Railway World
Volume 35 (1974)

January 1974 (Number 405)

Steamologist. Facts and fables of "Fowler's Ghost"—1. 18-22 .
John Fowler, engineer of the Metropolitan Railway and Rober Stephenson sought to create a smokeless locomotive. The attempt, which ended in failure sought to use fire clay as the heat strage medium  and superheated water as the source of steam. The locomotive was investigated by Alfred Rosling Bennett and later by Michael Robbins. A paper by Benjamin Baker also alludes to the locomotive. The article includes a drawing (side elevation) of the locomotive; a diagram (elevation (cross sections)); diagrams of heat storage and condensing arrangements; colour paintins of broad gauge 2-4-0 and broad gauge 2-2-2-2 saddle tank    See also comment from M. Seymour in October Issue pp. 416-20.

T.J. Brown. Rail in rural Berkshire. 23
As a child lived near Welford Park on the Lambourn Valley line; the last remnant of it had closed recently at Welford Park. His elder sister took the early train to Newbury to school at Stockcross. His brother was an engine driver and his father was a signalman.

West German ten-coupled classes. 24-7.

A. Warren. The Newmarket Railway: a short-lived short cut. 28-31
Act of 16 July 1846; opened 3 January 1848. Possessed six locomotives supplied by Gilkes, Wilson & Co.  of Middlesbrough named Alice Hawthorn, Beeswing,  Eleanor, Flying Dutchman, Queen of Trumps and Van Tromp which wer the names of racehorses. They were taken over by the Eastern Counties Railway. In 1851 the line between Great Chesterord and Six Mile Bottom closed and trains were diverted to Cambridge. At the time of publication remains of the original railway were still visible as shown in the illustrations; map; Wilbraham Road bridge; crossing keeper's house at Pampisford Road; cutting north of crossing of Roman road; Balsham Road station; Dullingham station

Derek Cross. The power behind the scenes — 2. 32-4.
The four control rooms which monitor/ed high voltage electricty for traction between Euston and Glasgow: includes some illustrations

Chris Magner. Grand Scottish tours. 35-7.
Illustrations (photographs by G.R. Hounsell): Type 47 No. 1847 waiting at Crewe to leave on the Hebridean Express to Kyle of Lochalsh on 27 April 1973; Class 27 Nos. 5365 and 5379 at Fort William  with the Jacobite; RMS King George V at Oban on 8 September 1973; southbound  Hebridean Express  at Achnasheen in September 1973; Class 24/2 Nos. 5127 and 5129 at Georgemas Junction on Wick portion of Orcadian on 7 October 1972

New books. 38

The majesty of British steam. George F. Heiron. Ian Allan. 104pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
Majestic it was indeed, but also gracious to behold and with an inborn dignity that held our respect as the years passed and the older classes were dwarfed by their successors. Heiron's paintings are here splendidly reproduced and will be a source of lasting enjoyment. The photographer knows his moment of elation as his subject comes into the viewfinder and he fires the shutter, but the camera does not communicate it. Here is the painter's advantage. The pleasure he"takes in his work is sensed by those who view it. The eye lingers on small touches—figures at the lineside, enginemen glimpsed in their cabs—that are scarcely noticed in a photograph. O.S. Nock's introduction and captions provide a background of information and atmosphere that enhances appreciation of the artist's work. The 48 subjects extend from the early years of the century to the Britannias. Often they are seen against splendid skies, and sometimes in snow, which perhaps fascinates this artist with its texture for he has surprisingly pictured a Kent Coast holiday express of the SE&CR in a snowy setting. Sometimes the smoke and steam from his locomotives have a sculptured quality appropriately reminiscent of the manes of warhorses on an ancient temple frieze

Masterpieces in steam. Colin D. Garratt Blandford Press, 204pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper  
In this second volume in his Last steam locomotives of the world series, Colin Garratt exhibits a style of colour photography in which his pictures would often be satisfying without the train. They are still more so, of course, with this central element to his theme in evidence, sometimes muted by mist, sometimes drawing the eye with the crisp blackness of its silhouette. The book begins with British industrial steam, then ranges over the Continent to Finland, France, Italy, Austria, West Germany and Yugoslavia. The author provides a detailed commentary on his 61 colour plates, reviewing railway development in the countries he visited and describing the circum- stances in which his photographs were taken as well as dwelling on the technical features and daily work of his chosen subjects.

Canadian Pacific Selkirks C.P. Atkins. Profile Publications Ltd  24pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper  
The 36 Selkirk class 2-10-4 locomotives of the Canadian Pacific Railway were built in three batches between 1929 and 1949 and were employed mostly on the section of the CPR transcontinental line crossing the Rockies and the subsidiary Selkirk range. Originally "as knobbly as an artichoke" in appearance, later construction brought a smoother styling to keep pace with contemporary taste, and it is the quite elegant last of the Selkirks that forms the subject of the central colour spread. The author's comprehensive technical and operating account of this famous class covers the route over which the engines worked and the circumstances which led to the choice of their particular wheel arrangement.

Passengers no more. Gerald Daniels and L.A. Dench. Ian Allan Ltd 110pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper   
Lists of closed stations and branches were being compiled and published in the railway press nearly 40 years ago, but at that time the researcher was regarded with some suspicion by public relations officers dedicated to the creed that railways would go on for ever. Today closures are a recognised study and those who pursue it earn gratitude. This second edition of Passengers no more is updated to catalogue the effects of Beeching. How profound they have been is epitomised in the first view in the pictorial section, showing a Marylebone-Nottingham train at Woodford Halse in 1966 in "the dying days on the Great Central". Over 95 photographs place on record many aspects of scenes now vanished or in a state of semi-animation with freight traffic only. The book records the withdrawal of regular passenger services on complete lines, and at stations on lines still carrying passenger and freight traffic. This information is in tabular form showing station or line, ownership, date closed, and the map reference in the Ian Allan Pie-grouping gazetteer. From the point of view of the photographer, or the sentimental pilgrim yearning to see steel wheels turning on steel rails in the haunts of his youth, it would have been interesting if lines still open to goods traffic had been noted.

