The Locomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review
Volume 54 (1948)
key file

Number 665 (15 January 1948)

4-6-4 French locomotives, French National Railways. 13-15. illustration, diagram (side elevation and section)
S series four-cylinder compound type with rotary cam poppet valves, and R series three-cylinder poppet valve engine with simple expansion. See Volume 56 pp. 166-7

L.M.S. diesel electric loco. No. 10,000. -19

Number 666 (15 February 1948)

L.N.E.R. 4-6-2 A2 locomotives. 19-20. illustration
Erratum p.55

Morris, O.J. Standardising S.R. locomotives, Central Section. 21-2
On Boxhill? see letter from William E, Briggs

L.M.S. 4-6-2 engine No. 6256 "Sir William Stanier, F.R.S.". 24. illustration.
Ivatt modified version

Number 667 (15 March 1948)

The engineer and the man. 31-2.
Unless his work is a purely teohnical function, such as design or research, and . the proportion of the profession so engaged IS small, the engineer must necessarily become as proficient in the handling of men as of materials. In this, if his is the mechanical branch his train- ing commences early. The primary 'Qobjects of "going through the shops" do not include J?anual dexterity, which is relatively of secondary Importance, but are fundamentally confined to acquiring the "feel" and limitations of the materials customarily utilised in the industry and familiarity with the mental outlook of the men who work them; the development in the latter matter of the critically analytical faculty follows naturally at a later stage.
It is therefore obvious that character, particularly as regards power of leadership, and the abilities efficiently to orgamse and administrate are all items of the greatest importance in the characteristics required of an engineer in addition to the ability to apply his theoretical knowledge and, in fact, become increasingly important as his career develops. This point is rarely appreciated fully, if at all, by the layman. It should certainly be pondered deeply and in an unbiased manner by the parent of the would-be engineer; the mere fact .that a large proportion of his school holidays is grven over, let us say, to the collection of engine numbers. at the nearest junction is not in itself a sufficient indication that he has a bent for engineering. It may be stated as a very safe generalisation that the engineer who finds his work uncongenial will never be a success in his profession; critical investigation and trial may show that the adolescent will sublimate the suspected urge by using his hands in the spare time production of models and carve out a career in the business world which will be happy and, in all probability, far more lucrative.
As engineering work is creative an'd normally entails much co-ordination of numerous divergent processes, the organising faculty is exercised early and develops with frequent use. This work also involves the. handling of men, possibly representing a vanety of crafts, and experience in administration is obtained simultaneously with that of arganisation.
The abilities to organise and administrate may be 'regarded as components of the power of leadership. It is not the intention to initiate here any argument on the "old school tie" which has been debated, seriously and otherwise, until it is Iiterally threadbare; it will merely be observed that, whilst the public school system tends to bring out and. foster any latent power of leadership, commencing on the very sound foundations of personal discipline and the subordination of self, this attribute may be inborn or otherwise acquired. Every ex public school boy is not automatically a. leader of men, but the system does also tend to make the individual aware of the fact if he fails to develop this power and, in most of such cases, he selects a calling in which its absence is not a handicap. It is nevertheless unfortunate that ability to lead, if not developed by training, can exist unrecognised in the individual until relatively late in life, with a corresponding waste of both time and talent.
Apart from the making of decisions and the strength of character which .rs sometimes necessary to implement them, one of the most important components of leadership is the ability to analyse the characters of others with speed and accuracy, in order that the most promising instruments may be selected for the delegation of authority, and in thjs there have been, are, and no doubt will continue to be many failures. One familiar type will be quoted by way of an example : the sycophant whose wiles are seemingly apparent to all except his superiors and who continues to make successful progress in .the material, but not the spiritual sense, purely by his social or other extraneous. and tortuous activities and in spite of the limitations of his character and technical abilities. Powers of observation must be constantly exercised and allied with shrewdness to farm a guard against and discouragement of flattery and other insidious intrigues; there are always explanations but never justification for the repetitions of those items of history which have their roots in the frailties of human nature. The practice of dual professions, such as medicine or engineering with law, is not unknown. Very few engineers in this age of specialisation can find time to train also in psycho-analysis, and it is debatable whether such a course would be of any ultimate advantage to them, but in handling men they must and do become practical exponents of the art, if not the science, and without the jargon. But, as has been seen, the ability to read character is essential and of increasing importance as the extent of accepted responsibility g.rows. Given success in this and adherence to' the high ethical standards of the profession (never so necessary as in an epoch when there is a general decline in commercial probity), it should be possible to ensure that the rewards go justly to the man in proportion to his excellence of character and technical efficiency.
Human nature is still in general lamentably far removed from perfection and the lack of progress made in his profession by an otherwise excellent character may be attributed to failure to gain the confidence of his seniors, although he may have that of his subordinates in full measure, to lack of tact, such as faulty timing or conduct in the presentation of unavoidably contentious matters, to lack of a sense of proportion or some other flaw. As to whether these cases of maladjustment can best be treated by psychiatry is a very contro- versial matter which can be more appropriately debated elsewhere but, in all seriousness, national progress in peace and war alike depends on find- ing and implementing quickly the correct solution to individual problems of this kind. It is impera- tive that leadership in every phase ot activity be both adequate and efficient.

2-6-4 tank locomotive, Burma Railways. 32-3. illusration., diagram (side & front/rear elevations)
28 metre gauge locomotives ordered from Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd.

London Midland Region loco. experiments. 33-4. 2 illustrations
Ivatt modications to Stanier Class 5 4-6-0: Nos. 4758-67 were fitted with Timken roller bearings and No. 4767 was also fitted with external Stephenson link motion and a double chimney (illustrated). Some of this batch were also fitted with double chimneys and electric lighting. Some were fitted with British Caprotti valve gear. No. 4767 was not the first British locomotive to be fitted with external Stephenson link valve gear: Dean 2-2-2 No. 9 was so fitted see Loco. Mag., 9, 97.

London Midland Region 2-6-0 locomotives. 34-5. 2 illusrations., diagram (side elevation)
With original double chimney: cab is illustrated with tender detached.

L.M.S. diesel electric loco. No. 10,000. 36-7. 4 illustrations.
Continued from page 19. Includes brief details of trial run hauling twelve coaches between Derby and St. Pancras

2-8-2 locomotives for Tanganyika. 38-9. illustration.
Six metre gauge locomotives built by W.G. Bagnall for Tanganyika Railway to meet the requirements of the Crown Agents.

Midland and Scottish Regions. 39
New locomotives into service: 2-6-0 Class 4 Freight (New Design) : Nos. 3603 and 3004 (built at Horwich). 2-6-4 Class 4 Passenger Tanks: Nos 2190 and 2191 (built at Derby). The following had been withdrawn: 4-4-0 Class 3P, No. 715 (Midland); 2-4-2 Class 1PT, Nos. 6682, 6718 (L.N.W.R.); 0-4-4 Class 1PT, No. 1385 (Midland); 0-8-0 Class 6F, No. 8910 (L.N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 3F, No. 12401 (L. & Y:R.); 0-6-0 Class 2F, Nos. 3602 (Midland), 12032 (L. & Y.R.), 28230, 28415, 28586, 28597 (L.N.W.R.); 0-6-2 Class 2FT, Nos. 7715, 7812, 27648 (L.N.W.R.); 0-6-0 Class 1FT, No. 1759 (Midland); 0-4-0 No. 3084 (4 ft. shunter built L.N.W.R. 1872); 0-4-2 Nos. 3248, 3249 (4 ft. shunter (crane) built L.N.W.R. 1893 and 1894).

"Brush" diesel-electric locomotive. 39-41.. 3 illusrations., diagram (side & front elevations)
Six-coupled wheel shunting locomotive with radiator at front with 400 b.h.p. Petter two-stroke engine.

National Coal Board. 41.
The Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. received from the National Coal Board an order for 152 diesel locomotives for service underground in British pits, and comprising four-wheel and six-wheel types of 65, 70, and 100 b.h.p.

Western Region. 41
New locomotives into service: 4-6-0 6982 Melmerby Hall; 0-6-0 3218 and 3219. The following withdrawn: 2-6-0 Nos. 2612 and 2665; 0-6-2T 198 (Barry No. 6); No. 504 (Brecon & Merthyr No. 39); 0-6-0T 2793, No. 6 (Weston Clevedon & Portishead No. 4; originally L.B.S.C.R. 53 Ashstead) I 2-4-0T No. 3585.

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 41-4. 3 illustrations.
A tank class intended for local workings. wIth the 0-4-4 wheel arrangement was in general a development of the 4-4-0 tank type which Drummond designed for the North British Ry, When new, they were tried on the Cathcart Ry., Balerno line from Edinburgh and short local trains around Glasgow but proved to be under-boilered for almost all such duties. Later they were transferred to. lighter work such as the Killin branch where Nos. 175 and 223 worked almost continuously fortnight about. Methven branch got 230 and the Bankfoot line got No. 173 when that line opened. Arbroath got a few (including 178, 191 and 227) while two were at work on the Wigtownshire Ry. section of the P.P. and W. Rys., also the Moffat, Dolphinton and Denny branches, Solway Junction Ry. section and Forfar had them at varying periods. Upon the opening of the Connel Ferry to Ballachulish line No. 224 was sent to Oban to work in conjunction with one of George Brittains's 2-4-2 type tank engines. The engines built between 1884 and 1889 had no coal rail at first and later in 1900, McIntosh fitted all of them with rails which increased the coal capacity by half a ton. The engines built in 1891 with the larger bunker carried 1¾ tons of coal. The cylinders were 16 in. diameter by 22 in. stroke, coupled wheels 5 ft. and solid bogie wheels. 2 ft. 6 in. in diameter respectively. Total heating surface of 672.3ft2, The grate area was 14ft2. and working pressure 150psi All boilers had Ramsbottorn type safety valves on the dome. The entire class was built at St. Rollox Works, the last six being made after Drummond had left. In 1924 Nos. 177 and 178 (then Nos. 1177 and 1178) were taken into St. Rollox Works and rebuilt with new boilers almost similar to the original but having steel firebox and a working pressure of 160 lb., but still retaining the Rarnsbottom type safety valves. In 1930 No. 15103 had Ross pop safety valves fitted, and subsequently the toolbox was removed from the back of the bunker.

L.M.S. restaurant cars. 44-5. 2 illusrations., diagram (side elevation & plan)
Remodelled restaurant kitchen first car, on six-wheel bogies, with first vestibule car. Loose chairs were fitted.

Midland and Scottish Sections. 45
To celebrate the centenary of the West Coast route completed on 15 February 1848 the Royal Scot name had bewen restored on the 10 a.m. departures from Euston and Glasgow Central.

Obituary. 45.
C.M. Doncaster of Daniel Doncaster and Sons of Sheffield.

4-6-2 locomotives for India. 46. illustration
Baldwin Locomotive Works: sixteen 5ft 6in gauge streamlined Pacifics ssupplied to India Supply Mission. Numbered 7200 to 7215. 210 psi boiler pressure. Steel fireboxes with single thermic syphon. Total heating surface of 2257ft2 plus 725ft2 superheat, grate area 46ft2. 20¼ x 28in cylindersx; 5ft 7in coupled wheels. 

4-8-2 locomotives for Czechoslovakia. 46-8. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation).
Skoda three-cylinder (19½ x 27in) with T4rofimov piston valves, bar frames and 6ft coupled wheels. Total heating surface of 2765ft2 plus 795ft2 superheat, Welded boiler, pneumatic firedoor. 

Reviews. 48

The Cheshire Lines Railway. R. Prys Griffiths. Oakwood Library of Railway History No. 5
Absorption of the Cheshire Lines into the British Railways renders both topical and timely this authoritative historical account, by a senior member of the Joint Line staff, of Britain's premier joint railway which alone amongst the major systems of this kind retained its own independent management and operation down to 1947. Mr. Gerald Leedam, the Secretary and Manager, contributes a Foreword to a precise and interesting record, which for the exactitude and comprehensiveness of its historical detail stands out amongst recent railway books. Mr. Griffiths draws attention to the apparent paradox whereby the Cheshire Lines, although operating its own train services over nearly 150 miles of line, and possessing more than 300 passenger coaches, did not itself own a single locomotive. When the Cheshire Lines was formed, motive power was provided by the M.S. & L.Rly., whose works at Gorton were nearer to the joint system than those of either of the other partners, the G.N. and Midland. In consequence of the wish of the two latter railways to participate in the locomotive working, the three Companies agreed to put up their case for arbitration to John Ramsbottom, who by his award of 30 May 1882, ruled that motive power for purely C.L.C. requirements should be provided by the M.S. & L. Through trains between the Cheshire Lines and the parent systems, however, are worked by engines of what until recently were the L.M.S. and L.N.E.R

The Euston and Crewe companion. D.S. Barrie. Oakwood Press.
This is a very good book and is calculated to make the journey a much more interesting one—especially for the railway student. The author already well known as an accurate and entertaining writer, has collected a great deal of information and presented it in an easily read and assimilated manner. umerous good illustrations, maps and gradient profiles complete what is probably the best hook of its kind ever produced.

Creep resisting steels. Samuel Fox & Co. Ltd. of Stocksbridge Works, Sheffield.
Owing to the increasing importance of high temperature work, a knowledge of the behavionr of suitable steels at the working temperatures is essential for designing purposes. This brochure deals with a series of steels which have been developed for specific uses under high temperature conditions.

We have also received the following:-

Mile by mile on the L.N.E.R., by S.N. Pike, M.B.E., and Travelling on the Southern Railway by the same author.
Ottley 6299 (who noted King's Cross edition) and Ottley 7376 Waterloo editions & existence of one for LMS (Ottley 6853)

The narrow gauge railways of Wales. R.W. Kidner.

The light railways of Britain. R.W. Kidner.
It is not possible to reconcile what books were actually received

The Scientific Research Department of the L.M.S.
Brochure prepared for the guidance and information of visitors to its scientific research laboratory at Derby. Ottley 3955.

