Locomotive Magazine and Railway and Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 56 (1950)
key file

Number 689 (16 January 1950)

"Ideal footplate" sought by Railway Executive. 8.  illus.
Mock-up for the standard cab was produced to solicit footplate crews' suggestions.

Number 692 (15 April 1950)

Electric Traction. 47.
Sir Cyril Hurcomb, G.C.B., K.B.E., Chairman of the British Transport Commission, in his address at the opemng of the convention on Electric Railway Traction, held at the Institution of Electrical Engineers, last month, said we may safely assume that no technical difficulties need hamper an extensive programme of suburban and main line electrification if on economic grounds we thought it wise to proceed.
The vast system of British Railways has been built up on the qualities of the steam locomotive which still remains the solid foundation of rail transport in this country. The serious competitorat present is electric traction. Main line diesel and gas turbine locomotives are on trial and have yet to be proved. Price of fuels is an important factor. At to-day's prices, and after thermal efficiencies are taken into account, these prime movers—diesel and gas turbine—might break even in fuel costs with the steam locomotive. But the high capital charges are formidable and maintenance costs have yet to be established. Early in 1948 the B.T.C. invited the Railway Executive to give special attention to the problem of motive power and. a body of officers was appointed to report upon the estimated future balance of advantage as between the various forms of motive power. The determination of that balance is perhaps the most serious railway question which we have to decide- serious alike in its technical and in its financial aspects. It is possible that if some of the railway companies had been so courageous and imaginative as to grasp the advantages of electrification, in spite of its high capital costs, they would have been better off. Is it perhaps now the fact that the steam locomotive magnificent achievement as it is — has reached the peak of its efficiency? Is it not certain that the efficiency and reliability of electric traction is still improving and that there is a wide field in this country where electric traction would, given favourable traffic, reduce the annual working expense and provide much improved services - under both main line and suburban conditions? In suburban areas we may assume that we should get additional passenger traffic from electrified services. Nor, for his part, would he be disposed to under- estimate the possibilities of additional traffic on long distance services fostered, as it would be, by speedier and more frequent services and a radical overhaul of the timetables. In freight working, also, better services would be given.
This means that before we consider embarking hundreds of millions in an investment which would be doomed to remain unremunerative if the traffic was not secured, we should want to feel reasonably certain on some major questions. The bold and imaginative policy which might have paid if it had .been pursued in a period of low cost, would run the nsk of prov:mg foolhardy if the general trend of events was agamst its success. A forward programme could be greatly assisted if we can look to the manufacturers of traction equipment, not only for the high standards of performance which they offer us, but also to keep the costs as low as possible. We should need to be guaranteed cheap and abundant electricity. With equal work measured at the wheel rims, the steam locomotive consumes about 2½ times as much coal as the electric tractor, after taking into account all losses in transmission between the power station and the locomotive, at the thermal efficiencies of generation likely to be reached in 1958. Finally, we should need to know that the transport system as a whole will be sufficiently ratIOnalIsed,. or integrated, to give us a reasonab1e chance of securing the traffic which we set out to gain, and for which we should be making a heavy new expenditure in fixed capital, without finding it diverted from the public transport system.
Expressing a personal view, Sir Cyril said that as long as the Commission's economic position were safeguarded, he would like to contemplate the completion of electrification of South-East England, and make it include freight traffic. The Commission had reported on the necessity of additional tubes in the London area, and they regarded the electrification of the London, Tilbury and Southend line as even more urgent. The Manchester/Sheffield line now being electrified might be projected, for example, to Liverpool. Round Manchester there were obvious. opportunities for linking up and extending the existing bits and pieces of electrified lines, and the same was true of Liverpool. Gradually they might electrify Lancashire, from such beginnings. Some electrification existed on Tyneside. The Commission were looking into the position at Glasgow. Any local developments would normally have to be planned so as to link eventually with more extensive schemes.

Western Region. 47.
New engines in service included: 4-6-0: No. 7911 Lady Margaret Hall. 0-6-0T: Nos. 7412, 7443 and 7444. 0-6-0T: No. 8456 by the Yorkshire Engine Co. Ltd. 0-6-0T Nos. 9410 and 9411 by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd. The following had been withdrawn: No. 4026. 2-6-2T: No. 4531. 0-6-2T: No. 32 (Rhymney No. 3); and No. 61 (Rhymney No. 21).

British Railways steam locos., December 1949. 48-50. table
Table shows totals by Whyte notation, and by former companies: further divided into tank and tender varieties: thus 33 2-6-6-2T, for instance, plus notes on notable locomotives withdrawn from stock.

Basil M. Bazley.Our railway companies. 1. Early memories. 51-4.

French locomotive trial. 54.
A special return trip was made with one of the new 4-6-4 four-cylinder compound stoker-fired steam locomotives (No. 232.U.I) on the Nord between Paris and Lille with a passenger train weighing 600 tons behind the tender. The 199 km. (123½ miles) from Paris Nord to a stop at Arras were covered in 105 min.without speed exceeding: the normal maximum of 120 km.p.h. (75 m.p.h.), this mainly because of the very rapid acceleration. From Paris to passing Longueau, 126 km. or 78¼ miles, occupied 70 min., an average of 67¼ m.p.h. On the return trip a speed of  118 km.p.h. (73 m.p.h.) was maintained up Chantilly bank, and the output here was about 2,550 d.b.h.p., corresponding to nearly 4,000 cylinder h.p. These locomotives weighed 129 tonnes without tender and had an adhesion weight of 69 tonnes.

British Railways. 54.
Motive Power Depot Code. each engine would carry a small cast-iron plate at the base of the smokebox door bearing the code number and letter of its owning depot.

Personal. 54
J.D. Lewis, M.C., M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., A.M.I. Trans., became a partner in the firm of Fox & Mayo, Consulting Engineers.

Bo-Bo mixed traffic locos, Austrian State Railway. 54. illus.
1170 design originated in 1927 when 14 units with Sécheron drive and coupling and buffing gear was fitted to the body frame.  A further 15 were purchased in 1928: the bogies were now coupled and more powerful motors were fitted. A heavier design emerged in 1933. They were built jointly by the leading Austrian electrical firms with the mechanical parts being constructed at the Vienna Locomotive Works at Florisdorf. See also letter from F.J.G Haut on page 110.

New restaurant cars, Great Northern Railway (Ireland). 55-7. 4 illus., 2 diagrams (side & rear elevations & plans)
Restaurant and buffet cars: 64ft over buffers. Dunlopillo foam rubber cushions in restaurant car. Windows in buffet car had Clatonrite rubber frames and extensive use of plastics was made in this vehicle. The car had separate optics for dispensing alcoholic drinks in the Republic of Ireland and in Northern Ireland..

Diesel locos for Tanganyika. 58. illus., diagr. (side front & rear elevations)
Supplied Hunslet Engine Co. for metre gauge but convertible to run on 3ft 6in. A standard locomotive with Gardner 8L3 engine, a friction clutch, a four speed gearbox and jackshaft drive.

Highland Railway. 58.
Last Clan class withdrawn: Clan Mackinnon built by R. & W. Hawthorn Leslie in 1921.

British Railways Welcome You. 58.
Booklet for new employees.

British Industries Fair, 1950, Engineeering Sectiion, Castle Bromwich, Birmingham. 59.
Brockenhouse Organisation, McKechnie Brothers Ltd., Westinghouse, Chloride Batteries Ltd.

Shipment of locomotives. 59-60. 3 illus.
Photographs of Baldwin Locomotive Works 4-6-2 locomotives being unloaded from the SS Peter Dahl at Bombay using the ship's own lifting gear. 36 locomotives has been loaded at Philadelphia. The second photograph shows a Beyer Peacock 2-10-0 locomotive  (see Locomotive 1948 December) en route from Manchester to Liverpool on a steerable road trailer in transit to Turkey. Final picture shows Ruston & Hornsby diesel locomotive being loaded (probably via a floating crane).

Rail exhibits at the 1951 Exhibition. 60.

Aluminium tank tender. 61. illus.

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. 61-2.

"Dnnrobin" the Duke of Sutherland's locomotive. 62.
Dnnrobin, left Golspie for its new home at Dymchurch. Capt. J.E.P. Howey , Chairman of the Romney, Hythe and Dyrnchurch Railway, decided to :preserve. it as one of the few privately owned locomotives In Britain . It made occasional trips over the Highland Railway main line. Built for the fourth Duke of Sutherland by Sharp, Stewart & Co. of Glasgow, and delivered in 1895, Dunrobin was specially designed at the Duke's request by the late Mr. David Jones, Locomotive Superintendent of the Highland Railway. It has 4 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels, trailing bogie wheels 2 ft. 6 in. diameter and cylinders 13.in. diam. by 18 in. stroke. In the roomy cab a leather cushioned seat provides comfortable accommodation for those travelling on the footplate. On the weath:rboard of the cab a plate carries signatures of several illustrious visitors including Kings and Queens, Princes and Princesses, Dukes and Duchesses who have ridden on it.
An earlier Dunrobin, built by Kitson & Co. in 1870 for the third Duke of Sutherland's railway, was sold to the Highland Railway Co. in 1895 and was named and numbered by them Gordon Castle 118. It was a four coupled six wheeled tank engine with outside cylinders [2-4-0T].
Mr. Alexander Rhind was the Duke's driver and remained in his service for nearly half a century.

Correspondence. 62

Standardising S.R. locomotives. J. Pelham Maitland
Adds following details concerning article on pages 22-25 of  Issue of February 15, 1950, on above subject. Engine 59 Cheam. This engine had the unique distinction of becoming derailed in the garden of the Sheffield Hotel, Newhaven, during the time that engine 72 was under repair at Brighton Works in 1927 (q.v.). On this occasion the Locomotive Foreman at Brighton at first refused to send replacement to continue the working, as he regarded the telephone message for same to be a hoax. Engine 72, Fenchurch . The double red lining was abandoned in 1921. Until 1919 it was shedded in a small structure on the East Quay, in which year it was transferred to the Locomotive Depot at Newhaven Town. En route to the main breakwater, on the west side of the harbour, the line passes at the end of the garden of the Sheffield Hotel (vid. sup. Engine 59).