The great trains edited by Bryan Morgan. Patrick Stephens Ltd. 260pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper    
An Elizabethan author prefaced his book with the injunction "Fall to-read!" The words could well appear on the title page of Great Trains, for the production by Edita of Lausanne is an invitation in itself to plunge with pleasant anticipation into the interior of this massive work. The various authors are as well-informed and urbane as their subject of the world's trains drapeaux demands. Bryan Morgan, Charles Owen, K. Westcott Jones, Arthur D. Dubin, David Tennant and John Snell contribute chapters on the great trains of Britain, Europe, North America, India and the world. Extracts from earlier generations of railway writers reflect the contemporary scene in 1889, 1910 and 1913. Here, for example, the newcomer to railway literature can meet those classic commentators Farrer and Foxwell, and most readers will probably make their first acquaintance with Pearson's Railways and scenery—"a mad, bad, almost unreadable book" but "almost indispensable to anybody who wants to know what it felt like to travel over the railways of fifty countries in what were, in many ways, the years of their greatness nearly a lifetime ago". As an introduction to the glories of the Pullman "hotel car" and the Wagons-Lits, David Elliot writes on passenger discomforts of the earlier years and Bryan Morgan choses as his two pioneers Pullman and Nagelmackers to whom the status image of the long-distance train, internal or international, owes so much-and not necessarily long-distance either, for the Southern Belle enjoyed a prestige quite out of proportion to the length of its run. The closing chapters by Bryan Morgan and John Foster White explore the train in literature and on stage and screen.
The illustrations, many in colour, admirably harmonise with the spirit of the text. They include numerous reproductions of railway publicity material of earlier years, old prints, and paintings as well as photographs, many of them of historic interest.

The Sentinel. Vol 1. 1875-1930 W.J. Hughes and Joseph L.Thomas David & Charles. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper    
The Polmadie firm of Alley & MacLellan was well known for Sentinel marine machinery and large steam valves before the first commercial steam waggon left its works in 1905. Later work on small, high-speed steam engines for electricity generation contained the elements of a power unit for a steam vehicle on the roads. After several years of successful development of the steam waggon, the company's experience was embodied in a 2ft 5tin gauge locomotive in 1923, to be followed by numerous other designs supplied to railway administrations and industry. Sentinel rail coaches were being developed at the same time, for ic engine competition was beginning to alarm railway operators and Sentinel offered an answer. A vehicle supplied to the Jersey Railways & Tramways in 1923 earned high praise from the railway's chairman for its economy and powers of attracting traffic. Soon the era of Sentinel cars on the LMSR and the LNER had begun, and by 1930, the end of the period covered in this first volume, the combined products of the Sentinel Waggon Works and Cammell Lairds were at work in various forms both at home and overseas. This is a detailed account of the technical evolution of Sentinel engines, steam-raising plant and vehicles with 19 appendices tabulating much valuable information.

Somerset & Dorset locomotive history. D. Bradley and David Milton. David & Charles. 218pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper   39
After a short independent life in which it worked its traffic with locomotives bought from outside builders, the Somerset & Dorset came under the part ownership of the Midland Railway and was equipped with basically Midland designs from Derby. At the beginning of this period 0-4-4Ts were supplied for passenger work, including expresses, but in 1889 the S&D prevailed on Derby to produce a 4-4-0, and this wheel arrangement flourished until Class 5 4-6-0s were allocated to Bath in 1938. Six-coupled engines had appeared on the line as early as 1874, however, in the shape of saddle tanks for banking duties, and once Derby was in charge a family of 0-6-0 tender goods locomotives came into being. One divergence from the classic Midland pattern is perhaps the best-known S&D locomo- tive class—the 2-8-0s of 1914 and 1925. The locomotive history presented by the authors in this book complements R. Atthill's general history of the railway published in 1967. Together they provide a rounded picture of the line for the student in search of maximum detail, but the present volume by itself contains sufficient historical and operating information for the reader primarily interested in locomotives to absorb the essentials of the railway on which they worked.

Forgotten railways: The East Mmidlands. P. Howard Anderson David & Charles. 224pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper. 39  
The railways recalled in this book traversed areas of widely varying scenery, from open moorland to city suburbs. They include a one-time main line as well as the cable-worked inclines of the Cromford & High Peak. Mr Anderson recreates them and the com- munities they served as they were in their working days. He has a receptive eye for a setting and a graphic pen, so that we see Nottingham Victoria, for example, in its prime and in its sad condition of "going, going, gone"; and we almost hear the clatter of "a diminutive green tank engine with a smart train of six-wheel carriages rattling through quiet farmland and pausing at trim wayside stations" on the Wansford branch. A folding map covering the whole area described shows the chapters in which the various sectors are discussed, all of which have individual maps. A number of well-known photographers have contributed pictures and there are drawings by the author. A gazetteer section records dates and other data and lists relics still to be seen. This information is corrected up to June 1, 1973.