Keep 'em moving.
Explaining the urgency of a quicker turnround of wagons, as stated by the Ministry of Economic Affairs on 18 November 1947.

International Economic Organisations. The Transition from War to Peace, Central Office of Information, .

Railway pride and prejudice. Thos. B. Peacock, Halstead, Essex.

The Maryport  & Carlisle Railway. Jack Simmons. The Oakwood Press

Name platees of the G.W.R. F. Burridge. Sydenham & Co., Bournemouth,

Rail and platform plans of British stations. Part 1 The Railway & Technical Press, Merstham, Surrey.
See Ottley 2280 for fate of this South Merstham effort

Number 668 (15 April 1948)

Colour schemes for rolling stock. 49-50
The nationalisation of British railways has not unexpectedly led, amongst other things, to a considerable volume of correspondence in both the lay and the technical press on the subject of the colours to be adopted for rolling stock. There have been appeals for variety: we can and do sympathise very deeply with any attempt to break away from drab uniformity in a dreary epoch, but it is clear that some of the proposals in this direction were made without realisation of the extent and effects of interchangeability of stock in working or of the necessity for flexibility in this matter, particularly under current operating conditions. Others, no doubt still influenced by the reactions of childhood spent in a more colourful era, have urged the adoption of G.W. or G.N. green, G.E. or " Cale." blue, Midland red and so on for engines and similarly, again influenced by early impressions, for carriage stock. The moral effect of a pleasing colour scheme on passengers and railway staff alike is admittedly considerable, but the utilitarian purpose of paint is to protect the surfaces it covers from rust, oxidation, rot or any other process of deterioration to which it may be subjected by the conditions of its service. To meet these requirements the paint must have adequate wearing qualities (this rather rules out, for instance, GN. green and G.E. blue, both of which tended to blacken with age) and be applied without breaks, cracks or other irregularities in its own surfaces.
Cost is another very important factor. Some paints are very much more expensive than others hy reason of the pigments necessarily included to obtain the desired colour. Again, every engine or vehicle concerned represents so much idle capital whilst standing in the paint shop awaiting the drying of one coat before the next can be applied, and the total time required for painting (sometimes an appreciable proportion of the time lost to traffic for repairs) is further extended when lining; panelling or lettering of ail elaborate nature is stipulated. It must nevertheless be remarked that an engine entirely devoid of lining usually looks unfinished, however good the paintwork may be; at the same time the principle of providing a better finish for the more important engines and vehicles is perfectly justifiable. A considerable amount of research and experimental work has already been carried out by the railways, chiefly with the object of determining paint compositions which will both dry and harden rapidly, but an extensive field for further investigations exists. In addition to the property of rapid drying and hardening, paints must be of such a nature that they are suitable for applicaion by a spray gun or other time and labour substitute for the brush, the total number of coats necessary to obtain the required finish must be minimised, and, enquiry must also be made into the quickest effective means of preparing initially the surfaces for the reception of the paint; the joint objectives must be to minimise, if not eliminate the filling and flatting processes.
'Where locomotives are concerned the enduring leg ibiljty at a distance and consequently the location, of the engine numbers are matters of prime operating importance apart from any aesthetic considerations. The Gill sans numerals applied by the late L.N.E.R. are a good example of legibility and, as regards durability, the polished cast numerals used, for instance, by the Indian railways, offer advantages. The practice of locating the leading engine, number on the srnokebox door in preference to the' buffer beam, as on the former L.M.S.R., assists in the matter of durabilitv. In the case of tender engines the numbers at the sides should be on the engine and not on the tender, as otherwise an intermediate change of tenders, possibly carried out at short notice, introduces complications. The present use in some cases of thin chromium plated metal for engine numerals, and also for simple lining of coaches, e.g., at the waist, appears worthy of extended application.
The scheme of colours and lining adopted for the engines must of course harmonise with that for the rolling stock. Pleading guilty to one more addition to the numerous proposals already made, one is tempted to suggest Somerset and Dorset J.S. blue for passenger engines, with passenger coaohes the same colour below the waist and G.W. cream above, and the sides of coaching stock, such as horse boxes, milk and motor vans, painted entirely in the shade of blue mentioned. Mixed traffic and the principal classes. of freight engines might well be painted Midland red and the funereal but utilitarian black reserved for small freight and all shunting engines. The adoption of two colours for wagon stock is necessary in order read ily to differentiate revenue earning from service vehicles.
It is also desired to enter a plea for the return in future designs to some of the graciousness of outline iand attention to general proportions for which British locomotives were so long and justly famed. This matter combines in its aesthetic effects with the adoption of a harmonious colour scheme and implies no more than is stated. It is not for one moment intended to advocate the elaborate lining of engines, the sacrifice of accessibility for appearance or the excessive internal embellishment of coaches which comprised some of the outward signs of the absent taste of an age which produced Gothic architecture, plush furniture with anti- macassars, and bamboo stands for aspidistra pots amongst other offences against modern canons. But the most bigoted protagonist would hesitate to describe either the austerity" 2-8-0s or the latest Southern 0-6-0 goods, engines, for example, as things of joy and beauty, although they are undoubtedly highly efficient as revenue earning units. The latter is faintly reminiscent of the engine caricatured to illustrate a railway joke in a magazine. With reference to the latter example, the writer recalls an incident during a wartime journey when a fellow passenger, noticing an engine of this class standing dead outside a running shed, drew the attention of his companion to "one of the new Southern engines—Diesel driven, you know." In conclusion, it is well to observe that no colour scheme is of any lasting value unless the paint is kept dean in service. The current shortages and' high costs of labour indicate the necessity for the g,reatly extended application to locomotives and coaching stock of mechanised methods for this process.

British Transport Commission. 50.
During his inspection of all-steel wagon construction at Shildon, Sir Cyril Hurcomb said all-steel wagon construction has been revolutionised with the introduction of the latest design of r j-ton steel wagon, and to concentrate on the building of this type a plant specially designed has been installed at Shildon Works to give a weekly output of 80 wagons. The wagons now) being constructed are comprised of completely welded underfrarnes, steel bodies and timber floors, the bodies being built independently of the frames. The two ends are each formed from one sheet, and the end and door stanchions, together with the top rail, are secured to the body by welding. The top rail is of tubular section with a slot to receive the plate. They are then dropped into position and secured by rivets so that if it should be necessary to repair the framework or to renew a section of the body, the whole or parts of the body can be removed.

2-10-0 locomotives Turkish State Railway. 50. illustration
The Vulcan Iron Works of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., were constructing 88 locomotives with the 2-10-0 wheel arrangement for the Turkish Government;. Intended for mixed traffic, standard gauge and had two cylinders 23.6 in. by 28 in. taking steam through 12 in. diameter piston valves actuated by Walsohaerts gear. The drive is onto the third pair of the coupled wheels which had a diameter of 4 ft. 9 in.; lateral movement is provided for the leading coupled wheels. The total engine wheelbase was 31 ft. 2 in., the coupled wheelbase being 22 ft. 4 in. of which 16 ft. 9 in. was rigid. The leading truck wheels were 3 ft. 0 in. in diameter. The boiler, designed to burn coal, was of' the straight top type and carried a working pressure of 250 psi. The diameter was 6 ft. 0 in. and the length between tubeplates 18 ft. 1½. in. The evaporative heating surface was 2,645 ft2. made up as follows:-fi.rebox (copper), 185 ft2.; 38 flues (53/8 in.) 960 ft2.; 157 tubes (2 in.) 1,475 ft2.; arch tubes 25 ft2. The superheater area was 875 ft2 and the grate area 58 ft2. Amongst items of equipment may be mentioned a cast-steel bed, automatic stoker and smokebox regulator. , In working order the total engine weight was 244,570 lb. of which 203,870 lb. was available for adhesion. The tender w.ith a wheelbase of 19 ft. 3 in. ran on two bogies having 3 ft. 0 in. diameter wheels. The capacities were 28,000 lb. of coal and 8,000 (D.S.) gallons of water. Loaded the tender scales 166,700 lb. Calculated at 85 per cent. the tractive effort is 58,300 lb. The length over buffers was 75 ft. 2 in. and the height to top of chimney 14 ft. 0½in.

London Midland Region. 50
An order for five 0-4-0 standard gauge diesel-mechanical locomotives of 137/150 B.H.P., for shunting duties had been placed with John Fowler (Leeds) Ltd. These locomotives were intended for use at the Beeston (Notts) and Ditton (Liverpool) sleeper depots, and at the Lenton (Notts), Northampton, and Castleton (Lancs) centralised permanent way material depots.

London Midland Region locos. with Caprotti gear. 51-4. illustration, 5 diagrams. (including. side elevation)
Includes a general arrangement drawing (diagram) for the British Caprotti gear developed by Associated Locomotive Equipment Ltd. with H.A. Ivatt. No. M4748 illustrated.

Visit of H.R.H. Princess Elizabeth to Wolverton Works (11 March, 1948). 54
Visit to the Carriage and Wagon Works of the British Railways (London Midland Region) at Wolverton. H.R.H. Princess Elizabeth was accompanied by G.L. Darbyshire, C.B.E., and on arrival received by H.G. Ivatt (Chief Mechanical Engineer), and by A.E. Peters (Works Superintendent). In addition to the: construction and repair of rolling-stock, the Works build and repair a wide range of road vehicles (motor and horse-drawn), also platform barrows, furniture, etc. Wolverton has a long tradition associated with the building and maintenance of coaches for the Royal Train, which is normally stabled here. In 1869 the Works constructed 'two six-wheeled saloons for H.M. Queen Victoria, which in 1895 were reconstructed to form one complete carriage; this historic vehicle is still preserved.

Western Region. 54.
Four new 4-6-0 express engines Nos. 6981 Marbury Hall, 6983 Otterington. Hall, 6984 Owlsden Hall and 6985 Parwick Hall also eight new 0-6-0 engines, Nos. 321O to 3217 had been completed at Swindon. The following had been withdrawn from service: 0-6-2T No. 250 (Barry No. 59); 0-6-0T Nos. 1767, 1768, 1800 and 1883; 2-4-0T No. 3583. .

Railway Executive—Locomotive Exchanges. 54.
An interesting exchange of passenger and freight locomotives, covering the various regions is to start this month. A dynamometer car will be attached to each train and the data collected will be carefully analysed for use in studying the standardisation of designs.

Personal. 54.
H.H. Saunders, M.I.Mech.E., joint managing director of the Vulcan Foundry Ltd. has retired owing to failing health and is succeeded by Gerald Collingwood, M.I.Mech.E. R.A. Dyson appointed managing director of the Yorkshire Engine Co. Ltd. He succeeded H.A. Akroyd who remains on the Board of Directors. E.C. Poultney, O.B.E., M.I.Loco.E.; has been elected a director of Locomotive Valve Gears, Ltd.

Southern Region. 54
An All-Pullman train, the Thanet Belle, would commence running on 31 May leaving Victoria at 11.30 a.m., on Sundays to Fridays inclusive, calling at Herne Bay, Margate, Broadstairs and Ramsgate. On Saturdays only the departure from Victoria will be at 15.05. The up train will leave Ramsgate at 17.05 Mondays to Fridays and at 18.15. on Saturdays and Sundays. Two first class and eight third class Pullmans would form the train.

Locomotive painting. 54.
The Railway Executive announced that the most important main line passenger engines were to be painted blue, ordinary main line passenger engines green, and other engines, including freight engines, black. Three L.M.S. 4-6-0s, Nos. 4762-4764, had been experimentally painted S.R., L.N.E.R. and G.W.R .. green respectively.

Renumbering of British locomotives. 55
It had been decided by the Railway Executive to number all British locomotives in one series as they pass through the repair shops. A permanent cast iron number plate will be fixed on the smokebox door as in former LMSR practice.
The new numbering was as follows:-
Western Region. Number Group 1-9,999.
These remain unaltered as the former G.W.R. was the only system which had permanent cast number plates fixed to the sides of the engines, all other systems painting the numbers on
Diesel, Petrol 'and Gas Turbine Locomotives. Number Group 10,000-19,999.
Existing and projected locomotives as under :-
L.M. Region 1600 H.P. diesel-electric 10,000 onwards
1600 H.P. diesel-mechanical 10,100 onwards
Southern Region 1600 H.P. diesel-electric 10,200 onwards
L.M. 800 H.P. diesel-electric 10,500 onwards
Southern 400 H.P. diesel-mechanical 11,000 onwards
L.M. diesel-electric shunters 12,000 onwards
Eastern diesel-electric shunters 15,000 onwards
Western diesel-electric shunters . 15,100 onwards
'Southern  diesel-electric shunters . 15,200 onwards
'Western Brown-Boveri Gas Turbine 18,000 onwards
'Western Metro-Vickers Gas Turbine 18,100 onwards
Electric Locomotives. Number Group 20,000-29,999.
Southern Region CC1 Type  20,000 onwards
Eastern Bo Bo Type 26,000
Southern Region. Number Group 30,000 to 39,999.
Add 30,000 to existing numbers, with following exceptions :-
0-6-0 Q1 Class to be numbered 33,000 onwards  
West Country Class to be numbered 34,000 onwards  
Merchant Navy Class to be numbered 35,000 onwards  
Isle of Wight Section No alteration
Engines already numbered above 3,000 to be given completely new numbers.
London Midland Region. Number Group 40,000-59,999.
Add 40,000 to existing numbers. Steam engines already numbered above 20,000 to be given completely new numbers.
Eastern and North Eastern Region. Number Group 60,000. 69,999.
Add 60,000 to existing numbers, except No. 10,000 which will be given a completely new number.
New locomotives will be placed in the number group appropriate to the Region, but new standard types of locomotives will be numbered 70,000 and onwards.

