Backtrack Volume 35 (2021)

Home page







Previous volume








Next Volume

Published by Pendragon, Easingwold, YO61 3YS

A2 Pacific No.60532 Blue Peter
climbs out of Dundee towards the
Tay Bridge with the 12.10 express
freight to Edinburgh Millerhill in
September 1965. (Derek Penney
January (Number 345)

On Shed elsewhere in Carlisle. Gavin Morrison. 4-6
Photo-feature of on shed scenes at Upperby and Canal depots (Kingmoor conidered previously): Princess Coronation No. 46225 Duchess of Gloucester (red) on 26 March 1964; two Princess Coronation Pacifics: Nos. 46256 Sir William A. Stanier FRS (very dirty red) and 46235 City of Birmingham (green) wiith many loaded coal wagons and hostel for footplate crews visible on 1 September 1963; Britannia No. 70048 The Territorial Army 1908-1958 suffering from feed water problems; ex-Works Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44906 in fully lined livery on 22 May 1961; Class 4F No. 44081 with snowplough on 6 April 1963; Canal shed with severalltypes of ex-LMS locomotives including Stanier 2-cylinder nbsp;2-6-4T No. 42634, a Jinty 3F 0-6-0T, two Fairburn 2-6-4Ts, two Horwich 2-6-0s and two Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0s; A2 class No. 60530 Sayajirao also at Canal at same time as previous 6 April 1963; and Nos. 46256 Sir William A. Stanier FRS (very clean red) at Upperby waiting to haul the RCTS Scottish Lowlander back to Crewe on 26 September 1964 nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;

Bruce Laws, .Working at Christmas. 7-12
Illustrations: O4 2-8-0 No. 6365 possibly in late 1930s; O4/8 Nos. 63800 and 63776 at Langwith Junction mpd in 1963; L1 2-6-4T No. 67780 backing stock for Grantham train into platform at Nottingham Victoria on 2 August 1962 (T.J. Edgington); K2/1 No. 61723 in BR lined black livery; Ivatt Class 4 No. 43102 shoing its ugliest features in Peterborough shed yard during 1960s; L1 No. 67758 entering Radcliffe-on-Trent with Nottingham Victoria to Grantham train; up South Yorkshireman powered by V2 No. 60820 in nbsp;Nottingham Victoria nbsp;with J39 No. 64832 and J6 No. 64238 on local passenger trains and another V2 No. 60815 on corridor train; L1 No. 67799 in Nottingham Victotori on passenger train in 1959; Les Beet's log book for 1961-2.

Chris Hogg. Paddle steamers in the Firth 13-16.
Illustrations: PS Galatea at speed with dark coal smoke from both funnels; PS Jupiter; PS Duchess of Fife; PS Jeannie Deans in early BR livery; PS Lucy Ashton; PS Minerva in Albert Harbour, Greenock with sailing vessel behind; PS Waverley of 1899

Jim McBride. The end of Company service. 17-22.
Like the following article this is partly a personal view of the railway near his home and a childhood journey to Portrush and a final trip from Carrickfergus to Greenisland at Easter in 1970. The Ulster Transport Authority used the Belfast to Larne railway to convey rock from a quarry at Magheramorne to the site of the M2 motorway which was intended to eliminate railways from the Province (at least Marples was not guilty of using the West Coast Main Line to build the M1). Illustrations mainly of UTA Jeep class 2-6-4T (an attractive variant of the LMS 2-6-4T species, one of which is preserved at Whitehead and used on Irish rail tours): No. 6 at York Road shed, Belfast on 28 May 1969 (colour); No. 4 leaving Whitehead with spoil train on 1 January 1968 alongside Belfast Lough (colour: J.R.L. Currie); No. 56 on spoil train alongside Belfast Lough in summer 1968; No. 4 at Magheramorne during loading operations on 6 May 1967 (George R. Mahon); No. 10 at front and No. 51 at rear between Magheramorne and Ballycarry with loaded spoil train on 16.00 to Greencastle near Oldmill Bay on 22 August 1969 (colour: David Idle); No. 4 leaving Whitehead at rear of nbsp;18.05 from Magheramorne on 22 August 1969 (colour: David Idle); unloading stone at Greencastle on 23 August 1969 (colour: David Idle); and No. 4 leaving Whitehead on nbsp;18.05 nbsp;from Magheramorne on 2 July 1969 (colour: David Idle). See also letter from Andrew Klrissner

Peter Butler. Memories from a Midland main line outing. 23-5
Mixturre of a fairly recent trip from Loddington to Matlock with friends (all of whom love the railway) and earlier trips over the same route when steam was the norm abd freight was conveyed in pocket-sized wagons. The more recent trip began by car as far as Kettering where electification was in progress. nbsp;The train from Kettering stopped at Market Harborough where straightening had altered the position of te platforms. On the approach to Leicester they passed Kilby Bridge where te signal box had been visited on an earlier visite with an approach along the Grand Union Canal. Beyond Leicester, passing Syston he was reminded of journeys to court a young lady who taught at Sileby and had digs in Syston: she later became his wife (this is very much travrel nbsp;in the style of poet Sean O'Brien). The Red Hill tunnels reminded him that the view of the northern portals are now obscured by tree growth. Change at Nottingham fave time to note the skylight over the circulating area. The train for Matlock left from a point far removed from their arrival (must be feature of stations in places beginning "N"). They paused at Derby where there used to be much to reflect upon an evenually reached Matlock where they were greeted by an Austerity 0-6-0ST. Commend s Ellis of Leicester by Andrew Moore.nbsp;Illustrations (by author): Kettering station flat milepost; Kilby Bridge signal box on 24 June 1978; Midland Railway cttages at Wigston on 24 June 1978; London Road signal box Leicester on 26 November 1983; fireman's call plunger at nbsp;London Road Junction; castellated northern portals of Red Hill tunnels in 1903; Beeston station on 26 December 1972; Nottingham nbsp;Midland station roof above circulating area on 2 July 2019. See also letter from Stephen G. Abbott on Nottingham being a "quiet station".

Stephen G. Abbott. In the wake of Madge Bessemer: a review of illegal rail closures. Part One. 26-31
Miss Margery (Madge) Bessemer was the person who found a clause in the original Act which led to the Bluebell Line being reopened and provided with a rather unusable tr ain servive until a further Act of Parliament led to its closure and evantual reopening as a heritage railway: see Gibbins. This article examines train services which have been withdrawn or modified since the 1962 Transport Act and to an extent considers the new breedd of Parliamentart Trains where it is simpler for the railway managemnt to run a bare minimum service rather than to seek a formal closure. It begins with the Washington service in County Durham which used to be a part of the main line into Newcastle, but exists in a sort of limbo where iit has neither been restored to provide extra capacity into Newcastle, nor extended the Metro service out to Washington and possibly the City of Durham. The Mexborough curves provided links betwe3en the Midland Railway and the Great Central Railway, but were removed in 1965, and for a time a replecement bus service had to be provided. But the curve had to be relaid to enable Doncaster to be brought into the cross-country nettwork and to satify the ambitions of the South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive. Illustrations: LNER V3 class with train of clerestory coaches at Washington station on 3 August 1948 (W.A. Camwell), Mexborough curves map; Brush Type 4 No. D1574 passing under flyover bridge at Ashendon Junction with a special train for the England versus Scotland schoolboy international football match at Wembley on 3 Apeil 1965 (Tommy Tomalin); former LMS 3FF 0-6-0T No. 47584 on freight on connecting line from Bury Bolton Street to Bury Knowsley Street on 2 February 1963 (Tay Farrell); former LNWR Renown class 4-4-0 No. 5121 Galatea at Spratton on Market Harborough to Northampton service c1928 (L,J. Thompson); Fowler 2-6-4T No. 42353 at Lamport on a Market Harborough to Northampton service; Marylebone-based four car DMU on last train special from Market Harborough to Northampton on 15 August 1981; Leeds area former railway network; Kirkby Stephen with Dales Rail service in 1975 Part 2 with letters relating to limks.

An assortment of LNER A2 Pacifics. Derek Penney. nbsp;32-4
Colour photo-feature: Thompson reduction of former magnificant Gresley P2 No. 60503 Lord President to A2/2 on express near Grantham in 1959; A2/3 No. 60519 Honeyway on Haymarket shed in August 1958; Peppercorn class A2 No. 60532 Blue Peter (with double chimney amp; multiple valve reulator on Dundee engine shed in 1965; No. 60535 Hornets Beauty with single chimney in ex-Works condition leaving Retford on a northbound express; A2/3 No. 60500 Edward Thompson leaving Grantham on a northbound evening express; A2 No. 60530 Sayajirao on 18.15 Glasgow Buchanan Street to Dundee express on Kinbuck bank on 30 August 1965; A2 No. 60533 Happy Knight on up express south of Retford

Topsyturvy at Turvey. 35
Colour photo-feature of accident at Turvey when an 8F 2-8-0 No. 48616 hauling wagons loaded with track panels collided with empty coaching stock on the Bedford to Northampton line on 17 June 1960. The 8F crew lept to safety. The two photogeaphs show cleaning up operations by two steam cranes one of which survives on the KWVR

Mike Fenton. The Calne branch - Part One. 36-41
The Calne branch by G. Tanner nbsp;(the author had been na clerk in the Calne booking office) started Fenton's interest in the line which KPJ travelled over once during his National Service period at Aldershot. The Calne Ralilway was conceived by nbsp;C. amp; T. Harris to ease the nbsp;problem of supplies which were beyond the abilities of the long abandoned Wilts amp; Berks Canal. George Harris, son of the pork processor's firm was on the board of the railway. The broad gauge Calne Railway received its Act on 15 May 1860 and opened on 3 November 1863 following more than one inspection by Henry Tyler. Thomas Henly, the chairman of the railway had to travel to Scotlnd to pursuade Tyler to make the third inspection. nbsp;Motive power in the broad gauge period included the Sun class nbsp;6ft 6in single saddle tanks (2-2-2ST), probably incuding Javelin; 2-4-0ST 5ft 0in saddle tanks converted from tender engines and the Metropolitan class of 6ft 0in condensing tanks. Fenton is uncertain about the precise motive power. Some consideration was given to extending to Marlborough, but this would have involved steep gradients and a tunnel. Bus services were run by the Great Western to Marlborough. The Royal Air Force used to provide considereable passenger traffic. Illustrations: Calne station amp; engine shed c1900; map; steam railmotoor (railcar) No. 21 with vast number of staff at Calne; 850 class 0-6-0ST No. 853 alongside Calne signal box with signalman Arthur Gabb c1910; Calne station c1908 with station master Arthur Wynn Lloyd, milk cans and GWR Milnes-Daimler bus nbsp;AX 120 on service to Marlborough; steam railmotoor (railcar) No. 19 at Stanley Bridge Halte; advertisement for Calne to Marlborough bus service; G.F. Bird side elevation drawing of 2-2-2ST of rebuilt Sun class; GWR Thornycroft bus AV 5108 in Calne station forecourt on Marlborough High Street service with Driver Johnny Dawes in 1930; C.T. Harris boxes of pork sausages and lard being loaded into Siphon C vans at Calne with Ewart Ponting in picture in late 1920s; 14XX No. 1454 paiunted green at Calne in February 1957 with driver Tom Newman and fireman Fred Weeks photographed by Kenneth Leech

Michael nbsp;S. Welch. A flash of Southern Electric. 42-3.
Colour photo-feature with an excellence still to be achieved in the vastly more expensive Southern Way. Photographs taken by John Hayward. 6 PUL No. 3010 on 12.00 Victoria to Brighton passing Battersea Park station on 2 June 1965; 4 SUB No. 4107 on Victoria to Epsom Downs service via Selhurst and rebuilt light Pacific on Surrey Rambler railtour at West Croydon station on 5 June 1966; 6 PUL No. 3041 on Locomotive Club of Great Britain trip to Brighton on 24 April 1966 (leading motor coach was experimental motor coach No. S311001S built by BRCW in 1931 with straight sides and panelling which covered the solebars; Co-Co electric locomotive No. 20002 at Victota on Royal Train to Tattemham Corner on Derby Day 4 June 1956; Brighton Belle Unit No. 3053 on arrival at Brighton on 2 March 1969.

Rob Langham. Coals from Newcastle. Part Two, 44-7.
Part 1 see Volume 34 page 636. In 1901 eight-coupled locomotives were introduced: the T and T1 classes; the former having piston valves, the latter slide, which were foiund to burn less coal. These were intended to haul sixty lloaded hoppers, but could manage more. An experiment conducted at Tyne Dock in 1901 one hauled a load of 1326 tons, 559 yards long. A visit to the USA in 1901 by senior officers led to the introduction of longer train and larger hoppers including the P7 which could carry 20 tons. Modified buffing gear was designed for the P7 hoppers used on rope worked inclines. 12606 nbsp; wagons of this type were in service at the Grouping. 32-ton and 40-ton hoppers built by external companies were used to move coal from Ashington Colliery to Blyth. In 1903 British coal consumption was estimated at 167 million tons, of which 32 million was for domestic use. The P3 0-6-0 (later J27) was described by Ken Hoole as a large boiler on wheels with the minimum of valves, cylinders and cranks to impart motion. In 1910 the NER moved 38 million tons of coal, more than any other railway (the Midland moved 26.5 million). Raven modified thr 0-8-0 design with a larger boiler and revertted to piston valves and instigated the scheme to electrify between Shildon and Newport, but World War I limited progress. He also introduced the T3 three cylinder 0-8-0. Langham also mentions that Arthur Stamer took control of locomotive during Raven's absence on Governmnet work during WW1 and in that time was involved in the design of the S3 class three-cylinder 4-6-0 and in the Government's quest to standardize locomotive design: see Much ado about nothing, Illustrations: T2 0-8-0 hauling empty P7 20-ton hoppers between Stanley and Annfield Plain in snow (colour painting: Beamish Museum); T1 0-8-0 No. 211`8 (had been sent to France in 1917); Morrison Pit, Annfield Plain showing P6 15 ton and P7 20-ton hoppers c1916; H class 0-4-0T on coal staithe with teemers and strimmers; T2 class 0-8-0 No. 1247; T1 class No. 772 passing Cowton with a down train of coke empties on 15 May 1920 (William Rogerson); electric locomotive No. 4 with a coal train at Aycliffe on 24 August 1923 (William Rogerson); P3 0-6-0 No. 1025; T3 three cylindrer 0-8-0 No. 901 passing Cowton with coal train on 19 June 1920 (William Rogerson). See also long letter from John Bushby

Steve Leyland. Railway observations from a Selside winter. Part 1 — 1958/9. 48-52.
Text is built around train register acquired from Selside signal box covering the period late 1950s/early 1960s when the transition from steam to diesel was about to take place. Illustrations: World War II of thee people on veranda at Selside signal box (signalman, mechanic and lady); Britannia No. 70029 Shooting Star with mineral wagons northg of Horton-in-Ribblesdale with 12.55 Stouron to Carlisle freight on 18 April 1967 (colour: Gavin Morrison); same train as previous at Ribblehead photographer as previous; 9F 2-10-0 No. 92118 on northbound freight passing Selside signal box on 5 August 1967 (Bob Clarke); Jubilee No. 45593 Kolhapur on relief to down Thames-Clyde Express between Selside and nbsp;Ribblehead on 12 August 1967nbsp; (colour: Gavin Morrison); view from cab of A4 No. 60023 Golden Eagle hauling RCTS Three Summits tour from Leeds to Carlisle on nbsp;30 June 1963 (colour: Gavin Morrison); former Franco-Crosti 9F No. 92021 climbing towards Ribblehead with 12.55 Stouron to Carlisle freight on 5 August 1967 (colour: Gavin Morrison). Part 2 page 187.

Mike G. Fell. Stoke Station and its Station Masters. Part Two. 53-9.
Continued from Volume 34. William Woolgarr was the first sstation master at Stoke. He was baptised in Wimbledon in 1815 and joined the NSR as Station Inspector in 1849. Fell describes several legal actions against him following his promotion to station master culminating in his dismissal in 1861. nbsp;John Hand succeeded him in October 1874. He had been born in Aston near Pipe Gate on 31 March 1844 and was employed by NSR for nearly sixty years as porter, guard and foreman porter. He was appointed station master at Stoke in October 1874.. Arthur Carr Pennington succeeded him on 2 June 1919. He joined the NSR in 1883 and in 1896 became station master at Trentham, having possibly held a similar position at Marchington. On 2 June 1919 he succeeded John Hand at Stoke and retained the position after the Grouping, but became unwell in 1925 and was moved to Trent on 22 May, but died there on 17 August 1925. He was buried at Hanley Cemetry on 20 August 1925. William Arthur Soden (1878-1958) beacme station master at Stoke in 1929. He had joined the LNWR in November 1893; became station master at Shilton on 1 March 1903; then held similar positions at Narborough from 1909 and Bushey from 1912 before moving to Leek and Leek Brook in March 1928. In 1929 he was moved to be station master at Stoke and then moved to Leicester in 1931 and to Carlisle in 1932 where he remained until his death on 6 May 1956. Born 1871; died 1947. Lawrence Palmer Briggs (1871-1947) joined the Midland Railway as a gateboy at Denby on 1 March 1866, and eventually became station master at nbsp;Melton Mowbray, Lancaster and Trent In 1925 the LMS moved him to Stoke, but on 24 June 1929 he was moved to Nottingham where he retired on 21 July 1934.nbsp;Charles Fitzherbert Bill (1843-1915) promoted the Leek amp; Manifold Light Railway and was appointed a Director of the NSR in 1898. He was MP for Leek from 1892 to 1906. Douglas Harold Day (1888-1964) became station master nbsp;under the LMS. He had joined the Midland Railway at Derby in 1903. He served in 8th King's Irish Hussars during WW1. In 1916nbsp;he was commissioned and eventually became a captain in the Royal Engineers. Prior to nbsp;coming to Stoke he had been station master at Gloucester nbsp;Eastgate (presumably) from October 1928. He served at Stoke until his retirement in 1962. At Stoke he was followed by Ralph William Masters (1892-1972), who had moved from a similar position in Macclesfield. . Illustrations: Josiah Wedgwood statue facing staion facade with horse drawn cabs; G class 4-4-0 No. 86 leaving Stoke with through working from Derby Midland to Llandudno which included through Great Northern coaches from Grantham in 1910; nbsp;poster advertisement for through coaches to Blackpool; staff group photograph in LMS period taken betweeen 1924 and 1934;; North Stafford Hotel frontage after restoration on 21 October 1931; poster for North Stafford Hotel featuring Wedgwood black Portland ware vase; C class 0-6-4T LMS No. 2040 in Stoke station (William Henry Whitworth); Platform 1 in BR period; rebuilt Scot No. 46121 Highland Light Infantry, City of Glasgow Regiment on down The Lancastrian on 7 May 1960; station frontage on 16 November 2004 (colour). See also letter from Robin Leleux.

Between Swansea Victoria and Pontardulais. John White. 60-1.
Black amp; white photo-feature: BR Class 5 4-6-0 No. 73036 at Swansea Victoria with 18.25 to Shrewsbury on 19 May 1964; 57XX 0-6-0PT No. 9675 at Gorseinon station on 12.10 from Swansea Victoria on 29 July 1963; BR Class 4 2-6-4T No. 80134 entering Pontardulais wth 14.40 Swansea Victoria to Shrewsbury on 29 July 1963; No. 5609 0-6-2T with sincle coach forming 16.15 service from nbsp;Swansea Victoria to Pontardulais at Mumbles Road on 16 September 1963; 57XX 0-6-0PT No. 9675 at sand covered Swansea Bay station with 14.40 Swansea Victoria to Shrewsbury on 23 May 1964; BR Class 5 4-6-0 No. 73036 leaving Swansea Victoria on 1 in 40 bank with 18.25 to Shrewsbury on 19 May 1964. (notes use of express headlamps on Shrewsbury services)

Readers' Forum. 62

That sinking feeling. Leonard Rogers,
Many thanks to Mr. Sadler for the article in the November issue outlining the negotiations between BR and the NCB over mining in South Yorkshire. For someone who lived through the times described, it makes fascinating reading to hear of the wrangling which went on between the two nationalised industries. All that we, the public, were made aware of was that an agreement had been reached. This, from Railway World for August 1972 (doubtless reflecting a BR press release), was typical: "An agreement between British Railways and the National Coal Board has secured the future of Inter-City speeds in the area of the West Riding bounded by Wakefield and Burton Salmon in the north and Mexborough in the south." (The news item then goes on to detail the service alterations that would take place in May 1973.) Mr. Sadler does well to set both nationalised industries in their wider political and economic contexts too.
What the author doesn't mention, possibly because it was not considered relevant to his narrative, is that services had already undergone one diversion, because of the effects of mining subsidence, prior to 1973. The traditio~al route for York-Sheffield express services was down the full length of the Samp;K (using the article's abbreviations) from Burton Salmon to Wath Road Junction, while Leeds-Sheffield services used the NML (as defined on the map) from Normanton through Cudworth to Wath Road Junction. From October 1968 Leeds-Sheffield services were diverted off the NML and took the West Riding and Grimsby Joint route (WR), ie the former Great Northern Leeds to Doncaster main line, through Wakefield, as far as Moorthorpe, where the WR crossed the Samp;K. Here they joined the Samp;K for the journey to Sheffield. From a commercial point-of-view, this had the advantage of now giving Wakefleld passengers through service to Bristol and the West Country as well as to the East Midlands. At Moorthorpe, the 1968 diversions meant upgrading for passenger use (again) the three- quarters-of-a-mile mile spur from South Kirkby Junction which had last seen regular passenger services in World War I. Passenger use of the South Kirkby Junction to Moorthorpe Junction spur has had a chequered history: commenced in July 1879 with the opening of the Samp;K, it ceased in October 1893. Restarted in May 1903, it ceased again in April 1918, according to David Joy in A Regional History of the Railways of Great Britain, Vol.8. lt recommenced, as noted, in October 1968 but stopped again in May 1973 as the article makes clear. Finally, passenger trains returned in October 1982, as our author mentions towards the end of the article, and have stayed, to this day. I wonder, did the NCB contribute towards the 1968 upgrade of this piece of infrastructure or were they as hard-nosed as ever?
Another point that is not made clear in our author's account, I feel, is that the 1973 diversions did not divert (return) all services to all of the NML York-Sheffield Class 1 services did indeed take the line as shown in salmon pink on the map in its entirety. However, rather than return to their pre-October '68 route via Methley and Normanton, Leeds-Sheffield expresses were kept on the WR as far as Wakefleld so as to be able to serve that city. In order to then reach the NML they had to meander around Wakefleld somewhat. The route is described in the caption to the picture on p596. On the map, it involved using the line shown in black just to the right of the words 'Wakefleld Westgate', in order to move from the blue to the salmon pink. After October 1982 and the return of these trains to the WR then the Samp;K south from Moorthorpe, the 'Wakefleld wander' (to coin a phrase) was eliminated.
After October 1982 the NML, once the mighty Midland Railway's main line to Scotland, was left to wither and die. Local passenger services south of Goose Hill Junction at Normanton had been withdrawn on 1st January 1968, even before the first removal of the expresses, and never returned. As the article says, investment in modernisation was not forthcoming and in 1987, as freight traffic slowly dwindled, the through route south of Cud worth, to Wath Road Junction, was severed. Remaining colliery traffic disappeared in the 1990s and today all that remains is a seven-mile 'long siding' from Crofton, on the outskirts of Wakefleld, to the glassworks at Monk Bretton.
Finally, the article mentions the Newcastle-Bristol 'mail train', which also conveyed sleeping cars and seated accomodation, and which remained on the Samp;K after May 1973. It is noted that it stopped at Pontefract Baghill to pick up mail traffic. This reminds me that, in connection with this train, a DMU would run from Selby to Pontefract each evening. By the late 1960s, this was the only daily passenger service over the connection from Gascoigne Wood to Milford Junction. At Selby bags of mail would be transferred from the 20.37 Hull-Leeds, itself one of the few loco-hauled trains on this route (because of the volume of mail and parcels which it conveyed), to the DMU for transfer once again at Pontefract to the NE-SW TPO. I have quite a strong memory still of using this connection on a journey with our school railway society, at the end of December 1968, from Hull to Barry#151; no prizes for guessing what we went there for!

That sinking feeling. Stephen G. Abbottnbsp;
Mr. Sadler's article (November) gives the most detailed explanation I have read for the 1970s reroutings of NE-SW trains, which were puzzling at the time. Leeds-Sheffield fast trains were diverted away from the North Midland Line (NML) twice, as from 1 May 1967 they had been routed via the spur from South Kirkby Junction to Moorthorpe #151; presumably to serve Wakefleld, which they continued to do when rerouted via Oakenshaw in 1973. From 7 October 1968 the NML from Goose Hill to Wath Road Junctions was closed to passenger trains, and a few residual services serving Normanton (running thence non-stop to Rotherham) were routed via the Turner's Lane Junction-Calder Bridge Junction spur outside Wakefield. These trains ceased from 2 October 1972, except for an 04.33 departure from Sheffield not withdrawn until 1 March 1976 following statutory closure procedures for the Turner's Lane spur.
The NML from Goose Hiil to Wath Road is a rare example of complete closure of a four track main line; the only remnant is a single line south from Oakenshaw serving a glass factory at Monk Bretton, trains of sand running from Middleton Towers in Norfolk.

From road unto rail. John Macnab
Following on from Setphen G. Abbot's letter regarding railbuses, they were part and parcel of the Modernisation Plan of 1955 that covered a variety of such passenger- carrying stock for use that was, for not a few of them, experimental in the sense they were to prove successful or otherwise either in creation or be the saviour of whatever services they found themselves on. Mention of 'bubble cars' is somewhat apposite in regard to the Scottish Region whereby in order to act as a stand-by for the tardy performance of the railbus(es) operating, mainly, the Ayr-Kilmarnock services, Gloucester single unit No. 55000 was sent to Ayr from Reading in the spring of 1967 with us despatching, a swap being necessary, MetCam trailer No.59543.
In passing, I thought at the time, what would that WR depot do with it as it had no such build to use it with although around eight or nine years later some half-a-dozen full MetCam triples followed on from us to Reading. I have no note of the use of No. 55000 in its allotted task but others of its kind followed on in subsequent years to the Scottish Region to augment the formations of other DMU sets. See letters from Stephen G. Abbott and Gerakl Goodall.

Book Reviews 62

The Lancashire, Derbyshire amp; East Coast Railway #151; Chesterfield to Langwith Junction, the Beighton Branch and Sheffield District Railway. Chris Booth, Fonthill. 160 pp. Rreviewed by DWM ****
And for those who look carefully at the spine of this book they will see a figure '1' indicting that this is actually only half of the offering and that, in due course, 'Volume Two will cover the remaining section to Pyewipe Junction, along with the Mansfleld Railway connection'. If a railway never quite managed to 'do what it said on the tin' then it was the LDamp;EC. Being a late-orner on the railway scene, whilst it certainly served the coalfields of north Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, outlets to salt water in Lancashire or on the Lincolnshire coast remained the stuff of dreams and what it proposed to do in driving its line over the Peak District would have given John Ruskin apoplexy! So Chesterfield to Lincoln it remained and this enthusiastic study covers the western portion of the 'system' from Chesterfield (Market Place) as far east as Langwith Junction.
A lively and well-illustrated opening chapter describes the route of the 'main line' and outlines the history thereof; seek here for information on such diverse topics as the 1948 Stephenson Exhibition at Chesterfield, collieries and colliery branches, the infamous Bolsover Tunnel, passenger services and the eventual closure of the line.
A chapter on the Beighton branch covers more access to collieries and a link up with the Midland 'Old Road' at Beighton. The Sheffield District Railway was a matter of running powers and discreet piece of LDEC track to give access to the City's Pond Street (now Midland?) station. Both these chapters are thoroughly illustrated, the amount of heavy civil engineering required for a late arrival on the railway scene #151;and mining subsidence #151; is apparent and amidst the frequent coal trains exotic services such as the Belper to Cleethorpes holiday special- what route did that take to get on to the Beighton branch? #151; occasionally appear. 'Locos, Depots and Works' is a feast of largely LDamp;EC and LNER steam whilst the chapter on Signalling gives interesting detail of a number of the larger signal boxes.
The final chapter provides sharp focus to a major civil engineering project undertaken in 1974. Bridge No.37, which carried the LDamp;EC over the Midland Worksop to Mansfleld near Shirebrook was life-expired and, rather than replace it, it was decided to link the two lines by the construction of a chord line. These works are colourfully illustrated in a series of fine photographs although the picture of a Class 66 diesel en route from Thorsby Colliery to West Burton power station in 2014 is a poignant reminder of how quickly things change!
In no respect is this book a detailed 'academic' study of the line in question but it succeeds as an engaging and enthusiastic look at (part of one of our more obscure and less-considered main line railways.

Railways, ports and resorts of Morecambe Bay including the Ulverston Canal. Gordon Biddle, Railway amp; Canal Historical Society. Softback, 64 pp.Reviewed by DWM *****.
This slim, elegant volume does exactly what would be expected of a publication by the Railway amp; Canal Historical Society covering, as it does, highways and byways of its nominated area, in this case the north west of 'mainland' Lancashire and that detached part of the county remembered from the Home Service weather forecast as the Furness District. Two of the ports considered, Barrow and Heysham, are self-explanatory and transport enthusiasts will be familiar with Ulverston and its Canal, but Milnthorpe, Greenodd, Penny Bridge and Hest Bank? These lesser-known towns and villages around The Bay represent the period when trade and industry was growing but before the facility of transport by canal or rail was available and coastal shipping remained particularly important.
Commodities such as Coniston copper, haematite, slate and Lakeland wool went out through these small ports whilst coal, for growing towns such as Kendal, along with cloth, corn and oats were imported. Both Greenodd and Penny Bridge were apparently building ships long before the idea caught on at their neighbour, Barrow! The two resorts featured are popular Morecambe and the more genteel Grange-aver-Sands.
The book has a brief introductory chapter with a useful delineation of what actually constitutes a 'port' and a concluding section on crossing the estuaries by the viaducts over the Kent and the Leven. The closed Bela Viaduct, on the Furness Railway's link from Arnside to the West Coast Main Line at Hincaster, features as a splendid double-page photograph. The eight, short chapters of the book conform to pattern. In each there is an outline of developments in each location supported by an excellent collection of photographs historical and contemporary, black and white and colour.
The pictures themselves range from a powerful study, on the cover, of the preserved Flying Scotsman #151; with a little help from Sir Nigel Gresley #151;crossing the viaduct at Arnside, to the canal basin at Ulverston, the shipbreaker's yard at Morecambe, the Morecambe electrics, Furness Railway tenements at Barrow and the boat train leaving Heysham with a Midland 2-4-0 at the head. There is a useful index and a comprehensive bibliography.
In itself the book is an excellent 'primer' to the growth of transport in the area which it covers; it left your reviewer already hoping for an expanded second edition! But in the meantime the current volume comes well recommended and, whilst driving through the 'South Lakeland Peninsulas' on his way to play trains at Ravenglass when we are all back to 'normal', your reviewer is now going to see Greenodd and Penny Bridge in an entirely different light. Shipbuilding and slavery indeed!

Dashing through the snow. David Lawrence. rear cover
43XX No. 6372 with a Barnstaple to Taunton train in early 1963

Brand-new and allocated to
Trafford Park shed, BR Class 4 2-6-0
No.76089 heads a local near New
Mills Central in June 1957. W. Oliver.
See also colour photofeature
February (Number 358)

Noises off. Michael Blakemore. 67
Editorial comment on noise pollution caused by railways

Return to Glasgow Central. Gavin Morrison. 68-9
Colour photo-feature: Class 87 No. 87 018 Lord Nelson enters Glasgow Central from Polmadie carriage sidings with Virgin liveried coaches to form 17.00 departure for Euston on 25 August 2000; Class 156 in orange Strathclyde orange livery departing for East Kilbride on 11 June 1992; Virgin HST No. 43 193, Class 303 No. 303 058 in Strathclyde livery and Great North Easte rn Railway DVT No. 82 206 on King'Ss Cross train on 12 August 1999; Class 314 No. 314 208 in Scotrail crimson and cream livery on 13 September 2011; Scotrail Class 314 No. 314 211 in blue livery on Paisley Canal working; flap type electronic depaarture board on concourse on 23 April 1992

Clive Carter. Coach working on LMS lines in South Wales. 70-4
The LMS acquired linrs in South Wales from both the LNWR and from the Midland. The LNWR had a main line from Craven Arms to Swansea Victoria and another route from Abergavenny to Merthyr and also to Newport. Swansea Victoria had through coaches to Euston via Stafford and a mail coach to Newcastle provided nbsp;by the North Eastern Railway, the ultimate point reached by its through service to York. The Midland service originated as one from Birmingham to Swansea St. Thomas, but gradually descended into a Swansea local service and another from Hereford to Brecon. Push amp; pull operation featured on the Swansea local services and on the branches off the nbsp;Abergavenny to Merthyr line. Illustrations: LNWR 0-6-2T Coal Tank No. 58915 approaching Pontardulais on 16..05 ex-Swansea Victoria in March 1954 (Hugh Daniel: colour); 0-6-2T Coal Tank No. 7741 at Pontardulais with push amp; pull set; 3F 0-6-0T No. 7481 at Swansea St. Thomas with push amp; pull set (H.C. Casserley); Dean Goods 0-6-0 on Her eford to Brecon train at Eardisley c1950 (H.C. Casserley); Snbsp;wansea and Brecon set of non-bogie coaches with clerestory through coach from Birmingham at Hay; Nantybwch with trains hauled by two Coal Tanks Nos. 7710 and 27654 and later LMS motive power (caption states 2-6-4T) (W.A. Camwell). See also letter from John Bushby

Alistair F. Nisbet. Complaints about engine whistles. 75-89
Surprisingly, Nisbet begins with the origin of locomotive whistles, which it was thought had been established (Leicester amp; Swannington Railway). From the sart there was a fear that horses might bolt at level crossings and a horrifying incident at A Frrench crossing in 1880 is described where a mother and her infant were thrown into the path of a train and killed. The sound of whistles, especially at night could disturb the sleep of important people and the railway companies had rules to limit the sounding in places like city centres. Letters to the editor in newspapers were a frequnt outlet for the public to complain about the annoying sound. The Bucks Herald in 1950 contained one that moaned about drivers saying goodbye to their wives at Aylesbury.. Niisbet notes something that KPJ missed in an article by Bullleid's son, namely that whistle valves could fail to close. The illustrations show some prime locations. Illustrations with informative captions: St Margarets locomotive depot, Edinburgh with V1 2-6-2T No. 67659; B1 No. 61657 and V2 No. 60851 (D.L. Dott, colour); A4 class No. 60019 Bittern (nameplate and chime whistle); Ranelagh Bridge, Westbourne Park with turntable and Castle class and Britannia class (R.C. Riley); Princes Street Gardens, National Gallery of Scotland and Edinburgh Waverlley beyond and trams and steam from locomotive (R.J. Buckley); nbsp;level crossing in east end of Edinburgh: Long Eaton on Midland Ry (Norris Forrest); C16 4-4-2T on Dundee East to Arbroath service at Broughty Ferry; Eastern Daily Press (EDP) and whistling at Norwich mpd with J19 No. 65581 and B1 No. 61096 (Ian C. Allen); MR 2P 4-4-0 No. 40404 at Derby MPD in 1955 (R.C. Riley); and Sentinel No. 68169 as tarted up for whistle recital at Stratford MPD in 1949 (Roy Vincent). See also letters from John Macnab and David Rollins (from Australia): the latter about the pitch of the whistle on No. 4472 Flying Scotsman.

Mike Fenton. The Calne branch. Part Two. 81-7.
Illustrations: Calne station platform on 26 July 1964 (colour); Black Dog Halt with Douglas Lovelock, porter-in-charge and his home and a freight (Norman Simmons); view from goods platform showing passenger platform and outbuildings including air raid shelter used as passenger foreman's office, paraffin store, garage for station master's car with few wagons in yard; No. 1444 on final stream special Bollivar's Travels Railtour on 20 September 1964 (P.A. Fry: colour); nbsp;27 station staff including station master Seymour John Harding and author of OPC book Graham Tanner; Chippenham station platforms looking east with Calne train in bay platform and gas tanks wagon on 19 May 1956; (Norman Simmons); Stanley Bridge Halt; east end of Calne terminus on 19 May 1956 (Norman Simmons); No. 1406 on auto train with strengthening carriages on left of loading platform in mid-1950s; working timetable 1954

The British Railways class 4 '76000s'. 88-90
Colour photo-feature: No. 76008 on ballast train passing Basingstoke in 1966; No. 76074 at Crianlarich Upper with fireman pulling coal forward on 19 June 1960; No. 76060 with larger tender at Ash on 24 January 1959 with train of carmiine amp; cream corridor coaches (Trevor Owen); No. 76004 at Wemyss Bay with express headlamps on train for Glasgow Central in May 1965; No. 76068 nbsp;with larger tender at West Moors with a summer Saturday spcial from Bournemouth via Wimbourne and Ringwood: train formed of nine coach Western Region corridor stock in 1959 (G.H. Hunt); No. 76067 nbsp;with larger tender at Eastleigh in 1967; No. 76033 at Wisbech East with long corridor express on 19 April 1962;; No. 76044 in Birkenhead Woodside on 5 August 1966 (M.H. Yardley).

Richard Clarke. A signalling interlude on the GW and GC Joint line. 91-3.
Memoir of former signalman in te Erewash area who had moved into rock music business in Soho and who encountering semaphore signalling at Yeovil Pen Mill became a signalman again at Northolt Junction. Most of the traffic was the DMU serviice from Princes Risborough into Marylebone. There was a fault in the locking mechansm on the route towards Neasden and care had to be taken especially when the intermediate boxes were open as the staff there tended to be very inexperienced. Illustrations: Northolt Junction East signal box front & rear views (colour); track diagram at Northolt Junction; interior of signal box, exterior of box viewed from rear cab of Class 50 on 17.41 Paddington to Wolverhanpton on 2 July 1984. See also letter from Gerald Goodall and Clarke's period at Kensington on pages 434-5.

On the Great Central in Lincolnshire and Nottinghamshire. John Spencer Gilks. 94-5
Black & white photo-feature: Doncaster to Cleethorpes DMU with whiskers enters Barnetby staion (with semaphore gantries) on 3 August 1959;; K3 No. 61826 on 14.11 Skegness to Basford North passing Edinstowe station on 11 August 1962; New Holland station with DMU and funnel of ferry visible; Stanier Class 3 2-6-2T No. 40079 on train for Nottingham at Worksop station on 3 August 1959; DMU on railtour at Barton-on-Humber station; Class 5 4-6-0 No. 44962 passing Warsop station on Nottingham to Scarborough Saturday special on 11 July 1964,

John Jarvis. The rise and fall of IIfracombe station. Part One. Planning and infrastructure. 96-103.
Opened on 20 July 1874 following nbsp;Colonel C.S. Hutchinson inspection. Vey steep descent from Morthoe Hill on 1 in 36 gradient with sharp curves. Station had to be enlarged to handle increased traffic and this is shown by five plans. Illustrations: station viewed from outer home on 1 in 36 downward plunge with Bristol Channel, a ship, and South Wales beyond; N class 2-6-0 with Bulleid three coach set and Western Region set behind; N class No. 31860 shunting (all previous colour); map; M7 class No. 251 leaving with train for Barnstaple Junction in late LSWR period; train shed nearing completiion c1880?; Southern Railway excavations to extend locomotive servicing area c1924; turntable with light Pacific beyond in 1954 (Roger Griffiths); ; DMU arrival with nun amongst passengers in late 1960s; N class No. 31849 on carriage siding on 13 July 1963 (Trevor Owen: colour); N class No. 31647 shunting empty stock in July 1957 (F. Hornby); N class No. 31835 and West County No. 34011 Tavistock on passenger train departures at the island platform on 11 June 1963 (L. Rowe); throat in 1965 (colour)

Jeffrey Wells. The LNWR amalgamation with the LYR in 1921. 104-9.
The text is based on newspaper reports. and on Michael Bonavia's The four great railways and Steel's The history of the London amp; North Western Railway. Some consideration is given to the proposed amalgamation of 1871 which involved the Great Northern and Midland Railways in the proposals which Parliament firmly through out and which soured a more limited LYR-LNWR proposed merger. Illustrations from John Alsop Collection: LYR 1400 cllass No. 1412 leaving Blackpool Central with an express (Blackpool Tower visible behind); staff photograph of Great Moor Street station, Bolton (date not given, but attire suggests probably post WW1, but still pre-amalgamation #151;nbsp;uniforms still LNWR #151; coal tank with train of four-wheel or six wheel coaches behind); Bolton Trinity Street with 1400 class in down platform; LYR 2-4-2T No. 740 on vestibuled corridor boat train at Fleetwood station with Town Hall behind; Huddersfield station with LNWR 2-4-2T No. 661 shunting passenger stock (view taken from up platform); map of Lamp;YR system;; concourse Liverepool Exchange station probably post WW1; Liverpool Lime Street frontage with electric tramcar in Lime Street; Manchester Exchange with Renown cass 4-4-0 No. 1965 Charles H. Mason on westbound stopping service; Manchester Victoria looking west with telpher clearly visible and baskets on platform; Preston station c1910 with LYR Platfforms 6 and 5 visible (and much rubbish on permanent way); See also letters from Tom Wray; and Martin Sutcliffe on page 222, and from John Bushby on page 277.

Readers' Forum 110

The near death of the North Warwickshire Line. Stephen G. Abbottnbsp;
Re Geoffrey Skelsey's informative and balanced article (December), following the closure of intermediate stations between Stratford and Honeybourne from 3 January 1966 a few trains, in early morning and late afternoon only, continued to run through between Stratford, Evesham and Worcester. They were withdrawn from 5 May 1969, the date originally set for closing the North Warwickshire section. On Saturday 17 February 1968 he was one of only four passengers on the 15.50 from Stratford to Worcester Shrub Hill (maybe during the week this train carried schoolchildren). The return 19.26 from Evesham left with two passengers; one alighted at Honeybourne leaving him in splendid isolation on to Stratford. The residual twice daily Leamington to Gloucester trains over the Honeybourne-Cheltenham line ran non-stop from Stratford to Gloucester after Cheltenham Malvern Road station closed from 3 January 1966, along with the spur to the GWR terminal station at Cheltenham St. James. Oddly, the morning working ran to Gloucester Eastgate and the afternoon train to Gloucester Central; the service was withdrawn from 25 March 1968. On Saturday 8 July 1967 the 10.08 from Leamington picked up around twenty passengers at Stratford and dropped 30 at Gloucester. On the return 18.40 my friend and I were accompanied by only three 'normal' passengers. The journey non-stop through the string of closed stations and halts was surreal. The freight train derailment which finally closed the line took place on 25 August 1976, not 1975. ,

A Grand Day Out ... Adrian Palmer
Re article by John Chapman in the December issue: his statement about Byfleet & New Haw possibly requires clarification as the station was named West Weybridge until 1962 and the goods train would join the main line at that point.

'Kings' at Reading. C.J. Mansellnbsp;
The December cover illustration contains a caption error. It is not a West of England express but a Jockey Club special for the Newbury Races. Four 'King' Class locomotives were rostered to the chartered specials on Saturday 27 October 1962, the engines were respectively:
No.6000 King George V Reporting No. Z10
No.6005 King George II Reporting No.Z11
No.6011 King James I Reporting No.Z12
No.6025 King Henry III Reporting No. ?
The train hauled by No.6025 was recorded by D.S.M. Barrie. The formation was thirteen coaches, 446 tons tare, 465 tons full covering the 52.4 miles in 60min 04sec/54 min net. I do not know how many trains were chartered that day but R.C. Riley was in the Newbury Racecourse sidings where he photographed the specials including a 'Castle'. Also there was Mike Pope, later editor of the Great Western Echo, who wrote: "For these Great Western thoroughbreds this was to be their last race."

"Bulleid was a brilliant engineer... " David Rollins
Re article re Bulleid and the subsequent letters with interest. I managed several unofficial firing turns on both 'WC/ BB' and 'MNs', usually from Waterloo, I say firing turns as on every occasion the locomotive had been prepared by the booked fireman at Nine Elms on the down or I took over on the up again from a locomotive already having a good fire. And of course Kent or South Wales coal. The only exception to this was on No.35030 on the last up run on the GC, we had hard coal in coffin-size lumps!
So to do a comparison with the Gresley locomotives I was more used to, I can recount that I regularly used to relieve a Copley Hill fireman on the up at Doncaster, then work forward to King's Cross. Even with an Al with its 50sq ft of firebox and Yorkshire hards I shovelled less.
In 1994 when I fired No.60009 out of King's Cross I later learnt that several of Clan Line support team, who knew me, were on the platform end to see us depart. I was informed later by some retired King's Cross drivers that one of them looked into the cab as we got right away and stated that I did not know what I was doing. When questioned he stated that I was leaving with only about 1in of water and 150psi. Those he spoke to replied 'Dave knows what he is doing'. At Holloway we had 250psi and the injector was on. You could NOT do this with a Bulleid machine even with its thymic syphons. I often wonder how well an A4 would have steamed with two of these fitted. Yes, the 'WC/BB' and 'MN' were a very free-running machine so he got something right.
As a minor point to Allan Baker the tubes and flues were welded both ends (but this was usual unless the firebox was copper) as of course were the stays.
Re Class 40s, when new at both Stratford and King's Cross drivers were issued with an oil can to oil the bogie slides on preparation. There was a Bulletin issued re running over humps; the reason this was banned was that the front wheel tended to derail unless travelling at a very low speed .. We had a least one runaway at King's Cross Top Shed. Apparently the signalman at King's Cross Goods amp; Mineral box telephoned the shed and enquired "what is one of your drivers playing at, he has passed my signal several times in each direction and will not answer us?" Chocks were issued! Each handbrake only worked on one wheel.
I took over one on York depot fully prepared, ran light to Clifton sidings, attached to a freight train and ran non-stop to King's Cross yard. On being relieved the driver when changing ends asked me what I was doing running with the rear handbrake on! I felt the block - they were only warm!

Book reviews. 110

New Mills to Sheffield and Hayfield . Vic Mitchell and Keith Smith, Middleton Press, hardback, Reviewed by DWM **
From the 'Northern Lines' series, this is the latest offering as the Middleton Press evolves its Ultimate Rail Encyclopedia. The book comes in the standard Middleton Press formula and essentially gives a journey, on Midland lines, from New Mills Central throughout the mighty Cowburn and Totley Tunnels to Sheffield Midland. There are 'branch lines' up the Great Central to Hayfield and, briefly, along the Midland towards Manchester at Hazel Grove. So far so good, but, to your reviewer, the substance of the book does not fulfil its promise. As with most Middleton Press publications the use of large scale Ordnance Survey maps is excellent but the written introductions, both geographical and historical, are sketchy. The pictures are the usual catholic selection of ancient and modern but your reviewer was disappointed to find that one of the major traditional railway establishments on the line, namely Gowhole Sidings, merited only one photograph whereas the Hope Cement works, admittedly a very important contemporary feature of the line, is treated to a six page spread.
Your reviewer was disappointed with the picture captions, some of which add very little to an encyclopaedic store of knowledge. No.57 is a classic example. It shows a picture of Hope station in 1904 with a Volunteer Battalion of the Northumberland Fusiliers lined up on the platform. The caption tells nothing of the carriages at the platform or where the train might have originated from or where it may be going to. Rather it is concerned with the position of the toilet signs, slouch hats and a reference to 'the Peaks' - rather than giving the area its correct title of the Peak District. Your reviewer remains equivocal about the offerings from the Middleton Press.

The Lancashire, Derbyshire and East Coast Railway.Vol. 2, A pictorial view of the 'Dukeries Route' and branches, Langwith Junction to Lincoln and the proposed route to Sutton-on-Sea'. Chris Booth, Fonthill. 174pp,
Vol. 3, A LDamp;ECR miscellany, the Mansfield Railway and Mid-Notts Joint Railway connections Chris Booth, Fonthill. softback, 192pp, Reviewed by DWM *****
Reviewed in Backtrack for August 2018, Volume 1 was published in 2017, and has since been followed by Volume 2 in 2018 and Volume 3 in 2020. Although the LDamp;ECR operated as a legally independent entity for merely ten years (between November 1896 and December 1906) this quite remarkable trilogy totals no fewer than 526 pages, running right through the twentieth century and up to the present day. Volume 2 continues the narrative eastwards from Langwith Junction to Lincoln, followed by details concerning the unbuilt projected continuation to the North Sea coast at Sutton-on-Sea, including the proposed harbour and dock facilities that were to have been established there. Volume 3 for its part covers the corresponding and also unbuilt western section from Warrington through the Peak District to Chesterfield, whose engineering wonder would have been a 272ft high steel viaduct straddling Monsal Dale. Also described is the adjoining Mansfield Railway, completed in 1916, worked by the Great Central Railway, and which was effectively a throwback to a branch to Mansfield which had originally been proposed by the LDamp;ECR. Likewise there are details concerning the little known post-1922 Mid-Notts Joint Railway, a joint LMS and LNER enterprise of which only the central section was actually completed - in the best traditions of the old LDamp;ECR!
Although the sparse passenger services ceased as early as 1955, the coal traffic over the route east of Langwith continued to flourish well into the 1960s, when the major river crossing over the Trent at Fledborough was heavily renewed. That decade also saw the completion of the exceptionally large power station at High Marnham in 1962, which in due course consumed 1#190;. million tons of coal per annum. This was shortly followed by the much delayed completion of the ill-fated 'high tech' colliery at Bevercoats, which was bedevilled by unforeseen geological problems and which closed after less than 30 years in December 1992. High Marnham closed in March 2003. The beginning of the end, however, had already occurred quite unexpectedly on 20th February 1980, when the catastrophic derailment of a mineral train at Clifton on Trent damaged the track there so severely that it was decided not to repair it, and through workings to and from Lincoln consequently abruptly ceased. Remarkably, the section between Shirebrook and High Marnham still survives as a test track in association with the Rail Innovation and Development Centre, which is located on the site of LDamp;ECR's Tuxford Works, whose former erecting shop rather surprisingly still stands. Furthermore, there are currently ongoing proposals to extend the Robin Hood line, which originates in Nottingham, over the western part of this from Shirebrook to Ollerton. Quite apart from the comprehensive text, which covers operational. infrastructure (including potted histories of local collieries) and signalling matters in an extraordinary degree of detail, the latter as dictated by changing traffic patterns, the photographic content in these volumes is also remarkable. Several of the illustrations dating from before 1907 have almost certainly not been published previously. Having said that, comparatively few date from between the two world wars, when the 'East to West' appears to have been particularly neglected by contemporary photographers, even by Nottingham- based Gordon Hepburn during this period. However, he obviously later made good this omission in the early 1950s, concentrating on the passenger workings. There are numerous photographs taken by others of work-worn Robinson 2-8-0s, both in their original form and as rebuilt by Edward Thompson with Bl boilers to Class 04/8, hard at work on coal trains. These are rounded off by many excellent colour photographs taken in the latter day diesel era. These three volumes must stand as the definitive history of the LDamp;ECR and are thoroughly recommended.