Bournemouth railway history. Lawrence Popplewell. Dorset Publishing Co. 224pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper. 39   
The original main line from South- ampton to Dorchester by-passed the area now occupied by Bournemouth, the nearest stations to the then infant resort being Poole Junction, Ringwood and Christchurch Road. This was in 1847, and it was not until 1862 that a branch was opened from Ringwood to Christchurch; its extension into Bournemouth did not come until 1870. A westward approach to the town by extending the Poole branch was long promised but did not materialise until 1874. These long delays may not have been unwelcome to some residents and visitors, who looked askance at the descent of the masses on Brighton by train, but the theme of Mr Popplewell's book is that they were contrived for personal ends, the machinations of Charles Waring, railway contractor and Member of Parliament, being paramount. The author unveils a complex web of local politics, supporting his conclusions with exhaustive references. Bournemouth railway history is local history in the grand manner. The illustrations are often of outstanding interest and accompanied by detailed captions which at times almost tell the story by themselves. Such is the wealth of detail presented to the reader, however, that he may well wish the author had provided a summing-up of the evidence before proceeding to judgment. Concluding chapters tell the later fates of stations and lines in the Bournemouth area and trace the train services from steam days to the electrification of 1967.

Mainly Scottish steam. Thomas Middlemass. David & Charles. 157pp. Reviewed by KHS 
There is a silent majority of railway enthusiasts who probably enjoy the hobby more than the vocal ones who fume at misquoted engine numbers and begin letters to the editor with the words: "Surely you must know ... ". In Mr Middlemass this pleasant company finds a voice. His reminiscences of former NBR, CR and other Scottish companies' steam near his home in Falkirk and eleswhere from the Thirties onwards are written with a sure touch for atmosphere, and many readers will recognise as their own the unaffected pleasure he has put into words. The memories are of journeys as well as of observation at stations and the lineside, often in company with his father, himself a railwayman. Tn his first attempt as a photographer, the author "froze" at the moment he should have fired his box camera shutter to record a Dunalastair. The rhythm of the exhaust was too much for him. It was an early indication of a sensitivity to sound which would find expression in him later as a violinist. His book is further evidence of an affinity between musical appreciation and a love of railways.

GW Pictorials—
Steam in South Wales
Steam in the Midlands
Steam south of the Severn.

D. Bradford Barton Ltd 96pp each  Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper. 39  
These three collections of GW steam pictures come from different hands. S. Rickard's pictures in South Wales were taken mainly in the active period between 1953 and 1960 and contain a sprinkling of types from the old Welsh companies. Michael Mensing covers that part of the Midlands centred on Birmingham and bounded by Wolverhampton, Leamington Spa, Honeybourne, Worcester, Bewdley and Dudley. It is a zone offering variety of scenery, industrial and rural, and much interest- ing background railway detail of the type once common but now often missing from the railway scene. In Steam south of the Severn Ronald E. Toop takes the two lines converging on Taunton and the routes linking them, continuing west to Whiteball and Dulverton. An unusual double-page spread shows Monkton Combe station on the Camerton branch with two locomotives used in filming The Tit/ield Thunderbolt. All three volumes are mines of pleasure for the GW steam enthusiast. The less committed viewer of these well-reproduced pictures may perhaps begin to understand this Great Western business.

Letters. 40-1

Sails on rails. R.L. Pittard 
I wish to point out an error in Sails on rails (p 424, October issue). In the second paragraph the sentence should read: "from his collieries near Aberdulais and the river at Neath" (not Aberdovey).

J.S. Carr
I have read Michael Bamlett's article (Railway World. August) with interest. There are, however, certain points on which I should like to comment. In the opening paragraph it is stated that Durham city once had three stations (presumably passenger) operating simul- taneously; this is hard to reconcile for Gilesgate was closed when the present Durham station came into being in 1857. As for Sunderland, perusal of the Sunderland Herald dated 23 April 1858, reveals four passenger termini in use-Fawcett Street, Hendon (Londonderry), Monkwearmouth and Sunderland Moor (the latter was not referred to as "South Dock"); which of these might be dubbed "central "is a matter of opinion.
The Gilesgate goods branch obviously did not close in 1964 for the photograph of No 8590 reproduced on p 334 was taken on 5 August 1966. Elvet station is believed to have been last used for Miners' Gala Day passenger traffic on  18 July 1953. The 1964 Gala was on 18 July and not 25 July.
To suggest that dmus took over the Sunderland-Durham branch workings in 1956-7 is misleading. G5s were still hard at work in September 1957 and A8s were much in evidence a year later. Gala Day steam passenger workings persisted until 1963 on which occasion Nos 61014/9/38/238/322, 67653 and 76021 were observed.
Use of the term "Wear Valley line" was certainly not commonplace locally; it implies instead the branch from Wear Valley Junction to Wearhead (Railway World, July 1962). The Queen Alexandra Bridge was opened in 1909 not 1901. The maps on pages 332-4 contain a number of mistakes; in particular the scale of the top map on p 333 is sadly adrift and the diagram of the track layout at Durham South does not tally with the photograph. Has Mr Bamlett any first-hand evidence of the running of the alleged football excursion from Ryhope to Bishop Auckland on October 28, 1967? In August of that year I noted that Ryhope station buildings and platforms were demolished and the site was shoulder-high in weeds. Regular passenger services between Sunderland and Durham were withdrawn on Monday, 4 May 1964. The Sunderland-Fawcett Street Junction tracks were severed on Sunday, 3 October 1965, and it is interesting to note that coast route passenger trains had been diverted via Cox Green and Stillington as late as 1 September 1965, due to a derailment at Greatham.
Lambton colliery traffic over the branch did not cease with the closure of Lambton Staiths on 7 January 1967, for NCB workings to South Dock lasted until 19 January; thereafter BR coal wagons were used, being hauled between Penshaw Yard and South Dock by J27, Q6 or "WD" locomotives. The final working over the Penshaw North to Hylton section on 18 August 1967, comprised a coal train from Ferryhill to South Dock. Since then freight between Tyne Yard and Pallion has travelled via Ryhope Grange and South Dock. Trains have worked west of Pallion recently for in April 1972 rail traffic recommenced from Hylton Quarry; ten wagonloads of crushed magnesian limestone destined for Dumfries have been despatched on most weekdays. Unhappily the quarry is likely to be filled in soon. Currently the entire branch between Hendon and Hylton is worked as one single-line section. Its outlook seems rather bleak unless, perhaps, in the distant future it becomes part of an extended rapid transit network of the Tyneside PTE.
Finally a note for those interested in further reading on the subject. The Penshaw-Sunderland line and the history of Sunderland's railways were dealt with in the SLS Journal of May 1965, some of the information later being included in K. Hoole's Regional History-The North East. An article on Durham Miners' Gala Traffic appeared in Railway World. April 1964. The Railway Magazine for August 1967 contained an account of the closure of Fawcett Street Junctions and the traffic of the line. Sunderland