Poland. 55.
The production plan for 1948 of the Polish rolling stock industry estimates an output totalling 194,032 tons, namely 212 standard gauge locomotives (including 35 express engines), 400 narrow gauge locomotives, 11.000 goods wagons, 188 passenger coaches, 64 mail vans, 500 tank wagons, 174 refrigerating wagons and 121 special wagons, also 462 narrow-gauge wagons. In February this year, a new line of communication was opened between the River Oder and Trelleborg (Sweden}, connecting by train ferry Poland with the Scandinavian countries. Hitherto communication, between Poland and Sweden was through the port of Gdynia. The new Oder-Trelleborg line shortens the journey from Poland to Sweden by 10 hours.

Railway electrification in Portugal. 55
The General Electric Co., Ltd., received an order from the Sociedade Estoril, Portugal, for electric rolling stock for operation on their lines between Lisbon and Cascais at the mouth of the Tagus. The contract includes motor coaches, trailer coaches and a locomotive. The coaches, which are of all-steel construction, are each mounted on two z-axle bogies, the motor coaches being equipped with four 140 h.p. self ventilated D.e. motors operating under electric-pneumatic .co~troL The mechanical parts and bodies of fhe coaches to be constructed by Cravens Railway Carriage & Wagon Co. Ltd., of Sheffield. .
The locomotive .is· of the' double bogie type each bogie having two axles which are fitted with 1,500 volt, 240 h.p. forced ventilated D.C. motors. The running weight of the locomotive is 51 tons, the highest permissible speed is 50 miles an hour and the maximum loads to be hauled will, tor passenger service, consist of a six-coach train weighing 240 tons and, for freight service, wagons up to a total of 600 tons. The control gear will be of the electro-pneumatic type. The mechanical portion of the locomotive is to be built by the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., of Glasgow.

London Midland Region. 55
New locomotives put into service: 4-6-0 Class 5 mixed traffic: Nos. 4748, 4749 (Caprotti valve gear and roller bearings) (built at Crewe). 2-6-0 Class 4 freight: Nos. 3005, 3006 and 3007 (built at Horwich). 2-6-4 Class 4 passenger tank: Nos. 2192, 2193, 2194 and 2195 (built at Derby). 0-6-0 diesel-electric shunter+ 359 h.p.: No. 7130 (built at Derby).
The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-G-0 Class 4P: Nos. 14643 (Caledonian), 14764 CLan Munro (Highland). 4-4-0 Class 3P: Nos. 736 (Midland), 25321 Lord Loch. 4-6-2 Class 4PT: No. 15355 (Caledonian). 2-4-2 Class 3PT: No. 10903 (L. & Y.R.). 0-6-2 Class 2PT: No. 6926 (L.N.W.R.). 2-4-2 Class 1PT: Nos. 6679,6747 (L.N.W.R.). 0-4-4 Class IPT: Nos. 1307, 1361 (Midland). 0-8-0 Class 6F: Nos. 9175, 9251, 9273 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos. 3573 (Midland), 12256, 12417 (L. & Y.R). 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 3473 (Midland), 12046 (L. & Y.R.), 17313, 17406, 17408 (Caledonian), 28095, 28097, 2SI53, 28542 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-4 Class 7FT: No. 7938 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-2 Class 6FT: No. 7892 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: Nos. 7796, 7841 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 1FT: No. 1668 (Midland).

Eastern  and North Eastern Regions. 55
A footplate recording was recently broadcast by the B.B.C. in connection with the Master Cutler train between Sheffield and London.
Eric Jolly (of the B.B.C., Manchester), travelled on the footplate, and cables were rigged along the side of the tender connecting the footplate microphones to the recording equipment in the leading vehicle of the train Inspector Whitehead of Nottingham travelled with Jolly, and provided him with information on the working of the train.
All arrangements for the recording were carried out by H.G. Fish, District Locomotive Superintendent, Colwick, and Winter, Shed Master, at the Eastern Region Locomotive Depot, Darnall. The rigging of the microphone cables was carried out overnight in the carriage shed at DarnalL The latter part of the work could not be completed earlier as the working provided for a Leicester engine to make the trip, and this did not arrive at Darnall until 4 a.m.
Interesting sound effects were obtained, particnlarly when passing through Catesby tunnel, 'and whilst picking up water at speed over Charwelton troughs. The noise on the footplate came over largely as a continuous roar pierced by the engine whistle on approach to the tunnel, the sound changing as the driver again whistled before breaking out of the tunnel into open country. It is thought that these particular recordings will be a valuable and permanent addition to the library of the B.B.C. sound effects department.
On arrival in London, Jolly proceeded with the engine to the Neasden depot, where he witnessed the duties attached to the turning of the engine. He recorded coaling under the coaling plant, and followed Leicester engine Class B1 No. 1188, which covered the working throughout through the stages of ash disposal; examination, and cleaning.

Nils Ahlberg. Swedist steam locomotives. 56-7. 3 illustrations
First two locomotives were second-hand from England named Ajax and Titan and acquired in 1854 or early 1855 and were used in the construction of the main line. There is no clear evidence of what they were, but old drivers consider that two figures in Ahrons British steam locomotive give an indication of what they may have been: Fig. 87 Jones & Pott's Thames of the London & Blackwell Railway (1848) or Fig. 96 J.V. Gooch's tank engine  for the Eastern Counties Railway (1852).. They were scrapped in the early seventies.
It is perhaps worth mentioning, that the State Railways in 1874 began dassifying the locomo- tives, as the old terms" express," " mixed train," " smaller" and" greater goods," etc., were no longer sufficient.
The Swedish Civil Engineer Teodor Stieler, who had several years experience with the Paris- Orleans Railway, was engaged by Colonel Nils Ericson to advise upon the ordering of rails and rolling stock. He recommended the well-known firm of Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., as contractor for the locomotives" and the first were ordered in 1855.
These were originally called "mixed train" locomotives and in 1874 were classified letter "B." They were of the 2-4-0 type and had four-wheeled tenders. The cylinders were outside and the steam chests and valve gear inside, the latter of the Allan straight link type. The hind ends of the springs of the leading pair of wheels were con- nected to a transverse compensating lever. These springs were placed above the axleboxes, the others being underhung. These engines later had compensating levers fitted between the springs of the coupled axleboxes, The first locomotives, delivered in 1856, had a slightly raised fire-box casing, but from 1858 the Crampton flush-topped firebox casing became standard. The first locomotives had crosshead feed pumps, some had steam pumps, and in the 1860s Giffard injectors became general. The 1856-58 deliveries had sandboxes below the footplate, from 1859 a saddle-box on the boiler-barrel was provided. Before 1864 weather boards were fitted but afterwards cabs; new engines received these on completion and the older ones had them provided as they went into the shops for overhaul.
The engines delivered from 1856 to 1869 had 158 tubes and were classified Ba 1 from 1869 150 tubes were provided, engines thus equipped were styled Ba 2. When providing new boilers, the original type with increased pressure was used from 1878-1880. After 1882 a new type of boiler was constructed, with a slightly smaller barrel and firebox of the Belpaire pattern. There were also two kinds of the latter, type Bb 1 with 150 and Bb 2 with 141 tubes. The early English chimneys with copper tops were replaced in the eighties by new ones with Swedish spark arresters, seen in the illustrations, in a trial stage and in final form. The old green painting gave way to black, formerly polished brass and copper was painted and the old nameplates were replaced by oval cast ones bearing the number, classification and date. Most engines were later equipped with the Korting vacuum brake.
These locomotives had 15½in. by 20 in. cylinders; coupled wheels 5 ft. 6 in.; heating surface Ba 1 899 ft2., Ba 2 and Bb 1 860 ft2, Bb 2 811 ft2; grate area 14.8 ft2; boiler pressure Ba 1 100 psi., Ba 2 120 psi., Ba 1-2 with new boilers 140 psi, Bb 1 and Bb 2 143 psi.; weight in working order Ba 1-2 26 tons Bb 1-2 27 tons 11 cwt.; adhesive weight Ba 1-2 16 tons 16 cwt., Bb 1-2 18 tons; wheelbase 5 ft. 9 in. + 7 ft. 10 in. = 13 ft. 7 in. The Bs were handy all-round engines. and steady running,. even at high speeds. Their highest permissible speed was 46.5 miles an hour, but when regainin.g time they were run at much higher speeds. The father of the author, who assisted in the construction of the State Railways and took part in trial runs for "courier-trains " in 1896, said that these engines ran for long distances at a speed of 60 miles an hour without ditnculty. The trains consisted of three bogie vehicles weighing 90 tons.
The first serious accident on the Swedish State Railways took place at Sandsjo on the Southern main line, December 23, 1864. A special train from Nassjo ran past a. signal and collided with the rear of a mixed train standing in the station. The engine of the special was No. 46 Lund. Seven were killed and eleven more seriously injured.
This type of engine ran all classes of trains, on all lines of the State Railways. At first they were stabled in the southern and middle districts, but followed the railway constructors towards the north, being suitable on account of their moderate axle loads.
No. 43 Prins August is preserved in the Railway Museum at Tomteboda, Stockholm. It has. been restored to its original condition, with the exception of the Belpaire box.
The following is a summary of the B locomotives, which totalled 45.

Nos. Builder Built Withdrawn.
4-6, 41-43 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1856 1886-1906
1-3, 44, 45 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1858 1894-1905
7-13 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1859-60 1890-I909
14, 16, 18 Nykoping Mech. Works 1861 1895-1905
15, 17, 19, 26, 46 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1861-62 1895-1902
23, 39 Nykoping Mech. Works 1862, 1863 1902, 1897
27, 28, 32 Motala Mech. Works 1863 1889-1906
51-55 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1863-64 1895-1908
94-98 Nydqvist & Holm 1868-69 1896-1907
119-122 Nydqvist & Holm 1872-73 1897-1903

After No. 97 the engines were built as Ba 2. Seventeen were rebuilt as Bb 1, and two as Bb 2 between 1882-1889.
Illustrations: No. 8 Stockholm (Ba 1) at Gorton Foundry in 1859 (KPJ: contrary to table above!); No. 42 Prins Oscar (Bb1); No. 120 formerly Upland as rebuilt.

[Erratum]. 55
In the description of the A2/3 locomotives. in our Feb. issue the cylinder stroke was incorrectly given; this should, of course, be 26 in. Two further engines of this type in service are 523 Sun Castle and 524 Herringbone,

Junior institution of engineers' the future of steam locomotives . 58-9
The President, R.A. Riddles, C.B.E., took the chair for a symposium on railways on 16 January. This symposium was. divided into four sections: the first under Gordon F. Kent. Assoc.M.lnst.C.E. (Member), on  Permanent Way, the second under C.R.H. Sirnpson, A.I.Lom.E. (Member), on Steam Locomotives, the third under N. Newsome, A.M.I.Loco.E., on Rolling Stock and the fourth under .A.G. Hopking , B.Sc., A.M.I.Mech.E., on Electric Traction.
The second part is of special interest to us and the following extract is taken from Simpson's contribution which was on the future of steam locomotives in Britain during the next generation. After referring to the extensive experiments made with locomotives on the Continent and the conclusions reached there that any departure from the Stephenson tradition was unjustifiable, on the ground that any advantage was. nullified by the increased complication, the author stressed the point that it is essential to retain the great advantages of simplicity of construction and operation if the steam locomotive is to compete successfully with other forms of motive power and it may be concluded that it will also retain its present form in principle in this country although considerable development in detail may be anticipated.
Broadly speaking there are six directions in which future development could take place, these are by an increase in (1) speed, (2) power, (3) reliability, (4) availability, (5) the employment of new methods of construction and operation, (6) enhanced thermal efficiency. Obviously, to an extent, these factors are related. Considering them in this sequence it is improbable that any substantial increase will take place in speed; existing locomotives are fully capable of very high speeds and the difficulty of working trains at such speeds is that of fitting them in on tracks already carrying a comparatively intensive service. Paradoxically a high-speed train has a greater track occupancy than that of one moving at a speed more closely approaching average speeds. The power of modern locomotives is sufficient for all requirements likely to exist for some time ahead. Tihe time has arrived when greater powers cannot well be utilised due to the capacity of platforms, running loops, etc., being fixed. Locomotives already exist in this country capable of producing a cylinder horse-power of over 3,500 and any development in this direction is likely to be in an increase in horse-power at higher speeds. Should a demand exist in tihe future for a considerable increase in power there is only one direction in which the locomotive can expand, viz., lengthways. The two surviving designs of articulated locomotive, the Beyer-Garratt and Mallet, have proved very successful. It is not always realised that articulated engines can be designed for high speed operation and locomotives of the former type have operated passenger trains at speeds up to 80 m.p.h. Reliability and availability are obviously closely related. Much has already been done to promote reliability not only in design and construction but also in the organisation of maintenance. An excellent example of the last mentioned is the London Midland  & Scottish Railway's "X" Scheme.
Availability is undoubtedly the direction in which the greatest scope lies. and a great deal of work has been and is being done in order to increase this. If the steam locomotive is to con- tinue to compete with other forms of traction it is essential that it should possess greater availability which is one of its competitors' strongest points. Although this discourse is on the future it is perhaps permissible to look back for a moment. In the years immediately preceding the 1914 war an engine spent about 15 hours out of the 24 in the shed, whereas to-day, on the L.M.S. for example, the position is. reversed and locomotives are employed 15 hours daily on revenue earning. A monthly mileage of about 6,000 is as much as can be reasonably expected here under present conditions. For really intensive work one must look to America where, of course, long runs are more favourable for this. On the Norfolk and Western recent organisation is for the running of over 20,000 miles per month and some locomotives of the New York Central are covering 28,000 miles in the same period. This is, of course, not only a case of excellent availability, but also of utilisation. Unless utilisation is possible availability loses much of its value. Overall utilisation is probably lower than is generally realised. The statistical returns for 1946 show that so far as the Main Line Companies in Britain were concerned the coaching train miles per engine hour were 10.99 and the train miles per engine hour in the case of freight 3.28. Even, however, if utilisation cannot be increased an improvement in availability will result in any given amount of work being done with a smaller stock and a saving 'in the costs of preparation and disposal.
Regarding alterations in construction and con- sidering first the boiler, the trend is to carry higher pressures which will in some instances involve the use of special steels; welding will play an increasing part in boiler contruction, especially for fireboxes, and screwed stays. may be replaced by plain ones welded in. To increase availability and reduce the time of preparation—which is in itself an important contribution to availability— rocking grates, self-cleaning smokeboxes and hopper ashpans will be more generally used. Treated water will be increasingly employed. Steel fireboxes will be utilised more and the fitting of thermic syphons on a larger scale is visualised.
Oil-firing—whilst introduced primarily as a matter of economics—has great attractions, the greatest of which is ability to maintain pressure constantly at the desired figure. .It is likely that oil-firing will ultimately become extensively employed purely on its merits, assuming that supplies remain available for such purposes. Continuous development of accessories will take place and the fitting of soot blowers, sand guns and power-operated firedoors will, become more general on engines where coal-firing is retained.
So far as the engine is concerned the large scale application of roller bearings is likely. Alloy steels and even high-duty aluminium alloys will probably be utilised more for rod and motion work. Poppet valves wile nave an increasing application.
The frame is by no means a trouble free component in many classes of locomotive and developments may be looked for here. Now that wide fireboxes are utilised on a large scale in Britain one of the major .objections to the bar frame, i.e. restricted width of a box fitted between the frames, is no longer applicable. Bar frames may be tried but, cast' steel frames are unlikely on' the grounds of high cost-nor' on engines of the power met with here are they essen- tial. The frame used on the Southern Railway West Country class, in which the centre line of the axlebox falls on the centre line of the frame, is one which may well have an increased application.
Welding is already extensively used for the fabrication of many parts of engines and tenders and will be used even more in the future. Considerable improvements have been made comparatively recently in front end design and it is considered improbable that any drastic changes will be made in cylinders, except in the substitu- tion of poppet valves for piston. The possibility of compounding cannot be ruled out, the objection of increased complication no longer holds. good in view of the fact that more than two cylinders are already fitted to many modern locomotives. Fuel is now so expensive that compounding has become a much more attractive proposition than formerly.
Small gains in thermal efficiency will' be achieved but probably incidentally in obtaining other ends, e.g. poppet valves will be fitted to obtain increased mileage without attention and will increase thermal efficiency due to their keep- ing steam-tight better than piston valves. The days have long since gone when a 35 per cent. saving in coal and water consumption could be obtained by the fitting of a single component as happened at the advent of superheating. Existing brake systems will continue in use, but clasp rigging is likely to come into greater use and metal brake blocks will possibly be super- seded by friction linings. Such linings apart from their recognised features have the advantage that general wear is reduced due to the absence of , cast-iron dust. '
Developments in the years ahead will un- doubtedly be much assisted by the Rugby test plant which is due to come into operation tI:lhis year. In recent years there has been an increasing use of mixed-traffic locomotives. and the trend is to build more of these.
Let there be no doubt in the' minds of all those interested in the efficient and up-to-date operation of railways that the steam locomotive in an im- proved form will continue to be the backbone of railway motive power.

