22.15 goods train from Nine Elms to Exmouth Junction is made up of completely braked stock. It covers the 82 miles to Salisbury in 1 hour 46 minutes, nearly 50 miles per hour. 2 hours 20 minutes were allowed for the last 86 miles over a heavy road. The train usually consists of 49 wagons and a brake van.

Great Northern Railway (Ireland) . 166
New bogie dining car had been built at Dundalk, and was attached to the 08.15 Belfast to Dublin breakfast train, returning at 18.45. The novel feature of the car is the provision of a number of oval windows.

London Transport. 166
Decided to supplement the name of the station "Enfield West" with the name "Oakwood," which now appears on the station platforms. The name given to the station "Hillingdon" on the Uxbridge line had been supplemented with that of "Swakeleys," which is taken from a Tudor mansion nearby, and is well known in the district.

English Electric Co. 166
Building a standard gauge battery operated shunting locomotive for the Dundee Corporation Electricity Department. Kathanode locomotive type- batteries will be fitted, manufactured by the D. P. Battery Co. Ltd.

Number 502 (15 June 1934)

A comparison of 1896 with 1934. 167-9.

Three-cyl. 2-8-2 express loco., L. & N.E. Railway. 169-71. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 2001 Cock o' the North

An old locomotive favourite in New South Wales. 171-2. illustration
New South Wales Governmennt Railways Terrier type 0-6-0T built in Australia by Mort & Co. and Vale & Lacy in Sydney.

Two-cylinder Pacific type express locomotives, Alsace-Lorraine Railways. 172-3. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Societe Alsacienne design with bar frames and inside Caprotti valve gear

The first steam-tender loco. 174. diagram
La Jumelle built for the St Etienne and Lyons Railway in 1843 to design of Verpilleux. It was a steam tender or 0-4-4-0

Diesel-electric trains, Netherlands Railways. 175-7. 5 illustrations, diagram
Three car articulaterd units capable of being run in multiple joined by Scharfenberg coupling. Capable of 90 mile/h and desinged to cruise at 60 mile/h. Units built by Werkspoor, Beijnes and Allan with Maybach Vee-type 12-cylinder or by Ganz-Jendrassik 8-cylinder engines built uneder license by Stork Bros. of Hengelo with Brown Boveri or Smit electrical equipment. [KPJ: it makes the British Railways entry into diesel traction look even worse].  

300 h.p. double power bogie unit for the South African Rys. 178-9. 2 illustrations
Drewry Car Co. with Parson's 8-cylinder petrol engines

L.M. & S. Ry. 180
After two years' work, necessitating the use of 140 tons of new steelwork, 22,000 linear feet of electric welding and 66,400 welding electrodes, repairs have been completed to the Sharnbrook Viaduct carrying the main line of the L.M.S. Railway over the River Ouse at Sharnbrook, near Bedford. The viaduct, which was constructed in ]881, consists of 10 spans with a total length of 572 feet, and carries the two passenger tracks of the main line from St. Pancras to the Midlands and the North. Alongside it is another viaduct of 9 spans carrying the goods train tracks, and the electric arc-welding methods used in the repair of the passenger viaduct have proved so successful that the goods viaduct is to be similarly repaired in the near future. While repairing the underside of the superstructure, the welders worked on temporary trestles slung from the via- duct with the river 35 ft. below them and trains rumbling over the viaduct above their heads. The repairs, which consisted principally of providing a new steel floor and generally strengthening the wrought iron superstructure against the wear and tear caused by the passage over it of express trains travelling at high speeds, were begun in 1932 and have been carried on with very little interference to railway traffic. To provide power for the electric welding operations two 33-H.P. generating units were installed at the viaduct, and electric hammers, drills and a grinding machine were also in operation. The welding plant was obtained from the Quasi-Arc Company Ltd. and built to the railway company's requirements. Each machine consisted of a Donnan petrol engine of 33 b.h.p. driving a welding dynamo and auxiliary dynamo at 1,500 revs. per minute. This dynamo supplied current to three welders simultaneously, and each welder is supplied with a resistance regulator by which he can adjust the current to suit the particular type and size of electrode being used.

Great Western Railway. 180
4-6-0 express engines completed at Swindon were: 5023 Brecon Castle; 5024 Carew Castle; 5025 Chirk Castle; 5026 Criccieth Castle; 5027 Farleigh Castle.

L.M. & S. Railway (L. & N.W. Section). 180
Nos. 5553-5 are the latest 4-6-0 Baby Scot type locomotives with taper boilers to be completed and turned out, at Crewe. Of the preceeding series, the last five engines, Nos. 5547-51, were allocated to the Wester n Division and stationed at Preston. Two of the 0-6-2 coal side tanks. Nos. 7715 and 7722, had been converted from motor rodding to vacuum control gear for working push and pull truins. The 2-6-2 tanks attached to the Western Division had all been renumbered bearing Nos. 1-12, 16-20, 41-55 and 66-70. The following engines were now running rebuilt with standard Belpaire boilers: 4-4-0 George V class No. 5315; 0-6-0 18 in. goods class No. 8535; 4-6-0 19 in. goods class No. 8756; 0-8-0 class G1 Nos. 8945, 9239 and 9368. Recent withdrawals included the last of the Maryport and Carlisle locomotives, viz., 0-6-0 No 12514. Other withdrawals comprised two further Experiment class 4-6-0s, No. 5461 City of London and 5526 Bactria; and 4-cylinder Claughton class Nos. 5945 Ingestre, 5931 Captain Fryatt, and 6009 (no name).
4-6-2 Pacific No. 6201 Princess Elizabeth was attached to the Northern Division and located at Polmadie (Glasgow).
Midland 2-4-0 tender engine No. 155, had become Engineer, South Wales, with the plates on the splashers. The Clan class engines had been transferred from the Highland section to work passenger trains on the Callandcr and Oban line.

L N.E.Ry. 180
The name Cock o' the North carried by the new 2-8-2 engine, described in another part of this issue was formerly borne by one of the ex-N.B.R. Atlantics, No. 9903. This engine, had been renamed Aberdonian, which was carried by another Atlantic No. 9868, withdrawn from service.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulse. Tractive effort of compound engines. 180-2. 3 tables
Continued from page 140. Some formulae for the determination of the tractive force exerted by compound engines had already been given, see equations (2), (3) and (4), Chapter II. Further formulae, abstracted from the handbook of the American Locomotive Company are listed-

The history of the British non-stop express. 182-6

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: combusion and boilers. 186-7..  3 diagrams.
GB 13782/1953

The stream-lined diesel-electric train. 189-93. 4 diagrams including elevations & plans
Based on tests conducted on model trains and reported in Transactions of ASME in 1934.

New Post Office van for Belfast-Coleraine service, N.C.C., L.M.S.R. 195.
A new post office sorting van had been built by the I..M.S.R. (Northern Counties Committee) and was in service between Belfast and Coleraine. Built on the lines of the latest N.C.C. coaching stock, to harmonise with the general appearance of the trains to which it is marshalled, the new vehicle (No. 430) replaced the existing van, now out of date. The vehicle measured 43 ft. 10¼ in. over headstocks, and 9 ft. 6 in. wide over mouldings. It was somewhat larger than the vehicle replaced and afforded ample room for carrying out the postal work. The sorting sets, ranged along one side at the van, comprise three letter' sets of 48 boxes each, one newspaper set of 43 boxes with zinc-lined well in front and provision underneath for direct sorting. The registered letter desk had 30 boxes, was partitioned off from the main desk and had a roller shutter so that it may be locked up when not required. Underneath these sets the usual swivel seats had been provided. Opposite the sorting sets were large windows, giving ample light for sorting work, and below these was the bag rai1. In one corner of the van there was a nest of six drawers for stattionery and writing materials. The staff accommodation and appointments of the vehicle were up-to-date in every way, and included a three-compartment wardrobe, lavatory with hot and cold wash hand basin, electric urn for making tea, and rest seat and table for the staff. Full fire protection equipment was fitted, and the vehicle was electrically lit. We are indebted for the above particulars to Major Ma1colm Speir, manager of the Northern Counties Committee.