West London signalling mystery . J. Swift
The diagram below shows the track layout and signals at Chelsea & Ful- ham box, you will notice that the directing home signal has two miniature armed signals; one applies to the West Dock line and the other to the East Dock line. As the questioner comments, it is unusual to have a directing distant signal for such a diversion, more particularly a miniature distant signal and which applies to two lines (ie the West and East Dock lines). If I remember the layout correctly, whilst the main line is on a rising gradient towards the railway bridge over the Thames, the Dock lines immediately start to fall towards the river, and it is thought. that the miniature distant signal is to assist trainmen in regulating their trains over the varying gradient with a limited sight of the directing home signal.
I would add that the signalling has been modified in recent years, and I understand that the outermost home signal on the up line is a comparatively new signal, there formerly being an up "starting" signal just before reaching the sand drag.

In reply to Mr Warburton (November issue) the splitting distant on the up line at Chelsea (West London Extension line) is provided on account of the steeply rising gradient. Even with diesel traction it is a great help to drivers to know that they can "take a run" at the gradient. It is however, unusual, if not unique, to provide a distant leading into a yard. A banner repeater in rear of the home signal would be more usual. Salisbury- J. P. MACKECHNIE-JARVIS Wilts [We thank all readers who have written to us on this subject.-ED RW.J

Problems of Society Specials
Further to J. M. Rhodes' letter on p441 (October issue) regarding the return route of the WRC Royal Giants steam special on May 19, the decision to cut short the steam section at Wor- cester instead of returning through to Oxford was made solely to enable tour participants to secure Midlands and Crewe connections and so reach destina- tions in time, not because of line occupation from Worcester to Oxford. The Western Region arranged for a coach to be attached at Worcester to the evening parcels train for those returning to Oxford. Even so, the tour covered 202 miles behind steam, 87 behind King George Vand 115 .behind Black Prince. This provides an opportunity of drawing readers' attention to the increasing problems facing societies organising day and weekend tours, in particular the increasing difference in fares between Society-sponsored specials and BR Explore Britain trips. Higher costs and inflation are two factors responsible for higher quotations for the former, while steam specials attract additional charges. Clearly, where re- duced support for a BR trip may mean the trip running at a loss, this can be wiped out by the profits made by other trips in an overall successful programme. On the other hand a Society special is not normally advertised to the general public at stations and in the press and it relies greatly on support given by its members, other enthusiasts and previous supporters before it can run. There are now fewer spare coaches, .and a decreasing amount of second class compartment stock. Motorail and overnight service trains are taking more of the scarce sleeping cars and the shortage of diesel power is extremely acute in several areas. There is thus little choice but to try to arrange many tours in early spring or autumn when the amount of daylight is still consider- able and before or after the peak summer services.
One division of BR has stated: "For 1974 our aim will continue to be to give value for money, as generally the fare to named destinations will be £2.10 and for Mystery Trips £1.60 and for children under 14 it's only half-price." It should not be thought that Society specials are making vast profits because advertising, duplicating, printing and other costs must be met. The signing of the con- tract with deposit payment must occur well in advance, sometimes when bookings are low, so that stock and diesel power can be requisitioned in good time and timings agreed. While not wishing to deny anyone the freedom to prefer a BR trip to a Society charter train, the latter, irre- spective of its motive power, will not run if insufficient early bookings are made. As we enter 1974, it may be that some specials may not be viable and it would be a great pity if the current wide choice were to be reduced. CHRISTOPHER BAKALARSKI Wirral Railway Circle Treasurer, on behalf of the WRC Council. Bromborough, Cheshire

A procession of locomotives. K. Hoole. 41 
The display of old locomotives to which Mr A. B. MacLeod refers in the November issue was held in Infirmary Yard, which was west of Newcastle Central station, on the north side of the Carlisle line, not "behind Newcastle Central station".
The celebrations were held on June 9, 1881, the exact centenary of Stepehn- son's birth, when the engines in the Procession left Gateshead shed at 09.00 and, after calling at Central station proceeded to Wylarn starting their return journey at 11.15. From the table you publish it looks as if there may have been a second run on the following day but the main celebrations were held on Thursday, June 9. The lower photograph on p 480 was not taken at Infirmary Yard, Newcastle, but at Greenesfield, Gateshead. The engines are actually standing on Chater's Bank and it seems certain that they are about to reverse on to the South Shields line, clear of High Street Junction, so that they could then run forward over the High Level Bridge to Newcastle Central and Wylam. The photographer was standing on 'the locomotive coal stage at Gateshead shed. Only one woman is visible in the illustration, in the bottom left hand corner, and the men and boys are undoubtedly NER employees from Gateshead shed and works-who else could trespass so freely on railway property in those days? The low rising stone wall on which the far group of men is standing is still there; the running lines lead to the Team Valley (right), and to the High Level Bridge (for Newcastle) and South Shields (left), diverging at Greenesfield Junction.
Details of the locomotives taking part were published in The Railway Maga- zine (1908) and the NER Magazine (1913), and there are in existence photo- graphs of all the individual NER loco- motives in their special livery. There are probably views of the "foreign" engines as well but I have no details. West Ay ton, Yorks

BELOW: Several correspondents who have written to us on surviving gas-lit stations have pointed out that oil lighting is by no means extinct. Mr H. M. Wright sends us his photograph of an oil lamp at Cowden, on the SR Uckfield line, early in 1973 but now displaced by fluorescent lighting. "Progress of course", he com- ments. "but we regret the end of our claim to such delightful victoriens".