4-8-0 Locomotive French National Railways. 59-60. illustration
Classified 240 P and numbered 1 to 25 worked express passenger trains in the Sud-Est region. They were rebuilt between 1940 and 1945 from Pacific .type engines of the P and O series 4501 to 4570, the object being to increase adhesion and enable the weight of trains worked over inclines of 10 mm / m. to be raised from 500 to 700 tons. The enginesreceived Belpaire fireboxes of steel with narrow grates in place of the wide ones previously fitted; the grate area has thus been reduced from 4.27 3.75 m2. This reduction has been effected without any falling off in the boiler power which has been improved, by the fitting of a Kylchap double blast pipe. The pressure has been raised from 16 Hpz. to 20 Hpz, A Nicholson syphon is fitted and a mechanical stoker. The boilers are of large dimensions allowing the engines to develop a drawbar horse-power of over 2,.000 at the .highest permissible speed of v km, /h,; this is particularly creditable in view of the moderate diameter of the coupled wheels, viz. 1.850 m. A feature of the boiler is the long firebox (3.330 m. measured at the top) in conjunction with relatively short tubes, the distance between tube plates being 4.250 m. which enables Serve tubes to be used.

Spanish 4-8-2 locomotives. 61. illustration
Babcock & Willcox of Bilbao four-cylinder compounds with Dabeg valve gear

L.N.E.R. 3rd class sleeping car. 61. diagram (side elevation, partly sectioned)
New design with interlocking berths to accommodate sixteen passengers either in single or double berths with sinks in each compartment and full bedding to be charged at intermediate rate between 1st  and 3rd.

British Railways—Eastern and North Eastern Regions. 61.
No. 2217, a diesel mechanical shunter 0-6-0 supplied by Vulcan Foundry on behalf of the Dewry Car Co. Ltd. was in service in Manchester Area. It had a Gardner 8 L3 204 H.P. engine.

2 ft. 6 in. gauge tank engines Shahdara-Saharanpur Light Railway. 62. illustration
An order for 2-6-4 T locomotives was being delivered to India from the Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. These engines have a tractive effort of 10,500 lb. on an axle load of only 7 tons yet provide capacities for speed up to the maximum that can be obtained with light rails on a 2 ft. 6 in. gauge. Built to the inspection of T. Bernard Hall and Jones for the Shahdara-Saharanpur Light Railway in the Delhi area,

Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd. and Sulzer Bros. (London) Ltd. 62
Agreement under which Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd. will manufacture Sulzer engines for locomotives and other rail traction services at their Barrow-in-Furness Works. The first engines to be manufactured under this agreement will be fitted into six 1830 b.h.p. express locomotives for the Coras Iornpair Eireann (Eire)· to be used mainly on the Dublin-Cork service.

The Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 62
Delivered two 65 b.h.p. locomotives for general underground and surface mines work to the Ashanti Goldfields Corporation, also a standard-gauge 39-ton 0-6-0T locomotive to the Peruvian Corporation for heavy shunting on the Southern Railway of Peru; fitted with Weir feed pump and feedwater heater, and to be given oil-burning equipment on arrival in Peru.
Among the locomotives on order for use' in the construction of the Glen Affric Mullardoch-Fasnakyle hydro-electric scheme in Scotland were ten Hunslet locomotives of 25 and 30 b.h.p. with McLaren oil engines.

G.N.R. (Ireland). 62
Five 3-cylinder simple 4-4-0 engines had been delivered by Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., Gorton. No. 206 Liffey, No. 207 Boyne, No. 208 Lagan, No. 209 Fovle and No. 210 Erne.

Personal. 62
John Alcock, Joint Managing Director of the Hunslet Engine Company Limited, appointed to the Board of Directors of W.G. Bagnall Limited, Locomotive Designers and Builders, Stafford.

The Brussels International Fair. 62
To be held this year on 17-28 April; there will be 236 British exhibitors.

"Tug-Boat Annie": a small locomotive. 63. illustration
Speculations had been put forward as to what might be the standard express passenger engine for British Railways, but an old engineman of the L.B. & S.C.R. has forwarded to us a photograph of what he considers :would be, not only a suitable type of locomotive, but what he terms "the answer to the driver's prayer." The little engine was built during the War period.
In full size, the frame and wheelbase are exactly similar to the L.M.S. Princess Royal Class, but the four cylinders would be 17½ in. by 28 in. and arranged so that the inside and outside engines are as near alike as possible. The cranks are set at 135° giving eight impulses per turn; the outside valves actuated by Baker valve gear, and the inside valves by a oonjugation designed for the engine by H. Holcroft, late Chief Technical Assistant to the C.M.E. of the S.R. The three sets are made up as self-contained units, easily moveable; and when worn,or damaged in any way could be replaced by new or reconditioned sets without the necessity of taking the engine out of service. The coupled wheels would be 6 ft. 6 in. dia:meter.
The boiler is the result of much experimenting, and is a combination of British and American practice, resembling somewhat, the boilers of the Pennsylvania K4 class. The barrel would appear over long for British practice, but it contains a large combustion chamber which adds considerably to the firebox volume and is so proportioned that the combined length of firebox and combustion chamber equals the length of the tubes, In full size it would have two Nicholson syphons, and a rocking grate, Top feeds are provided, and a Lemaitre multiple-jet blastpipe.
The little engine, which is approximately 1/22nd full size, is remarkably successful. The boiler steams freely with a very light blast, and the engine rapidly accelerates and "runs away" with a load equal to 25 coaches, On a special test, it started a load of thirteen times its own weigt, and attained a speed equal to 140 m.p.h.

Correspondence. 63

Brighton" Terriers. William E. Briggs 
Re Morris article on Boxhill, I would like to point out that the full term of service as the Brighton Works Shunter, includes a number of years prior to being converted for Rail Motor Work in 1905, as this engine was on Works Shunting duty (loco. section) when the writer entered the Works in January, 1902, as a premium apprentice. Exactly how long the engine had been on this work prior to that date I am unable to say.
When Boxhill was withdrawn from Works duty and fitted out with the necessary controls for Rail Motor Work, converted to the 2-4-0 type, and the cylinders lined up to a reduced bore dia, it was for a short period succeeded at the Works by Engine No, 79 Minories,
In the early part of 1906, No. 38 Millwall (which had stood at the Three Bridges Locomotive Depot on pumping duty since the old Craven 0-6-0 No, 514 was scrapped in I901), was thoroughly reconditioned, painted in what was then the new Goods Engine livery—Black, with Red lining and the side tanks were lettered "LOCO, DEPT,," and took over the loco, shunting from Minories,
A feature of the work of restoration of both Gladstone and Boxhill, which to those who were familiar with Stroudley practice, seems to detract somewhat from the front end appearance is the length of the smokebox door hinge straps, which are much too long, and certainly do; in some measure, fail to give the Stroudley touch,

The Pennsylvania Railroad . W.B. Thompson
On page 2 of the January number it states that the Pennsylvania Company purchased a de Glehn compound Atlantic from France in 1894. Might I suggest that this is erroneous; that no French compound Atlantic existed at that date; and that it was not until after our own Great Western had given the lead that the Pennsylvania gave this order in 1904?
The Railroad Gazette for 8 April 1904, remarked that "the de Glehn 4-cyl compound which has been bought by the Pennsylvania is practically the same as those used by the Paris-Orleans Company, And the Railroad Gazette for 6 January 1906, published an article in which the French engine was fully described and illustrated, arid remarked that following out its practice of keeping posted in regard to current developments the Pennsylvania Railroad has ordered five locomotives for experimentaJ and observation purposes. The French engine was one of the five

Reviews. 64

The story of American railroads. Stewart H. Holbrook. New York. Crown Publishers.
A story of the men who, in little more than a century, built the thousands of miles of railway in North America. The author has devoted some years of research in producing this fascinating historical record. Hitherto unknown services have been used for a lot of data and the many excellent illustrations from prints and photographs.

Locomotives old and new, L.M.S.R.
This book contains a selection of illustrations of locomotives used by the L.M.S. and its predecessors. The 60 odd illustrations are well reproduced and each has printed below it the leading particulars of the locomotive and in the case of all engines built since grouping a diagram also appears.

Locomotives of the L.M.S.
This is a comprehensive booklet on L.M.S. locomotives. It contains, a list of named locomotives, photographs of all classes now running, brief particulars of the various types and pages for the insertion of particulars of shed numbers and the date and place where the engine was seen. The LMS produced a book in 1931 with a similar title, but this could not habeen claimed as being "comprehensive in" 1948. Missed? by Ottley and Jones

The story of the West Highland. George Dow. London: Railway Executive—Eastern and North Eastern Regions.
In the second and enlarged edition of this book just published, a whole chapter is devoted to the West Highland in wartime and a great deal of interesting information is revealed for the first time. Containing 63 pages, 65 illustrations, a map specially drawn by the author and four useful appendices, one of which gives all the gradients of the line, the new edition should be even more popular than its predecessor.

A trip by the Wye Valley train. Thomas B. Peacock. 18 pp., paper cover.
The writer accompanies his readers by train from Severn Tunnel Junction to Monmouth in 1914, pointing out features of interest on the railway, describing the scenery and commenting historically on the various landmarks to be seen from the carriage window.

More of my best railway photographs. Eric Treacy. Ian Allan Ltd.
Eric Treacy is responsible for some of the best railway photographs and those reproduced in this booklet will further enhance his reputation-they are all attractive.

Steam engine builders of Norfolk. Ronald H. Clark. Augustine Steward Press.
Consists of 90 pages with 71 illustrations and is a good survey of the subject, but it fails in its purpose by omitting to record the interesting locomotive rebuilding done at the Melton-Constable works of the M. & G.N. Joint Rly. A reference to the little engine Gazelle which was made at Kings Lynn for a local resident is included.

S.M.T. Magazine.
Devoting its January issue to the theme of Scottish Railways, there are two main articles tracing the history of the various lines, Forerunners of the L.M.S., by Norman Doran Macdonald, and Pioneers of the L.N.E.R., by Andrew O'Dell. The part played by the railways in opening up the Highlands is the subject of an article by Augustus Muir, and Lewis Spence writes on railway bridges. John Marshall describes the pocket liners that explore the beauties of the loch and coast, and Harvey Scott points to the. functions performed by goods trains, while A. N. Ford gives an interesting peep behind the scenes of the control rooms.

Great Northern Locomotives, 1847-1947. R.A.H. Weight. 80 pp. plus art insets. Published by the Author.
With the aid of drawings and photographs the G.N.R. locomotive story is covered, for the first time, from the earliest to the present days with all essential detail of dimensions, classes, numbers, etc. Interest is sustained by personal narratives, by tales of notable runs as well as of various events associated with the operation of main line traffic during the present century on the G.N.R. (G.N. section, L.N.E.R.).