Number 693 (15 May 1950)

Train services—1950. 63.
Overall train mileage this summer would be much the same as last there would be a number of improved services toprovide greater comfort and convenience, particularly on the main lines and cross country routes, including through trains between Manchester, Birmingham and Hastings; Oxford and Bournemouth; Birmingham and Margate; Newquay and Bristol; Birmingham and Paignton; Penzance and Manchester; Bradford and Scarborough; Newcastle and Lowestoft; Newcastle and Llandudno; Clacton and Mansfield: Leeds and Yarmouth, etc.
For the convenience of travellers in the suburbs a number of long distance trains out of London, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham and Birkenhead would call at local stations.
Progress was being made in standardising departure times on the main lines out of London. For example, trains left King's Cross for Newcastle at 10.0 a.m., 12 noon and 2.0 p.m., and for the West Riding of Yorkshire as far as possible at 15 and 45 minutes past the hour. Departures from Liverpool Street to Clacton were 30 minutes past the hour while in the reverse direction the standard departures will be at the hour. Faster running and shorter stops at stations will result in over 90 weekday and 35 Sunday trains being accelerated by from 10 to 67 minutes compared with last summer's services.
Many helpful suggestions have been received by the Executive from passengers. For example, the 9.25 a.m. Liverpool to Plymouth will be diverted via Weston-super-Mare and the 3.0 p.m. (Sundays) King's Cross to Newcastle will run via Hartlepool instead of via Darlington, to meet the needs of passengers.
Famous named 'trains which ran last summer will be re-introduced and four more services will be given distinctive titles:-The Easterling between Liverpool Street and Yarmouth; The Broadsman between Sheringham and Liverpool Street; The Red Dragon between Carmarthen and Paddington; and The Tynesider between King's Cross and Newcastle.
The number of passengers conveyed at cheap fares during 1949 was twice as great as in 1948; this summer there will be more cheap fare facilities to enable the public to enjoy day and half-day outings, also evening trips. The Runabout ticket, available for 5, 6 or 7 days, one of the most popular, will be available in 77 areas, as compared with 52 areas last year when 338,000 were sold.
Another new feature is a series of "all-in" tours from Lancashire and Yorkshire towns. Of particular interest are two special restaurant car trains which will leave each Saturday from June 10th to September 9th conveying holiday-makers for a week's tour of famous places in Scotland; the charge will include rail fare, meals on trains, hotel accommodation, coach and steamer trips, etc.
There is still an acute shortage of rolling stock although 87 new locomotives, 376 passenger carriages, 6,016 wagons and 270 brake and luggage vans, fish vans, tank wagons, etc., have been put into traffic during the first quarter of this year.

London Midland Region. 63..
New engines in service included 2-6-0 Class 2 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 46445 to 46453 (built Crewe). 2-6-4 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos. 42137 to 42151 (built Derby). 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 44674 and 44677 (with roller bearings, driving axle only) (built at Horwich for the Scottish Region). 0-6-0 Diesel-electric Shunter 350 h.p.: No. 12068 (built Derby).
The following had been withdrawn 4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 40745 (Midland), 4-4-0 Class 2P: No. 561 (Midland), 2-4-2 Class 3PT: No. 50891 (L. & Y.R.), 2-4-2 Class 2PT: No. 10676 (L. & Y.R.) and 0-4-4 Class 1PT: No. 1322 (Midland).
Class 2F 0-6-0 No. 22853, among recent withdrawals was built for the Midland Railway by Dübs and Company in 1873, and was the last of the Belpaire boilered Kirtley double framed 0-6-0 goods engines. It was rebuilt in 1922 when it received the Belpaire boiler.
Only one engine now survives to carry on the Kirtley tradition. This is No. 22630 which still retains a Johnson type round topped boiler with a large cab.

L.M.A.film. 63
The Locomotive Manufacturers' Association has produced an excellent sound coloured film on the birth, evolution, development and manufacture of locomotives built in Britain to suit requirements throughout the world. The film runs for half-an-hour and traces the growth of engines from the days of Trevithick to the latest and most powerful types of simple and articulated units, both steam and diesel. Within the time available the film gives a very good idea of the great technical and manufacturing resources of this most important industry, with a capacity of 1,000 locomotives yearly. The apt conclusion shows action pictures taken at home and overseas.
This film will interest railways overseas-for which a commentary in the appropriate language will be supplied- and also schools, technical colleges and those associated with locomotive production and operation. The size is 16 mm. and bona fide applicants desiring to have the film on loan should address their requests to Mr. J. W. Vaughan, O.B.E., the Secretary of the Association, at 82, Victoria Street, London, S.W.I.

British Timken Limited. 63.
Announced Mr. F.M.G. Wheeler, B.Sc., A.M.I.Mech.E., M.I.Loco.E., had been appointed Head of their Railway Sales Division.

Henschel condenser tender locomotive. 64. illus.
An interesting war-time production was the Henschel Exhaust Turbine Condensing tender locomotive. Similar designs were built before WW2 for the Argentine, Iraq and Russia, mainly for service in districts with poor water supply (see Locomotive. 1928, p. 252-3). For the same reason they were built by the German administration for use in the Russian theatre of war. Illustration shows the engine with tender.
The circuit is as follows—in the smokebox a small blower turbine is situated which is driven by the exhaust from the cylinders. The exhaust passes to an oil separator and the exhaust pipes (also taking up the exhaust from the auxiliaries) then to the tender where a condenser fan turbine is driven and from there to a radiator-like condenser. The condensate passes through another oil-filter and is then returned to the feed-pump. Details of the condensing tender are as followsr--Steam pressure when entering fan turbine 23 psi when leaving 14 psi, temperature of condensate (which can be regulated by supply of extra exhaust steam directly from the blower and by-passing the fan turbine) 150°F., diameter of condenser fan blade 88 in., running at 1,000 r.p.m. maximum speed. The total cooling surface of the. condenser which consists of six sections is 30,000 sq. ft. As a preventive against freezing all pipes are lagged and shutters fitted outside the cool- ing sections. It is claimed that the locomotive can run 600 miles without taking water. Some 200 such locomotives were built.

Western Region. 64
Engines into service included: 4-6-0 No. 7912 Little Linford Hall, No. 7913 Little Wyrley Hall, No. 7914 Lleweni Hall and No. 7915 Mere Hall. 0-6-0T Nos. 7445, 7446 and 7447 (built at Swindon). 0-6-0T Nos. 8415 to 8418 (built by W. G. Bagnall Ltd.). 0-6-0T No. 8457 (built Yorkshire Eng. Co. Ltd.). 0-6-0T No. 9412 and 9413 (built by Messrs. R. Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd.).
Engines recently condemned included: No. 100 A.I Lloyds, No. 2924 Saint Helena and No. 2955 Tortworth Court. 0-6-2T No. 262 (Barry 106), No. 272 (Barry 116), No. 288 (T.V. 46), and No. 426 (B. & M. 41).

Electric stock for Portugal. 64. Illus.
An electric motor coach and a mixed traffic locomotive were shipped recently by the General Electric Co. Ltd. to the Sociedade Estoril, Portugal. The equipment  was for service on the 5 ft. 6 in. gauge railway running from the Cais de Sodre station in Lisbon to Cascais, along the shore of the Tagus estuary, serving en route the well-known holiday resort of Estoril. The line is electrified at 1,500 D.C. The bodies of the all-steel rolling stock, comprising two first and second class motor coaches, two second class and three third class trailers, were manufactured by Cravens Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd. Because of its broad gauge and large overall dimensions, the motor coach could not travel to Manchester by rail. The body was mounted on special transport bogies for road haulage, and had to follow a circuitous route chosen to avoid sharp corners and bridges unsuitable for heavy loads, since the length of the coach body is 65 ft.. and its weight with electrical equipment nearly 50 tons. Illustration shows loading motor coach at Manchester Docks

Roller bearings. 65-7. 3 diagrams.
Abstract incorporated into J. Instn Loco. Engrs abstract of Paper No. 495

Diesel-electric loco for Bolivia: metre-gauge design with maximum axle load of 12 tons for high altitude working. 67-8.
Locomotive of unusual aspect shipped to South America by Sulzer Bros. Ltd., of Winterthur, Switzerland. Intended for the operation of passenger and freight trains on the Machacamarca-Unica Railway, in Bolivia, it was of the double-bogie type with one large motor on each bogie driving the wheels through a geared jackshaft and rods. Though at one time applied to electric locomotives, this type of design has not found much favour in diesel traction, but was adopted in this instance because it gave an economical design capable of maintaining substantial tractive efforts at moderate speeds, and thoroughly suitable as a vehicle for the comparatively low top speed of 37 m.p.h. permitted over the 60 mile route. The railway itself belongs to the Patino mining group and has a maximum grade of 1 in 40 with long stretches averaging 1 in 58 to 1 in 63 combined with 230-ft. radius curves.

Mr J.B. Mavor MIMechE, MIEE, 68
Elected Chairman of North British Locomotive Co. in succession to late Sir Frederick Stewart

Crown Agents for the Colonies. 68
R.W. Foxlee, Engineer in Chief, had toured East and Central Africa to establish closer contacts with Colonial administrations

Modern Continental tenders and tank wagons. 69-71. 3 diagrams (side and end elevations)
Four-wheel tank wagon which was constructed without an underframe, with the tank withstanding the pulling and buffing forces construced by Chr. Alsson for the Sedish State Railways. Similar tank wagons, but with pressed steel bogies had been constructed at the Skoda works for the German Reichsbahn. Tenders for the 52 Class Austarity locomotives were also constructed on this principle.

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. 71-2
Two Krauss & Co. outside-cylinder, with Allan link motion, 0-4-0Ts were acquired in 1875 for working in Gothenburg harbour. They had domeless boilers and were placed in the Q class. No. 225 Arla and 226 Serla were withdrawn in 1900 and 1897 respectively. The Hallsberg-Motala-Mjolby Railway was taken over by by the State Railways in 1879. Locomotives acquired included two R. & W. Hawthorn 2-4-0Ts of 1872: these were placed in the R class (later Qr). They had 13 x 20in cylinders, 4ft 6in coupled wheels, 579ft2 total heating surface, 10.75ft2 grate area and worked at 130 psi. They were Nos. 281 Mars and 282 Merkur: withdrawn in 1905 and 1899 respectively.

Repairing locomotive frames by welding. 72-3. 2 diagrs.
Cited Cox and Johansen paper 473 on frame cracking, but is not really an abstract of it.