Febrrary 1974 (Number 406)

Steamologist. Facts and fables of "Fowler's Ghost"—2. 60-5

June 1974 (Number 410)

D.C.A. Harrison. Snow Hill—a notable railway centre. 286-41. illustrations
Birmingham was briefly served by the broad gauge from October 1852 and was named Snow Hill officially in 1858. The station was rebuilt in 1871 and again betwee n 1909 and 1912. It was a victim of Beeching vandalism as illiustrated when in use as an ill-suited car park

D. Trevor Rowe. A 10¼in gauge gazetter. 242-5.
A relatively ephemeral form of railway and some listed have ceased to nexist and some like those in Wells (Norfolk) post-date the article

The RH&DR is ready for the summer. 246

P.A. Tyler. On the metre gauge in Malaya. 248-53
Author from Tasmania had experienced  the Malaysian railways during the Emergency and again in 1969. Earlier steam was the norm, but later was being displaced by English Electric diesel electric locomotives. In 1969 there were serious racial riots

K. Groundwater. Remember Tyne Dock. 256-9.
Photographs of Tyne Dock during its demise (most by author, but some by M. Dunnett)

T.G. Flinders. A new name for Swindon. 260-1
Had become part of Thamesdown and on 25 March 1973 No. 6000 King George V ran with a commemorative plaque to mourn the loss of the name Swindon

V.R. Webster. Past glories. 262.
Gainsborough Central and Edwinstowe

D.A. Bone. Luggage label errors. 263
Perpetuation of obsolete company names both post Grouping and post Nationalisation: Illustrations of British Railways to L.M.&S. Rly via Templecombe & Bath; Southern Railway to Gt. Central Ry;  Southern Railway to Lewes (L.B.&S.C. Rly via Cosham & Havant); London Midland andd Scottish Railway Company from Perth to Comrie via Caledonian Railway; N.E.R. Carlin How S. & D. Ry (=Stockton & Darlington!)

Pullman mileposts. 264-5
Black & white photographic feature: I3 4-4-2T No. 21 with American Pullman carss on an Eastbourne train; posed I3 with seven Pullman cars for Southern Belle publicity;  King Arthur 4-6-0 leaving Waterloo on inaugural Bournemouth Belle on 5 July 1931 (H. Gordon Tidey); unrebuilt Holden B12 4-6-0 No. 8552 on Bethnall Green an Eastern Belle half-day excursion to the East Coast (F.R. Hebron); No. 5016 Montgomery Castle on South Wales Pullman on inaugural run from Paddington on 27 June 1955 (F.J. Doran); A1 No. 60123 H.A. Ivatt on up Yorkshire Pullman formed with 1960 all-steel cars on 3 February 1961 (E. Stuart V. Hedley)

August (Number 412)

John F. Clay and J.N.C. Law. How great was the Great Western?—2. (Studies in locomotive performance—No. 3. 326-31.

B.K. Cooper. Dart Vallley's two aspects. 332-5.

S. Blencowe. Austrian steam—a 1974 review. 336-9.

John A. Lines. NER No. 712 and its R class companions. (Locomotive portraits—12).. 340-1.

Intensive transport of ore for steelmaking. 341. illustration
Imported ore into Immingham for transport in 1575 ton trains to British Steel Corporation at Scunthorpe. Motive power pairs of Type 37

N.E. Preedy. A night on a banker. 342-3.
From Tebay to Shap Summit in May 1965

J.W. Braithwaite. In praise of Johnson. 348-50

John Routly, Surface travelm to scenery and sun. 356

October (Number 414)