My best railway photographs. By S.C. Townroe. Ian Allen Ltd. IS. 6d. A 32-PP. oblong 8vo.
booklet containing some interesting photos by the author, mostly Southern, taken from unusual viewpoints.

Also received:-

The Hundred of Manhood and Selsey Tramway, 1897- 1935. Edward C. Griffith, Author. 42pp.

The Basingstoke & Alton Light Railway, 1901-1936: Edward C. Griffith, Author..

Industrial locomotives of the West Midlands. Birmingham Locomotive Club.

Industrial locomotives of the East Midlands. Birmingham Locomotive Club.

Superheater Co. Ltd. 64
Instruction Book and Locomotive Superheaters. The Instruction Book covers the installation, maintenance and operation of MeLeSco locomotive superheaters and is admirably written and illustrated. After dealing with the principles a general description is given followed by particulars of header design and manufacture. The elements are similarly treated and there are further chapters on maintenance of headers and elements, flue tubes and operation. In conclusion there are questions and answers regarding superheated locomotives. We envisage a large demand for this most useful book and while paper restrictions may not permit of every engineman having a copy, at least every Mutual Improvement Class should be in possession of it.
Locomotive Superheaters is equally attractive, but will be of interest at a higher level. Considerable technical information is included and the great advantages and economies are clearly set out and graphically demonstrated. The various features and details are described and illustrated and there are sundry reproduced photographs of engines to which these fittings are applied. In addition to the Company's chief product, multiple valve regulators, automatic drifting valves and sand guns are dealt with. The whole forms an interesting and valuable treatise on what is the biggest single step forward in locomotive design since the days of the Rocket.

[Post War Berlin Express]. 67

Number 669 (15 May 1948)

Morris, O.J. Standardising S.R. locomotives, Central Section. 70-3

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 73-5.

Number 670 (15 June 1948)

Unproductive engine hours. 83-4.
Every engine has its moment, many moments in fact, and as in this age of distorted figures its capital value has expanded enormously, the policy of so ordering its life that the largest possible portion of it is occu- pied in earning revenue, always a matter given high priority, has now assumed even greater importance. The current general shortage of motive power acts as an additional spur. That an engine should spend the whole of its time earning the maximum of revenue is the unattainable ideal, the Carnot cycle, of engine user; in practical politics, therefore, the objective is to approach this ideal more closely year by year with an ever more steeply rising curve of the annual progress ohart. Whilst actually working a train the proportion of running to standing times at intermediate stations which, added, give of course the total journey time, is specified by. the timetable. Periodical critical analyses of the latter will in all probability be not entirely unprofitable. The risk of being bound by precedent or, in other words" by practice which has so long been accepted that it has almost attained axiomatic status, always exists; it is consequently advisable to review the extents of all booked section running and station standing times with the object of reducing them wherever justifiable and possible. The various means of reducing station times are well known. Cases of station times which are just simply too long, and can therefore be reduced without introducing any change in existing operating conditions and arrangements, still exist, although in decreasing numbers, and obviously are the easiest to solve. At the other extreme is the problem which depends for its solution on extensive alterations to lay-out or on considerable additions to equipment; suoh cases at once rank as long term policy with the prevailing shortages of labour and material. But many intermediate cases can be solved relatively easily by such measures as the adjustment of station staff or modifications of the running times of connecting trains. Other actions to the same end, and also to ensure that booked station times are not exceeded in practice, a matter of equal importance, are to educate the travelling public in rapid entraining and detraining, as has been effectively done by bhe London Transport Board, and the working of trains in standard rakes, so that vehicles of a given class always occupy the same relative position at the platform when the train is brought to a stand. Minimum station times are influenced by station lay-outs (using this term in its widest sense and not limiting its application. to track), by other considerations such as, for instance, the facilities available for the rapid handling of luggage and parcel traffic, and by such factors as the type of stock adopted and lengths of train operated in so far as they affect the time required to release the brakes.
Just as the timetable governs the extent of intermediate standing time, so does the engine working determine that of terminal standing time. Railways do not exist solely for the convenience of the locomotive department, although some unbalanced enthusiasts would have it so, and the first available return working is that which is economically justified and operationally practicable. The locomotive department can and does assist here by providing power units of a general utility nature, that is, the mixed traffic engine. It is obvious that, unless the bulk of traffic worked is both uniform and intensive in character, the engine with the widest range of performance will be employable to the maximum extent over any given period of time. .
Terminal time is determined broadly by two elements, namely, the availability of the first suitable return working, already mentioned, and the time necessary to effect engine requirements, generally known as engine turnround time. The evaluation and accomplishment of the minimum overall time necessary for this purpose rest chiefly with the locomotive department, although certain component factors, such as the time required to release the engine from its train and that occupied in moving thence to the locomotive yard or depot, are extraneous. Many factors influence the minimum time necessary for engine tumround , In the first place engine design determines wholly or partly the effects of several of the contributory items: the relative amounts of ash and clinker deposited and the speed with which they may be removed, the frequency with which oiling points must be replenished and the least time necessary to complete this operation, the extent of running repairs with the relative liability thereto, and the provision of extended water fillers to obviate inching up to a water column all random examples into which the influence of design enters to varying extents. Other contributary determinants of the greatest importance are the lay-out and equipment
of running sheds and lo~motive yards. These must ensure that eaoh servicing operation is performed as quickly as possible and in its correct sequence. Each process must be planned to permit by-passing as required, and the capacity of each individual process or item of equipment must be sufficient to prevent congestion or, in other words, immobjlity of engines, throughout the peak periods of the day. Allowances must also be made for the effects and circumvention of all emergency conditions which can possibly be foreseen, and when their probable incidence justifies these precautionary measures.
Even if the available stock of motive power is adequate to requirements and the provision of efficient servicing plant gives the proportionate output of work, the potential benefits will be at least in part vitiated unless administration is con- stantly maintained at a high level of efficiency. A very high standard of mechanical maintenance must be set and achieved regularly both for engines and plant. Where the staff are concerned there must be good discipline, sustained interest, and pride in the ir work, coupled with a knowledge of the priority in which it must be performed for efficiency and the ability to exercise initiative when, in the absence of a supervisor, some irregu- larity 6r abnormality is encountered.

London Midland and Scottish Regions. 84
New locomotives put into service were: 4-6-0 Class 5 mixed traffic Nos. 4753, 44754 and 44755 fitted with Caprotti valve gear and roller bearings (built at Crewe). 2-6-0 Class 4 Freight: os. 43011 to 43016 (built at Horwich) , 2-6-4 Class 4 passenger ttank No. 2199 and Nos. 42147 to 42510 (built at Derby) .
The following engines had been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 5P: No. 10429 (L. & Y. R.). *4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 14434 (Caledonian). 0-6-2 Class 2PT: No. 6909 (L.N.W.R.). "2-4-2 Class 1PT: No. 6691 (L.N.W.R.). 0-4-4 Class 1PT: No. 1290 (Midland). 0-8-0 Class 6F: Nos. 9038, 9250, 9274 (L.N.W.R.) and 12837 (L. & Y.R.). 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos 3338 (Midland), 17641 (Caledonian). 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 3437, 3689 (Midland), 17327, 17343 (Caledonian). §0-fi-2 Class 3FT: No. 16095 (G. & S.W.R.). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: No. 7821 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 2FT: No. 11320 (L. & Y.R.). 0-6-0 Class 1FT: No. 1870 (Midland).
*Engine No. 14434 was the last of the McIntosh Dunalastair III class to remain in service. Built in 1900 and originally numbered 894 in the Caledonian Railway stock.
§The locomotive stock of the former Glasgow & South Western Railway becomes extinct with the withdrawal of the 0-6-2 tank No. 16095 which was the only survivor of the 528 engines of various types which passed into L.M.S. stock in 1923.

Coaches for South Africa.  84
A special train recently run by the Western and London Midland Regions from Handsworth to Birkenhead, conveyed the first two of twenty-five new railway coaches from Birmingham for shipment to South Africa. As the coaches are out-of-gauge for British Railways they were carried on temporary bogies, and the door handles, side lamps and stepboards were removed so that they would not foul certain tunnels and bridges where, as an additional precaution, a 5 m.p.h. speed limit was imposed.

London Transport. 84
The last survivor, No. L45, of the 4-4-0 Beyer, Peacock tank engines supplied to the Metropolitan Railway over eighty years ago has been withdrawn from service and will be preserved as an historical relic.

E.C. Poultney. Chesapeake & Ohio Railway 4-6-4 passenger locomotives . 84-5. lllustration 
Although the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway was mainly a great coal-carrying line, it at the same time handled a considerable passenger traffic, growing in its importance, between Chicago, Cincinnati and Washington DC., for wrhich service powerful engmes were required, due not only to the weight of the trains, but also to the heavy grades encountered, especially on the main line between Hinton, W.Va., and Charlottesville, Va., a distance of 175 miles. Between these points, the line crosses two ranges of the Alleghany Mountains and one range of the Blue Ridge Mountains. In pursuance of its forward policy in the provision of strictly modem steam motive power for both passenger and freight service, the railway had recently completed an interesting reconstruction programme, the object of which was to modernise a class of Pacific type passenger locomotive and so bring them into line with modern requirements.
These locomotives, five in number, as reconstructed by the railway at the Huntington shops, are illustrated by a photograph of Engine No. 490.
Bultt originally by the American Locomotive Co. at the Richmond, Va., Works, these engines were the 4-6-2 Pacific type, and had been rebuilt during 1946 and 1947 and turned into streamlined 4-6-4 Hudson type locomotives. In the course of this reconstruction, one of the major changes made was the fitting of new cylinders, equipped with poppet valves, on the Franklin system.
A complete set of new motion parts is also included. These are of the Timken design, fitted with roller bearing assemblies for all crank pins. The engines and tenders now have roller bearing journal boxes throughout, and the tender six- wheeled trucks of the Buckeye pattern. The boilers had been modified, and were fitted with type E Superheaters, housed in ·195. 3½ in. flues, while, in addition, there are 41. 2¼in. tubes. Over the tube plates the length is 20 ft. 6 in. The firebox, which has a grate area of 80.7 sq. ft.. A multiple valve throttle is fitted, as is also a Worthington type 5.SSA. feed water heater. Firing is by means of a standard stoker, type HT. The cylinders, 27 in. by 28 in. with steam at a pressure of 210 lb. per sq. in. and 74 in. coupled wheels, give a tractive force of 49,200 lb., which is raised to a total of 61,200 lb. by the Franklin booster, applied, as is usual, to the hind wheels of the trailing four-wheeled truck.

Re-built 4-8-4 and 2-12-0 locos. French National Railways. 85-7. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams including front sectional elevation.
Chapelon conversions: Etat 4-8-2 (described in Locomotive Mag., 1933, 39, 3) and Paris Orleans Railway former 6000 class 2-10-0 rebuilt as 2-12-0 with Lentz poppet valvves and triple chimney

Heavy electric shunting locomotive for France. 87-8. illustration, diagram
In 1938 the Paris Orleans Midi Railway ordered two C-C locomtivves for working at the hump yards ay Vierzon and Juvisy electrified at  1500 volt DC.  They were ordered from Oerlikon and Batignolles Chatillon and included Ward-Leonard control without resitances. 

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 88
Annual luncheon held at the Dorchester Hotel attended by 400. Julian S. Tritton in Chair. V.M. Barrington Ward proposed toast  of Institution and Triitton responded. Harold Rudgard proposed toast of guests and Sir John Calder responded.

2 ft. gauge locomotive for India. 88. illustration
Hunslet Engine Co. 0-4-2T for Tata Noamundi and Gorumahisani iron mines. Fitted with Hackworth valve gear and steel fireboxes.

Some aspects of railway operation. 1, Effects of civil engineering factors. 89-92.
Factors to be considered:
ruling and maximum gradient
maximum curvature
length of route
nature and extent of earthworks
ext ent of bridgework and tunnelling
incidence of floods and other natural phenomena liable to affect construction and operation
availabilty of water sup[plies
avalability of labour and material requred both for construction and operation
Permanent way including wight of rail and sleepers

2-12-2 rack locomotive for Austria. 92.  2 illustratiions
Built to serve the Styrian Iron Ore Mountain between Eisenerz and Vordernburg with 1 in 14 gradients on rack section and 1 in 38 on pure adhesion. Built at the Vienna Locomotive Works at Florisdorf

100 B.H.P. diesel locomotive for mines. 97. illustratiion
Ruston & Hornsby of Lincoln flameproof

Railway Executive. 87
Locomtives and coaches on cross-country services being painted in experimenntal colours.

[2-12-2 rack locomotives for Austria]. 92. illustration

James McEwan. Locomotives of the Caledonian Railway. 94-6. illustration
13 class 4-4-0 of 1894: Lambie design intended for Perth to Aberdeen expresses. They had 6ft 6in coupled wheels, 18 x 26in cylinders, 1184.12ft2 total heating surface and 19.6ft2 grate area.  No. 13 was scrapped as No. 1013 in 1927; No. 14 in 1920; and No. 15 in 1922. In 1895 racing fever rose again, but in this case between London and Aberdeen via the East and West Coast routes. Mentions Driver John Soutar who was born in Arbroath in 1833 and joined the Dundee & Arbroath Railway when aged 18. He drove the Royal Train, retired in 1900 and died in 1912. The Lambie 211 class 0-6-0ST consisted of five locomotives allocated tio work in Grangemouth Docks. They had 18 x 26in wheels (4ft 6in diameter), 1095.76ft2 total heating surface and 17ft2 grate area. No. 214 was rebuilt with side tanks. Lambie's 0-4-4T shared the same boiler as the small 4-4-0; 18 x 26in cylinders; 5ft 9in coupled wheels; 17ft2 grate area and 160 psi boiler pressuire later reduced to 150 psi

Reviews. 98

Le Centenaire des Chemins de Fer Suisses. 98
Published by the General Direction of the Swiss Federal Railways Librairie Payot, Lausanne. This beautifully produced book worthily celebrates the centenary of the Swiss Rail way System, which originated in 1847 with the opening of the line between Zurich and Baden; the relatively late appearance of the railway in Switzerland being explained by the exceedingly difficult nature of the country. But these very difficulties demanded novel solutions, all most successfully met, so that no country in Europe can shew a better record of engineering triumphs, especially in the matter of civil engineering. In mechanical developments also the Swiss have ever been well to the fore, and this tradition of real progress has been well sustained in this century since the change over to electrification. The story of these developments (and other aspects also. historical, technical, and economic) are dealt with in a manner, which though intended for the general reader, has received the closest attention to accuracy, and good judgment has been exercised as to the relative importance of the subjects treated. One can hardly speak too highly of the quality of production. Paper and printing are of the best, and the numerous photographs are well chosen and interesting.