Basil M. Bazley.Our railway companies. 2. South Lancashire days. 73-7.
Begins by noting that parlour games involving racing trains used to be popular in late Victorian times. "When mention is made of the growth of interest in railway working, it must be remembered that in the early 'nineties [1890s] there were not nearly so many journals devoted to this subject. The Locomotive, which started life in January, 1896, as Moore's Monthly, was followed six months later by the Railway Magazine; now there are several journals solely catering for the railwayist. Of course there were the technical papers such as The Engineer and Engineering. not to mention the Railway News and Railwav Gazette, in whose columns articles, which appealed to a non-technical public as well as the usual clientele, occasionally appeared. Sometimes one of the popular monthlies would have an article of railway interest; there were in the 'eighties  [1880s] some excellent descriptions, amply illustrated, of the great railway companies' works — these came out in the English Illustrated Magazine. Nor must we forget some delightfully written books; my youthful zeal was kindled by a timely gift of Our Iron Roads, written for the general reader as well as the expert, by Frederick Williams, then Secretary of the Midland Company; this appeared in 1852, and many later editions in the following forty years kept this charming book right up-to-date. This was followed in 1875 by the same author's history of the Midland Railway, which also ran to many editions. But if we mention Pendleton's " Our Railways and W.M. Acworth's The Railways of England and The Railways of Scotland, which saw the light in 1889 and 1890 respectively, we pretty well exhaust the run of railway literature which attempted to amuse, in the old sense of the world, the general public.
For my own part, I had a kind of family'link to connect me with the railway and its ways and works. My grandfather, George Chamberlain, with whom I then lived in Birkdale, the residential adjunct of Southport, was Chairman and, I believe, the "onlie begetter" of an unfortunate minor line with the long-winded title of "The Southport & Cheshire Lines Extension Railway"". At that time there was a through carriage from Southport Lord Street to St. Pancras which began its journey on the Cheshire Lines Committee. Services to both King's Cross and Marylebone were offered from Lord Street as well as to St. Pancras, but the Author suggests that these may have involved a change of station in Manchester. The L&YR in conjunction with the LNWR also offered through carriages to Euston. It is also noted that his grandfather used the L&YR service to get to work in Liverpool as it was quicker and more convenient. There is also some fairly general comment on the West Lancashire Railway and the presence of the Great Western at Birkenhead Woodside.

Canadian Pacific Railway. 77
Hundredth anniversary of the oldest stretch of track on the Canadian Pacific Railway's 20,000 miles of line, was celebrated on 1 May I950. Although the C.P.R. was only completed as a transcontinental line in 1885 and actual construction was started only four years previous a number of smaller lines were incorporated into the transportation network during the period of linking the two coasts of Canada. Among these was the St. Lawrence and Industry Village Railway, which ran from Lanoraie, on the St. Lawrence River to Industry Village. Industry Village is now known as Joliette, after Barthelemy Joliette who founded the line in 1847. The original line, first opened to the public on 1 May 1850, is now an integral part of the C.P.R.'s St. Gabriel subdivision, which runs north of Lanoraie Junction to St. Gabriel in the Laurentian mountains. The first locomotive used on the line was the Dorchester built in 1835 by Robert Stephenson at Newcastle-on-Tyne, and first used on the Champlain and St. Lawrence Railroad, the first railway in Canada.

Eastern and Scottish Regions. 77
The following engines had been placed in service: 4-6-0 Class. B1 Nos. 61360-61363, 61400. Class. 5 MT. Nos. 44674, 44675. 2-6-0 Class. Kl No. 62070. 2-6-4T Class L1 Nos. 67783-67785. During the same period the following engines had been withdrawn: 4-4-2 Class. C1 (GNR) No. 2854. 4-4-0 Class D9 (GCR) No. 62302. 0-6-0 Class. J36 (NBR) No. 5294. 0-8-0 Class. Q4 (GCR) No. 63231. 0-4-0ST Class. 0FT (CR) No. 16010. 0-4-4T Class. 2PT (CR) No. 15127. 2-4-2T Class 1PT (LNWR) No. 6635. 4-4-0 Class. 2P (HR) No. 14409.4-6-0 Class. 4MT (CR) No. 54651.

Correspondence. 78

McConnell's "Singles" 297-308. P.C. Dewhurst.
The fortunate discovery by Mr. Poole of the interesting drawings, published in "' The Locomotive" of March, of the above locomotives enables their hitherto doubtful constructional features to be finally resolved.
The cross-section views show that the inside bearings were -as was supposed, vide "The Locomotive" during 1942—much closer together than usual and also that the eccentrics were very 'cramped. It is also possible, by close scrutiny of the longitudinal section and the cross-sections (the left pair on page 43) to follow out the inside framing which is now seen to have extended from the throat-plate corners of the firebox sides right through to the cylinders.
Commencing from a splayed end where connected to the firebox shell, a portion of bar section appears, followed by a very abrupt upward and downward shaping to form the top and sides of the driving axlebox-guides (the top portion clearly appearing in the cross-section taken at the driving-axle centre). From in front of the driving axlebox-guides it becomes a "slab" pattern framing extending through to the rear of the cylinders; this portion is increased in depth where it carries the pump, where it makes connection with the motion-plate, and finally is shaped in a similar form where connection is made with the downward prolongation of the tubeplate at the rear of the cylinders.
From forward of the driving axlebox-guides to the cylinders this inside frame is strictly in line with the cylinder to driving-axle centre-line and thus in the correct path of reaction to the driving forces, and is in company—except that it is a little thicker, but of less depth—with many normal double-framed designs of the period; not so however, the rather fantastic shaping-up around the driving axlebox-guides. The cross-section taken between the driving axle and the pump shows the "slab" formation of the inside frame where deepened for the attachment of the pump and also shows the plate attached to the outside of this frame for the purpose of carrying the reversing-shaft bracket.
These newly discovered drawings also show that the valves were set at an angle transversely and that, as Mr. Poole mentions, the driving wheel bosses were abnormal—and for no apparent reason!—and with the whole design now fully known it appears just as inexplicable as ever why McConnell, whose machinery and running-gear designing was usually so straightforward, came to produce this potentially troublesome example.

McConnell's express engines. E.C. Poultney.
Mr. Pooles article on the McConnell locomotives, Nos. 297-308, is one of the most interesting I have seen for some time. The Author remarks on certain features of these historic engines, including the regulator valve, saying, "most surprising of all a Ramsbottom double-beat regulator." I agree, and it is also interesting to see the method of working it by the use of an eccentric, which, like the valve, also appeared in Crewe practice of many years later. What has attracted my attention in particular is the cylinder design with the V-shaped valve chest and slide valve arrangement. Now we see where F.W. Webb got his cylinder design for the Precedents of 1874. These engines had exactly the same arrangement, giving a good steam chest volume, which, in conjunction with comparatively large ports and the short full gear cut-off adopted by Webb, gave these remarkable engines the excellent reputation for fast running they enjoyed for so many years. The exhaust pipe arrangement shown is also very like that largely used at Crewe, while yet another feature found in modern L. & N.W.R. engines is the dove-tailing of the "big end" straps in the ends of the connecting rods. This, again, has been Crewe practice for a number of years.
When Aspinall brought out his smokebox superheater on the L. & Y. round about 1900, I, for one, thought the idea new; to judge from your drawing, such was not the case, for, in principle, the McConnell steam dryer and the Aspinall superheater are the same. Ahrons in .his book, The British Steam Locomotive, 1825-1925, illustrates. by Fig. 106, page 95, McConnell's engine No. 300, and gives a lengthy description, not, however, mentioning the steam chest design. which is rather surprising. The late C.F. Dendy Marshall. writing in The Engineer of October 16, 1942, mentions the drawings you now reproduce and, in doing so, remarks on the steam chest and valve arrangement as having been used by Webb. The development of locomotive design is really a most fascinating subject, and is greatly assisted by the publication of drawings such as.those now under consideration.

Reviews. 78.

Minimum gauge railways. Republished by C.R. Clinker. Padstow.
Sir Percival Heywood, the indefatigable champion of 15 in. gauge railways, published a book on the application, construction and working of minimum gauge railways, which he distributed privately. The text of this book, dealing largely with the Duffield Bank .and Eaton Hall lines, has now been reproduced. It contains useful information applicable to garden and estate railwavs and is recommended to all interested in these subjects.

The Snailbeach District Railways. E.S. Tonks. Author.
The history of the little railways in this district is chronicled at some length. The facts concerning the conception and operation of the lines are recorded and the whole is well illustrated.

The Vale of Rheidol Railway. By L. Cozens. Author
The author, had already produced several good little histories of some of the smaller lines, had obviously gone to a great deal of trouble to assemble so much information relating to this line. The illustrations are numerous and every aspect of the construction and working of the railway is covered.

Helical springs.R. Finniecome. Emmott & Co. Ltd.
This survey and analysis of the stresses in helical springs, of circular cross section, will be welcomed by those faced with problems concerning the design of such springs. In view of the fact that the late T. H. Sanders was one of the greatest authorities ever on springs it is somewhat surprising that his name 'is absent from the Bibliography included in this monograph.

Industrial Locomotives of Eastern England.Birmingham Locomotive Club.
This book, No. 4 in the series, covers owners of these engines in London and the counties of Middlesex, Bedford, Hertford, Essex, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Suffolk and Lincoln.

British Timken Ltd.
Service manual, No. 1007, dealing with the fitting, lubrication and maintenance of railway axleboxes of the split cannon type. The book, covering boxes applied to all locomotive axles is well produced, excellently illustrated, and should be of great use to those responsible for the application and maintenance of these bearings.

Number 694 (15 June 1950)

Correspondence. 94.