Fair exchange on the 'Cuckoo Line'. John Hayward. rear cover
Eastbourne to Tunbridge Wells dsiesel electric multiple unit at Mayfield on 12 June 1965

LMS 'Princess Royal' Pacific No.46207
Princess Arthur of Connaught in its new
red livery at Crewe station in 1958, fresh
out of works and about to take a running-in
turn to Shrewsbury. (Eric Oldham)
March (Number 359)

"Never known to quail, At the fury of a gale... ". Michael Blakemore
Maritime heritage of former railway-owned ships, few of which remain except the paddle steamer Waverley on the Clyde and some small vessels on Lakes Coniston and Windermere. Many participated at Dunkirk, the Princess Victoria was lost on the Stranraer to Larne crossing in a terrible gale. There was also the luxury of the Night Ferry sleeping car service from London to Paris and the Golden Arrow Pullman service with its special vessel the Canterbury.

Postal Special. Gavin Morrison. 116-18.
Colour photo-feature (everything is in pillar box red): Class 90 No. 90 019 with four vans on afternoon Low Fell to King's Cross service on 24 September 1997 passing Dringhouses with new desirable houses which would be up in arms if it was HS2 two miles away; Class 73 No. 73 131 at rear of 15,48 Willesden to Dover mail leaving Kensington Olympia behind No. 73 136 which was probably not red on 4 May 2000;; Class 128 single unit diesel railcar No. 128 No. 55995 at Orsall Lane on way to Manchester Victoria oacute;n 23 July 1989; EMU Class 302 with roller shutter doors descending Bethnal Green Bank and arrived at Liverpool Street on 12 August 1989.

Alistair F. Nisbet. 'This omission is to be at once rectified' [opening the Abingdon branch]. 119-23
Abingdon used to be the county town of Berkshire, but local landowners were opposed to railways and the Official Guide to the Great Western was able to claim "That nbsp;there is little to detain the stranger in Abiingdon". Eventually the town was served by a short branch opened as the Abingdon Railway from Nuneham off the circuitous route via Didcot to Oxford. This was inspected by Captain Galton for the Board of Trade and opened on 2 June 1856. The Great Western worked the line but formal takeover did not happen until 1904. When the gauge was converted in 1873 the junction was moved to a new station at Radley. The line closed to passengers on 9 September 1963, but freight lasted until June 1984 when the coal concentration depot closed. MG Cars had provided traffic until 1980. Illutrations: Abingdon nbsp;station forecourt c1912; Armstrong 2-4-0T Metro tank at Abingdon c1912; Radley station c1912; 850 class 0-6-0PT No. 1976 with four-wheel coaches at Radley with Abingdon train in March 1931; 14XX No. 1444 at Radley with branch train being boarded by party of Scouts on wet 11 August 1961 (R.J. Buckley); water tower at Abingdon on 14 May 1951 (R.C. Riley); No. 1437 with auto car No, W194 Abingdon on 14 May 1951 (R.C. Riley); 58XX No. 5818 on branch freight at Radley (James Harrold);. See also letter from Mark Doran

Stephen Roberts. Northamptonshire's railways. 124-31.
The London amp; Birmigham Railway was early in the field and its route still dominates although the Midland Railway's Harringworth Viaduct is perhaps the dominant visible structure with its more than eighy arches. Surprisingly Kilsby Tunnel is neither mentioned nor illustrated, yet Catesby on the former Great Central is both. The cross country routes from both Rugby and Northamton have gone thus limiting access to the East of England to travel via London at great expence or reliance upon bus services to Peterborough. Corby ceased to have any passenger trains after 1966, but services have slowly been restored, Illutrations: 8F 2-8-0 No. 48053 on freight (mineral wagons) 0assing through Northampton Castle on 17 March 1961 (colour); Roade Cutting in 1839 (LNWR postcard); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No, 41224 propelling push amp; pull service to Bedford at Northampton Bridge Street (colour); map from P. Butler A history of the railways of Northamptonshire, Silver Link, 2006; Weedon station c1900; Northampton Castle station forecourt c1900snbsp;(coloured postcard: Boots Pelham series); Long Buckby station with oil lamp illumination; No. 7903 Foremarke Hall approaching Catesby Tunnel on eliminated Great Central main line on 10 Septrember 1961 (G. Parry: colour); ex-Midland Railway 1P 2-4-0 No. 256 at Northampton St. John's station with train fioe Bedford? c1930; frontage of Northampton St. John's station on 15 April 1949 (structure still extant and part of University of Northampton; 4F 0-6-0 No. 44215 on 16.00 from Peterborough East at Wellingborough on train for Northampton (Ben Brooksbank); Charwelton staion, GCR in 1909; Woodford Halse station platforms in 1929; Harringworth Viaduct on 29 August 1959 (John Spencer Gilks). Several letters on pp. 277-8: Neil Woodland (mainnly on frontier with Oxfordshire and limited potential for reopening stations; Stephen G. Abbott (mainly on station closure dates and the Soke of Peterborough which was sometimes considered to be in Northamptonshire); David Daines (errors relating to Grand Junction Canal) and Anthony Hinxman (from Oregon on omission of Great Central services to Cardiff and Bournemouth from Newcastle and York) and from Robin Leleux. on page 333, and on page 389 from Richard Bodily.

Roger Griffiths and John Hooper. Yorkshire coastal engine sheds and their locomotives. Part One: Saltburn. 132-9
Before the engine shed opened in about 1863. Before then there had been authorised in 1847 a shed at Redcar and this was moved to Saltburn after 1863. It is not clear whether the Satburn building was entirely new, but the authors claim that there may be remains serving different fuctions in Redcar. The physical structure iacute;n brick is described together with the water tang and coaling methods. The roof had to be replaced several times. The abbreviation for the shed used by the LNER was S'BURN later changed to SALT. British Railways coded it 51K. Cites Bill Hoole's North Eastern locomotive sheds. David & Charles, 1972. The 50 foot turtable could not turn larger locomotives and these had to use thr Brotton triangle until the Skinningrove 70-foot turntable was installed. Sections of the 1884 working timetable showing services to Consett are reproduced and notes are given of the coastal service to Whitby and Scarborough. Therre are descriptions of the locomotives allocated to the depot. Illutrations: map. plan Saltburn engine shed LNER 27 December 1928; engine shed on Whit Monday 29 May 1939 (W.A. Camwell); B16/1 No. 2375 on shed on 29 May 1939 with water tank dominant; steam crane coaling Ivall Class 4 No. 43072 (F.W. Hampson); B1 No. 61240 Harry Hinchcliffe on shd on 31 Jully 1955 (C.J.B. Sanderson); A8 4-6-2T No. 69883 on turntable (C.J.B. Sanderson); Horwich Class 5 2-6-0 No.42794 being coaled on 17 September 1955 with excursion from Sheffield (loco based at Grimesthorpe) ((K.H. Cockerill); nbsp;Carlin How engine shed from east in 1935 (W.A. Camwell); nbsp;Carlin How engine shed nbsp;on 25 September 1949 with two lorries CFD 360 and DYK 963 and old NER mineral wagons; BTP Class 0-4-4T sandwiched between two Autocar (push amp; pull) coaches at Hinderwell with seervice for Whitby c1905, See also latters from Chris Nettleton, Mike Godfrey and Doug Rushton on page 277.

'Highnesses' of the LMS... [Stanier Princess Royal Pacifics]. 140-2
Colour photo-feature (BR green unless otherwise stated]: No. 46201 Princess Elizabeth near Beattock Sunnit with heavy train with smoke from banker at rear; No. 46207 Princess Arthur of Connaught [red with LMS lining] at Camden shed in August 1961 (J.G. Dewing); No. 46208 Princess Helena Victoria [red with BR lining] on Camden shed in February 1959 (Trevor Owen); No. 46203 Princess Margaret Rose at Carlisle with northound express (LNER non-corridor coach in background); No. 46201 Princess Elizabeth leaving Glasgow St. Enoch with train for Carlisle via GSWR route; No. 46204 Princess Louise [red with BR lining] nbsp;with front coach in carmine amp; cream livery (strange clash of liveries) aat Watford Junction going north (L.V. Reason); No. 46204 Princess Marie Louise light engine at Crewe in 1962 (Colour Rail identified few of photographers)

Via Harrogate 143
Colour photo-feature (all locomotives in BR green livery: A3 No. 60036 Colombo on up Queen of Scots Pullman passing through the Stray on 17 August 1960 (Donald Watson); V2 No. 60929 arrives with 10.00 Sunderland to Manchester Exchange on 20 July 1963; V2 No. 60929 on 13.17 through coaches (including two Gresley vehicles with compartment doors) at platform waiting to leave for King's Cross via Leeds Central on 2 August 1963 (George Watson both latter)

I name this locomotive... 144-5
Black amp; white photo-feature: York station on 3 April 1939 V2 No. 4818 St. Peter's School, York, AD 627 was named by the Head Boy, J.T. Brocklebank; nbsp;No. 35021 New Zealand Line (caption does not identify four present);; Britannia class No. 70045 Lord Rowallan at Euston on 6 July 1957 with Lord Rowallan performing ceremony with two BR officers; No. 46112 Sherwood Forester reeceiving regimenytal badges at Nottingham Midland on 18 September 1948 (no names, but footbridge above in very tatty state); No. 70048 The Territorial Army 1908-1958 by Duke of Norfolk at Euston on 23 July 1958; 9F 2-10-0 No. 92220 Evening Star with those who built her at Swindon on 18 March 1960.

Stephen G. Abbott. In the wake of Madge Bessemer: a review of illegal railway closures. Part Two. 146-52
Part 1. The text considers the Leeds Northern Line on which the City of Ripon was demoted to a village without trains, yet Yarm, north of Northallerton was gifted with a new station and a multiplicity of train services. The Transport Acts flew into place at an almost regular pace and confused the management and their customers. The train service on the North Staffordshire Line has been subjected to temporary closure for protracted periods and replacement bus services are derogatory, especially for Stone. Newhaven ceased to have any justification after the Channel Tunnel opoened, but Brexit, Corvid amp; Boris may change that. Needless to say the Scottish devolved government has implemented illegal railway closures presumably to further disrupt any Unionist opposition. Illustrations: preserved K4 2-6-0 No, 2442 The Great Marquess passing Brompton station between Eaglescliffe and Northallerton on a railtour on 10 April 1965 (John Spencer Gilks); Sfone station on 29 May 1985 (Tommy Tomalin: colour); closed Barlaston station in April 2015 (Tim Hall-Smith: colour); closed Newhaven Harbour station in October 2014 (Tim Hall-Smith); Railway Clearing House map Willesden amp; Acton Wells; West Country Pacific No. 34099 Lynmouth at Mitre Bridge Junction with a Leicester to Hasings through service on nbsp;29 August 1959 (R.C. Riley); Class 47 No. 47 805 Bristol Bath Road and set of Mark II coaches all in Inter-City livery on 14.30 Brighton-Manchester-Glasgow passing Brighton Lovers Walk depot on 22 September 1991 (Keith Dungate: colour); Railway Clearing House map Clapham Junction, Stewarts Lane, Lavender Hill amp; Longhedge; Kensington Olympia with Schools class No.30938 St. Olaves's just off a Hastings to Leicester train and a B1 preparing to take over on 22 August 1959 (R.C. Riley: colour); Pacer No. 142 022 at Redcar British Steel on 07.41 Saltburn to Bishop Auckland on 19 October 2019 nbsp;(Tim Hall-Smith: colour). Letters received concerning subject from Mike Stone and from Stewart Clark and from Stephen Eaves.

Jeffrey Wells. An inspector calls... [Board of Trade Railway Inspectorate]. 153-7
No reference is made to a rather comprehensive weighty tome published by another railway enthusiast publisher, but there are many references to obscure local newspapers, like the Leeds Mercury. Cites Henry Parris Governmnet and raiilways in the 19th century. The career of Henry Whatley Tyler, William Yolland, Frederick Henry Rich and Charles Scrope Hutchinson .are considered in detail. of which Hutchinson in a a nbsp;retirement notce in the Maryport Advertiser noted that he had conducted 1100 inquiries into railway accidents, made 6500 inspections and travelled 1,250,000 miles in connection with this work. Illustrations (from John Alsop Collection): Exeter St. David's in 1930; Bawrtry station c1905; two Midland Railway 4-4-0 locomotives on down Scotch express at Hellifield c1904; de Glehn compound 4-4-2 No. 104 Alliance emerging from Severn Tunnel on up express; Hayle station c1910; 0-6-0ST at Redruth station with down train c1905; Chatham station c1908 (coloured postcard). Letter from Author cn caption which misplaces an accident at Chartham to Chatham; and another from C.A. Allenby on Hutchison's inspection of first Tay Bridge.

Andrew James. Backwaters of the London Midland: a study in performance nbsp;158-61
85 mile/h attained near Leigh between Stoke and Uttoxeter by a Class 5 4-6-0 in 1951. Two routes long since closed feature: Penrith to Whitehaven and Rugby to Market Harborough. On the former the Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0s were required to develop high horsepowers for their size and on the latter performance by a Prince of Wales 4-6-0 was comparable with that of its stated replacenment, the Stanier class 5. The Webb Cauliflower class was still capable of running fast down to Carlisle. Recorders included D.S.M. Barrie and G. Aston. Illustrations: Class 5 4-6-0 on excursion passing Old Foley Pottery of James Kent Ltd at Foley Crossing, Longtown; Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46448 climbing away from West Coast Main Line with Keswick train in 1950; Class 5 No. 45434 running towards Uttoxeter with 12,55 Llandudno to Derby express on 19 August 1961 (Michaekl Mensing); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-0 No. 46456 departing Keswick with 16,52 for Workington on 29 May 1952; 18-inch Cauliflower 0-6-0 No. 8429; Prince of Wales 4-6-0 No. 29685 Persia; Class % 4-6-0 No, 5330.

Rob Langham. Furness Railway lake steamers. 162-4.
The steam yacht Gondola was saved by the National Trust in the 1970s and sails on Lake Coniston burning wood. Illustrations:: Furness Railway poster #151; Edwardian lady above Lake Coniston with Lady of the Lake steam yacht far below (colour); Gondola of 1859 and Lady of the Lake of 1908 at Coniston; Lady of the Lake on Coniston Water; 1869-built Swan off Ambleside; Lakeside with Swift about to leave foe Windermere; Gondola steaming on Coniston Water in 1980 (colour). Letter from David Daines notes that Furness Railway used white ensign on its steamers and this was illegal

Readers' Forum. 165-6

From road unto rail . Stephen G. Abbott,
Re John Mcnab letter:, the fate of Metro-Cammell diesel multiple unit trailer No.59543. Reading depot originally used it plus 59528/38 from the North Eastern Region to strengthen three-car units to four cars, replacing Hawksworth corridor composite coaches which had been converted for use with DMUs. Eventually it was formed into a hybrid three-car set using spare power cars Nos.50083 (Derby-built) and 51399 (Pressed Steel). No.50083 lost its partner 50125 in the head-on collision on 24 November 1960 near Pontrhydyfen on the ex-Rhondda amp; Swansea Bay line, between the 16.55 Swansea High Street to Barry Island via Treherbert and a 620-ton coal train headed by pannier tank No. 9737. The coal train should have crossed the passenger train at Pontrhydyfen, but ran away through the station on to the single line down a 1 in 42 gradient. Sadly the DMU driver and coal train fireman lost their lives. No.51399's partner 51357 was withdrawn in April 1968 following fire damage. On 13 January 1977 I rode in the hybrid unit from Maidenhead to Paddington, No.59543 proving distinctly luxurious in comparison to its suburban-style companions!

From road unto rail. Gerald Goodall
Re John Macnab letter he inquires into what happened to MetCam trailer No.59543 after its transfer to Reading in exchange for 'bubble car' No.55000. By that time, several BRCW three-car suburban sets (Class 118) were running from Reading as additional units to complement the almost identical Pressed Steel Class 117 units that were the mainstay of Reading's allocation. Three MetCam trailers made their way to Reading #151; Nos.59528, 59538 and 59543 #151; and were formed into Class 118 units to make four-car sets. The 118s may by then have been equipped with gangways within the set; if so, there would then be a gangwayed four-car set. The four-car sets were often to be found in the peak-hour through trains between Paddington and the Bourne End branch from Maidenhead; these services were regarded as mildly prestigious, though to nothing like the extent of the Henley through trains. The Bourne End trains were commonly of seven cars (four-set plus three-set, the latter perhaps having a MetCam trailer but no Class 118 trailer), and I can recall seeing a ten-car train at Paddington one evening. My notes from the time indicate that the three MetCam trailers were later transferred to Cardiff and thence to the LMR. As Macnab rightly notes, several complete MetCam three-sets later came to Reading, in principle for the Gatwick service though they also had some use on Paddington locals.

How not to close a railway. Robin Leleux
Re Geoffrey Skelsey in December issue in which he makes the salient point that to be successful a fght against closure of a railway line needed the mobilisation of a persistent, persuasive and professional campaign. This was the case too at IIkley at much the same time with the lines from Leeds and Bradford, although unfortunately this did not extend from Menston round the corner to Otley, something which has plagued Leeds commuters ever since. Skelsey implies that railway support for the North Warwickshire Line declined once it became part of the monolithic London Midland Region. At that time the LMR did not seem to be interested in promoting railways in its domain. I experienced this a year or two before: my girlfriend, later fiancee, was training in London but would come home to Northampton for the weekend on the United Counties coach from Victoria, that being much cheaper than the train fare. The Friday evening service regularly loaded to four or more additional coaches, and similarly with the return service to London at 18.00 on Sunday evenings. So I wrote to the LMR suggesting a cheap weekend ticket to tap this evident market. I received a dusty answer effectively saying that there was no market worth tapping into. We had also seen this lack of interest in promoting local railways in the closure in 1964-66 of the two lines stradling Northamptonshire heading for Peterborough. Again when I lived in Worcester from 1967 the local railway authority made no attempt to encourage rail travel to Birmingham, so the Midland Red express coach up the MS did a good trade. I would not agree with him that the rise of traffic congestion could not be foreseen in the later 1960s. Birmingham was already being touted as the city of the car and congestion there was rising during my four years in Worcester. Leeds too has been grappling with road congestion for more than a generation and seen successive light rail or similar schemes proposed and blocked as not being value for money.

The end of company service. Andrew Kleissner
Re Jirn McBride article: there is an omission. While the fmal spoil trains ran on Saturday 2 May 1970, there were two further outings for steam in Ulster on Sundays 24 nbsp;and 31 May. These were used to take heavy girders from York Road yard for a new bridge at Ballyclare Junction and featured #151; at least. on 31 May #151; the use of Nos.4 and 51 together with a steam crane. Some fascinating pictures of these, and of the spoil train operation, can be found on the RPSl's excellent '' website.

Coals to Newcastle. John Bushbynbsp;
Re article (December and January), the following additional points might be of interest. The North Eastern Railway (NER) was an exception in its successful and widespread use of high capacity mineral wagons, i.e. those of more than 10 or 12 ton capacity. High capacity mineral wagons were introduced in Britain during the first few years of the 10th century. However, they failed to gain widespread acceptance. Where they did find favour, other than on the NER, it tended to be in niche roles such as the wooden-bodied 15 ton locomotive coal wagons of the Cambrian Railways and their better known, and more more numerous, 20 ton all-steel Great Western Railway (GWR) equivalents.
The NER enjoyed three important advantages in terms of its extensive use of higher capacity mineral wagons. Firstly, as the article states, the NER enjoyed a monopoly in the very productive Northumberland-Durham coalfield and, other than on the fringes, in north east region of England as a whole. Secondly, this monopoly, together with control of the shipping facilities enabled the NER, as noted by the author, to dictate to the colliery companies the types of coal wagons to be used and on what terms. This was in complete contrast to the usual situation elsewhere in, for example. the South Wales or South Yorkshire coalfields. In both as elsewhere the proliferation of alternative rail facilities meant rarely could a single company enjoy similar advantages. Lastly, much of the coal carried by the NER. if not intended for shipping over its own lines through port facilities it controlled, was destined for places that it served directly. Consequently, the NER was able to exercise direct control at all stages from pit to consumer over much of its coal traffic. It is worth stating however, that NER high capacity mineral wagons regularly appeared in the West Cumberland/Furness industrial districts via the NER's cross-Pennine links as both districts had had strong economic connections with the north east.
The NER was probably also the most successful of the major railway companies in terms of dealing with the ever contentious issue of private owner wagons. Again, as stated, the NER's strong position, viz.the colliery companies, meant that, unusually, it was able to insist that they conform to its own design standards even where they chose to use their own wagons. In total contrast, in South Wales for example, coal trade owners' use of their private owner wagons was virtually universal other than for locomotive coal. This was a deliberate, openly stated and jealously guarded policy on the part of the colliery proprietors both there and elsewhere (see South Wales Coal Annual 1903 and subsequent editions). In 1909, an attempt by the three largest Scottish railway companies acting in common, rare in itself, to prevent three colliery companies from using private owner wagons had failed in the courts.
On l August 1918, as part of ongoing and largely abortive attempts to make better use of private owner wagons during World War I, Britain's first ever accurate count of private owner wagons established that 4,321 such wagons were based on the NER at the time of which 3,298 were mineral hopper wagons which conformed to NER standards. Accordingly, like their NER counterparts, they would have been classed as not suited for general use and excluded from any common user and/or pooling arrangement applied to private owner wagons. However, no national pool of private owner wagons ever materialised despite lengthy and unproductive negotiations that dragged on from the end of 1915 up until the Armistice. Eventually, just over 10,000 owners wagons were reluctantly hired to the railway companies on agreed terms as partial replacements for the 30,000 or so wagons that that they had made over to the War Department for use abroad. Even then this number, which represented less than 2% of the private owners wagon total fleet, was only obtained after prolonged haggling over compensation terms.
Notwithstanding the low number of owners wagons based on the NER in relation to its size, the company was still obliged to accept them from elsewhere. This was a long-standing legal obligation placed on the railway companies provided that an owner's wagon was in a 'reasonable' state of repair, a definition that came to be of great benefit to lawyers. Strange as it may seem today, the August 1918 private owners' census was the first time that an exact figure for the number of private owner wagons were running on the railways of Great Britain had been established. During the pre-war decade, 600,000 plus, or thereabouts, had been the generally accepted estimate but this was nothing more than guesswork. The 1918 census found that there were 626,623 such wagons, exclusive of internal user only wagons and those not currently able to run on the system due to awaiting repairs etc, which were owned by different entities 6,459. (from Britain's Railways In the Great War Val.2 by Edwin Pratt, 1921).

Stoke station. Robin Leleux
Wearing my hat as Chairman of the Panel of Adjudicators for the National Railway Heritage Awards, may I elaborate on Stoke-on- Trent station's involvement with the Awards as detailed in Mike Fell's interesting two-part article (December 2020 and January 2021)? The work on reviving the down-side buildings which he fully describes was not the first time the station had been entered for the Awards, let alone winning one. He mentions work on the main station roof in 2013; while this and other smaller works at that time, entered by Virgin Trains, were not short listed, substantial work on the platform roof in 2001 was short listed. One of our judges sent us a photograph of the sun streaming through the newly refurbished glazing creating patterns on a train below. More significant still was the extensive work on the impressive station roof in 1993. its distinctive banded tiling can just be made out in the colour photograph on page 59. This and the crested ridge tiles, were thoroughly restored, also with the assistance of the Railway Heritage Trust, with replacements being carefully manufactured as appropriate, thus bringing the RHT Award for 1993 to the British Rail Property Board. This undoubtedly set the tone for the long-term treatment of this most handsome set of station buildings which some two decades later saw its culmination in the rehabilitation of the down side.

Highland 'Clans'. Arnold Tortorella. 165-6nbsp;
The December issue contained a fascinating account of the Highland Railway 'Clan' class of 4-6-0 tender locomotive which went on to form part of the backbone of LMS operations in the Highlands of Scotland after the grouping in 1923. For the colour photograph at the top of page 644 I can supply the following supplementary information: from the view of the photograph as published, it would appear that LMS No.14765 is heading along the road to the locomotive shed and off the larger 60ft turntable, which had been installed some live years before as the Northern Division Minute Book records. The entire matter of the then existing turntable at Oban shed had been discussed at a meeting of the 'Traffic Sub-committee', held at 302 Buchanan Street, Glasgow, on 17th January 1933, and recorded under Item No.45. "Oban: proposed installation of 60 foot engine turntable (DWO 3004).
The Chief Officer for Scotland reported that the engine turntable at Oban was too small and required to be renewed and he recommended that it should be replace by a disused 60 foot turntable from Dumfries Caledonian Yard; that the turntable pit at Oban should be enlarged to accommodate the larger turntabl ; that the engine hoist should be removed to an adjacent site, and that an alternative siding should be provided for the Breakdown Crane as the present siding would be displaced by the larger turntable ... "
The estimated outlay was #163;2,226 0s 0d, but it was anticipated that the material recovered could be disposed of for #163;87 0s 0d, resulting in a net outlay of #163;2,139 0s 0d. The above proposal was so approved. Perhaps it would be helpful to explain that the previously-installed 50ft turntable at Oban, although adequate to turn the 'Oban Bogie' 4-6-0 tender designs of both J. F. Mclntosh and then William Pickersgill for the Caledonian Railway, with their somewhat shorter overall lengths, it would not have been adequate for the longer and heavier locomotives which were being designed by the early 1930s. In any case, the first five of the 55 class of 'Oban Bogie' from the design work of Mclntosh were already over 30 years of a working life, whilst the second four were fast approaching that age, so all were reasonably 'life expired'. These factors account for the decision of the Northern Division to install a longer turntable at Oban.
Interested readers will find a fascinating survey of the entire locomotive shed area at Oban within LMS Engine Sheds, Vol. 5: the Caledonian Railway by Chris Hawkins amp; George Reeve (Wild Swan Publications, 1987), which contains a wealth of photographs and information relevant to the situation at Oban. Similarly, A History of Highland Locomotives by Peter Tatlow (OPC, 1979) contains invaluable information relevant to HR engines, including, somewhat obviously, the 'Clans', along with superb line drawings, photographs and tablature data.

Book reviews. 166

It's still a lot of fun! Published by the Ravenglass #163; Eskdale Railway Preservation Society. A5 softback, 240pp.
The Ravenglass amp; Eskdale Railway is one of our most cherished heritage railways and this reviewer has never failed to enjoy a visit. This book was published last year to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the RERPS but sadly 2020 was not to be the joyous year hoped for, as like all its fellows in the heritage world, its activities werre devastantingly curtailed by the pandemic. Now isn't the moment to dwell on that nightmare, though. This cheery publication is a celebration of the Ratty, written and compiled by those who live with it - as full-time staff or as volunteers in all the activities, often unnoticed and unsung, who work to keep the railway running. There are thus tales from the engine drivers, guards, workshop technicians and permanent way maintainers, but also the thoughts of those who do such essential work as keeping the loos clean, walking the track to collect litter, fighting lineside fires, preparing the Society's magazine, handling membership matters - well, everything really. The landscape through which the railway passes gives rise to scenic photography, with pictorial accounts of sheep invasions or the sighting of red squirrels and buzzards. It's hard to pick on specific details of the life and times of the Ratty as there are so many of them, but the affection for it of those who have lived with it, in the past or the present, in whatver capacity, comes through overwhelmingly. This is a book you don't have to read from cover to cover; you can delve in and out at will and savour an individual contribution on its own. It can't fail to make you feel better! Buy it and support the RER - and let's all hope that 2021 proves a much better year than the dreadful one preceding it. ~

The evolving railway 1951-1976. Brian Morrison. Crecy Publishing, 160pp. hardback. Reviewed by DWM *****
Your reviewer found it difficult to sum up this book in a better way other than by using the words on the inside of the dust jacket, 'not just a celebration of the work of one of our finest railway photographers, The Evolving Railway' contains a wealth of memories for all those interested in Britain's railways from the 19S0s onwards'. The end result is a stylish-produced pictorial volume: on the whole pictures are afforded a full page, captions are extended and, in some cases, the printing process seems to have almost imparted a sepia-like quality to some of the pictures.
The pictures themselves, all of the highest quality and some 'old friends', extend from the 'steam railway' of the fifties through to the days when the traction was 'modern' but the infrastructure still looked over its shoulder to the good old days. There's even a nod towards heritage railways in the form of Blackmore Vale, Green Goddess and the 'rail blue' Vale of Rheidol.
The geographical bias of the photographs is largely towards the south and east of the currently United Kingdom although the north is represented by such gems as the ill-fated Ben Alder at Inverness, 'Bantam Hen' at Aberdeen and a WD 2-8-0 basking in the dawn light at Perth. No seeming geographical progression is obvious in the placement of pictures, Hildenborough bank follows Brentwood and Brighton and Swindon Works face each other across the page - but, no matter, this perhaps all adds to the 'box of delights' nature of the book. A very catholic selection of motive power is featured in the photographs. In addition to those already mentioned perhaps more unremarked types such as HI5 4-6-0s, Midland 0-4-4Ts, A8 4-6-2Ts, the ungainly Thompson A2s and (lots of) B17s seem to have been sought out by the photographer. For 'modern traction' enthusiasts there's a good representation of the first generation of the 'usual suspects' and some rarer pictures of the stylish Southern electo-diesels. Dyed in the wool steam enthusiasts who are looking for portraits of either 'Castles' or Duchesses', however, will be disappointed. This is a fine book - but it probably doesn't add a great deal to our bank of knowledge about railways. What it does do #151; brilliantly #151; and as stated on the dust jacket #151; is to bring back a flood of memories of happier, more expansive times

Just Published! Locomotives of the Great Southern amp; Western Railway By Jeremy Clements, Michael McMahon and Alan O'Rourke
284 pages, casebound, heavily illustrated, 215mm x 287mm. The motive power fleet of the largest pre-1925 railway company to operate on the island of Ireland has never before been comprehensively surveyed, This work consists of 284 pages with four colour illustrations, 195 black-and-white photographs, 81 line drawings, 34 diagrams, and five maps/plans, Dimensional information is provided on all locomotives owned by the GSWR from inception in 1844 until the 192415 Amalgamation. Similar information is included on the fleets of the companies taken over between 1866 and 1901, This book is the result of a research project which started in 2011 and has involved exhaustive investigation of original records in Ireland and Britain, This is a limited edition that covers an importan era in Irish transport history. It is the last major part of the steam locomotive story of these islands to be fully recorded. Only available by mail order from the distributor. Collon Publishing, Collon House, Ardee Street, Collon, Co Louth, A92 YT29, Ireland. Email: collonpublishingamp; [advertisement]

Killin time in Glen Dochart. George Watson. rear cover
BR 2-6-4T No. 80029 at Killin Junction on 29 August 1965. See also letter from Sandy Smeaton.

London, Brighton amp; South Coast
Railway H2 4-4-2 No.32424
8eachy Head at Newhaven
locomotive depot in April 1958.
(K. Cooper

April (Number 360)

Every picture tells a story - but where? Roger Backhouse
In a guest editorial on the long term storage of railway images mainly in the fiorm of photographs and the efforts of societies, libraries and public authority archives.

Freight working in Kent. Rodney Lissenden. 172-3
Colour photo-feature: No. 47 307 approachiing Dartford with 12.52 Grain Thamesport to Crewe Basford Hall with Evergreen shipping containers with Dartford Crossing Bridge behind on 15 March 1993; No. 59 103 Village of Chantry in ARC livery with empty stone wagons from West Drayton to Allington stone terminal near Swanley on 27 June 1995; electro-diesel No. 73 004 on third rail hauling nuclear flask from Sellafield to Dungeness at Swanley on 8 August 1985; No. 09 013 shmting wagons off train ferry from Dunkerque at Dover Western Docks on 26 April 1984; Class 20 Nos. 20 901 and 20 905 in Hunslet-Barclay livery topping and tailing weedkilling train through Paddock Wood on 20 April 1005.

Michael H.C. Baker. Around Croydon, 174-9
Mixture of personal history based on childhood and early married life spent in Croydon and the history of raiways therein with particular reference to the byway which wandered from West Croydon to Wimbledon and which is now served by Tramlink. Illustrations: building the railway through Coombe Cliff [painting of men excavating cutting in dangerous working conditions]; diagram of stations, junctions and running lines within period 1940-1959; LBSCR 0-4-2 Gladstone class No. 187 Philip Rose passing East Croydon c1920; 0-6-0 No. 31048 on station pilot duty at East Croydon in 1958; Crystal Palace High Level station frontage in 1974; EPB multiple units on Charing Cross to Caterham and Tattenham Corner working at Norwood Junction in 1969; 2-BIL leading Victoria bound train at East Croydon in summer of 1969; LBSCR E5 0-6-2T nbsp;No. 591 on down express formed of balloon stock passing South Croydon c1920; ex-LBSCR high voltage stock converted to third rail at Mitcham Junction in 1952; Schools class 4-4-0 No. 30928 Stowe at Sanderstead on 16.48 Victoria to Brighton in August 1961; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42087 on 18.10 Victoria to Tunbridge Wells in 1954 (R. Russell); Tramlink trams in original scarlet livery at East Croydon in 2001 (colour). See also letters from Tim Edmonds and from Neil Knowlden.

Barry Taylor. A grand tour of East Anglia #151; the 1956 'Best Kept Station' Competition. 180-6.
Based on the special timetable (Special Trains Notice S1230) produced for an eight day inspection of station gardens in East Anglia under the direction of G.F. Fiennes, then the Area nbsp;Operating Superintendent based at Shenfield Station, although the tour began at Liverpool Street behind B12/3 No. 61572 on Monday 9 July 1956. Illustrations: J15 0-6-0 No. 65462 propelling an inspection saloon through Whitlingham Junction station; an early Derby diesel multiple unit runs ino Acle station on 14 July 1958 with a Yarmouth to Norwich service; Brundall Gardens station on 19 February 1962; Chatteris station; Eye Green (for Crowland) on 9 January 1957 (Douglas Thompson);

Railway observations from a Selside winter. Part Two #151; 1965. 187-9
Part 1 page 48. Signal box register from late 1965 by which time steam was disappearing from most traffic, except freight. Notes on delays, the presence of snowploughs. There is an extract from the register with excellent copperplate handwriting by G.T. Horner. The author also travelled over the Carlisle to Settle route during this period when he was fortunate to have a jouney behind No. 70006 Robert Burns. Illustrations: exterior of Selside signal box viewed from cab of down train; 12.08 all-stations to Carlisle hauled by Britannia class No. 70050 away from Ribblehead Viaduct with residual snow on 9 April 1966 (S. Leyland); Britannia class No. 70029 Shooting Star on Stourton to Carlisle freight on 18 April 1967 (Gavin Morrison: colour); 8F 2-8-0s Nos. 48321 and 48758 with train of track panels on 24 June 1967 (Gavin Morrison: colour). See also letter from Paul Kampen on page 389.

John Jarvis. The rise and fall of IIfracombe Station - Part Two. 190-5.
In June 1887 the Great Western opened a chord to enable its trains from Taunton to work through to Ilfracombe. Sunday services began in 1890. Another GWR chord enabled its terminus in Barnstaple to be bypassed. Through services to Manchester and Liverpool via Taunton started in 1891 and most of the branch was doubled. The Southern Railway introducedd the Atlantic Coast Express through coaches or even complete train in 1926 and the Pullman Devon Belle in 1947. nbsp;Railway Illustrations: Battle of Britain class No. 34078 222 Squadron with three coaches climbs 1 in 36 to Morethoe with 15.00 to Exeter in September 1961 (J.F.W. Paige colour); N class 2-6-0 No. 31856 and Battle of Britain class No. 34065 Hurricane waiting to depart from Platfprm No. 2 in July 1961 (Dave Cobb); Battle of Britain class No. 34078 on turntable at Ilfracombe in September 1961 (J.F.W. Paige colour); N class No. 31840 banking down train between Braunton and Mortehoe near Willingcott on 13 July 1963 (T.B. Owen: colour); Class 118 diesel multiple unit waiting to depart for Exeter on Sunday 24 July 1966; M7 0-4-4T No. 30667 and 43XX No. 7337 descending from Mortehoe with 08.50 from Taunton on 1 September 1962 (P.W. Gray); West Country No. 34020 Seaton descending Mortehoe Hill about to pass another light Pacific working hard on climbb (T.B. Owen: colour); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41297 outside locomotive shed at Barnstaple Junction on 12 October 1962 (J.L. Lean: colour); No. 34078 hauls empty stock out of Platform 2 on 17 September 1961 (G. Parry: colour); Warship diesel hydraulic No. D817 Foxhouns in maroon livery in Platform 2 with 10.55 for Exeter St. David's in March 1069 (John A.M. Vaughan: colour).

The Brighton's Atlantics. 196-7
Colour photo-feature of Marsh LBamp;SCR H2 class: No. 2421 South Foreland in Bulleid malachite green livery at Newhaven shed in 1947 (C.C.B. Herbert): all remainder BR lined black: No. 32424 Beachy Head with return RCTS Pullman centenary special (of Brighton Works) at Brighton station before leaving for Victoria on 5 October 1952 (Trevor Owen); No. 32424 Beachy Head running through Norwood Junction on 12 April 1958 to Victoria to work special next day (R.C. Riley); No. 32424 Beachy Head nbsp;having worked RCTS Sussex Coast Limited from Victoria on Newhaven shed 13 April 1958 (Ken Wightman); No. 32424 Beachy Head with BR Class 4 2-6-4T No. 80154 (last steam locomotive built at Brighton on Newhaven shed on 13 April 1958 (latter worked RCTS Sussex Coast Limited back to Victoria (P.Hughes)nbsp;

Going round the South Wales sheds. Gavin Morrison. 198-201
Mainly colour photo-feature: former Rhymney Railway Hurry Riches 0-6-2T No. 38 at Cardiff East Dock on 25 June 1955 (black amp; white); two 57XX 0-6-0PT at Llantrisant shed on Sunday 3 June 1962; Carmarthan shed with No. 5938 Stanley Hall; No. 4081 Warwick Castle; 5087 Tintern Abbey on 9 September 1962; Cardiff Canton with No. 4080 Powderham Castle; No. 6010 King Charles I; Modified Hall No. 7913 Little Wyrely Hall and 28XX No. 3860 on 2 June 1962; 2251 class No. 2255 in lined green livery at Machynlleth shed on 28 March 1959; 72XX No. 7215 on Swansea East Dock on 9 September 1962; Castle cl;ass No. 5061 Earl of Birkenhead and 9F 2-10-0 No. 92237 at Cardiff Canton on 3 June 1962; 45XX No. 5571 on Pembroke Dock shed 9 September 1962; 56XX 0-6-2T Nos. 5674 and 5666 on Cae Harris shed on 8 July 1956 (black amp; white); 42XX 2-8-0T No. 4265 at Cardiff Canton on 29 July 1959 en route from Swindon to Aberdare; 57XX 0-6-0PT No. 9602 shunts coal wagon at Fishguard Goodwick shed on 9 September 1962.

John M. Clarke. Coffins by corpse van: some hearse carriages of Britain's railways. 202-5.
Survey excludes tthe dedicated vans used by the London Necropolis Company (cites Oakwood Press publication The London Necropolis Railway by John M. Clarke), the one-off use of normal van stock to convey the remains of Edith Cavell, Captain Fryatt, the Unknown Warrior and Sir Winston Churchill.. Illustrations: Great Northern Railway coffin carrriage (diagram: Martin Dawes); Glasgow amp; South Western Railway corpse van No, 3; Great Eastern Railway six-wheel corpse van No. 63335 at Wentworth Junction in 1947; Midland Railway corpse van No. 21 (colour: red model 7mm scale); North British Railway corpse van No. 1357 (diagram: side amp; end elevations); Festiniog Railway preserved corpse van: interior showing rollers to assist loading/unloading (Nicolas Wheattley). See also letters from Keith Parsons and from Tom Wray on page 390.

Bill Taylor. Fatal accident at Birkby on the North Eastern Railway. 206-7
On 18 June 1914 Ernest Frederick Horner of Northallerton was fatally injured whilst firing a Class Y 4-6-2T. His head had struck the balcony of Birkby signal cabin when leaning out to verify if the injector was working properly. Illustrations: Class 7 4-6-2T No. 1175 in NER livery (similar to locomotive in accident); LNERE B16 (NER S3) No, 925 passing Birkby signal box on fast freight on 4 September 1926; diagram of cabin showing proximity of balcony to cab of locomotive.nbsp;

Allan C. Baker and Mike G. Fell. No. 6254 City of Stoke-on-Trent. 208-14
No, 6254 was one of a smalll batch of non-streamlined Coronation class Pacifics built following WW2 to the design of Sir William Stanier, although the authors acknowledge the input of Tom F. Coleman, the LMS "Chief Draughtsman". No. 6254 was named at Stoke station on 20 September 1946 by the Lord Mayor Percy Williams in the presence of nbsp;Sir Francis Joseph who hosted the event on behalf of the LMS. Henry Brindley and Clive Robinson, both from Stoke shed, were on the footplate. Illustrations: No. 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent. in crimson livery possibly ex-works in 1960 (colour); No. 6254 City of Stoke-on-Trent. being named by Lord Mayor Percy Williams with Sir Francis Joseph hosting the LMS on 20 September 1946; No. 6254 City of Stoke-on-Trent. on Edge Hill shed with Class 5 4-6-0 No. 5025; No. 6254 City of Stoke-on-Trent. departs south from Carlisle Citadel with 13.15 Glasgow Central to Euston (Gavin Wilson); No. 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent.on 13.00 Euston to Glasgow south of Apsley on 13 September 1949; No. 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent. in red livery with BR lining ex_works nbsp;at Shrewsbury in 1958, fitted with speedometer but lacking AWS (Gerald Worland Collection); No. 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent. in crimson passaing Rutherglen on 3 September 1960; No. 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent on exhibition at Stoke on 2nbsp;1 May 1960; (Gerald Worland Collection); No. 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent on Abyssinia No. 1 Road (known as Abba) Crewe (Jim Carter) (when Allan Baker worked there it was being demolished; No. 4 6254 in Erecting Shop at Crewe (Jim Carter); No. 46254 in worn red livery at Crewe North on 29 August 1964. See addenda on page 389

Philip Atkins. A locomotive spending spree, 1921, 215-17.
During WW1 the supply of new locomotives onto British railways had been very limited due to a shortage of raw mateerials and manpower: everything was dominted by the war effort. In 1921 a floodgate of new orders was opened, but two major engineering companies switched to locomotive construction in an attmpt to reduce unemployment: these were Amstrong Whitworth on the Tyne and Beardmore on the Clyde. The effort did not prove very profitable for the new entrants. One peculiarity of this time was the crdering of Baltic 4-6-4Ts with inside cylinders by the Furness Railway; from Kitson amp; Co. and huge three-cylinder machines designed by Robert Whitelegg for the Glasgow amp; South Western Railway. Illustrations:nbsp;Beardmore-built B12 No. 61543 with Belpaire firebox leaving Aberdeen in July 1952 (T.J. Edgington); Armstrong Whitworth-built T2 class 0-8-0 No. 6 nbsp; at Tyne Dock shed on 2 August 1966 (T.J. Edgington); Robert Stephenson amp; Co. partially built 43XX 2-6-0 No. 7308 at Hereford nbsp;on 8 May 1953 (T.J. Edgington); North British Locomotive Co.-built N2 tank No. 69543 at King's Cross on 16 October 1955 (T.J. Edgington); Armstrong Whitworth-built 4F 0-6-0 No. 3937 on Lea Road water troughs on return Blackpool excursion in early LMS period (T.J. Edgington Collection); North British Locomotive Co.-built 4-6-T (Baltic tank) No. 541 at Glasgow St. Enoch.

Modernising the London Midland Region .218-19
Photographs presented in an album presented to David Blee, General Manager LMR on his retirement in 1961, taken by John Spencer Gilks: No. 18100 former Western Region gas turbine locomotive converted to 25kV (KPJ: looks as if fitted with trolley pole pick up); Wilmslow signal box with very heavy overhead electric catenary; auger borer digging pit for concrete base for electrification mast with vast workforce including supervisory grades plus 8F 2-8-0 to haul contraption; parcels loading dock being constructed at Coventry station; railway bridge over M1 motorway near Rugby between Junctions 17 and 18 see letter from Trevor Warner on white elephants: the M45 and the bridge over it to accomodate the Great Central Line south of Rugby; new station at St Helens Shaw Street featuring glass in structure

David P. Williams. The Ballachulish nbsp;branch train recalled. 220.

Book Reviews. 221-2

Barrow-in-Furness and its railway. Michael Andrews. Barrai Books, paperback, 150pp, Reviewed by DJ ****
Although not immediately made clear, the core of this book was first published by the Cumbrian Railways Association in 2003 under the title The Furness Railway in and around Barrow. For those not possessing the original work, this new version is highly recommended.
Michael Andrews, who died in 2010, was born in Barrow and spent a lifetime studying the Furness Railway and the town it played a key role in creating. Here are related the early years of the Furness, the phenomenal growth of Barrow from a small harbour into one of Britain's principal centres of heavy industry, and the sad period of gradual decline to leave a system that is a shadow of its former self.
More than 150 photographs capture the highs and lows of both the railway and the town. Especially helpful are the excellent maps, which in this new version have the advantage of being in colour. A 20-page postscript brings the story up-to-date, covering 21st century developments ranging from traffic in moving nuclear fuel flasks through to passenger services provided by the Government's 'Operator of Last Resort'. An additional map shows how much of the Barrow rail system has gone and how little is left. An unfortunate omission compared with the 2003 book is the lack of an index but a redeeming feature is an excellent cover illustration of FR 0-4-0 No.9 by the late Edward Paget-Tomlinson.

The Metropolitan-Vickers Type 2 Co-Bo diesel-electric locomotives #151; from design to destruction. Anthony P. Sayer, Pen and Sword, hardback, 272 pages, nbsp;Reviewed by DWM *****
This heavyweight publication, the latest in the publisher's Locomotive Portfolios series, could well be subtitled 'All you would have liked to have known about the Metro-Vick Co-Bos but were somewhat reluctant to ask' #151; and oh that British Railways engineers had asked their colleagues in the Emerald Isle before embarking on the installation of Crossley engines in their latest diesel development!
It must be conceded that, distinctive as the Co-Bos appeared, they weren't actually one of the most successful of the first generation of diesel traction intended to replace steam but this volume is a very detailed and even-handed study of their time in service. The book is splendidly-produced, lavishly illustrated #151; in both black and white and in colour #151; and meticulously researched and is set fair to become something of a 'standard' source on this stylishly-inelegant class of twenty locomotives.
The author draws heavily on original sources and the book falls logically, although not indicated as such, into four divisions. The technical specification, design, delivery, testing and allocations bring the locomotives in service. There follows an individual consideration of each locomotive, its overhaul history and some comment on performance before the onset of 'the Dukinfield Years'. This was a period (between 1961-63) when the locomotives were stored and then 'rehabilitated' by Metropolitan-Vickers engineers at the former Great Central carriage and wagon works to the east of Manchester. Post- Dukinfield #151; and restored to a somewhat more reliable condition #151; the locomotives migrated 'en mass' to Barrow and saw out their working lives in Cumbria, The concluding part of the book gives a summary of the operational activity of the class, the highlight of which must have been the named 'Condor' freight service, before considering items such as liveries, accidents, disposal and the remarkable survival of No.D5705 largely due to it being acquired as possible motive power by the Research Centre at Derby.
The book is well-provided with excellent illustrations, although perhaps five pictures of the same train, a 'Black Five' hauling four Co-Bos away for storage, is a little excessive? Your review was particularly taken with the pictures of the locomotives in action on the Midland main line over the Peak District and with those featuring Cumbrian Coast locations such as Seascale and Drigg #151; with the 'Victoria Hotel' prominent in the background of the latter! Having studied this book in some detail and digested much of the erratic performance of the locomotives your reviewer was somewhat relieved to recall an entirely uneventful journey from Lancaster to Barrow in the summer of 1963 hauled by No.DS703 on the way out and the now-preserved No.D5705 on the return. In contrast driver Ron Clarke, formerly of Carnforth and a colleague in more recent times on 'L'al Ratty', recalled one of his better railway days on the main line as being when "we towed three of those awful Metro-Vick things away for scrap #151; using a Standard Class 4 4-6-0 too!"
Anecdotes aside, this is a really excellent book. It covers, in tremendous detail, a niche in railway history that could have remained un remarked for a long time. If nothing else it answers the reviewer's long-held query about the asymmetric power bogies! Highly recommended.

Southern Steam 1948-1967. Ben Brooksbank and Peter Tuffrey. Great Northern Books, hardback, 160 pp. Reviewed by DWM **
This nicely presented volume is a comprehensive, alphabetical and geographical pictorial study of steam locomotives in the South of England from nationalisation to 'the end'. It is slightly more than a photographic record of locomotives of the old Southern group including as it does BR Standard types, locomotives of LMS provenance and even a 2-8-0 of the former Somerset amp; Dorset Railway. The photographic locations run, in order, from Alton to Yeovil and almost #151; but not quite all #151; Southern types are included. There is the expected plethora of Pacifies, rebuilt and otherwise, a melee of Moguls and a veritable terrier of tank engines of most shapes and sizes. More out of the ordinary are some fine rarities in the likes of shots of a former Brighton Pacific tank at London Bridge, an I3 4-4-2T at Brighton and A.S.. Harris, an 0-6-0T of the former Plymouth, Devonport amp; South Western Junction Railway consorting with the enemy at Stewarts Lane. Your reviewer searched in vain for a picture of a 'Remembrance', an H15 or a G16 4-8-0T and was disappointed that the 'Lord Nelsons' merited only one picture #151; and that of the admiral himself taking his ease on Basingstoke shed.
The juxtaposition of black and white and colour pictures is very effective. If nothing else the colour pictures show up, in not-so-glorious detail, what a filthy place the steam railway was in the later days! It seems to be almost a 'house style' of this publisher to reduce photographic captions to the barest minimum. Your reviewer would have preferred perhaps three pictures instead of four per double page but with a little more background information given for each picture. Other than a good selection of pictures of steam locomotives in action this book won't add a great deal to our knowledge of the steam era in the South of England. Nonetheless it is probably a book that enthusiasts for the Southern way of doing things will not want to be without.