L' annee ferroviajre 1947. Paris, Librairie PIon; London, French Railways, Ltd. 226 pages.
This excellent little book gives a concise, and within its limits of space, a very adequate account of the part played by the French Railways during the enemy occupation, and of the quite extraordinary efforts by which the consequent devastation was repaired and essential services restored within a relatively brief space of time. The facts are objectiely stated with sufficient statistical data to give the reader a full sense of the heroic exertions of the railway personnel, and one cannot but be impressed alike by the technical resourcefullness and professional enthusiasm displayed by all concerned.
The book is divided into two parts, the first comprising six chapters contributed by experts in the matters treated, of which the following headings indicate the nature: "Transport and Public Service"; "The Rebirth of the Rail"; "Locomotives of Today and Tomorrow"; "The Programme of Electrification"; Railway and Aircraft "; "Nocturne." All these subjects are adequately, if briefly, treated. The second part consists of seven chapters relating to current railway matters and statistics of a general character.

Weardale Railway Centenary, 1847-1947. Bishop Auckland: Langford & Son
Booklet commemorates centenary—the opening of the Wear Valley Railway on 3 August 3 1847. The line was leased by the Stockton & Darlington from the start. This booklet deserves a wide sale as the profits are being given to the L.N.E.R, Cottage Homes and Benefit Fund.

Locomotives of the  L.N.E.R. O.S. Nock. Published by L.N.E.R. 68 pp.
A second (revised) edition of a book published some 'few months ago and which was rapidly sold out. It is a first-class production with photographs of all the principal classes and a lucid description of present L.N.E.R. locomotive policy. There is a list of all the named engines now running and a summary of the locomotive classes with an explanation of the new numbering scheme, together with dimensional diagrams of the nine new standard types.

The book of the Schools class. S.C. Townroe, Ian Allan, Ltd.
Monograph on one of the most successful and popular types of present-day locomotives. This Southern Railway class—perhaps the last 4-4-0 engines to be built for this country—all carry the names of well-known public schools.

La machine locomotive. 10th edition. E. Sauvage and A. Chapelon.
The joint work of these two well-known authorities has produced an up-to-date survey of locomotive-practice with, of course, particular reference to that of the Continent. In the space of over 600 pages the subject is treated in considerable detail and the illustrations, extending to over 520, range from general arrangements of the complete locomotive to drawings of details. The whole forms a book which should be possessed by every serious student of the locomotive.

A practical evaluation of railroad motive power. P.W. Kiefer. Simmonds Boardman Publishing Co.
The author, well-known as the Chief Engineer of Motive Power, New York Central System, is well qualified to discuss the subject, for he has had extensive experience with steam locomotives of most modern design competing with diesel power in identical conditions. The book covers reciprocating steam and other coal-fire-d locomotives, gas turbine, electric and diesel-electric locomotives the advantages and disadvantages of each being clearly given. A chapter on motive-power potentialities contains much of value to those responsible for the selection and utilisation of such power.  Mr. J. B. Ennis, in his foreword, regards this book as the best evaluation of railroad motive power yet presented—an opinion we endorse.

G.W.R. 2-cylinder piston-valve locomotives. E.J Nutty.
A thoroughly practical book dealing with the detection and location of defects in valve chests and cylinders and the manner in which they should be handled on the road. The author is already well-known by his previous book on slide-valves, ports and pistons and the treatise under review will enhance his reputation.

Walschaerts valve gear. Henry Greenly. Percival Marshall & Co. Ltd.
This book has been revised by E.A. Steel. It is true that it is intended primarily for model makers, but this should not deter anyone interested only in full-sized locomotives from obtaining it. It is an excellent little publication.

The model railway hobby. M. H. Brinstead. Percival Marshall & Co. Ltd.
Intended to bridge the gap between publications on full-size practice and those dealing technically with model railways, this publication contains much information not to be found elsewhere. It may be recommended, especially to beginners in this fascinating hobby. Steps will no doubt be taken in any further edition to replace the illustrations purporting to show the principles of the steam locomotive.

British Transport Commission, Transport Statistics,
Published every four weeks, may be obtained, from named Transport Offices in London and the Provinces. In introducing the Commission's first issue of a four- weekly booklet comprising railway and other vital transport statistics, the Chairman, Sir Cyril 'Hurcomb, states:-" We intend to maintain as fully as possible the means to enable the progress and scope of the Commission's activities to be judged. Much new information will gradually be made available. The tables will be expanded or modified as experience shows what is most useful."

Railways to Cambridge, actual ano proposed. Reginald B. Fellows. Oakwood Press. 32 pages, 7 illustrations and map.
The railway history of Cambridge and district is unique and for more than 100 years projects for additions and alterations to lines and buildings have been numerous, and the town was, before 1923, the most easterly terminus for three of the largest railways. The author has in his usual clear and concise manner done a good service by collecting relevant facts up to the present day. We recommend it as an interesting and informative record.

Also received.  98

British locomotive shed directory. Compiled and published by A.L.F. Fuller.

My best railway photographs, No. 7. H.C. Casserley. London: Ian Allan Ltd.

My best railway photographs,, No. 8. F.R. Hebron. London: Ian Allan ,Ltd.

Number 671 (145 July 1948)

Morris, O.J. Standardising S.R. locomotives, Central Section. 107-9

[Recent notes from Australia]. 109

Number 672 (14 August 1948)

Locomotive standardisation. 115
Locomotive Manufacturers' Associatiion had agreed to work to same limits and fits and published Limits and fits for locomotive work

Crewe North motive power depot. 115
Had been equipped with a wagon hoist type of coaling plant, ash disposal plant and vacuum powered 70ft turntable.

George Stephenson. 116
Commemorating centenary of his death on 12 August 1848.

Oil-fired 0-6-0 tender locomotives, Anglo-Iranian Oil Co. 116-17, illustration
Hudswell Clarke & Co. Ltd outside-cylinder 0-6-0 for 3ft gauge.

Railway Executive. 117
D.S.M. Barrie appointed Public Relations Officer to the Railway Executive. Barrie joined the LMS in 1932 and became Assistant Publicity Officer to the LMS in 1946. During WW2 he received the U.S. Bronze Medal for services in connection with the movement of US troops through Southampton.

Institute of Transport. 117
Annual Press luncheon presided over by T.W. Royle

Diesel-electric rail-cars for Czechoslovakia. 117. illustration
Built by Brno & Kralovo for Czechoslovak State Railways: single car unit.

Approximate calculations of the speed-power capacity, and of the operating range of a steam locomotive. 118-20. 4 tables
Locomotive speed and power capacity; tractive force; rolling resistane; gradient resistance; calculation of resistances; grate area; firebox heating surface; gas flow area through tubes. Largely based on Phillipson.

Personal. 120
Henry Hume Saunders compelled to relinquish post as joint Managing Director of Vulcan Foundry Ltd. Served his apprenticeship at GWR Wolverhamton. In 1913 appointed Assistant Locomotive Superintendent of the North Western Railway in India. Served with Indian Expeditionary Force in East Africa, but returned to civilian duties in 1920 and became assistant to the General Manager of the NWR. Later he became Superintendent Mechanical Workshops and then Deputy Chief Mecanical Engineer at the Jamalpur Workshops. He joined the Vulcan Foundry in 1935 as assistant to the Managing Director and in 1937 appointed General Manager.e became joint Managing Director in 1946.

Electrification of the Pilatus Railway. 120. illustration
Railway built on theLocher principle on a gradient of 1 in 2.5 and in places 1 in 2.1. Electrification double the capacity of the line.

The Berkley mechanical stoker. 121. illustration
Fitted to Merchant Navy No. 35005

Netherlands Railways. 121
To provide for the future developmeut and to replace stock destroyed, stolen or worn out as a result of the war, an extensive building plan has been put in operation. Over the next five to ten years all lines carrying such heavy traffic as will justify the cost are to be electrified, and where density of traffic is not sufficient diesel-electric traction will be extended. Steam traction may then almost disappear. Present coaches will be replaced by streamlined stock of uniform design. Three hundred and thirty-one coach bodies intended for two- and four-coach systems are in the course of construction. Swiss and Netherlands factories have orders for 10 electric locomotives of 4,500 h.p.. designed during the war. These will be suitable for express or goods traffic and will be completed this year. To supplement the American Army locomotives, which are being used to a limited extent to bridge the shortage gap, a Netherlands type of diesel-electric locomotive of 1,300 h.p. is being designed, which will have a speed of 100 to 120 kilometres per hour. Fifteen diesel-electric locomotives for shunting and light freight service are under construction at the works of N.V. Werkspoor, at Amsterdam. They are driven by a 250 h.p. Thomassen diesel motor. Electric stock is also being increased by adding another carriage to 13 existing two-carriage trains. These should be. completed by 1949. In addition 29 two-coach and 65 four-coach trains are being built-all streamlined. Of these it is .hoped that 14 four- and 4 two-carriage trains will be running in 1948. The remainder are expected to be ready in 1949, depending of course, on the supply of materials coming up to expectations. Twelve five-carriage diesel-electric trains survived destruction during the war, but will have to be fitted with new motors. More than 30 diesel motors of 6so h.p. have been ordered and it is hoped to put a limited number of trains in working order during this year. Twenty-five Bo-Bo electric locomotives for mixed traffic have been ordered from the French firm Alsthom.

New buffet lounge cars, Eastern and North Eastern Regions. 122. illustration, diagram (elevation and plan)
For service on the Flying Scotsman

C. & O. turbine-electric loco. 123-4. illustration, diagram
Coal fired express passenger locomotive intended for 100 mile/h services between Washington and Cincinnatti. Built at Baldwin Locomotive Works with Westinghouse Electric Corporation electrics

British Railways exhibition — Chesterfield. 124.
Held at Chesterfield Market Place station in conjunction with Town Council to celebrate centenary of George Stephenson's death. Exhibits included the Lion locomotive, a replica of the Rocket, B1 and Patriot class locomotives and beaver tail car off Coronation train.

Roller bearing crankaxle. 124 diagram
As fitted to No. 6256 Sir William A. Stanier, F.R.S.

J.M. Doherty. The internal combustion locomotive: a survey of the types with mechanical transmission in use. 125-6. 4 diagrams

Nigerian Railways, 2-8-2 locos, 127. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Built Vulcan Foundry to the requirements of the Crown Agents for the Colonies and shipped from Gladstone Dock, Liverpool on MS VBelnor. Belpaire firebox and bar frames.

London Midland and Scottish Regions. 128
The following new locomotives are in service — class express passenger: No. 46257 City of Salford (built at Crewe). 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 44740 and 44741 (built at Crewe). . 2-6-0.Class 4 Freight .(New Design) : Nos. 43017, 43018 and 43019 (built at Horwich ), 2-6-4 Class 4 Passenger Tank: Nos. 42151; 42152, 42153 and 42154, also 0-6-0 Diesel-Electric Shunter 350 H.P.: No. 12046 (built at Derby). The following had been withdrawn — Class 4P: No. 14631 (Caledonian); 25787 (L.N.W.R.). 4-4-0 Class 4P: Nos. 1002, 1029 (Midland) (7 ft. Compounds). 4-4-0 . Class 3P: No. 25350 (L.N.W.R. George V Class). 0-6-2 Class 2PT: .No. 6883 (L.N.W.R.). 2-4-2 Class 2PT: No, 10875 (L.& Y.R.). 2-4-2 Class 1PT: Nos. 6605, 6661, 6681, 6686 (L.N.W:.R.). 0-4-4 Class 2PT: Nos. 15116, 15190 (Caledonian}. 0-4-4 Class 1PT: No. 1342 (Midland). 0-8-0 Class 6: Nos. 9103, 9197, 9233 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos. 3265, 3269, 3769 (Midland); 12467 (L. & Y.R.). Class 2F: Nos. 3073, 3123 (Midland); 17301, 17304, 17308, 17330, 17374, 17422 (Caledonian); 28191, 28202, 28308, 28511, 28547, 28594 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-4 Class 7FT: No. 7959 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: Nos. 7740, 7836 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 1FT: Nos. 1674, 1842 (Midland) .
L.N.W.R. George V class becomes extinct and the first withdrawals of the original Midland 7 ft. compounds have been made.
The George V class was introduced by C.J. Bowen- Cooke in 1910 with L.N.W.R. No. 2663 George the Fifth. This was the first L.N.W.R. engine to be fitted with the Schmidt superheater. No. 2664 Queen Mary and nine other locomotives built in 1910 were, however, built without superheaters, but after comparative trials with the two types the advantage gained by the use of superheaters was so apparent that the Queen Mary's were rebuilt with superheaters. One of the class, which was withdrawn in 1940 as L.M.S. No. 25348 Coronation, was the 5,000th engine built in Crewe Works.
The 3-cylinder compounds were first put into service on the Midland Railway by S.W. Johnson who built five engines on the Smith principle in 1902/3. R. M. Deeley brought out his own version of the compound in 1905 and constructed a total of 40 engines, also rebuilding the Johnson engines to his own design. Henry Fowler (later Sir Henry) rebuilt the Deeley engines with superheaters and then in 1924 commenced building for the L.M.S. 195 engines of a modified design with 6 ft. 9 in. coupled wheels.