[Worsdell compounds?]. Compound Tommy.
See response from Norman Duncan

Number 695 (15 July 1950)

Locomotive derailments. 95-6.
Derailments of locomotives and trains are not always due to defects in either the motive power or rolling stock: for example, that due to a landslide at Little Salkeld, on the old Midland Railway, in January, 1918. Others are due entirely to the permanent way, such as those from rail buckling that have occurred at different times. Certain derailments, and possibly that of a 4-6-4T engine at Hassocks in 1914 is an example, are due entirely to the locomotive; and purely locomotive causes also include tyre breakages.
By far the greater number of derailments, however, are caused by a combination of circumstances arising from both locomotive and track, anyone of which by itself would not have given rise to the accident. The greatest proportionate blame, however, is due sometimes to the vehicle and sometimes to the permanent way—and sometimes to the formation, as in the Lindal "disappearance" on the Furness Railway in 1892. Within the "combined" category an example of recent years was the derailment of a L.M.S.R. 4-6-2 at Mossband, north of Carlisle, on a piece of track difficult to maintain in first-class alignment because of the sodden ground. But most celebrated of the "combined" instances, and probably the one that led to most argument and experiment, was the Sevenoaks derailment in 1927, when a 2-6-4T engine came off the road at about 57 m.p.h., a month after a sister engine had been derailed at Bearsted. The design of the "River" class tank engines at that time does not seem to have been characterised by much inherent stability; and though the track must have contributed a quota to the roll, the greatest single factor in producing the roll which brought the engine off the track seems to have been the characteristics of the suspension and side-control systems.
Of the derailments attributable mainly to the locomotive defects in the suspension and side-controlsystems along with flange wear, are responsible for a large proportion. These are due not only to unsuitable overall design making insufficient allowance for weight alteration between one side and another whilst running or providing too small a guiding force (e.g. Weaver Junction, Kent House, Hatfield, 1946), but also to the breakage of springs, hangers, and buckles, though this event is not nearly as common as it was in earlier years. Accidents due to such breakages include those at Scremerston (N.E.R.) in 1916, where a hanger broke; and at Waterloo (Liverpool) in 1903. In this second case the buckle of one of the coupled wheel springs fractured, and as a result of the unequal distribution of weight the tank engine left the track at about 50 m.p.h. on a 23-chain curve, mounted the platform ramp, hit an overbridge, and swung right round. Though negotiating a curve the locomotive actually was derailed on the inside.
The former Lancashire & Yorkshire 2-4-2T engines were used regularly on fast passenger trains. Probably they had an inherent tendency towards unstable running; certainly they were involved in several derailments. As the trains they worked became heavier and faster their mishaps began to increase, andnot only were they heavy on their springs but also suffered some tyre breakages. The Chatburn derailment (1928) was due primarily, according to the inspecting officer, to the advanced state of fatigue of a trailing coupled spring of one of these engines, though outside causes helped, defective permanent way increasing the shocks. Badly-paired springs, and the great variation in the characteristics of individual laminated and helical springs, also have been contributory causes in several derailments of different classes, including 0-6-2T and 0-6-4T types. The Wandlesworth accident (1932) was an example with a L. & Y. 2-4-2T; though due in the end to an axle breakage, it involved the spring gear and a possible overloading of a weak axle. Breakages of axles have been responsible for few accidents in this century, though they were much more common before that, and included the notable one at Penistone in the 'eighties, when Massey Bromley was killed.
Flange conditions alone rarely bring about derailment, though flange wear often, if not generally, assists defects in suspension and guiding systems in leading to derailments. Kent House (1930) and Weaver Junction (the same year), mentioned previously, both featured poor flange conditions. The former was remarkable in that the wheels of both leading and centre coupled axles were derailed and then re-railed, having meanwhile lifted a check rail and passed it out into the six-foot between adjacent wheel pairs. When the locomotive was weighed afterwards the weight on the leading pair of coupled wheels was 3 tons less than the design figure. But in the Weaver Junction accident, where only the leading pair of coupled wheels of a "Royal Scat" 4-6-0 came off the track when passing over a crossing at 70 m.p.h. on a 30½chain curve, the loading at the subsequent weighing was 3½ tons above the nominal for the leading coupled axle. These two occurrences illustrated that the derailment of a pair of coupled wheels may not always bring such serious results as the derailment of a bogie. Other "flange" derailments include Kingstown (D. & S.E.R.) and Scotswood (N.E.R.), both in 1911.
Over-turning due simply to centrifugal force through running over curves at high speed is rare; but accidents from this include Salisbury (1906) , Grantham (1906), Shrewsbury (1907), and Carlisle (1931). In the last-named accident, again, tyre conditions were not all they might have been, the 4-4-0 engine had run over 80,000 miles in ten months, and was almost due for overhaul, but whatev.er the flange conditions the speed was far too high for an 11-chain curve.

4-6-0 type mixed traffic locos. Egyptian State Railways. 96-7. 2 illus.
Locomotive supplied by the Montreal Locomotive Works Ltd. had a taper boiler with round top firebox and bar frames. The total evaporative heating surface was 1933ft2 and included thermic syphons. The superheater was 446ft2 and the grate area 32.8ft2  and boiler pressure 225 psi. The cylinders were 21 x 28in and the coupled wheels 6ft. A further eighteen 4-6-0 type had also been delivered by the North British Locomotive Company: these had dimensions similar to those described on p. 35, but the boiler pressure had been raised to 225 psi. Like the Canadian locomotives they were designed to burn oil.

O.S. Nock. Locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell, 1912-1937. Part V. 97-9. illus.
Corresponds to pp. 50-6 of book with similar title.

Henschel and Ash Locomotive Co. Ltd. 99.
Incorporated in South Africa to manufacture, steam, electric and diesel-electric locomotives

Breakdown cranes. 99-100. 2 illus.
Supplied by Messrs. John Cockerill of Seraing, Belgium: one of 62.5 tonnes capacity for metre gauge railways in French Indo-China and of 85 tonnes capacity for the French State Railways.

Feed-heaters on 2-8-0 locos. Central Uruguay Railway. 100. illius.
ACFI type.

Stephenson Locomotive Society. 100.
Irish tour during May.

500 h.p. diesel mechanical 0-6-0 locomotive Southern Region. 100-1. illus.
Designed by O.V. Bulleid and constructed at Ashford Works with BFB wheels, a Paxman 12 RPH V type engine and an SSS Powerflow gearbox designed and constructed by David Brown & Sons of Huddersfield.

Track-laying units. 101
Five to be built at Swindon and to employ hydraulic power for use on Western, North Eastern and Scottish Regions. Another using compressed air would be built by and for the Southern Region. Designed to lift 60ft lengths of prefabricated track using cantilever arms.

Bridge reconstruction, East London Line. 101.
Three girders built by Joseph Westwood Ltd at Millwall used in reconstruction of bridge over Grand Surrey Canal. Due to weight restrictions they had to be transported via Neasden and Norwood.

The North Brabant Railway Co. 102-4. 2 illus., 2 diagrs (side elevations), table

Personal. 104.

3,000 h.p. main line electric locomotive. Estrada de Ferro Santos a Jundiai, Brazil. 104-6. illus.
Co-Co locomotives operating on 3000 volts DC produced by hydro-electric power. Locomotives manufactured at the Vulcan Foundry.

2-8-2 locos of Nigerian Railways. 107. illus.

Locomotive roundhouses in France. 107-8. illus.
The structure is built of reinforced concrete, the roof sloping towards the inside, which gives better iighting A travelling crane is installed. The important problem of smoke clearing was given special attention and a special type ot hood is used. The hoods are made of fibre-cement, and are suspended from the roof. For the collection of stray smoke the inner roof is fitted with special openings. It is interesting to note that no less than 2,800 m." (3,662 cub. yds.) of concrete, 280 tonnes of steel and 4,200 m." (5,023 sq. yds.) of glazed framework were used in the construction.

Institute of Transport Summer Meeting. 108.
The summer meeting this year took the form of a visit to various transport centres on the Continent. Two full days were spent in Milan whence, among. other places, a visit was made to the Italian State Railway works at Greco, where both steam and electric locomotives are repaired, and to the great Pirelli factory. Here time allowed only for an inspection of the manufacture of cables and the whole process, from the copper ingot to the complete multi-core insulated product, was followed with interest. The Tramway Depot was also inspected; the tramway traffic in Milan is exceptionally heavy at peak penods and as there are no restrictions on the number of standing passengers, as many as can push in are carried and 165 have been counted in one single-decked car.
The following day, motor coaches conveyed the party to Como and a return to Milan was made in one of the two stainless steel three-coach trains possessed by the North Milan electric railway. These coaches were built in 1938, but have been modernised recently.
Leaving Milan on the third day, the party travelled by motor coaches to Merano. En route, visits were paid to the power station at Stazzona. and a second dam. under construction across the Adda river at Valdidentro m the mountains above Bormio in connection with electrical development. The Milan Electricity Board have installed overhead wires for some twenty miles along the public road to power the lorries conveying cement to the dam. Stazzon.a power station was bmlt during the late war and is constructed deep in the hillside so as to avoid possible air raid damage.
Two restful days were spent at Merano, the beautiful resort in the Trentino, after which the party proceeded through the Brenner Pass to Innsbruck. Here the repair shops of the Austrian State Railways were visited. There is very little new construction in Austria and it was interesting to see how vehicles due for scrap are reconditioned; how wheels have new metal electrically deposited on their tyres which are re-turned in outward appearance as new. All the Austrian lines west of Villach and Linz are electrically operated and there are only about twelve steam engines in that half of Austria. They are of the 2-6-0 type used for shunting in yards not equipped with the overhead electric wires. The eastern part of the country is still steam operated and wood is the fuel used by many of the engines.
The programme concluded with two whole days in Basel. Basel is one of the great transit centres of Central Europe and four important installations were inspected. The Dreispitz is an extensive pnvately-owned railway depot managed by the municipality. Here about 200 firms have their own sheds where their goods can be stored and inspected by buyers from all over Europe, while there is also a large bonded warehouse where dutiable goods are held in stock. Rum is imported from Jamaica, matured and blended here and exported to the U.S.A. The Dreispitz possesses four 0-6-0 tank locomotives, the one used. to convey the visitors around being a well-tank built in 1900 for the Swiss North Eastern Railway and purchased when that line was electrified.
A special train conveyed the party to the new Wolf Goods Station. All destinations are here grouped under some eighty area numbers. This number is printed on the address label affixed to the package and corresponding numbers ll;re hanging from the roof and the package is placed under its particular number. When sufficient goods are collected. a corresponding number is affixed to an empty van on an adjoining siding and the whole loaded. By usmg a number, it is unnecessary for the loaders to have any geographical knowledge.
Re-entering the train, the members were taken to the Muttenz sorting sidings. Here wagons are propelled by a 2-10-0 tender engine at a speed of 3 km. per hour over a hump which divides irrto 43 lines, each accommodating 80 wagons. There are two lines over the hump, one with a steeper gradient for winter use. About fifty trains, or approximately 3,000 wagons are dealt with dally. Wagons are braked down the hump by Thyssen hydraulic retarders. A visit was next paid to the tramway depot and one of the latest type cars inspected. They are single-deckers each accommodating 100 passengers. There are only 28 seats in each, 72 passengers standing. These cars can pull two similar trailers and the carrying capacity is thus very great. All passengers enter at the rear where the conductor sits and collects the fares. There are two exit doors at the front and centre of the car, operated hy the conductor, and the rear entrance door can be used as an additional exit at rush hours. In the depot two advertising cars were noticed. These are old cars which run about the system surrounded by a hoarding on which are displayed large advertisements a fruitful source of revenue. The trolleybus depot was also visited and one of the new vehicles with a similar body to the new trams examined.
The final morning was pleasantly occupied by a trip on the Rhine by special boat to view the port of Basel. Being 550 miles from the sea, it is not always realised that Basel is a port and that barges of up to 2,000 tons capacity bring here yearly about 1½ million tons of coal and ore from the Ruhr, oil from Rotterdam, etc.; commercial navigation ceases here and it has all to be unloaded and the bulk is forwarded by rail to its destination.