Wymondham to Wells featuring the Mid-Norfolk Railway. Richard Adderson and Graham Kenworthy. Middleton Press, 96pp. Reviewed by RC ***
This is another in the Middleton Press series of books, 'Evolving the Ultimate Rail Encyclopedia International'. It is sad to record that co-author Graham Kenworthy, died before publication. Following a very brief historical introduction, timetable extracts and a not too-challenging (to enginemen) gradient profile, the reader is taken on a pictorial journey through central Norfolk from Wymondham via Dereham, County School and Fakenham to arrive at Wells-next-the-Sea. Each station, location or junction is dealt with on a 'then and now' basis and this reviewer was stunned by the spectacle, in East Anglia, of a Stanier Pacific rubbing shoulders with a 'Royal Sect', at Thuxton on the Mid-Norfolk Railway #151; an inconceivable event in this region even a decade ago.
There are many photographs to interest even the most impartial reader. A tunnel is pictured being opened out in 1898 at Stiffkey;
Norfolk only had two standard gauge tunnels, the other, disused, is extant at Cromer. Much of the tunnel spoil was then used, it is claimed, as embankment, to fill in a wooden viaduct over the River Stiffkey. Studies of buildings rather than simply trains abound. The GER's rural architecture had more charm than the GNR; the waiting shelter and signal box at Hardingham are sheer joy.
Eyebrows will be raised by a Brush Type 2 shunting wagons, at Fakenham East, using a strong tow wire #151; not the sort of photograph that would be reproduced in the annual BR report! The tow wire suggests the track was no longer able to take the weight of an A1A- AlA locomotive.
BR diesels had come early to East Anglia and a caption tells of a marked increase in local patronage of DMUs at Fakenham East, but it was all too late and by 1960 high street car showrooms everywhere flourished. Weed-strewn decline and closure
rapidly came about - the BR rail blue era of rationalisation and retreat. Only seasonal grain traffic to North Elmham, beyond Fakenham East kept going long enough to allow Mid-Norfolk Railway preservationists to gain a foothold northwards from Wymondham.
Narrow gauge railways feature and the success of the 10#188;in Wells amp;Walsingham Light Railway is well recorded. This tourist line, opened in 1982, uses four miles of the old GER formation from Wells to Walsingham.
Reproduction is very good and two aerial photographs suggest the photographer may have used a drone to clearly show the new storage sidings laid near Hardingham, on the preserved Mid-Norfolk Railway. Greater Anglia's factory-fresh Stadler-built train fleet was stored there before acceptance in 2019.
The book is full of historical, and modern, rural railway charm, something Norfolk always does well. Through the pages, the GER-built E4s, Dl6s and Jl7s rub along well with later BR-blue DMUs, which, through the passage of time, now have their own following It is a pity that, despite nice BR period colour pictures on the front and back covers, the inside pages are entirely monochrome. To cater for a younger enthusiast market, visiting the MNR, upon which the authors have anchored this album of photographs, a colour section would have made the publication more attractive and justified the expensive cover price.

Southern style: the Southern Railway. Compiled by John Harvey. Historical Model Railway Society, Soft back, A4, 240 pp, Reviewed by JC *****
'Comprehensive' was the first word that sprang to mind after a dip or two into this book. But further, more measured viewing showed even using the word 'exhaustive' is barely adequate to describe the level of research and scholarship that has gone into its production. The fact that ten of its pages are necessary to list the various sources, and the closely-printed index takes another ten, is indicative of the depth of enquiry that has produced it, the fourth book in the series of 'Southern Style'. Perhaps that depth is emphasised by the fact that almost all the remaining 220 pages are to do with paint in one form or another #151; and in that I am not being facetious. The various liveries adopted for locomotives and rolling stock #151; both passenger and freight #151; over the 25 years of the SR's existence, including lining and lettering - the font styles also illustrated - are covered in full and minute detail. Applications are noted too, the various layers of paint and varnish fully described. One does not need to imagine why painting an engine or a carriage could be costly: the reasons are shown here.
The painting styles for road vehicles, signals, buildings of all sorts, gradient and rnileposts and ancillary equipment - signs, barrows, telephone boxes, notice boards, level crossing gates and so on - and every other conceivable item in the company's ownership, are described in detail and illustrated. Even the moquettes used at various times in the coaching stock are photographed in colour. As a welcome addition for modellers no doubt, specimen colour samples, fifteen of them - including eight different greens! - come separately on a stiff card folder. Among these too incidentally are Lynton amp; Barnstable coach brown and Somerset amp;Dorset blue, a reminder of the Southern's other associations.
Perhaps as an illustration of the degree of enquiry, two loose sheets also come with the book. One of these has some notes regarding the colour swatches as well as two additions to the text. Two-thirds of the second sheet is of photographic credits omitted from the list in the book as well as a photographic correction, an illustration perhaps of the difficulty and complexity of the task the author faced in bringing the whole into being.
But now I have a problem, for perhaps of the several books I have reviewed this has to be one of the most difficult to classify. Looking at it purely as an informative document there is little doubt it has no peer and awarding iive stars does not seem nearly enough. On the other hand the cost incurred in having that extraordinary level of detail must, I think, limit its appeal. No doubt a historian with a particular interest in the Southern, or a model railway club with a strong Southern following, would add it to the library without a second thought. But even the keenest individual modeller might decide the 'net' could provide much of what he needs without charge, a conundrum then. Perhaps, after all, I should go with my first instincts and classify it for what it is, a most remarkable and unique compendium of the Southern Railway as it appeared while at work.

A quite impossible proposal: how not to build a railway. Andrew Drummond, Birlinn. 2020. 308pp. maps, plans and sketches plus 12 pages of half-tone, Reviewed by PT **** page 222
This book explores the social and economic history of the North West of Scotland from the mid-Victorian era and the abortive attempts from the 1880s onwards to promote the construction of a number branch lines to the west coast, thereby affording access the Isle of Harris and Lewes. The Highland Clearances and consequential deprivation of the indigenous population, resulting in depopulation, civil unrest and the advance of evangelism, in turn led to the Government setting up the Napier Commission and enacting the Crofters' Law. As well as the perceived need to redistribute land use and ownership together with developing the fishing industry, the desirability of improved access to markets would at the time ideally met by rail transport.
Over the ensuing decades, a number of Government committees came and went, as they considered several proposals for branch lines from the Highland Railway's lines to Strome Ferry/Kyle of Lochalsh and the Further North, through remote mountainous terrain, to reach the NW coast, with particular reference to Garve to Ullapool, from where ships would sail to various Hebridean destinations, such as Stornoway. In the event, Government prevacation smothered them all and none was built, and only at the turn of the nineteenth/twentieth century were the lines from Strome Ferry and Fort William extended respectively to Kyle and Mallaig with the assistance of generous Government grants.
At the time the Dingwall amp; Skye line was being mooted in the mid-1860s, the only rival destination on the west coast of Scotland being proposed was way down south at Oban, in which case the ultimate goal of the Kyle of Lochalsh made a lot of sense, being on the existing steamer route from Glasgow through the Sound of Sleat to serve both the Isle of Skye opposite and on to Stornoway. Between Kyle and Oban all the rest of the Hebridean islands could be reached. As it was, the potential revenues were perceived as being so poor that barely sufficient capital was raised, iirstly to reach Strome Ferry in 1870, some way off the steamer route, while the line to Oban was not opened throughout until a decade later. Not surprisingly, in the days before the dawn of the motor vehicle, this was not considered entirely satisfactory and by the 1880s led to a number of alternative proposed branch lines. However, had any of them reached fruition, it is doubtful that the combination would have been viable. Only a century later did highways improve and motor transport develop to the point at which the ferry routes could be recast to minimise the sea crossings and Ullapool come into its own. For those with an interest in the social history behind the development of our railways and/or the railways of the North West of Scotland, this well researched work is thoroughly recommended. See also letter from Arnold Tortorella on page 389.

Readers'Forum. 222

A grand day out. Robin Leleuxnbsp;
There are two references in the December issue to GWR 'Manor' Class locomotivess running on the Reading-Redhill line, in the photographic feature on Reading and then in the nostalgic piece 'A grand day out for eight shillings and three pence'. As a boy I lived beside the line at Chilworth from 1950 to 1955. For most of that time the only 'Manor' I saw was No.7811 Ditcheat Manor which came along regularly. Not long before I left it was replaced by No.7814 Fringford Manor. These must have been working seasonal reliefs or extras as they never hauled the 'Birkenhead', our through daily long-distance express from Birkenhead to the Kent Coast. This was always in the hands of a Maunsell Mogul of U or N Classes. 'Schools' Class locomotives were at that time unknown and even a 'King Arthur' was a rarity.

LYR/LNWR amalgamation. Tom Wray
Re bottom photograph on p108 the building on the left, which is stated as being the original 1844 structure is, in fact, the booking office erected on Platform 12/13 of the 1884 extension of Victoria station. Also the camera is facing east not west as stated in caption.

LYR/LNWR amalgamation. Martin Sutcliffenbsp;
Re period image of Preston station on p109, showing the station as it was c1910. Approximately 57 years after that photograph was taken, the exact same spot as the sack trucks in the foreground occupy, was where my father introduced my eleven-year-old self to the wonders of the WCML. Wonders very nearly cut short by a northbound service headed by EE Type 4 No.D211 Ivernia emitting a stentorian blast upon departure, which nearly hastened my departure also!
The image of Platform 6, as he refers to it, is (or was), in fact, Platform 5. I have studied the the photograph long and hard #151; the view from the passenger footbridge is looking south (or 'up') and the platform comprising the majority of the image is the down Platform No.5, making the opposing platform " .... the LYR down line, Platform 5" in fact, Platform 4, and east-facing, not west.
Preston was my home turf for trainspotting. I bore witness to steam's final hurrah there and at nearby Lostock Hall during 1968. Given half a century plus between the picture on p.l09 and my earliest memories, not much had changed apart from the fashions. A radicalisation, a streamlining if you like, in the wake of electriiication during the 1970s saw the loss of the East Lancashire platforms, much frequented in their 'dotage' by Cravens hydraulic multiple nits (in the '517XX' series) and the change of use of Platforms 1 and 2 #151; given over to Post Office traffic and consequently shorn of their numbers, resulting in alterations all round. Thus, the illustrated Platforms 4 and 5 were obliged to take a demotion and become 2 and 3 respectively. The main up platform #151; 6, out of shot behind the original ELR buildings, became Platform 4, of course. There was rumour afoot this previous year or two that with the Royal Mail no longer using the ex- Platforms 1 and 2 for its business and the simultaneous growth in passenger traffic, thought was being given to bringing the moribund brace back into use. The obvious stumbling block - what to number them?

Northolt Junction East. Gerald Goodall
Some nice recollections and anecdotes of Northolt Junction East signal box by Richard Clarke in the February issue. For the avoidance of confusion, please may I point out that the two references to Pinner near the end of the article should be to Northolt, meaning the present Central Line station of that name. This was also (very near) the location of a former small 'Northolt Halt' on the GW main line long before the Central Line was even dreamed of. Unfortunately this is in itself historically confusing, as the station at Northolt Junction was originally itself named Northolt Junction (logically enough!); 'South Ruislip and' was added in 1932 and it became just South Ruislip in 1947 in anticipation of the arrival there of the Central Line. Pinner, however, is several miles away and not on any of the lines that pass Northolt Junction.
Another small point is that the next signal box (only open very part-time) up the line towards Marylebone would have been at the station known as Sudbury Hill, Harrow, not at Sudbury amp;Harrow Road. The latter was one station further up and was reduced to plain line at an earlier stage. Blind Lane was a short distance further, where the four-track layout through the station then known as Wembley Hill started.
In 1973, which is the article's dateline, the Paddington-Birmingham express service via High Wycombe was reduced to just one up morning and one down evening train. All the others ran via Oxford. The High Wycombe line still had its DMU connections to and from Banbury (which came to be operated as extensions of Marylebone locals), but it all seems such a long way removed from the Marylebone-Birmingham services which started in the 1990s.

Memories from a Midland Main Line outing . Stephen G. Abbott
Peter Butler must have caught Nottingham station at a quiet moment to have formed the view (January issue) that it is too large for its traffic. For over twenty years it has been under pressure. The utilitarian Platform 6 (now 7) on the former up goods line, originally provided to segregate football special trains and with no facilities except for a small waiting room, has had to be brought into daily use. During remodelling and resignalling in 2013 the east end of Platform 4 was built out to the adjacent through line, to create a short through Platform 4 and a lengthy bay Platform 5. Passive provision was made for a future Platform 8. As Mr. Butler rightly comments, this inconveniences passengers but has allowed more trains to be handled. At times two, and sometimes three, short trains have to share one platform. One train per hour, from Skegness, uses east-facing bay Platform 2. Otherwise, the west-facing bay plus iive through platforms have to accommodate six through and seven terminating/starting trains per hour - with two more planned from December 2021. Constraints are the long dwell times of Norwich-Liverpool trains to attach/ detach the strengthening units used west of Nottingham, and the occupation of platforms for 20- 35 minute turn-rounds by the twice-hourly London trains.

Complaints about engine whistles. John Macnab
The assortment of sounds emanating from the railway in varying aspects has annoyed the populace over the years as given note in this article. As a young lad In my native Angus I would read in the Dundee Courier amp; Advertiser the oft repeated complaints from the house owners of Perth Road in Dundee being neighbours in that sense to the West locomotive sheds and whistles along with sundry other 'noises' resounding thereby distinctly annoying. Tay Bridge sheds, although that bit further, away would join in, so to speak, depending on the direction of wind.
This was still to the fore on beginning my railway employ in early 1953 with the then district railway boss, B.R. Temple by name, batting away these criticisms on the letters to the editor page of the aforementioned newspaper. It would appear, incongruously, that his first two initials, B.R. (as in the other meaning), added to the ire of the complainers. In the mid-70s, on the advent of H5Ts, a lady living in the vicinity of Craigentinny depot in Edinburgh gave vent to her wrath on the 'whining' sound of the 'engines' helpfully, as she saw it to whomsoever in authority she wrote, by giving the number "It is InterCity 125."
Jammed whistles have me recollect reading that recording of the celebrated 1936 GPO film Night Mail in the moorlands of Shap or thereabouts had requested the locomotive to sound its whistle as it passed on its way. This it assuredly did, but the whistle jammed, and the eldritch sound carried on over the Cumberland fells far into the night! See also letter from John Nuttall

The signals on p78 have been identiiied as at Long Eaton, Midland Railway. Ed. 222

A fine day in the Fells. Rodney Lissenden. Rear cover
Class 56 in EWS red livery hauls 13.15 Carlisle to Crewe permanent way train through Lune Valley near Lowgill on 9 September 2003.

Great Eastern Railway J69 0-6-0T
No.68619 gleams in the old company's
blue livery as station pilot at Liverpool
Street on 23rd May 1961.
(Trevor Owen/ 393953)

May (Number 361)

Leaving it to someone else. Michael Blakemoor. 227
Editorial on photographic collections of deceased photographers.

'On the difficult stretch from the Tyne to the Border' and onwards . Gavin Morrison. 228-31
Colour photo-feature: J39 No. 64917 with single coach train for Eyemouth at Burnmouth with evening Edinburgh to Berwick stopper from which mailbags are being unloaded on 15 July 1961; Type 40 No. D261 in black livery? on Saturday extrs (leading two vehicles Gresley corridor stock with compartment doors) passing site of Cockburnspath station on 15 July 1961; Type 40 No.40 040 in blue livery on up Freightliner train near Marshall Meadows with calm North Sea behind on 28 June 1975; dark livery Type 40 No. 40 042 on return Scarborough to Glasgow express formed of ten Mk1 corridor coaches in blue amp; grey livery near Scremeerston with vista across to Lindisfarne on 10 June 1978; Type 47 No. 47 462 on 11.55 King's Cross to Edinburgh Waverley formed of Mark 2 stock near Burnmouth with gorse in flower on cliffs on 2 June 1978; Northbound HST in blue & grey livery with power cars in InterCity livery on Penmanshiel deviation on 16 September 1987 (former tunnnel entrance in foreground; Deltic No. 55 007 Pinza emerging from Calton Tunnel into Edinburgh Waverley with shuttle service from Dunbar due to tunnel collapse on 5 August 1979; Cross-Country Class 221 Voyager crossing Royal Border Bridge going south on 4 March 2015 and GNER No. 91 132 City of Durham heading north approaching Berwick on 9 August 2007 in evening sun.

Gordon Biddle, The Preston & Longridge Railway including the Whittingham Hospital Railway. 232-3.
The Preston amp; Longridge Railway was authorised on 4 July 1836 and opened on 4 May 1840. It was horse-worked and transported stone from Tootle Height to build Preston and shipped by sea to build docks in Liverpool. The terminus nbsp;was at Deepdale in Preston, but eventually a junction was established with the Lancaster amp; Carlisle at Deepdale Junction. There was a link to a Courtaulds factory beyond Ribbleton, but nothing is stated about that except that it closed in 1980. More is stated about the Whittingham Hospital Railway which was opened in 1888 by Lancashire County Council and was a psychiatric hospital. It closed in 1957. Two former LBSCR D1 0-4-2Ts, another was a Barclay 0-4-0ST and finally a Sentinel worked the traffic. Slightly more precise information. nbsp;Cites three works but not Flann's The Preston amp; Longridge Railway including the Whittingham Hospital Railway Backtrack, 2011, 25, 676-81. Illustrations: Longridge station alongside Tonneley Arrms Hotel; map; Grimsargh station in May 1954; 0-4-2T James Fryars (ex-LBSCR No. 357 on Whittingham train at Grimsargh station in June 1952; Whittingham Hospital station in April 1957 (N. Jones)

Brian Travers. Steam railmotors and push-pull auto trains in the Wrexham district. Part one. GWR steam railmotors, 1904-1933. 234-9.
This is a well researched judging by the citations, both to the railcars and to the railway lines. The Author states at the beginning that the Denbighshire Coalfield around Wrexham and Ruabon became on of the cradles of the Industrail Revolution and a dense network of branches were developed between 1847 and 1901. The Great Western was the largest, but the LNWR was an early player through its ownership of the Shropshire Union Canal and the Great Central got there through its acquisition of the Wrexham, Mold amp; Connahs Quay Railway, Many of the nbsp;railways were purely mineral lines and the mines and ironworks had their own railways, come of which were narrow gauge. In 1874 a horse-worked nbsp;passenger street tramway opened in Wrexham and served Johnstown: this was electrified and extended in 1903 and created competition for the railways. The Great Western began bus services using Milnes-Daimler petrol-electric vehicles and by 1914 there were several private bus operators. Tables list railmotors based at nbsp;Croes Newydd.and GWR railmotors based on typr whether suburban or rurall. Illustrations: GWR railmotor No. 9 at Cynwyd on Dee Valley service in July 1904; map of branches north west of Wrexham in 1904-1930 period; map of branches south west of Wrexham in 1904-1930 period;; Brymbo Middle Crossing or Vron Junction with corrugated iron smelting mill; GWR railmotor No. 9 painted crimson at Croes Newydd shed; Plas Power station; GWR railmotor No. 5 in chocolate amp; cream livery at Stroud in May 1904 with Brymbo iron amp; steel works above and behind; Brymbo West Crosing Halt looking towards Minera; GCR railmotor at Neston and Parkgate station. Part 2 see page 311.

Jim McBride. Strabane — a lost railway centre: killed by Partition and religion. Part one. 240-4
The Londonderry & Enniskillen Railway opened to Strabane from Derry in April 1847, reached Omagh in 1852 and Enniskillen in 1859 and Dublin and Belfast via other companies by 1861. In September 1863 the Finn Valley Railway linked Strabane to Stranolar. The Irish North Western Railway took over the Londonderry amp; Enniskillen Railway in 1862 and it became part of the Great nbsp;Northern Railway Ireland in 1876. In 1882 the West Donegal Railway built a 3-ft gauge southwards from Stranolar to Ballyshannon and Killybegs. The Finn Valley Railway was absorbed by the West Donegal Raileway nbsp;and converted it to 3-ft gauage. In 1905 the Strabane amp; Letterkenny railway was formed and built to te 3-ft gauge, but prior to that had built its own railway from Strabane to Derry Foyle Road. In 1903 the Midland Railway had acquired the Belfast & Northern Counties Railway and in 1906 it offered to purchase the Donegal Railway Company which alarmed the GNRI and it was agreed to make a joint purchase leading to the County Donegal Raiway Joint Committee. The line between Victoria Road and Strabane was worked by the Midland Railway. During WW2 consideration was give to converting this to 5-ft 3-in gauge to avoid Border crossings. The Will Hay customs arrangements imposed upon the Border Crossings created by the Stormont government and the bulk of Ireland damaged railway viability and this was furthered by the Ulster Transport Authority pro-bus policy which has left Enniskillen and Strabane without railway access. Part 2. Illustrations: Strabane station sign in 2020 at the Transport Museum at Cultra; map of railways between Londonderry/Derry Foyle Road and Victoria Road and Strabane; PP class GNRI 4-4-0 No. 71 from Londonderry to Omagh on 7 June 1956; south end of Strabane station on 1 May 1958; GNRI railcar set No. 606 on 14.10 Belfast Victoria Street to Londonderry Victoria Road at Strabane with CDR railcar No. 18 beyond at Strabane on 7 June 1956; PP class No. 43 in goods yard with Guinness grain van behind; south end of Strabane station with CDR 2-6-4T No. 6 Columbkille in goods yard; two ex-GNRI coaches in UTA green; two CDR coaches of which No. 58 which was former NCC narrow gauge vehicle built in Belfast in 1928 and in misty distance two UTA buses, one of which is a double decker (John Langford: colour). See also letter from John Langford on page 645

Eric Stuart. Orbiting London: the renaissance of some old London rail services — a 21st century surprise? 245-51
During the nineteenth century the northern companies sought to establish links with the railways south of the Thames mainly to serve coal depots and the transfer of freight avoiding congestion on central London's streets. The North London Railway began as a route to link the London amp; North Western with the City and the docks. It created its City terminus at Broad Street from which it ran to Willesden Junction and to Poplar and from the former to Richmond. The West London Railway linked the LNWR with the LSWR and LBSCR at Clapham Junction. The East London Railway used Brunel's Thames Tunnel to link the Great Eastern with the SECR and LBSCR. The Tottenham & Hampstead gave the Midland Railway access to the Great Eastern and Tilbury lines. Obviously the Metropolitan Railway and District Railway increased the potential foor further orbtal services. These tended to be reduced in importance with emergence of the Tube network. Transport for London has introduced London Overground which has sought to integrate services and reduce journeys via the overloaded central area. Illustrations: North London Railway 4-4-0T No. 7 on High Barnet train near Crouch End; high vol;tage overhead electric LBSCR train at Wandnsworth Road; Moorgate station (bombed open air Metropolitan Line station with Fowler Class 3 2-6-2T No. 40024, Metropolitan Line T stock in brown livery and F stock in red livery in 1959 (colour); Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41292 at Kensington Olympia with train for Clapham Junction on 3 August 1960 (John Spencer Gilks); District Line Q stock at New Cross Gate (Brian Hardy: colour); District Line H stock at Shoreditch on East London Line; Shoreditch green lozenge station sign from Shoreditch in preservation; Turnham Green sta6tion in 21st century; London Overground train at Crystal Palace; Class 172 DMU in London Overground livery at Gospel Oak on service to Barking; Wapping station on East London Line showing mural of entrance to Thames Tunnel with freight train entering and F stock exiting.

East Enders. 252-5.
Colour photo-feature: J69 No. E8619 lettered BRITISH RAILWAYS in apple green on RCTS railtour at North Woolwich on 14 April 1951 (Trevor Owen); N7 No. 69614 with special embellished finish for West Side station pilot at Liverpool Street Station with Britannia No. 70039 Sir Christopher Wren on The Norfolkman behind on 14 March 1959 (Trevor Owen); N7 0-6-2T No. 69692 at Saffron Walden on Audley End to Bartlow train in 1954; J69 No. 68619 in GER blue livery and polished metalwork with N7 No. 69708 also with polished metalwork within gloom of Liverpool Street in company with two Brush Type 2 A1A+A1A diesels (later Type 31) in August 1960;; N7 No. 69668 at Seven Sisters with a Quint-Art articulated set in brown livery at Seven Sisters iin 1960 (Marcus Evis); F5 class 2-4-2T No. 67200 with no red on its buffer beam with crimson push amp; pull set for Ongar and Central Line scarlet unit which states Loughton as its destination (Julian Thompson); N7 No. 69640 with four Gresley compartment coaches emerging from Silvertown Tunnel on way to North Woolwich with ship in Royal Albert Dock, Dr Who pollice box,, red telephone box and Regent petrol sign on 14 October 1961; N7 No. 69692 with four dark coloured coaches approaching North Woolwich on 24 June 1961 passing red London Transport Routemaster bus; and N7 No. 69646 at Palace Gates Wood Green (locomotive in very stained state from primiing?) in June 1962 (J.B. Snell)

Ruary Mackenzie Dodds. From Reivers to railways — the forgotten Dodds Dynasty. 256-61
Thomas Dodds, the Viewer at Felling Colliery was killed in a major gas explosion at the neighbouring Hebburn Colliery leaving Ann Weatherburn Dodds a widow and her four chidren: El eanor, Thomas Weatherburn, Isaac and Ralph. The Dodds were reivers from the Upper Tyne Valley who moved to the industrial area around the mouth of the Tyne at the start of the Industrial Revolution. They made contact with the Stephensons who emerged from a similar background and thus came to be associated with early railways and early steam locomotivrs and have perhaps tended to be under represented in histories of them. The Dodds-Stephenson patent of 28 February 1815 is frequently cited as Stephenson's, but Nicholas Wood claims that it was Ralph Dodds' idea and that he provided the finance for the patenting process. George Dodds eldest son, Robert Dodds, although only ten years old was probably present during the construction of Blucher at Killingworth. In 1827 George Dodds became the Superintendent of the Monklannd amp; Kirkintilloch Railway and designed two locomotives for it based on those at Killingworth. He also designed the first metal piston rings. Robert Dodds was appointed Resident Engineer at the Ballochney Railway and in 1828 ran the first railway passenger coach in Scotland. In 1834 George helped his middle son William to build the third nbsp;Monklannd amp; Kirkintilloch engine in its own works at Greenside and this was the first company built locomotive in Scotland. nbsp;George Gibson Dodds who was foreman at the Monkland Locomotive Works took Victoria across to Lock 16 (between Camelon and Falkirk) on the Forth amp; Clyde Canal to see how it would haul barges when running on rails on the canal bank: carrying 90 passengers it reached almost 20 mile/h. nbsp;In 1840 George Gibson Dodds became Superintendent of the Slamannan Railway and of the amalgamated Monkland lines in 1847. Makes extensive use of illustrations from Snell's Railway pioneers 1921. Illustrations: Ralph Dodds, Chief Viewer at Grand Allies Collieries Killingworth (portrait); Dodds-Stephenson patent 1815 (stated from Ahrons British steam locomotive); George Dodds locomotive No. 1 Monkland amp; Kirkintilloch Railway; Cal railways of Central Scotland and the canals 1840 (Wikipedia); Isaac Dodds, Locomotive Engineer (portrait), Dodds amp; Son Rotherham Works; Dodds amp; Son steam yacht Gazelle 1860; Dodds amp; Son saddle tannk 1865 (0-6-0ST); Dodds amp; Son nbsp;LBSCR express locomotive Norwood 1866 (2-2-2); Thomas Weatherburn Dodds, Locomotive Engineer (portrait)

John Spencer Gilks. The 'little' North Western line. 262-3
Black amp; white photo-feature: Fowler Class 3 2-6-2T No. 40041 with a Leeds to Carnforth at Wennington train due out at 12.48, in eastbound platform carriages from Carnforth waiting to be attached to train from Morecambe on 30 May 1960; later same day class 5 4-6-0 No. 44826 at Wennington with train from Morecambe about to attach through coaches from Carnform to form 18.58 to Leeds City; 4F 0-6-0 No. 44003 passing Gargrave station with its low platforms amp; movable steps to assist passengers to join or leave trains; on 24 April 1965; Type 45 with a short train from Leeds to Morecambe entering Halton station on 22 April 1965; Class 5 No. 44908 leaves Long Preston station with a Morecambe to Leeds local on 24 April 1965. Most stations had LMS bulls eye signs.

David Joy. Railways of Bradford. 264-71.
Originally written for Railway & Canal Historical Society's 2020 Annual Meeting in Bradford which was a Covid 19 caualty. Does not mention Northern Powerhouse Bradford Central Station with fast links to Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool and into HS2 which is needed to boost post pandemic activity and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, nor does it mention the City's remarkable trolleybus network with its electricity regeneration. Illustrations: facade of Bradford Market Street pre-1890; map of railways in Bradford area showing ownership (Midland, Great Northern, Lamp;Y); Midland Hotel; Johnson 1562 class 4-4-0 No. 1579 next turntable with clerestory bogie van behind; interior of Market Street station with its six platforms and long trains of suburban stoch nbsp;hauled by 0-4-4Ts and crowds coming off train and well-stocked bookstall;; 4P compound No. 41112 on evening Residential to Morecambe in Bradford Forster Square on 26 April 1957 (T.E. Rounthwaite); Saltaire station with Titus Salt's Palace of Industry in background; Bradford Adolphus Street goods depot in July 1963 (John Marshall); High Flyer L&YR 4-4-2 No. 1407 in Bradford Exchange on 24 June 1905 (J.H. Wright); Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42116 arriving at Bradford Exchange with through coaches from King's Cross on 22 April 1967 (T.J. Edgington); DMU service to Leeds in Bradford Exchange on 6 September 1964; Laisterdyke station probably in 1931; Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42116 on through coaches from King's Cross passing Dudley Hill station on 30 October 1966 (Gavin Morrison: colour); No. 42196 passing new New Pudsey station on 18 March 1967 with through coaches from King's Cross (Gavin Morrison: colour); Pudsey Greenside station; Class 180 No. 180 105 beginning its journey from Bradford Interchange to King's Cross in Grand Central livery on 28 January 2012 (Gavin Morrison: colour). See also letter from Richard Lee.

John Chapman. Operation Dynamo. 272-4.
The transport of the evacuated from Dunkirk was an amazingly successful operation tackled by the Southern Railway with the assistance from the other man line companies with rolling stock for onward journeys. Trains had to reverse at Redhill and sometimes at Woking and at the former this was ofen achieved at great speed. The troops needed to be fed and volunteers provided assistance. One of the soldiers who had been detailed to surround Dunkirk and was captured by the Germans relates that the guards were brutal and food was in very short supply for prisoners of war. 97 members of the Norfolk Regiment were executed by the SS, He was in a camp liberated by the Red Army and returned to Britain from Odessa on a Soviet luxury liner and treated like cruise passengers. Illustrations: troops evacuated from Dunkirk queue for their train hauled by N class 2-6-0 at Dover Marine on 4 June 1940; exhaausted French soldiers rest on quayside at Dover taking opportunity to write home; Paddle Steamer Whittingham in normal service (caption mentions extraordinary service at Dunkirk); French civilian being assisted by Southern Railway staff at Margate station; nbsp;TSS Maid of Orleans (caption mentions her War service which ended by being torpedoed during Normandy landings.

Stockport by starlight. David Rodgers. 275
Colour photo-feature: Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42116 takes water in the carriage sidings outside Stockport Edgeley on 5 November 1966 priior to working the 19.35 to Bradford Exchange and on 17 March 1968 Britannia No. 70013 Oliver Cromwell having worked a special to Carnforth was having its fire dropped in te evening.

Brian Chandler. Crane solutions at Derby Works. 276. illustration
In 1973 Derby Locomotive Works was under great pressure to improve the throughput of servicing diesel locomotives and the Works Engineer, Albert Summers, and his assistant Chief Electrical Engineer, Vernon Rose, recognized that cranage was a key problem as the old overhead locomotive cranes required several staff to ensure that accidents did not happen. With the assistance of Loughborough-based crane manufacturer, Herbert Morris, radio controlled cranes provided the solution. A similar problem xisted in the Carriage Works, but the loads were lighter but equally hazardous.. The Works Engineer, John Cullen, followed the same path to Herbert Morris and to a similar solution of radio control designed by Telemotive Ltd

Readers' Forum. 277-8

The LNWR/ LYR amalgamation 1921. John Bushby
Re article in February Issue, some additional points: firstly, in 1875, a successful legal case was brought against the LNWR by the newly formed Locomotive Manufacturers' Association to prevent that Company continuing to build new locomotives for the Lamp;YR. This was an important judgement that had implications beyond those two companies. Henceforth, British railway companies could only build new locomotives for their own use. More immediately, it was also indicative of just how close the relationship was between the two railways continued to be right up to the grouping period. The 1875 verdict in favour of the private, non-railway works, locomotive builders stood with one exception up to 1948, namely the LMS later British Railways! NCC later UTA Derby-built 2-6-4Ts of the late 1940s. Even then this came about through political circumstances, namely railway nationalisation and the separation of the LMS's Northern Irish assets after the order had been placed, rather than deliberate intent. (Atkins, The golden age of steam locomotive building).
Secondly, in respect of the 1922 amalgamation, it would be naive not to think that, tacitly at least, the LNWR directors would not have seen the attraction of an amalgamation with the Lamp;YR, whilst retaining their own company's name, as a useful means of strengthening their position for whatever lay ahead given the all the uncertainty and ideas for reorganising the railways then circulating. Preliminary moves and regroupings of this kind were, and are, far from unknown in the corporate world. From the Lamp;YR standpoint, did its Board see amalgamation with the LNWR, as its best, or least worse option? Volume 3 of Marshall's Lancashire amp; Yorkshire Railway implied this was the case, but otherwise has surprisingly little to say on the matter. In his London amp; North Western Railwway, Reed confirmed that the basis for the proposed amalgamation was concluded on 25th March 1921 ie well before the final form of the 1921 Railways Bill became known. The official press notice issued 26 March 1921 in the name of the LNWR's Secretary.J. Bishop was perhaps less than tactful in that it referred to the planned 'acquisition' of the Lamp;YR by the LNWR rather than an 'amalgamation'. O.S Nock in his history of the Lamp;YR noted that it was well understood that the impending railways reorganisation would be enforced by legislation. Consequently, he stated, the merger was a logical anticipation welcomed as such by business interests for being, again in his words, a voluntary process through natural selection and commercial suitability. Whilst Arthur Watson was General Manager for both companies at that time, there was no overlap in terms of their respective board's (Railway Year Book 1921). That said, research into the two sets of directors' professional interests and personal relations might help to further an understanding of the decision making process on both sides.

Illegal closures. Mike Stonenbsp;
A section of route almost always overlooked when discussing these is Aston to Stechford, which having enjoyed a limited service of one morning train in either direction at least as far back as the first LMS timetable in 1923 and by 1938 reduced to a southbound service only. After a brief increase to two up morning and a down evening service in 1987, with a second northbound service being added the following year, it reverted to a single southbound service in 1989, which was then withdrawn without replacement in 1990.
Thereafter the only passenger services were random engineering diversions until the introduction of the Wrexham, Shropshire and Maylebone service #151; I am not sure if this was ever declared an experimental service. When this was withdrawn in January 2011 a CrossCountry service was re-routed to arrive at New St via Aston from the following May #151; it's not clear, at least to me, whether this was merely for route retention or to cover a belated realisation of the illegality of the 1990 closure. Whichever was the case it did not really provide a replacement for the original service or the WSMR service. I also have my doubts regarding the Darlaston Junction-Bescot Junction section of line which retained a train service after withdrawal of the Wolverhampton-Burton train service and closure of Willenhall and Darlaston stations and as far as I recall was not mentioned in the closure notice for that route. Although currently served by several trains it has had periods with no service and none has ever provided a direct service between Bescot Stadium and Wolverhampton.

Illegal closures. Stewart Clarknbsp;
Re the politics of the development of local train services between South Wales and England which is somewhat complicated, but once established 'Wales and Borders' developed longer-distance through trains to the West Country from Manchester (via the Marches), also West Wales to London Waterloo via Salisbury.
Even before the end of the franchise, the Strategic Railway Authority had decreed that the timetable should be altered to limit the service to within the general franchise operating area. This is confirmed by the new franchise holder' Arriva' within a public Notice, headed 'Summer 2004' on display at Pyle station, for operations from 23 May 2004. From memory the period of Notice was short.
Interest now turns to the 20.16 ex-Pembroke Dock, calling from memory at Pyle, not long before midnight, then heading to London Waterloo, not via Salisbury, but up the Great Western main line, diverting presumably via Acton Wells and the 'Sheepcote Lane curve' to Waterloo. Quoting 'The Railways Act 1993' the Strategic Railway Authority informed the travelling public, again including Notice seen at Pyle station, of the intention to close the Sheepcote Lane curve (linking the West London and Windsor lines just inward from Clapham Junction) on or after 1 October 2004, comments by 1 June that year. Maybe I should have complained that the Notice was not also in Welsh, presumably then requiring a restart .. A Notice then appeared at Waterloo, dated Tuesday 25 May to 7 December 2004, timetabling an early morning bus service (Tuesdays only from Kensington Olympia to Waterloo and return), where to board and how to contact 'Silverlink' the operator.
I came to use the trains quite often to visit my ageing mother in South Wales. Both Waterloo and Pyle were nearer 'home: and while a change from GW at Bridgend made for a quicker journey, in the up direction the wait was 52 minutes, making the tortoise as fast as the hare. All seats had to be reserved, wildly ignored eastwards from Bath by the afternoon train. By chance I returned to London on 22 May 2004, but was turned off the train at Cardiff, the unit seeming required in connection with a rugby match. The through fare remained for a time at least at around #163;17.00 advance tickets only return. However, as the Welsh train arrived at Platform 1 or 2 at Temple Meads on time, the new 'South Western' replacement departing Platform 13 for Waterloo in the same time slot as before, a transfer was not possible I suspect even for a trained athlete.

Saltburn locomotive shed nbsp;Chris Nettleton
Re caption accompanying photograph at top of page 133:. building in the left distance is not the Zetland Hotel, but at the time of the photograph was a convalescent home for members of the Working Men's Club and Institute Union. Built in 1872, it originally served in a similar capacity for workers of Messrs. Pease and company, of Stockton amp; Darlington Railway fame. The building is now a guest house and unfortunately has lost the attractive addition to the top of the clock tower, as seen in the photograph.
The large and impressive Zetland Hotel was opened in 1863 and was another creation of the Stockton amp;Darlington Railway who, with the Pease family, had been responsible for bringing the railway to Saltburn. Sited at the end of the terminus railway station, a novel feature was the continuation of the line and platform to the rear of the hotel for loading/unloading goods, laundry ete. Closing as an hotel in 1983, it has been converted into apartments and is simply known today as 'The Zetland'. The building is Grade II listed.

Saltburn locomotive shed, Mike Godfrey
Re authors' question on why the J27 was transferred away from Saltburn in 1954. Lumpsey, a local mine not far from the shed, did close that year but it was an ironstone mine so would not appear on coal mining maps. Whether this is coincidence or not is open to suggestion. The original engine shed at Redcar was actually in Coatham #151; then a separate community. The villagers were so anxious to preserve their identity that a boundary fence was erected between them and Redcar! Coatham was a fishing community and the Middlesbrough amp; Redcar Railway cut straight across their common, cutting them off from the sea and their livelihoods. After many protestations the railway agreed to provide a few crossing places but I am sure that the good villagers trespassed on the railway whenever they felt like it.
The article then moves on to Carlin How and mentioned the closure of liverton mine. This quickly reopened and an agreement was made with the NER to mine under the Kilton Viaduct next to the mine. To stabilise the viaduct it was covered in shale from the mine over a period of years. The railway tracks down the famous zig-zag railway track in to Skinningrove had to be realigned because one leg used to go under the viaduct. The viaduct, encased in its embankment, still exists and still carries trains to Boulby Mine. There is a footpath for locals across the viaduct alongside the railway but this is a very exposed and windy location.
As an aside I would also point out that the majority of the ironstone mined in the Cleveland area came from drift mines which were in operation for decades. Each was connected to the national rail network #151; sometimes directly #151; sometimes by an intricate network of cable-hauled narrow gauge industrial lines both on the surface and under it. Though these have long gone the routes taken can mostly still be followed on foot.

Saltburn locomotive shed, Doug Rushton
Re two lorries on p139: the vehicle on left was registered in Dudley in 1937 and is, I believe, a 2-ton Guy, probably a Wolf. and appears to be undergoing some form of maintenance. The other truck, DYK 963, was registered in London, also in 1937, and appears to be a 2#189;-ton Morris-Commercial. Both are quite a long way from their original homes.

Northamptonshire's railways. Neil Woodlandnbsp;
Stephen Roberts's interesting article contained one or two minor errors concerning the border with Oxfordshire. After their opening in 1850, both stations in Banbury, Bridge Street (GWR) and Merton Street (LNWR), were in Northants and remained so until 1894 when a minor boundary change transferred the parish of Grimsbury (the urban area east of the River Cherwell) to Oxon. Conversely, although Chalcombe has always been in Northants, its station (to the north of the village) was just over the border in Oxon!
Despite the recent reopening of Corby, the present network does not provide for rail travel within the county, with some very limited exceptions. Public transport users have to depend on buses which are slow and subject to congestion. United Counties (the NBC provider) developed a network of inter-urban services in the 1980s known as Coachlinks, but these have largely been withdrawn in recent years.
There are limited possibilities for development - Roade on the WCML was included in Network South East's reopening aspirations over 30 years ago: with recent residential development in the area, this might be worth reconsidering. A Rushden Parkway station has been proposed to serve Rushden and Higham Ferrers. More speculatively, a Parkway station sited where HS2 will cross the A43 would be a possible railhead for both Brackley and Towcester and would help to overcome the vocal anti-HS2 groups who claim (with some justification) that the new railway will bring no benefits to the county.
But even with these additions rail is unlikely to play a major role in public transport usage within the county. (KPJ: lack of Northampton to Peterborough train service except via London is not in line with reduction in global warming ambitions); nbsp;.

Northamptonshire's railways. Stephen G. Abbott. 277-8.
Stephen Roberts covered the complex story of Northamptonshire's railways in an interesting readable article (March issue). A few comments follow for the historical record.
Market Harborough line: Pitsford amp; Brampton station did not survive until the end, it closed in 1950. I am not aware of a summer Saturday train from Northampton to Skegness via Market Harborough, at least not in the heyday of such trains. It would have had to be routed via a double reversal at Sneinton Junction, Nottingham, to cross from the ex-Midland to the ex- Great Northern lines #151; a move sometimes made by excursion trains, or a reversal at Peterborough.
Northampton Loop: Althorp Park closed in 1960 not 1964, Church Brampton in 1931 and Kilsby amp; Crick in 1960.
Peterborough line: Billing closed in 1952. Stations east of Oundle were in what is now Cambridgeshire, but when open and before modern boundary changes Wansford station was in Huntingdonshire. Castor (closed 1957), Orton Waterville (closed 1942) and stations on other lines in the Peterborough area were in the Soke of Peterborough, usually considered part of Northamptonshire.
Midland main line: Glendon amp; Rushton closed in 1960 and Burton Latimer in 1950. Electrification has at last reached the Northamptonshire section, wires being energised last year between Bedford, Kettering and Corby with electric services due to start in May 2021.

Northamptonshire's railways. David Daines
Re Grand Junction Canal errors: first concerns the 'railway' over Blisworth Hill. This was in fact a plateway, that is, it consisted of flat plates with a right angle flange on which waggons whose wheels had no flanges were drawn by horses. This was built not to assist in the construction of the tunnel, but to convey goods between the completed canal from the south at Stoke Bruerne and from the north at Blisworth whilst the tunnel was driven on a new alignment, the original having catastrophically failed, causing delays in the opening of the complete canal line. The second point relates to the crossing of the GJ Canal by the Lamp;B railway The railway first crosses the canal in Northamptonshire just north of Blisworth, far south of Stowe Hill Tunnel, and remains on the west side of the canal, through Weedon, through the 'Watford Gap' and until some way up Buckby Lock flight, a long way north of Weedon. There is no crossing near Stowe Hill Tunnel or Weedon. After Buckby, railway and canal part company and do not cross again.

Northamptonshire's railways. Anthony Hinxman (from Portland in Oregon).
Stephen Roberts omits the significance of the GC Culworth Junction to Banbury Junction line as the route for north east to south west trains such as York to Cardiff and Newcastle to Bournemouth. To refer to a Rugby to Stamford line is misleading. At Seaton in Rutland there were two branches off the LNWR Market Harborough to Peterborough line. One was to Uppingham and the other to Luffenham. Trains on the Luffenham branch continued to Stamford on Midland Railway metals. ,

An Inspector calls #151; but at Chartham, not Chatham. Jeffrey Wellsnbsp;
Your readers are correct in drawing attention to the confusion between CHATHAM and CHARTHAM, the latter being the actual location of an accident which led to the deaths of several hop-pickers. At least two newspapers, the Globe and the Bristol Times amp; Mirror verify that the actual location was CHARTHAM. Perhaps a northerner can be forgiven a northerner for confusing the two places, which have only one letter (r) to mark the difference. I think that CHATHAM is more well known than CHARTHAM.

An Inspector calls. C.A. Allenby.
In Jeffrey Wells's short biography of Charles Scrope Hutchinson (1826-1912) in his (March 2021) he is correct in saying that Major-General Hutchinson's three-year term as the Board of Trade's Chief Inspecting Officer encompassed the years 1892 to 1895. However, contrary to what is stated, this period did not cover his successful inspection of the second Tay Bridge which took place, along with Colonel Rich, and was concluded on the 18 June 1887. Neither did it embrace the days between the 18 and 20 February 1890 when, together with two other Board of Trade inspecting Officers, following the most stringent tests, approval was given for the Forth Bridge to open. I am greatly surprised that no mention was made concerning Hutchinson's, some might say in hindsight, incomplete inspection of the ill-fated first Tay Bridge carried out between 25 and 27 February 1878, and led to approval for it to be opened, although the calm weather precluded Hutchinson from witnessing the effects of high wind on the bridge. Consequently, after the dramatic fall of the bridge in a gale on 28 December 1879, Hutchinson received considerable criticism. Fortunately for him, unlike the luckless Sir Thomas Bouch, the bridge's designer, Hutchinson was absolved of all blame by the Board of Trade, chiefly because his report contained a suggestion that a 25mph speed limit be imposed for trains travelling on the bridge and also, more significantly, he included the sentence "When again visiting the spot (which unfortunately he was unable to do) I should wish, if possible, to have an opportunity of observing the effects of a high wind when a train of carriages is running over the bridge". Finally, neither was Hutchinson in the post of Chief Inspecting Officer when he carried out the Inquiry into the Armagh accident in 1889.

Furness Railway Lake Steamers. David Daines
The flags flying on the boats in the article on Furness Lake Steamers are not 'white ensigns', which would have been illegal, but are 'Defaced Union Flags'. Strangely, it is illegal to fly our national flag from any vessel not in Royal Navy service.

Book reviews. 278

The Welshpool amp; Llanfair Light Railway: the story of a Welsh rural byway. Peter Johnson. Pen and Sword Transport, hardback, 232pp. Reviewed by DWM *****
Following in the tracks of earlier books on the Vale of Rheidol and the Corris Railways, this author and publisher are making quite a name for themselves in recording the history of the narrow gauge in Wales. And quite deservedly so, this a fine book and it fills a space with this particular line often slipping 'under the radar' perhaps by virtue of its agricultural and pastoral setting rather than the mineral and mountainous nature of its counterparts further to the north and west.
The author has produced a splendid 'line history', researched in detail, comprehensive in scope and very well illustrated. The text covers all the 'usual suspects', proposals and counter- proposals, the building and operation of the line, high days and mishaps, Company days and closure and, particularly pertinent in this case, the days of the WLLR as a preserved/heritage line. It came as somewhat of a surprise to your reviewer to find that in 2017 the Railway passed a milestone as having run more years in preservation than under its three previous operators, the Cambrian, the Great Western and British Railways combined!
For those interested in the real minutiae of the WLLR the book sports no fewer than fourteen appendices covering items such as estimates for building the various proposed lines, revenue and personnel. A fine point, and one which this author seems to delight in, is the inclusion of the last resting places of some of the people involved with the railway - a poignant touch and one which makes the story all the more human.
The book is lavishly and pertinently illustrated. Whilst pictures do feature generally amongst the running text an interesting decision has been made to group related photographs together in distinct 'chapters'. Thus rolling stock of the company era and of preservation days, visiting locomotives and features along the line all make very coherent sections.
Three diverse 'pictorial' items took your reviewer's eye. The cover of the book is a little disappointing, hardly an outstanding example of the designer's craft. The picture of Lord (William) and Lady Hague came as a surprise but the map, produced in both front and back endpapers is a masterpiece, being brilliantly placed for reference as the text is read.
This is a first class book about a delightful railway. It comes highly recommended.