A new platform truck. 128. illustration
By the introduction of their new electric traction circuit, Lancing-Bagnall Ltd. have improved the maintenance and operation of all kinds of battery driven vehicles. Included in the advantages of the circuit may be mentioned no controllers as commonly known are required. Contactor contacts operate on no load so that arcing and burning is impossible. A single accelerator without steps or contacts gives any desired speed. Power is regenerated when the vehicle is slowing down, stopping or descending inclines. The charging board is dispensed with and the operator can plug through into any of the mains at any desired point. .' . The accompanying illustration depicts a type of truck suitable for service on railway station platforms or in workshops. .

Clyde Engineering Company of Australia and Electro-Motive Division of General Motors. 128
Completed an agreement under which the Australian company, in collaboration with Electro-Motive, will manufacture Diesel locomotives at its works at Granville, New South' Wales. The locomotives produced will be utilized on railways in Australasia and certain territories of the Far East.

Locomotive Manufacturers' Association. 128
Harold Wilmot, Managing Director of Beyer, Peacock & Co. Ltd., has been re-elected President of the Locomotive Manufacturers' Association of Great Britain.

Obituary. 128
It is with regret we have to record the death of Lawford H. Fry in his seventy-fifth year. Born at Richmond, Quebec, in 1873, Fry came as a boy to England and was educated at the Bedford Grammar School and the City and Guilds Institute followed by further studies in Germany. In 1889 he began a period of practical training under James Stirling on the South Eastern Railway. Later Fry went to Philadelphia where he joined Burnham, Williams & Co. which later became the Baldwin Locomotive Works. In 1905 Lawford Fry came to London to act as the firm's representative. In 1913 he returned to America and took up a position with the Standard Steel Works, Burnham, Pa., a subsidiary of the Baldwin Locomotive Works. In 1943, on the formation of the Steam Locomotive Research Institute, Fry was appointed research director a position well merited for few, if any, engineers had a wider theoretical and practical knowledge of locomotive engineering. One of Fry's favourite subjects was without question the looomotive boiler and his book on the subject published in 1924 is well known. His method for computing the temperatures of flue gasses and perhaps more particularly the means he evolved for estimating furnace losses through the escaping of unburned fuel represent work of outstanding value.

Correspondence. 129. 2 illustrations

A historic photograph. Joseph O'Neill (Advertising & Publicity Officer, London Midland Region).
As a result of research which has been in progress in connection with the forthcoming centenary (August 12, 1948) ·of the death at Chesterfield of George Stephenson, there has been brought to light by our Station Master at Chesterfield (O.B. Nichols) an old and somewhat faded photograph depicting a scene at the Chesterfield station of the former Midland Railway. When this photograph was examined and restored by the Chief Mechanical Engineer's technical staff at Derby, it became apparent that its technical interest was even greater than was at first thought, inas- much as it represents a 2-2-2 engine of the famous Jenny Lind class built by the Midland Railway at Derby, with Matthew' Kirtley's own design of boiler and' fittings. It is considered both by our Chief Mechanical Engineer and by P.C. Dewhurst, the well-known authority on M.R. locomotive history, that this is the only photograph so far known to exist depicting a Derby-built Jenny Lind in this condition.
The original Jenny Lind engines were built for the Midland Railway by the Leeds firm of E.B. Wilson & Co. between 1847 and 1849, while from 1851 onwards further examples of the type were built as new engines by the M.R. at Derby, in addition to others provided through rebuilding both by Derby and Wilson's, and by the two jointly. We are indebted to Mr. Dewhurst for certain early particulars of the actual locomotive which is here depicted as No. 728 but which was originally built at Derby in May, 1855, as M.R. No. 8. From 1862 onwards this locomotive underwent various renumberings, and since it was only between September, 1867, and September, 1868, that it carried the number 728, this clearly fixes the period within which the photograph was taken.
In 1871-72 this engine, by then numbered 1006, was completely reconstructed as an 0-6-0 double-framed well tank; its original dimensions had included cylinders 15 in. by 20 in., and driving wheels 6 ft. diameter, these becoming cylinders 15 in. by 22 in. and coupled wheels 4 ft. 2 in., on rebuilding. Mr. Dewhurst states that only some of the motion, the boiler, and possibly some of the original leading and trailing wheels, were retained. Its life as a well-tank was largely confined to shunting duties on the brewery lines at Burton-on-Trent; after various further renumberings, it was eventually scrapped (as No. 1603) in September, 1920, after an overall existence.Iin various forms, of nearly 70 years.

Twin motor coaches French National Railways. 130. illustration.
Articulated vehicle seating 110 plus 34 standin. Built by Alsthom abd Somua with Alsthom transmission

Oil fired locomotives. 130
Ministyry of Transport stopped programme due to changes in fuel situation: 93 locomotives had been converted.

Western Region. 130
Newe 4-6-0 locomotives built at Swindon: Nos. 6990 Witherslack Hall, 7008 Swansea Castle and 7009 Althelney Castle.

A new seating fabric. 130.
Fothergill & Harvey Ltd. synthtic fabric known as Tygan suitable for railway carriage upholstery

Number 673 (15 September 1948)

Locomotive exchanges. 131-3. 4 locomotives
Photograph of No. 34004 Yeovil at Perth led to letter from R.F. Harvey

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. -137
Continued on page 169

[Belgian D.C. locomotives]. 140. illustration

H.C.B. Rogers. The Great Northern Railway (Ireland). 141-3. illustration.
A locomotive history, with emphasis on 20th century development.

Number 674 (15 October 1948)

The use of locomotives. 149
Editorial comment on Rudgard's ILocoE Presidential Address

[T.J. Hartigan]. 149
Retirement of Chief Commissioner of Railways, New South Wales

New 4-4-0 locomotives, Great Northern Railway (Ireland). 150-1. illustration., diagram (side elevation)
VS three-cylinder class designed H.R. McIntosh and supplied by Beyer Peacock. No. 209 Foyle illustrated. The engines which are painted in the blue livery of the Company's express locomotives are numbered and named 206 Liffey , 207 Boyne, 208 Lagan, 209 Foyle, 210 Erne.

Model Engineer Exhibition. 151
The standard of workmanship at this year's exhibition, held at the New Horticultural Hall, was if anything, higher than ever. Locomotives were well represented. The championship cup in this section was awarded to H.C. Powell for a magnificent model, to a scale of 1½ in. = 1 ft., of an L.M.R. Pacific. Among other outstanding engines was a very fine ¾in. scale G.W.R. King by F. Cottam, a 1 in. scale Caledonian Rly. 4-4-0 by Dearden and a large scale model of a Hunslet contractor's type engine by M.E. Moss. W.D. Hollings and J.I. Crowther both entered 1½ in. scale shunting tank locomotives. Some idea of the variety may be gathered from the fact that prototypes so far apart as a G.W.R. 2-4-0 "River" class and a U.S. Army 2-8-0 were included—the former to 13/16 in. scale by H.J. Prefoy and the latter to 1 in. scale by R.J. Smith. There were some attracive entries from abroad; outstanding among these being fine models of Canadian, Dutch and French engines.

The Vulcan Foundry Ltd., of Newton-le-Willows, Lancashire. 151
Issued a well-produced and interesting brochure entitled A career in locomotive building. The firm has obviously given great attention to providing facilities for adequate instruction and those passing through either the Trade or Engineering Apprenticeships receive one of the finest trainings obtainable in the field of mechanical engineering. This booklet will be of great value to both parents and boys and the hope expressed in the opening paragraphs that it will help those with a leaning towards engineering to decide whether the aptitude should be developed as a career will, we are certain, be fully realised.

Western Region. 151
4-6-0 express engine No. 7016 Chester Castle, was in service, also five more 0-6-0 tank engines Nos. 7430 to 7434. Tender engines withdrawn were 4-6-0 No. 2928 Saint Sebastian, 4-4-0 No. 3395 Tasmania, and No. 9006, also 2-8-0 Nos. 3005, 3035, 3037, 3039 and 3046. Tank engines condemned were 2-6-2 No. 5130; 2-4-0 Nos. 3589 and 3597; 0-6-2 No. 259 (late Barry No. 77) and No. 261 (late Barry No. 105); 0·6-0 Nos. 1730, 1745, 1780, 2734, 2755 and 783 (late Barry No. 50).

London Midland Region. 151
Crewe North Motive Power Depot, the largest passenger locomotive depot in the London Midland Region, was to be completely modernised. It stabled 130 express locomotives. The scheme included two new sheds of the roundhouse type, each with 32 roads radiating from a 70-ft. diameter turntable. Duplicate coaling and ashplants tol be provided, the intention being that should any failure of plant occur such failure will not slow down the work of the depot. A later stage of the scheme provides for up-to-date amenities for the staff including a canteen, wash and bath house, locker and cloakrooms, ambulance and meeting rooms, and office accommodation for supervisory and clerical staff.

Erratum. 151
In the article appearing on page 143 of our last issue some figures were given for the maximum delivery of the class RCW Injectors manufactured by Gresham & Craven Limited. Owing to an unfortunate omission it was not stated that these figures referred to the No. 8 size only. These Injectors are, of course, made in various other sizes up to size 13, the last mentioned having a maximum capacity of approximately 5,000 gallons per hour. The steam pressures of 140 and 170 lb. per sq. in. mentioned are approximately half way between the maximum and minimum pressure at which the Injector will work when fitted with standard and H.P. cones respectively.

G.V.O. Bulkeley. Front end design for colonial railway locomotives. 151-2.
Formerly General Manager, Nigerian Railway. Corisidering the design of a locomotive for service on a Colonial Railway, there were three aspects which call for special attention:
(i) that the valve gear will have to admit and exhaust steam at fast valve travel speeds, due to the high r.p.m. of low diameter driving wheels;
(ii) that the locomotive as a carriage will have to encounter successons of sharp curvatures and reverse curves, due to the railway largely following contours; and
(iii) that the smokebox draught will probably have to deal with inferior coal, without lifting the fire off the grate or causing cylinder back pressure.
Considering item (i): long travel valve gear should be designed to give a port opening at 25 .per cent. cut-off of not less than 1/40th of the piston area. The valve chest should be bellied out to contain the greatest possible quantity of steam. Both piston valves, steam pipes and regulator opening should be made generously large. A graph plotted to show a 9½ in. piston valve for a 16 in. cylinder and a 12 in. piston valve for a 20 in. cylinder will show suitable valve diameters for other cylinder diameters. A simple design of smokebox regulator (such as that used by the Western Region of British Rail- ways) has much to recommend it; being both sensitive to control slipping and giving promptly a large opening to steam.
Where Walschaerts valve gear is used; reversal and linking up are best effected by a forked pro- longation of the radius rod past the link. This avoids the sensitiveness of this gear to the suspen- sion location between link and valve chest. The length of the link between the foot of the combin- ing lever and the crosshead bracket should not be less than three quarters of the piston stroke. While the angularity potential of this link is small, 100ths of an inch are important in a fast moving valve. Iitem (ii): since the inception of Colonial Railways, it has been the practice (with one or two isolated exceptions) to fit all locomotives with a leading bogie truck. Engines of the 2-8-2 wheel arrangement recently acquired by the Nigenan and Tanganyika Railways indicate a trend away from this practice.
A leading pony truck cannot give the guidance that a bogie can. While it is true that many pony truck engmes are running successfully on the railways of developed countries, easy curvatures and road bed stability are not features of most Colonial Railways, where sharp curvatures are often almost continuous and road beds subject to tropical rain.

R. Opie. Locomotive power, performance and rating. 153-6. table

Arthur L. Stead. Railways of Palestine. 156-8. illustration, map
Approximately 650 miles of track were operated in Palestine, Egypt (Sinai) and Trans-Jordan, mainly standard gauge, but 105cm in Trans-Jordan. The British Mandate had ended. There werer 127 steam standard gauge locomotives; and 30 narrow gauge. ROD (from WW1); Stanier 8F and WD 2-8-0 types were in service plus some from the United States. The conversion from coal to oil burning was sone hurriedly and led to firebox damage, but later the Mexican trough system was employed. The staff was broken down by religion: 1736 Christians; 4 Bahais; 5431 Muslim and 520 Jews.

Rhodesia Railways. 4-8-2 locomotives. 159.  illustration.
Supplied by Montreal Locomotive Co.

Eastern Region. 159
The Norfolkman set out at 10.00 from Liverpool Street on 27 Septeember for Norwich calling only at Ipswich arrived in Norwich to allow 4½ hours of business and arriving back in London at 19.20. The train was B1 hauled by No. 1236 which seemed to have been spared carrying an extra digit. A.R. Dunbat (Operating Superintendent, Eastern Division); L.P. Parker (Locomotive Running Superintendent), J.W. Dunger (Assistant Commercial Superintendent) and G. Dow were on the train which also conveyed the Mayor of Ipswich and was greeted on arrival by the Mayor of Norwich.

R.B. Fellows. The Eastbourne express trains of the S.E. Railway, 1884-1885. 159-61. 2 illustrations 

Chepstow Bridge. 161

Torsion bar bogies. 161-2. diagram
Schweizerische Industrie od Neuhausen bogie as used on Zurich tram cars

South African Railways. 0-8-0 locomotives. 162. illustration.