M. Seymour. The Ghost walks again. 416-20. illustrations and diagrams
Comment on Steamologist's interesting two-part "Ghost story" in the January and February issues of Railway World. If some of the comments seem critical, I hope it will be appreciated that my purpose is to strive for accuracy in a subject more than usually wrapped in confusion. While I have no quarrel with the general conclusions offered by Steamologist, I feel that his ruminations are at times confusing; I would like to draw particular attention to some points that did not receive sufficient emphasis.
Firstly, comparison of the side elevation of the factual Ghost (reproduced at the top of pI8, January) and the original photograph [reproduced above] reveals many drawing errors, some minor, some important:-
1. Less than justice has been done to the handsome Stephenson chimney, which is less sharply tapered and should have a slight ridge at top and bottom curves;
2. The smokebox door is flush, and has a single handle only; a small lubricator is mounted each side below the door;
3. The buffer shanks are bulbous (typical GWR broad-gauge design) the buffer heads having wooden faces. The front cou'pling chain is more than a simple three-link coupling, and ends in a hook. The. guard irons are set on the front of the buffer beam outside the buffers;
4. There should be a steam pipe curving down and back from each steamchest, leading to the condenser. The cylinder cock gear is set much lower, below the cylinders;
5. On the smokebox side there are, reading upwards and front to back, a lamp bracket, the tall crank and pivot of the condensing gear and the short crank for the venetian blind gear;
6. There are three rods along the boiler side: the topmost works the venetian blind, the middle rod works the condenser gear (being controlled by the handwheel at the base of the cab weatherboard), and the lowest is a handrail which stops short in front of the air pump;
7. The lock-up safety valve in the front dome is set across the boiler centre-line, not fore-and-aft; the rear safety valve is a Salter spring balance, the lever and screw spindle being omitted in Steamologist's drawings. The boiler has at least four boiler bands visible;
8. There should be a reversing rod above the front carrying wheel spring. The engine is arranged for left-hand drive. Note the two levers on the footplate, one the reversing lever, the other possibly for controlling the air pumps?
9. Steamologist has omitted the crosshead-driven feed- pump and the sand pipe leading in front of the leading driving wheel. The sand valve rod is on top of the sandbox; in front of the sandbox is the vertical rod leading to a shut-off cock on the feed pump, its control rod running to the cab along the top of the splashers. Another vertical rod is placed between the coupled wheels and is presumably a water valve connected with the condenser tank. It would be these feed pumps which failed on trial; injectors were still a relative novelty, and there are no signs of them on the factual Ghost;
10. Steamologist shows brake blocks on the engine: there is no visible evidence for such brakes except on the tender, typical of the period, as for example on the Stephenson 160 class 4-4-0s for the Stockton & Darlington Railway;
11. The connecting rod should be inside the coupling rod, an arrangement also typical of Stephenson practice. This is important, as the cylinder centres are thereby brought closer together. Another important detail overlooked is a rod drive from the trailing crank pin inside the coupling rod to a vertically-mounted rocker arm between the wheel splashers; this I assume to be connected to the condenser agitator (referred to in Fowler's 1862 memorandum). The rocker arm pivot is seen in the photograph in front of the condenser pump exhaust;
12. The long, low vertical plates on the footplate, between the cab and smokebox, are to protect men's feet from the coupling rod, wheels and rocker arm: the low handrail would be vital to give a safe hand-hold;
13. The cab side-sheet has a vertical pillar at the front corner as well as the rear. There is only one works plate, on the front driving wheel splasher;
14. Steamologist shows a weird pipe leading above the cab side-sheet from the engine to the tender. This seems to be a misunderstanding of a drawing roll held by the man standing on the footplate;
15. The tender springs should have a more pronounced curve on the top leaf. The rear wheel's tyre tread is bare in the photograph, showing that the tender brake-blocks are behind the wheels, not in front. I doubt whether there is room for a tool-box at the rear of the tender (not shown by Rosling Bennett), and whether there are any rear guard irons. The top of the side flare appears to be parallel, not tapered.
The accompanying drawing, based on the photograph of the factual Ghost, is intended to emphasise these points. Incidentally, in this photograph as in the Gladstone photograph, the engine is seen running wrong line on mixed-gauge track, whereas the rails in the foreground are clearly tem- porary and broad-gauge only-presumably only one running line had as yet been properly laid. Under the tunnel arch behind the engine can be seen the contractor's wagon with a ladder propped against it; odd that the passengers should be in shadow—was it raining?
Steamologist is wrong when he states that the group seen in the other photograph [see p. 418] is the Prime Minister and Cabinet; in 1862 Gladstone was Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lord Palmerston being Prime Minister. The party includes the Duke of Sutherland, Lord Richard Grosvenor, Mr Fowler, the Resident Engineer, the Contractor and Contractor's Agent.
Though all the reproductions of this 1862 photograph have been retouched, there is enough visible of the engine pulling the two wagons to deserve attention. I would suggest that it is in fact the Ghost; the accompanying sketch of what can be distinguished appears to correspond remarkably:-
Cab weatherboard shape, and low-set spectacles;
Left-hand drive regulator;
Four-wheel tender.
Steamologist states that this photograph shows the rear two vehicles; are they not the only wagons in the train—note the rear lamps. In view of this photographic evidence, it does not seem right to suggest that the Ghost did not haul a train.
Steamologist belittles the Times report of the test run (January p20), as a "typical lay press account". Surely, if the venetian blinds were closed and the exhaust steam turned into the condensing tank, the engine would fit the Times description precisely.
It is not entirely correct to speak of a boiler pressure of 120lb per sq in as being "not greatly in excess of contemporary practice": it was typical of the period, and was the pressure adopted in the Met tanks until 1868. Steamologist (January p22) makes heavy weather of accounting for the 12 engines referred to by Fowler in his 1862 memorandum. These can only be the GWR Gooch 2-4-0WTs, six from Vu1can Foundry and six from Kitson between June and September 1862. His other reference to the Gladstone trip and the Ghost is irrelevant on the grounds previously mentioned.
Some points in Part 2 of the article (February) deserve dn comment. It should perhaps be stressed that BruneI's remark, quoted on p61, was made in 1854, as he was no longer alive to witness the Fowler schemes of 1860 and 1861. On the same page, concerning Stephenson's promise to deliver the Ghost in five months, Steamologist seems to infer that' urgency was stressed '. To set this in perspective, one can quote Brian Reed, who, in Loco Profile 10 on the Met tanks, records Beyer, Peacock as willing in January 1863 to build six engines for the Metropolitan by June. The problem of passing condensed water back to the boiler (p62) may be explained by the valve control seen between the coupled wheels of the factual Ghost, and the feed pumps. On p62 Steamologist is surely wrong in giving preference to the derivation of the Met tanks from the solitary Craven 4-4-0T. The Tudela-Bilbao designs are incontestably the progenitors.
I suggest that Steamologist has laboured excessively over the 2-2-2T design and in so doing has overlooked one or two vital points in the Ghost story. Reading pp60 and 61, one wonders how many 2-2-2 designs Steamologist identifies; he gives two illustrations which, from the captions, are apparently two different ideas, whereas I can only see one and the same design. From the text on p60 I understand the illustration on that page to be derived from the drawing in The Railway Magazine of 1901 (which seems acceptable as an authentic general arrangement drawing); yet on p61 it appears that the diagram on that page is also derived from the 1901 drawing. To illustrate further comments I reproduce diagrams of the 2-2-2T and the 2-4-0 drawn to the same scale and related to each other in position to emphasize the remarkable similarities between the two, both in the boiler and in the running gear. Under the 2-2-2T cylinder the arrangement of pipes strongly suggests a valve and union for a fireless engine steam supply and the boiler clearly has no firebox. The 1901 drawing must be the original Fowler fireless scheme, antedating February 1860, the date of Stephenson's order book entry: as stated by Brian Reed (Loco Profile 10), the drawings at this date included a proposed modification of the locomotive and a heating furnace for the regenerator. I wonder if a big problem in 1860 might not have been the provision of a practical steamtight coupling for recharging at the termini. I would suggest that the 2-2-2T was developed into the factual Ghost by the following stages:-
(1) tacking a firebox on the back of the original boiler design, which is otherwise retained in all respects such as plate dimensions, positions of dome seatings, height of centre-line above rail level and position in relation to cylinders;
(2) improving the engine as a vehicle by a 6in longer wheelbase and four coupled wheels (still in front of the firebox-the lingering Step hens on long boiler tradi- tion);
(3) providing a tender for fuel and water (it would also no doubt help to steady the engine).
Incidentally the 2-2-2T saddle tank on the 1901 drawing does not appear to have any beading round the top; Steam- ologist's assumption of a square tank seems less likely than a curved tank, as on the 1861 4-2-2T.
Two other important points need to be stressed. Firstly, on the 2-2-2T a rod drive from the crankpin is taken to a rocking lever on the footplate; on the 2-4-0, which has a firebox in place of the 2-2-2's rear condensing tank, there is an identical drive from the trailing crank-pin. I suggest that this is part of the apparatus for agitating the condenser water, as mentioned in Fowler's 1862 memorandum, and shown vestigially on the drawing in that account. Secondly, the valve gear: the reversing rod on the factual Ghost is in a conventional position, so the valve gear layout must have been straightforward. But with a condenser tank quoted as 6ft wide and frames only 6ft 3in apart, how on earth did the designer pack in eccentrics and links, not to mention adequate bearings?
In his 1862 memorandum Fowler referred to the 12 engines nearly finished 'all similar to this' (the Ghost), though he did qualify the similarity by acknowledging the substitution of a heavier boiler without a fireclay chamber. This may be seen as an adroit choice of words to mask the abandonment of his pet ideas, but comparison of the GW 2-4-0T diagram with the Ghost development shows that the ancestry is clear; it also goes to explain more markedly the features of Gooch's design foreign to normal GW broad- gauge practice-the outside cylinders, the footplate valance, raised low plate and coupling rod cover alongside the driving wheels; the condensing pipe and tank arrangement and the crosshead-driven feed pumps also perpetuate earlier thinking. By contrast, the connecting rods are set outside the coupling rods.
I am not sure why the cylinders were inclined at about 1 in 7 above the centre-line, as this must have made firm attachment to the frames difficult. E. L. Ahrons stated that the reason was the need to clear the front carrying wheels, which hardly seems convincing: the Ghost managed to combine horizontally-set cylinders with carrying wheels of 3in larger diameter.
Some final questions: would it be true to say that the factual Ghost was the only broad-gauge long boiler engine ever built? Who paid for the Ghost? Are there details of any contractor's engines used to build the Metropolitan? Did Rosling Bennett's relatives meet the Ghost in the? tunnel?