North Eastern Railway engine sheds Ed. by J.F. Addyman. 216pp.
Signalling centres in the North East: No.1 York. Richard Pulleyn. 136pp.
Both published by the North Eastern Railway Association and available from its Sales Officer, 31 Moreton Avenue, Stretford, Manchester M32 8BP. See corriegenda  for price on page 389
The NERA is at the top of the league when it comes to producing well-informed and readable publications and these two, reviewed together, can be heartily recommended.
The first title is as might be imagined a descriptive tour, alphatically, of all the NER's depots from large installations such as York and Gateshead down to country outposts like Market Weighton and Pateley Bridge. All are accompanied by photographs and track plans. That in itself would be enough but the book is further enhanced by a chapter of notes on water, coaling, turning, sand drying ane maintenance arrangements. In addition a chapter looks at the very important issue of Pay and Conditions, the latter encompassing labour relations, welfare and education. Welfare is also touched upon; in 1870 the NER stated that in the event of an employee being injured "we try to keep him in our service, but if it is death we pay a certain sum of money ... to his relatives. We treat it as a case of charity; the man has no legal claim on us." Charity indeed ... The research and knowledge of this book's compilers have certainly done us a great service. The second book bears the sub- title 'From Early Days to Rail Operating Centre' and those many years take in a massive change in signalling at what grew to be one of the country's major railway focal points, with large dstation, loco sheds, carriage and wagon depots and marshalling yards. The situation became even more complicated after the opening of the new (ie present) station in 1877 and the Yotk area went on to have signal boxes almost too numerous to count! Amongst these was Locomotive Yard which had a total of no fewer than 295 levers, the largest mechanical signal box in the world. The fascinating story of York's signalling, still unfolding is expertly told, with photographs of signal boxes inside and out, even underneath in locking rooms, supported by an abundance of track layouts and signalling diagrams.

The Gresley Observer — 'The Non-Stop'. Eaglescliffe: The Gresley Society. 96pp. Reviewed by Michael Blakemoor. ****
Some train names carry 'romantic' connotations, others are redolent of destination or style; but the train service which ran non-stop between London King's Cross and Edinburgh was something else, not especially because of where it went but because it did so, literally, without stopping. The general background to the 'Non-Stop' probably needs no introduction to readers and it was, of course, a publicity venture by the LNER rather than an operational necessity. But it was certainly an operational challenge, not least in ensuring that the locomotives rostered to it were in tip-top condition for the 392-mile journey. It was the 'Flying Scotsman' service which ran the non-stop from its introduction in 1928; from 1949 a new service The Capitals Limited, later The Elizabethan, fulfilled this function.
This principally a pictorial record of the 'Non-Stop' with a host of locations throughout the route being shown, the two-a-page layout enabling them to be given good space. A lucky photographer had the good fortune to catch the north- and southbound trains passing at Escrick, though some of the finest shots are on the platforms at the two termini. There are some fine photographs of the Al Pacifics from the train's earlier years, though the A4 streamliners naturally predominate. We are, though, reminded that the W1 'Hush-Hush' 4-6-4 No.10000 worked the train and there are a few shots of the relatively few occasions when the rostered A4 failed en route and a substitute had to be summoned, typically a stand-by V2 2-6-2. This most special of trains attracted ceremonial occasions, so we have plenty of top-hatted Lord Mayors, station masters and railway high officials, while the inaugural 'Capitals' was sent on its way by the actress Anne Crawford and the children's radio personality 'Uncle Mac' made a recording from the footplate. There are some good colour photographs, complemented by a splendid 'cut-away' illustration of the sort well remembered from the Eagle comic. Interiors of the hairdressing saloon and the 1930s restaurant car serve to remind us how far we have slid since then.
An account of driving the 'Non-Stop' by the well-known King's Cross driver Bill Hoole completes this tribute to a remarkable piece of railway working and the Gresley Society is to be complimented on this very satisfying production.

Broad Street om a Sunday afternoon. Marcus Eavis. rear cover
Caption takes almost one third of back page, Date was 11 August 1968. Routemaster bus provides a dash of colour in an otherwise dreary scene, Betjeman called architecture: ombardic style, Date was British Railways' Steam Finale. Britannic House nbsp;in background is a portent of what was to become Broadgate.

Ex-Midland Railway 3F 0-6-0 No. 43585
on carriage shunting duty at
Hellifield station on 4th November 1961.
(Gavin Morrison)
June (Number 362)

Passing Water on Dillicar Troughs, 283
In lieu of an Editorial fine photograph taken on 10 May 1956 of Class 5 No. 45414 passing Coronation class No. 46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent on express from Euston: the latter clearly shows the failure of the smoke deflectors to deflect the smoke away from the cab and this may have been a contributory factor in the Harrow amp; Wealdstone Disaster

Steaming through Sussex. Gerald Daniels (notes by Michael S. Welch). 284-6
Colour photo-feature: H class 0-4-4T No. 31551 at Three Bridges with Maunsell push & pull set with service from East Grinstead in early 19960s; Grange Road station with 16.08 Three Bridges to East Grinstead service formed of former LB&SCR push & pull set in pink (BR red) livery hauled by M7 0-4-4T on 18 September 1960; Ivatt Class 2 2-6-2T No. 41260 with Lancing Belle leaving Brighton for Lancing Works in May 1964; Rowfant station signal box and level crossing (station was built for local landowner Curtis Miranda Lampson); LBS&CR E4 class 0-6-2T No. 32503 with freight for Kemp Town just before entering tunnel on 17 March 1961; Hartfield station between East Grinstead and Tunbridge Wells with heavy London-bound train hauled by BR Class 4 2-6-4T No, 80140 in early 1960s; two C class 0-6-0 Nos. 31686 and 31722 on final journey to Ashford passing Kemp Town Junction on 28 April 1962.

Roger Jermy. James Fenwick — Station Master. 287-9
North British Railway at Meldon on branch to Reedsmouth (Wansbeck Valley. James Fenwick was born at Greystead between Falstone and Bellingham in about 1848. He was employed as a guard on the North British Railway and by 1891 was station master at Meldon. Meldon was a very quiet location, but the post commanded a certain social position comparable with the rector and schoolmaster. James was a sidesman at the St. John the Baptist Church. Although the station was quiet Fenwick would have been expected to be in attendance with everything in order when guests, especiallly royaltty were in transit to Sir William Armstrong's mansion at Cragside. A more regular cause of excitement were the hounds based near the station for the Morpeth Hunt. In July 1891 sixty pupils from the local school were taken by train to Newbiggin-on-Sea to experience the magic of the coast . Fenwick must have been involved as he was when three local children went missing, but were recovered #151; in one case at Angerton station, just as a train was arriving. All the children were reunited with their parents. Fenwick suffered an accident on 30 May 1900 when he fell into one of the coal drops at the station and broke his neck..Illustrations: station in about 1901 with signal cabin; map of Morpeth railway lines; Newbiggin-on-Sea beach in about 1900; headstone for James Fenwick and his wife Mary in Meldon churchyard; station converted to very des-res.

Geoffrey Skelsey. On a journey to nowhere: the origins and effects of the Serpell Report, 290-6.
On 20 January 1983 the Serpell Report was published by HMSO and received a hostile reception from The Economist which KPJ had always assumed to be hostile to the future of railways. David Serpell had been a member of the British Railways Board and was asked by the Government to investigate the gradual decline of the railways in terms of passenger numbers and freight conveyed as well as the cost involved. Norman Fowler was in charge of Transport within the Govermnent. An impending General Election created a rushed result. Fowler instigated an Inquiry into the state of the railways, but was replaced by David Howell due to a Cabinet reshuffle. The members of his committee were up and coming candidates for Tory slease: as Skelsey states "it was startling to find that two members of the Committee were associatess of the consultancies commissioned (at a cost of several million pounds in present-day terms) to work on the Committee's behalf, a remarkable conflict of interest", At that time Sir Peter Parker was the BRB Chairman and Skelsey describes him as "a colourful, engaging man, a natural and memorable phrase-maker, with a keen sense of political realities and influence." Unlike the Beeching Report which condemned lines to closure the Serpell Report listed options for routes to close, one of which removed Plymouth from the railway map leaving Exeter as the railhead (KPJ has endured a coach journey from Exeter to Plymouth at the depth of the chaos created by the Hatfield derailment in a vehicle which most hippies would have redjected as unsafe and which could scarsely cope with Devon's hills and is thus unlikely to be sympathetic to bus replacement temporary or permanent). The aftermath of the Inquiry was that Peter Parker and Norman Fowler were nbsp;the saviour of the railways. Illustrations (all colour taken by Author): DMUs reversing at Battersby on Whitby branch in 1977; Advanced Passenger Train at Derby Works in 1979 alongside 5 m.p.h. sign; electric locomotive hauled express at Coventry station; InterCity 125s High Speed Trains at Paddington in original livery; Commuters Charter; electric locomotives with train of steel coil passing Preston in October 1980; DMU at Berney Arms station; Thurso station forecourt; Windermere branch terminus with DMU (now a supermarket); Class 150 Sprinter units at Machynlleth in 1989; Thornaby station forecourt and Option C3 map minus Plymouth, Holyhead and Inverness. See also letter from Laurence Akehurst

Alistair F. Nisbet. Express electric railways. 297-301
With the exception of one reference to The Times this is based on newspaper reports in the provincial press and a major book on the subject is not cited. In the early years of the twentieth century there was an interest in high speed electric railways and their possible locomotives and in monorails, There was a proposal to build a railway from Harwich to Port Dinlleyn in North Wales with the aims of providing faster journeys to Dublin and shortening journey times from North America to Continental Europe. Links with other railways were proposed for Cambridge, Huntingdon (for Great Northern); Leicester (for Midland); Tamworth (for London amp; North Western) and Shrewsbury (for Great Western). It was to be four track and electric. There was also a plan for a Hull to Leicester high speed line. This is based on Dundee journals: the Courier & Argus 14 February 1901 and Evening Telegraph of 21 May 1901. Behr was promoting a Liverpool and Manchester high speed railway and this reached the Parliamentary stage in 1902, but then collapsed. McKean's Battle for the North may explain Dundee's exceptional interest in railways. The Dundee Courier & Argus featured an Edinburgh to Glasgow high speed line. Illustrations: Listowel & Ballybunnion steam-worked monorail; Deansgate looking towards Manchester Cathedral on 11 April 1960 with Manchester Corporation bus (Ben Brooksbank); Patriot 4-6-0 No. 45515 Caernarvon on 10.05 to Birmingham and Bournemouth in Liverpool Lime Street on 11 June 1959; Class 5 4-6-0 No. 45298 on 12.00 for Swansea and Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42468 on a local train; Zossen Bahnhof on former military railway; AEG Versuchstriebwagen (high speed three-phase electic railcar); Siemens Drehstromtriebwagen [KPJ wonders what Robin Barnes would have made if commissioned]. See also letter from John C. Hughes

A.J. Mullay. South East by North British — to Kelso. 302-7.
Kelso is a "mighty fine town" situated just inside Scotland at the confluence of the Rivers Teviot and Tweed. In 1806 proposals were made to link Kelso with Berwick by a railway or waggonway. On 31 May 1811 an Act was obtained and thi included a clause permitting passengers to be carried, but the project was formally abandoned in 1838. The North British commissioned a survey for a railway from St. Boswells to Kelso via Roxburgh where nbsp;the Teviot would be crossed and a branch to Jedburgh could start. Work on this line almost ceased in 1849. nbsp;Progress was hindered by the extortionate cost of the land owned by Sir George Douglas who gained £25,000 for it. The Kelso station also provided a more satisfactory location for trains from Tweedsmouth and nbsp;this was rented to them with the North Britsh making an end on junction with the North Eastern at Mellendean Farm. The York, Newcastle amp; Berwick Railway was the first to reach the Kelso area with its branch from Tweedsmouth to Sprouston opened on 27 July 1849. In 1926 the nbsp;Royal Highland Show was held in Kelso. Charles Stemp, the Scott ish Area's Superiacute;ntendent attempted to disuade the organizers to hold it there, but William Whitelaw, the Company Chairman ordered that improved fascilities shoud be provided in the form of a loading bay and extra sidings. A fur ther nbsp;complication was that the Prince of Wales arrived at Berwick on an overnight train and required a special to convey him to Kelso. Little attempt was made to provide good connections between the two routes and there was only one express #151; a connection off the overnight service from St. Pancras at St. Boswells. Charlesfield Halt was situated between St. Boswells and Beses opened on 10 August 1942 to serve an ordnance factory making small iincendary bombs. The mainly female workers were conveyed there from Galashiels aand Hawick in special trains nbsp;and freight nbsp;within the factory was handled by diesel mechanical shunters. During the 1948 East Coast floods which breached the main line betwee n Dunbar and Berwick trains were diverted via Kelso and this led to some extremely distinguished nbsp;locomotive handling of the non-stop Flying Scotsman, bot southbound and northbound. Details are given of a run on 21 September behind No. 60024 Kingfisher which is not included in the Author;s book Non-stop, The final passenger train ran on 15 June 1964. Freight lingered om a little longer. Illustrations: Kelso railway station forecourt with mechanical horae and trailer in red & cream livery in early 1960s (J,M. Boyes: colour); former Edinburgh amp; Glasgow Railway Beyer Peacock 2-4-0 No. 324 shunting horsebox and clerestory coaches at Kelso (John Alsop Collection); platforms at Kelso in early 1960s (J,M. Boyes: colour); map; A4 No, 60031 Golden Plover at Tweedsmouth with train which might have been Flying Scotsman having come from Edinburgh via Kelso (W.E. Boyd Collection); V1 2-6-2T No. 67617 with 07.43 to St. Boswells (John Spencer Gilks); BR Class nbsp;2 2-6-0 No. 78049 with single Gresley corridor brake third on 12.07 for St. Boswells (John Spencer Gilks); BR Class nbsp;2 2-6-0 No. 78049 with single Gresley corridor brake third on 12.07 for St. Boswells with Ivatt Class 4 2-6-0 on freight for Jedburgh (John Spencer Gilks); and No. 78049 with single Gresley coach leaving Roxburgh viaduct en route to St. Boswells (John Spencer Gilks). See also letter from Matt Monger on 2016 divertions due to failure of Lamington Viaduct between Carlisle and Glasgow, .

Midland workers. Gavin Morrison. 308-10.
Colour photo-feature: Class 3F 0-6-0 No. 43681 at Leeds Holbeck MPD on 7 February 1961; 4F 0-6-0 No. 43931 on coal train heading north on 16 March 1961; 4F 0-6-0 with express headlamps leaving Leeds City with a Bristol to Bradford relief which will terminate at Forster Square on 20 August 1960; 4F No. 44282 with tender-cab running tender-first leaving Hellifield with a freight in snow on 26 January 1963; 3F 0-6-0 No. 43585 on Hellifield shed on 29 June 1961; 4F No. 44446 on coal empties just south of Goose Hill Junction near Normanton on 1 June 1963; No. 44250 taking Peak Forest line at Chinley North Junction with train of mineral empties on 4 March 1961.

Ian Travers. Steam railmotors and push-pull auto trains in the Wrexham District. Part Two. Great Western auto trains 1906-1962. 311-18.
Part 1. In 1905 twelve 517 class 0-4-2Ts were fitted with push amp; pull (motor) equipment and one was sent to Croes Newydd shed in Wrexham. The Great Western system was mechanical and relied upon rods and cranks under the vehicles and a cotter pin to attach the system to the regulator: two vehicles was the limit, but sandwich operation was possible, although reversal must have been messy. Gongs were fitted to warn permanent way staff and others on the line, although a wire could operate the whistle. The fireman had to operate the reversing mechanism. Many of the steam railmotors were converted into trailers which increased their passenger capacity, They were faster, could climb better. Oswestry became a centre for auto working. The Cambrian Railways Wrexham to Elllesmere line was worked puush amp; pull from 1911 using a mechanical systm which was not compatible with the Great Western system, and were replaced by 517 0-4-2Ts and compartment trailers which included first class, In 1937 these were replaced by B class compartment stock which retained first class. A new halt was opened at Hightown. From 1932 the 517 class was gradually displaced by the 48XX (later 14XX) 0-4-2T which were faster, more powerful and were capable of working furtther or longer. There was a racecourse at Bangor-on-Dee and meetings sometimes produced specials from further afield, In 1940 a major Royal Ordnance factory was built at Marchwiel to the east of Wrexham and this was linked to the Ellesmere branch. On the Great Central some Sacreacute; double-frame 2-4-0Ts were adapted for push amp; pull working using mechanical linkage and a speaking tube. Three driving trailers were newly built with six-wheel bogies and revve rsible tramway type seating and a central entrance. There were twelve first and 48 third class seats. The LNER replaced the mechanical system with a fail-safe vacuum system. Some of Creat Central 4-4-2Ts were adapted and some worked into Wrexham Central from Biston and Seacombe. A halt was built at Shotton for the Summers steel works near the Hawarden Bridge in 1924. The LNER also used a Sentinel railcar on some of these services. Illustrations: Auto coach trailer No, 148 being pushed by a 48XX 0-4-2T at Ruabon on 7 August 1935 (H.F. Wheeler Collection); 0-6-0PT No. 6405 with two auto trailers on 15.25 Bala to Wrexham waiting to cross a Ruabon to Barmouth train hauled by 43XX 2-6-0 at Llanderfel in July 1948 (R.G. Nelson Collection); 14XX pushing two auto trailers (rear one 63ft Hawksworth vehicle) and hauling LMS parcels van from Bala on service for Wrexham leaving Llangollen c1958 (C.M. amp; J.M. Bentley Collection); No. 1428 propelling 70-ft auto trailer probably converted from steam railmotor at Ellesmere on 13 September 1952 (C.H.A. Townley); eastern approach to Oswestry with 14XX propelling BR built 63ft steel panelled trailer and probably W6820 brake composite built in 1936 to Diagram A32 with matchboard side trailer behind in siding adjacent Works (R.G. Nelson); Hightown Halt on 28 August 1962 with No. 1458 hauling W231W on Wrexham to Ellesmere service with ex-Ministry factory for aircraft components behind then owned Rubery Owen; mp Wrexham-Ellesmere branch;; No. 1432 with trailer No. W231 at Cloy Halt on 9 April 1959 (H.B. Priestley); No. 1432 with trailer No. W231 at Wrexham Central on 19 May 1062 (P.J. Garland); C13 4-4-2T No. 67421 (push & pull fitted, but pulling) on Glossop to Manchester London Road service on Dinting station triangle (B.K.B. Green) caption mentions that Robinson 4-4-2T and driving trailer were originally equipped with mechanical push & pull gear. See also letters from Richard Abbey and Kevin Tattersley.

Robert Casselden. Sixty years ago in Farnborough holiday — 1961. 319-25.
Author's maternal grandparents lived in Napoleon Road, Farnborough where Princess Eugenie had died. His father worked for Normalair in Yeovil and in 1961 they journeyed from Yeovil to Farnborough by train beginning with an M7 powered trip to Yeovil Junction, from thence rebuilt Battle of Britain No. 34062 17 Squadron hauled them to Baasingstoke where they changed and photographic record begins. King Arthur No. 30798 Sir Hectimere completed the journey. His grandfather was a Lieutenant Collonel in the Army Physical Training Corps and a stickler for punctuality at meal times: this interfered with observing the nbsp;down Bournemouth Belle.nbsp;His father was a fellow railway ernthusiast, but gibbed at recording the numbers of every electric multiple unit. nbsp;Tables record some of the locomotves seen and the services being operrated and the composition of the trains. Illustrations: nbsp;rebuilt West Country No. 34034 Honiton leaves Farnborough with four coach set plus van on 7 September 1961 (C. Hogg: colour); King Arthur No. 30772 Sir Percival leaving Farnborough in 1960 (colour); Lord Nelson No. 30860 Lord Hawke at Basingstoke with10.25 Poole to Leicester and Bradford Exchange on 29 July 1961 #151; Author's parents on platform (Author); BR CLass 5 4-6-0 No. 73119 Elaine on 12.12 Waterloo to Basingstoke on 2 October 1962 (M.J. Reade); Schools class No. 30911 Dover in green livery nbsp;on 13.24 nbsp;Waterloo to Salisbury leaving Farnborough in November 1959 (G.H. Humt: colour); No. 7929 Wyke Hall at Basingstoke with10.25 Poole to Leicester and Bradford Exchange on 29 July 1961 (Author); rebuilt Merchant Navy No. 33005 Canadian Pacific speeds through Farnborough on down Bournemouth Belle in July 1964 (G.H. Humt: colour); H16 4-6-2T No. 30516 at Feltham on 6 September 1956 (T.J. Edgington) C class 0-6-0 No. 31150 at Feltham on 31 July 1961 (Author); rebuilt Battle of Britain class No. 34089 602 Squadron with Royal Train (three Pullman cars and van st Shawford en route to Southampton Docks on 5 August 1961 (colour); U class 2-6-0 No. 31797 near Farnborough North station with Redhill to Reading train on 3 July 1963nbsp; (T.J. Edgington).

Wanderings South and West. John Spencer Gilks. 326-7
Black & white photo-feature: ex-LSWR 700 class 0-6-0 No. 30309 at Fordingbridge with a pick up goods on 1 November 1955; 57XX 0-6-00PT No. 4647 at Hallatrow on 14.25 Bristol to Frome on 21 February 1959; 57XX No. 5757 at Pensford on 18.15 Bristol to Frome on 16 May 1959; BR Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76066 at Daggons Road with 09.25 Salisbury to Bournemouth West on 21 May 1963; 57XX 0-6-0PT hauling freight from Cheddar Valley line onto main line at Yatton showing running-in board "change for Cheddar Line and Clevedon" on 10 October 1960; Bournemouth West with BR Claass 4 2-6-0 No. 76057 and carriage sets in September 1965.

Jeffrey Wells. Poulton-Le-Fylde in focus. 328-31.
Poulton-Le-Fylde is a market town near Fleetwood between Preston and Blackpool. It is probable that it now has excellent train services to Manchester, Blackpool and London although a search on the Internet failed to provide any illustrations of them. For once Gordon Biddle's entry for Blackpool in the Oxford Companion forrms an excellent intr ioduction to a more than usually wayward article by this author who presumes that we have all paddled in the Irish Sea. The railway fascilities are interesting in that the original station had involved a was on the Preston amp; Wyre Railway and was on a straight line to Fleetwood (online search revealed archaeological evidence of this and the first illustraion shows it. The very severe curve led to a serious accident on 1 July 1893 when a LNWR train from Talbot-road to Wigan and Stockport hauled by an 0-6-0 failed to slow sufficiently and derailed: the driver and two passengers were killed.nbsp;The author quotes The Chepstow Weekly Advertiser. In 1896 this was replaced by a new line on the Blackpool side of the town to improve the junction. Illustrations:  Poulton station, level crossing and signal cabin nbsp;c1880; Aspinall Atlantic 4-4-2 with club carriages att Polton Junction with "A" on smokebox indicating to Manchester via Atherton (J.M. Tommlinson/John Alsop Collection); Aspinall 4-4-0 No. 1110 haling inspection saloon at Poulton (J.M. Tommlinson/John Alsop Collection); nbsp;permanent way men at work replacing rail at Poulton station probably in early LMS period; Poulton Curve Halt with steam railmotor carriage (steam railcar) No. 15 c1908 (John Alsop Collection); Aspinall 0-6-0 with Belpaire boiler No. 695 on freight train passing through Poulton station (John Alsop Collection); island platform at Poulton station in May 1965 (Eric Blakey). See letter from Keith Stringer noting the importance of Poulton-le-Fyle station for handling mail to and from Northern Ireland via Fleetwood,

David Mosley. Scenes from Sligo, 332.
Colour photo-feature: Martin Atock 2-4-0 No. 659 with Bulleid luggage/train heating boiler vsn and MGWR six-wheel Post Office van; Sligo in summer 1956, Leitrim & Northern Counties Railway diesel railcar at Sligo boarding for Enniskillen on 29 May 1957 and A class No. A28 at buffer stops having arrived from Dublin

Readers' Forum 333

Abingdon branch. Mark Doran
Further to Alistair F. Nisbet's fascinating account of the Abingdon branch I once worked with the Swindon train planner whose unenviable job it was to devise the branch timetable. He recalled with despair that whatever time he arranged for a train to arrive at Radley it would either (1) miss a connection to Didcot or (2) fail to connect for Oxford or (3) both! The reverse problem arose when it departed back towards Abingdon. The business plan for the Bowyer Arms pub at Radley must have been largely based on this conundrum. Meanwhile, of course, by the 1950s there were frequent buses from Abingdon town centre direct to Didcot and Oxford.

Complaints about engine whistles, David Rollins.
Alistair's article (March actually February) was interesting. As one who abhorred, and sill do, unnecessary use of the whistle/horn might I add a few comments? The BR, and earlier, rule books stated when and where the whistle should be used. One that always offend me was 'when entering, when in long, and when exiting tunnels'. There was NO exception between normal working hours and the 'wee hours'l I could never see the sense (and did not do any more than a 'pop') when it was obvious that there were NO staff in the tunnel. I am surprised that this was not included in Table 1!
Re the pitch of steam locomotives whistle, I happened to be part of the 4472 support team when we were required to go to Derby and have the weights checked on the weighbridge. After the first setting we were requested to steam off the weighbridge and shunt up and down a couple of times before returning for re-weighing. I was driving and each time before moving I just 'popped' the whistle. On returning we were met by a few of the Derby test centre staff who requested permission to record the whistle as they'd had a number of complaints that modern traction horns did not carry as far as previously on steam locomotives. They thought the one on No.4472 did a vey good job. However, after several recordings we heard no more.
At Haymarket the depot was split either side of the main line and there was a foot crossing that was used quite frequently by staff. Visibility of approaching trains into Waverley station was on a curve and in the opposite direction a short distance from the exit of a tunnel. as it was also on a down gradient, you could be caught by surprise, so a whistle board was erected either side. I believe that later a automatic track occupied system was installed that also included a flashing light, an a 'train on line' indicator as a warning of an approaching train.

Coach working on LMS lines in South Wales. John Bushby
In the article in the February issue, LMS through goods services via Abergavenny and Caerphilly to the LNWR/LMS goods warehouse at Tyndall Street, Cardiff, ceased in 1933, not 1931. As such, 1 July 1933 is the date generally given for their withdrawal. Cardiff commercial directories from the 1932-1933 period confirm they were still running after 1931 as does the LMS November 1932 working timetable. Withdrawal followed the GWR/LMS 1933 pooling agreements concluded during what turned out to be the worst period of the Great Depression when the railway companies sought economies and the elimination of unnecessary duplicate, competing goods services Somewhat improbably, the former LNWR facility at Tyndall Street has survived extensive redevelopment in the surrounding area after years of dereliction and neglect. It now forms part of a large hotel complex although its LNWR origins are still obvious today.

Northamptonshire's railways. Trevor Warnernbsp;
Re middle picture on page 219 of the April issue #151; the motorway in question is the M45 which has turned out to be the least-used motorway in the country whilst the railway is the ex-GC main line just south of Rugby and just to the north of Barby sidings. The bridge deck is still in situ (according to Google Earth) and as it carried trains for barely eight years two white elephants in one picture .The West Coast Main Line lies wholly to the west of the M1 and even the Northampton loop crosses beneath the motorway just south of Rugby near the present-day DIRFT (Daventry International Rail Freight Terminal).

Northamptonshire's railways. Robin Leleux
Re Stephen Roberts's survey of Northamptonshire's Railways in the March issue and in passing correct a couple of them. In describing the line from Northampton to Peterborough he says that a spur was built to connect with the main London & Birmingham (L&BR) line at Blisworth. The reality was that after four years of lobbying from Northampton interests, in 1842 the Lamp;BR directors resolved to promote a branch line from just north of Blisworth through to Peterborough. Not only would this serve the interests of intermediate towns such as Northampton, Wellingborough, Thrapston and Oundle but would allow for earlier postal deliveries in Peterborough, Wisbech and King's Lynn and cater for the carriage of cattle from the lush Nene Valley pastures to London and Birmingham markets. So the 47½-mile line was conceived, built and opened as an entity. He cites the many intermediate level crossings, inevitable on a valley line in flat country, as a cause of its early closure under the 1960s rationalisation; that is true but so also was indifference to this problem by regional management who had done nothing to promote the strategic cross-country value of the route over many years. Many other lines throughout eastern England are beset with level crossings to this day but survive in important passenger use. It is also worth mentioning that up passenger trains were often routed over the line to Blisworth to avoid conflicting with heavy southbound freight trains labouring up the long gradient on the direct line to Roade. Incidentally this enters Roade cutting below the level of the original Lamp;BR line, hence the lengthy succession of girders across the line to keep the cutting side from sliding in, as had happened twice during the 1890s.
Turning now to the line into Northampton from Bedford, this was promoted by an independent company, with Midland Railway backing, aiming for Weedon via Northampton. This proved to be impracticable so the line stopped short of Bridge Street in Northampton. The company wished to buy the garden of the Hospital (not Priory) of St. John there to site its terminal station. It was, however, obliged to buy the whole site, and although it then demolished the Master's house it subsequently sold the infirmary and adjoining chapel to a local businessman, Mr. Mulliner, who then re-sold them to the growing Roman Catholic community. The Midland Railway contributed to the restoration of the church. The hospital inmates were transferred to smart new premises on the eastern outskirts of town.
In order to service its locomotives the Midland Railway built a smart two-road locomotive shed in the junction at Hardingstone. This too survives, long after its original use ceased and also its later use as a BR welding school. After some years of dereliction and vandalism it was acquired by the University of Northampton and transformed into its Students' Union Building. As such, and wearing again my National Railway Heritage Awards hat, I am delighted to say that its restoration was unanimously regarded as the Best Overall Entry in the 2020 competition; hopefully its plaque can be unveiled once the present pandemic restrictions are eased. Stephen Roberts mentions just one bad accident in his survey, the head-on collision near Billing in 1877. Undoubtedly important at the time, it was sadly surpassed in significance by the serious derailments on the Midland main line at Wellingborough in 1898, two on the West Coast Main Line at Weedon, in 1915 and 1951, and on the ex-Great Central main line at Barby, on the Northamptonshire/Warwickshire border in 1955.

Around Croydon. Tim Edmonds
The short-lived LBSCR terminal station at Croydon was named 'Central Croydon' rather than 'New Croydon' and the final closure date was in 1890, not 1880 (p. 125). The name 'New Croydon' was applied to the separate LBSCR suburban platforms added to East Croydon station in 1862 and they are labelled as such on the 1894-6 edition of the OS 1:1056 town plan of London, sheet XVI1.5, available online at These platforms were later combined with East Croydon station. To check the dates I referred to an excellent reference source, Quick's Chronology, which is now available online, and regularly updated, through the website of the Railway & Canal Historical Society at

Around Croydon. Neil Knowlden
Re Michael H.C. Baker's Croydon article #151; in particular the Wimbledon-West Croydon line. No, the line didn't really pass 'right through' the gas works though the main gasholders were north east of the tracks while the gas-making plant itself was to the south west. Also to the north east was one of the two power stations and it was here at 'A' station that the electrified 'network' was (a few sidings and a single locomotive) together with a single steam locomotive second-hand from the Kent Electric Power Company.
Croydon 'B' power station to the west lay north of the gasworks and had two steam locomotives #151; and a couple of diesels at the end #151; while the gasworks itself had a succession of steamers over the years. The only remnants of the once thriving industry are the two chimneys from 'B' station standing erect in a retail park desert and bespoiled with banners proclaiming 'IKEA'. The electric unit illustrated on p178 is at Mitcham — not Mitcham Junction — and has just passed the point where the supporting wall later became unstable necessitating singling the track beneath the road bridge.

Illegal rail closures. Stephen Eaves
Re Stephen G. Abbot's article, Eaves who worked on the Southern, understood that the Brighton to Manchester service was due to the loss of the Ramsgate to Birmingham service (worked by Class 37 then a 'Deltic'). The Ramsgate service was a replacement for the Dover Inter-City services. The withdrawal of the Ramsgate service meant that there was no passenger service between Factory Junction and Longhedge Junction, so on a Saturday the morning Brighton to Manchester was diverted via Streatharn, Tulse Hill and Herne Hill. This was okay as, when the service started using that route, it was worked by Class 47s locomotives and Mkll coaches that were permitted that way. However, when Class 221s were put on that service, they were initially not cleared between Streatharn and Tulse Hill (they were cleared via Norwood Junction, Crystal Palace and Tulse Hill).
To cater for this a Clapham High Street to Kensington Olympia afternoon service was introduced. The problem was that it ran empty from Selhurst and had to use the up Chatham to up Atlantic Line crossover at Shepherds Lane but, in the summer months the points at Shepherds Lane were unreliable and often failed due to the heat. So the train had to run to Voltaire Road and crossover to the up Ludgate via the up Chatham to cross over and could not call at Clapham High Street or Wandsworth Road (these only have platforms on the Atlantic Line). To allow for a failure we started having staff at Shepherds Lane to ensure that the points could be wound if they failed, thereby allowing the service to run as booked. I read somewhere that the train terminated at Kensington Olympia because there were no pathways on the Western Region (so there was still no passenger service from Kensington).

Killin Junction. Sandy Smeatonnbsp;
The caption to the photograph of Killin Junction on the rear of the March edition states that No.80029 (actually No.80028 of 63A) is running round its coach which is parked in the background. This is unlikely. The normal method of running round the single coach was that the engine uncoupled after arrival in the platform shown and ran round to the other (east) end of the coach via the loop to the north (right in the photograph) side of the engine. So the branch coach is out of sight at the platform behind 80028. As the coach in the photograph is sitting in a dead end siding it would be difficult to run round and is likely to be parked until required.

Book Reviews 334

Right Away: the railways of East Anglia. Douglas Bourn, Lowestoft: Bridge Publishing, (Available from 159pp. Illustrations and maps in text. Reviewed by Geoffrey Skelsey ***
In this delightful new book, Douglas Bourn tells of discovering his mother's diaries after her death and finding out from them the reality of railway life and work. Brought up in a railway family the author already knew, more than many, of the harshness of railway work, and he resolved to write a different sort of history of East Anglia's railways, not to feed the appetite for nostalgia but to tell the story 'warts and all'. He begins with a well-potted outline of the origins of the region's railways, and the economic circumstances of that time. The changes they then wrought, even in a mainly non- industrial area, are profound, in tourism, agriculture, fishing, as well as continental traffic at Harwich and Felixstowe. A legacy of many of these remains today. There are glances at the wartime experience, the sensational advent of the 'Britannia' locomotives on the Norwich run, and then the transition to diesel and electric traction: all these affected deeply the daily lives of those working on the railway. Inevitably the story covers the axing of many of the local railways, a loss felt especially by a family living at Sudbury, now the terminus of the surviving fraction of what had been the Stour Valley branch. The attempts to save the line form a central part of the narrative, and there is also an account of the effects of wider changes on a single station, Manningtree, which the author used regularly. Glimpses of development of railways at Norwich, Lowestoft, and Melton Constable ('the Crewe of East Anglia') are included, whilst the latest rolling stock, as well as the birth and progress ofthe local heritage railways, are happy aspects of the story.
The author rightly concludes that there "has never been as healthy and popular a railway": we all have to hope that events since publication don't threaten the positive trends of the last thirty years. There is an excellent bibliography, including useful links to relevant websites, and an index.
Even if some of the contents will be familiar the personal nature of the narrative will be new, and in so modestly- priced a volume this is a chronicle well worth exploring.

A quite impossible proposal: how not to build a railway. Andrew Drummond, Birlinn, 2020. 308 pp.+ 12pp. illustrations with maps, plans and sketches in text. Reviewed by Peter Treloar (PT) ****
Explores the social and economic history of the North West of Scotland from the mid-Victorian era and the abortive attempts from the 1880s onwards to promote the construction of a number branch lines to the west coast, thereby affording access the Isle of Harris and Lewes. The Highland Clearances and consequential deprivation of the indigenous population, .\ resulting in depopulation, civil unrest and the advance of evangelism, in turn led to the Government setting up the Napier Commission and enacting the Crofters' Law. As well as the perceived need to redistribute land use and ownership together with developing the fishing industry, the desirability of improved access to markets would at the time ideally met by rail transport.
Over the ensuing decades, a number of Government committees came and went, as they considered several proposals for branch lines from the Highland Railway's lines to Strome Ferry/Kyle of Lochalsh and the Further North, through remote mountainous terrain, to reach the NW coast, with particular reference to Garve to Ullapool, from where ships would sail to various Hebridean destinations, such as Stornoway. In the event, Government prevacation smothered them all and none was built, and only at the turn of the nineteenth/twentieth century were the lines from Strome Ferry and Fort William extended respectively to Kyle and Mallaig with the assistance of generous Government grants.
At the time the Dingwall amp; Skye line was being mooted in the mid-1860s, the only rival destination on the west coast of Scotland being proposed was way down south at Oban, in which case the ultimate goal of the Kyle of Lochalsh made a lot of sense, being on the existing steamer route from Glasgow through the Sound of Sleat to serve both the Isle of Skye opposite and on to Stornoway. Between Kyle and Oban all the rest of the Hebridean islands could be reached. As it was, the potential revenues were perceived as being so poor that barely sufficient capital was raised, surprisingly, in the days before the dawn of the motor vehicle, this was not considered entirely satisfactory and by the 1880s led to a number of alternative proposed branch lines. However, had any of them reached fruition, it is doubtful that the combination would have been viable. Only firstly to reach Strome Ferry in 1870, some way off the steamer route, while the line to Oban was not opened throughout until a decade later. Not a century later did highways improve and motor transport develop to the point at which the ferry routes could be recast to minimise the sea crossings and Ullapool come into its own. For those with an interest in the social history behind the development of our railways and/or the railways of the North West of Scotland, this well researched work is thoroughly recommended.

Southern Style: The Southern Railway compiled by John Harvey. Historical Model Railway Society, Soft back, 240 pp, Reviewed by JC *****
'Comprehensive' was the first word that sprang to mind after a dip or two into this book. But further, more measured viewing showed even using the word 'exhaustive' is barely adequate to describe the level of research and scholarship that has gone into its production. The fact that ten of its pages are necessary to list the various sources, and the closely-printed index takes another ten, is indicative of the depth of enquiry that has produced it, the fourth book in the series of 'Southern Style'. Perhaps that depth is emphasised by the fact that almost all the remaining 220 pages are to do with paint in one form or another - and in that I am not being facetious. The various liveries adopted for locomotives and rolling stock #151; both passenger and freight #151; over the 25 years of the SR's existence, including lining and lettering #151; the font styles also illustrated #151; are covered in full and minute detail. Applications are noted too, the various layers of paint and varnish fully described. One does not need to imagine why painting an engine or a carriage could be costly: the reasons are shown here. The painting styles for road vehicles, signals, buildings of all sorts, gradient and mileposts and ancillary equipment #151; signs, barrows, telephone boxes, notice boards, level crossing gates and so on #151; and every other conceivable item in the company's ownership, are described in detail and illustrated. Even the moquettes used at various times in the coaching stock are photographed in colour. As a welcome addition for modellers no doubt, specimen colour samples, fifteen of them #151; including eight different greens! #151; come separately on a stiff card folder. Among these too incidentally are Lynton amp; Barnstable coach brown and Somerset amp; Dorset blue, a reminder of the Southern's other associations.
Perhaps as an illustration of the degree of enquiry, two loose sheets also come with the book. One of these has some notes regarding the colour swatches as well as two additions to the text. Two-thirds of the second sheet is of photographic credits omitted from the list in the book as well as a photographic correction, an illustration perhaps of the difficulty and complexity of the task the author faced in bringing the whole into being. But now I have a problem, for perhaps of the several books I have reviewed this has to be one of the most difficult to classify. Looking at it purely as an informative document there is little doubt it has no peer and awarding five stars does not seem nearly enough. On the other hand the cost incurred in having that extraordinary level of detail must, I think, limit its appeal. No doubt a historian with a particular interest in the Southern, or a model railway club with a strong Southern following, would add it to the library without a second thought. But even the keenest individual modeller might decide the 'net' could provide much of what he needs without charge, a conundrum then. Perhaps, after all, I should go with my first instincts and classify it for what it is, a most remarkable and unique compendium of the Southern Railway as it appeared while at work.

Steam on the Sirhowy Tramroad and its neighbours. Michael Lewis. Railway, amp; Canal Historical Society, hardback. 176 pp. with 122 illustrations including maps. Reviewed by Robin Leleux? (RL) ***** nbsp;
The old adage of 'you shouldn't judge a book by its cover' may be true, but in this case an enthusiast would do well to trust their inner instinct when seeing the striking four images on the front cover of this new volume. A large atmospheric image of a plateway locomotive at work accompanied by the sight of two contemporary drawings and an image of a locomotive in relic condition awaiting scrapping, together with an image on the rear of a small saddle tank hauling a train of wagons on plateway track, give a strong indication of the treasures that await inside. The books focus, as the name suggests, is the 4ft 4in gauge Sirhowy Tramroad (plateway) and those neighbouring it which ran from 1804 to 1860 with its main focus being the movement of iron and coal to Newport. The next thing that strikes the reader about this book is the high production quality. At a time when, owing to various factors, publishers are economising where possible with commensurately a general decline in quality of paper, photographic reproduction etc, the look and feel of this book is really a set apart. Most images, including the reproduction of early maps, artwork showing the tram roads in use and diagrams of locomotives, wagons and track are fortunately crystal clear, although a few suffer from large pixelation. The authors name will likely be recognised by those interested in early railways. Dr. Michael Lewis is a well known early railways expert and his important and yet to be bettered Early Wooden Railways marked its 50th anniversary of publication in 2020, which is an early indication of the quality of research and writing that the reader soon discovers in these pages. The book is split into three parts #151; 'The background', giving an overall view of the area, the Sirhowy Tramroad and the Tredegar Ironworks, and other lines in the area. The excellent maps greatly aid a reader not familiar with the area and are useful to keep referring back to whilst reading the text. The second part, 'the locomotives', is #151; unsurprisingly given the title of the book #151; the main focus of the book and covers the greatest proportion of its 176 pages (including index). Research on early locomotives tends to involve a lot of detective work and Dr. Lewis has gone above and beyond in doing so, supporting his research and theories. A personal highlight was the convincing argument that the well-known 1803 dated drawing of a 'tram engine' to a Trevithick design, replicated at Ironbridge as a possibility of being the Coalbrookdale locomotive, could actually have ran at Tredegar. The variety of images including works drawings, modern drawings, surviving photographs and contemporary illustrations complement the comprehensive research into the locomotives used.
Part three, 'The tram roads at work, is of great interest to this reviewer in particular, putting the preceding two chapters into context and bringing the research to life, continuing to draw on a wide variety of sources including accounts from contemporary newspapers, which as the author acknowledges have become a new, vital resource to historians. This book has much wider appeal than those with an interest in the railways of South Wales, being a valuable addition to the understanding of how early railways ran, the impact they had and the effect the steam locomotive had on railways. This book sets a high standard indeed in terms of depth and breadth of research and production quality for anyone who wants to write about early railways. This is an extremely well-produced work which quality in production matches its quality in terms of writing and research presented to the reader, and should be a necessary purchase for anyone with a serious interest in early railways and/or the history of railways in Wales.

A great survivor — the Fintona horse tram. rear cover
Gtreat Northern Railway (Ireland) Driver Hamilton with horse Dick as motive power at Fintona Junction about to set off for Fintona in County Tyrone in May 1957 (BBC recently ran a charming series of programmes presented by the Northern Ireland weather presenter which included the tram and the museum at Cultra).

Ex-GWR 'Hall' 4-6-0 No.4989
Cherwell Hall approaches Lapworth
heading south on the Birmingham
main line in 1962. (Derek Penney). front cover
July (Number 363)

Lights - Camera - Action. Michael Blakemoor
Editorial to be read with a tub of Eldorado ice cream. Going to the cinema to watch a film isn't something we've been doing much in recent times; in fact, as I write this (in May) my last evening out was to go to the film night in the local community centre in February last year. In any case, going out 'to the pictures' hasn't been the occasion it used to be for quite some time. There isn't much of a classy experience, in my considered opinion, in attending a screening in one of the in-vogue multiplex cinematic emporia where you are force-fed a long series of trailers for movies you probably aren't the least inclined to watch, followed by Pearl & Dean commercials for products you aren't the least inclined to afford, before eventually having your eardrums blasted by your chosen film delivered at reverberating volume.
Remember when a night at the cinema involved being treated to a full programme? As well as the 'main feature' you'd have a shorter 'B' picture, invariably in black and white, often not a bad story, sometimes with then little-known actors who would go on to greater renown. Between them and the adverts, you could very well also be given a news documentary. During the war these could be bulletins from hot spots in the conflict: raids over enemy territory, troop landings, stoical citizens in 'Britain can take it' mode. Later, into the 1960s when television news coverage was still scanter and sparser than we're accustomed to nowadays, we'd see reports of events such as general elections, Her Majesty's visits to Commonwealth countries, major sporting fixtures and 'Look at Life' delights such as sheep judging at country shows, village cricket matches or bell-ringing competitions.
Into the world of industrial film production stepped British Transport Films, established in 1949 by the new nationalised British Transport Commission and headed by Edgar Anstey who later declared "To celebrate the railwayman's contribution to national life has been one ofthe objects of our film making." What we know BTF for are those productions made for public showing to present information about the operation of the national transport system and to promote travel on it - what we came to call 'travelogues'. A further and certainly no less important activity was the compiling of instructional films for staff, explaining the modernisation of the railway that was unfolding and the new practices it brought. The films were shown in cinemas and later increasingly on television, at travel fairs, in stations and even on board British Railways ships; many will recall viewing a BT Film as a supporting feature of their night out 'at the pictures'. The films could also be hired by all manner of non-theatrical bodies: trade, professional and educational groups along with a variety of clubs and societies. From these wide-ranging productions we are able to look back over our changing travel patterns - in terms of technology, passenger experience, the journeys we make, the places we visit and the holidays we take.
In my previous employment an occasional duty was to project some ofthe choicest BT Films to public audiences. In deciding on the film I was focussed on what would entertain the 'average punter' for half an hour or so, taking into account that some would be railway enthusiasts and others would just be drawn in out of curiosity. The 'technical' films would be ruled out and probably those publicising holiday destinations, so I would opt for ones demonstrating the railway of the past at work with plenty of trains and 'things happening'. Going by audience reaction, on no scientific basis whatsoever, two of the best-received were Elizabethan Express, the 1954 journey on the London-Edinburgh 'non-stop', and Terminus which charted a day in the life of London's Waterloo station in 1961. Both have become regarded as classics of their genre.
Elizabethan Express follows the train throughout from the signing-on ofthe driver and fireman at King's Cross depot to its greeting by the station master at Edinburgh Waverley, with an abundance of lineside, footplate and in-train sequences. Most of the landmark moments are covered, such as the crew change halfway by means of the corridor tender, scooping water on the troughs and crossing the border, while inside the carriages midday dinner is cooked and served, passengers read, doze ... and dine. An oddity is the commentary which is delivered entirely in rhyming verse, some of the lines being quite stirring, others making you wince a bit. They are spoken by the actors Alan Wheatley, who might be called to mind playing the silkily villainous Sheriff of Nottingham in the 'Robin Hood'TV series of the late 1950s, and Howard Marion-Crawford who was a pal of my father in the RAF during the last unpleasantness!
Terminus was an early credit for the director John Schlesinger who went on to become a big name in Hollywood. It is an observational documentary of the comings and goings at Waterloo station from the frenzy of commuter peaks to the lonelier hours of the night, following the activities of staff and passengers and recording forms of railway traffic now vanished: the arrival of liner trains from Southampton, the conveyance of convicts, the loading of coffins. The most memorable scene involves the little boy who for dramatic effect was deliberately 'lost' briefly by his mother (a relative of Schlesinger) but swiftly rescued by a policeman. I rather doubt if a stunt like that would be pulled today!
Other popular films were Farmer moving South (self-explanatory), Train Time (grappling with such as the seasonal broccoli harvest in Cornwall, tinplate output in South Wales and cattle imports from Ireland), Fully Fitted Freight (tracking the Bristol-Leeds express goods), This is York (following the station master on his rounds) and the great Snowdrift at Bleath Gill (the rescuing of a frozen engine and wagons in the high Pennines on the Stainmore route). In some productions real railwaymen and locals made cameo appearances with a few words to speak, which they tended to do as if from the school of wooden acting, but that only seems to add to their idiosyncratic charm.
These well crafted films, and many others in the archive, could be considered 'of their time' in the style of their presentation, but when made they were a showcase for the railway at that time and today they reflect how much it has changed. We can be glad of the insight into a different world which the silver screen affords us and an article this month tells us more about the world of British Transport Films. See also article.

Dark Times at Lime Street. Stewart Jolly. 340-1
Colour photo-feature: Class 47/4 No. 47 443 North Eastern on 19.25 to Newcastle on 18 January 1991; Class 31 No. 31 465 in regional Railways livery with train in matching livery on 21.52 to Blackpool North on 18 March 1993 with Pacer at buffer stops; Electric multiple unit No, 304 303 on 20.35 to Crewe on 20 December 1991 (soon to be displaced by deadly Pacer; 22.35 mail train being loaded on 18 March 1993; two four car 158 class sets forming 19.25 to Newcastle headed by 158 746 and 20.25 to York headed by 158 740 on 21 January 1991 with two Pacers & electric locomotive adjacent

Philip Benham. Summer Saturdays to the coast. Part One. 342-7
The author was a British Railways operating manager and after retirement managing director of the North Yorkshire Moors Railway. Notes the creation of advertising slogans epitomised by Skegness is so bracing, special named trains like the Cornish Riviera; The Atlantic Coast Express and the Scarborough Flyer and the gradual transition from what was an amusement for the priviledged few to a mass annual event. Illustrations: Castle class No. 5069 Isambard Kingdom Brunel with train of carmine & cream stock in sparkling condition on the up Cornish Riviera at Penzance in June 1957 (John Spencer Gilks: colour); extract from British Railways timetable map of 1953 for lines west of Taunton (colour); No. 6808 Beenham Grange and No. 4095 Harlech Castle on 09.20 SO St. Ives to Paddington on climb to Doublebois on 13 September 1958 (Trevor Owen: colour) No. 6028 King George VI heads up The Mayflower; No. 6025 King Henry VIII on 12.30 Newquay to Paddington taking water at Exeter St. David's during unscheduled stop whilst 12.05 Paddington to Plymouth arrives with No. 5056 Earl of Radnor and E1/R No. 32967 waits for next train to be banked up to Exeter Central on 3 August 1957 (Peter W. Gray); Noo. 5098 Clifford Castle climbing Hemerdon bank on 07.30 Penzance to Crewe on 5 July 1955 (R.C. Riley); 2P 4-4-0 No. 40564 and rebuilt West Country No. 34046 Braunton pass Midford with Pines Express from Manchester to Bournemouth on 15 July 1961 (colour); No. 7813 Freshford Manor and No, 6923 Croxteth Hall crossing St. Pinnock Viaduct with 10.00SO Newquay to Paddington on 13 September 1958 (Trevor Owen colour) see Editorial letter page 517. HST power car No. 43064 City of York with No. 43093 at rear on 13.47SO Scarborough to Glasgow Queen Street on 17 May 1986 (Author: colour). Part 2 see page 436, Letter from Claude R. Hart. Long letter from Arnold Tortorella on LMS instigation of platforms and reversing fascilities at Heads of Ayr for new Butlin's Holiday Camp (based on LMS Northern Division Minutes of 1947). Editorial from Michael Blakemoor which includes a tedium on the journey from Bury (Lancs) to Scarborough in Ribble luxury coach. Letter from Stephen Abbott on more recent extra provision to Skegness

Alistair F. Nisbet. A derailment without apparent cause. 348-51.
At Buddon on 28 June when northbound express which had left King's Cross at 19.30 became partially derailed at a crossing into an army camp siding. Illustrations: ex-NBR Atlantic No. 9868 Aberdonian in Edinburgh Princes Street Gardens on northbound express; Buddon station; Buddon Camp with bell tents, Caledonian Railway locomotive and train with decrepid cattle wagons and horses recovering from journey; ex-Caledonian Railway 0-6-0 No. 17588?; ex-NBR J37 at Guardbridge on engineer's train on 5 July 1964.