French Railways. 195
Widespread adoption of diesel locomotives and motor-trains is occurring in the services of all the French railways. There were 73 diesel motor-trains in service during 1933, and a further 213 were on order. The State Railway, with 28 motor-trains running, would shortly take delivery of 62 new units; the P.L.M. Railway was adding to its 14 motor-trains by a further 107, and had decided to order 3,500 h.p. diesel locomotives for the Paris-Mentone service, 690 miles; the Eastern Railway with eight motor-trains, had ordered 14; and the Northern' Railway, with six, had ordered 13. Apart from these orders, the Alsac~-Lorraine Railway, with three motor-trains running, had eight on order and was contemplating 14 more; the Southern. Railway was adding to its eight units by six, and the Paris-Orleans Railway was adding to its six motor-trains by four. These developments were the result of a policy to speed up services, win back traffic lost to the roads and reduce running costs: In this regard, M. Tirard, chairman of the Southern Railway Company, recently stated, "We have noticed on the Marmande to Mont de Marsan run which since 1 August used only diesel motor-trains, that passenger traffic increased 7%, while other lines in this district, which use steam locomotives recorded a 10% decline." The developments were also bemg watched closely in official quarters as it is added they will probably put a stop to further track electrification: electrification, which is particularly vulnerable to aerial attack, is already being opposed by the War Department for strategical reasons in so far as the Eastern, Northern and P.L.M. systems are concerned.

Loughman St. L. Pendred. 195
Among the King's Birthday honours Loughman St. L. Pendred, past president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and editor in chief of The Engineer, had been honoured with the C.B.E.

Correspondence. 195

The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. F. Gaiser.
Re Derens' article on the Holland Railway locomotives in the May issue: some time ago an old hand-written locomotive list of the Cologne and Minden Railway came to hand in which the builder's numbers of the four engines, Ruhrort; Essen, Guetersloh and Bielefeld are registered in the following order: 63, 61, 62, 64 Thus, the identity of the Zaan with the Bielefeld is now beyond doubt.
As to the photo of the Muenster, this was given to me by Mueller, a former locomotive fcreman to the C. and M. Railway at Dortmund, in 1910, when he was living in retirement in his country home at Neuenahr. He died in 1911. Druitt-Halpin knew him well. The engine-driver in full dress, standing on the footplate of the Muenster, was his father. As I distributed several copies of the photo to my friends there are now, of course, more than one collection in which they may be found. In 1912, I published the Muenster in the Locomotive Mag, V. 20 (p. 218), and this was the first publication of it.
I am longing to mention my admiration for the thorough, well - documented and inspiring work which Derens is doing. The list of weights included in the December number is especially interesting inasmuch as it enables one to distinguish the 2-2-2 long-boiler engines from those having the rear carrying axle behind the firebox. In the former type of engine the adhesive weight was always a little less than a third of the total weight, whereas in the latter it would be considerably more than a third. From this view, of ne engines Nos. 13-19, 21-27 and 29-36, the following appear to have been of the long-boiler description: 13-19, 21, 22, 24 and 30, whereas 25-27, 29 and 31-36 were decidedly of the other type. The engine No. 23 (Holland) seems to conceal some mystery, as its dimensions (see November number, p. 322) are much too small for a locomotive built in 1856 and as in it the adhesive weight surpasses only slightly a third of the total weight. The dimensions are the same as those of the Stephenson engines Komeet and Vesta of 1842, and this seems to indicate that the Holland was one of the earlier engines of the railway and that it was reconditioned about 1856 and the rear axle moved back under (not behind) the firebox, so involving the change of weights. Fig. 8 (November issue, p. 324) is extremely interesting in showing the slotted-out frame which was a peculiarity of the Great Western broad-gauge engines.

One hundred years of railway coaches. W.B. Thompson
May I add a few comments to your article on p. 119. The earliest British sleeping cars were, I think, those which began running between Euston and Glasgow in 1873. The accommodation was by no means luxurious, and I only once travelled in one of these cars. The Pullman sleepers on the Midland Scottish trains were of the ordinary American type with fore-and-aft berths, but of course they had not the advantage of modern electric lighting. The Pullman draw- ing 1'00111 cars on the Midland day Scotch expresses were perhaps the most comfortable vehicles I have ever seen on a British railway. The reason why they were not more used was that not many people could afford to use them. The Midland company had already taught the public to expect to be carried in the best trains at fares of Id. per mile, and few passengers were willing to pay the first class fares plus a Pullman supplement. These drawing room cars, like the older American Pullmans, had open platforms at the ends, and when a boy I once, for the sake of experience, stood out on an end platform while the train ran at full speed through Blea Moor tunnel.
The L. & N.\V.R. 42-feet coaches were 8-wheelers, not 6- wheelers. They were not bogie vehicles, but the two end axles were fitted with the Webb radial axle box arrange- ment. I remember seeing chassis which had been put together at Crewe being hauled to Wolverton to have the bodies added. The 6-wheeled coaches were much smaller and only weighed about 13 tons.

Number 503 (14 July 1934)

What determines the Useful Life of a Steam Locomotive?  197
It may not be realised by many of our readers that the period of useful life of a locomotive has been legally defined. In the case of Hitchin versus the Great Northern Railway, a pre-war l[i.e. pre-1914] egal dispute originating over a matter of rating, the Court, assisted by proper engmeering assessors, came to the conclusion that the useful life of a locomotive was 30.4 years, after which span the increasing cost of repairs added to the reasonable assumption that as a mechanical appliance It was out of date was held to justify replacement on financial grounds. Such decisions can, naturally, only be made up on averages but none the less they are reasonably sound; possibly, for example, the period of 30.4 years was found to be the average life of two boilers and, as most of us are aware, the condition of the boiler is often the decisive factor in questions of scrapping. Since that decision the added requirements of locomotive work and the greater boiler pressure have increased the general rate of wear and tear, and it is reasonable to assume that the period of useful life has shortened since the Hitchin decision to, say, 25 or even 20 years. What are the implications of the Court's conclusions in this case? At the outset we would emphasise the suggestion that removal from service should depend on economic grounds and not on possibilities of repair. Too often an engine, now unfit for its designed work by reason of increased speeds and loads, is reconditioned for the nth time and put on to secondary, tertiary or even more minor services yet which no doubt are performed with ease and magnificent appearance but without reference to the economics of the matter. Thus one may see any day express engines with 6 ft.-7 ft. driving wheels probably designed in the nineties and reboilered early in the present century with higher pressure and enlarged heating-surface working a two-three coach train over an insignificant branch; or we read of the conversion of engines to auto-train purposes, presumably two-coach units at the outside, designed in the seventies [1870s] for what in those days constituted heavy local goods or mineral traffic; or again an incredibly dirty specimen of the freight- service power of the eighties [1880s] may be seen engaged in yard-shunting.
We suggest therefore that the major implication is that there is a financial limit to the disrating process whereby an engine is relegated to increasingly light services as its age advances and newer types appear and that on the attainment of this limit the engine should be scrapped without reference to its state of repair; we find ourselves unable to believe that modern locomotive engineering is incapable of designing power which from the operating as well as the financial side will justify the removal of obsolete or even obsolescent types that otherwise would be engaged on work for which they were never designed. The minor implication is that an increased renewal programme would have an exhilarating effect upon the locomotive building industry and that the repercussions of improved business would in turn react favourably on the traffic receipts of the railways who, when all is said and done, are dependent upon prosperity for prosperity.

G.W.R. 197
Air-conditioned quick lunch-bar cars decoratcd in shades of grcen and silver and illuminated by champagne coloured lights, were introduced by the Great Western Railway. The cars, which are of the saloon type, with large windows, were 57 feet long and 9 feet wide. A counter runs the whole length of the saloons at which passengers may obtain quick luncheons or light refreshments. Stand-up rest seats of modern design had been provided along the counter, beneath which was a recess for hand-bags, etc. Each car was equipped with refrigerators, griller, hot-plate and special apparatus for supplying hot water, milk and coffee. The cars brought into use on  9 July 9th, ran in the following services: 09.45 Paddington to Stourbridge Junction, 14.40. Stourbridge Junction to Birmingham, 16.05 Birmingham to Paddington, 09.00 Bristol to Paddington, 17.]5 Paddington to Bristol.