Eastern and Scottish Regions. 108.
Locomotives recently placed in traffic: Class. B1: Nos. 61407-61409. 2-6-4T Class. L1: Nos. 67790, 67791. 2-6-0 Class. 2 MT: No. 46460. The following locomotives recently withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class. B5 (GCR): No. 1686. 4-4-0  Class. D2 (GNR): No. 2713; Class. . D3 (GNR): No. 2140; Class. D9 (GCR): No. 2307; Class. D41 (GNSR): No. 2235. 0-6-0T Class. J52 (GNR): Nos. 8816, 8845. 2-6-4T Class. L3 (GCR): No. 9068. 0-8-0 Class Q1 (GCR): No. 63232.

Western Region No. 7818, Granville Manor, on the 10.05 Southampton.to Cheltenham near Andover, Driver A. Wilkins and Fireman R. Harper. 108

0-8-0 tank locomotive for Spain. 109. diagram (side elevation)
Four 4 ft. gauge 0-8-0 tank locomotives had been constructed by North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., for the Tharsis Sulphur & Copper Co. Ltd .. Spain. While generally these engines followed the design of the F class built in 1914, for the same owners, a number of modern features had been incorporate,d. The tank and bunker capacities had been increased and centre couplers were fitted in addition to side buffers, an alteration which demanded modifications to the buffer beams and drag boxes. The Belpaire boiler, pressed to 160 psi, had a total heating surface of 987 ft2. of which 787 ft2 is evaporative and 200 ft2. derived from the 15-element MeLeSco superheater. Steam was taken via a mushroom regulator, housed in the dome, and distributed to two 19 in. by 22 in. cylinders by 8 in. diameter piston valves actuated by Walschaerts gear. Reverse was by screw.  

Correspondence. 109-10.

Charles Roscoe
Refers to Derens' letter in June Issue: many remember the days when heavy express trains were worked on the former Great Northern and Midland Railways by two single wheelers, apparently with success; and it may well be that the slipping of the wheels at starting may have worked as Derens suggested. On other grounds, the practice of double heading had obvious objections, and presumably it was to overcome these that  Dugald Drummond introduced his 4 cylinder double single on the LSWR with long fireboxes. According to Derens' argument, these engines should have run satisfactorily, whereas, in fact, the design was abandoned. However this may be, the fact remains that hundreds of modern locos. of great power, Mallets, Garratts, and the like, all articulated-one-boiler machines, appear to be doing excellent work, and there would seem to be no reason why the B. & O. engines mentioned should not do likewise. We therefore seem to be faced with the query as to why large locos. driven by two (or more) independent engines with four (or more) coupled wheels each, should be able to synchronise their driving powers while a smaller engine with independent single axles should fail to do so. What, exactly is the crux of this problem?

F.J.G. Haut. 110
Further to your article on the Austrian electric locomotives of Series 1170 described in the April issue, the following additional information. After WW2, the Austrian State Railways ordered 16 locomotives of a development type of Series 1170: series 1170.300 of two types, version A having all-welded body and two four-wheel bogies, coupled together and carrying buffers and coupling gear to be built in ten units by the Vienna Locomotive Works at Florisdorf. The other 6, version B to be built by the Wagon-Works Ltd. in Craz , and will have uncoupled light-weight' bogies, transmission of tractive forces being through the main frame, as in the case of the Swiss Bo-Bo locomotives.

Western Region. 110.
New engines in service included: 0.6-6.0: No. 18000 gas turbine. by British Brown-Boveri Ltd., Winterthur. 4-6-0: No. 7028 Cadbury Castle; No. 7029 Clun Castle and No. 7919 Runter Hall. 0-6-0T No. 8459 by the Yorkshire Eng. Co. Ltd. and 9415 to 9418 by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd. Engines taken into stock from the Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Light Railway: 0-6-0 Nos 8108, 8182 and 8236. 0-4-2T 1 Gazelle.

Reviews. 110

Britlsh-Caprotti Valve Gear:-Associated Locomotive Equipment Ltd
This book thoroughly covers the subject from the basic principles underlying the use of poppet valves: cylinder design, application to various types of locomotive, conversion of existing stock, the financial aspect, weight comparison, maintenance, manufacture and servicing all find their place in this well-produced and profusely illus- trated book. While the application of the gear mentioned to locomotives is the chief subject the Lentz gear and marine applications also receive attention.

Practical management and works relations. A.C. Whitehead. Emmott & Co., Ltd. Manchester
The difficult problem of relations between management and workers in the factory is investigated from various angles. The author tries to show how it is possible to combine efficient production with happy human relationship in industry.

Insulating oils for transformers and switchgear.
A brochure issued by the The Shell Petroleum Co. Ltd. Compiled especially to help engineers with information on insulating oils.

The Royal Scot.  110. illustration
The 10 a.m. Euston - Glasgow express is now adorned with a distinctive head board which embodies a Scottish lion on a yellow shield above the name. In addition, the roof boards on the coaches have been painted in the Stuart Royal tartan, with the lettering "The Royal Scot" superimposed. In the restaurant cars the menu cards carry a special Royal Scot emblem, and the staff will wear a like device in the lapels of their jackets. A special sign, also incorporating a Scottish lion, has been erected over the entrance to platforms 12 - 15 at Euston to direct passengers to the express, and a similar sign is being provided at Glasgow (Central).

John Poole. Locomotives of the Buenos Aires Western Railway, 1899-1947. -134

No. 698 (15 October 1950)

The Austerity tanks-their origin and operation. 161-4. 3 illus., diagr. (s. & f. els.), 3 tables.
A very complete account, which includes the origin of the design, performance in service and a stock list.

No. 699 (15 November 1950)

International Railway Congress 1950. 165-6.
The fifteenth International Railway Congress opened in Rome on 25 September, when about 500 delegates from various parts of the world met to discuss the many problems that face railways nowadays. The chief points upon which attention was focussed were organisation of marshalling yards, methods of increasing the mileage of rolling stock between repairs, modern safety methods, and a comparison of steam, electric and diesel traction.
Perhaps the most important to our readers was the advantage to be gained by the more extensive use of the diesel locomotive. The purchase of steam locomotives has practically ceased in recent years in the USA, but in Europe the question has not developed any definite tendencies to date. The change over in the States has no doubt, been influenced to some extent by a series of strikes by the coalminers and a plentiful supply of indigenous oil.
Many countries are using diesel engines increasingly for shunting and engines for this work were divided into three categories:-
(1) 50 to 100 h.p. for use in sheds, workshops and at small stations.
(2) 150 to 300 h. p. for use in average size yards.
(3) 400 to 700 h.p, for heavy shunting and use in large marshalling yards.
In the first two categories, mechanical drive is chiefly used in view of its lower cost, but in the third category electric drive is generally employed owing to the difficulty of designing a clutch to stand up to the greater horse power involved. Electric and hydraulic drives are more flexible in service. Though the initial cost of diesel shunters is higher, they have a greater availability and the operating costs are definitely lower, if they can be fully utilised.
The use of railcars in the USA is not great but in Europe their use has been rapidly extended in recent years and they are used for long-distance services on main lines as well as on secondary lines and this is likely to increase owing to the favour they find with the public, the operating advantages obtaining in flexibility and the increase in average speeds, particularly on lines with heavy gradients or many stops. As against the orthodox train, of course, their capacity is limited and we, ourselves, have experienced the serious overcrowding that frequently takes place; to overcome this, it is possible (and indeed the usual practice with the newer railcars) to couple several together and operate them as one unit, if the traffic warrants.
Modern rolling stock is expensive and each day stock is immobilised means a substantial loss corresponding to the fixed financial charges on the vehicle. The Netherlands Railways considered that tyre wear was the determining factor, though on their steam locomotives the maximum allowabie wear on the axle box bearings is reached as quickly as the limit of tyre wear. To minimise tyre wear various forms of lubrication on curves have been tried. Lubrication by the engine has been abandoned in France and Belgium on account of the excessive amount of oil used, but the SNCF found that lubricating the rail on curves of less than 1640ft. radius by oil increases the life of the tyre by sixty per cent., as well as doubling the life of the rail. Belgian railways use colloidal graphite and the Dutch use water or steam to the same purpose. The advantage of roller bearings was agreed. The French railways built some 2-8-2's (series P) with strengthened frames in 1943 and ordered from the USA a number of mixed traffic 2-8-2's (series R) with one piece cast steel frames. Some of the latter had Timken axleboxes on all wheels and some on the driving boxes only, and they reported that on series P the period between liftings had increased from 44,000 to 62,000 miles and on series R with monobloc frames to 75,000 miles and even to 87,000 when fitted with roller bearing axle boxes. They add that self-adjusting wedges and harder tyres must be given credit for part of this very great improvement. This test was very comprehensive. There are no less than 1323 2-8-2 locos of series R and 700 had ordinary boxes and 623 had roller bearing boxes on all or part of the wheels. All these engines have forged steel solid wheels on the leading and trailing trucks. They add that roller bearings on the driving axle are particularly effective.
The Swiss Federal Railways reported that electric locomotives and carriages fitted with one piece wheels and roller bearings and an improved design of bogie gave a mileage between overhauls three and four times as great as older stock not so fitted. The Swiss use extensively flange lubrication on their electric locos and are of the opinion that it reduces tyre wear by a third.
Another detail considered at the Congress was the best material to use on all rubbing surfaces; this calls for study and mention was made of a plastic material used in France and a substance with an asbestos base under test in Norway.
The use of the one piece wheels was discussed. The SNCF considered that under present manufacturing conditions and for the increased mileage obtained, the use of one niece wheels was more costly but they are lighte;' and the Swiss have decided to use them on their new lightweight vehicles and the French have adopted them for their new electric rail motor coaches and diesel railcars. As a rule, ordinary carbon steel is used but the SNCF will use chrome-molybdenum steel. Another question that seriously concerned the delegates was the competition with road transport and considerable time was given to means of increasing. the comfort of railway travel; better springing. railjoints, soundproofing and lighting, etc., all came under review. Nearly all railways arc affected and the railways of Italy particularly. Italy possesses very good straight roads between its main traffic centres and, as there are no restrictions whatever on road vehicles, hundreds of motor coaches and heavy lorries are very seriously affecting rail receipts.
The conference closed on 4 October, when M. Delory of the Belgian National Railways, President of the IRC Association, thanked the ltalian Government and the Italian Railways for the hospitality and help they had given, which had contributed so much to the success of the Congress.