Iain Kitt. Making tracks: British Transport Films and the history of British Railways 1950-1983. 352-7
British Transport Films (BTF) was established to promote the services provided under the British Transport Commission and was exterminated by Margaret Thatcher. BTF films were made to inform, sell (i.e. use the railways) and instruct staff. The unit was run by Edgar Anstey, an established, award winning documentary film maker and the most succcessful products were The Elizabethan and Terminus directed by John Schlesinger. Geoffrey Jones directed Snow 1963, Rail 1966 and Locomotion 1975, The last was commissioned to mark the 150th anniversary of the Stockton & Drlington Railway. Jones's films create a sense of diverse but united social relations. The Beeching Report was accompanied by a film starring the butcher, but judging by the still it looks amateurish. The pandemic has limited KPJ's travel to the Stadler articulated electro-diesel units which are far in advance of what was portrayed: it is a shame that the ticket machine at West Runton is so ridiculous to use. Illustrations (stills from films): BTF crew filming adjacent to crossing (perilously close to third rail?); buffet car scene from The Elizabethan; Chief Operating Supeerintendent on phone from Train Time; West Indian immigrants arriving at Waterloo from Terminus; Dr Beeching sets out his plan (precursor for Covid briefings?); man with scythe from Down in Sussex (colour: cutting Bluebell Line?); first class coach with ghastly salmon pink trim & a pipe smoker from Overture One-Two-Five); Tinsley marshalling yard (colour: Freight and a City); Advanced Passenger Train (colour: E for Experimental)

Rob Langham. Tragedy, trespass and trivia on the Tanfield branch, North Eastern Railway. 358-63
The use of rope worked inclines in urban areas was bound to lead to deaths, including those of children and of the staff who had to act as bank riders. N10 class 0-6-2T No.. 1716 passing manure sidinng near Andrews House Colliery; map; Tanfield Lea Colliery with National Coal Board shunnting locomotive in 1956; Lobley Hill incline bank top with loaded wagons and bank rider about to descend; three 21-ton steel hoppers with bank rider descending Lobley Hill incline; brake and binding wheels as in brake cabin on Pontop & South Shields branch inclines; N10 No. 69101 on Lobley Hill level; Bowes Bridge locomotive shed pre-1935; Tanfield branch beginning, Redheugh Gasworks and Dunston Staithes (and River Tyne); diagram of wooden dog used to attach incline rope on Tanfield branch; J25 No. 65728 at Bowes Bridge shed in August 1961.

Going round the 'Halls'. Derek Penney. 364-6
Colour photo-feature: No. 5935 Norton Hall on express passsing Tilehurst in September 1961; modified Hall No. 7905 Fowey Hall piloting No. 6000 King George V on down Cambrian Coast Express climbing Hatton Bank in 1962; No. 6942 Eshton Hall on down express parcels train passing Reading General in 1959; No. 6928 Gatacre Hall in Sonning Cutting with up freight with china clay hoods at front' according to Neil Knowlden not china clay but tinplate from South Wales, modified Hall No. 6971 Athelstone Hall fresh in lined green livery outside Swindon Works in April 1962; No. 6929 Whorlton Hall with train of ex-LMS coaches passing Tilehurst in 1962.

Jeffrey Wells. Hellifield: rural backwater to major railway junction. 367-61
Opens with a quote from Jack Simmons The railway in town and country where Hellifield is noted cas a railway settlement which remained a village, The North Western Railway was tthe first to reach Hellifield (this is normally termed the Little North Western to distnguish it from the mighty LNWR). This was incorporated on 26 June 1846 to construct a railway from Skipton to Ingleton and was planned to go on to Low Gill to join the Lancaster & Carlisle thereat. A branch to Lancaster was also planned. Due to shorrtage of funds the Lancaster branch gained priority over the Low Gill route. The Midland Railway worked the line from 1852 and the Lancaster & Carliisle built a branch from Low Gill to Ingleton, but the LNWR which had absorbed the Lancaster & Carlisle failed to  grant the Midland adequate running powers and thus the seed for the Settle & Carlisle was born. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway saw the potential that the new route afforded for its Scottish traffic and opened its line from Blackburn to Hellifield via Clitheroe and this required a new station, engine shed and two signal boxes at Hellified: the station was designed by Charles Trubshaw, Train services linger on: the Settle & Carlisle line has demanded major capital expenditure, but provides a major diversionary route for the West Coast Main Line and optional tourist traffic encouraged by Michael Portillo. More trains beyond Clitheroe would be useful. The Manchester Courier in 1880 complained about long delays to passengers from Clitheroe and Blackburn by late running trains from Scotland. Illustrations (mostly John Alsop Collection): up platform with something up due; 4P compound No. 1006 on northbound express with contraption at foot of ramp which caption writer questioning its function: explained in letter on page 517 from Frank Ball — a Jim crow or crow; Hellifield North signal box c1906; Hellifield engine shed; northbound platform with vast staff assembled, stationmaster nearest camera? pre-WW1; W.H. Smith bookstall with newsvendor boy; rustic forecourt entrance to Hellifield new station with L&YR freight train passing through; 1808 class No. 393 with Deeley/Fowler cab and tender & G7 boiler outside Hellifield shed with maintenance staff (p. 371); station master & engine shed foreman's houses at Hellifield in 2019. See also letter from Andrew Wilson on page 517..

Go West — Life is sweeter there. 372-3.
Colour photo-feature: E1/R class 0-6-2T class constructed from Stroudley E1 class 0-6-0Ts in 1927-9 to work the North Devon & Cornwall Light Railway which the Southern Railway had acquired: No. 32135 in plain black at Exeter St. David's on 17 March 1956 (Trevor Owen); No. 32695 in fully lined black livery at Exeter St. David's in 1955; No. 32095 with B4 0-4-0T No. 30088 at Plymouth Friary shed in September 1956; No. 32697 on station pilot duties at Exeter |Central with two unrebuilt light Pacifics in June 1958; No. 32697 ex-works at Eastleigh with Merchant Navy Pacific No. 35016 Elder Fyffes behind in January 1954 (Trevor Owen).

Jim McBride. Strabane: a lost railway centre killed by Partition and religion. Part Two. 374-7.
Part 1. The Great Northern Railway ordered 24 new BUT railcars in 1954, but due to steel shortages these did not arrive until 1957 and 1958, but the Northern Ireland maladministration decided that the Protestant people would be better served by buses and that the Catholics in west Ulster should lose their railway services including those on the County Down Railway (McBride calls this political vandalism — a term still appropriate for Stormont). Illustrations: Strabane looking north with Phoenix and CDR railcar 12 outside now preserved at the Transport Museum in Cultra and at the Foyle Valley Museum (colour: John Langford); Class 5A 2-6-4T No. 2 Blanche in Strabane station on 7 June 1956 (locomotive now preserved at nbsp;Cultra); ex-GNR S class 4-4-0 No. 174 Carrontuihill (caption states still in blue livery) with four coaches in UTA green livery crossing River Mourne on 10.15 from Londonderry to Belfast on 1 September 1964 (colour: Derek Young); ex-GNR U class 4-4-0 No. 64 Lough Gill having arrived from Foyle Road (caption states still in blue livery) on 31 December 1959 ((Ernie's Irirsh Railway Archive); CDR station at Strabane (Letterkenny platform with three buses owned by CIE with P267 on loan to CDR to help cover for former rail services; GNR island platform looking towards Derry on 15 August 1959 nbsp;with ex-GNR three-car AEC set atill in blue amp; cream livery except one vehicle in UTA green livery plus a GNRI steam corridor coach in teak livery with Phoenix (colour: John Langford); and CDR rolling stock in red amp; cream livery purchased by Dr. Cox with former CDR No. 4 Meenglas in Strabane with UTA bus in background in March 1963 (colour)

David Mosley. Postcards from T'owd Ratty'. 378-9.
Photo-feature with long captions: 3-ft gauge only
Nabb Gill with the Big Saloon and first class and third class coaches at Boot (coloured postcard);
Devon at Boot with Edwardian lady;
,locomotive taking water at foot of incline to Ban Garth mine near Fisherground nbsp; (coloured postcard);
Whit Monday train in 1906 with Devon hauling all passenger stock plus four wagons fitted with benches running into Irton Road;
Derailment of Devon at Murthwaite on 10 March 1905

The Mail — Second Delivery. Gavin Morrison. 380-1
Colour photo-feature: Derby class 108 approaching Paddington on 4 October 1989; Class 47 No. 47 746 (in Post Office red livery) with Night Mail from Scotland at Carlisle before proceeding south to King's Cross via Newcastle on 5 December 1994; Class 67 No. 67 008 in English, Welsh & Scottish livery on 14.23 Swansea to Paddington mail train at Lower Basildon on 10 August 2001; Class 47 No. 47 777 (in Post Office red livery) on 17,23 Plymouth to Low Fell mail train passing Cockwood harbour on River Exe on 18 September 1998; transferring mail from road vans onto Royal Mail trolleys at London Bridge station on 15 March 1990; Class 325 multiple units converted for Royal Mail on 11.59 Glasgow Shieldmuir to Willesden service at Shap Summit on 6 September 2005.

Gone to Gloucester. 382-3
Black & white photo-feature from John Edgington Collection: Midland Railway (caption states 4-4-0), but might be 2-4-0 at Midland Railway station; Class 5 No. 45280 at Eastgate station on 15 July 1961 (Ben Brookbank: see note from Editor page 517); 51XX No. 5173 at Gloucester Central with 13.08 to Cheltenham on 13 May 1961; Deeley 0-4-0T No. 41537 in Gloucester Docks on 13 August 1949; former GWR engine shed at Horton Road with several pannier t anks including 57XX No. 4659 and 51XX in picture on 28 March 1948; Midland Rail way 4-4-0 with mainly clerestory coaches arriving at Eastgate station with train for Bristol.

Miles MacNair. Frustrations of fuel efficiency. Part One: Prelude and feed water heaters.  384-7
Feed water heaters had a long history. James McConnell who was in charge at Wolverton Southern Division designed a modified blastpipe through which the feed water could be pumped. Bouch of the Stockton & Darlington Railway designed a simpler feed water heater commonly known as the coffee can  and fitted it to 2-4-0 No.  38 Rokeby when rebuilt in  1860  and renumbered 39. The device was sufficiently successful to be fitted to six 0-6-0 Panther class. John Viret Gooch was locomotive superintendent of the London & South Western Railway between 1842 and 1850. He introduced a heater whereby some of the exhaust steam was mixed with the feedwater. (Locomotive Mag., 1903, 9, 77. On the Eastern Counties Raiway he employed a heater invented by Daniel Evans (Locomotive Mag., 1936, 42, 366): it was tested on a single No. 53 against No. 56 with an unmodified grate and found to give no advantage. Joseph Beattie was a highly innovative locomotoive superintendent on the London & South Western and took out many patents including ones for  feed water heaters. The first of 1840 is described in Locomotive Mag., 1934, 40, 121 and relates to GB 1874/1840 and includes a mechanism  for weight transfer on single drivers. He developed twin fireboxes to enable coal to be burnt instead of coke and these are described in articles published in the Locomotive in 1935/36 and feed water heaters described in Colburn.  MacNair quietly asserts hat the American Brick Arch Company was responsible for just that rather than Charles Markham. Further development of feed water heating was described by Willans in the Locomotive in 1921 notably in the May Issue. Illustrations: Steam Elephant replica at Beamish with feed water heater (Author: colour); diagrams showing where heat from firebox produces pressurised steam or goes to waste and how pressurised steam  is used usefully or wasted; McConnell's feed water heater for Southern Division of LNWR; Bouch Panther  class 0-6-0 with  feed water heater & proper cab; Gooch open-type feed water heater (Locomotive Mag., 1903, 9, 77) ; Beattie feed water heater as fitted to 2-2-2 No. 135 Canute (Locomotive Mag, 1935, 41, 402); Beattie Gem class No, 55 Medusa and Hercules class No. 41 Ajax (painting by Cuthbert Hamilton Ellis: colour). Part 2 see page 469.

David Williams. The LNER phoenix — No. 2000. 388.
Computer derived coloured photograph with notes on how Ivatt 4-4-0 No. 4075 was renovated at Doncaster Works with a side window cab and given apple green livery with a hand painted LNER coat of arms on the tender. It was given the number 1, but this was changed to 2000. It was intended to work the directors saloon as in 1944 a disastrous tour by LNER permanent way inspectors in which the officers' saloon had been attached to a Marylebone to the North West express had suffered several locomotive failures culminating in a filthy J11 parting company with its tender. See also letter from John Macnab and colour photograph of locomotive still in apple green but with BR emblem.

Readers' Forum.  389-90

Orbiting London. Editor
The author points out that the colour photograph of LT Q' stock on p247 ofthe May issue should have been credited to Tom Burnham.

Correction to book review
There was an error in quoting the price of North Eastern Railway Engine Sheds in the May issue - the correct price inc. p+p should be £24.95. Also available via www.

Recollections from a Selside  winter. Paul Kampen 
Letter writer is Secretary, Friends of the Settle-Carlisle Line. Steve Leyland's 'Railway Observations from a Selside Winter' make fascinating reading to anybody interested in the history of the Settle-Carlisle line and the people who operated the line 24 hours per day and in all weathers. Several of the men named are still well-remembered in the area. Selside signal box was the one which, famously, was operated entirely by women during World War 2. The last survivor of these ladies was Eileen Sunter; Mrs. Sunter's husband was also a signaller and she herself carried on in this role after the war ended. She passed away in 2010. With reference to George Horner there were actually two of them — 'Old' George and 'Young' George; unusually 'Old' George followed his son on to the railway and they were both signalmen at Blea Moor with 'Old' George being on duty the night that several cars were blown off a train on Ribblehead Viaduct. It would be 'Young' George whose beautiful handwriting is to be seen in the train register book depicted. He had gone on to relief from Blea Moor after which he became a clerk, and then station master, at Horton-in-Ribblesdale. When station staff were withdrawn in 1968, Mr. Horner became an AA patrolman for a time but then returned to the railway and went into the Horton-in-Ribblesdale signal box; on being made redundant from there in 1982, he moved on again to the box at Wennington (on the Settle Junction to Carnforth line) from where he retired in 1988. 'Young' George Horner passed away in 2006. Let us never forget the people of the railways.

Railways around Bradford. Richard Lee,  
In 1979 I joined the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive as a trainee and as part of my Induction I had to spend time in each of the various departments - naturally spending a disproportionate amount of time with the small rail team. David Joy's excellent article on the Bradford railway system (May issue) made me recall a scheme the team developed to both improve rail connections within the city and its links with the rest of the new county to the south and east. The scheme had three components:
1. An overground line linking the new Interchange with Forster Square by means of a viaduct across the city centre (with the benefits outlined in the article).
2. Full reinstatement of the ex-Lancashire & Yorkshire Spen Valley line from Thornhill junction to Low Moor (the southern part of the line was still in use to Heckmondwike by Hargreaves Fuel Oils, then via a chord to the LNWR Leeds New line and their depot at Liversedge). This would open up Bradford-Spen-Wakefield services, as an east-west axis across the county.
3. Options to join the Spen Valley line with the Huddersfield-Dewsbury-Leeds line where they crossed at Ravensthorpe, just west of Dewsbury, thus giving a circular Leeds-Spen-Low Moor, or a similar service to the west based on Huddersfield (using a reinstated curve at Bradley).
As well as economic and communications benefits, it was hoped that the plans would have a unifying effect on the new West Yorkshire county and appeal to the new Metropolitan Councils of Kirklees, Bradford and Wakefield. Unsurprisingly, the scheme found little favour with the bus-dominated PTE which, as a sop to the citizens of the Spen Valley, generously introduced a new 'express' bus service between Wakefield and Bradford via Heckmondwike and Cleckheaton. The Hargreaves oil trains ended in 1986, the same year as the abolition of the County Council.

Complaints about engine whistling. John Nuttall  
My former colleague John Macnab is quite right about Craigentinny.ln the early 1980s, when I was Depot Manager, a dear old lady called Mrs. Gilchrist would come to see me every now and then to complain about the noise from the depot at night. I'd invite her to the office, give her a cup of tea and a biscuit and explain that we always did everything we could to minimise the noise nuisance (which was true) but if she or her neighbours had any further problems she should let me know straight away. Off she'd go, having done her duty on behalf of the other residents, until a few months passed and we'd do it all again. Apparently, when the estate was built in the 1960s the developers had told the purchasers that the sidings were disused and that BR would probably pull them up soon.
As an aside, the depot's postal address was 169 Mountcastle Crescent. In 1981 someone came round to hand out census forms. Her first question was "How many people sleep here overnight?", to which I replied "None, I hope!". Happy days.

The Garve and Ullapool Railway. Arnold Tortorella
Backtrack, April 2021, p222, contained a very favourable review of A Quite Impossible Proposal: How not to build a railway, which explores assorted railway proposals for the north west of Scotland in mid-Victorian times. Likewise, both The Skye Railway by John Thomas (David & Charles, 1977) and The Dingwall and Skye Railway by Peter Tatlow (Crecy Publishing 2016) mention the previously suggested 'Garve and Ullapool Railway' from cl890 and of which naught came. Similarly, within the Railway Modeller, May 1976, H. Orbach described his model railway layout based on a projected line from Garve to Ullapool. What readers may not realise that in late summer 1945, a few months after the end of the Second World War and all its damage to equipment and infrastructure, the LMS in Scotland had to deal with a subsequent proposal to resurrect this scheme, as the following will relate: Traffic Sub-committee' held at 302 Buchanan Street, Glasgow.
Date 18th September 1945 Item No. 1403
Proposed construction of railway — Garve to Ullapool.
Reported that under the Garve and Ullapool Railway Act, 1890, powers were granted to a private company for the construction of a railway approximately 34 miles long between Garve on the Kyle of Lochalsh Line and Ullapool on Loch Broom. Reported further that the authorised capital of the Company was £240,000, with borrowing powers for £80,000, a total of £320,000, and that the powers under the Act were allowed to lapse presumably because the promoters were not in a position to raise the required capital. Reported also that Commander Vyner, a landowner in the Ullapool area, had revived the proposal and had asked whether the Company would consider the construction of a railway from Ullapool to Garve for the development of that area. Commander Vyner had had meetings with the Company's Officers following on which he addressed a communication to the Scottish Committee setting out his proposals and suggesting that a small sub-committee of the company and himself should be invited to produce a scheme, possibly in conjunction with the Scottish Economic Council, showing the requirements, the probable cost and how the scheme should be financed.
Estimates had not been prepared of the cost of constructing such a railway, but assuming a figure of £25,000 per mile, the cost would amount to at least £850,000, but would probably be nearer £1,000,000 before the work was completed. The figure was double that quoted by Commander Vyner and was more in relation to the authorised capital and borrowing powers of the original Company of £310,000 — having regard to the value of money in 1890 as compared with 1945 — than the figure of £500,000 quoted by Commander Vyner.
The Executive Committee were of the opinion that the railway revenue from the proposed would not meet working costs and renewals, apart from the cost of providing the capital required, and that Commander Vyner should be informed that no economic justification could be found for his scheme, it being considered a road motor service was more likely to be suitable to serve this area. Agreed that this was not an economic proposition.

No.6254 City of Stoke-on-Trent. Allan C. Baker and Mike G. Fell. 389
Further to our article in the April issue, our attention has been drawn to a feature in Trains Illustrated (TI) for April 1956 (Vol. IX, No.4) concerning the loan of No.46254 and other former LMS Pacifies to the BR Western Region, following the 'King' Class crisis of February 1956 mentioned in our article. What follows is based on the TI feature and may well be of additional interest to your readers. Of the four Stanier Pacifics on loan, the 'Princess Royals', Nos.46207 and 46210, were at first kept on the Wolverhampton line, while the two 'Coronations', Nos.46254 and 46257, worked to the west. Apparently, there was difficulty in preparing the 'Princess Royals', with their large firegrates, in the time available between the two legs of one of their diagrams on the Wolverhampton line, the 9.10 am from Paddington and the 2.35pm return train. This may have been why No 46210 was seen on the Plymouth road later in the month, the first time a 'Princess Royal' had operated to the West Country. Unhappily, after heading the down 'Cornish Riviera' into Plymouth on 10th February, its brick arch collapsed and it had to be taken out of service until a new brick arch arrived from Crewe, the Western Region bricks having proved to be unsuitable.
Trains worked by the LMR Pacifies to and from the west included the 10.30am and l.30pm Paddington-Plymouth and the 7.15am and 8.30am return workings, also the 11.15am and 1.18pm Paddington-Bristol and the 1.50pm and 4.15pm return workings. On 7th February No.46254 City of Stoke-on-Trent brought the l.30pm from Paddington into Taunton two minutes early. Two days earlier the same engine, shown on the North Road reporting board as eleven minutes late earlier on its run, brought the Cornish Riviera into Plymouth on time.
At least one of the Pacifics travelled new ground on 18th February when there was a derailment at Westbury and several Plymouth line trains were diverted on to the Bristol line, presumably via Trowbridge and Thingley Junction. No.46254 was seen passing Shriven ham at about 85mph on the 7.15am from Plymouth only fifteen minutes down, despite the diversion. The report concluded by confirming that all the LMR Pacifics had returned home before the end of the month.
. It has also come to our notice that No.46254 had the distinction of being the last member of the class to work a titled train when, on Sunday 30th August 1964, it was in charge of the down 'Mid- Day Scot' from Crewe to Glasgow. It would, of course, by this date, have been standing-in for a diesel, which would have been diagrammed right through from Euston and probably came off the train at Crewe due to a problem of some sort. The 'Duchess' would doubtless have been prepared for another train and therefore available to take over at short notice. We wager the fireman was pleased!
Unfortunately, a small error crept into our article. The City of Stoke-on-Trent Golden Jubilee Celebrations railway exhibition ended on 24 May 1960, not a month later as stated. We are grateful to Backtrack reader John Massey for pointing this out via the Editor.

Northamptonshire's railways. Richard Bodily.
Sincere congratulations to Stephen Roberts who did a great job of condensing the main points of the history of Northamptonshire's railways into eight pages of BT in March. However, may I add to ensure completeness that when the closed railways that he wrote about were operating, Northamptonshire up until 1965 also included that part of present-day Cambridgeshire known as The Soke of Peterborough. That means a short section of the Great Northern main line from the River Nene bridge to north of Helpstone level crossing was in Northants.
Peterborough North station and the massive New England marshalling yards and MPD were also in Northants., as was Spital Bridge MPD and the Midland Railway's temporary Crescent station. In addition the lines radiating from Peterborough North towards Leicester, Spalding, the M&GN towards Sutton Bridge and the link line to Peterborough South all were partially in Northants. Prior to the 1965 county border change, when The Soke temporarily became part of Huntingdonshire, the northernmost station in Northants. was Peakirk on the Spalding line and Eye Green on the M&GN the easternmost.
Strangely, Peterborough East station was never in the Soke of Peterborough nor in the city of Peterborough! Lying south of the River Nene county boundary it was always in Old Fletton parish in Huntingdonshire until that county became part of Cambridgeshire, so were the LNWR and GER sheds. Prior to 1965 Peterborough was probably unique in having stations and engine sheds in two different counties. Incidentally, the local papers used to make a big thing about the local 'Northamptonshire derby' matches between 'The Cobblers' and 'The Posh but Pterborough United FC's London Road ground was also south of the river border and was never in Northants. Supporters of either club travelling by rail to away matches would never have passed through Cambridgeshire, just short sections of Huntingdonshire, as the line closed to passengers long before The Soke became part of the former county. ,

Coffins by corpse van. Keith Parsons. 390 
Re John M. Clarkes article in the April Issue: it brought to mind my experiences with the Earl Mountbatten's funeral train in 1979 when I was the Depot Engineer at Stewarts Lane. The vehicle chosen to carry Earl Mountbatten's coffin was a Mark I bogie gangwayed full brake van, (BG) M80867. The BG had recently had an Cl overhaul and was painted in BR blue and grey livery as was the rest of the train. It was in a good condition both externally and internally and only required a thorough clean which is more than be said for the corridor firsts and catering vehicle that were used for the rest of the train. The BG was fitted with the catafalque which had been used for Winston Churchill's coffin in the Southern Railway bogie luggage van on his funeral train in 1965.
A member of the Royal undertakers staff came to Stewarts Lane to inspect the BG with the catafalque fitted. His only comment was that the windows of the BG should be filled in from the inside with black material. This was duly done with plywood cut to fit each window and covered with black felt material.
One problem with the preparation was that the military wanted lots of rehearsals which took place in the early hours of the morning. This meant that the train was impounded at Waterloo until after the morning peak, so by the time it had got to Clapham Yard and thence to Stewarts Lane half the day had almost gone along with scarce preparation time. This was overcome by the operators providing a substitute train that remained at Clapham during the day.
On the day of the funeral, 5 September 1979, some very smart operating took place. The Queen travelled down overnight from Balmoral on 4/5th on the Royal Train. When the train arrived at Euston a Class 33 locomotive came on to the rear of the train and detached the escort brake vehicle and took it to Clapham Yard where it was attached to the funeral train.
As to future funeral trains for Royal and other important personages, one of the brake vehicles in the current Royal Train can be adapted to carry a coffin.

Coffins by corpse van. Tom Wray 
With reference to this article, I thought that you may be interested in the report below from the Manchester Guardian on 14 July 1849. As the ELR was still an independent company and Southport was an isolated town, it was quite possible to make this roundabout journey which must have taken several hours on foot and by railway.
"On Wednesday last, 11th July 1849 an old man, under the protection of two relatives, left Southport for Manchester. On arriving at the East Lancashire Railway station at Blackburn, a change of carriages had to be effected, and on removing the poor old creature, he was found to be dead. The relatives of the deceased, however, were very much indisposed to believe the melancholy fact, and said that as they had paid his fare they should take him forward. As they very expressingly made this request, the railway authorities complied with it, and the deceased was forthwith conveyed to Manchester."

Book reviews. 390

Great Northern Outpost Vol 3: Faded glory. Alan Whitaker and Ian Rapacz. Manchester: Willowherb Publishing, 112 pp. Reviewed by DJ ****
Those seeing just the cover of this book for the first time might ponder on exactly where was the faded glory, as there is nothing more specific in the title. If regarded as a puzzle picture, the evocative cover photograph should help the enquiring mind to come up with the correct answer. It shows a begrimed B1 hauling two empty wagons and a brake van on weed-strewn tracks across a curved viaduct.
The caption correctly points out that it is the epitome of 'faded glory' and draws attention to massive iron brackets protruding from the viaduct to support a former station platform. Drystone walls in the background remove any doubts that the location is the once remarkable triangular Queensbury station on what in many ways was the ultimate Great Northern outpost.
Does it justify coverage in three volumes? The first volume, reviewed in the September 2016 Backtrack (p. 674), covered the five miles from Bradford through Queensbury to Thornton. The second volume, reviewed in November 2017, looked at the twelve miles comprising the lines from Halifax to Queensbury and onward from Thornton to Keighley. This third instalment covers the same stretches as its two predecessors and some will regard it as a case of over-egging the pudding.
Others will take the view that the Queensbury Lines represent heroic failure and as such are of compelling and lasting fascination. They will welcome over 100 well-reproduced colour photographs, most previously unpublished and many that have only recently come to light. It is certainly remarkable that hitherto unknown colour images continue to be found of a system that witnessed its last rites in 1965 with some sections closing nine years earlier.
This volume manages to include a hitherto elusive image of the unique occasion in late 1957 when A3 No.60081 Shotover graced the line for supposedly secret testing of smoke emission in the hell-hole of Lees Moor Tunnel. There are many other photographs that will strike a special chord, a prime instance being the cow on Queensbury platform that in Indian style greeted the last railtour to traverse the decaying remains in 1964. The book ends with a more recent picture of opening of the Great Northern Railway Trail, a footpath and cycleway from Queensbury to Thornton that both authors have been instrumental in initiating. Highly recommended for devotees of faded glory.

Locomotives of the Great Southern & Western Railway. Jeremy Clements, Michael McMahon and Alan O'Rourke: Collon, Co. Louth, 2020. 184 pp, Reviewed by DWM *****
This is a mighty volume which is the end-product of an exhaustive, ten-year, research project; its scope and authority seem to point to it being the definitive work on the steam locomotive in the south of Ireland up to 1925 for many years to come.
At the start of the book the authors make no apology for spending some time on the thorny subject of locomotive numbering by the GS&WR. The respected historian and enthusiast R.N. Clements described the system as 'chaotic' until some sort of order began to be established by Alexander McDonnell in 1864. To bring some ease of recognition to the various locomotives and classes throughout the book the authors use Clements's own Roman numeral system alongside the official railway classification. Having laid a foundation the authors then go into the most splendid detail. An outline company history is followed by an examination of design and construction policy, locomotive works and links with private builders. In the case of locomotives provided by private builders the authors are at pains to detail where the archives pertaining to these companies can be found.
The 'meat' of the book is an examination of the company's various locomotive types and classes. These are divided in passenger tender locos, goods tender locos and tank engines. The GS&WR absorbed several other companies, notably the Waterford, Limerick and Western, and chapters are devoted to the locomotives of these along with a chapter on tenders and a concluding chapter on the transition of the GSWR into the Great Southern upon the foundation of the Free State.
Each of the locomotive chapters is thoroughly illustrated with photographs and diagrams and supported by tables of leading dimensions and building, rebuilding — quite a lot of that! — and withdrawal dates. It is fascinating to follow all the links, particularly in matters of senior personnel, between the GS&WR and the railways of the 'mainland'. Thus John Dewrance and George Miller both had links going back to the Stephenson's Rocket and engineers like McDonnell, Aspinall, Ivatt, Robinson and Maunsell played major roles on both sides of the Irish Sea. The GS&WR even tried out a couple of 'full-sized' locomotives on Robert Fairlie's principle — until disputes on 'extortionate reimbursement' got in the way!
Appendices range over subjects such as technicalities of locomotive design policy, accidents and the translation of Alexander McDonnell to the North Eastern — where he found locomotive policy as chaotic as that which he had struggled to rationalise at Inchicore — and locomotive names. This latter appendix refers chiefly to the Waterford, Limerick and Western and 'South of Ireland' might be one of the more-uninspired names to appear on the side of a locomotive until the recent 'corporate' diesel era!
The authors allow a little humour to creep into their work. Your reviewer particularly liked the acronym MBWA — Management By Wandering About — in relation to Churchward at Swindon used whilst commenting on Inchicore's ill-fated attempt to produce an Irish 'Star'. The final appendix, 'The Gallant 44', is wonderful doggerel verse highlighting derring-do on the Rosslare to Cork express. The book has a useful index and a comprehensive bibliography.
If your reviewer has the smallest caveat it is that he would have wished that the publisher could have afforded the authors a slightly higher quality of paper on which to display their work. Some of the many, excellent photographs have reproduced as if they were taken on a rather 'soft' day and this is somewhat of a pity. This is the most minor of criticisms — this is a remarkable book and can only be recommended most highly.

London & South Western Railway
0298 2-4-0 well tank No.30587
at Boscarne with the Wenford Bridge
branch freight on 27th August 1962.
(Alan Reeve). front cover.

See photo-feature page 424.
August (Number 363)

Long day's journey into night. Michael Blakemoor
One of our articles last month looked at the 'traditional' summer holiday and the whole business of reaching your destination resort by train, in particular the West of England; the concluding part is in this issue. The railway embarked on holiday specials on an epic scale and our author looks at the challenges faced, not least by passengers enduring lengthy journeys from London, the Midlands and the North as late running tested their patience to the limit and beyond. We might, as enthusiasts, salivate over double-headed trains on the Devon banks, even pairs of 'Kings', and note how often a restaurant car was included to provide civilised catering, but we shall see that going on holiday required stoical resolution. At least there was the exciting prospect of arriving at the seaside eventually - but as for going home ... Back in the 1960s the favourite destination for our summer holiday was Scarborough and somewhat to my disappointment we never made the journey by rail. This was because a direct seasonal bus ran every Saturday from Bury and I don't doubt that my parents found it a cheaper option. Nevertheless it was an ordeal in its own way in travel experience! The bus was laid on by the estimable Ribble Motor Services and departure time was scheduled for 8.00am but it would be gone three o'clock in the afternoon before would finally alight in the resort.
You need to remember that this was in the pre-motorway era and back then long-distance journeys were protracted undertakings. After calling to pick up more passengers in Heywood and Rochdale, the crossing of the Pennines was by a moorland road over Blackstone Edge (where the first bleak road-house refreshment stop was made) before dropping down into Halifax where another booked call was scheduled. From there we proceeded through the West Riding into Leeds for another stop at the coach station before heading towards York. The ring roads around that ancient city were still well in the future and so it was through York's narrow, winding and congested thoroughfares that we slowly picked our course until we came out on the other side, pulling in then for our next refreshment break. It was as well to take advantage of its facilities, because the most tedious stage of the itinerary was still to come ...
Only a few miles on we would encounter the back of a creeping, crawling, often stationary, queue of traffic which stretched ahead all the way to the town of Malton where everything had to negotiate its streets and the level crossing over the York-Scarborough railway line. In the 1960s the railway was still busy with seasonal trains and the gates were being closed to the road with considerable frequency. Even in 1964 the timetable showed that between 9.00am and 4.00pm Scarborough sent out eighteen departures in the York direction and presumably about the same number was heading in, along with any 'extras', so the gates were being swung at least every ten minutes. And so onwards we inched - and it would take an hour and more to come through to the far side of Malton and at last make for the coast. Quicker by train, certainly - but the coach was simply more affordable. Not until 1978 did Malton gain the salvation of a bypass - but by then the holiday rail traffic was very much reduced and it was the bypass that was becoming increasingly busy.
I never persuaded my mum and dad to take the Scarborough train but I was more successful in 1966 when for a change we holidayed in Aberystwyth - for the main objective of visiting the narrow gauge railways I'd read so much about. And behold, there was a train all the way from Manchester, through coaches to Aberystwyth and up the Cambrian Coast to Pwllheli, dividing at Machynlleth. A proper holiday train at last - with electric, steam and diesel motive power in stages along the way - and a trolley service!
A later holiday adventure was on an overnight service from Manchester to Newquay, departing in the late evening and finally showing up in our Cornish destination well before breakfast time. The two of us were able to commandeer a compartment to ourselves for the entire journey and those long sprung seats of fond memory gave the welcome facility for reclining into slumber as we progressed steadily south westwards through the dark, with the small hours disturbed by fitful wakefulness as we reached major centres such as Birmingham New Street and Bristol Temple Meads. Eventually we came to as the sunlight began to spread across the Devon coast, but even after making it to Newquay we still had time to kill before being able to book into our hotel and get outside some bacon and eggs.
The fact that we were able to recline in somnolence serves as an indication that, while the train was reasonably patronised, the volume of custom was nothing like it would have been in the pre- and post-war boom years or even in the '60s when such a train would have been fully booked and possibly requiring a relief service as well. Imagine that journey, whether it be taking all day long or the seemingly endless hours of the night - with every compartment seat occupied by people crammed elbow-to-elbow, fractious children, the weary attempting to sleep, someone snoring, a group trying to have a midnight or midday picnic - what determination and tolerance holidaygoers would be obliged to show! And then there was the going home ... Perhaps it's no wonder they took to their cars when they could; those tiresome jams on roads and motorways lay ahead ...
My mother used to declare that going on holiday and enjoying yourself was hard work which needed taking seriously. How right she was! And it was hard work for the railways as well and they took very seriously the massive commitment to transport the people of Britain in great numbers across the length and breadth of the land to revel in their hard-earned week or fortnight at their seaside haven. The planning of timetables, the allocation of rolling stock, the diagramming of motive power, the rostering of crews - all this was a huge exercise of co-ordinated organisation on a scale quite beyond the railway of today, yet the railway of yesterday took it in its stride. All right, that stride got out of step at times but that wasn't surprising given the intensity and complexity of the whole thing.
Different times - of course, in the changing attitudes to railway economics of the 1960s the resources devoted to the seasonal holiday programme were deemed thoroughly uneconomic. .. and then there was the rise in the popularity of the private car. But the railways took the population on holiday, as far and as wide as they wanted to go, then returned them home again. Their achievements are worth considering and acknowledging.

Up in the Gallery. A. Bacon. 396-7.
Colour photo-feature of locomotives and trains on the narrow gauge (1-ft. 10½-in.) Penrhyn Quarries railways: Winifred (Hunslet WN 364/1885) on 27 July 1959; Marchlyn (Avonside 0-4-0T built for Durham County Water Board's Burnhope contract & sold to Penrhyn in 1936); Avonside 0-4-0T Owen built in 1933 for Burnhope contract & sold to Penrhyn in 1936 on 27 July 1959; Nesta (Hunslet 0-4-0ST WN 704/1899) in June 1962; and Glyder (Andrew Barclay 0-4-0T acquired from Burnhope contract in 1938 in September 1963)

Jeremy Clarke. 'The Branch' — the Kent Coast Railway Company. 398-405.
The South Eastern Railway had provided a circuitous route to Thanet of about 100 miles to Margate, but the East Kent Railway reduced this to under 75 under the control of the London, Chatham & Dover Railway. This article is concerned with the railway from Faversham, where the line to Dover was left, through Whitstable. Herne Bay, Birchington, Westgate, Margate, Broadstairs to Ramsgate. In 1926 the Southern Railway opened a new line to connect the former rivals in Ramsgate and closed the former South Eastern Ramsgae to Margate line. Illustrations: Schools class No. 30938 St. Olave's passing Faversham with a Ramsgate to Viictoria express on 13 June 1959 (R.C. Riley: colour); map of North Kent railways; Class L No. 31781 leaving Faversham with empty stock for Ramsgate on 30 September 1958 (R.C. Riley: colour); Faversham station with third rail in place, but not in use (H.P. White); D1 No. 31743 tops Broomfield Bank east of Herne Bay en route from Victoria to Ramsgate on 20 September 1958 (Martin Galley: colour, Rodney Lissenden Collection); L class No. 31775 arrives Faversham with an up Dover train on 30 September 1958 (R.C. Riley) page 200 lower; :see letter from J. Clarke on page 582; Whitstable & Tankerton station forecourt on 18 September 1958 (Martin Galley: colour, Rodney Lissenden Collection); 2552hp Bo-Bo electric locomotive passing Whitstable on down parcels train (H.P. White); 12.35 Victoria to Ramsgate headed by N15 King Arthur class No. 30767 Sir Valance at Westgate on 3 September 1958 (Peter Hay); BR Class 5 No. 73083 with Ramsgate to Victoria arriving Margate (most of BR Mk 1 coaches in carmine & cream livery) on 28 March 1959 (R.C. Riley: colour); L class No. 31768 and L1 class No. 31758 at Margate station in March 1959 (T.J.. Edgington) (caption writer makes mistake of stating L1 class was a rebuild of L class); Battle of Britain  class No. 21C154 Lord Beaverbrook arrives Margate with down Thanet Belle Pullman express in June 1948 (J.C. Flemons); Margate station forecourt (H.P. White); Schools class No. 30928 Stowe enters Margate with a Victoria to Ramsgate train (H.P. White); Ramsgate Harbour station on 4 August 1924 (August Bank Holiday Monday); D1 No. 31743 leaving coaling plant at Ramsgate with fireman on back step of tender on 28 March 1959 (R.C. Riley: colour). See also letters from Nick Stanbury; and from J. Clarke; from Steve Bell, from Stephen G. Abbott; from David Westcott and from Jonathan Evans.

Anthony Dawson. Rocket, the Liverpool & Manchester Railway and 'public relations'. 406-12.
The Liverpool & Manchester Railway, probably thanks to its secretary and treasurer Henry Booth, was excellent at publicity in creating interest not only in the railway but in the locomotive. The board of directors promoted their railway in a thoroughly 'modem' way, even going as far as to use a 'publicist' in the shape of James Scott Walker. The Rainhill Trials had been the largest public science demonstration of their age and the board of directors quite rightly exploited that surge of interest in order to promote their railway — both as a scientific and engineering marvel, but also to win over the hearts and minds of those who were opposed to the railway. The publicity generated by Rocket at Rainhill and that the existing fame of George Stephenson led to the two becoming forever associated thanks to the efforts of the 'PR Machine' of the L&MR. Through its promotion of 'man and machine' and also through public excursions, particularly during the summer of 1830, the board of the L&MR was able to generate positive publicity surrounding its railway. This did much to popularise the railway and to gamer support for it from those who had once been implacably opposed. Thanks to the hard work of L&MR's 'PR Machine' the railway was a success and was here to stay - and a lot of that success was thanks to Rocket.
Illustrations: Replica Rocket and train at Liverpool Road station in Manchester (Matthew Jackson: colour); drawing of  Rocket by C.B. Vignoles published in Mechanics Magazine on 24 October 1929; replica Rocket showing scorching of paint on chimney base at Liverpool Road station in Manchester (Matthew Jackson: colour); Rocket in Olive Mount cutting, Liverpool with train of open passenger caariages c1829; Fanny Kemble portrait; cartoon of Royal Elephant (based on Rocket) scattering horses, pigs and humans;  Duke of Wellington's state carriage (naive depiction),

Roger Griffiths and John Hooper. Yorkshire coastal engine sheds and their locomotives. Part two. Whitby Town. 413-19.
Previous parts covered Scarborough engine shed in Volume 34 on pages 112 and 198. The Whitby & Pickering Railway erected a stone-built engine shed at Whitby in 1847. In 1867 it was planned to double the length of the building, but this wass stymied by a local resident who stated tha it would spoil his view of the River Esk. To meet his objections a low-roofed extension was constructed and in 1903 the roof was raised as the objector had moved on. In September 1940 a German bomb demolished the rear office and adjacent goods shed, but it was decided just to build a new rear wall for the engine shed. In 1876 a forty two foot turntable had been installed and this was replaced by a fifty foot one in 1912 on a new site and by a sixty foot one from York in 1936. Lists of locomotives based there. Illustrations: Whitby Bogie, Fletcher 492 class 4-4-0 No. 1809 with Esk Terrace in background in 1893; LNER plan dated 12 March 1929; BTP class 0-4-4BT No. 28 at Whitby in 1893; McDonnell Class 38 4-4-0 No.158 at Whitby c.1905; Class W 4-6-0T crossing Larpool Viaduct with train from Scarborough in  1893; clearing up bomb damage in 1940; 10 April 1956 view of engine shed and Whitby Abbey with A8 No, 69867 and another A8 and two D49 class; G5 00-4-4T No. 67240 with coaling crane behind on 4 April 1954 (F.W. Hampson); L1 2-6-4T No. 67791 and No. 65663 on shed in July 1956 (colour: K.R. Pirt); B1 No. 61275 entering Whitby Town station (colour: Stephen Armitage Collection): Sentinel railcar Tantivy at Goathland in summer 1936 (W. Potter); Sentinel railcars Nos. 2136 Hope and 2152 Courier climbing bank to Whitby  West Cliff in August 1959 (J.W. Armstrong Collection): A8 No. 2157 approaching Ravenscar station during WW2 with a Teesside to Scarborough train. See also letters from Tony Kirby and from Len Dowson and on page 645 from Stuart Rutherford

Tim Edmonds. 'A Very Dangerous Place': the Bradenham Crossing Accident of 1929. 420-3.
On 5 December 1929 the 08.57 High  Wycombe to Aylesbury auto train pushed by a 517 class 0-4-2T struck Postman Edward Stone on a footpath where ít crossed the Great Western & Great Central main line. The driver had sounded his warning gong and braked, but the hit the postman who was killed instantly. It was raining and a high wind was blowing. The inquest took place at the Red Lion hotel on 7 December and was attended by officials from the Great Western, LNER, the General Post Office in High  Wycombe and the Police. There was some discussion as to why the postman had not used the private track under the railway owned by the Bradenham Estate. The dangerous crossing remained until 2003. There is much piffle about the internees of the Bradenham Estate and a note on the absence of guards on GWR autotrains and other push & pull trains. Illustrations: map (Steve Edge: colour); memorial ffor Elizabeth and Edward Stone in St. Lawrence churchyard at West Wycombe in 2008 (Tim Edmonds); GWR auto train being propelled with autotrailer No. 49 on former main line between Wolverhampton and Birmingham at Handsworth Junction c1927 (B.B. Edmonds); Castle class locomotive hauling train of non-corridor stock c1960 near site of 1929 accident; Site of  1929 accident viewed from A4010 road in 2010 (Tim Edmonds).    

Engines of a certain age. Alan Reeve. 424-6
Colour photo-feature: Joseph Beattie 2-4-0WTs on Wenford Bridge branch on 27 August 1962. No. 30587 shunting at Boscarne Junction ; No. 30587 at Dunmere crossing A389 road with flagmen; view from brake van of train with sheeted china clay wagons near Grogley; waiting at Boscarne Junction for Ivatt 2-6-2T No. 41272 to pass with passenger train for Bodmin; looking south from Wenford Bridge with loaded train; and with a local freight train. See also front cover and further thoughts on that day in letter on page 581.

Mike G. Fell and R.A.S. Hennessey. The Southern diesels. 427-9.
In 1943 O.V.S. Bulleid contacted Y.V. Lomonosov (name suffers in transliteration), the Russian diesel locomotive pioneer concerning the proposed Southern Railway introduction of diesel traction where electrification would not be viable. The initial  approach to English Electric predated approach made by the LMS for better known Nos, 10000 and 10001. The bogie layout was 1-Co-Co-1 with leading trucks — a pattern repeated in the British Railway types 40. 44, 45 and 46. Oliver Bulleid was respomdible for the mechanical side and C.M. Cock for the electrical. P.W. Bollen, the inventor of the bogie is not mentioned. Kevin Robertson 10201-3 on the Southern is cited. llustrations: Southern 1-Co-Co-1 with Carlisle to London fumlly-fitted milk train nesr Mageley about to pass under NSR Market Drayton branch in summer 1961 (Mike G. Fell); No. 10203 leaving Waterloo on West of England express (chime whistle clearly visible) (English Electric); No, 10202 on London Midland Region freight; diagram: elevation & plan. See very interesting letter from Frank Bell who states that Type 40 which shared same bogie caused havoc on LMR points & crossings.

Following the Cumbrian Coast. Gavin Morrison, 430-3
Colour photo-feature: Patriot class No. 45503 The Royal Leicestershire Regiment at Ravenglass with RCTS tour from Leeds to visit the Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway on 4 September 1960; Class 108 two car diesel multiple unit on Barrow to Preston service leaving Grange-over-Sands on 21 June 1975; Class 31 No. 31 457 on 12.58 Manchester Victoria to Barrow service crossing the Leven Viaduct on 23 June  1990; single car Class 153 in Regional Railways livery calling at Ravenglass on Barrow to Carlisle service on 1 June 1996; Direct Rail Services Class 20 No. 20 310 and Class 37 No. 37  611 at Sellafield nuclear power station on 26 August 1998; Class 142 Pacer in Merseyrail yellow livery at Sellafield station with working from Barrow; Class 101 in blue livery crossing Eskmeals Viaduct going south on 8 May 1976; 15.12 Carlisle to Preston Class 156 diesel unit leaving St. Bees station (with its stone station sign incorporated into station building) on 10 October 2010, and two 153 diesel units forming 11.19 Barrow to Carlisle service at Flimby station with Scotland visible across Solway Firth on 21 April 2010.

Richard Clarke. Signalling interlude at Kensington Olympia South Main 1973. 434-5.
In his previous article on Northollt East Junction Clarke had noted that it was administered as part of the Kensington Area. The West London had strategic significance: all four English Regions could access it; it was the London Motorail terminal; it was an ideal location for  locomotive changeovers and it gave easy access to London Underground services. It tended to be quiet during the day. The trains to and from Clapham Junction were worked by Class 33 diesel electrics and were for workrs at the National Savings Bank. The night shift involved the Greaves to Northfleet cement train and the Knowle to Dover car train. Several Motorail services were remarshalled and this must have disturbed the sleep of their customers. Illustrations: Richard Clarke writing in train register at Kensington South Main box on 23 March 1973 (David Gould); block shelf drawn by Bruce Bennett  (diagram); view  from box towards Lillie Bridge and signal gantry with GW lower quadrant signals; block instruments and bell to Kensington North Main.