R. Powell Hendry. Celebrating the IOM Centenary. 421. illustration
R. Preston Hendry is shown leaving footplate of No. 10 G.H. Wood

H.A.V Bulleid. Raiway noises. 422-4.
Begins with the shock inflicted by pop-type safety valves blowing off; followed by the plop encountered when a train enters a tunnel, especially marked at Linslade Tunnel at Leighton Buzzard. Sllipping is a cause of noise, especially with steam and could even occur on light engines and the mushroom type regulator valves fitted at Horwich shut easily but could be difficult to open. Whistles could be heard at great distances. The author remarked to Stanier about the elaborate auxililarries manifold on his boilers who replied that "Of course your uncle [H.G. Ivatt] would have had a bit of string for the whistle, like on the London and North Western". The Cardiff to Liverpool trains starting from Abergavenny when hauled by Hall class locomotives produced a majestically noisy start as they tackled the 1 in 85 gradient. Roaring rails were first encountered by H.A.V. in Clayton Tunnel and then  at Manningham. The sound of Scottish expresses passing Pilmoor was awesome as he waited for the branch train for Ampleforth..

New books. 436-7

Spell of steam. Eric Treacy. Ian Allan Ltd. 208pp. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
A Treacy photograph has a rich tonal quality that proclaims the photographer before one looks at the credit line. In this personal selection of Eric Treacy's best work over 40 years, plus some new material, the reproduction fully supports the photographer's skill, creating a volume that can be opened anywhere with pleasure. The locomotive nearly always dominates the picture, but then so it does in the mind's eye when looking back. Sometimes one could wish for more examples of the train as a focal point in a wider sweep of country as exemplified in a view of the Thames-Clyde Express in Ribblesdale, or a Keighley & Worth Valley train crossing Mytholme Viaduct. Smoke and steam are often extraordinarily vivid, almost starting out of the paper with stereoscopic effect. Such displays symbolised the power of the steam locomotive. In print they are as picturesque as the straining sails of a square-rigger, and because we open this book to enter the kingdom of faery and old romance we prefer not to remember that they betrayed the fundamental weakness of the steam locomotive that led to its decline. To round off the romantic atmosphere, the locomotive is personalised. "A young fireman reports for work under the watchful eye of Al Pacific No 60149, Amadis." How fortunate that Eric Treacy's camera can command the wilful suspension of disbelief.