Western Region. 166
New engines recently put into service included: 4-6-0 No. 7920 Coney Hall, No. 7921 Edstone Hall, No. 7922 Salford Hall, No. 7923 Speke Hall and No. 7924 Thornycroft Hall. 0-6-0T No. 1629, 0-6-0T No. 8463, built by the Yorkshire Engine. Co., Ltd., Sheffield. 0-6-0T No. 9425 to 9428, built by R. Stephenson & Hawthorns, Ltd., Newcastle.

New 4-6-4 French Express Locomotive. 166-7. illus., diagr. (side elevation section)
Following the 232 R and S locomotives, the French State Railways developed a further prototype with the 4-6-4 wheel arrangement, series 232 U. Originally series R and S were to have been built in units of four and three respectively, series S being a four-cylinder compound type with rotary cam poppet valves, and series R a three-cylinder poppet valve engine with simple expansion (see Locomotive Volume 54 page 13). The fourth unit of series R was to have embodied a Lungstrom turbine but, owing to the war, this proposal was never carried out. Instead, series U was developed and completed in 1949; locomotive 232. U.l was built by Corpet, Louvet et Cie., under the guidance of its designer, M. de Caso. The U series followed closely the layout of series R and S; the main differences were the use of orthodox driving mechanism with piston valve gear and, in addition, all axles were equipped with roller bearings. The Schmidt superheater was replaced by a Houlet type whereby it was hoped to reduce the exhaust gas temperature. In series U, the driving wheels were equipped with Skefko roller bearings. All chassis and running gear lubrication was by automatic pumps.

Eastern and Scottish Regions. 167.
New locomotives into stock: B1 class 4-6-0 No. 61370; 4MT 2-6-0 Nos. 43058-60. Withdrawn: J10 0-6-0 No. 65128; J15 bNo. 5437; J52 No. 8763; J66 No. 8381 and Q4 No. 3226,

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. 168-9. 2 diagrams (side elevations and plans)

50-ton air operated dump car. 169. illustration.
Supplied by Head, Wrightson & Co. of Thornaby-on-Tees to the Steel Company of Wales.

Estoril Railway. Portugal. 169.

John Poole. Locomotives of the Buenos Aires Western Railway, 1899-1947. 170-2, 3 illustrations

British Railways. Mr. S.B. Warder. 172.
Formerly Mechanical and Electrical Engineer, Southern Region appointed Chief Officer (Electrical Engineering) Railway Executive Headquarters in succession to C.M. Cock.

"Sentinel" geared locomotive. 172-3.

Basil M. Bazley. Our railway companies. 3. Further afield.. 178-80.
Continued from page 160). Shorter journeys I enjoyed in plenty during those early years of the 'nineties. There were trips to Manchester for the wonderful pantomimes of that city; generally we travelled by C.L.C. from Liverpool and by L. & Y. from Southport. Southport to Preston was a nice little journey — the carriages, like Cleopatra, had infinite variety. Blackpool I did not visit by rail for many years, as we always made that expedition by sea. Buxton was within easy reach and was attained over Midland metals on account of my relative's friendly relations with that company. We had two routes to Chester; the direct L. & N.W. from Lime St. via Runcorn and Helsby was the quicker, but on at least one occasion we had a saloon on the C.L.C. from Southport via Manchester (Central); this latter was rather a pretty line after the suburbs of the Cotton City had been passed — it traversed Delamere Forest and old-world Knutsford, one of the two places that still keeps May Day. Just out of Manchester I was introduced to the little line with the long name — the Manchester, South Junction & Altrincham. The Chester trains used this line, which started from a sort of annex to London Road Station and was owned by the L. & N.W. and G.C., as far as Altrincham; its trains were very similar to C.L.C. stock, but they were "horsed" by the two owning companies. It gave, and still gives, an excellent service to the places on its line; in recent years electric traction was installed most successfully.

After the delightful peace which prevailed at the Cheshire Lines Chester (Northgate) Station, it was like going from cosmos to chaos to enter the other and more important "General" Station. To add to its other attractions it had the charm of being under joint ownership, an evil which. it seems, required to be cured by complete State Management. Some years ago the Corporation of the Ancient City produced a poster entitled "Chester, the Gateway to North Wales;" seeing this, a friend at Euston remarked to me that it was rather sad for North Wales that the gate in question was generally locked. That this station was (and is) an awkward place to work no one will deny; what did happen was that hardly any train either called there or went through without suffering delay. Here it was that I caught my first sight uf the Great Western in full — or should say — in partial blast, and I was not amused! Somehow the "great" Great Western was not so impressive in its northern fastness as it appeared in Glorious Devon; it seemed to straggle into Chester and in the old days looked rather tired after the effort. It is but fair to say that things brightened up a good deal after the opening of the "new short route" to Birmingham. However, in my young days, the G.W. engines and coaches in its northern territories were certainlv quaint. Curiously enough, I did not see anything of the G.W. at Birkenhead till after 1900 or later, though in recent years I have travelled a good deal over the route to Liverpool. To my great regret I missed seeing the Broad Gauge; I was in London when the last broad gauge train left Paddington for Penzance in 1892, but I was considered too young to go and see this by myself, and my family were not interested.

As we had some friends at West Kirby in the Wirral I was taken over the Wirral Railway several times; we went by the Mersey Tunnel Railway to Birkenhead Park, where we had to change into the Wirral train. The operation of the Mersey Tunnel must have been costly, as the line had gradients of 1 in 27 and 1 in 30; the trains weighed up to 150 tons. The powerful Beyer, Peacock tanks — 0-6-4 and the later 2-6-2 types — weighed about half the tonnage of the train. There was a five-minute service from Liverpool (Central Low-Level) to the other side of the river at Hamilton Square where the line forked, Birkenhead Park and Rock Ferry each getting an equal share of the number of trains. In spite of the phenomenal grades time was kept, and the rolling stock was very creditable. Owing to the ventilating fans the air in the great tunnel under the river was always perfectly fresh; one could not say the saine of that at Central Low-Level, while, on a hot day, the atmosphere of the tunnels from Hamilton Square to Tranmere suggested a dramatised version of parts of Dante's Inferno. In addition to visits to London I had a few longer journeys. As a small boy I was sent to school in the north of Scotland, so I had the joys (?) of travelling by night on the outward run to Inverness. I was put into the night train (I forget which one) from Euston at Preston, and made my first night journey at the age of ten in an ordinary first-class compartment with toilet. The vehicle was one of the North Western's "42 ft. radials" which behaved quite nicely on the straight, but groaned a good deal round curves. The compartment had six seats, one of which came to pieces so as to permit access to the lavatory; the contrivance was ingenious, but it was not comfortable and the design was not perpetuated. On another journey I was given a berth in an 8-wheel sleeping car; it was very like its 6-wheel predecessor except for having an elliptical instead of clerestory roof. Some berths were longitudinal, others transverse; if I remember rightly, the smaller vehicle had six berths in two compartments — the eight-wheeler had two more berths.

After the arrival at Perth there was a wait of about an hour and a half; this was not a cheerful break of journey, especially in the month of January. The refreshment room was then in all its glory of supplying the minimum of comestibles at the maximum cost; faded sandwiches and ancient buns; bad coffee and indifferent tea — owing to our curious licensing laws nothing like hot rum could be obtained. This was not an encouraging prelude to a journey of over four hours· under chilly conditions in a rather gaunt compartment. However, with the advent of the twentieth century, "The Highland Railway Company," as it used to style itself on its luggage labels, improved greatly; but about 1894 economy had to be studied. In spite of the beauties of the scenery, which, owing to the long nights, were not apparent at first, the pilgrimage tended to become wearisome by the time that "Strathcarron" or one of her sisters was toiling up the long bank to Dava; when at last, after a reverse at Forres, we started for the Capital of the Highlands, we felt that our sufferings were nearly over, and offered up thanks. The up journey was much the same, except that the tedious period was between Perth, or Stirling, and Carlisle; it was quite a relief to get on to "the best permanent way in the world" for the English part of the run. At Preston I was met; and after a peaceful night at the joint railways' Station Hotel, the last stage of the journey to Southport was undertaken at leisure the next morning.

On one occasion I came home from Scotland, with my family, by the Macbrayne "swift" steamer via the Caledonian Canal and Oban to Glasgow; here, and at Oban, we halted for the night, going on by the morning Liverpool train from St. Enoch, via Carlisle and Hellifield, where one of the party was much amused to see a goods wagon bearing the legend in chalk, "B road to Hell!" From here a Midland engine worked through to Liverpool (Exchange) , dropping the Manchester vehicles at Blackburn. About 1894 my family left Southport, to live at a place called Gateacre, about six miles south-east of Liverpool. In this neighbourhood I began to see a little more of the L. & N.W.R., as we were not far from Allerton on the main Liverpool-London line; here I used to watch the expresses, heavy trains for those days and almost invariably piloted. The train engine was generally one of Webb's " Dreadnought " 3-cylinder compounds led by a "Precedent" or "Jumbo": the weight of these trains, after the relatively light Midland Liverpool expresses and the light C.L.C. trains, was an eye-opener to me. In later days I often used to wonder how those compounds ever managed the work, even when helped. But the Euston firm managed to keep its reputation for punctuality, and Mr. Webb averred that these curious. machines saved coal; however, the main thing was that they got their heavy loads to their destination according to schedule. Afterwards, up to the time when " grouping" exercised its dismal influence, the North Western showed all the others what heavy express work at high speed really was; this they did for a number of years.