Philip Benham. Summer Saturdays to the coast. Part Two. 436-41.
Part One: see page 342. Other than tyhe superb flying junction at Cogload and an extra island platfoorm put in at Taunton during the 1930s little had been don to improve the 57 miles of double track between Coagload and Aller Junction. Exeter remained a bottleneck accentuated by the need to bank trains up to the Southern's Central station and the flat junction at Cowley Bridge. Plans for a double-deck station and for an inland route to avoid the coastal section between Dawlish and Teignmouth wer scuppered by WW2. Particular attention is paid to 27 July 1957, possibly the busiest ever for holiday traffic and its damning lateness on the Western Reegion services. The Southern ones with fewer trains from outwith the Region faired better, Illustrations; Castle class No. 5075 Wellington at Whiteball Summit on 15,30 Paddington to Penzance on 17 June 1958 (Trevor Owen: colour); two bunker-first 45XX Nos. 4566 and 4593 head 09.20 SO St. Ives to Paddington through Lelant in September 1961 (Peter W. Gray: colour); No. 6845 Paviland Grange cross Forder Viaduct at Saltash with 12.05 FO formed of retaurant cars for Saturday departures from Newquay and St. Ives (Peter W. Gray); Modified Hall No. 6965 Thirlestaine Hall running tender-first from Newton Abbot to Torquay with stock for later departure (Peter W. Gray); No. 4944 Middleton Hall crossing A30 at Tregoss Moor with 12.40 Newquay to Cardiff on 13 September 1958 (Trevor Owen: colour); Battle of Britain class No. 34078 222 Squadron shunts stock of a Waterloo train at Padstow in July 1964 (colour); Britannia No. 70024 Vulcan pilots No. 6018 King Henry VI on 09.30 Paddington to Newquay out of Newton Abbot. In the station were No. 6901 Dodington Hall on the 07.30 Paddington to Kingswear; the 08.50 Paddington to Paignton behind No. 6015 King Richard III (to depart hauled by two Halls running tender-first (everything running very late) on 27 July 1957 (Peter W. Gray); No. 34083 605 Squadron crossing Little Petherick Creek with up Atlantic Coast Express in September  1963 (J.B. McCann); 57XX No. 3796 banks 08.52 Paignton to Paddington out of platform at Torquay hauled by No. 4079 Pendennis Castle with passengers waiting for 09.05 Paignton to Manchester London Road to be banked by No. 4606 in middle siding on 33 August 1957 (Peter W. Gray); Nos.. 6025 King Henry III and No. 6019 King Henry V on 10.35 SO Paddington to Penzance west of Totnes climbing Rattery bank on 4 August 1956 (Dick Blenkinsop); HST Class 43 No. 43 086 enters Lostwithiel with 15.07 Newquay to Paddington on 9 July 2018. See also letter from Andrew Wolstenholme on page 581

Mr. Gresley's Pacifies — as they were. 442-4.
Black & white photo-feature: A1 No. 1477 without name in King's Cross station yard on 70ft turntable c1924; A3 No. 2506 Salmon Trout at King's Cross on northbound train; A3 No. 2796 Spearmint leaving Edinburgh Waverley with up non-stop Flying Scotsman in August 1931 (this was Norman McKillop's engine); No. 4473 Solario at Nottingham Victoria with a Manchester London Road to Marylebone express; ,No. 2544 Lemberg on down Scarborough Flier at Challoners Whin Junction; No. 2749 Flamiingo at Carlisle Citadel station waiting to take forward the Thames-Forth Express on 24 August 1935; A1 No. 2559 The Tetrarch on an up express passing Low Fell (note tidy permanent way — a feature of the North Eastern Area).

L.A. Summers. Timing the train — and checking the records. 445-51.
This is mainly a dissertation on the various mehods used to record the speed of trains mainly those used attained by steam locomotives prior to electronic techniques (for instance as used by son-in-law on a Class 170 coming down the hill from Stoke Summit on a service to Norwich when 100 mile/h was attained according to his smart phone). These included stop watches and times at quarter mileposts, or stations; telegraph poles and stations, dynamometer cars and locomotive speedometers). All were capable of errors and Summers questions the records associated with many claims including those associated with the City of Truro and Flying Scotsman: is it not time to break the Mallard record on HS1? Illustrations: broad gauge Iron Duke class 2-2-2-2 Swallow and Great Western double-heading a West of England express through Didcot in 1888; Western diesel hydraulic No. 1044 Western Duchess at Westbury in summer 1970 (L.A. Summers); Castle class Nos. 5029 Nunney Castle and  5051 Earl Bathurst backing onto Devonian Express at Bristol Temple Meads on 3 May 2003 (L.A. Summers: colour); No. 3440 City of Truro at the Didcot Railway Centre in 2004  (L.A. Summers: colour); Drummond T9 4-4-0 No. 30707 at Didcot in late 1950s; diagram of Devonian Bristol Temple Meads to Exeter St. Davids Devonian Express powered by Castle class Nos. 5029 Nunney Castle and  5051 Earl Bathurst; preserved No. 4472 Flying Scotsman at York station on 2 May 1964 (T.J. Edgington); No, 2750 Papyrus probabkly on non-stop up Flying Scotsman leaving Hadley Wood South Tunnel; Saint class No. 2903 without name; No. 7029 Clun Castle with double chimney leaving Westbury on Stephenson Locomotive Society railtour on 23 September 1965 (T.J. Edgington); Castle class No. 5043 Earl of Mount Edgcumbe with double chimney near Heyford on return Moonraker to Solihull on 8 April 2017 (Barbara Summers); diagram of high speed test run from Leamington Spa to Paddington on 15 May 1962 behind No. 7030 Cranbrook Castle. See also letter from John Holmes

Rob Langham. 'Like a Razor' — Easter Sunday train turns into tragedy in 1846. 452-3
Accident at Jarrow on the Brandling Junction Railway. The accident led to the deaths ot three people in a dwelling adjacent to the railway and an investigation by Captain Coddington for the Board of Trade. George Hardy, later Manager of the Londonderry Railway was a winess of the accident. Illustrations: Company seal Brandling Junction Railway; map of Jarrow; diagram of  third class carriage Newcastle & Darlington Junction Railway; cartoon of locomotive invadiing domestic scene.

Readers' Forum . 454

Summer Saturdays to the coast. Claude R. Hart
Articles appearing in Backtrack have the wonderful effect of reviving long-lost memories of past rail travel - the article on 'Summer Holidays to the Coast' being a case in point.
My grandchildren could not believe me when I told them the following tale. Our family lived about a mile way from Welling station in South East London, whence my father commuted daily to London. We regularly took our holidays either in Swanage or on the Isle of Wight. Money being tight after World War I, we stayed on a quite basic caravan site. What is unbelievable these days is that we sent our luggage 'in advance'. My father loaded our cases on to my grandfather's wheelbarrow. He and I trundled down to Welling station and booked our luggage into the station, addressed to the campsite. Our train journeys involved changing at Waterloo East into the main line station. On arrival at our holiday destination, our luggage awaited us in the campsite office. On retuning home we collected our luggage from Welling several days after we had left it at the camp site.

South East by North British. Matt Monger
Re excellent article on regarding the flooding diversions in 1948, but was disappointed by the statement that "Nowadays, it seems likely that no diversions would be sought and managers would turn immediately to the replacement bus". As a Network Rail Route Control Manager in Scotland during the three month closure of the WCML in early 2016 due to damage to Lamington Viaduct, I vouch that huge efforts were made by NR and Train Operators to divert as many trains, both passenger and freight, as possible, despite such handicaps as the obvious diversion not being electrified and severe restrictions on container traffic. Perhaps, in BT Volume 105 in 70 years' time, an article might feature what was achieved!

Bude and North Cornwall lines. Mark Harrison
May I through the Readers' Forum section of your magazine please make a request to your readers for any information regarding train workings on the final day of rail services over the Bude and North Cornwall Lines on Saturday 1 October 1966. I have an on-going project to identify which DMU's worked particular train services on that final Saturday and whilst some information has come to light via several well-known websites and elsewhere, I would be extremely grateful to hear from anyone who might still have notes or other useful information/photos. Any help would be gratefully received. Email: mark.harrison27016&

On a road to nowhere. Laurence Akehurst
Re Geoffrey Skelsey's article on the Serpell Report: the map showing option C3 with its draconian cuts which envisaged no railways west of Exeter or in the major part of both Scotland and Wales does, however, seek to justify the retention of the rural branch line to Uckfield. Once offering a strategic alternative route between London and Brighton, British Rail did consider this as one of the "more probable candidates for closure". The New Scientist of 27 January 1983 points out, on p220, that by coincidence, Serpell's fellow committee member James Butler of Peat, Marwick, Mitchell just happened to live in Uckfield at the time!

Express electric railways. John C. Hughes
There was much of interest in Alistair Nisbet's article on the wild electric schemes around 1900 (June 2021) which certainly merit more attention than they have received hitherto. I am inclined to think that the British proposals all came under the heading of dodgy engineers' schemes and that investors were well advised to have nothing to do with them. The Liverpool terminus of Behr's scheme would have been on School Lane, not far from Central station. Unfortunately, it would have involved the demolition of the old Bluecoat School — Liverpool's last bit of Queen Anne architecture and now safely listed.

The LNER Phoenix - No.2000. John Macnab
The above locomotive as given mention in the July 2021 issue had me consult lan AIIan ABCs of LNER (and latter ER) locomotives.
I have the renumbering edition of engines in service in 1947 on completion of such having finally taken place, being first proposed in 1942/3.
The locomotive concerned has a line or two within the preface pages as follows "D3 4-4-0 4075, which was painted green and specially finished for working officers' specials, exchanged numbers with electric loco 1 for a short time in October, 1944, but it was soon altered to 2000, the first number in the group allotted to four coupled tender locos."
Going through this same ABC reveals No. 1 as an electric Bo-Bo shunter (there was also a No.2) "at Newcastle" that now bore the number 6480. Subsequent ABCs in the by now BR era from 1948 to 1951 show it further duly renumbered 62000 with a dwindling number of fellow D3s. It has a notation against it "Rebuilt with side window cab for working officers' saloons". It has a final lone entry for 1951 prior to its withdrawal in that year.

Going round the 'Halls'. Neil Knowlden
Just a note to correct your wagon identification on p365. While the first six wagons carry hoods they're far to clean to be in china clay traffic! — moreover they have conspicuous covers on the sole bars so they're clearly 'Shock Hoods" and are quite likely conveying tinplate from South Wales.
• Not unlike the wagon in the upper photograph but with the body able to slide on the underframe — the controlling springs being behind the covers.

Book Reviews 454

F.W. Webb's three-cylinder compounds. Peter Davis. London & North Western Railway Society, 2020. 268pp. hardback, Reviewed by Phil Atkins. *****
At last, a definitive account of the Webb three-cylinder compounds! These were distinguished by two small high pressure outside cylinders, and an exceptionally large diameter low pressure middle cylinder. This unique system was primarily confined to 80 2-2-2-0 and twenty 2-2-2-2 express passenger engines, together with 111 0-8-0 heavy goods engines, that were built by Crewe Works for the London & North Western Railway between 1882 and 1900. All of these had either been scrapped, or in the case of the goods engines, converted to simple expansion, by 1913.
It has been traditional to dismiss Webb's three-cylinder passenger engines in particular as aberrations, but there was perhaps some method in Webb's apparent madness. He had to work within weight limits that were more stringent on the self-styled 'Premier Line' than those which then obtained on several of its contemporaries. The LNWR was also a particularly thrifty company and compounding had therefore been adopted in the interests of fuel economy. Meanwhile, the high failure rate of coupling rods on current four-coupled express passenger locomotives, which in the early 1880s were still predominantly 2-4-0s, explains their omission here. The 2-2-2-0s were capable of some good s work. For instance in their heyday, those stationed at Crewe worked to a cyclic diagram which took them between the extremes of Euston and Carlisle, thereby covering almost 600 miles within only 48 hours. History does not seem to record how they fared under the adverse weather conditions frequently experienced on Shap, and they were apparently regarded with total antipathy at Carlisle shed, where none was ever actually stationed, but merely serviced in transit.
Following on from the three distinct classes of 2-2-2-0 were two classes of 2-2-2-2 built during the 1890s, on which the official boiler pressure of 1751b was apparently somewhat covertly increased to 2001b, but in which the rather small fireboxes were not correspondingly enlarged. These boilers were also unusually long and contained two banks of fire tubes, of different lengths in tandem, which were separated by an intermediate so-called combustion chamber. One wonders just how such boilers were constructed and how easily their tubes could have been cleaned and replaced. Nevertheless, they apparently steamed surprisingly well. The Joy valve gear on the 2-2-2-0s was replaced by link motion on the 2-2-2-2s for their high pressure cylinders, while a simple so-called 'slip eccentric' now served the low pressure cylinder. When new in 1893 the second 2-2-2-2, Queen Empress, was shipped for display at the Columbian World's Fair in the USA, where after reassembly in New York it travelled under its own steam to Chicago, where it gained a gold medal. Interestingly, 2-2-2-0s were being fitted with new high pressure cylinders with piston valves and were also receiving new boilers in 1903 when Webb was obliged to retire, only for all of them to be rapidly withdrawn from service under his successor before 1908. The last survivor of the more recently built 2-2-2-2s, which was solitary for its last eighteen months, went for scrap in 1912.
Having built a pioneer 0-8-0 with inside cylinders in late 1892, Webb went on to produce a prototype three-cylinder compound version the following year, which was road tested literally alongside it between Crewe and Stafford. The compound returned a significant fuel economy of 20 per cent and unsurprisingly therefore 110 production engines followed up to 1900. Later batches (like the later 2-2-2-2s) were provided with early piston valves on their high pressure cylinders. All were later rebuilt as two-cylinder simples (with inside cylinders) between 1905 and 1912. Remarkably, the prototype, although much rebuilt, remained in service, 'on paper' at least, until 1961.
Subsequent chapters are devoted to Webb's four experimental three-cylinder compound tank engines (4-2-2-0T, 2-2-2-2T (x2), and 2-2-4-0T), all of which would later be scrapped by Webb himself, and to the diminutive triple expansion 2-2-2 rebuild which was appropriately named Triplex. A further chapter describes the three Webb 2-2-2-0 replicas that were built in Manchester by Sharp, Stewart & Co. and Beyer, Peacock & Co. between 1884 and 1889 for evaluation purposes in Austria Hungary, France and even the USA (by the Pennsylvania Railroad). In addition there were also a few locomotives of entirely new design, but which nevertheless operated on the same principles, which were built by Dubs & Co. in Glasgow and Robert Stephenson &Co. in Newcastle, for service in India and South America respectively.
This book is profusely illustrated with numerous diagrams and drawings. The Crewe Works official portraits apart, Webb's 2-2-2-0s and 2-2-2-2s were also remarkably extensively photographed at work by several contemporary photographers, whose excellent work is likewise reproduced here. The last survivors of both basic types were stationed at Shrewsbury (at the shed master's request!), where they also received much attention from a local schoolmaster, P.W. Pilcher, who late in life would also photograph the first Stanier 4-6-2s at work on the LMS. One can only applaud the diligence of the author for his compilation of this magnificent book (over a period of no less than 40 years!) His profound understanding and interpretation of the design and operation of the Webb three-cylinder compounds, together with his associated knowledge of and acute attention to detail, has resulted in an objective and well balanced narrative. This is laced with numerous contemporary accounts and comments, good and bad, together with performance logs. A sequel covering Webb's later LNWR four-cylinder compound 4-4-0s, 4-6-0s and 0-8-0s is also planned.
A definitive account which is thoroughly recommended.

British Railways 'Britannia' 4-6-2
No.70041 Sir John Moore waits to
leave Liverpool Street with the 9.30am
to Norwich on 26th October 1959.
(R. C. Riley)  
See photo-feature page 424.
September (Number 364)

Riding with the 'Glens'. 460-1
Colour photo-feature: NBR Class K, LNER D34: No. 62467 Glenfinnan on two coach express at St. Monance in May 1959 (G.H. Hunt); No. 62478 Glen Quoich passing Haymarket coaling plant in 1957 (J. Robertson); very clean No, 62471 Glen Falloch at Galashiels on train formed of Mk I corridor stock on 4 April 1959; No. 62489 Glen Dessary on pick up goods at Cambus o'May in Septembber 1959 (D.M.C. Hepburne-Scott); No. 62471 Glen Falloch, No. 62496 Glen Loy and K1 2-6-0 No. 62011 outside Fort William engine shed in May 1959 during filming of BBC Railway Roundabout. Leonard Rogers augments caption information for two images.

Mike Fenton. A Great Western tenancy. Part One 462-8
Camping coaches were introduced in 1933 by the LNER and camp coaches emerged on the GWR in 1934. The Author sought to record the experiences of the early railway campers by placing advertisements in appropriate local newspapers and this led to several successful interviews. Paul Karau of the Wild Swan pubishing firm had contacted the Author about preparing a book on camp ccaches as he had been engaged on a history of the Malmesbury branch. A large amount of information came frfom Bruce Crofts, a Bath historian who had stayed on the Abbotsbury coach who had cycled from Harrow to Abbotsbury to be with his family, but the mother insisted that he and the bicycle returned by train. He had several trips on the branch locomotive and used the railway track as a path when the train was in Weymouth.. Illustrations: GWR Camp Coach booklet cover (colour); GWR promotional photograph taken at Gara Bridge on Kingsbridge branch outside No. 9953 in 1937 (cigarette card version published British Railways in 1950s); The Lawn Paddington in 1934 Holiday Haunts with camp coaches being promoted; Eyles family from Ealing at camp coach at Loddiswell; Dyffryn-on-Sea with clerestory coach No. 9984 with familly possibly from Liverpool in residence;  Plymouth Dockyard electricians in residence at Princetown camp coach in 1934 (Percy Sandell); morning ablutions at Talsarnau outside No. 9974 (Marjorie Phipps); Dinas Mawddwy with camp coach, scenery and grass covered rails;  Abbotsbury terminus with Crofts family and 517 class No. 528 and auto coach and porter-in-charge Sydney Price; No. 9987 at Lustleigh; 1936 list of locations listed in Holiday Haunts. Part 2 see page 564.   

Miles Macnair. Frustrations of fuel efficiency: feed-water heaters. Part Two. The work of F.H. Trevithick. 469-71.
Frederick Henry Trevithick was the son of Francis Trevithick (Locomotive Superintendent of the Northern Division of the London & North Western Railway until 1857) and grandson of the 'giant of steam' Richard Trevithick, and he was the first locomotive engineer to carry out methodical experiments and trials to test different designs of feed-water heater. He had been appointed as chief mechanical engineer of the Egyptian State Railways in 1883, his first few years being devoted to rationalising and modernising the chaotic condition of the locomotive stock. Having achieved this objective, he turned his attention to incorporating improvements of his own invention in areas of feed-water heating and superheating. The level nature of the track and the invariable weather conditions in Egypt meant that each modification could then be tested directly against unmodified locomotives of the same class. Ernest Ahrons, best known for his classic book on The British Steam Locomotive 1825-1925 and his six volumes on Locomotive & Train Working at the end of the 19th Century, had worked with Trevithick in Egypt for six years in the 1890s. He wrote a series of articles for the Locomotive Magazine between June 1913 and January 1914 which went into great detail about these historically important experiments, and what follows is extracted very largely from this source.
Trevithick's first concept for a feed-water heater consisted of a large, horizontal extension from the funnel, terminating over the back of the footplate. The exhaust steam passed through a 9in pipe and the smokebox gases through a tubular heater inside the long horizontal barrel. at can be thought of as a lengthy extension of Bouch's 'coffee can' described in Part One of these articles.) This unusual device certainly worked, raising the average feed-water temperature to 270°F. Fitted to an old 0-6-0 that had originally been built in 1865, "it proved conclusively that there was a great gain in the haulage power of the locomotive". However, there was a damning disadvantage as well, "owing to the serious emission of moisture from the chimney, which drenched the wagons and carriages behind the tender with condensed steam.'
This was rather similar to those employed by M. Petiet of the French Nord railway on several locomotives in the 1860s. In his case, however, the objective was not feed-water heating but to get the draught benefits of a tall chimney while still fitting through tunnels. In later models the drum barrel on the top of the boiler acted as a 'steam dryer', an early form of superheater. Trevithick's later, meticulously recorded experiments were conducted between 1907 and his retirement in 1912: most involved modifications to examples similar to LNWR standard double-framed 4-4-0 passenger locomotives and took place during the course of normal timetabled runs. All used a Weir or Worthington feed- water pump, the exhaust steam from which was passed through a small tubular heater to raise the water temperature by about 25°F. The next stage were based on three basic phases. Phase (A) Moderate heating of the feed-water would be achieved by pumping the feed-water through a pair of tubular heat exchangers using part of the exhaust steam from the cylinders. These cylindrical devices were fitted on the engine platform alongside the smokebox and raised the temperature of the water to about 210°F.
Such a scheme was seldom used by itself, but in combination with Trevithick's main experimental thrust, which was to use a waste gas heater in the smokebox either to further increase the feed-water temperature to between 265°F and 290°F (phase B. High degree feed-water heating.) or to provide 'superheating' to the steam by 65-90°F before it entered the cylinders (phase C. Moderate steam superheater.). A common feature of all Trevithick's locomotive designs was a large smokebox, which provided space for the incorporation of different configurations of the waste gas heater. The first he tried consisted of an annular water-heater containing 671 tubes of ¾-in diameter, a design that left free access to the flue tubes. A petticoat fixed under the chimney ensured that the waste gases entering the smokebox were 'sucked' through the heater by the action of the blastpipe. This Phase B arrangement was fitted to 4-4-0 No.71l. Extensive trials against No. 695 of the same class (without feed-water heating) demonstrated a 23% saving in coal per ton-mile. The heater worked well for a few months but then suffered from corrosion in the bottom tubes. The reason for this was not examined in detail at the time, but this problem, as shown in a subsequent article, would recur with damning results for another version 50 years later.
Next he ried a drum-heater placed inside the top of the smokebox. This was much lighter while providing a greater heating surface and seemed to avoid the corrosion problem. Furthermore, by adjusting the pipework it could be turned from a feed-water heater into a steam superheater. (phase C).
A series of carefully monitored trials was conducted with locomotive No.694, first with the smokebox heater used for high degree feed-water heating (phase B) and then, after modifying, to give moderate superheating (phase C). Twenty runs of 130 miles, with identical loads, were made in each condition and the results are tabulated i(not reproduced heirin)
As far as fuel and water economy was concerned, the results were virtually identical, but it was found that in condition (B) the sulphates in the feed-water "deposited more freely on the tubes of the heater" at the higher temperature, therefore requiring more maintenance. Hence it was decided that scheme (C) was the more practical and twenty out of the 35 4-4-0 locomotives of Class 612 were converted accordingly. (The only other modification found necessary was the addition of a cast iron slab weighing 30cwt on to the footplate to counterbalance the weight of the heater.) Comparative trials in traffic over 18,172 miles in 1909 confirmed that the engines with the superheating gave a fuel saving of 22%. One large 0-6-0 freight locomotive No.464 was similarly rebuilt  and showed a fuel saving of 13%..
By now, though, the Schmidt type of flue-tube superheater was gaining acceptance on many railways around the world. Trevithick, open minded to innovation, acquired one and fitted it on locomotive No.712,  a standard 4-4-0 with Phase A moderate feed-water heater. Initially this was tried on its own for a time, but then added two High Degree drum water-heaters as well. ( experimental Phase D.) These were initially mounted in a horizontal unit across the front of the smokebox, which completely blocked access to the flue-tubes. ( C. Margery patented  a drum feed-water heater - UK 11,216 of 1912 - but it was small and ineffective.') Trevithick then  mounted a drum heater on to the inside of the smokebox door so that when this was swung open there was no such restriction to cleaning, but this meant a break in the steam exhaust pipe when the door had to be opened. "The exhaust steam and blower pipes are each divided into a fixed and a movable portion; the former are connected to the cylinders and the boiler respectively, while the latter form connections to the blast nozzle and the blower. The edges of these separate portions were coned and the act of closing the door brought them together. Metal to metal joints were maintained (steam-tight) by a stirrup and screw." This arrangement was then installed on locomotive No.712 of similar power rating. However, it must be remembered that the very reason for their purchase was to cope with heavier loads on faster schedules, and so these trials were unrepresentative of their purpose and capability. The benefits of combining moderate superheating with moderate feed-water heating were made very clear, though they were equalled by using the Schmidt superheater on its own. When this was combined with high degree feed-water heating the results were outstanding, even when in combination with slide valves on the cylinders. It is little wonder that within a few years superheaters of the Schmidt type, with many variations to get around the patents, would become universal features of nearly all steam locomotives, except for those used on light duties and shunting. Ahrons suggested that the 'new' locomotives should be rebuilt accordingly.
High degree feed-water heating would, however, prove more problematic, as we will see later. Trevithick himself recognised the weakest feature of his own design, namely the suspect 'break' in the steam pipes when the smokebox door had to be opened, and in the year that he retired (1912) he had a model made of a possible solution. Now, instead of the metal-to-metal cone sealing, he suggested that enlarged and widened hinges on the smokebox door itself could include the steam pipes, with ball-and-socket seals at top and eries of independent trials was carried out over a month (date unknown, but probably 1911) between various locomotives of four different classes of 4-4-0 together with No.7l2, first with only a Schmidt superheater and then with the addition of the feed-water heater as described above. Also included in the trials were examples of the new, more powerful engines bought to deal with the considerable increase in traffic demand. The first of these were three De Glehn compound 4-4-2s constructed in 1905 and imported from France; they were very similar to those bought by Churchward for the Great Western Railway and had boiler pressures of 228psi compared with l80psi for all the other trial locomotives. The second group were three inside-cylinder 4-6-0s built by the North British Locomotive Co. Neither of these latter examples had feed-water heaters nor superheaters. The trials were conducted with identical train loads of 336 tons over the 130 miles between Cairo and Alexandria at an average timetable speed of 43mph, the results being summarised in Table 2. Several points stand out from these results. The expensive 'new imports' appear to do poorly, though the compounds proved superior to the simple expansion locomotives ,
1. Egyptian Railways. For a comprehensive coverage of all Egyptian locomotives see Hughes H, Middle East Railways, The Continental Railway Circle 1981.
2. Trevithick also fitted a version of this device to a single-wheeler express engine, No.23, "which took loads greatly in excess of the standard loads of her class".
3. His earliest concept was to mount six of these in a cluster around the outside of the smokebox.
4. Locomotive Magazine, May 1921.
5. Trevithick later sent Ahrons details of a further possible improvement. In this, the drum heater was substituted by a rectangular grid of horizonal heat exchanger plates in series. These, together with the swinging hinges, could now be incorporated within the smokebox. ~
Illustrationns: 0-6-0 No. 209 with exhaust steam from smokebox and diverted over boiler and cab to emerge over tender (from Locomotive Mag., 1913, 19, 126); Petiet duplex locomotive; ESR 4-4-0 No. 691 with two tubular heat exchangers on front platform alongside smokebox (from Locomotive Mag., 1913, 19, 126); Trevithick's compact drum  heater using exhaust heat either to heat feed-water or to provide modest superheat (Locomotive Mag., 1913, 29, 187); phase D of high degree feed water heater with smokebox door open (Locomotive Mag., 1913, 19, 212); 4-4-0 No. 712 running with phase D device and Schmidt superheater (Locomotive Mag., 1913, 19, 212); model of final Trevithick arrangement (Locomotive Mag., 1913, 19, 235)

Stephen G. Abbott. Battling Beeching in the High Peak. Part One. The campaign to retain Buxton's railway service. 472-7
Buxton enjoyed a good, frequent service of diesel multiple  units used by at least 24000 passengers per week when it was proposed for closure (presumably along with Tumbridge Wells, but then Beeching was a London commuter: perhaps he thought that Buxton was a mining village as he must have known about the limestone traffic as an ICI executive). The proposed replacement bus serice was to take nearly twice as long if it ran to time. Illustrations: Birmingham RC&W DMU approaching Dove Holes on 26 March 1965 (colour); Class 37 No. 37 211 leaves Peak Forest with a load of limestone on 3 July 1979 (Gavin Morrison: colour); MR 1823 class 0-4-4T No. 1368 on Buxton connection possibly offf 4P compound No. 1020 down stopping train at Miller's Dalle c1930; map railways serving Buxton; LNWR 4-4-2T at country end of Buxton station; exterior plastered with posters of Midland station in early 1950s (both T.J. Edgington Collection); 8F  on freight from Buxton on LNWR line near Chinley South where it passes over  Midland route through Chapel LNW Tunnel (Alan Tyson); Fowler Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42366 at Buxton LNWR station with 16.29 to Manchester London Road on 18 July 1955 (T.J. Edgington Collection); Rebuilt Scot No. 46162 Queen's Westmiinster Rifleman on up The Palantine 14.25 from Manchester Central to St. Pancras passing Tunstead Quarry; Class 5 4-6-0s Nos. 45110 and 44949. Part 2 see page 574. See also letters from Robin Leleux and James Rogers.

A.J. Mullay. The 'Royal Scots': Britain's greatest main line steam locomotives. 478-85.
Based mainly on the ill-starred and far fom scientific 1948 locomotive exchanges crrafted  by Riddles for his own amusement and with little on their day-today excellent perforance on the main lines of the LMS and London Midland Region in both forms. There is a strange suggestion that they could have been used on the Great Eastern: where were the weight limiting restrictions on what some termed "the Norwich Tramway': the K3 2-6-0s were no fairies, yet reached Norwich. Illustrations: Rebuilt Scot No. 46108 Seaforth Highlander on an Aberdeen to Manchester express near Howgill in August 1962 (A.E.R. Cope :colour); No. 6113 Cameronian with 990 class tender with  coal rails on non-stop Euston to  Glasgow Central ascending Beattock (location from Author's Non-stop); No. 6126 Royal Army Service Corps passing Edge Hill with a Liverpool Lime Street to Euston express (Eric Treacy); unrebuilt No. 46137 The Prince of Wales's Volunteers (South Lancashire) near Shap summit with a northbound express (Eric Treacy); rebuilt Scot No. 46132 Queen's Westmiinster Rifleman arriving King's Cross during 1948 Locomotive Exchanges caption notes C.J. Allen's comments on this specific run in his Supplement to his  Locomotive exchanges;  No. 46166 London Rifle Brigade without smoke deflectorsnear Harthope on Beattock bank with norhbound express (Eric Treacy); No. 46145 The Duke of Wellington's Regt. (West Riding) near Ais Gill on southbound express (caption questions their displacement by A3 class which KPJ found gave better performance than Class 45 which displaced them); No. 46159 The Royal Air Force at Ashton (Northants) with down fitted freight on 24 March 1953 (T.J. Edgington); No. 46145 on up The Thames-Clyde Express leaving Dumfries in late 1950s passing MPD (Eric Treacy);  No. 46160 Queen Victoria's Rifeleman on a Leicester to Wembley Hill Cup Final football special on 5 May 1961 leaving Catesby Tunnel and No. 46141 The North Staffordshire Regiment on cooal empties at Dalson on Maryport & Carlisle line on 11 April 1964 (David Tee). On page 480  there is a slightly inaccurate statement in that might appear that Robinson had built the O1 2-8-0 that participated in Riddles wasteful "locomotive trials"

Peter Butler. Operating the Looe Branch. 486-7.
Brief history which mentions the Liskeard & Looe Railway and its predecessors including the Liskeard & Looe Union Canal over which part of the branch is built and John Spicer who promoted the railway. There is also a description of day-to-day operation including conductor operating the points. Illustrations: HST at Liskeard statiom with conrction into Looe branch on left in June 2013; Looe station in  2006; Type 153 at Coombe Juction and with Moorswater Viaduct above, map

When 'Britannias' ruled the Great Eastern. 488-9
Colour photo-feature: No. 70012 John of Gaunt in pristine condition for the highly prestigeous The Broadsman with through coaches to Cromer and Sheringham on 4 May 1959 (R.C. Riley); travel-stained No. 70034 Thomas Hardy in Liverpool Street servicing area in July 1959 (Dave Cobbe Collection); No. 70006 Robert Burns in Liverpool Street in July 1959 (Dave Cobbe Collection); No. 70000 Britannia leaving Colchesster for Norwich in 1961 (Marcus Eavis) see also letter from Jonathan Juby on page 709 noting that Colchester station was being completely rebuilt; No. 70003 John Bunyan with RCTS tour to mark end of stean on the Great Eastern on 31 March 1962 at Thetford leaving for Liverpool Street (John McCann).

Gavin Morrison. More Great Western shed visits.. 490-3.
Colour (with some exceptioons) photo-feature: No. 6018 King Henry VI with double chimney on arrival at Swindon engine shed with a Stephenson Locomotive Society special from Birmingham to mourn the official withdrawal of this class on 20 April 1963; No. 6936 Breccles Hall on Neath shed on 3 June 1962; 61XX 2-6-2T No. 6132 in unlined green livery on Southall shed on 14 October 1962; No. 4079 Pendennis Castle at Swindon on 26 April 1962; 47XX No. 4705 at Old Oak Common on 21 April 1954 (black & white); Castle class No. 5057 Earl Waldegrave with double chimney on Swindon shed on 28 April 1963; condensing gear fitted 57XX No. 9702 at Old Oak Common (black & white); 42XX No. 5229 on St. Philip's Marsh engine shed on 25 February 1962 (colour, but overall grey except for a few hints of pinkish red); inside Swindon roundhouse with No. 5000 Launceston Castle, No. 5009 Shrewsbury Castle; No. 6023 King Edward II, and 28XX No. 3836 (black & white); No. 1013 County of Dorset on Swindon shed on 26 April 1964.

Akistair F. Nisbet, Runaway platform barrows. 494-7.
Platform brrows were capable of causing major derailments of trains as is exemplified by a few examples. On the evening of 2 September 1898 the18.45 St. Pancras to Manchester express worked by 4-4-0 No. 1743 hit a Post Office barrow at Wellingborough Midland Road station: Driver Meadows of Leiester was killed instantly and his fireman died during an attempt to brescue him. Three passengers were killed and  a fourth died soon after. There werer coroners' inquessts and a Board of Trade Inquiry conducted by Colonel Yorke who concluded that the barrow had run onto the track and attempts by Richardson (a railway employee) to remove it from the path of the express were too late to stop it. A Royal  Artillery Major who had beenn on the express in a letter to The Times proposed that all locomotives should be fitted with cowcatchers as in India and now in Britain except on heritage railways. Illustrations: ex-MR 3F 0-6-0 No. 43808 passing throough Wellingborough Midland Road station with a northbound freight (S. Summerson); stage effect platform barrows with baskets and suitcases and cabin trunks at Kidderminster station on Severn Valley pretend railway; Jubilee class No. 45614 Leeward Islands on northbound stopping service at Wellingborough Midland Road (L.R. Freeman); rebuilt Scot No. 46118 Royal Welch Fusilier on northbound express leaving Wellingborough (P.H. Groom); Wellingborough Midland Road  station looking south c1930; Higham Ferrers branch push & pull at Wellingborough with mailbags being handled by staff with a fag in his mouth; No. 45705 Seahorse at Wembley Central with an up football excursion (Ben Brooksbank); Tutbury Jinny being propelled out of Rolleston-on-Dove.

Clive Carter. BR Motorail trains: formations and finances. Part One. 498-502.
The LNER had started a car carrying service from King's Cross to Scotland for sleeping car passengers in 1934 to serve the grouse shooting season and it is not surprising that a similar sevice began in 1954. Services expanded to include many destinations and  routes including all the Regions and included day services on the Southern Region from Surbiton to beyond Exeter and from Stirling to Inverness. It would seem that traffic conditions in 2021 should lead to a re-examination of the market for such services especially to the West of England. Illustrations: Class 85 No. 85 023 at Greenholme on way to Shap Summit probably with Kensington Olympia to Perth Motorail service on 20 July 1974 (Gavin Morrison: colour); refreshments being given to Car-Sleeper Liimited occupants prior to boarding a four-berth sleeper  at  King's Cross; ex-LNER 66-ft 6-in long 32-berth sleeping car; 37-ft 6-in four-wheel covered carriage truck E1325E was the typical car carrier; Class 5 4-6-0 piloted by ex-caledonian Railway 72 class 4-4-0 leving Inverness with the Highlnnd Car Sleeper c1959 (Peter Tatlow); bogie covered carriage truck converted from LNER or GER coaches (A.A. MacLean). Part 2 see page 531

Stewart Squires. The saga of Bardney Station. 503-5.
Bardney Station opened on 17 Ocrober 1848 with the remainder of the Lincolnshire Loop from Peterborough via Spalding and Boston. KPJ has two road atlases neither of which show more than a road junction, but Wikipedia gives a fuller description as does the author who notes the historical causeway across the fen towards Lincoln and the sugar beet and canning factories. The station had a tower and was built in the style of Osborne House and was Grade II listed, but no longer exists due to lack of effort by the Lincolnshire railway enthusiasts who have very little to enthuse about. The railway has become a cycleway. Illustrations: Illustrated London News of 28 October 1848 depiction of station opening; station on 7 August 1970 with John Morrell canning factory; station on 16 May 1964 with sugar beet factory and RCTS Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire tour hauled by J6 No. 64199; sketch of how station would look att Louth

'JSG' in South Wales again. John Spencer Gilks. 506-7
Black & white photo-feature with photographs taken by the deceased photographer and historian:  56XX 0-6-2T No. 5618 at Nelson & Llancaiach on  09.35 to Dowlais on 18 May 1961; 57XX 0-6-0PT No. 3771 taking water at Colbren Junction wiith a Neath to Brecon train on 20 May 1961; 74XX 0-6-0PT No. 7402 shunting passenger stock over River Tywi at Carmarthen on 18 May 1961; 2251 0-6-0 No. 2236 at Talyllyn Junction wiith  14.05 to Newport on 20 May 1961; Aberbran Halt with Neath to Brecon train on 20 May 1961; 57XX No. 9760 Clarbeston Road bay plstform with local train from Fishguard on 19 May 1961.

Peter Tatlow. Where did the money come from? The railways' main source of revenue during Grouping. 508-10
Tables show breakdown of traffic as expressed in distribution of receipts from passenger and freight traffic for years 1923, 1929, 1933 amd 1937, divided by railway company. Another pair of tables for 1923 and 1937 shows the breakdown of receipts for both passenger and freight traffic and in the case of the latter a further breakdown into merchandise, coal & coke and other minerals. Onnly the Southern Railway had greater receipts from passenger  than freight traffic. Coal was conveyed in huge quantities from a large numberr of small pits to a huge number of destinations and this required much shunting. Illustrations: Stanier Class 5 2-6-0 No. 2963 passing Basford Hall Junction with an express freight (indicated by a Maltese Cross in the working timetable (Don Rowland Collection); chilled pork being loaded into an LNER insulated container on an LNER flat motor lorry trailer; GWR Aberdare 2-6-0 No. 2668 climbing Hatton Bank with down goods consisting of coal empty wagons for Bordesley, Birmingham; shunters at work in goods yard at Preston in LMS period (David Stirling Collection).

English Electric in Northumberland. 511
Colour photo-feature: Deltic No. D9015 Royal Highland Fusilier at the level crossing at Wooden south of Alnmouth (visible behind) on southbound express; English Electric Type 4 on southbound trauin of empty ballast wagons at Aclington; Deltic No. D9020 Nimbus passing Alnmouth station on southbound express to king's Cross in August 1964.

Peter Butler. The St. Pancras area before electrification. 512-13.
Black & white photo-feature with extensive and highly informative captions: view from country end of former magnificent Barlow train shed prior to Eurostar destrucive activity with Type 45 diesel electrics lurking within gloom and some track into former Somer's Town goods depot now British Library visible; not very pretty former St. Pancras power signal box opened in 1957 (Prince Charles carbuncle?); water tower of 1872, designed possibly by Sir George Gilbert Scott, surrounded by gas holders (some of water tower moved to St. Pancras Yacht Basin in 2001; parachute water tank following vegetation removal by photographer which exposed M R Co on base of water tank and Great Northern Railway goods depot buildings in background; Dock Junction  signal box opened by Midland Railway, and replaced in May 1956 but hit by the tender of a light engine No. 45730 Ocean reversing into it on  20 July 1959 but soon repaired.

David Sutcliffe. Back in the slate quarries. 514-16
Black & white photo-feature with extensive, informative captions: Hunslet 0-4-0ST Cloister of 1891 on Dinorwic first level; Andrew Barclay 0-4-0T Cegin bult for the Burnhope Reservoir contract in 1931 at the works of Penrhyn Slate Granules; Hunslet 4-foot gauge Padarn Railway 0-6-0T Dinorwic of 1882 at Llanberis terminus exchange sidings; Hunslet 0-4-0ST Cackler at Gilfach Ddu, Llanberis locomotive workshop; W.G. Bagnall 0-4-0ST Sybil of 1906 on Dinorwic ground level; Hunslet Polbadarn of 1922 at Dinorwic ground level; Hunslet 0-4-0ST Blanche on Penrhyn Railway at Port Penrhyn with coal and empty slate wagons with former LMS 2-6-4T in background. See also letter from Mark Doran

Readers' Forum. 517

Gone to Gloucester. Editor
The photograph of Gloucester Eastgate station in the July 2021 issue p382 was taken by Ben Brooksbank and is dated 14 July 1961 .The print used bore no attribution but I'm pleased to be able to credit it to Ben Brooksbank and am grateful to Paul Booth for drawing this to my attention.

Hellifield. Andrew Wilson 
Re photograph at top of p370: it surely shows a Midland 4-4-0 at the head of a rake of Midland coaches. The number on the tender appears to be 3*4 with the train standing on either the down loop or down cripple loop. Also no mention is made of the LYR's plans to put in a triangle at its junction with the Little North Western line that came to nothing.
The brief mention of the occupations of the residents of Midland Terrace taken from Tom Merrall's 1946 History of Hellifield is worthy of further examination using the 1881 and 1891 census returns. When the 1881 census was taken Midland Terrace was incomplete and Station Villas had not been started. The 1881 census also shows 'railway shacks' at the bottom of Midland Terrace, occupied by the workmen engaged in building the station and housing. As a result the station master Robert Tudor and his wife Eliza were living at No.8 Midland Terrace. In the 1891 census they have moved to No.l Station Villas and next door at No.2 William Melrose, the Locomotive Superintendent from Derby, is in residence. All 40 houses of Midland Terrace are occupied and of great interest is the social mobility of many of the families ranging from Midland Railway strongholds such as Bristol to Abingdon, Cambridge, Westmorland and more local settlements such as Bell Busk, Settle and Ingleton. Two railway labourers come from Scotland and Dublin.
Of even greater interest is the comparison of the populations of 1881 and 1891. During this decade the small village grew into a small railway township. The housing provided by the Midland Railway and Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway is still extant and modernised. The 1891 census also illustrates that as Hellifield grew the railway housing became inadequate and further new houses were erected. Unfortunately the original station house on Haw Lane next to the site of the Little North Western station was demolished around the time that the engine shed was deemed surplus to requirements.

Hellifield. Frank Ball 
The object depicted in the article on Hellfield would be recognised instantly by any permanent way man as a crow which just happens to be leaning up against a sign board. A crow (or 'Jirn Crow' to the Americans) is used to bend rails. Steel rails are remarkably flexible and even on curved track, can usually be persuaded to fit into the chairs with the help of a few platelayers with bars and with the possible assistance of a 141b keying hammer. There are occasions where a short, sharp bend is needed as the entry splay on a check rail. This is where the crow could be used. They are rarely used and the example in your picture has probably been leaning there since it was used on the installation of the check rail in the foreground.

Summer Saturdays to the Coast. Editor
In the colour photograph on p346 of the July issue depicting 'Manor' No.7813 double-heading across St. Pinnock Viaduct it is clearly assisting not a 'Hall' but a 'Grange' - in fact No.6832 Brockton Gronge.

Summer Saturdays to the Coast. Editor
The July issue, pp342-347, contained a survey by Philip Benham. Therein mention was made of the 'Heads of Ayr' on former G&SWR metals in Ayrshire, Scotland. I can provide supplementary information to this Halt, taken from the contemporary press and the LMS Northern Division Minute Book as below:
The Ayr Advertiser, Thursday, 9th January 1947, p1
"Butlin's Will Bring Trade To Ayr
300 Bookings A Day For New Holiday Camp
"The Butlin's Holiday Camp to be opened near Ayr will bring both trade and traffic to the town, and should prove an asset to the holiday facilities of the Ayrshire coast. The fact that Butlin's will not merely make money in the district and spend it elsewhere was emphasised by Mr. William Butlin himself, the founder of the hostels in Britain which bear his name and have introduced a new type of holiday for the masses. Mr. Butlin visited Ayr at the weekend with Mr. G.S. Ogg, an Ayr man, one of his principal executives; Mr. Ernest Cocks, his publicity manager; and Mr. Stanley Carter, his camp controller. They met representatives of the LMS railway company to discuss arrangements for dealing with the thousands of holiday-makers who will come to the Butlin camp near the Heads of Ayr, and Mr. Butlin also had a private talk with Provost Murray.
"We understand that consideration was being given to the laying down of a railway station at the camp. This would allow special trains bringing campers from Midland cities to run direct through Ayr to the camp. Special trains would take away those leaving at the end of their holiday. It was hoped to have the station platform and signal box built in time for the forthcoming season." Moving on now to towards the end of the working life of the LMS, one can locate within the Northern Division Minute Book the following record of decisions made:
   Date                            Item No.
18th February 1947        2180
"Butlin's Limited: Heads of Ayr Holiday Camp — proposed station — NWO 7125.
Reported that Butlin's Limited had decided to open their Heads of Ayr Holiday Camp on the Maidens and Dunure section on 15th May 1947; that the camp would be capable of accommodating 2,500 people this year and that ultimately it was the intention to extend the camp to accommodate 5,000 people. It was, therefore, recommended with the approval of the Executive Committee: - a. A station should be erected consisting of a platform 900 feet long, together with the necessary buildings at Heads of Ayr. b. A loop line 1,050 feet long should be provided to enable trains to be rounded at the station.
c. The station should be staffed by a station master - class 4 - , a clerk - class 5 - , and a signalman - class 5 - augmented by one signalman and four porters on Saturdays, the cost of which for the five months May to September inclusive would be £750 Os Od. d. The name of the station should be 'Heads of Ayr' and the present Heads of Ayr Station, which was disused except for goods trains traffic, should be known as 'Heads of Ayr Goods'.
"The estimated cost of the work, including reconditioning a part of the line and signalling, was £23,500 Os Od, and the Chief Accountant's allocation would be reported to a subsequent meeting of the Committee.
"The land on both sides of the railway where the station would be situated belonged to Butlin's Limited, who were agreeable to the Company using free of cost such land beyond the railway boundary as would be required for the construction of the platform and station buildings. The firm had agreed to construct the roadways leading to the station.
It was the intention to cater for holiday-makers from England, principally from Lancashire and Yorkshire, and if the camp were to be open from May to September inclusive, it was estimated that the passenger train receipts would amount to £75,000 0s 0d per annum if all the holiday-makers travelled by railway, and £56,000 0s 0d if 75-00% only of the holiday-makers travelled by railway. When the camp was extended the receipts should, of course, be considerably greater. There would also be receipts from freight traffic, but it was not meantime possible to estimate their carriage value."
Submitted Plan No. A.8971 Finally, the self-same sub-committee at its ultimate meeting on 9th December 1947, and noted under Item No.2651, recorded that the Chief Accountant had reported that the estimated outlay at the new Heads of Ayr Station would be £23,542 Os Od, some £42 Os Od more than previously stated. The above was one of the final decisions and reports made by the LMS in relation to The Turnberry Road'.
Interested readers will find supplementary information relevant to the entire Maidens and Dunure Light Railway within Rails to Turnberry and Heads of Ayr by David McConnell and Stuart Rankin (Oakwood Press, 2010). Although this book is now almost eleven years old, it is extremely unlikely that it will be either surpassed or updated by future railway historians.

The Kent Coast Railway Company.  Nick Stanbury 
I can add a little to Jeremy Clarke's interesting article (August) on the former LCDR lines in north Kent. The original station buildings at Whitstable still exists and part is in use as a Moroccan restaurant. They are at ground level, beneath the bridge carrying the line over Oxford Street (B2205). There was much disruption of traffic whilst the main line between Faversham and Herne Bay underwent extensive repair following the 1953 flood. The official name of the intermediate signal box which worked the temporary crossovers mentioned was apparently 'Reculvers', although the nearby village is Reculver. The line reopened on 2 March 1953, albeit with initial speed restrictions, but some through services avoided the area by using the Harbledown Loop that connected the LCDR and SER lines in Canterbury and had been primarily used for military traffic in both world wars. That loop was temporarily reopened from 22nd February 21 May for the purpose and later lifted completely. Moreover, the SER Whitstable Harbour branch from Canterbury West (which had been closed on 1 December 1952) was also reopened briefly from 6-28 February to allow coal and general goods to reach Whitstable, itself badly affected by the flooding.
Photographs of the aftermath of the two runaways at Ramsgate Harbour station can be viewed on line and clearly show that the outcome could have been much worse. The tunnel entrance was unsealed in 2014 when the 'Ramsgate Tunnels' attraction was opened. After a short walk uphill from the tunnel entrance, visitors can inspect much of the extensive network of air-raid shelters that branched off the main tunnel. Guided tours are now running again and a visit is recommended. The station site is currently undergoing extensive residential development, with any remaining traces of the station obliterated.

The Kent Coast Railway Company. Peter Clark
The caption at the top of p403 is not quite accurate. Unlike the previous Dl and El Class 4-4-0s which were rebuilds of D and E Classes respectively, Maunsell's L1s were completely new locomotives, introduced in 1926, not rebuilds of the L Class which they improved on. Both classes lasted into the early 1960s (although No.31758 was actually withdrawn before No.31768) and it was rather appropriate that L1 No.31753 hauled the last scheduled pre-electrification steam train to Dover via Chatham, the 20.52 from Victoria on Sunday 14th June 1959. The 20.35pm. Victoria to Ramsgate that day was worked by rebuilt West Country No.3400l Exeter.
A brief renaissance in early 1961 brought a regular steam working back to the Chatham main line with the 09.30 Victoria to Dover Marine boat train and, so far as I am aware, the last known steam working (prior to preserved steam after 1994) was the up Night Ferry behind N Class 2-6-0 No.31412 and West Country No.34100 Appledore on a wintry 1 January 1962, though these are beyond the scope of Jeremy Clarke's most interesting article.
Margate West signal box closed on 24 December 2011 and the lines between Faversham and Minster via Ramsgate came under the East Kent control centre at Gillingham.