London Midland & Scottish Ry. (L. & N. W. Section).  197
In addition to Iocomotivcs Nos. 5552-6, all of which were in service on the Western Division and stationed at Preston, a further ten 4-6-0 three-cylinder passenger engines of the improved "Baby Scot" typc with taper boiler were being turned out at Crewe: numbers commence at 5607, thus fol!owing the fifty similar engines, Nos. 5557-5606, ordered from the North British Loco. Co., and of which delivery would shortly commence. The re-numbering uf non-standard engines in the 20,000 series include two 4-6-0 Expcriments not affected by the scheme applied to standard cngines: Nos. 5456 and  5473. renumbercd 25456 and 25473 respectively. 0-6-2 coal tank No. 7838 had been fitted with vacuum control gear for working push and pul" trains, while 0-6-2 18-in. tank No. 6890 had its motor rodding gear rrmoved. Recent transfers include 4-6-0 Experiments Nos. 25509 and 25511 from Central to Western Division, The remaining Experiments were attached to the Westrrn Division. Latest rebuilds with standard Belpaire boilers were 4-4-0 George V class No. 5403; 0-6-0 18-in. goods No. 8509; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos, 8954 and 9239; and 0-8-0 G2 class No. 9437, The new Diesel shunting engine No. 7408 which was engaged at Crewe sorting sidings is now at work on shunting duty at Camden.

Six-engined "Sentinel" steam locomotives for Colombia. 198-202. 3 illustrations, diagram (detailed side elevation & plan)
Sentinel Waggon Works of Shrewsbury for metre gauge. Locomotive tested on Societe Nationale de Chemins de Fer Vicineaux Belges between Marches and Bastogne. Woolnough water tube boiler operating at 550 psi. Bogies had a Bissel truck.

Oil-engined buffet railcars, Great Western Ry. 203-5. 3 illustrations, diagram (side elevation & plan)
Supplied by Associated Equipment Company with Park Royal Coachworks bodywork to requirements of C.B. Collett. To seat 40 passengers; two toilets, cafeteria and bar. Used on Birmingham to Cardiff service with supplement charged on third class fare.

Test run with engine No.2001 "Cock o' the North", L. & N.E.R., between King's Cross and Barkston. 205-6.

The high-speed steam locomotive. 207-10. 3 diagrams
In part inspired by the German Henschel high speed steam train.

Boiler for 4-6-2 express locomotive, "Princess Royal", L.M.S.R.. 229-30. 5 diagrams.

Number 504 (15 August 1934)

The relation of the loco. dept. to the railway organisation as a whole. 231.

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and formulae. Chapter XII. Main frames: loads and forces.  232-4. 5 diagrams.
Static weight distribution (vertical) is disturbed when locomotive is in motion. Shock stresses also arise. Shows effect when locomotive lifted by sheer legs. Loads are also applied in horizontal direction and begins considerationn of cylinder forces.

Festiniog and Welsh Highland Railways. 234-5.

London Transport Board, engine No. 23. 235-6. illustration

Rebuilt goods loco., L.N.E.R. (G.E. Section). 236. illustration
J15 No. 7902 illustrated (photograph: E.R. Wethersett): locomotive had been involved in a buffer stop collision at Ongar and foolowingv repair in works had new stle chimney, pop safety valves and improved tender

O.J. Morris. The Lydd (Kent) Military Railway and its locomotives. 238-41. 3 illustrations, 2 tables
Established in 1883 to serve Artillery test ranges and locomotives acquired in 1885.

WD No. type name manufacturer WN acquired


0-6-0ST Manning Wardle 948/1885



0-6-0ST Manning Wardle 968/1885



0-6-0T Napier Hunslet 882/1905



0-4-2T Nicholson Fowler 10978/1907



0-4-0ST Trafford Manning Wardle 1926/1887*



0-4-0ST Betty Avonside 1769/1917


*Rebuilt in 1903

300 H.P. oil-electric locomotive at work on the L.M.S.R. 242-3. illustration, diagram (sectionalised elevation)
Built by English Electric Co. Ltd. in conjunction with Hawthorn, Leslie & Co. Ltd. Diesel electric shunting locomotive tested in Rugby yard and in Crewe yard on hump shunting. Work on branch line freight and passenger trains anticipated. Much made of continuous availability.

A "stream-line" locomotive of thirty years ago. 244-6. illustration, 2 diagrams (including side elevation)
Dr von Wittfeld of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works design for a three-cylinder compound 4-4-4 with the driver's controls at the front within a V-shaped cab nd the fireman in the normal position. The cranks were set in the same plain for all three cylinders. The locomotive was built by Henschel & Son in 1904.

F.W. Brewer. Locomotive regulators. Some early and modern types. 246-8.

Obituary.  262
Death of Fred Bland, a former director of Edgar Allen & Co. Ltd. He was an authority on tramway track, points and crossings, and the writer of many articles on the history of railways.

Northern Rly. of France. 262
An oil-electric train of three vehicles was tried between Paris and Lille. The two end coaches had each a generating set with a heavy oil engine of 400 H.P. and two motors on the axles. A streamline smoothness is obtained by rubber panels between the coaches. Ten of these trains were to be built by the Societe Franco-BeIge. With stops at Amiens, Arras and Douai, the trial run of 160¼ miles between Paris and Lille was covered in 160 minutes.

Making spring hangers, etc., without drilling. 262
Spring hangers are being made in the Milwaukee shops of the C.M.St.P. & Pacific Railroad without drilling: the hardened bushes being pressed into punched holes made in the hanger, and whilst it is hot.

London Transport. 262.
Consideration had been given to the name of "Chancery Lane" station on the Central London line. Suggestions had been made that a more exact description of the location is desirable, having regard to the fact that the new entrances to the station are at the top of Gray's Inn Road. It had been decided to supplement the name "Chancery Lane" with the name "Gray's Inn."

London & North Eastern Ry. 262
New 4-4-0 Hunt class engines recently completed at Darlington Works were 205 The Albrighton, 214 The Atherstone, 217 The Belvoir, 222 The Berkeley and 226 The Bilsdale. These were to be followed by another fifteen engines of this class. The passenger service between Stirling and Buchlyvie and between Gartness and Balloch was to be withdrawn as from October 1.

Great Southern Rlys. (Ireland) .262
Announced that the line between Galway and Clifden (50 miles)  to be closed on August 27 and between Westport and Achill on Sept. 2. Both formed part of the Midland Great Western system and were much used by tourists and visitors to Connemara.

0-4-4 tank engine, No. 6408 LM. & S.R. 263. illustration
E.R. Wethersettt photograph of No. 6408 on Stanmore branch train. Stanier falsely accused of being responsible for design with its stove pipe chimney.

Number 505 (15 September 1934)

Two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic locomotives, L.M.& S. Ry.. 266-7. illustration, diagram (s.& f.elevations)  + plate
No. 5020 built at the Vulcan Foundry: both photographs are of same locomotive: Stanier class 5: first ten to be allocated to Highland section.

T.R. Perkins. The Saundersfoot Railway. 272-6. 4 illustrations, map

Rebuilt dining car, G.N. Rly (Ireland). 276-7. 2 diagrams (including side & end elevations and plan)
Car had suffered damage in a malicious derailment and had been restored with high pressure for cooking

F.W. Brewer. Locomotive regulators, some early and modern types.  278-9 2 diagrams
Lockyer and Hulburd types

75 H.P. standard "Hunslet" diesel locomotive. 287. illustration
Built for work in South America and supplied through Robert Hudson Ltd., Leeds, is one of a range of standardised small diesel locomotives. The design is not new, but it has been brought up to date in almost every detail, due to the experience gained from locomotives of this type m service all over the world, several of which have been at work since 1928. The main frame which carried the engine and gearbox was constructed on locomotive lines from two vertical frame plates, the frame stays being not only between the frames but also extending to the extreme limit of width of the locomotive where they were riveted to a pair of heavy steel channel sections. The engine was a four-cylinder McLaren unit delivering 75 B.H.P. at 1,000 r.p.m, and identical with that fitted in the articulated locomotive supplied to W oolwich Arsenal. The clutch was the' 'Hunslet" patent multiple disc type and the drive is then taken through a flexible coupling to the gearbox. This is of the usual built-up type rigidly bolted between the frames, constant mesh gearing, the wheels being of nickel chrome case hardened steel and the changes being effected by heavy dog clutches. The change, however, is not of the automatic type but is operated directly by the driver, the gear change lever and reverse lever being placed conveniently in the cab for operation. The final drive from the gearbox is by chain to the trailing axle and by coupling chains to the intermediate and leading axles. Sanding gear fitted, both leadmg and trailing.:Locomotive weight 10 tons and capable of hauling about 300 tons on the level.

Southern Railway. 287
No. 862 Lord Collingioood. (Lord 1\clson class) has been experimentally fitted with a double chimney. No. 923 Uppingham (Schools class) has been renamed Bradfield. Tbe old L.B.S.C.R. running shed at llattersea Park was closed on 1 July and the engines transferrcd to the former S.C. & C.R. shed at Longhedge close by, which officially known as Stcwarts Lane.
A. B. McLeod has been appointed Assistant Western Divisional Running Superintendent in succession to the late H. P. Dawson. J. E. Bell succeeded McLeod as Divisional Superintendent for the Isle of Wight.