Further experience of the "premier" line came to, me from a few journeys to and from school, as the scene of my education had now moved to Birmingham. My first trip was a homeward one, over the natural route via Dudley Port; I was at first puzzled, when travelling in the opposite direction, to find myself on strange ground after leaving Wolverhampton (High Level), the train being routed via Bescot and Vauxhall, entering the great station at New Street from its eastern end; I fear that I gave little thought to "Bracebridge Hall" when passing Aston — Soccer had replaced memories of the charming work of Washington Irving! My usual train to Birmingham had, what the French call a bouleversement, at Crewe: the 2 p.m. ex Liverpool and the 2.10 p.m. ex Manchester were made up of carriages for Euston and Birmingham; the two trains ran into Crewe at the same time, 2.55, and were re-marshalled; the London express leaving at 3 did not call at Stafford, thus giving a clear road for the united Birmingham portion which followed it out at 3.5 p.m. Before going to London permanently I had one or two other trips in the North of England. One year we went across country for the summer holiday to Scarborough; the L. & N.W.R. provided the usual 42 ft. "radials" of the period for the through train from Lime St. Unluckily I paid little attention to the interesting run between Manchester and Leeds and indeed onward to York; I looked out at the former city to see the North Eastern's imposing-looking locomotives and quite pleasing carriages — the steamer-like whistle used by that company seemed very soothing after the eldritch shrieks of certain other lines. I noticed a few six-wheelers with spoked instead of Mansell wheels, and I was very glad to see the prevalence of bogie stock; by about 1904 this was practically universal on all minor N.E. lines. The railway geography of Leeds was too complicated for my understanding in those days, but I was greatly impressed by York; the actual size of the station and the artistic curves of its truly noble roof presented a most pleasing picture; in later years I was to learn that that curve in question might be beautiful, but that it was not a helpful feature in traffic working. A shorter, but more troublesome, journey was from Southport to Kirkby Lonsdale, scene of Charlotte Bronte's schooldays (see Jane Eyre) and situated in really lovely country - it was just as well that there was something to reward us for our efforts in getting there. First we went to Preston by L. & Y.; then we got into a very much overcrowded semi-fast, bound, I think, ultimatelv for Carnforth and Windermere. As we ran into the former I saw "Old Coppernob" hard at work marshalling goods wagons, and doing the job quite efficiently. At this station, of which I was to see a good deal more some ten years later, the Furness Railway in being displayed itself — I fear that in those days I was more interested in the outward form of its more modern engines and the colour of its carriages than in its wonderful specimen of the antique. This was in the year 1896; "Coppernob" was near the retiring age, but she put up a wonder record of service — some fifty-two years of hard work. To my joy, for I was very fond of the Midland at that time, we got into a red train at the bay platform bound for Skipton: we disembarked from this at Arkholme, completing the journey by a five-mile 'bus ride. While in those parts I had the luck to make a really interest- ing trip: a friend had driven us over to Windermere by coach-and-four, but we had to make our way back by train; there were no motor road-coaches then! So we went from there in a southbound train, changing at Oxenholme into a northbound one, which decanted ns at Low Gill. Luckily the wait here was of short duration, as Low Gill with its four very low platforms is one of the most desolate stations in England; thence a short run landed us at Kirkby Lonsdale, the train going on to Ingleton and Clapham; this latter was a junction like its London namesake but on a much smaller scale. This bit of line, from Low Gill to Clapham, was formerly known as the "little" North Western; it enabled the Midland, before the Settle & Carlisle 1ine was open, to reach the Border City by courtesy of the" big" North Western. After being moribund for many years this railway link once again became useful for through trains from the Midland's Yorkshire towns to Penrith and Keswick; this facility was one of the few good results of the Midland and L. & N. W. agreement about the pooling of traffic. Before turning southward, one other journey may be mentioned here, as it gave me my first glimpse of the Great Northern. After our holiday at Scarborough it was decreed that, as a sort of miniature edition of the Grand Tour, I should go to an aunt in London.

Even in those days there were through services between King's Cross and the Yorkshire coast. The G.N. provided a train of six wheelers and hauled it between London and York, after' which the North Eastern provided the motive power. On the day that I travelled the train was heavy: some fourteen sixes from Scarborough, and six or seven fours from Whitby; on account of the weight I fancy that the latter portion ran separately to York, though they were usually united at Malton. Owing to the curves on the Whitby branch six wheelers were not allowed, so, lacking bogie stock, the G.N. conveyed its victims in little -4-wheelers —- the notorious" Whitby Bathing Machines." Whether they were any rougher in transit than the alleged "main line" stock I cannot say, as I never suffered from them; I do remember very clearly that the sixes rode abominably. At York I had another disappointment. I expected (and hoped) that our engine would be one of Patrick Stirling's 8 ft. 4-2-2 type. What was my disgust at seeing a pair of the rather ineffective 2-4-0 machines back on to the train, engines whose leading axles were almost under the buffer beam. These two hauled us to Grantham, where another similar pair was attached; between the four, an hour was lost in the running time. To add to my disillusionment, there was the very depressing view from the windows; I then thought, as I do still, that the most colourless railway ride in Britain is from King's Cross to York. There is not much to attract anyone keen on railways — regular passengers will recall the uninspiring main line stations en route — and the country traversed is, for England, mournful in the extreme. However, omitting its carriages, the Great Northern, until the loss of its identity in 1923, was a well-managed concern with an excellent record for punctuality, but it cannot be said to have contributed to the merriment of Merrie England. Illustration: Mersey Railway, No. 4, Gladstone, 0-6-4T (Photo: F. Moore}

London Midland Region. 180,
A new carriage shed and cleaning depot was being built at Willesden. This four-road carriage shed would deal with sleeping cars, the cleaning, servicing and light repairs being carried out in successive stages as the coaches awee drawn through the shed by electric winch-operated mules.
The new signal box recently completed at Agecroft Junction, Pendleton, contains features of interest both from the architectural and signal engineering points of view. An interesting innovation has been the use of white plastic covers to the lever handles. in order to improve the signalman's grip, to avoid the present difficulty in keeping these handles clean and, at night, to show up any levers which are reversed. A further interesting application of plastics is to be seen in the illuminated track diagram which is one of a new and recently developed type. The diagram consists of a thin sheet of non-reflecting nylon finish white plastic on which the track layout and symbols have been printed in black by a process similar to that normally used for the production of engineering drawings.

Diesels for Eire. 180
The West Clare Railway 3 ft. gauge would be introducing diesel-railcars to replace some of the steam locomotives on that line. Particulars of the steam locomotives of the W.C.R. were published in The Locomotive Vols. 6 p. 64 et seq. 9 (page reference not known) and  18 page 231

Heavy steelworks locomotive. 181. illus.
Hunslet 300 bhp four-wheel diesel-mechanical locomotive for Consett Iron Co. with Crossley five cylinder engine.

Australian Government Railways. 181.
Order placed with Metropolitan Vickers Electrtical Engineering Co. for 48 main-line diesel electric locomotives powered by Crossley eight-cylinder two-stroke 1000 bhp diesel engines.

The future of the steam locomotive stock of the Netherlands Railways. 182.
It has recently been determined that after completion of the entire electrification plan the following steam locomotive series will remain in service: 1700/1800, 2100, 3700/3800, 3900, 4000, 4300/4500, 4700, 6000, 6100, 6200, 6300, 7400, 8700, 8800 and 9500, a total of 494 engines, excluding the 90 engines of the 1700/1800 class, which will be maintained until the permanent way on some of the lines on which they were running had been reinforced, allowing heavier engines to replace them. The reason for keeping so many steam locomotives in service arises from some main lines of the railway system will never be electrified, the light traffic on which does not justify the cost of electrification. Among these are: Alkmaar-den Helder, Roosendaal-Flushing, Nijmegen-Venlo, Leeuwarden-Stavoren, Harlingen:-Nieuwe Schans and some other lines serving country districts. Also the goods traffic, even on electrified sections, require many engines for which the existing steam locomotives are a better investment than building new electric locomotives.

Correspondence. 182-4

British locomotive builders. Montague Smith
Reported seeing advertisement: in old Engineering: Tank locomotives, with 8in., 10in., 12in., and 14in. cylinders, ready for delivery or in progress. Photographs and specifications from C.G. Johnson & Co., Engineers, Exchange Place, Middlesbrough. Locomotive engines of all type's and sizes for collieries, ironworks, contractors, branch railways, etc. Hartley. Arnoux, and Fanning, Stoke-on-Trent. Wondered if any reader able to say if. these two firms were definitely builders, as had not previously seen any reference to their names as makers of locomotives.

Worsdell compounds. Norman Duncan.
In the June issue, page 94, a correspondent says the Worsdell Compounds were not successful. Allowing for the fact that these engines were more expensive to operate than their simple counterparts I am not so sure that they were not successful up to a point. The fact remains that a considerable number of Worsdell von Borries compounds were placed in traffic in Italy and South America, notably in the Argentine Republic and in the latter case handled the bulk of the main line traffic on such important lines as the Buenos Ayres Great Southern, and Buenos Ayres and Rosario for many years. Would these systems have favoured these engines if they were confessed failures? It is true the Webb compounds were not really a success anywhere but in the case of the Worsdell compounds was not the real crux of the situation the capacity of the drivers to understand and cope successfully with their idiosyncrasies? It is generally admitted that engine drivers in this country have never taken kindly to compounding unless we except the celebrated Midland compounds, which seem to have enjoyed a measure of popu!anty with their drivers. Perhaps this is the most potent reason for the failure of the products of  "Compound Tommy." They certainly did some good and hard work on both passenger and freight turns in their day.

Drummond's "double singles". C. Hamilton Ellis. 
In your issue of September 15, Mr. L. Derens takes me up on my observations regarding Drummonds 4-2-2-0 four-cylinder simple engines on the London & South Western Railway. Mr. Derens was learned m locomotive lore when I was a bratling in a blouse, but I recognised those engines even then, and remember two particular things from those comparatively far-off times. One was the sight of such an engine slipping with the front pair of wheels,. but not with the rear, and the other was a peculiar motion on a stopping train from Salisbury to Waterloo in 1915. On arrival at the terminus, the little boy who was I had a good look at the engine, and to his immature eyes it was a North Western Webb compound with a South Western Drummond boiler and bogie. Youthful vapourings apart, let it be recalled that Dugald Drummond surely was irritated into throwing the design overboard, and proceeding with his admirable 4-4-0 express engines. When he died, the double singles were taken off the expresses, and I generally saw them on Salisbury slow trains, as in the instance just given. They were bad engines, and are long vanished, but as I write all the Drummond express 4-4-0's of class T9 and subsequent designs are still in existence.