Steam railmotors and auto trains in the Wrexham District. Richard Abbey 
Re article by Ian Travers, culminating with part two in June issue; write regarding claim that two Cambrian Railways Sharp Stewart 2-4-0 side tank engines Nos.58 & 59 (formally Gladys and Seaham) in the text and Table 1 were auto fitted by the Cambrian. This was certainly not the case and I have seen no evidence either written or photographic to suggest that they ever were. The Cambrian did in 1907 convert two of its Sharp Stewart Small Passenger 28 Class 2-4-0 tender locomotives (formerly No 4 Rheidol and No.56 Whittington) to 2-4-0 tanks for non auto working (RCTS Pt.l0 K61) both being scrapped by the GWR in July and October 1922. There are photographs of these latter two locomotives on the Cambrian Trailer Car (which itself shows no control gear). The Cambrian drawings of the trailer I have do not show any either although it would appear from records that the GWR fitted through regulator gear in March 1924 long after Nos.58 & 59 were scrapped and thus would have been used with one of the GWR auto fitted 517 Class as per Table 1. I have photographs of both front and rear of the locomotives in converted form with no sign of any auto gear at all. It is my belief that when used on the Ellesmere and Dolgelly branches and in the summer on the Coast line, the trailer was run around as normal at the end of each journey.

Steam railmotors and auto trains in the Wrexham District. Kevin Tattersley
The picture on p318 is of a train approaching Dinting South Junction on a train from Glossop (the junction is behind the photographer). The track in the right foreground is the now removed line to Dinting shed.

Book Reviews. 518

Edward Thompson: his life and locomotives. Tim Hillier-Graves. Pen & Sword. 283 pp. Reviewed by DWM ****
Of all Britain's locomotive engineers, certainly in the twentieth century, Edward Thompson, who took over at Doncaster from Gresley in 1941, ranks, in the minds of some as the most controversial. And having researched his life and work for my articles which appeared in this magazine a couple of years back, I welcomed the invitation to review this book. Tim Hillier-Graves, a professional engineer, brings to the subject a proper intention to be fair to his subject, researching most of the available sources and some that are not yet generally accessible. He describes Thompson's life and career from Marlborough College through apprenticeship and service on the NER to senior management at Doncaster. Thompson's early life was crucial to his development and the author reviews that, examining his ancestry and relationships with his parents and others, paying particular attention to his service, with military transportation in the First World War, crucial, he believes, in his personal development.
During the post-1919 years, Thompson was engaged in workshops refurbishment, first at Darlington, and then later at Stratford, leading the author to suggest that Thompson was more a production engineer than a designer. I am not certain that I agree with this, his work on the rebuilt B12 and in particular his suggestion that the Raven Pacifies should be rebuilt as two cylinder engines, thus pre-empting the British Railways policy, would have drastically improved the class. Fitting a Gresley boiler was not going achieve that, there was not a lot wrong with the Raven boiler, it was the valve and cylinder design that needed improvement. Perhaps that is why Gresley refused to countenance the proposal.
Thus we come to the crucial issue of the relationship between the two men. The evidence is that it was not easy, neither man's manner was always very equable, but the author makes it clear, from a very fair assessment of the evidence, that any suggestion of mutual disapproval or dislike is unproven. Certainly the idea that Thompson set out, as it has been claimed, to undermine Gresley's reputation and to do that by rebuilding his first Pacific, is plain nonsense. Equally the P2 was too expensive for operation in Scotland and transfer to England would not have been advantageous either. There is no evidence to support Thompson as being deliberately anti-Gresley, and the author shows this to be no more than the truth. Had he also referred to the fact that Thompson was contracted by the Railway Executive to appear as its expert witness in a claim for compensation for fire damage, said to have been caused by a locomotive, he would have shown that whatever the biased railwayman or enthusiast thought, top management did not share their views. The book is well produced and prolifically illustrated, with many photographs from Thompson's own camera, not previously seen. As regards the book's general style, I have some quibbles, which detract from this informative work. The author includes a bibliography and links names with quotations. Yet I feel this to be inadequate. If a statement is based on a source, then that source should be referenced. Equally the style is sometimes affected by occasional typos and unnecessary complications, for example, quoting the NER locomotive classification scheme without doubling up with the better-known LNER form. I was also disturbed to see E. S. Cox referred to as 'Ernest' Cox when, among those with whom he was on those kind of terms, he was always 'Stewart'. This suggests poor research which, in general the book does not show, and could have been avoided by sticking to the normal historical method of using family names throughout. While these points are valid, the book is still an important work and I have no hesitation in recommending it to those with an interest in the subject, or in historical accuracy. It serves as a useful foil to the work of certain detractors that still receive far too much attention, even now, when their bias is better known

Southern Railway 0-6-0 tender goods locomotive classes — a survey & overview. David Maidment. Pen & Sword Transport, hardback, 275pp. Reviewed by DWM ****
Another one of these fine Locomotive Portfolios from this publisher and by this author is always a welcome addition to the library shelves. First impressions of the Southern are always of the electric railway and commuter traffic with freight traffic a distant second.
But there were heavy goods to be moved, although the output of the Kent coalfield hardly matched that of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, as well as general traffic, branch line passenger and special traffic such as hop-pickers and the military so the 0-6-0 as 'standard goods' locomotive was an inevitable part of the Southern scene. It is perhaps a telling point that the total number of locomotives studied in this book is less than a single class, the mighty 4F, on the LMS! The book begins with a set of pertinent 'pen-pictures' of the engineers who were responsible for the locomotives. In 'survey and overview' mode the next four sections are devoted to the locomotives of the type of the South Western, the Brighton, the South Eastern and Chatham and the Southern. These sections are profusely illustrated and include information on the design and construction of the locomotives and their operational activities, allocations and, in a precious few cases, preservation. All manner of railway by-ways are explored here ranging from the wanderings of the 'lIfracombe Goods', the sale of locomotives to the Iraq State Railways and the Palestine Military Railway and records of some respectably sprightly runs, one of which credits a Qlwith 0 to 60mph in less than four minutes! Your reviewer was disappointed not to find any reference to the unique 'double dome' arrangement on the Brighton C2Xs and was quite surprised not to see any acknowledge of the use of steam reversers on South Eastern and Chatham and Southern types.
There are some delightful colour pictures to conclude the body of the text and these are followed by a formidable and comprehensive appendix. This includes weight diagrams for most classes but is most useful in that it gives the various numberings and renumbering for all the locomotives as well as their introduction and withdrawal dates. As with the other books in this series this one is well-produced and deals with its subject matter in a stylish and authoritative manner. For all it is a useful addition to our stock of railway literature, for Southern enthusiasts it ought to be a delight! Well recommended.

The story of the Mansfield & Pinxton Railway written and produced by The Mansfield & Pinxton Railway Project Group under the editorship of Denis Hill, hardback, 98pp. Reviewed by DWM *****
Written to celebrate the two hundredth anniversary of England's oldest continuously running commercial railway this delightfully produced, Heritage Lottery funded, publication is a minor masterpiece of regional railway history combining the efforts of four local organisations, the Kirkby & District Archaeological Group, the Old Mansfield Society, the Sutton Heritage Society and the Pinxton and South Normanton Local History Society .. The Lottery funding has meant that the book, its factual merit notwithstanding, has been produced in a bright, expansive style which is immediately attractive to the potential reader.
The combined efforts of the four societies have produced — and no worse for that — a splendid 'line history' of 'their' piece of railway. The scene is set in the Nottinghamshire coalfield and the Mansfield & Pinxton appears first as a horse-drawn feeder to an arm of the Cromford Canal. Eventually steam and the Midland Railway take over and the social and economic effect of the railway on the district is examined in some detail. Further chapters chart the ups and downs of the railway through the Grouping and into the BR era, the end of passenger services coming, almost inevitably, in response to the Beeching Report. The coal traffic, the life blood of the line, is now long gone but passengers have returned as some of the route is now part of the national network's 'Robin Hood' line. A concluding chapter hints at an up-grading of a currently freight-only section for passenger traffic which will link Mansfield with the proposed HS2 station at Toton. This revived bit of railway will rejoice in the name of the 'Maid Marian' line!
As befits a decent 'line history' locomotives and train services do get a mention but the book scores heavily with its inclusion of plenty of detail concerning local personalities and businesses, references to the local geography and built environment and regular contributions from local newspapers, past and present. The book is splendidly illustrated throughout and there are a number of pertinent plans and maps the principal one of which 'showing relationship to later railways' does suggest that the lines in present use aren't exactly on the route of the original Mansfield & Pinxton — but 'ne'er mind mi duck, it'll be raight!'
The book has a comprehensive bibliography and a list of source material. With a nod to 'local history' rather than specifically railways there is a useful glossary of terms and the book sports a veritable treasure-trove of appendices. These range from examples of posters and timetables to correspondence from the likes of josias jessop and the Duke of Portland, a list of industries served by the line, the number of junctions, spurs and sidings (29 in the original seven miles!) thereupon and a report on an archaeological 'dig' on the track bed which involved the Kirkby Society. Your reviewer isn't a supporter of the National Lottery but if the funds accrued are used to support such splendid projects as the work which has produced this book then it might be well worth investing in a ticket every now and again. An absolute delight and highly recommended!
As well as the book the Project has also produced a 40 page, A5 booklet which gives a self-guiding trail along the original route of the M&P and a 41 minute long DVD entitled The Mansfield & Pinxton Railway - The Way to Prosperity'. The DVD costs £5 plus 50p for postage and packing, the booklet is free with copies of the main publication. The contact for obtaining any of the above items is the President of the Kirkby & District Archaeological Group, Mr Denis Hill, at 9, Upton Mount, Mansfield, Notts, NG19 6NL

Lairds in waiting — Highland Railway private stations and waiting rooms and the families who used them. Anne-Mary Paterson, The Highland Railway Society. Soft back, 88 pp. Reviewed by DWM ****
Don't be daunted by the lengthy sub-title, this is a delightful book which ranges much wider than simply stations and private waiting rooms.
Written in an informal and personal but authoritative style the book does indeed examine the stations provided for the giants of Highland nobility, their graces of Sutherland and Atholl at Dunrobin and Blair Atholl respectively for example, as well as the heads of clans such as Fraser, at Beauly, and Mackintosh at Moy. 'Business interests' are not neglected. Alness station once boasted a private waiting room for the Perrins family, locally of the Ardross estate but more widely famed, along with Mr. Lea, for their Worcestershire Sauce, whilst Duncraig, on the Kyle line, served Duncraig Castle, one of the homes of the Matheson family whose business interests and fortune developed in China in the early Victorian period.
Each 'station chapter' - and there are ten of them - provides general background history as well a detailed look at the family in focus before coming on to the influence of the railway in the particular area. The book provides an excellent summary of the effect of the railways on the Highlands of Scotland covering subjects as widely ranging as straightforward social mobility, railway civil engineering, Queen Victoria's travels, the development of the timber, fishing and whisky industries and the jellicoe specials. Indeed, as a short social history of the effect of the Highland Railway on the Highlands this little book could hardly be bettered!
Stylishly produced, appropriately illustrated with pictures ancient and modern and with a very comprehensive bibliography, this splendid little book comes thoroughly recommended.

With Falmouth Docks in view. R.C. Riley. rear cover
R. & W. Hawthorn Leslie 0-4-0ST No. 2 in dock on 21 July 1960.

London & North Eastern Railway Class
L 1 2-6-4T No.67707 is taking empty
stock out of Manchester Piccadilly
c1961. ( BRE2266)

(October  Number 366)

Editorial: To boldly go. 523
Railways have been transforming their sphere of activities for as long as they've been around — a couple of months ago we told of how the pioneer Liverpool & Manchester Railway promoted its new and revolutionary form of passenger transport by offering exploratory excursions to the inquisitive in what the author portrayed as self-promotional 'public relations' exercises. Between the wars the grouped railway companies moved into the world of holidaymaking by installing camping coaches at attractive seaside and inland sites to cater for the growing market for 'getting away from it all' and at the same time deriving additional income from the required minimum number oftrain fares for the party to reach its escape destination, as delightfully portrayed in our last issue and this one.
A growth area over the last decade or more has been that of 'pleasure travel' by rail, largely just for the sake of it, over routes of particular scenic attraction, in coaches of decent accommodation to standards scarcely available to everyday passengers (that's to say in comfortable seats), with windows generously provided so as to enable you to view the world through them and with an epicurean service of food and drink brought to you at your seat.
But as we've found in Backtrack before — there's not much that's completely new ... 'Circular Tours' for tourists were being advertised by pre-grouping railways before the Great War, principally those lines which traversed wild and 'romantic' scenery and notably the Scottish companies within whose territory mountains and lochs abounded.
An article this month shows how the new generation of more adventurous travellers of the Edwardian age was prepared to embark on outings which involved a train journey, perhaps some brisk walking, maybe a sail on a pleasure boat and a train back, all furnished with well-meaning  advice on what should be seen and where to obtain sustaining 'luncheons and teas'. By the time the inter-war years were in full flow it was but a step forward to come up with a plan to gather these intrepid railway travellers  together in a special train of their own and take them off on a week-long package 'rail tour' embracing pleasing landscapes and places to visit of a generally improving nature.
The arrangements for these touring trains — in which the publicity-aware London & North Eastern Railway took the lead, bestowing on them the name The Northern Belle' — were undertaken with some gusto. The formation included not only restaurant and sleeping cars (in which showers were available) but also a hairdressing saloon, no less, with coiffeurs avaliable for both men and women, while two chambermaids were taken to plump up the pillows and turn down the sheets. Although the train was self-contained, advantage was taken of the prestigious railway-owned hotels in Edinburgh and York to lay on dinner dances for passengers, so presumably posh outfits would have had to be packed into the considerable quantities of luggage with which they'd likely have set forth - though dressing formally for dinner was still then the thing to do in the higher echelons of society!
So - nothing new? In the late 1960s and 70s British Railways stepped into the holiday business with weekend breaks to London and gradually elsewhere and full-week Golden Rail holidays to popular resorts, with all-in train travel and hotel accommodation packages. In recent years the railtour' market, once the haunt of enthusiasts prepared to put up with a lot in return for steam haulage, unusual motive power and rare mileage, has pitched itself more at the leisured tourist with money to spend on 'premier' class travel and silver service catering during journeys along Britain's most scenic lines, ideally with a destination of interest in its own right in which a couple of hours can be agreeably passed. Tours of this type are now in the hands of specialist railway travel companies and from personal experience these 'day cruises' and 'circular tours' while not offering the chance to have a quick shower or get a new hairdo during duller parts of the itinerary, certainly provide a classy day out of the sort only the railway can do that well. I have encountered fellow passengers — whether couples or single participants — who have adopted the practice of embarking on such tours on a fairly regular basis as an alternative to taking a more conventional holiday away at a hotel and staying in one place for a period of time. It might be that the 'staycation' being urged in this post-pandemic world tempts even more people to experience the delights of our country from the comfort of a special railway train.

Custom has it that regular publications, be they newspapers or magazines, carry some choice words from the editor wherein he or she pronounces sententiously on a topic of current moment. This traditional column is The Editorial', though my local paper has largely abandoned them except for a when a precious old theme can be dragged out of the cupboard for another pounding. I have some sympathy for those facing the daily quandary of what to say, for I find the once a month editorical often the most difficult part of the magazine to fill. I too must hold up my hand to returning to pet grouses to heap another load of opprobrium upon them; doubtless I'll be unable to refrain from doing so again. Regular readers will be aware that on occasions when the muse has failed to stimulate me an archive photograph has occupied this space, but you'll also be aware that a call goes out from time to time for guest editorials written by readers. And I do so now again. If you'd like to air your thoughts of some aspect of railway history of relevance to Backtrack, expound a philosphical view on its content and direction or unleash a rant on a favourite grievance over the state ofthe railway world oftoday (and who doesn't possess one, at least, of those?), then this could your cue to step forward to deliver sound or fury in between 850 and 1,000 words. Be inspired by Admiral Napier of the Royal Navy at the time of the Crimean War, whose uplifting words pre-battle were quoted in a BT article in 1996 (he had a 'Jubilee' Class locomotive named after him!): "Sharpen your cutlasses and the day is your own".

Time travels on the Somersset and Dorset. Alan Reeve. 524-5
Extended captions by Michael S. Welch: colour photo-feature: BR type 4 2-6-4T No. 80059 leaving Midford with three coach train from Bath to Bournemouth (train formed of ex-GWR, Southern and BR coaches) in July 1965; BR class 5 4-6-0 No. 73092 shunting at Writhington on 31 October 1964; Class 4 2-6-0 No. 76013  on 06.48 Bath to Bournemouth on 26 October 1964; 2251 class 0-6-0 No. 2218 with one coach and one van at West Pennard with 16.00 Highbridge to Evercreech Junction on 28 August 1964.

Jeffrey Wells. At risk on the permenent way 1890-1922. 526-30.
In the main based on newspaper reports, mostly local and near the accident reported, but a few like one on the Britannia tubular bridge reported remotely, in this case the Lichfield Mercury. He also cites Frederick Williams Our Iron Roads and Simon Bradley's The Railways — Nation, Network and People. During the period covered by the article deaths of permanent way workers were common and it is almost ironic that it was a 2019 incident (near Port Talbot when a Swansea to Paddington train ram into a gang of workers wearing ear-defenders) which led to the author delving into old newspaper material now quckly accessible online. The illustrations show locations and not the mangled bodies of the unfortunate deceased. It is noted that orking in tunnels, or at night or in fog greatly increase the risk. Illustrations: permanent way worker patrolling his length with long shafted hammer for knocking keys into place; group of men standing wth narrow gauge trolley at northern portal of Barmoor Clough Tunnel; Permanent way men with prodders to tamp ballast at Clay Cross station in about 1910 see letter from Chris Hilsden on page 709); Laisterdyke East Junction signal box with permanent way men working on points and crossings and their ballast on Sunday 3 July 1921;  Ainsdale station with gang working close to third rail. electric train approaching on other track (note interesting signage to show where third class smoking; first class smoking, etc would be on train); men with large mallet working at Werrington water troughs; small gang possibly working on pooints at north end of New Barnet station c1907; men trundling small truck along track towards level crossing gates at Rufford station (all John Alsop Collection). Final word was lost: see Gremlinia

Clive Carter. BR Motorail trains: formations and finances. Part Two. 531-5
Part 1 see page 498  Routes selected contunued to concentrate on Anglo-Scottish traffic with a fairly brief Kensington to Inverness service which even had a restaurant car to serve breakfast on the northbound service, although London to Cornwall still had attractions in the  days when navigating "Tiverton" and "Exeter" were like battle honours for holidaying motorists. The final financial crunch came in 1995. Illustrations: Class 86 No. 86 231 on northbound Motorail service north of Winwick Junction, Warrington on 3 August 1981 (Gavin Morrison: colour); two-tier car-carrier No. E96286E built by Newton Chambers in 1961; Type 4 No. D243 on up car-carrier approaching New Barnet on 30 May 1967 (J.F. Aylard); Cartic-4 set with air brakes used on Kensington to Perth Motorail service until 1973; Brush Type 4 No. 1854 on Stirling to Newton-le-Willows car-carrier on 16 July 1964; loaded car-flats at  St. Austell (Motorail publicity); car-carrier vehicles at rear of Kensington to Perth service crossing upper Clyde? (Britsh Railways). Andrew Kleissner adds his experiences including that of locomotive being sandwiched between passenger coaches and car carrying vehicles

Alistair F. Nisbet. Cruising by train and circular tours. 536-43.
Cirular tours included Loch Earn and Comrie; Aberfeldy and Killin; Trossachs, Loch Katrine and Loch Lomond; Loch Goil and Oban; Isle of Skye; Loch Katrine and Inverary organised by the Caledonian Railway from Dundee (The first two w eer day excursions, but the others occupied two or three days or even more,  Yhe  Caledonian also offered excursions to several destinatins in The Lake District. The Glasgow & South Western offered excursions to the North of Ireland which must of been in association with the Northern Counties Committee. Train cruises were the rather grand name for evening excursions from Derby to Skegness coined by the LNER. The Great Western mar keted six-day (and thirteen day) Land Crises. where much of the trav el was by motor coach and overnight accomodation was in hotek some of which were owned by the company. They also arranged river excursions and a trip on the Snowden Mountain Railway. C.M. Jenkin Jones, a senior LNER executive organised a Tour of Britain in 1933 which consisted of a day portion and a night portion: the latter prviding accommodation in sleeping cars. This developed into The Northe rn Belle which left King's Cross's longest platform (at that time No. 8). Special provision had to be made for the night soil from the sleepers: the engineers department had to place tubs under the outlets from the toilets and collect them after the train had left. lllustrations: K2 No. 4692 Loch Eil on tuntable at Mallaig on 19 June 1937 (A.N.B. Harris); Oban station in Caledonian Railway days with crriages in  several platforms and wagons packed into sidings (now reduced to Sprinter platform); D34 No. 9496 Glen Moidart and another Glen 4-4-0 climb to Glenfinnan with the LNER Northern Belle in June 1934; Trossachs Pier with steamer Sir Walter Scott; D11/2 No. 62675 Colonel Gardiner at top of Cowlairs Bank with Glasgow Queen Street to Perth via Alloa train (W.A.C. Smith); Northern Belle on Glenfinnan Viaduct in June 1934 with D34 No. 9496 Glen Moidart and another Glen (Colling Turner); W. Alexander & Sons Bluebird Regal 1 AWG 631 outside Ballater station with bus service to Braemar; Gresley sleeping car No. 1152 exhibited in Hunslet Goods Yard in May 1935; Barnard Castle station in BR period; NBR Reid Atlantic No. 9902 Highlannd Chief at  coaling stage; Wall station for Roman Wall; Northern Belle at Craigendoran Pier with D34 No. 9281 Glen Murran leading (Colling Turner); Whitby West Cliff station with A8 4-6-2T No. 69881 and another train; Georgemas Junction (destination for InterCity's Orcadian tour in 1990s. See letters from John Macnab and from Andrew Kleissner on page 645 and from Jim Thompson on page 709.

Geoffrey Skelsey. From the Mersey Railway to Merseyrail: how Liverpool got its modern Metro. 544
The Liverpool Overhead Railway was a very early exponent of electric traction partly to reduce the fire risk to warehhouses and shipping, and to automatic signalling. The Mersey Railway had been a financial disaster with steam traction due to smoke pollution accentuated by its very steep gradients in the tunnel under the Mersey: electrification began in 1899 and transformed the Company's finances. Seeing the benefits of electric traction the astute Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway electrified its service from Liverpool to Southport in 1904. Extensions were made to Aintree and to Ormskirk: this last in 1913. The Wirral Railway was taken over by  the LMS  at the Grouping: and most of it was electrified  in 1938 to work in conjuction with the Mersey Railway. Care was taken that the motormen of the Mersey had route knowledge of the whole system by arranging them to work the  West Kirby Sunday service and  weekday services to New Brighton. Stanier designed lightweight units for the new service and for the Southport line.
A post-war planning report for Liverpool, The Mersey Plan, was prepared under F. Longstreth Thompson (1890-1973), a former president of the Town Planning Institute, with input from T.W. Royle, the Chief Operating Manager of  the LMS. Proposals were based on the relocation of housing and one envisaged the electrification of the line from West Kirby to Hooton and back  to Liverpool via Rock Ferry. Planning restrictions killed this idea. Other destinations proposed were Ellesmere Port, Allerton, Garston, Huyton, St. Helens and Kirkby. The Mersey Railway rolling stock was replaced by a post-war build of the Stanier stock and the Liverpool Overhead rebuilt six of its trains. Ernest Marples, as MP for Wallasey became involved with the social benefits of integrated transport as set out in the Beeching Reshaping Report and ultimately to the Public Transport Authorities.
In 1968 legislation was introduced which authorised the Liverpool Loop which opened in May 1977. The Liverpool Link enabled Liverpool Exchange station to be closed and services to be extended across the City with underground stations at Moorfields and Central giving access to the Loop and extending southwards to Garston. A station on the Loop gives access to Lime Street and main line services even to remotest  East Anglia where the famous Liverpool football teams can practice goal scoring.
Illustrations: Hamilton Square station, Birkenhead with hydraulic tower to power lifts with ventilation tower for first Mersey Road Tunnel beyond (colour); Merseyrail network map; Liverpool Overhead Railway train at Gladstone Dock station; Mersey Railway train showing four-raiil electrification system at Birkenhead Central; Liverpool James Street station in British Railways period wiith destination indicator & fluorescent lighting; Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway electric multiple unit at  Blundellsands & Crosby in 1904; LMS 1939 muultiple unit passing Bank Hall MPD in BR green livery with train from Ormskirk to Exchange in 1960; ex-Mersey Railway multiple unit at Birkenhead Park showing how first-class was indicated by white plates (D.A. Kelso: colour); 507 class multiple unit at Chester General (colour); Wallasey Village station; Southport Chapel Street in September 1979 with ex-LMS multiple units in both blue and blue & grey liveries and replacement unit in train shed and signal box which housed LYR power frame; Seaforth Sands station; rebuilt LOR multiple unit at Seaforth Sands station in September 1956 (E.S. Russell: colour); West Kirby station frontage (colour); Class 507 in Merseyrail livery at Hunts Cross (colour).

The LNER L1 2-6-4 tanks. 552-4
Colour photo-feature: No. 67741 leaving Hadley Wood South Tunnel with two Quad-Art sets for King's Cross in 1951 (Eric Oldham); No. 67792 backing out of King's Cross on 12 September 1959 (Trevor Owen); No. 67715 with Westinghouse pump at Liverpool Street on 24 April 1959 (Trevor Owen); No. 67716 at Palace Gates on 6 October 1960 (Colour-Rail); No. 67754 crossing Sandsend Viaduct on train for Whitby in 1954 (see letter from Len Dowson stating East Row Viaduct); No. 67789 awaits departure from Grantham with 13.36 for Nottingham and Derby Friargate in late 1962 (A.J. Clarke); No. 67756 approaching Macclesfield Central with train from Manchester London Road on 28 July 1959. See also letter from Neil Woodland on page 645 concerning duties on Western Region.

Wight summers. Gavin Morrison. 555-7.
Colour photo-feature: all except one O2 class 0-4-4Ts: W24 Calbourne departing Ryde Pier Head on 2 August 1962 with paddle steamer in background; Ventnor station viewed from St. Boniface Down with W20 Shanklin departing for Ryde (another locomotive in servicing area) in 1965; W32 Bonchurch calling at Sandown on 2 August 1962; Diesel, former petrol "tram" No. 1 on Ryde Pier Tramway with O2 departing on railway; W28 Ashey propelling its train out of Cowes station on 2 August 1962; Ryde St. John's engine shed with Nos. W35 Freshwater, W24 Calbourne and W17 Seaview; W28 Ashey arriving Wroxall with Ventnor train in 1965.

Richard Lee. The Flockton Waggonway. 558-63
Largely based on J. Goodchild. The old Flockton Collieries 1772-1893. British Mining No. 19. 1982. As well as describing the waggonway the article refers to other colliery owners, notably the Stansfields and Briggs, fellow Unitarians, working conditions and strikes in the collieries and railways promoted in the late nineteenth century to exlploit the coal inndustry, notably the Midland Railway's very expensive line which ended in Dewsbury, but had ambitions to go much further. Illustrations: Flockton Manor House; coal staithes at Horbury Bridge (view probably taken from Midland Railway viaduct during its construction); inside waggonway tunnel  ín 2011 (Ian Castledine); map 1778-1893; view of Thornhill Edge & Emroyd Colliery & Niddlestown from above Smithy Brook; viaduct on former tramroad (Ian Castledine); group of workers dismantling boilers at Lne End Colliery c1900; waggonway converted  into public footpath near Emroyd; stone sleeper blocks incorporated into walling in Overton/Middlestown area

Mike Fenton. A Great Western tenancy. Part Two. 564-70.
Part 1 see page 462. For the Coronation  of King George VI on 12 May 1937 the GWR placed ten camp coaches on  the Henley branch including eight at Henley and two at Wargrave and charged a premium rate of £8 for the week. Les and Mabel Clash were regular visitors to the camp coach at Avonwick. Illustrations:  GWR Guide Book 1939 of camp coach at Aberayron with visitors dubbed in a la Stalin or Hitler; Bob Pugh at Penrhyndeudraeth who had woked at Talsarnau; Dean bogie clerestory camp coach No.  9975 at Barmouth Junction in 1938; No. 9998 at Wargrave in August 1937 with Clark and  Redston families aboard & bicycles parked below with hint of bathing in the Thames; No. 9957 at Abererch in August 1938 with Vincent family aboard; GWR publicity photograph taken at Paddigton of interior of camp coach with stylish female models; Blagdon terminus with camp coach behind; Graham Vincent with his father & mother at Fairbourne in 1938; No. 9988 at Tintern c1937 (colour: Neil Parkhouse Collection); No. 9986 at Llanfyllin with Speight family from Sutton Coldfield in residence in spring 1939 (James Speight); No. 9987 at Stogumber in August 1937 (Betty Balldock); map of camp coach locations in 1939; camp coach luggage arriving St. Agnes in September 1938 (Ruth Mullett);  Abererch in September 1937 with Owen family seeing off camp coach visitors; and Les Clash and party leaving camp coach at Avonwick to leave for Bristol. Cites book written by himself and another two by Andrew McRae.

Tyson takes to the hills. Alan Tyson.571-3.
Stanier/Fowler 2-6-4T No. 42424 banking a freight at Scout Green on ascent of Shap on 14 May 1962; 8F 2-8-0 No. 48746 on freight near Dillicar on 15 May 1962; Rebuilt Scot No. 46155 The Lancer at Oxenholme with fireman trimming coal on tender whilst putting off six-wheel Departmental van on 2 September 1961; Stanier/Fowler 2-6-4T returning from Shap Summit at  Scout Green receiving signalman's bicycle for a lift down to Tebay on 24 May 1956; Jubilee 4-6-0 No. 45738 Samson near Dillicar  on northbound freight on 15 May 1962; Class 5 No. 44668 on evening local from Bradford to Carlisle at Blea Moor on 27 May 1961; Class 5 No. 44668 on northbound Birmingham to Carlisle freight at Blea Moor viewed from balcony of signal box; Horwich 2-6-0 No. 42798 on southbound climb to Ais Gill with fitted freight (last three all on 27 May 1961)

Stephen G. Abbott. Battling Beeching in the High Peak. Part Two. The battle  to retain Buxton's rail sevice. 574-80
Part 1 see page 472. Mainly an account of the Transport Users' Consultative Committee's hearings in Buxton on 27 and  28 May 1964 which were very well attended and one in Manchester on 21 July 1964. The local Conservative MP David Walder pressed Marples, the Minister of Transport to reject the closure proposal but the servive to London via Matlock and Derby was lost and would stll be very useful today. Electrification extends to Hazel Grove, but no further not even to Sheffield: a disgrace in face of the impending climate disaster: on steeply graded lines electricity could be being generated especially from the limestone traffic. See  also letter from Frank Ball on how the Ministry of Roads massaged statistics to show how wasteful train services were. Illustrations: Miller's Dale station on 4 March 1967 with Sulzer Type 2 No. D5205 on  13.28 Derby to Manchester Central stopping service and Buxton connection formed of Birmingham RC&W DMU (author: colour); Buxton LNWR  terminus exterior in 1945; Birmingham RC&W DMU at Buxton foiming 16.00 to Miller's Dale on 4 March 1967 (author: colour); Stanier Class 4 2-6-4T No. 42462 arriving at Buxton on 10.20 from Manchester London Road on 26 April 1953 (Eric Bruton); Sprinter Class 150 DMUs at Buxton on 20 June 1959 (N. Burkin: colour); Class 5 Nos. 45110 and 44949 between Buxton and Miller's Dale on end of steam excursion on 20 April 1969 (Gavin Morrison: colour); 8F No. 48717 with Fowler tender on ICI limestone hoppers from Tunstead to Northwich near Dove Holes Tunnel on 10 February 1962 (Alan Tyson); EWS Type 60 No. 60 015 Bow Fell? emerging from Dove Holes Tunnel on 8 September 2006 with empty limestone wagons (Gavin Morrison: colour); Class 150 emerging from Eaves Tunnel on 16 April 1992 (Gavin Morrison). See also letter from Frank Ball on last phtograph which includes route of Peak Forest Tramway to Bugsworth and other letters from Robin Leleux and James Rogers.

Readers' Forum 581

Summer Saturdays to the Coast. Andrew Worthington 
Re Philip Benham's two-part article', in particular the second part referring to the events in the South West on Saturday 27 July 1957. He  also had been researching that day with the help of the referred-to Summer Saturdays in the West by David St. John Thomas and Simon Rocksborough-Smith. The beginnings of this book, according to DStj's introduction, originated in the late Peter Gray's approach to David & Charles to see if they would be interested in a work illustrated by him and written by SRS of the working of the Western Region's main line on 27 July 1957. SRS's detailed record is unique in the annals of railway authorship.
Worthington discovered eleven wonderful images and captions produced by Ben Brooksbank, taken on that day, on Rattery and Dainton banks. I believe it important that these images are united with the detailed record of the day and the links are submitted herewith. By way of further interest, I would make the following observations.
SX 7360 photographed time estimate 10.55 shows 4960 Pyle Hall, recorded as four minutes early through Exeter St. Davids with the 8.05 Newquay to Newcastle and so may have escaped the worst of the West Country delays.
SX 7560 photographed time estimate 11.05, similarly 5093 Upton Castle was recorded only seven minutes late through Exeter with the 7.30 Penzance to Bristol TM.
SX 7760 photograph time estimate 11.1 would be 6.55 Paddington-Penzance: believes there is a location error here as this is Tigley Box again, looking east just minutes after the 7.30 Penzance-Bristol had passed.
SX 7760 photograph time estimate 12 noon of the 11.15 Plymouth-Paddington. The record shows this as comprising fourteen coaches but six of these would have been added at Brent, just a few minutes before, being the 10.55 though coaches from Kingsbridge. The promising timing of this train at Newton Abbot only ten minutes late was significantly compromised and by Theale it was running 97 minutes late.
A superb study of the Kingsbridge set, by Hugh Ballantyne, dated Saturday August 1960, was featured on page 153 of The Day of the Holiday Express by Richard Woodley and published by Ian Allan. The photograph was taken between Gara Bridge and Avonwick.
SX 7760 photograph time estimate 12.25, the 8.20 Penzance-Paddington. The optimistic comment by Ben that this train will arrive at Paddington at 17.15 — with luck — was too hopeful. Again at Theale it was recorded running 72 minutes late.
SX 7760 photograph time estimate 12.26, the 7.00 Swindon-Penzance. Just minutes after the passing of the 8.20 Penzance UP, the anachronistic 7.00 Swindon down passes 71 minutes late here, deteriorating to 87 minutes late leaving Plymouth, with a lengthy station delay. There was no indication of the weather conditions but judging by the attire of the observer it did not look particularly hot which was probably merciful.
SX 7560 photograph time estimate 12.50 of the 10.00 Newquay-Paddington. Ben records that it was due in to Paddington at 16.55 but its arrival was rarely punctual. This was a correct assumption as it was recorded at Theale 97 minutes late, losing 36 minutes from here to Wellington. Again, I would question the location indicator, as I believe the location is the same as for the earlier 8.20 Penzance to Paddington.
SX 7760 photograph estimate time 13.26, the 9.35 Bristol-Penzance 86 minutes late.
SX 7760 photograph estimate time 13.40, the 9.40 Bristol-Penzance 95 minutes late.
SX 7760 photograph estimate time 14.00, the Manchester-Penzance four hours late This train was three hours late into Exeter St. Davids , losing another hour between Exeter and Newton Abbot.
SX 8566 photograph estimate time 15.30 the 8.25 Paddington-Perranporth/Penzance running 150 minutes late. It may be of interest to note that No.70024 Vulcan is featured in the Newton Abbot image as pilot on the 9.30 Paddington to Newquay over the South Devon banks. No.70024 had in fact arrived at Newton Abbot at 3.18 pm, 147 minutes late with the 6.35 Walsall to Kingswear. This would explain why Newton Abbot had to commandeer locomotives on as "as available" basis for pilot duties.
It would be so interesting to hear if any readers are aware of any more photographs taken of these services on 27 July 1957 or, indeed, of any holiday snaps taken along the sea wall at Dawlish on that day, to enhance such a comprehensive record. Perhaps someone will remember at what time that Newquay-Newcastle finally arrived! Finally, the image of the 'Kings' on Rattery bank was especially poignant for me, as the telegraph pole lying in the grass under the fence provided a perfect platform for a young trainspotter for many years! Alas, this is now but a memory, as the entire landscape to the south of the line, right in the picture, is submerged under housing development.
PS: By way of correction, Peter Gray's photograph of Newton Abbot should record No.7901 Dodington Hall and not 6901.

Summer Saturdays to the Coast. Stephen G. Abbott.
To add to Philip Benham's fine article Skegness continues to see additional trains on Summer Saturdays. Although much reduced from its peak in the 1950s, over the past 25 years holiday travel by rail to the Lincolnshire resort has remained remarkably stable. It may sound patronising, but passengers are mainly working class families from former industrial and mining areas in the East Midlands and Yorkshire, bound for chalet or caravan holidays, notably at Butlin's camp (or 'resort' as it is now promoted!).
With the demise of longer-distance locomotive-hauled specials, following privatisation Central Trains tried to manage on Summer Saturdays with strengthened 'Sprinter' DMU formations on the hourly Nottingham-Skegness service. Overcrowding occurred regularly,and stand-by buses at Grantham carried passengers, changing from Doncaster and beyond, unable to board already packed trains. For the 2008 season a hired-in locomotive-hauled train was used, then from 2009 successor franchisee East Midlands Trains deployed an HST set spare at weekends to work an additional Nottingham (Derby from 2010)-Skegness round trip. This had its first class seating declassified to standard and included a staffed buffet car! When I travelled on this train on 15 August 2015 it left Derby with 155 passengers and arrived in Skegness with 361. On the busiest dates it loaded to over 500 passengers. From 2018 a second HST was used from Nottingham to Skegness and back. Sadly, with the withdrawal of these fine trains, the additional workings in 2021 have been DMU rakes.
Watching holidaymakers stream off the trains at Skegness, accompanied by vast quantities of luggage, takes one back to a world thought to have long gone.

Engines of a certain age. Alan Reeve 
Your current feature (August issue) of my idyllic day on the Wenford Bridge line brought back memories that perhaps I may share with you. I had assumed that travel on this Cornish branch was off limits to passengers, but was told otherwise by my friend and expert on all things Cornish, Sir John Betjeman, who tipped me off as to how to get a ticket by enquiring at Wadebridge station before 9.00 (and how appropriate that the station is now a small museum in Sir John's memory). These memories of the day may amuse your readers.
I was privileged to ride on the footplate of No.30587 for most of the way in both directions; shortly after diverging from the Wadebridge-Bodmin line at Boscarne, the fireman placed a brown paper bag on the firebox door. I looked at it quizzically and he said ''That's lunch. That be cold Cornish pasty; when us gets up to Wenford it'll be hot Cornish pasty". The crossing of the A389 was carried out quickly and efficiently with much flag-waving and minimal road traffic hold-up. We then took water at the sylvan, naturally-fed water column on the climb north. A final recollection is arriving at Wenford Bridge, a hamlet of (then) half a dozen properties, and finding one to be the workshop of a Nigerian potter producing some striking pieces of pottery; but I wasn't surprised — on such a day anything was possible!

Whitby engine shed. Tony Kirby. 581 
The caption to the photograph of Larpool Viaduct, Whitby isn't quite correct: Ruswarp station is some distance further south. The signal with the arm is Ruswarp's 'up' distant; the other signal — which appears not to have an arm — would have been worked from a box hidden by the trees which controlled access to 'Foundry Siding'. The lack of an arm would suggest that by this time the siding and foundry had closed: both are on the OS 25in map surveyed in 1911, but had disappeared by the time of the 1927 revision.
I would be inclined to date the photograph of B1 4-6-0 No. 61275 later than 1958: it looks much more like a train from Malton c1963/64 when (as the caption states) the locomotive was allocated to York, which shed took over the remaining steam-hauled services after Malton closed in April 1963. Also, the track in Platform 3 has obviously been lifted (hence the missing left-hand post on the bracket signal), which I think was at about the same time. The Stockton service was an early casualty (1954), whereas the B1has the later (post-1956) style of BR badge on the tender.
The article brought back memories, as I travelled on the very first regular DMU from Malton to Whitby in April 1959: while my grandfather and I were waiting at Malton for it to come in from York, a couple of Whitby's Fairbairn 2-6-4Ts came through on the up road, en route to pastures new.

Whitby engine shed. Len Dowson. 581-2.
Re the photograph at the bottom of p418, BR Mkl non-corridor stock was not seen on the coast line, nor the Esk Valley Line, but was regularly used on two Malton-Whitby daily return workings in the 1960s until closure of that route in 1965. After Malton shed closed (April 1963) those were regularly worked by York Bls until Class 40s took over in late 1964. The photograph shows the 16.00 from Malton sometime on 5 June 1964.
In LNER/BR days goods traffic on the Whitby-Malton line was worked out and back by a Malton-based locomotive. After Malton shed closed, York Bls were used until the line's closure in March 1965. Goods traffic on the Whitby-Battersby-Teesside route was worked out and back by a Whitby engine until Whitby shed closed (April 1959), thereafter a Thornaby locomotive worked to/from Whitby. Published photographs show Whitby engines worked goods traffic on the coast line north from Whitby and also on the coast line south to/ from Scarborough.
Working Timetables (summer 1938) show three daily goods workings out from and back to Whitby:
04.00 north up the coast to Carlin How (Skinningrove)
04.15 (Mondays Excepted) south down the coast to Gallows Close (Scarborough)
08.l0 via Battersby and Picton to Newport
(in the 1930s, summer traffic on the coastal route was so heavy, the pick-up goods ran before passenger services started!)
Working Timetables (1953) show two daily goods workings out from and back to Whitby
08.45 via Battersby and Picton to Newport
12.30pm (MWFO) south down the coast to Gallows Close
alternating with
13.00 (TThSO) north up the coast to Crag Hall (Skinninngrove)
A third out and back goods working occurred on Wednesdays with
08.20 WO Whitby to Danby and back, picking up livestock for Ruswarp Market
Whitby shed lost all but one of its steam passenger diagrams in May 1958, when the coast line north of Whitby closed, and DMUs took over all passenger services on the Esk Valley Line and south to Scarborough. DMUs had taken over that final Whitby-Malton diagram by April 1959.
The article makes no mention of Whitby based Q6s: Nos.63378 and 63440 both had short stays there.
The pilot duty at Grosmont was mainly to provide a banker for up trains between Grosmont and either Goathland station or Goathland Summit, though it also likely worked infrequent 'shunts' along the old Beckhole branch, abandoned as a through route in 1865 Beckhole remained rail connected from Grosmont until flood damage in 1930 saw the line cut back to Dowson Garth Siding/Esk Valley Cottages, where it lingered until 1952.
I was surprised to see that nine D49s were said to be stored at Whitby in September 1957; all shed space would be taken up by the tank and tender locomotives still in traffic at Whitby at that time. The only photographs I have ever seen of stored locomotive at Whitby were of J22s/23s, which were stored during the quieter winter months and dusted down and used only for the peak summer months
The stone from Beckhole's engine shed was said to have been used to build a garage/out-house for a property built adjacent to the old track bed near where the shed once stood.

The Southern Diesels. Frank Ball. 582
Re devastation caused by their followers, the Class 40s, in his neck of the woods. At the time he was a junior P. Way Engineer in the Liverpool District. Our Euston HQ quickly became aware that these locomotives were causing damage to short diamond crossings. The long, rigid bogies attempted to straighten out sharp curves and shaved metal from the obtuse crossing noses or took the wrong side of the nose and derailed. Assisted by two chainmen and with an armoury of string lines, hallade scales and various shims we were despatched to measure every diamond crossing over which these beasts were likely to run. First action was to bar running over many routes but since the locomotives were already running that was not acceptable to the hierarchy and a special maintenance regime introduced whereby the offending crossing had to be maintained to an unattainable standard with the tools available to us at that time. He seems to remember that we made some attempts to follow the directives from on high but in the end we shrugged our shoulders and accepted that all future derailments would be booked as faulty track.

Timing the train. John Holmes (no relation)
Sherlock Holmes would need a good large pocket watch or stopwatch to get an accurate time for his calculation. To make his calculations more accurate he would have timed the train over ten telegraph posts (600 yards) and the time he would observe would be 22.9 seconds. Speed = distance over time so 600 divided by 22.9 gives 26.2 yards per second. Converting to mph you would multiply by 3,600/1,760 or 2.045. Holmes would have worked this out separately. 26.2 x 2.045 gives a speed in mph of 53.58. Not so difficult. I once met someone who could multiply two seven figure numbers in his head (and tell a joke at the same time!). It took ten minutes to check his answer using calculators which did not have enough digits.

The Kent Coast Railway. J. Clarke. 582 
Re photograph at foot of p400. Dick Riley apparently gave no details of the train but writer believes it was the 16.18 from Dover terminating at Faversham. The engine is on Ramsgate duty No. 490 which provides a fine illustration of the cyclic nature of diagrams worked by Kentish sheds. This one is as follows:
Duty No 490
3P L Class

Loco Yard 06.50


xx Ramsgate 07.06 P
08.41 Gillingham xx ||
xx Loco Yard 09.25 ||
xx Gillingham 09.45 E
09.55 Strood 10.30 P
11.19 Faversham
C. shunting 11.20 to 13.00
Faversham 13.13 P
14.10 Dover Priory xx ||
xx Dover Loco 15.30 ||
xx Dover Priory 16.18 P
17.16 Faversham
C. shunting 17.20 to 18.40
Faversham xx ||
xx Loco Yard 19.45 ||
xx Faversham 20.05
21.05 Ramsgate xx ||
xx Loco Yard

It also shows the complex nature of crew duties. Gillingham men start and are relieved at 09.25 by Dover men who work until 11.50. Faversham men work 1l.50 to 12.05 (surely the shortest time a crew stays on an engine?) Dover men then until 17.50, Faversham men relieve and work to 19.00, Ramsgate men finish the duty. Information taken from Southern Region engine workings, C.J. Gammell, Oxford Publishing Company, 1994.

The Kent Coast Railway. Steve Bell. 582
Re  final paragraph of Jeremy Clarke's article. The latterly undeveloped site of the former Ramsgate Harbour Station has now succumbed the construction of a, perhaps inevitable, luxury flats complex. However, just beyond the construction site, the former Harbour station railway tunnel is now open to the public as the 'Ramsgate Tunnels' attraction. Tours take you along the length of the tunnel from the harbour end up to the point where 2ft gauge railway deviated from the original tunnel. It is also possible to inspect the part of the network of Second World War air raid shelter tunnels that branched from the original railway tunnel. Information can be found at

The Kent Coast Railway. Stephen G. Abbott.
To update Jeremy Clarke's article Faversham and Margate signal boxes are no longer in use. They closed in December 2011 when control of the lines from east of Sittingbourne to Ramsgate and Dover passed to a new East Kent Signalling Centre at Gillingham. The building in which this is housed was built in 1994 to serve as a Control Centre for all of North and East Kent, but it was not fitted out with signalling equipment as a change of plans saw the first routes taken over, in the Dartford Area, controlled remotely from Ashford. The redundant building at Gillingham was put to use by Railtrack as an archive store! A further rethink saw it used from 2011 for its intended purpose; it now controls all the 'Chatham' lines east of Longfield. The main road through Broadstairs is the A255, not the A55

The Kent Coast Railway. David Westcott.
Re Jeremy Clarke's article: it brought back happy memories of a young carefree life, but needs a few corrections: one small point stated in the caption of the photograph of No.31743 and its train topping Broomfield bank. The headcode disc immediately below the chimney bears the loco duty number 48. This duty number relates to a Saturday working by a Stewarts Lane four-coupled engine which left the depot at 06.00 and departed from Cannon Street (not Victoria as stated in the caption) at 06.57 with a passenger train for Ramsgate (arriving at 10.17). The headcode discs show that for the earlier part of the train's journey from Cannon Street the train had used the Loop line to Dartford, where the train called. The next calling point was Gravesend before picking-up the LDCR line at Rochester Bridge junction.
Interestingly, the locomotive wasn't manned by Stewarts Lane men but used three sets of men from two country depots (one set from Gillingham and two from Faversham depots) before finally arriving at its destination, some 77 miles from Cannon Street.
The second photograph of No.31743 in the article shows the engine on shed at Ramsgate depot, on a different Saturday, with the engine wearing the same headcode and with one of the discs bearing the same duty number.
The train ran on weekdays as well but with a Stewarts Lane N Class Mogul locomotive, working duty 64. This had a different manning arrangement with Gillingham men working the first part of the duty followed by Ramsgate men who took the train onto its destination.

The Kent Coast Railway. Jonathan Evans. 582
Despite growing up in nearby Sittingbourne, the line from Faversham out to Ramsgate was quite unfamiliar to me until I came to be professionally involved in Phase 1 of the East Kent Resignalling project. This project was commissioned into operational service over the Christmas 2011 and New Year 2012 holiday period (it can't be nearly ten years ago already, surely?) resulting in the closure of the signal boxes at Faversham, Margate, Ramsgate, Canterbury East and Shepherdswell. The area formerly controlled by these signal boxes is now managed from the East Kent Signalling Centre at Gillingham. Margate signal box (the former West or 'A' box) was subsequently demolished.
The project included the removal of redundant trackwork, including the remains of the up loop at Herne Bay and the down siding at Margate which are mentioned in the article as being in situ (perhaps as a consequence of referring to the 2008 edition of the Railway Track Diagrams book which pre-dates the project works). Other track layout alterations were made at Faversham and Ramsgate to improve operational flexibility; some of the changes at Faversham were commissioned in 2009, ahead of the main commissioning, to support the introduction of domestic services on High Speed 1. This involved some quite challenging modifications to the 1950s vintage relay interlocking, but that is a story for another time!