Egyptian State Railways. 287.
The new chief mechanical engineer is Abdel Rahman Harnada Bey, M.C., in succession to Mr. W. D. Knights, who retired recently.

North Western Railway of India. 287
E. L. Manico had been appointed deputy chief mechanical engineer of this system.

Obituary. 287
The death occurred on Aug. 19 of  Edward Herbert Hart, at Bitterne, Hants, aged 78 years. Mr. Hart was formerly a district locomotive uperintendent on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway and on many occasions officiated as head of the locomotive department. Mr. Hart served on the Great Northern Railway in his early days.

[Robert Coey]. 287
Death at Harrogate on 24 August of Robert Coey, formerly locomotive engineer of the Great Southern and Western Railway of Ireland, in his 84th year. Coey was a native of Belfast, and went to Inchicore Works as a draughtsman in 1876. He was appointed chief draughtsman in 1880 and assistant locomotive superintendent and works manager a few years later. When lvatt left Inchicore to become locomotive superintendent of the G N.R. in 1896, he was succeeded by Coey, who held office as locomotive superintendent of the G.S, & W. Railway until 1911, when he retired.

Lieut.-Col. M. M. Bidder, 287
Died at the age of 55 on 26 August as a result of a motor accident. was formerly vice-chairman of Kitson & Co. Ltd. Col. Bidder was a grandson of the famous G,P. Bidder, the "Calculating Boy," and a colleague of Robert Stephenson in the early days of railways. His father was G. P. Bidder, Q,C. Col Bidder joined Kitson & Co. as a director in 1912. During the War he saw service in Gallipoli and elsewhere.

Number 506 (15 October 1934)

Three-cylinder 4-6-0 passenger engine, L.M. & S. Railway. 296. illus
Slight modifications to weight distribution and tender: No. 5573 illustrated built North British Locomotive Co. with 4000 gallon tenders

T.R. Perkins. The Saundersfoot Railway. 297-300. 4 illustratuions

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and fprmulae. 300-3. 4 diagrams, table
Brakes and brake rigging, See errata on page 340

New Post Office vehicles, L.M.& S. Railway. 304-5. 3 illustrations
Three 60ft and one 57ft sorting vans. The 60ft vehicles were fitted with mail exchange apparatus and had toilets, electrically heated hot water and electric ovens. All were fitted with Post Office gangways. Design credited to Stanier.

F.W. Brewer. Locomotive regulators, some early and modern types. 305-8. 3 diagrams
Joco balanced type with three valves; M.L.S. multiple valve type, Owen regulator

Beyer-Garrett tank loco, for the British Iron & Steel Co. Ltd. 314.  illustration
0-4-4-0T with 3ft 4in diameter coupled wheels, 14 x 20in cylinders and 185 psi boiler pressure. Hauled dead to Cardiff via Wrexham and Oswestry

W.B. Thompson. Notes on railway travel in Canada. 318-19
Journey from Montreal to the Rockies and back using the Canadian Pacific Railway. Noted that fewer trains than in Europe, but that they ran at high speed and appeared to be punctual. The most exciting part was thr journey through the Kicking Horse Pass viewed from the observation car.

[World's fastest newspaper train]. 319
The 01.20 Paddington to Swansea was faster to Newport than the fastest day train. Swansea was reached at 05.44 and connections were arranged for newspapers to arrive in time for Welsh breakfasts

Propulsion of the Cunard-White Star liner "Queen Mary". 319-20. illustration
Eight very heavy bronze propellers manufactured  by J. Stone in Deptford and by the Manganese Bronze & Brass Co. of Millowall had to be moved by road to the Surrey Commercial Docks for shipment to the Clyde

Locomotive connecting  rods. 320-1
Nickel chromium steels had been replacced by vanadium steels. Electric furnaces tended to be used.  Limits for phosphorus, sulphur and manganese. Heat treatment. Bushes.

The running shed foreman. 321-2.
Charateristics necessary: age, temperament, technical ability, ability to be able to maintain disipline, etc

The last of the L. & N.W.R. "Precedents.". 327
On the withdrawal of the L.M.S.R. summer services, the last of the L. & N.W.R. Precedent class of 2-4-0 passenger engines, No. 25001 Snowdon, was taken from traffic. Apart from being the last of its class in service, it was also the only one to come under the recent renumbering scheme. Snowdon was built at Crewe in 1875, and was one of the original "Precedents." Stationed at Penrith shed, its last duties were to work the 3.5 p.m. train to Whitehaven and back. It will be remembered that one of the 6 ft. 6 in. 2-4-0 engines, Hardwick, is preserved as a relic at Crewe Works, and there are still a few used as engineers' departmental engines at Lancaster, Watford, Bangor, etc.

American locomotive notes. 327
A streamlined locomotive of the 4-4-4 type with 7 ft. driving wheels had been ordered by the Baltimore and Ohio R.R. and would be ready soon. A streamlined Diesel car was also in hand for the B. & O. Other orders for locomotives recently placed were 20 of the 4-8-4 type for the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western, also 20 tender engines to be converted to tank shunters and 20 other engines of various types. The Boston & Maine R.R. ordered 6 freight engines and one shunter as well as 4 passenger engines (4-8-4 and 4-6-2 types). The Nickel Plate line was purchasing 15, 2-8-4 type and 5 shunters; the Lehigh Valley 5, 4-8-4 type; Seaboard Air Lines 5, 2-6-6-4 type. Pittsburg and West Virginia 3, 2-6-6-4 type, and the Northern Pacific 10, passenger locomotives. Other lines were reconditioning many engines that had been idle during the slump period.

Great Southern Railways (Ireland). 327
The Galway-Clifden, Westport-Achill branches and also the Cork and Muskerry Light Railway were being kept open for all traffic until further notice. A new signal cabin had been erected at Dublin, Amiens Street, and would shortly be brought into use, and when done the Great Southern will signal its own trains into and out of the City of Dublin Junction platform at Amiens Street independently of the Great Northern Co. whose signal box had hitherto controlled all movements at the north end of the station.

Personal. 327
G.W. Duncan has resigned his appointment as publicity manager of the London Passenger Transport Board. W. Gott, commercial advertising officer (railways), and H.L. Spratt, commercial advertising officer (buses and tramways), will continue to be responsible for their respective sections of the Publicity Department. H.T. Carr will be acting publicity manager and responsible for the remainder of the work of the department including the press bureau, traffic advertising, and public letters.

Eastern Bengal Railway. 327
G. Thomson, deputy chief mechanical engineer, has been appointed to officiate as chief mechanical engineer. C.A.K. Bradley officiates as deputy C.M.E in his place.

Correspondence. 327

[State of Britain's railways]. R.B. Hunt
On the eve of my departure for South Africa it may be of interest for me, as a railway enthusiast, to let you have my reactions on the English railway systems, based on observations during frequent travels whilst in the "Old Country. "
The first thing that struck me, and very much disappointed me, was the poor outward condition of all locomotives. In my boyhood days I was always thrilled with the beauty of our locomotives, and I submit that this fact is the fundamental reason for the much-desired enthusiasm of the younger generation. Whilst appreciating fully the heavy expense of maintaining all railway stock to perfection, surely it might be possible to give special attention to the "crack" locomotives of the different lines. As an instance, I submit that, as there is always a large crowd of interested onlookers to see the departure of the 10.30 a.m. Cornish Riviera express, headed by one of the magnificent King class engines, surely all the Kings should be spotless and brilliant in appearance.
These engines are beautifully finished as they leave Swindon works; it therefore appears to be a great pity that this is not maintained during useful life.
The condition of the carriages also leaves much to be desired. One of my particular extravagances is to always travel first class at a cost somewhat approaching twice that of third. But what do I get for that heavier investment? The train goes no faster and runs as no higher cost; the only difference appears to be that the compartments are constructed to hold less people and one is honoured with an antimacassar. Generally the compartments were not clean and one longed to get a vacuum cleaner and bucket of' petrol, as well as a sponge to clean the windows.
I would add that the Pullman Brighton Belle, in which, I travelled to Brighton, is an extreme exception. This is. the most beautiful and comfortable train I have ever travelled in.
Your train service has to compete to-day with the modern, comfortable and fast motor car on beautiful highways and can only do so by offering transport more comfortable and faster.
This leads me to my next point, speed. Whilst it may be accepted that England easily leads in this, yet there is much to be done to maintain the supremacy over the motor' car which has developed its speed out of all recognition .. We have to-day two-hour expresses to Birmingham and Bristol, but we had them years and years ago. I am certain that these times could be considerably improved, proved sufficiently for my satisfaction by the Cheltenham Flyer which has, I believe, travelled from Swindon to London in 61 minutes. Surely this is not the only section of Our railway on which a speed of 80 m.p.h. can be maintained. With your perfect tracks one should be allowed to expect; speeds up to 90 and even 100 m.p.h.
Much could be done by your railway companies to lay stress on the exceptional safety to the travelling public of' their services. One reads regularly of hundreds killed and' thousands injured on the highways, yet with thousands of" millions of miles covered by your trains annually hardly a, life is lost. I believe I am right in stating that the Underground system has yet to lose a life through accident. With this in mind much could be done to bring this safety- factor forcibly before the public mind. See response from A. Sinkinson in nxt volume