Railways in the transition from steam. O.S. Nock. Blandford Press. Reviewed by K.H.S.
This is an addition to the publisher's Railways of the world in colour series with pictures by Clifford and Wendy Meadway and commentary by O.S. Nock. The period covered is 1940 to 1965—going far enough back, therefore, to include an ex-SECR E class 4-4-0 and a King Arthur among the "Engines of Dunkirk." Subjects are taken from all over the world and bring in diesels and electrics as the years pass by. The selection concludes with a Class 47 and a Japanese Railways Hikari super express. A wealth of motive power history is contained in Nock's notes on the pictures in the second half of the book. Coats of arms, rolling stock and Canadian signal aspects diversify the interest, the latter totalling 13 with a startling combinations of reds, yellows and greens displayed simultaneously. It is a pity that the meanings are not shown on the same page, and curiosity over the driver's correct reaction to a yellow over a green over a red goes unsatisfied.

Studies in British transport history 1870-1970. Derek H. Aldcroft. David & Charles. Reviewed by Basil K. Cooper
The studies collected here are reprinted from various specialised publications and are concerned with economic and legislative aspects of rail, road and sea transport. In one of them the author examines railway performance from 1870 to 1914 and shows static productivity in a period of rising costs. Innovation was slow, equipment individualistic rather than effective, and the steam locomotive as a heat engine neglected. Indeed, a remark made at the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1938 is quoted, to the effect that when the speaker had joined the railway service "the price of locomotive coal was still so low that the majority of railwavs did not consider it worthwhile to undertake research on the locomotive considered as a heat engine with a view to more economical design". The author's conclusion is that at this period railway returns were diminishing because of extension of the railway net- work into less productive areas, but some help could have been gained from more scientific methods of handling traffic. He feels an important factor in reluctance to innovate was the fact that "railway managers and directors were still influenced by the construction phase of railway history, and hence they were more interested in extending their empires than in operating their undertakings on a scientific basis." In a later essay Aldcroft examines in detail the reasons for the slow changeover in this country to diesel and electric traction, and he finds, among many other interesting suggestions, that the success of the pre-war streamlined trains gave management the cosy feeling of security they enjoyed and encouraged the easy line of staying with steam despite changing conditions. It is a pity he quotes the Cheltenham Flyer as a streamliner, for this train, having no down counterpart, was a phenomenon rather than a service and did not serve centres of population with a high traffic potential as the real streamliners did. A direction in which the railways did innovate, although to their financial disadvantage, was in internal air transport. The author presents a general study of the pioneer stage of the 1930s and follows this with an account of the railways' role. This is a little- known aspect of pre-war railway history and much of interest emerges.

Metre gauge railways in south and east Switzerland. John Marshall. David & Charles. Reviewed by K.H.S.
The metre gauge railways described by the author form a chain extending north-eastwards from the shadow of the Matterhorn to the proximity of the Austrian frontier, with a southward swoop to the Italian border at Tirano. Detached from this network but also dealt with are the Ticino metre gauge lines. This geographical plan brings into the author's scope the Zermatt and Gornergrat Railways, the Rhaetian and Bernina Railways, the Chur-Arosa, Furka Oberalp and the Schollenen. The Ticino lines described are those based on Bisaca, Bellinzona, Locarno and Lugano. Marshall has assembled much interesting information on the history, technical equipment, civil engineering and train services of all these lines. Drawings of notable civil engineering works, gradient profiles and maps are all reproduced on a useful scale. How often does one see such details, if given at all, spoiled by lettering or close detail which is hard to decipher. Most of the drawings here, however, are the author's own and he has clearly planned them with care. There are also numerous diagrams of motive power and rolling stock, and he who insists on his ration of nostalgia can weep for the days when the interiors of electric locomotives were occupied by vast, low-speed motors driving through jackshafts, yokes and side rods; or, more reasonably, for the days when there were 25 Swiss Francs to the Pound.

November 1974 Number 415

D.H. Landau. The fiery Duke. (Studies in locomotive performance—No. 4. 450-3.
See also postscript

December 1974 Number 416

T.G. Fllinders. History is junk. 492-5

D. Trevor Rowe. Railtours remembered. 498-502

L.A. Nixon. The Worsborough branch in retrospect. 503-8.
Author hd been brought up near to the Worsborough Incline which was graded at 1 in 40 and up ehich loaded coal trains for Lancashire were lifted up towards Penistone. The U1 class 2-8-8-2 six-cylinder Beyer Garratt had been built to work on the Incline, but was assiosted by other classes notably 2-8-0s of O1, O2, O3, O4, O5 and WD classes. Robinson had considered an 0-10-2T tank engine for the job. The ascent was timed for 22 minutes and speeds were very low. The line was electrified in 1954. Other than enthusiast specials the branch was not used by passsenger trains. Illustrations: O4/3 approaches Silkstone Tunnels banked by class 76; U1 No. 9999 running light (R.M. Casserley); gradient profile, map; two Class 76  electrics pass Wentworth Silkstone Junction with train of miner emptioes in March 1965;  Class EM1 No. 26049 heads for Manchester in August 1969; Jubille Class 4-6-0 No. 45581 Bihar and Orissa takes the Barnsley line at West Silkstone Junction with Bradford to Poole train in July 1966, EM1 No. 26011 banking a freigh.

Anatomy of the diesel: automatic controls ensure efficient use of engine power at all speeds. 509

W.J. Rugman. The Croydon & Oxted Joint and Woodside & South Croydon Railways, 512-15
Built and operated by the LB&SC and South Eastern Railways. The Oxted Tunnel is 1 mile 506 yards long. Oxted had its own Joint Station staff with special uniforms; the other stations were built and operated in the manner of each of either the owning companies. The 07.26 Edenbriidge to London Bridge via the Crowhurst spur lasted until 10 June 1955 when the spur was lifted. Experiments were made with six and seven coach push & pull working with diesel locomotives when diesel electric multiple units took over most workings. Illustrations:Marsh Atlantic No.3245 Trevose Head near Upper Warlingham on 17.40 London Bridge to East Grinstead on 29 May 1952; E class 4-4-0 No. 1547 leaves Oxted with 08.03 London Bridge to Brighton;