Book Reviews. 582

The Hythe & Sandgate Branch Line &Tramway. Peter A. Harding. Knaphill: Author, softback, 32pp, Reviewed by DWM ***
Your reviewer holds his hands up in apology to the author as, looking at the back cover of this smartly-presented little volume, he sees it is just one of an ever-growing series of similar publications concerned with railway by-ways amongst the counties of the South Coast of England. Its predecessors have been favourably received too with positive endorsements from authorities as diverse as BackTrack, Railway Modeller and the Woking News and Mail!
The three mile long branch line from the South Eastern Railway's main line at Sandling Junction 'down the hill' to Hythe and Sandgate opened, with due ceremony in October 1874. There were rumours of an extension on to Folkestone but in the end these came to naught and the line moved quietly through Southern and British Railways days before closing in December 1951. The author tackles this part of the story in three parts. His text is punctuated with relevant cuttings and quotations from local and contemporary newspapers and the description of the route is largely pictorial featuring stations (with track plans included), staff and trains. The motive power and rolling stock section is almost worth the purchase price of the book alone for the sublime photograph of before a Cudworth 2-4-0 at Hythe in the 1890s. An integral part of the transport infrastructure of this part of Victorian Kent was the Hythe & Sandgate Tramway, provided as 'both Hythe and Sandgate stations were inconveniently situated'! The Tramway survived the First World War but was in poor condition afterwards and was closed without ceremony in 1921. A similar fate had befallen the Sandgate Hill Lift, at the eastern end of the Tramway, which opened in 1890 and was moribund by 1918. Had these facilities survived another few years they would have seen, in 1927, the opening of the Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch Railway; imagine then the treat for the transport enthusiast — a chance to travel on an archetypal branch line, a horse-drawn tramway, a cliff railway and the 'main line in miniature'! Your reviewer was interested to see the author's closing comment 'For anyone who wants to know more I highly recommend The Hythe and Sandgate Railway by Brian Hart which was published by Wild Swan in 1987'. Is it perhaps intended then that this slim volume should act at a 'primer' to the Hythe &Sandgate and the Tramway? — if this is the case then it succeeds admirably and comes well- recommended.
*** DWM (Copies of the book are available directly from the author - price £4.50 plus 50p post and packing - at 'Mossgiel', Bagshot Road, Knaphill, Surrey, GU212SG)

With commanding views across to Whernside. George Watson. rear cover
Class 5 No. 452 37 on northbound freight on 3 April 1965. Editor notes that not Whernside, but Ingleborough.

Jubilee class No. 45675 Hardy
approaching Derby with a
Leeds to Bristol express on 8
February 1964 (Neville Simms)
See also page 616
(November  Number 367)

Class 56s at work. Rodney Lissenden. 588-9.
No. 56 051 on 07.55 Merry-go-round coal train from Cwmbargoed to Aberthaw power  station passing Margam on 29 August 1997; No. 56 011 in English Welsh & Scottish red livery at head of MGR train being loaded with coal at Hatfield Colliery near Stainforth on 17 November 2009; two class 56 in BR corporate blue livery Nos. 56 052 and 56 039 0n train of empty stone wagons from Purfleet to Merehead pass Slough on 29 August 1985; No. 56 045 British Steel Shelton in Load Haul lívery on Grange  Sidings to Llanwern MGR passing Llangewydd Farm on 30 January 1998; No. 56 043 in Railfreight grey livery with train of Bardon stone leaving Finedon yard on 2 May 1986

David Anderson, Famous Scottish locomotive engineers: J.F. McIntosh of the Caledonian Railway. 590-7
The 600 class are desribed as ungainly and were built to haul 30-ton bogie coal wagons in the Lanarkshire coalfield; 611 class 0-4-0ST
Illustrations: John Farquharson McIntosh (portrait); 4-6-0 No. 903 Cardean with 14.00 2pm Corridor in Glasgow Central; 4-4-0 No. 721 Dunalastair at Carlisle Citadel; Dunalastair IV or 140 class No. 148 on southbound express approaching Beattock Summit with driver oiling outwith the cab in front of smokebox; ssuperheated Dunalastair IV No. 54451 at Dalry Road shed in May 1955; mixed traffic 4-6-0 No. 909 Sir James King on corridor boat train at Gourock station in August 1907; Westinghouse fitted Standard Goods 0-6-0 No. 57345 in Perth engine shed yard on 2 June 1956; 600 class 0-8-0 No. 604; 92 class 0-4-4T No. 55125 on station pilot duties at Stranraer Town station on 3 August 1956 with first class coach in carmine & cream livery without gangway connection; 439 class 0-4-4T No. 55202 between Craigleith and Murrayfield on a Leith North to Princes Street train on 17 May 1855; 812 class 0-6-0 on local passenger train near Craigleith on local passenger train for Princes Street train in October 1955; 439 class 0-4-4T No. 55 164 with brake van in Moffat station on 10 July 1958; 29 class 0-6-0T No. 56253 on freight from Leith North on 14 July 1956; 498 class outside-cylinder 0-6-0T No. 56164 and 762 class 0-6-0T No. 56267 on Grangemouth shed on 17 April 1955; and 611 class 0-4-0ST No. 56031 with four-wheel wooden wagon as tender shunting at Greenock Central with wagon filled with rubbish adjacent to carmine & cream livery passenger vehicle without gangway connection

Malcolm Cowtan. British Rail and beyond in Gwynedd, 598-606,
Involvement of local authority in train timing, especially with school traffic from Harlech secondary school. Probems with multiple units sent to cover services north of Barmouth during bridge closure due to marine worm infestation. Consideration given to retaining Carnarfon-Afonwen line to enable closure of Barmouth Bridge. Involvement of Welsh Government and consideration of reopening some closed lines. Privatisation. Illustrations: Central Trains liveried Class 150 leaves Barmouth Bridge in early 1990s (Author: colour); Bettws-y-Coed in August 1953 (R.E. Vincent); Class 37 No. 37 408 Loch Rannoch? at Bangor with a Holyhead to Biringham train with leading vehicle MkI in chocolate & cream livery (Author: colour); GWR 2-6-2T No. 4560 on 08.15 Machynlleth to Pwllheli and Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 2258 at Afonwen with  train for Bangor on 9 August 1948 (W.A. Camwell); Conwy station viewed from rear of Class 101 diesel multiple unit (Author: colour); Fairburn 2-6-4T No. 42674 climbing 1 in 37 gradient out of Caernarfon with 16.25 Liverpool to Afonwen on 16 July 1959 (Sid Nash); First North Western Class 153 single car at Blaenau Ffestiniog on arrival from Llandudno (Author: colour); Penygroes station in August 1961 with overbridge cast at De Winton foundry (John Edgington); Class 158 in Wales & Borders livery ae Porthmadog station; First North Western Class 175 next to Class 101 in green livery and nicknamed Daisy at Llandudno (both previous Author: colour). Fairburn Class 4 2-6-4T  No. 42599 at Talysarn on freight at terminus of Nantlle line in August 1961 (John Edgington); Caernarvon station forecourt in June 1969; temporary station at Maentwrog near nuclear power station with DMU on special in 1989; HST at Holyhead in main train shed c1990  (both Author: colour). See also letter from Bob Saxby

Bruce Laws. Ipswich: a hub for Suffolk railways. Part 1. 607-14
History of the Eastern Counties Railway and the Eastern Union Railway. the involvement of John  Chavallier Cobbold and Peter Schuyler Bruff. The Ipswich and Bury Railway. The Great Chesterford & Newmarket Railway gave Newmarket a more direct route to London and had intended to take a direct route onward to Norwich, but closed shortly after it opened in favour of the routes  via Ely or Cambridge: llustrations: Ipswich station looking towards Stoke Hill Tunnel prior to electrification; map; Bury St. Edmunds station with clerestory coach and gas tank wagon, probably pre-1939; Hadleigh station; Cambridge station; Norwich Thorpe with B1 No. 61270 on express formed mainly of Gresley stock mostly still in teak finish (for Cromer or Yarmouth?); Manningtree station looking "south" states caption (north more probable as notes line to Ipswich curving to left viewed from rear of a train; GER F3 2-4-2T No. 8080 with five corridor coaches for Lowestoft according to semaphore at Beccles; Halesworth station with former moveable platform section blocking railway; Saxmundham station looking south; J15 No. 65447 leaving Saxmundham for Aldeburgh; No. 65447 at  Aldeburgh with branch passenger train;

David P. Williams, The Pacific tanks of the Brighton Line. 615.
Colourised negative of photograph takren by H,C, Casserley of J2 4-6-2T No. 32326 at Clapham Junction lettered "BRITISH RAILWAYS". The green is disappointingly dark compared with the very fallible memories of malachite as seen in about 1948 and compared with reproductions of colour photographs in Jenkinson's Big four in colour and SR 150. The former also appeared in Backtrack, Volume 6 page 52.

'Jubilee time – again'. 616-8
Colour photo-feature: Stanier 5XP (Britsh Railways 6P) class 4-6-0: No. 65660 Rooke on turntable at Camden shed on 31 March 1962 (locomotive had given outstanding performance during tests conducted in 1937); No. 45654 Hood waiting departure on northbound express from Preston post 1964; No. 45574 Eire at Crewe Works on 30 May 1954 (caption notes changes in name from Irish Free State to Ireland in 1937 and to Eire in1938); Class 5 No, 45449 behind; No. 45608 Gibraltar approaching Halton station with a Morecambe to Leeds slow train in October 1964 (notice lists tolls for crossing bridge over River Lune) (A.E.R. Cope); No. 45620 North Borneo on Nottingham express with Class 5 No. 45447 behind on Leeds express inside St. Pancras Station in 1953 (J. Jarvis); No. 45581 Bihar and Orissa at Nottingham Victoria in 1964; No. 45682 Trafalgar at Gloucester Eastgate on northbound express

Miles Macnair. Frustrations of fuel efficiency: feed water heaters. Part Three. Twentieth century, 619-21.
F.G. Smith on the Highland Railway was faced with tthe unsatisfactory boiler design of the Drummond Big Ben class in having inadequate sized grates and sought to mitigate this with a design of a feed-water heater which led to a 33% coal saving see also Cormack and Stevenson G. & J. Weir of Cathcart, Glasgow designed a heat exchanger heater in 1912 which was fitted to an NBR 4-4-0 Scott class No. 359 Dirk Hatteraick in 1914 see Locomotive Mag., 1921, 27, 157-9. The Weir system was also appied on LNWR Precursor class No. 127 Snake and later to George the Fifth No. 1472 Moorhen see Talbot Illustrated history of LNWR engines. The German Knorr system of 1910 was a significant improvement and was widely adopted in Central Europe. In Britain the exhaust steam injector served much the same function in injecting heated water into the boiler, but this is not pursued very far in this article. Gresley installed a Worthington-Simpson feed-water heater on O1 2-8-0 No. 476 see Locomotive Mag., 1921, 27, 157-9. see Locomotive Mag., 1921, 27, 476.  Illustrations: Highland Railway Big Ben class No. 61 Ben na Caillich fitted with Smith dual feed-water heater on either side of smokebox at Blair Athol in about 1920 see Locomotive Mag, 1921, 27, 179-80; NBR 4-4-0 No. 359 fitted with Weir feed-water heater and pump (diagram: side & front elevations) see Locomotive Mag., 1921, 27, 157-9. Knorr feed-water heater fitted to Prussian Railways 0-8-0 in 1913; Elesco feed-water heater fitted to Canadian National Railways 2-10-2 in 1930; Borsig feed-water heater fitted within much enlarged chimney to Prussian Railways G10 class 0-10-0 No. 54 75; Bredin-Burnell combination feed-water heater fitted to Great Southern Railways 4-6-0 No. 500 in 1927 (diagram: side & front elevations Locomotive Mag., 1928, 34, 384, Worthington feed-water heater and pump fitted to Gresley 2-8-0 No. 476 in 1921; Fowler 2P 4-4-0 No. 653 fitted with Dabeg feed-water heater in 1933; A.C.F.I. feed-water heater fitted to B12 class No. 8507 at Harwich Town (T.J. Edgington Collection)

Richard Clarke. The shadow franchise 1988-1991: the first steps to privatisation — winning hearts and minds. 623-9
Richard Cllarke first appeared in Bactrack as a signaller, that is signalman on the GW and GC Joint line (35, 91); later he appeared at Kensington Olympia (35, 434) and herein as a health & safety expert during privatization where the motivation gradually shifted from sharehold profit as exemplified by the Hatfield disaster to running a railway to save the world from global warming, although the money grabbing antics of an MP from Devon still seem to point to get rich at any cost attitudes endemic in the Con Servative Party. Illustrations: Richard Clarke with Inter-City tie (portrait: colour); cover of Clapham Junction Railway Accident report; HST InterCity 125 in InterCity livery passing Lenton Junction with a Nottingham to St. Pancras service (Ron Middleton: colour); HST power car in Cross-Country livery inside Craigentinny depot on 5 June 2014 (Gavin Morrison: colour: all remainder); Class 37 No. 37 427 in Regional Railways livery with matching MkII coaches near Penmaenmawr with 11.33 Crewe to Holyhead on 28 June 1993; Class 91 No. 91 107 Newark-on-Trent in Great North Eastern Railway period approaches Mallard Bridge south of Doncaster at Black Carr with down express on 14 April 2006; Class 47 No. 47 848 with 14.45 York to Plymouth service all in Inter-City livery joining Swinton & Knottinglry line at  Moorthorpe on 9 July 1993; Virgin Voyager passing Shap Summit with Glasgow to Bristol service on 6 September 2005. See also letter from Bruce Laws in next Volume page 189 

'Aberdares' and 'RODs'.. 630-1
Black & white photo-feature base d on John Edgington Collection: Aberdare outside frame 2-6-0 No. 2669 ón bridge at Stapleton Road, Bristol, with a down freight c1935; No. 2651 passing Birmingham Snow Hill on 5 June 1948; No. 2617 on ordinary passenger train (leading coach is clerestory and carriess a destination board) but location is unknown; ROD 2-8-0 No. 3012, still with Robinson chimney, near Patchway with down freight train in 1930s; No. 3016 climbing towards Patchway with up coal train in 1930s; No. 3016 with Swindon chimney and BR smokebox numberplate passing through Birmingham Snow Hill with a freight on 8 June 1953. See also letter from Martin Sutcliffe on page 126 of next Volume.

Four-coupled on the LNER 632-5
Colour photo-feature: Great North of Scotland Railway D49 class No. 62271 at Craigellachie with carmine & cream two coach train in mid-1950s (J.M. Chamney); NBR D29 Scott class No. 62423 Dugald Dalgetty at Humshaugh on train between Hexhm and Riccarton Junction; North Eastern R ailway R class D20 No. 62378 hauling empty stock into York station in 1955; D20 No.62262 on freight consisting mainly of coal wagons near Grantown-on-Spey on 2 August 1954; Great Central Director Class D11 No. 62660 Butler-Henderson Near Killamarsh on local passenger train on 8 September 1960 (A. Drake); D11/2 No. 62677 Edie Ochiltree passing Inverkeithing with a local passenger train in June 1959; D49 Shire class No. 62701 Derbyshire at Doncaster in August 1959 (G. Warnes); D20 No. 62262 passing Auchindachy with daily pick-up goods from Keith to Dufftown to Craigellachie on 2 August 1954; Scott class No. 62418 The Pirate passing Saughton Junction in 1956 with train for Waverley; (J. Robertson); D3 class No. 62000 in apple green livery and BR lion emblem and former LNER initials crudely redacted probably at Grantham shed (John Clarke) see also colourised image; similar image captured by J.M. Jarvis certainly at Grantham see Jenkinson Big Four in colour

Jeffrey Wells. Aspects of the Manchester & Leeds Railway. Part One. 636-43
Begins with a  long quotation from Edwin Butterworth whose text accompanied Tait's lithographs of the Manchester & Leeds Railway, The Rochdale Canal managed to traverse the Pennines with locks, but  the railway had to resort to a long tunnel. The railway was first proposed in 1825, but had to await the opening of the  Liverpool & Manchester before a Bill was prepared for Parliament. Samual Brooks was a keen promoter. A route was surveyed by George Stephenson and Walker. There was strong opposition from the Rochdale Canal. Illustrations: Rochdale station  and engine house as lithographed by A.F. Tait in 1845; Littleborough station with canal in front and town and hills behind (panorama c1900); Littleborough station down platform; River Roch diverted onto curving metal duct on stone bridge above railway south of southern portal of Summit Tunnel in February 1992 see also letters from Robin Leleux and Colin Tighe; south portal of Summit Tunnel West; LMS passenger train hauled by Fowler 2-6-4T emerging from southern portal of Summit Tunnel; No. 2 ventilation shaft on 29 May 1997

Crossing with the 'Maid of Kent'. 644
Black & white photo-feature:

Readers' Forum. 645

Gremlinia. Editor
As you've pointed out, the mountain in the background on the back cover photograph of the October issue is not Whernside, but another of the Three Peaks', Ingleborough. In the 'Royal Scots' article in the September issue, p480, the LNER 2-8-0 locomotive tested in the Locomotive Exchanges was an O1 Class rebuilt by Thompson in 1946 from a Great Central O4 design of 1911, with new 100A boiler and new cylinders.
In the October issue the article 'At Risk on the Permanent Way' ended inexplicably prematurely on p530. The missing final word is 'condition', Ed.

Riding with the 'Glens' . Leonard Rogers. 645
Re splendid pictures of North British 'Glens' on pp.460/461 of September issue. A couple of additions to the captions:
p461, top picture: While 'Glens' may have formerly worked Edinburgh-Galashiels locals, these had been in the hands of DMUs, both via Peebles and via Stow, for a couple of years by this time. If the letters on the white board on the bufferbeam were legible, they would be seen to say 'Branch Line Society' This is its Scott Country railtour, starting from Gala and running to Selkirk and back first of all. The photograph will, in all likelihood, depict the tour at its start, or else it may show it after return from Selkirk and before setting off for St. Boswells.
p461, bottom picture: By 1959 the 'Glens' had been long gone from ordinary service on the West Highland Line. However, on 8th and 9th May that year, the two locomotives shown were specially turned out to head the 05.45 Glasgow Queen Street-Fort William and the 14.56 return working. This was to allow them to be filmed for the Railway Roundabout TV programme. This picture will date from one of those two days and show the locomotives being serviced between their outward and return workings.

Penrhyn slate quarry. Mark Doran. 645 
Further to David Sutcliffe's fascinating photographs of slate quarry locomotives (Vol.35 No.9), I should point out that Penrhyn Quarry is still very much open today (though the railway to Port Penrhyn closed in 1965). Indeed the port is currently used to ship decorative slate chippings, but these are transferred from the quarry by road. Incidentally, Penrhyn Quarry recently won a major contract to supply crushed slate waste to Hope Cement Works in Derbyshire, loading to rail at Llandudno Junction with up to nine trains a week being planned.

Whitby engine shed . Stuart Rutherford. 645
Perhaps I can add a little more information to the photograph at the bottom of p418 in the article on Whitby Town Locomotive Shed in the August edition. The photograph is captioned in Peter Tuffrey's Yorkshire Steam as being taken in May 1964 and this date is consistent with the absence of a starting signal from Platform 3, the allocation of No. 61275 to York and the formation of the train which was booked for BS-CL-BS at that date, all being BR Standard stock. The absence of a van suggests this might be the 4.00pm from Malton arriving at 5.13pm (unless the photographer was up early to see the 5.20am from Malton arriving at 6.39am .... ) The authors also ask why J27s were employed at Whitby in the early 1950s: the likelihood is that this was for Whitby's goods turn to Eaglescliffe via the Esk Valley and Picton and there are photographs showing J27s on this working.

Motorail trains. Andrew Kleissner. 645  
Writer's wife and himself travelled by Motorail in the summer of possibly 1993. (His family also travelled from Holloway to Perth in 1964 and used the Motorail sleepers from Boulogne on several occasions). They took the daytime Glasgow service northbound but joined the train at Carlisle for the southbound journey. As stated, this was a normal express service with a car-carrying 'tail' — one consequence of this was that southbound services had the passenger carriages in front of the locomotive but the GUVs behind it, a most unusual-looking formation! We enjoyed a good breakfast on the outbound service but lunch on the way home was a bit rushed. Unloading at both Euston and Glasgow Central was efficient, the station pilot swiftly detaching the car-carrying vehicles and shunting them into an adjacent platform where the special unloading wagon was already parked. I believe that it was the cost of this operation after sectorisation which spelled the demise of Motorail, the service having to pay for the locomotive crew's entire shift even though the manoeuvre only lasted a few minutes. Can anyone confirm this?

Strabane. John Langford. 645 
A friend of mine and a regular reader of Backtrack has drawn my attention to an error in the caption to my photograph on p244 of the May issue. My error entirely and I've lived with it for 60 years! The engine is Blanche (Class 5A) not Columbkille (Class 5, with much shorter side tanks). Both had double-headed the 12.25pm goods from Letterkenny and Columbkille (the leading engine) had dropped off at Lifford — whilst the train was examined by customs — and ran forward to Strabane. Blanche followed with the train, disposed of it on the sidings between the CDRJC platform and the GN station ready for Phoenix to sort out. The two wagons in the photograph on the siding with Blanche contained coal (possibly locomotive coal) and were not off the Letterkenny train: Jim Mc Bride's caption may as well be corrected on this point at the same time. Even after 60 years there seem to be so many Donegal devotees that these corrections may be of interest.

Focus on Poulton-Ie-Fylde. Keith Stringer. 645
Re article in June issue there was no mention that Poulton-le-Fylde was the important transfer point for all rail traffic in the Fylde for the Irish mails. In the days of ther LNWR-LYR boat trains from Euston to Fleetwood it was regarded as the premier route to Ulster, All trains bound for Blackpool Talbot Road (North now) carrying mail for Northern Ireland would unload the mail at Poulton-le-Fylde station to be loaded on to Fleetwood-bound trains for the sailings to Belfast.
When the new Poulton-le-Fylde station was opened in 1896, further up the Breck Road, it was provided with an island platform 348 metres long because of the huge volume of mail and parcels bound for Northern Ireland which transfeered on to the trains heading to Fleetwood. My father worked on Poulton-le-Fylde station handling the mail and parcels in the 1920s.

Circular tours and land cruises. Andrew Kleissner. 645  
Wonders if Alistair Nisbet has made a small mistake in his article in the October issue? For I think it's more likely that the Loch Lomond and Trossachs tour went by road from Loch Katrine to Inversnaid rather than Rowardennan which is further south on the eastern shore of Lomond — the road to the latter is extremely circuitous! This day trip — the famous "Tour No.1" — continued for many years in various forms. I myself took it in the summer of 1977, albeit in the reverse direction. Writer started on the 'Blue Train' from Glasgow Queen Street (Low Level) to Balloch Pier, there transferring to the Maid of the Loch paddle steamer. By this time the Maid had ceased to cruise in the upper part of Loch Lomond or serve Ardlui pier, so he found myself 'dumped' at Inversnaid Hotel for a lengthy lunch break — unfortunately it only took me a few minutes to eat my sandwiches! Eventually a coach arrived to take us to Stronachlacher Pier from where we cruised to Trossachs Pier on Loch Katrine — the Sir Waiter Scott (happily still with us and now running on biofuel) was uncomfortably full! As the Callander and Oban line had long since closed, a further coach took us to Stirling from where I caught a train back to Glasgow. It was an excellent day out and I recall my Edmondson card ticket getting smaller and smaller as it progressed!". A good account of life on the Maid — and other steamers — in the 1950s can be found in Duncan Graham's fascinating book Sunset on the Clyde.

Circular tours and land cruises. John Macnab. 645 
The above article and details given of tours and excursions from Dundee in pre-grouping days has reminded me of such outings (on Sundays) made available by the LMS in the 1920s that were enjoyed by my father and still being in his bachelor days availed himself the opportunity to do so. He left a few notes giving details. In May of 1928 he tells of an excursion from Dundee West to Inverness. Snow showers at Druimuachdar were encountered! An LNWR-type dining car was provided. The following year, 1929, two jaunts were enjoyed, the first in July again from Dundee West but this time to Oban. A CR Pullman car this time was provided
He gives no details of the route taken but I have read that such trains ran round at Perth and passed on to the Methven/ Crieff line at Almond Valley. In and on past Comrie and alongside Loch Earn, joining the Callander & Oban line at Balquhidder, necessitating another rounding. I assume the same was applicable on the return working. The next month, August, was from Dundee West to Inverness and Dingwall via Dava. An LMS-type dining car sufficed this time.
To finish off his carefree days and now being employed in Edinburgh he gives details of an excursion in May 1933 this time from Edinburgh Waverley to Fort William and Mallaig. Departure was at 4.15am (!), necessitating rising from his lodgings at 3.00am and walking to Waverley station — too early for tram services! Half an hour was taken at Fort William on the outward journey and twenty minutes only at Mallaig (the train was running late) but a longer break at Fort William of some two and a half hours (as intended) on the return journey had an arrival at Edinburgh at just after 9.30pm-- trams were still running, saving another walk to his digs! The cost? Eleven shillings and sixpence.

LNER 2-6-4 tanks. Neil Woodland. 645
Although the photo feature (October) on these did not claim to be exhaustive, it omitted reference to their work on the Western Region. In the early 1950s there were over 30 based at Neasden and their sphere of influence included High Wycombe and Princes Risborough. They were replaced by ex-LMS and BR examples, the last ones moving away after the LMR took over from the ER in 1958.
However, a small allocation was based at Woodford Halse where their duties included the Woodford to Banbury passenger trains as well as local freight trips around Woodford. A photograph of No.67740 en route to Woodford appears in Stanley Creer's book Cross Country Steam published by Ian Allan. Nos.67771/89 went there in the 1950s, being augmented by Nos.67740/3 in 1959/60 and Nos. 67710/33/81 in 1961/2, with Nos.67710/33/71/81/9 surviving until the final (un-lamented?) cull at the end of 1962. Perhaps the most unusual task befell Nos.67740/71 which worked as far as Honeybourne via Fenny Compton on route· learning trips from Woodford in April and May 1960 in connection with the short-lived upgrading of the ex-SMJ line: in the normal course of events they did not work beyond Byfield.

Book Reviews. 646

Britain's railways in the Second World War. Michael Foley, Pen & Sword Transport, 2020, 235pp, hard back, 104 illustrations. Reviewed by PT (Peter Treloar?)
The title brings to mind a wide-ranging and absorbing subject well covered in the existing literature, so it would be interesting to have confirmed what one already knew and more importantly learn of anything fresh. Following an introduction and brief discussion of military railways and railways before the Second World War, the content of this book is presented year by year from 1939 to 1945 and concludes with reflections, appendices on Second War memorials and commemorative Second War locomotives and vehicles, glossary, bibliography and index.
By the start of the annual chapters, it becomes evident that much of the content consists of a series of facts, gleaned one suspects from contemporary press announcements or entries in the press of the day. These snippets are assembled in random fashion with sometimes the same aspect repeated a page or so later on, presumably from a different source, without any drawing together and assessment of each, let alone reaching a reasoned conclusion. Bearing in mind the manner in which the news was censored for security reasons during the conflict and the need to maintain public morale at the time of war, it is hardly surprising that only a partial view was presented in the press of the time. The consequence of this 'scatter gun approach' is that all too much of the text is revealed in a disorganised fashion from which the reader emerges somewhat confused.
All this is not helped by some obvious errors and conflicts of information offered. For instance, the author appears to be under the illusion that prior to the outbreak of war, the country was importing coal, whereas of course it was still exporting the stuff, albeit not in the vast quantities it had before the previous conflict. He also does not seem to have grasped the full scope of the Common User Agreement for wagons, nor realised that the Great Western Railway (GWR) and Great Western Society (GWS) are two quite separate bodies of different eras! One might have hoped that, even on the briefest reading through of the manuscript, the publisher's editor might have remedied these matters before going to print. Actual production of the book, on the other hand, is good with decent weight paper, paper wrapper, even if the half-tone photographs do not reproduce as well as they might on a matt finish. Sadly, a wasted opportunity!

Piercing the Pennines — heroic railways linking Lancashire and Yorkshire. David joy, Great Northern, hardback, 128 pp. Reviewed by DWM ****
Your reviewer had only encountered pictorial volumes from this publisher before and, production values aside, he hadn't been particularly impressed. This book is a different matter. It retains the smart and stylish production whilst adding a lively and informed text by a renowned author who is no stranger to readers of this august journal. In so doing the book provides a very satisfactory introduction to railway links through the Pennines.
The book is effectively a series of 'articles' which cover the four principal railway routes through the southern Pennines linking Lancashire and Yorkshire. These are the Hope Valley line, the Woodhead route, Standedge and the 'old original', the Summit Tunnel of the Manchester and Leeds line with its connections to George Stephenson.
The author sets all in context with an initial chapter outlining the growth of the wool and cotton industries either side of the Pennines in the eighteenth century and goes into some detail on the canal routes which preceded the railways. An overview of early railway development and construction is given, thus bringing the story up to date at the driving of the first Pennine tunnels. His concluding chapter, 'Failure and Fire' deals with the upgrading, electrification and subsequent closure of the Woodhead route and the catastrophic fire in the Summit Tunnel in December 1984. That the tunnel was restored and reopened is perhaps a testament to the high standards of the Victorian railway engineers?
The book is blessed with an excellent map at the commencement of the text and is pertinently illustrated throughout with pictures historical and contemporary and both monochrome and colour. There is a useful concluding page covering sources and further reading.
The author himself comments that the book "has been written in the form of a continuous narrative for the general reader "so devotees of Backtrack may not find very much here that is strikingly new to them. What they will find is an elegant overview of a particular aspect of railway development in the southern Pennines; the book would form an excellent 'primer' for those claiming to be involved in the transport aspects of the political vanity project that is the 'northern powerhouse'.

A railwayman's view — the photographs of Ronnie Gee. E.M. Johnson and I. Simpson. Manchester:  E.M. Johnson. softback landscape format, 96pp. Reviewed by Michael Blakemore. ****
Photographic albums come in for review at regular intervals but to be honest not all that many merit detailed consideration. This one is an exception. Ronnie Gee (1928- 2016) was a native of Manchester, a career railwayman — a signalman mostly — and a skilled photographer. His recording of the railway scene in south Manchester has produced some exceptionally fine photographs stretching from the steam era into the 25kV electric future. As well as well lnown places such as London Road station, Longsight shed and Stockport, many of the less familiar suburban and outer suburban stations make an appearance, not least to bring us the sight of LMS Pacifies on running-in turns from Crewe via the Styal loop or the former gas turbine locomotive converted as the test electric No. El000. A rare find is the seldom photographed Manchester Mayfield station, an overflow terminus built to relieve pressure on the adjoining London Road. Our caption writer notes how useful it would be today! All manner of the passenger and freight motive power as could be found in the area is well covered but many of the fine photographs are as notable for the splendid LNWR signals that decorate them, not least a fine colour view of a gantry over the four tracks at Longsight station. Other colour includes (amongst the steam) an excellent portrait of an LMS Royal Mail sorting coach with the off-centre side corridor connection, Stockport's epic viaduct and some of the earliest ac electric trains. From mighty Pacifics via an LNER V2 on the Woodhead Route to humble LNWR 0-8-0s or Midland 3F 0-6-0s we have a treasure trove of the locomotives found on this part of the railway system in the 1950s and '60s. The camerawork of Mr. Gee was excellent, the captions are concisely informative and the production quality from Amadeus stands as an example to other 'album' compilations.

LSWR Drummond passenger & mixed traffic locomotive classes: a survey and overview. David Maidment. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Transport, 344 pp. Reviewed by DWM *****
In his Preface the author notes that this volume is his fourteenth contribution to this burgeoning series of 'Locomotive Portfolios' from Pen & Sword Transport. Both he and the publisher are to be congratulated on another stylish and valuable addition to our store of railway knowledge.
Dugald Drummond was one of the giants of Victorian and Edwardian locomotive engineering. His 4-4-0 designs, both in the South West and in Scotland, were rarely less than competent and, in several cases, were sparkling. Serviceable 0-4-4Ts presented no problem to him but, as with a number of his contemporaries, the secret of a puissant 4-6-0 eluded him. These three categories of locomotive — with a dash of the exotic 'double-single' — form the backbone of the book, starting with the M7 tanks, then the 4-4-0s and finally the 4-6-0s.
For each locomotive category the author reviews design and construction, allocations and operations, with a good selection of performance logs included as appropriate, and preservation where it occurred. The M7 section is straighforward and the one dealing with the 4-6-0s leaves the reader almost feeling sympathy for Drummond as anything like outright success with this type of locomotive eluded him. The 4-4-0 section is a matter of horses for courses with locomotive types being 'tweaked' with differing sizes of driving wheels and fireboxes to fulfil specific duties. Although classes such as C8 and Lll feature here, this section is effectively 'the T9 show' with these delightful locomotives, in original and rebuilt form, taking centre stage.
The book is superbly illustrated throughout both in black and white and colour. Your reviewer was particularly taken with adjacent pictures of T9s bedecked to haul special trains for Lord Kitchener and The Kaiser and a picture of a locomotive of the same type well off the beaten track at Leamington Spa — apparently a regular Birmingham-Bournemouth service in the 1920s. The shot of three T9s and two 'Queens' at Southampton in 1956 is a delight. The picture of an Lll forging through Raynes Park gives the environmentalists a very big stick to beat the steam locomotive with and the coloured (colourized?) photograph of a T14 running into Bournemouth is quite something although the prospect of a shunting with a 'double-single' at Clapham junction as recorded in 1925 was perhaps not something to be relished. The colour section brings the locomotive types into the nationalised and preservation era and includes a brief glance at some of the locomotive types in model form.
The book includes all manner of railway 'asides', cross water tubes in fireboxes, the 'rebuilding' of G14s into 'King Arthurs' — well, bogies and tenders at least — and the provision of two types of valve gear for the four cylinders on the F13 and E14 4-6-0s, in spite of which so sluggish was No.35, the single E14, that it was usually referred to as 'The Turkey'! The 'double-singles' appear as reasonably competent, once they were on the move, and a trio of photographs clearly show the Scottish heritage of Drummond's engines on the South Western.
William Adams is afforded a brief chapter to place Drummond's work in context but the author has been overtaken by events in one respect; when the book was published the National Collection still boasted Mr. Adams's elegant T3, No.563 — alas no longer.
As with previous books in this series by this author this one also includes an impressive appendix which features dimensions of each locomotive class, a weight diagram and outline histories for each individual locomotive. There is a useful bibliography and a comprehensive index.
Being a North Midlander locomotives of the railways of the south tend to be a bit of a mystery to your reviewer. This book goes a long way to revealing that mystery. It is an excellent source of reference and comes, as with previous Portfolios by this author, very highly recommended

Steam around London, Michael Welch, Capital Transport, 96 pp. Reviewed by PR ****
Your reviewer has become wary of railway colour albums as they frequently contain rather pedestrian images, accompanied by captions that merely tell the reader what is obvious from looking at the picture. This volume, however, is refreshingly different.
Produced to Capital Transport's traditionally high standards, it contains a wealth of interesting colour photographs covering BR steam traction around London from Southall to Stratford and from Watford Junction to Dunton Green. Some of the photographs are from well-known collections (such as Colour-Rail) and have been seen before but the majority were new to this reviewer. Captions are both detailed and erudite with much background information to 'set the scene'. There are some fascinating events captured in these pages. There is a lovely shot of Class B12/3 4-6-0 No.61572 near Hatfield hauling the famous Wandering 1500 railtour on 5 October 1963 which started from Broad Street and featured a number of railway byways, including the closed Bedford to Northampton line. On the Southern side, a photograph of a very grimy Orient Line at the head of the Bournemouth Belle at Waterloo in June 1966 reminds one that standards quickly began to slip when it was obvious that steam's days were numbered. This book is one to dip into with something of interest on every page and is recommended.

Against the grade from Huddersfield. Gavin Morrison. Rear cover
Jubilee No. 45647 Sturdee at Longwood on climb to Standedge Summit with Leeds to Llandudno Saturday special on 20 August 1966

(December  Number 367)

Around Runcorn and Widnes. Stewart Jolly. 652-3.
Colour photo-feature: Class 310. with wrap round windscreen on 12.50 Birmingham New Street to Liverpool Lime Street heads onto Runcorn Bridge from station (steps up to former pedestrian walkway across Bridge visible) on 4 June 1988; Class 90 No. 90 008 on 08.10 Euston to Liverpool Lime Street calling at Runcorn and Class 47 No. 47 551 arriving on 10.15 Saturdays only Liverpool to Weymouth on 17 July 1993; Class 31 No. 31 118 on TthO Sheffield Broughton Lane to Ditton empty BOC (British Oxygen Company) tank wagons on 31 May 1985; red liveried Type 37 No. 37 704 waits whilst its train for Roche at Dalry is loaded at Weston Point salt works (Salt Union Works on 10 July 1998; Class 47 No. 47 187 on Ford block train from Halewood at Garston to Dagenham on 7 May 1993.

Larry Crossier. Memories of a West Country signalman; as related to Paul Joyce. 654-61.
Larry Crossier was very eager to be a signalman as a child and succeeded in letting the signalman at Bickleigh enter his domain and learn to perform some of the duties. He eventually met the area signal inspector who eased his appointment on the Great Western at a time which coincided with the Second World War and the Plymouth Blitz. He started as a lad at Bickleigh, but gradually worked in most of the boxes in the area. He records how WW2 led to the reopening of The Yealmpton branch, but with trains running to and from the Southern Railway Friary station due to congestion at North Road. Plymouth North Road East box had 185 levers and a concrete roof. Railway staff in the Plymouth area called all reversible trains railcars and did not use the terms push & pull or auto-trains or motor-trains. He was a member of the Signalling Record Society. Illustrations: No. 6400 in fully lined green livery at Plymouth North Road in August 1960 (colour); map (extends from Saltash to Tavistock Junction); 4475 class No. 5541 at Tavistock South in June 1962 (P. Moffat: colour); 14XX and auto trailer at Tavistock South on Plymouth service; St. Germans Viaduct ( Paul Joyce: colour); Bickleigh station (W.R. Gay); 57XX No. 9716 shunting at Billacombe on 17 March 1958 (Hugh Davies); No. 5569 entering Mary Tavy and Blackdown station with a Launceston train on 3 June 1962 (Hugh Davies); Tavistock North (Southern station); No. 5541 at Launceston with 10.15 for Plymouth on 3 April 1061 (G.S. Gilks); Western diesel hydraulic No. D1000 Western Enterprise at Laira on 21 December 1961 (Larry Crossier)

David Mosley. Day return to 1950 — when HCC visited Ravenglass. 662-3.
Henry Casserley took his son with the son's friend for a visit to the 15-inch gauge Ravenglass & Eskdale Railway. At this time steam had been displaced by a steam outline locomotive and the railway was operated by the Keswick Granite Company which owned the Beckfoot Quarry and had a crushing plant at Murthwaite. Photographs: River Irt in the engine shed at Ravenglass; the big points at Murthwaite (between here and the crushing plant the 15-inch track was gauntletted within the standard gauge; tight curve at Hollinghead Bluff (in 1964 this was replaced by Gilbert's Cutting funded by Colin Gilbert; train hauled by 0-4-4T steam outline powered by Muir-Hill diesel; Dalegarth station with caf$eacute; based on building fro, Eskmeals gun range; young Casserley examines Pretemder at Dalegarth; Muir-Hill diesel at Murthwaite crushing plant; Kerr Stuart WN 4421 diesel mechanical standard shunter at Murthwaite (sold to NCB in County Durham in 1955 and extant on Foxfield Railway); Fowler 2-6-4T No, 42392 on Workington to Carnforth all stations train at Ravenglass.

Jim McBride. Irish Pacific tank locomotives. 665-71.
The Londonderry & Lough Swilly Railway was originally a 5-foot 3-inch gauge railway (that is Irish standard gauge), but between 1883 and 1885 it was converted to 3-foot gauge and worked by six 0-6-2Ts covering all trains from Derry to Bumcrana and the branch to Letterkenny. In 1899 an extension from Letterkenny to Cardonagh (the Burtonport extension) was authorised and funding was provided for two (originally three had been sought) locomotives to work it. These were Hudswell Clarke 4-6-2Ts WN 518 and 519 with running numbers 5 and 6, later 15 and 16. The design was based on a 2-6-2T design for a 3-foot 6-inch Australian railway. They were known as Cardonagh or Carn locomotives. They had outside frames; 3-ft 9-in driving wheels; 15-in by 22-in cylinde4rs activated by Stephenson link motion and carried 1.5 tons of coal and 850 gallons of water.

Roger Jermy. The Port Sunlight problem. 672-5.
In 1888 William Hesketh Lever established his soap works at Port Sunlight on the Wirral Peninsular opposite Liverpool and near t he GWR/LNWR Joint Railway between Birkenhead and Chester. This location was near the junction with the Storeton Tramway which served the Storeton Quarry which had supplied sandstone for several notable buildings. Due to an increase in traffic the Joint line was quadrupled between Grange Lane, Birkenhead and Ledsham Junction.

Bruton in Scotland. Eric Bruton. 676-9.
Black & white photo-feature: Forth Bridge viewed from South Queensferry with J38 class 0-6-0 hauling mineral train towards first cantilever on 8 June 1951; A2 class No. 60529 Pearl Diver banking 13.00 arrival from Edinburgh out of Glasgow Queen Street under semaphore signal gantry and bridges; D34 Glen class No. 62490 Glen Fintaig near Grantshouse near top of Cockburnpath bank on pick-up goods with most wagons wooden bodied on 26 June 1954; Class 5 No. 44959 (not 44549 as stated in caption) fitted with tablet catcher and tender lettered BRITISH RAILWAYS on train of petrol tank wagons approaching Perth station on 23 June 1951; Class 5 No. 45488 on 10.10 express formed of LMS stock in carmine &aamp; cream livery to Perth (via Forth Bridge &Glenfarg passing Princes Street Gardens with colour light signals on 8 June 1951; D11/2 Improved Director No, 62687 Lord James of Douglas passing North Queensferry station with 14.3o Ceail to Glasgow Queen Street via Forth Bridge on 8 June 1951; B1 No. 61341 on 18.55 Perth express leaving Waverley on 23 June 1954; two K2/2 class 2-6-0s Nos. 61769 and 61774 Loch Garry on 09.29 Fort William to Glasgow Queen Street train on 23 June 1951.

Original 'Patriots'. 680-3.
Colour photo-feature:No. 45503 Royal Naval Division and Jubilee No. 45606 Falkland Islands at Carlisle with a southbound service; No. 45505 Royal Army Ordnance Corps with flat-sided tender at Wennington with 10.53 to Morecambe slow train from Leeds in March 1962 (P.J. Fitton); No. 45503 Royal Leicestershire Regiment with lined green tender and black locomotive at Ravenglass with return excursion from Leeds on 4 September 1960 (M. Oliver); No. 45519 Lady Godiva with lined green cab and tender and black boiler and train mainly in carmine & cream livery passing Longsight for Belle Vue station & passing under LNWR signal gantry (M. Oliver); No. 45519 Lady Godivadeparting Stockport Edgeley with West of England express with front coaches ex-GWR vehicles in carmine & cream livery with roofboards (N. Harrop); No. 45509 The Derbyshire Yeomanry in unlined black livery with three coach train in carmine & cream livery crossing Marple Viaduct (Eric Oldham); Class 5 assisting No. 45551 with flat-sided tender at Bolton Trinity Street with an express possibly for Glasgow (R.J. Maxwell); No. 45533 Lord Rathmore on uo express parcels train at Wigan North Western in 1960; No. 45517 in black livery leaving York for iverpool Exchange in September 1959 (H.N. James)

Peter Butler. Uffington signal box – a Midland survivor. 684-5, 5 illustrations
Between Peterborough and Stamford. Station had closed but level crossing remains: black & white photographs taken in July 1999 and colour images in late summer 2020.

David P. Williams. The Southern 'King Arthurs'. 686-90
Urie of the LSWR inherited several largely unsuccessful Dugald Drummond designs of four-cylinder 4-6-0 types. He largely replaced these with three two-cylinder types: the H15 with 6-ft 0-in coupled wheels; the S15 with 5-ft 7-in coupled wheels intended for heavy freight and the N15 express locomotive with 6-ft 7-in coupled wheels and a slightly tapered boiler. When Maunsell became Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Southern Railway he greatly improved the N15 design for new construction by modifying the cylinder dimensions and by fitting long lap valve gear and increasing the boiler pressure to 200 psi. The superheater was changed to the Maunsell type. Illustrations (all except one colourised by the Author): No. 747 Elaine running with 5000 gallon bogie tender on westbound express at Salisbury in 1930s; No. 741 with Urie chimney and in LSWR livery at buffer stops in Waterloo (b&w); No. 780 Sir Persant on Salisbury shed; No. 449 Sir Torre nominal rebuild from Drummond four-cylinder type in malachite green livery with green smoke deflectors at Eastleigh in 1947; No. 789 Sir Guy at Waterloo on West of England express in 1934; No. 30737 King Uther with Bulleid Lemairtre chimney on Bournemouth shed; No. 30784 Sir Nerovens with Bulleid spark arresting chimney (nicknamed the “beefeater” on Bournemouth shed.

Cotswold farewell. Gavin Morrison. 691.
Colour photo-feature: 5101 class 2-6-2T No. 4109 working final Cheltenham to Kingham service at Chipping Norton on 13 October 1962 (two photographs)

Steve Leyland. Entwistle: a local outpost. 692-6.
Opened from Blackburn on 3 August 1867 as far as Sough. At the Bolton end the collapse of Tonge Viaduct delayed full opening for nine months, The Bolton to Blackburn line is steeply graded and has a long tunnel near the summit. All was double track and some was four track, but is now mainly single track (compare all those double track routes up into the Tory North Downs) Illustrations: Entwistle station on 4 October 1915 with full goods yard and signal box over running lines; 2-4-2T No. 299 calls at The Oaks with southbound train; notice for Colne to St. Pancras resteraunt car train of 1920; Jubilee class No. 45705 Seahorse leaving Bolton Trinity Street station for Blackburn with 09.20 Manchester Victoria to Glasgow train (D.W. Castle); rebuilt Scot No., 46115 Scots Guardsman passing site of The Oaks station on 18 July 1964 with 09.20 Manchester Victoria to Glasgow train; class 5 No. 45275 calls at Bromley Cross with 17.22 ex-Manchester Victoria (S. Leyland: photograph taken from footplate) ; 9F 2-10-0 approaching Bolton from Carlisle with freight passing Church Wharf (now a dual carriageway road) on 12 May 1967 (Vernon Sidlow); class 5 No. 45275 about to pass under Turton Towers bridge with 17.22 ex-Manchester Victoria (S. Leyland: photograph taken from footplate); 8F No. 48519 on Colne to Red Bank empty parcels during sigle line working on 113 April 1968 (P. Barber)

A Cambrian Manor. Gavin Morrison. 697
Colour photo-feature: No. 7803 Barcote Manor working the Cambrian Coast Express on 30 May 1964: London-bound train approaching Talerdigg Summit; entering Llanbrynmair station and on shed at Aberystwyth. Additional information from letter from Chis Magner on page 125 of next volume.

Jeffrey Wells. Men at work. 698-9.
Black & white photo-feature: Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway: boiler shop at Horwich Works with fireboxes being produced with aid of hydraulic rivet gun; Manchester Victoria station with wrought iron gates leading to platforms; Maghull station with electric multiple unit capable of running along Liverpool Overhead Railway (cites John Marshall The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Volume 2 and Noel Coates Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway miscellany Volume 2) also note marine type windscreen clearer; Horwich station with ten staff; Helmshore station.

Alistair F. Nisbet. “For God's sake be done with railways and shares”. 700-5.
Begins by referring to Backtrack article on fraudulent share dealing involving the Mersey Railway and the activities of the South Sea Bubble Company in 1711 which were not rectified until Robert Walpole became Chancellor. The Gloucester Railway Company's is used as an exemplar of what was all too typical during the Railway Mania. Illustrations: four cartoons; a share certificate for the Tring, Reading and Basingstoke Railway and four photographs of places en route of the never-to-be Gloucester Railway: No. 2938 Corsham Court. at Gloucester having arrived with stopping train from Cardiff on 19 October 1949

On the Great Northern Section. Alan Reeve. 706-8.
Colour photo-feature with captions by Michael S.. Welch: A4 No. 60014 Silver Link approaching Potters Bar with an up express; A3 No. 60044 Melton approaching Brookmans Park with up express (coal obelisk on top of cutting behind); A1 No. 60148 Aboyeur on down evening express probably for Leeds at Greenwood in September 1962; V2 No. 60871 in green livery on up express having em emerged from Hadley Wood South Tunnel; B12/3 No. 61572 on outward Wandering 1500 railtour from Broad Street to Bedford and Stratford-upon-Avon on 5 October 1963 organised by Midland & Great Northern Joint Railway Society; B1 No. 61179 passing Hitchin on northbound Butlin's Express for Skegness in July 1062 (Baby Deltic waiting on left).

Reaaders' forum. 709-10.

From the Mersey Railway to Merseyrail. Michael J. Smith. 709.
Mersey Railway not second, but third, underground railway.

From the Mersey Railway to Merseyrail. Alistair Stuart.709.
St. Micheal's station link with Marks & Spencer

'The Royal Scots.' Doug Landau. 109.
Performance; power output: achieved high combustion rates. The heritage No. 46115 The Scottish Guardsman has given outstanding performance on Shap in both directions and is compared with Type 40 diesel electric performance. The recording of locomotive performance has gained greatly from recording timed by electronic techniques, especially that linked to satellite navigation, continuous welded rail and higher standards of track maintainence also assist.

When 'Britannias' ruled the Great Eastern. Jonathan Juby
In the photograph (page 489) of Colchester station the track layout was being completely revised to give faster transits and the platforms were being relocated. Masts for electrification to Clacton and Walton were being erected and the bridge over North Station Road is being strengthened.

Cruising by train and circular tours, Jim Thompson. 709
Border Counties Junction Bridge west of Hexham was too weak, due to river scouring to permit double heading.

Buxton. Robin Leleux. 709.
See feature on pages 472 et seq and 574 et seq: Ornate sedmi-circular window in ex-LNWR building has been preserved and is floodlit with rainbow colours. Writer recommends travel on line. Also mourns loss of railway to Otley as foad congestion im Leeds is terrible.

Buxton. James Rogers. 709.
Barrister who worked on behalf of saving line was Edgar Fay, son of Sir Sam Fay, former General Maanager of Great Central Railway.

At risk on the pernmanent way. Chris Hilsden.
See feature page 526
:: men were working on fast line

LNER L1 class tanks. Len Dowson. 709
On page 554 caption states Sandsend Viaduct, but was East Row Viaduct.

As the sun goes down over Carlisle. Gavin Morrison. rear cover
Britannia class No. 70048 The Territorial Army 1908-1958 at Carlisle Upperby on 28 November 1964: see also XXX.