The high speed steam locomotive. 327
It was very pleasing to note that the article on the above- had called forth Mr. Keiller's letter (August) which I quite appreciate. The main object of the article was to call attention to the possibilities still extant with steam, if high-speed- light trains are to be the fashion, and if steam is to be retained, no doubt a great deal of controversy will arise- as to the best type of locomotive, as the simplicity of a debate "single versus coupled" will be a relatively small item compared with the arguments of high-pressure boiler design, geared engine prospects, etc. The orthodox steam loco. however still appears to be in the running, and I am sure both Mr. Keiller and myself look forward to the C.M.E. in combination with the directorate who will in due course produce- the right machine for this work.

Number 507 (15 November 1934)

Anti-friction bearings. 329-30
National Physiucal Laboratory report on roller bearings. employed on Metropolitan Railway electric multiple unit train axleboxes. Savings in cost of lubricant and maintenance

2-8-2 heavy goods tank locomotive, "7200" class, G.W. Rly.. 330-1. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
No. 7200 illustrated. Intended to replace Aberdare 2-6-0. 52XX 2-8-0T rebuilt with trailing radil truck to accommodate larger bunker holding 6 tons of coal; also larger water tanks.

Great Western Railway. 331
Ten new Hall class 4-6-0 locomotives from Swindon: Nos. 4941 Campion Hall, 4942 Doldowlod Hall; 4943 Elmdon Hall; 4944 Ickenham Hall; 4945 Leckhampton Hall; 4946 Marwell Hall; 4947 St. Benet's Hall; 4948 Siddington Hall; 4949 Trematon Hall and 4950 Wardley Hall.

2-6-0 locomotives for the West Highland line, L. & N.E.R. 331. illustration
K2 No. 4700 Loch Lomond with side window cab.

Diesel-electric shunting locomotive for the Port of Rosario. 332. illustration
Supplied by Henschel & Son of Cassel with Sulzer of Winterthur engine

American locomotive notes. 332
2-6-6-4 Mallet fot Pittsburg & West Virginia R.R.; Baltimore & Ohio R.R. considering a three-cylinder compound design of 4-8-4 for express traffic with 6ft 8in coupled wheels; a single inside 27 x 30in high pressure cylinder and two outside 30 x 30in cylinders. A new 4-4-4 was ready for service. The Pennsylvania R.R. had ceased to develop steam locomotives for its Philadelphia to Wshington route as this was beinng electrified.

North West State Rly.: notes on the locomotives of India's largest railway. 332-5. 8 illustrations.
Illustrations: 2-6-6-2 Mallet No. 490 on freight train at Jhelum; remainder  photographs by P.S.A. Berridge: Class E 4-6-0 No. 427; Beyer-Garratt 2-6-2+2-6-2 on heavy freight on Lalamusa & Rawal section; Kitson-Meyer hauling freight on 2ft 6in gauge Kalka Simla line; NG class 0-8-0 shunting locomotive No. 913; H/GS 2-8-0 Nos. 1710 and 412; above Hirok the Karachi to Quettan Mail hauled and banked by H/GS 2-8-0 locomotives; Caprotti four-cylinder Pacific XS class on Karachi Mail leaving Lahore.

Great Northern Railway of Ireland. 335
The Bainbridge to Scarva line had reopened using a railbus on all weekday services but steam trains on Saturdays. The railbus worked through to Newry.

Forth & Clyde Junction Railway. 335-6. illustration
Passenger services ceased on 29 September 1934, but freight services remained. The line linked Stirling with Alexandria 26 miles away. The line was characterised by many curves and many level crossings. It was first projected in 1845 and was revived in 1852 with an Act being passed in 1853, It opened on 20 May 1856 and was operated by the Scottish Central Railway until 1859 when four locomotives were ordered from Peto, Brassey and Betts' Canada Works in Birkenhead. These were Crewe type 2-4-0 with 16 x 26in outside cylinders and 5ft coupled wheels. The North British Railway took over in August 1871 and the locomotives were renumbered 401-404
In 1879 Nos. 401 to 403 were replaced by 17in. Drummond goods engines. No. 404 was rebuilt at Cowlairs in 1874. In 1883 it was put on the duplicate list as 404A. In 1895 it was re-numbered 835 and was scrapped in 1900. Two of the ex Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway singles went to work this section some time after the NBR had taken it over. Later the line was worked by 0-4-4 and 4-4-2 tanks. The advent of the motor omnibus sealed the fate of the line. As most of the stations were at some considerable distance from the villages they were intended to serve, the 'buses lifted people from their doors, and thus took the bulk of the traffic. In 1928 a Sentinel railcar service was put into operation, but even this was run at a loss. At the time of closing the cars so engaged were 31073 Quicksilver. and 39 Pearl. The Lennoxtown- Buchlyvie-Aberfoyle passenger service remained.

London & North Eastern Rly. 336
On completion of the new series of Hunt class engines at Darlington Works, we understand the next order to be put in hand will be for another five Sandringham class 4-6-0 engines: Nos. 2843 Champion Lodge; 2844 Earlham Hall; 2845 Gilwell Park; 2846 Helmingham Hall, and 2847 Kimberley House. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. have completed the following "K3" class 2-6-0 tender engines for the Northern Area:- Nos. 1302, 1304, 1306, 1308, 1310, and 1324, and for the Southern Area, Nos. 2934 to. 2937. Another three of the 4-4-4 tank engines, Nos. 1519, 2149 and 2153 had been converted to the 4-6-2 type, class A8, completing the order for ten to be reconstructed this year at Darlington. A start has been made with another series of J39 class goods engines at Darlington, the first seven bearing the numbers 1475 to 1479, 1488 and 1490. These are to have the tenders of the Raven Pacifies which are being provided with standard 8-wheeled tenders. The name of No. 362 given in our last issue as Goatham should be Goathland. New Pacifies built at Doncaster are Nos. 2505 Cameronian; 2506 Singapore, and 2507 Salmon Trout.

56-seater Michelin railcar, French State Rlys. 336-7. 2 illustrations
Following extended trials over three years with Michelin pneumatic tyred railcars, the French State Railways put into service a 56-seater coach, for operation in both directions. The illustrations give a good idea of its general appearance externally and internally. The overall length 53 ft. 6ft in.; width of body 9 ft. 1in., and the overall height from rail level is 9 ft. 4ft in. The car was carried on two eight-wheeled bogies with a wheelbase of 9 ft. 4 in. each. The front bogie has the two inside axles driven, and these are coupled by chains. The vertical load is carried by side bearers and not by the centre pivot.
Pneumatic tyres when running on steel rails are said to be only capable of carrying about one- third the load they can sustain on an ordinary road, hence the large number of wheels employed. . The petrol engine, gave  200 h.p. and its gearing giving four speeds in either direction are mounted on coiled steel springs and rubber m the body chassis in such a way that vibrations are not transferred to the coach. The Lockheed system of hydraulic braking is applied to all the wheels, operated by two independent braking systems, one for each bogie.
The pressed steel disc wheels have 34 in. Michelin pneumatic tyres inflated to a normal pressure of 9 lb. per square inch, with steel guid- mg flanges silenced by a rubber insert. Loss of pressure in any tyre sounds a hooter in the driver's cab.

[Swainsley Viaduct relics]. 337
During the reconstruction of the viaduct between Derby and Belper a diver investigating scour by the river discovered the timber piles of the original viaduct built by the North Midland Railway in 1840. These were in excellent condition. Frederick Swanwick was the original site engineer working for George Stephenson.