Old Austro-Hungarian locos. L. Derens.
In the August issue a curious error has crept into the description of the Hall crank arrangement of the old Austro-Hungarian locomotives: for instead of increasing the lateral distance between the cylinders, as is said, the Hall crank decreased this dimension, which was just the point Mr. Hall had in view with his invention.
In Locomotive Mag. for November 15, 1938, I gave a description of Hall's construction, and this was approved by Prof. Gaiser on page 62 of the February Issue of 1939. From my description I repeat the following: "With this arrangement the boss of the crank, instead of being outside the journal box as usual, formed the bearing itself. This had the advantage of bringing the crank webs close up to the journal box and thus permitted the centre line of the cylinders to be much nearer the frames. This had .the double advantage of enabling a firmer connection for the cylinders to be made and also greatly reducing the momentum of the piston force and the nosing movement of the engine resulting from this ... "
The accompanying sketch illustrates the difference between the Hall arrangement and the usual one. The moment B of the Hall system is much less than A of the usual arrangement. The difference arises from two causes, not only is the crank web much nearer the journal because the boss of the crank now forms the journal itself, but owing to the boss having a much larger diameter the length of the journal can be greatly reduced for the required bearing surface, which also decreases the distance to the frames

"Crampton's" built by Tulk & Ley. S. H. Pearce Higgins. 183
The Amur and Liege was a Belgian line financed and promoted in England. I do not know the date of opening, but contemporary newspaper reports mention that the line had ordered two locomotives on Crampton's plan by June, 1846, when a cold collation was arranged at Tulk & Ley's to celebrate the trials of the first Crampton locomotive. In March, 1847, the Namur underwent extensive trials on the Southern Division of the L. & N.W.R., but there is nothing to connect this engine with the June, 1846, Crampton.
I have no information about Liege, the other Crampton locomotive for the Namur and Liege Railway, nor do I know anything about the history of the two engines when they reached Belgium.
In June, 1847, came London, for the L. & N.W.R., .and more publicity for Cramptons engines.
In August, 1847, Kinnaird set out for the Dundee and Perth line, and ran under her own steam from Whitehaven to Hull, crossing the Pennines by the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne & Manchester Railway. Kinnaird had the same leading dimensions as Namur — 7 feet diameter driving wheels and 16 in. x 20 in. cylinders. Perhaps Kinnaird's journey over the Pennines brought a further order to Tulk & Ley, as George Dows History of the First Railway Between Manchester and Sheffield records two locomotives built for the Sheffield, Ashton-under-Lyne and Manchester Railway:-
No. 35 Pegasus, Dec., 1847. Cost £3,065.
No. 36 Phlegon, Jan., 1848. Cost £3,050.
Both engines had the following leading dimensions: 2-2-2 type with 6 feet driving wheels, and 4 feet other wheels. Cylinders 16 in. x 20 in. Boiler 3 ft. 10½ in. by 10 ft. 10 in., and a total heating surface of 1,117 sq. ft. These two S.A. & M. Railway locomotives do not appear in the usual list of locomotives built by Tulk & Ley. As Twining seems to cast doubt on S.E. Railway 83 and 85, could it be that the two S.A. & M. Railway locomotives represent Tulk & Ley maker's numbers 15 and 16, and not the two S.E.R. locomotives?
Perhaps more light could be thrown on these early Cramptons if the origin of the list of locomotives built by Tulk & Ley could be established. Were the details taken wholly or in part from the firm's records before their destruction, or is the list (showing 20 engines between 1840 and 1857) estimated by arranging the locomotives, traced in railway company's records, etc., in approximately chronological order and then numbering consecutively? An unidentified Crampton was offered for sale in the Railway Times, January 4, 1851, by Thomas Wright & Co., 9, George Yard, Lombard Street. It was described as a new Locomotive Passenger Engine, Powerful. Superior, with tender complete (Cramptori's Patent), to be sold cheap. Cylinders 16 in. by 20 in., Driving wheels 7 feet, solid wrought iron.

J.E. McConnell's improvements in locomotive design. John S. Maclean. 183-4 
As a sort of postscript to Mr. John Pooles most interesting article and drawings in the March number of The Locomotive describing McConnell's express engines Nos. 297-308 for the L. & N.W.R., I should like to draw your attention to several other' important experiments at Wolverton made or suggested about the same period. One of McConnell's improvements was a plan of heating the feed-water by means of a multitubular chamber in place of the blast pipe as shewn in the engraving in Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4, and other alternative designs Figs. 5 and 6. The action of this chamber of tubes, or alternate steam and water spaces situated between the cylinders and the escape passage of the chimney, could be entirely cut out by a three-way cock fitted on the line of pipes so that the water from the pumps could be turned direct into the boiler if required.
This ingenious plan had apparently escaped the notice of the late E.L. Ahrons in his The British Steam Locomotive 1825-1925, as he makes no mention of it The second invention was a plan of making the locomotive boiler tubes in two lengths of slightly different bores, the larger being at the firebox end, and the smaller diameter at the smokebox end, with the object of partially retardmg the heated gases to the chimney and thus imparting more of the heat to the water in the boiler. Such aifferential tubes might be either both of brass or iron, or one of each metal combined. When only one is brass the greater expansion of that metal tended to keep the joint tight. The tube holes in the smokebox were to be made wide enough for the larger tube, and the end of the small tube expanded to fit, as shown in Figs. 7 and 8. Another improvement, Figs. 9 and 10, was McConnell's solid wrought-iron or steel piston forged in one piece, this being facilitated by Nasmyth's then newly invented steam hammer. The piston had either a single or double packing nng inserted into its edge without any attached cover- plate, the adjustment of the packing being effected by set screws. The packing was kept up to its work by bow springs against which the set screw acted.
These inventions are illustrated by an engraving in The Practical Mechanic's Journal of about 1852 as applied to a goods engine but could be adapted equally well to passenger types and in conclusion it is interesting to note that the transverse vertical section. Fig. 1 shews yet another position for the valve chests, making a /\ shaped angle below the cylinders, quite different from their position in Nos. 297-308, the passenger engines illustrated in The Locomotive for March.

McConnell's 300 class. W. Beckerlegge. 184
W.B. Thompson suggests that these engines had a short life, but it may be that the successive re-numberings which these twelve engines underwent have confused him to some extent. Incidentally, though referred to as Nos. 297 to 308, it will be seen from the Southern Division Locomotive History published in the Locomotive Magazine in December, 1897, and January, 1898, that the original numbers were 297, 298 (Wilson 1852 and 1853), and 300-309 (Fairbairn 1852-1854) and that as from the 1 April 1856, they were renumbered 37 to 48. In 1862-1864 they were again renumbered into the duplicate list as follows: 8/62—37 to 1187; 10/62—38 to 1189; 8/63—39, 40, 43, 41 to 1215-1218; 9/63—44-48 to 1219-1223; No. 41, the only one of the class to be rebuilt was renumbered 1170 in 8/46. No. 1187 must have gone by 11/63 as the number was used again in 2/64; No. 1189 by 11/67, as the Clee Hill engine took that number in 12/67; and Nos. 1215-1223 were all used again between 12/63 and 1/66 with the possible exception of No. 1217, about which I have no information: of the un-rebuilt engines the last survivor seems to have been No. 1189, withdrawn towards the close of 1867; the rebuild, No. 1170, became No. 1923 in December, 1871, and was transferred to Locomotive Machinery in November, 1874; I believe this enzine was still at Crewe works in 1913, for there were two stationary engines in the works, one in steam (and therefore not identified), while the motion of the one not in use was examined and the number 1170 was stamped on the motion. The tender had been removed and a small bunker with a flared top provided very much like the old Wolverton tank engines had in early days.
With regard to the larger class, Delamere. No. 1940, was withdrawn in January, 1880, Caithness, No. 1885, in March, 1882, and Maberley, No. 1871, also in March, 1882.

Reviews. 184

Modern railways. Brian Reed. London: Temple Press, Ltd.
This attractive book describes the details of how a railway is worked and why. There are eleven chapters covering the planning and building of a new railway, the permanent way, motive power, traffic operation, signalling, etc. Numerous diagrams and photographs are included to illustrate each chapter. Another book by the same author entitled Modern Locomotives, which appeared recently, is uniform with Modern Railways. These with three others dealing with Ships, Motorcars and Aeroplanes form parts of the  Power and Speed Library.

British Diesel Engine Catalogue (Second Edition). 313pp., Temple Press, Ltd., for The British Internal Combustion Engine Manufacturers' Association.
Like the first edition published in 1947 the new catalogue is technical and informative in character and embodies a number of constructive suggestions made by recipients of the earlier edition.
It is issued collectively by the industry which produces annually over a quarter of a million engines, totalling nearly three and a half million horse power. There are descriptions of thirty-three makes of engines built in the United Kingdom for railway traction, marine services and agricultural purposes.
An excellent form of Lightning Index makes reference to the various sections very easy.

Modern gas turbines. Arthur W. Judge. Second Edition. London: Chapman & Hall, Ltd.
In this new edition the author devotes attention to recent developments in gas turbines and covers the fields of locomotives, aircraft, marine and stationary plants. Improvements in the materials used in turbine construction are continually being made and receive careful study. Additional matter has been arranged in an extra chapter at the end of the book.

Ripper's Heat Engines, Third Edition, revised by A.T.J. Kersey. London: Longmans Green & Co.
In the latest edition of this popular text book attempts have been made to indicate some of the lines on recent applications of scientific principles and new methods of construction. The trend of modern practice in the operation of power plants for locomotives, electricity generation, etc., has been indicated. The importance of fuel conservation is dealt with in Chapter XVI.

The L.N.W.R. eigbt-coupled goods engines: Railway Correspondence Society.
A 23 pp. illustrated brochure dealing with the last L. N.W. class to survive in any numbers. Webb constructed initially two engines, No. 2524 (a simple) in 1892 and No. 50 (a three-cylinder compound) in 1893. No less than 572 engines were built and the many changes they underwent during their history are recorded in detail.

Clayflex Flexible Bearings. 184
Descriptions, Operations, Applications. A 32 page brochure describing Clayflex Flexible Bearings for oscillating movements and a variety of other applications for the elimination of vibration, shock absorption, etc. Available on request from Howard Clayton-Wright Ltd , Wellesbourne Warwickshire.