200 H.P. diesel-electric locomotive, Kallehavebanen Denmark. 337-8. illustration
Weighed 28 tons. Fittedv with 2-stroke Burmeister & Wain type engine. Capable of 37 mile/h maximum speed. Fitted with electric heating.

Nigerian Railways locomotives. 338
Notes G.V.O. Bulkley's use of the Kiesel formula to establish tractive effort when hauling trains. See letter from W.C. Williams on p. 394

E.A. Phillipson. Steam locomotive design: data and fprmulae. The Westinghouse automatic brake. 338-40. 8 tables

In the last instalment of  Phillipson's article on Steam Locomotive Design on page 302, we regret to notice that a few words were omitted at the bottom of the left hand column. As the wording does not convey the intended meaning we give below the correct version of the text, and have put the words affected in italics;- "The brake force exerted by the blocks must act radially

towards the centre of the wheel; the blocks must also be "so disposed that their horizontal centre line is slightly "below that of the wheels, with due regard to the necessity for the resultant of the spring borne load and the brake force to act within the arc of the axle box bearing. With this disposition the brake blocks are assisted to move clear of the wheels when released, this movement being further encouraged, not only by the provision of springs between the blocks and hangers, and also by so inclining the brake hangers that they tend naturally to return to the off' position under the action of gravity; it is important to observe that the necessary extent cf this movement is increased as the engine bearing springs weaken in service.

London, Midland & Scottish Rly. (Western Section). 340
No. 5629 is the latest new engine of the improved Baby Scot type with taper boiler to be completed and turned out at Crewe. Of the same type the North British Loco. Co. delivered up to No. 5581. The Vulcan Foundry delivered new two-cylinder 4-6-0 mixed traffic engines up to No. 5049. The twenty five similar engines on order at Crewe will follow the Baby Scots now building, of which No. 5654 will be the last. New locomotives recently allocated to this section include three-cylinder 4-6-0s Nos. 5557-72 and 5607-16; also two-cylinder 4-6-0s Nos. 5032-9. No. 9017 is the latest D class 0-8-0 to be converted to superheater G1 class and was running provided with a standard Belpaire boiler and also with the vacuum brake throughout. The following engines rebuilt with Belpaire boilers;-0-6-0 18 in. goods class 10S. 8450 and 8618; 0-8-0 G1 class Nos. 8948, 9250 and 9374; 4-6-0 19 in. goods class No. 8707. Two ex G. & S.W. 0-6-2 tanks, Nos. 16905 and 16911, were working temporarily from Workington shed.

Midland Section. 340
New 2-6-4 three-cylinder passenger tank engines, ex Derby, were in traffic up to No. 2542. These engines for service on the Tilbury line. Two of the Vulcan two-cylinder 4-6-0s were at work on the Midland section, Nos. 5030-1. Devon's Road shed is now under the Midland Division, while Buxton shed has been transferred to the Western Division as formerly. Orders have been placed for a total of 1,700 low-sided goods wagons of 12 tons capacity, for use in connection with their container traffic, as follows ;-700 from Metropolitan-Cammell Carriage, Wagon & Finance Company Ltd., Saltley, and 400 from The Birmingham Railway Carriage & Wagon Company Ltd., Smethwick. These are to be fitted with the vacuum brake. Three hundred unfitted wagons from Hurst, Nelson & Co., Motherwell, and 300 unfitted wagons from Charles Roberts & Co. Ltd., Horbury Junction, near Wakefield.
The L.M. & S. Rly. had for disposal nearly 200 nameplates taken off locomotives withdrawn from service. Some nearly 8 ft. long. all of brass with the name of the engine and date of construction engraved on the metal. All had been taken from engines built at Crewe. They were on sale at the Locomotive Stores at Crewe.

Diesel-shunting engines for the L.M. & S.R.
About eighteen months previously this railway ordered a variety of types of oil-engined shunting locomotives. Some of these have been in service for nearly a year, and others have only just been completed. Tenders had been invited for a further twenty shunting locomotives of higher power, up to 300 b.h.p.

Sheffield-Twinberrow type bogies. 341-3. 4 illustrations

Colonel H.A. Stenning. 350. illustration (portrait)
Colonel Harry A. Stenning, O.B.E., T.D., M.I.M.E., for many years Managing Director of The Superheater Company, Ltd., is retiring from that position at the end of this year. His connection of nearly thirty years with Superheating will not be severed as he retains his seat on the Board, and will act as Consultant to the Company. Colonel Stenning commenced his career in locomotive work under the late James Stirling at Ashford, and was afterwards at Nine Elms under the late Mr. Dugald Drummond. In 1904 he was introduced to William Schmidt by the late Leslie S. Robertson, then secretary of the Standardisation Committee. Dr. Schmidt had made the development of the superheated steam engine his life work; he had designed several different types of super- heaters, all of which produced a high degree of superheat, and he also succeeded in so modifying the details of the locomotive as to successfully meet the conditions imposed by the use of steam of very high temperatures. Colonel Stenning with Mr. Robertson introduced the smoke tube superheater into this country, and in 1906 induced Mr. George Hughes, chief mechanical engineer of the Lancashire & Yorkshire Ry., to fit two engines, a six-coupled goods and a 4-4-0 passenger, with a Schmidt smoke-tube superheater. Shortly afterwards the D. Earle Marsh, of the L.B. & S.C.R., H. A. Ivatt of the G.N.R., and J. G. Robinson of the G.C.R., fitted several engines with superheaters for trial, and later adopted the system. As a result of an extended trial of one of Marsh's L.B. & S.C.R. 4-4-2 tank engines be- tween Rugby and Brighton, fitted with a superheater, in competition with a L. & N.W.R. 4-4-0 tender engine using saturated steam, in 1910 the last mentioned railway took up superheating under the late Bowen Cooke. It was then standard British locomotive practice to use slide valves, and the earliest superheat engines in this country were so fitted, but piston valves were gradu- ally introduced largely at the instigation of Colonel Stenning. In 1913 the Superheater Company established its works at Trafford Park, but the war period prevented progress until 1920-1. The company was reconstructed as Marine and Locomotive Superheaters, Ltd., and undertook the manu- facture of the superheater equipment throughout. Later developments include the introduction of machine-forged return bends for the superheater elements. The name was again changed to the Superheater Co. Ltd. in 1924 and Its activities largely extended not only in relation to the rail- ways, but with electricity power houses, and marine engine builders. Overseas the Superheater Co. first applied their apparatus to locomotives for the Argentine, followed by South Africa and India, where the first engines fitted were for the Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway. At the works the Company now deal with some 2,000 tons of steel tubes for the manufacture of steam super- heaters per annum.
We are notified that Eric A. Robinson, General Manager, has been elected a Director of the Company.

Kofler Train Stop. 350
Further trials with this device on the electrified section of the North Milan Railway demonstrated its satisfactory working at speeds up to 80 kilometres (50 miles) per hour. We gave a description of the Kofter mechanical train-stop apparatus in our issue of October 15, 1932.

Central Railway of Peru. 350
Orders placed by the Peruvian Corporation Ltd. for a Sentinel-Cammell steam rail bus to seat 82 second-class passengers, with a bogie trailer car to take 20 first and 44 second-class passengers. Also a Sentinel-Cammell freight unit to carry 20 tons. Both cars will be fitted with two compound engines and Woolnough boilers, with automatic coal feeding devices so that only one man is necessary to look after the driving and firing. The Peruvian Corporation has also ordered a petrol driven inspection trolley to seat two persons from D. Wickharn & Co. Ltd. of Ware.

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 350
Placed an order with Sir W. G. Armstrong, Whitworth & Co. Ltd. for a 15-ton [diesel] oil-electric shunting locomotive, metre gauge, for the Penang Harbour Board, Straits Settlements.

A Dorsetshire narrow gauge railway. 358-9. 2 illustrations
B. Fayle & Co. on the Isle of Purbeck

Number 508 (15 December 1934)

Travel speeds of the future. 363-4.
Editorial comment on high speed trains based upon a paper by Raymond Carpmael presented to the Institute of Transport, notably on the Great Western Railway. See also  letter from WHT on reference to Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul & Pacific Railroad

Southern Railway: conversion of 4-6-4 type "Baltic" tank engines to 4-6-0 type engines. 365-6. illustration, diagram (iside & front elevations)
No. 2329 Stephenson illustrated: rebuilt at Easleigh Works

Heavy tank locomotives for the Netherlands State Coal Mines. 367. illustration
Werkspoor 2-8-2T for a new railway to link the Hendrik and Emma mines to the Juliana canal

Model railway catalogue, Section "A". 367
Bassett Lowke Ltd

The last of the "Jumbos," L.M. & S. Railway. 369-70. illustration
No. 25001 Snowdon had been withdrawn. Precedent class introduced by Webb in 1874 and which grew to a class of 166. Hardwicke and Charles Dickens were the most famous members

G.N. Rly. (Ireland), pneumatic-tyred petrol railbus. 370-1. 2 illustrations

Steel passenger cars, Nigerian Railways. 372-3. 3 illustrations
Metropolitan Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd light weight third class with Sheffield-Twinberrow bogies. Crown Agents inspection

L. Derens. The Holland Railway Company and its locomotives. 374-7, 2 illustrations, 3 diagrams
See also letter from W.S. Upton in next Volume and Author's response

2-8-2 type engine, "Earl Marischal". L. & N.E. Rly.  378. illustration
No. 2002 fitted with Walschaert-Gresley valve gear.

The railways of the Londonderry Port anf Harbour Commissioners. 379-81. 4 illustrations
Originally laid with flat bottom rails most was changed to tramway girder rails in 1902. Originally standard Irish gauge of 5ft 3in but when the Londonderry & Lough Swilly Railway changed to 3ft gauge in 1883 the six mile system became mixed gauge. The original locomotive was one of the former LLSR broad gauge engines: 0-6-0T John Cooke, a Rober Stephenson & Co. product of 1864. There were two locomotives in 1934: No. 1 (Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-0ST WN 2748/1891) and No. 3 R.S. Smyth (Avonside WN 2031/1928). The latter displaced No. 2 (Robert Stephenson & Co. 0-6-0ST WN 2836/1896). Horses had been displaced by a Fordson tractor for shunting on the quays along the River Foyle, although electric capstans were also used. The tracks crossed the Foyle by the Craigavon Bridge. Trains of mixed gauge wagons were worked and the locomotives could couple to either gauge. The assistance of the Harbour Engineers: W.E. Hutson (late) and J.S. Watt (then current),

Some locomotive inventions of Joseph Beattie: Combustion and boilers. 384-5. 6 diagrams
GB Patent 259/1854. Continued in Volume 41 on p. 23

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 391-2.
Abstract of ILocoE Paper 334

Obituary. 394
Dr. Carl Sulzer, chairman of the Arm of Sulzer Brothers, passed away at Winterthur on 30 October in his seventieth year. He was the eldest son of the distinguished engineer, Mr. Henry Sulzer, and after training in the Winterthur works studied at Lausanne and Dresden under Zeuner and Lewicki. A short period in the Sulzer designing office was followed by a visit to America, where he was employed by the Brown & Sharpe Co. Upon his return in 1891 he undertook the design of workshop equipment and tools in the Sulzer works, the developrnent of which necessitated specialised tool equipment. In 1895 when he became a partner in the business, the Sulzer steam engine was approaching its zenith, and Dr. Sulzer had a considerable share in the management of this branch and in the evolution of large units for direct coupling to electric generators. He was responsible for several installations in Britain, notably those for the Metropolitan Electric Supply Co., Willesden, Harland & Wolff Belfast, Singer Manufacturing Co., Clydebank, and the Charing Cross Electrical Supply Co., Bow. Under his lead a complete change took place in the steam engine era in 1909 by the successful evolution of the "Uniflow" engine with its considerably increased revolution speed, forked frame and simplified valve gear, the first engines of which type were supplied to the Hafod Copper Works of Messrs. Vivian at Swansea. The experience with this design proved of great value in the modernisation of the ammonia compressor with which Dr. Sulzer was intimately connected, in collaboration with Professor Linde. He took a prominent part in the design and manufacture of steam boilers and high pressure pipe lines for hydraulic power stations, pressure vessels, gas holders, etc., in this respect closely following in the footsteps of his father. The introduction of the valve-type water level indicator was due to him. He was largely responsible for the adoption of the corrugated "Fox" flue" for Cornish and Lancashire boilers and the efficient arrangement of superheaters. Increasing steam pressure led to the manufacture of the vertical single and double bank straight tube boiler which was taken upon Dr. Sulzer's advice after exhaustive tests in 1890, and later, under his guidance, a boiler of 1,500 lb. per square inch pressure was designed, from which the Sulzer Monotube steam generator was evolved. Dr. Sulzer also took a keen interest in the development of the centrifugal pump for irrigation purposes, Pumps for de-watering became equally prominent, and as an example of Dr. Sulzer's perseverance the big installation at Codigoro should be mentioned, where stringent guarantees had to be given, which experts at that time considered unobtainable; but, in co-operation with Professor Prasil of Zurich, irnpellers were designed which enabled the guarantees to be complied with. The turbine pump was also developed, and the first high-lift mine pumps for Horcajo and the Victor Rauxel pit in Westphalia are of interest. When the Sulzer organisation was converted into a limited company in 1914 Dr. Sulzer became chairman and, leaving the technical side on the business more in younger hand, devoted much of his time to social and political duties for his country.

Correspondence. 394

Nigerian railway locomotives. W. Cyril Williams
Re page 338, you refer to the very interesting innovation by the General Manager of the Nigerian Railways, G. V. O. Bulkeley, of the Kiesel formula for the calculation of tractive effort. This is certainly novel, but caution would appear to be necessary in its application, as Kiesel doubtless evolved his formula having in mind the long barrels and shallow fire-boxes of American locomotives. In the example cited, comparison is made with the Garratt locomotive. Here we have a boiler with a wide and deep firebox and a short barrel of large diameter, this design being possible due to the slinging of the boiler in a cradle between the wheels. Thus all the heating surface of the Garratt boiler is nearer the source of supply, many Garratt boilers having as much as 50 per cent. more tube heating surface nearer the radiant heat of the firebox, Thus it is the value not the amount of each square foot of heating surface that counts and this is taken into account in Garratt boiler design.
The Garrntt is shewn as losing 2,381 lb. of tractive effort by comparison on the Kiesel formula basis. In practice no such loss is experienced; on the contrary, the output at the economical peed is in every way comparable and often exceeds that of the ordinary locomotive owing to the ease with which a boiler of adequate heating surface can be ap- plied. Further, the superheat of the Garratt boiler is markedly higher than in the ordinary engine, and in recent tests in South Africa the highest superheat ever recorded on the 160 odd classes of locomotives on the South African Railways, namely 730°F., has been obtained from one of the large Garratt locomotives. So it seems that the Kiesel formula cannot be used indiscriminately.

Ashley Brown, General Secretary, The British Rly. Stockholders' Union, Ltd.
I read with great interest the letter contributed by Mr. R. B. Hunt to your issue of the 15th October. Giving, as he does, the impartial view of a man who visits England from abroad and who is able to compare what he sees with what he remembers, his criticisms have a peculiar force. Changes are frequently so gradual that those of us who live amongst them fail to notice them, and it is often something of a shock to us to be compelled to appreciate the great gulf that separates our practice of to-day from our standards of long ago.
As Mr. Hunt points out, in the up-keep of our locomotives there has been a very serious falling off. I recollect the pleasure it gave me as a boy to visit Paddington Station for that great event the annual family holiday in Cornwall or Somerset, and the respect with which I contemplated the perfect appearance of Mr. Dean's handsome locomotives of that time. I felt vaguely that the company was making a concession in admitting to its trains so insignificant a person as myself. The first class carriage with its clerestory roof, its delightful internal paint-work and its large and imposing lighting apparatus produced upon my small mind a picture which I can see even to-day in all its detail.
Those days are gone and we live in times in which the locomotive and the carriage are expected to perform a maxi- mum of work at a rrururnurn of cost. The modern locomotive is, of course, as far superior to the Great Western locomotives of the 1890s as electric light is superior to oil, but our mood has changed, dignity has gone, pride is at a discount. We are all struggling to live. All the same, this phase of things can be carried too far. I am told that at least one railway company is working its engines to death in a fashion definitely unprofitable. Economies in, maintenance and oil sooner or later produce a bill upon which sav- ings appear as a loss, with compound interest added. It is the same thing with the first class carriage, little by little we economise at the expense of its comfort and after a time our first class passengers drift away into third class carriages.
When Mr. Hunt refers to the speed of our trains, however, I am not absolutely of one mind with him. The best British trains will compare very favourably with steam-hauled trains in any part of the world. To compare the Cheltenham Flyer with the two-hour Birmingham express is unfair to the Birmingham train which has to contend with gradients and curves utterly unknown on the Swindon-London run. I do not doubt that the journey from London to Birmingham could be made in exceptional circumstances 'in possibly one hour and fonty-five minutes, but it is not of advantage to any company to advertise a very fast train which is liable to be late on four days out of seven. What is so remarkable about the Swindon train is that it is always on time, or a minute or two early. See response from A. Sinkinson in nxt volume

Anti-friction bearings. A.D. Roberts.
On perusal of your leading article on "Anti-Friction Bearings" it occurred to me that the following passage, quoted from An Outline History of Anti-Friction Bearings published by the Fafnir Bearing Company, may be of interest to your readers.- " As early as 1870, we find several rail roads in the United States using roller bearings. Roller bearing railway car axles were operating in Ohio at that time. The Spencer Roller Bearing was in use on at least two other rail roads duning that period. By 1890, the Delaware & Hudson Railroad was using roller bearings fairly extensively. In those days the Boston & Albany had one car completely equipped with such bearings."

William T. Hoecker.
I have read with much interest Mr. W.B. Thompson's notes on railway travel in Canada, in the October Issue. In regard to left-hand running on double lines, this practice was followed 'on the Chicago-Omaha section of the Chicago and North 'Western Railway, as recently as 1931, and may still be in effect. Mr. Thompson's remarks relating to the scarcity of passenger trains between important towns, and the large numbers of motor cars seen from the trains, indicate that he has observed a condition which had gradually developed all over North America during the past twenty years. Perhaps a brief account of what has happened in my own vicinity may be of interest to Mr. Thompson, as a typical example. Prior to 1912, Houston, a town of nearly 300,000 persons, and Galveston, a well-known seaport and summer resort of slightly more than 50,000 population, were connected by three steam railway lines. The passenger service over these lines consisted of 13 trains on weekdays and 16 on Sundays, in either direction. In 1912, an electric passenger railway was opened between the two towns and hourly trains, usually consisting of a motor car and trailer, were instituted. The electric line promptly absorbed by far the greater share of local traffic and caused the withdrawal of some steam trains, but worse was to follow. A fairly good highway has always existed between Galveston and Houston; however, within the past decade this has been replaced by a concrete speedway. Under ordinary conditions it is possible to run the 48 miles over this concrete road in a little over an hour. There are long straight stretches between the small villages along the route, and some daring motorists attain speeds of 80 to 90 miles per hour. Naturally, fatal accidents are not uncommon, especially on week-ends and special holidays when the volume of traffic is tremendous. As a result of all this competition, the electric line now runs only half as many trains as formerly, and they are generally not well filled. On the steam lines, there are but five long- distance trains, all local trains having long ago disappeared.
There seems to be no solution to this problem, from a railway standpoint. Motor cars are so numerous (there are about 10,000 in Galveston County alone, and probably 50,000 in Houston] that the authorities are compelled to build expensive concrete roads between all the principal cities. There are several varieties of first-class, fully-equipped motor cars, capable of carrying five persons at 80 miles per hour, priced at around £160 sterling, when new. Very good second-hand cars can be bought for as little as £50. High-grade petrol sells for 9d. per gallon (including 2½d. tax). No steam railway can successfully compete with such conditions as these. Some of us have long been hoping the supply of petroleum would one day give out, but such hopes are apparently vain, as more oil is being discovered in Texas every day. And even if the supply were to fail, some genius would probably perfect a vehicle to run on hot air or some equally plentiful and inexpensive substance, so we may as well resign ourselves to the inevitable.

Reviews. 395-6

Railways for all. J.F. Gairns. Revised Edition by J. Kenneth Taylor. London: Ward, Lock & Co., Ltd. 396
This popular book has been substantially revised and new matter covering a wide range of railway developments during the past few years, incorporated. In addition to the large amount of detail on all sections of railway activity contained in the original work, descriptions have now been included of the latest locomotives, such as the L.M.S.R. Princess Royal and the L.N.E.R. Cock o' the North classes if' this country, articulated and other high-powered locomotives at home and abroad, details of steam locomotive design such as poppet valve gears. heavy oil-engined locomotives and railcars and the use of such units in high-speed service, and steam railcars. The Southern Railway's electrification schemes are described, and recent express accelerations here and abroad, improved methods of operation such as express freight services, and increased use of colour light signalling, are touched upon. The notes on marshalling yards now include a description of the working of the L.N.E.R. yards at Whitemoor. The formation of the London Passenger Transport Board, the forthcoming introduction by the Southern Railway of a cross-channel train ferry, and the association of the home railways with road and air transport are also among the varied items referred to in the new edition. Smaller type has been adopted, which has enabled extra matter to be included without altering the general style of the book. The numerous illustrations throughout are excellent.

Modern traction for industrial and agricultural railways. Roderick Hedley. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co., Ltd.
This is a very substantial book, of nearly 200 pages. de- voted entirely to tractors and tractor details for use on the thousands of miles of tracks of all gauges which exist to serve the needs of collieries, steelworks, sugar plantations, etc., and which, viewed 'broadly, provide an infinitely wider scope and variety of service than exists on any ordinary passenger and freight railway system.
The subject of tractive power is thoroughly covered by sections on steam locomotives, compressed air locomotives, internal-combustion locomotives electric locomotives and crane locomotives, and concluding chapters deal with the principles of mechanical traction, fuels for internal combustion engines, and anti-friction bearings. The latter in particular is of considerable importance in view of the low starting efforts, as in general, the tracks of industrial and agricultural railways are not specially well laid or well maintained so that the weight of the tractor has to be limited, and obviously, the lower starting effort required, the more useful is the hauling power available.
It is an open point as to whether it is quite legitimate to include amongst the illustrations pictures of engines for the Sudan Government Railways and the Kalka-Simla line, although it will be readily admitted that engines of these types and sizes are not infrequently necessitated for purposes outside the true railway systems. The sections on geared' locomotives and articulated locomotives are of considerable interest, in view of modern developments. but we are rather surprised to find that no reference is made to the Shay loco- motive, which was one of the pioneer types, and carries out very useful work to-day, particularly we believe, in the North American logging industry.
This book should be of considerable value to manufacturers and engineers who are in any way connected with the plant or operation of railways external to the main systems, as it provides a very great wealth of information relative to the various types of engines which are now available for all classes of power. It is only some three decades ago that industrial and agricultural light railways had to depend for their motive power on either steam or animal traction. whereas to-day well-tried tractors are in use employing compressed-air storage; electric-conductor or accumulator power, or both combined; petrol or Diesel-electric; and straight petrol or Diesel drives. The matter of tractor selection for a given job is not therefore quite as simple as it once was, but on the other hand, it should be more readily possible to make a choice of power which has the maximum of technical and economic efficiency - and undoubtedly a study of this book will be of the utmost value to those responsible engineers who have this problem to solve.

The Railway King, 1800-1871. Richard S. Lambert. London: George AlIen & Unwin, Ltd.
The name of George Hudson, the Railway King, is familiar to al! who have studied the intricate history of early railways in England. In 1839, this 'inen draper of York, who had inherited a fortune of £30,000, entered the field to amal- gamate and extend the small railways then connecting a few scattered towns, each in the hands of a different company, mostly watching new developments which might cut off or lower the stream of traffic on which it was relying for revenue. He made an alliance with George Stephenson and his son Robert in railway promotion and established the foundations of the North Eastern, Midland and Eastern Counties Railways, and planned the idea of a single company whose trains under one management should run from Rugby (or even London) to Edinburgh, with control of the branches east and west of the main line. How nearly he succeeded is shown by the fact that at the close of 1848, just before the disastrous crash and the start of the investi- gations into his fraudulent financial methods, out of 5,007 miles of railway in the United Kingdom, 1,450 were under his control, and he had had the spending of £30,000,000 of subscribed capital. The story of his achievements in buying or leasing the smaller lines, often at extravagant prices, and how he managed to keep bankrupt sections open, as they formed links in his scheme of a railway system for the country, how he paid dividends which had never been earned, and how he fought to prevent his impending downfall, makes an intensely interesting narrative. Mr. Lambert in an excellent account gives details of the business morals in politics and finance at that period. Hudson was made the scape-goat for the disastrous crash following the undeniable financial frauds, but he was not prosecuted partly because so many honourable names were contaminated by his bribes. The story is well told of his later years in France in thircl- rate hotels and often hungry, and how his friends came to the rescue and bought him an annuity of £600, and how to the day of his death in 1871 his spirit was as sanguine as ever, never confessing defeat. The book has a good index for reference, and should find a place in the library of all who study railway history.