Field Marshal The Viscount Montgomery. 163. illustration.
Formally named Patriot class No. 45506 The Royal Pioneer Corps at ceremony at Euston Station. G.L. Darbyshire, Chief Regional Officer, London Midland Region and Sir William Wood present

Correspondence. 164

Beyer-Garratt type steam locomotives. Basil M. Bazley.
Owing to our very restricted loading gauge it is practically impossible to give the steam locomotive of the ordinary wheel arrangement a boiler of larger diameter—increase in length will not give effective heating surface. For the haulage of heavy trains at express speeds the diesel-electric locomotive has been tested with success on the London Midland Region of British Railways as well as in other countries, but it is expensive to construct and is dependent on oil imported from overseas for its fuel.
It seems strange that little use is made on our railways of the Beyer-Garratt type of steam locomotive, which has been in successful operation in many countries for the past forty years. This articulated machine cornbines great power, high speed capacity, low operating cost, perfect flexibility and light load per axle, with the additional merit of simplicity: the boiler, of ample diameter without undue length, gives the maximum effective heating surface and is slung in a cradle carried on the two engine units—briefly the same sort of vehicle as the ordinary bogie carriage. So far, this locomotive has been used mainly for heavy goods and passenger trains on mountainous sections with sharp curves and light rails, where its success is outstanding. On heavy work examples may be seen in England : the London Midland Region has had 33 Garratts working the long coal trains between London and Toton Sidings, since 1927: in 1925 the Eastern Region purchased a somewhat larger engine, for banking work on the Worsborough incline in South Yorkshire, a task which it performs with eminent success. When looking down a list of the wonderful achievements of this locomotive type one might be tempted to conclude that its chief uses were on difficult pieces of line worked at low speeds; the Algerian Railways, however, provide us with proof that the Garratt engine has displayed high speed capabilities, combined with stability and smooth riding, in addition to other qualities — up to 85 m.p.h. has been attained, which is quite fast enough for any British schedule except, perhaps, the pre-war non-stop trains from London to Glasgow and Edinburgh. The engines now working in Algeria, where the gauge is the same as ours, were conspicuously successful when tested on the heavy regular fast trains between Laroche and Dijon, and (in 1937) from Paris to Calais. These fine locomotives weigh 212 tons including fuel (10 tons of coal) and water (6,600 gallons), with a maximum axle load of 18.2 tons (the axle loads of the diesel and the latest Duchess class locomotives on the L.M. Region are 20.5 and 22.5 tons respectively); the tractive effort of the Garratt at 85 per cent. boiler pressure is 65,960 lb., compared with the 40,000 lb. tractive effort of the Duchess.
Here is an opportunity for the new State Management to show its enterprise by adopting a Locomotive type capable of high uphill speeds, easy on the road, simple and cheap to maintain, economical in proportion to its power, and able to deal with any load which our railway lay-outs can take.

Reviews. 164

The Irish Mail, 1848-1948. V.S. Haram. The Railway Executive.
The Irish Mail, the oldest named train in the world, achieved its centenary on 1 August and to mark the occasion an excellent little souvenir book has been produced by the London Midland Region. Well written and illustrated the story is told from the days of the Elizabethan post-boys up to the present time.

Elements of railroad engineering. 6th edition. Chapman & Hall. W.G. Raymond, H.E. Riggs and W.C. Sadler
Latest edition of book which for some 40 years has been a recognised text book for students and those requiring a general survey of the basic principles of railway engineering. Two new chapters have been added on streamlined trains and on power and passenger equipment and much has been rewritten to bring it into line with modern practice.

The permanent way. Horace Greenleaf and G. Tyers. London: Winchester Publications Ltd.
An attractively produced book, beautifully illustrated, seventy-eight photogravures and four colour plates. It is of unique interest to all wanting information on the con- struction and maintenance of modern permanent way. The operation of railways is also presented in a very clear and concise manner. The stories of the early engineering feats. concerning tunnels, viaducts, bridges are well told and the last chapter dealing with the small lines, i.e. Romney, Hythe and Dymchurch, Vale of Rheidol, Festiniog, etc., will appeal to many.

Krow As You Go guide books
An attractive series of five guide books for train travellers covering Midland Region main railway routes out of London.
No. 1. The Track of the Irish Mail. London (Euston) to Holyhead. (100 pages.)
No. 2. Along the Viking Border. London (Euston to Li verpool. (80 pages.)
No. 3. The Track of the Royal Scot. (Part 1.) London (Euston) to Carlisle. (112 pages.)
No. 4. The Track of the Royal Scot. (Part n.) Carlisle to Glasgow (Central). (60 pages.)
No. 5. The Track of the Peak Express. London (St. Pancras ) to Manchester (Central). (76 pages.)
Each book contains a mile-by-mile route diagram showing all principal features and points of interest on both sides of the line. Stations, bridges and tunnels, etc., are indicated on the diagrams by easily-recognised symbols enabling the reader to pin-point his position at a glance. In addition, each book includes an illustrated descriptive section giving details of all interesting places and features on the route. The books are available at principal stations and offices of the London Midland Region.

The Somerset & Dorset Railway. D. S. Barrie and C. R. Clinker. Oakwood Press. .
Both authors are sufficiently well known for their accurate research and entertaining style to render any eulogy of their latest book unnecessary. The line was one of the most interesting of the smaller British Railways and its history—and all that went to create the line's atmosphere— is very well narrated and illustrated.

The steam lorry, 1896-1939. R.W. Kidner. Oakwood Press.
This essay will be welcomed by those interested in this form of transport which although now almost extinct contained much of interest.

Caledonian Railway Centenary, 1847-1947. Stephenson Locomotive Society.
A well illustrated description of the Railway from its origin up to its merger into the L.M.S.R.—much of the information in fact being provided by that concern. Many of the 76 pages are devoted to locomotives and their work while passenger and goods rolling stock, steamships and many other subjects are dealt with.

Musing on railways. Four essays. Thomas B. Peacock. Published by the Author.
The four essays forming this book are I. A trip on the Wye Valley Tram. II. Monmouth to Coleford by Rail. III. The Mistley, Thorpe and Walton Railway, and IV. Railway Pnde and Prejudice. All have already appeared in booklet form. Ottley 7780 and 7790 note that Part IV is on railway aesthetics. Author lived in Halstead (Essex).

Personal. 164
Colonel Cantlie has been appointed overseas representative for the' Locomotive Manufacturers' Association.

Obituary. 164
Death of D.W. Sandford who was attached to the Chief Mechanical Engineer's Department, Derby.

Number 675 (15 November 1948)

Locomotive laboratory. 165.
Editorial on the Rugby Locomotive Testing Station. Notes that Carling was Superintending Engineer. Notes Churchward Swindon test plant. Cites Gresley's Institution of Locomotive Engineers Presidential Addresses of 1927 and 1934 and papers by Place formerly of the Vitry plant and by Andrews on the LMS mobile testing plant (Instn Mechanical Engineers).

Southern Region. 165
Motor vessels Southsea and Brading built by Denny Brothers of Duumbarton to replace Southsea and Portsdown lost during WW2. Accommodated 1400 passengers; crew of 33; first screw propelled vessels on service

Appointments. 165
Assistant Motive Power Superintendent, North Eastern Region

[Canadian Pacific Railway. 165.
W.F. Sinclair created general supervisor diesel equipment of Canadian Pacific Railway in Montreal

Rugby Testing Station. 166; 167. diagram
Site of approximately 7¾ acres comprised two buildings. The larger contained the Test House, the adjacent Preparation Shed, etc., the smaller housed offices and the Chemical Laboratory. The Test House, 171 ft. long by 66 ft. 6 in. wide was supported by a welded steel frame. The structure was of unusual design .as it had to support a crane whilst having a contmuous slot at the crown for the emission of smoke to the smoke chamber which  was a heavy concrete structure. The adjacent Preparation Shed was 170 ft. long by 41 ft. wide and had two tracks equipped with rnspection pits. A 35 ton wheel-drop was provided. At the side of the Test House was the Coal Bunker Annexe, containing six bunkers, each of twelve tons capacity. The Control Room, where the majority of recordings were made, was situated in the Test House .and was specially sound-proofed: In this room were the Amsler recording table which had mtegratmg devices to obtain and record the work done and the power developed, in addition to making a continuous record of the drawbar pull and the actual speed. This table was also equipped with additional pens enabling any desired feature of the engine working to be recorded. The control desk, whence the brakes and most of the plant mechanism are controlled is here and in addition instruments are located on a wall panel ~o indicate and record temperatures of flue gases, and exhaust steam, feed water, etc.; the boiler, steam chest and exhaust pressures and smokebox, firebox and asbpan vacua. Instruments were also provided for continuous analysis of the smokebox gasses.
When a locomotive was to be tested the roller units and. brakes had to be adjusted to suit the wheel spacmg of the engine. These units were traversed on sole plates founded on the large steel grillage forming the basis of the whole plant. This grillage contained some sixty tons of girders embedded in a concrete block about 103 ft. long by from 17 to 41 ft. wide and 6 to 17 ft. thick, the whole weighmg roughly 3,000 tons.
The rollers and brakes were first set to the nominal dimensions of the engine and finally set more accurately by means of a special device originally developed at Vitry. This was used either with the wheels stationary or revolving at moderate speeds and was capable of indicating errors of the order of 0.01 in. When correctly set the brakes and rollers were firmly clamped by large holding down bolts. The locomotive was placed on the rollers by a special lifting table, consisting of two heavy beams running .the whole length of the plant. These were just inside the rollers and supported on jacks adjacent to each roller. This table could be slightly raised and lowered and when up the engine was carried on the wheel flanges while the treads were clear of the rollers.
There were seven pairs of rollers, running on Timken bearings, and as the present maximum capacity was a ten-coupled engine five pairs of these were coupled to Froude dynamometers, fitted with Hoffman bearings, capable of absorbing up to 1,200 h.p. Testing could be carried out at speeds equivalent to 10 to 130 m.p.h. The capacity of the whole plant is rated at 4,500 h.p. and is capable of being increased to 6,000 h.p., should this be required, by the installation of an additional cooler. Each roller unit had been designed to carry an axle load of 30 tons to allow for any possible increase in size and power. . All dynamometers could be operated together, or each controlled separately; this enabled the load on an individual axle to be altered if desired. The drawbar is necessarily adjustable in height and length and the firing platform was adjustable. This latter supported a coal bunker and shovelling plate formmg part of a recording weighing machine, enabling the amount of coal fired to be ascertained at any time. The water supplied was measured both by water meters and by feeding from a calibrated tank replenished in quantities of 500 gallons from two further calibrated tanks. Provision was made to meter the amount of exhaust steam used by an exhaust injector or feed-water heater. The administration section includes a drawing office where reports of tests, etc., were prepared. The detailed design and construction of the testing equipment were carried out to the requirements of the Management Committee by Heenan & Froude Ltd. of Worcester

London Midland Region and Scottish Region. 166
New locomotives in service included: 4-6-0 Class 5 mixed traffic: Nos. 44705 to 44708 (built at Horwich). 2-6-4 Class 4 mixed traffic tank: Nos. 42166 to 42169 (built at Derby). 2-6-2 Class 2 mixed traffic tank:Nos. 41214 to 41222 (built at Crewe). 0-6-0 diesel electric shunter 350 h.p.· No. 12047 (built at Derby).
The following had been withdrawn: 4-4-0 Class 4P: Nos. 1024, 1027 and 1036 (Midland Compounds). 4-4-2 Class 7PT: No.. 2092 (L.T.S.,R.). 0-4-4 Class 2PT: No. 15130 (Caledoman): Class 1PT': No. 1389 (Midland). 0-8-0 Class 7F: No. 12877 (L. & Y.R.); Class 6F: Nos. 9152, 9165 (L.N.W.R.) 4-6-0 Class 4F: No. 17953 (Highland-Clan goods), 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos. 3796 (Midland), 12170, 12374 (L. & Y.R.), 17606, 17629 (Caledonian); Class 2F: Nos. 3537 (Midland), 17421, 17471 (Caledonian), 28309, 28313. 28499, 28608 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: Nos. 7733, 7816, 27586, 27681 (L.N.W.R.) .. 0-6-0 Class 2FT: No. 11342 (L. & Y.R.); Class 1FT: No. 1762 (Midland).

[South Afncan Railways and Harbours]. 166
Order valued. at £2,000.000 placed by the South Afncan Railways and Harbours with the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., and the General Electric Co. Ltd., for 40 main line Electric locomotives. All the axleboxes for these locomotives will be supplied by British Timken Ltd., of Birmingham and Northampton.

N.E. & S. Regions. 166.
The East Coast main line between Berwick-on-Tweed and Dunbar, severely damaged by floods and landslides on 12 August, re-opened for passenger and freight traffic.

Central Argentine Railway: 4-8-0 5ft. 6in. guge "CS7" class.  168-70. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
35 oil-burning locomotives completed by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns lLtd and by the North British Locomotive Co. to inspection of Livesey & Henderson, Consulting Engineers,.

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. 169-71. 2 illustrations
Continued from page 137. In 1862 three 2-4-0T were purchased from Beyer, Peacock & Co. They were named Blenda (illustrated), Frey and Balder. One (No. 25) was rebuilt with A Belpaire firebox in 1882. F class 0-6-0 were supplied by Beyer, Peacock & Co. from 1863 (No. 10 Snapphanen illustrated)

Tank locomotives for Egypt and Turkey. 171-2. 2 illustrations
Eight oil-fired 2-4-2T built for Egyptian State Railways by W.G. Bagnall of Statford capable of hauling 650 tons on the level. Ten narrow gauge  (2-feet) 0-4-0ST, also built by Bagnall fr British Geco Engineering Co. Ltd for use in Turkey to burn washed and tailings (coal). 

Old 2-4-0 goods locomotives L. & N.W.R. (L. & C. Section). 172-3. 2 illustrations
Until 1857 the line was worked by the LNWR, but in that year the railway purchased locomotives from Rothwell: Nos. 1-20 were 2-4-0 goods engines with 5ft coupled wheels and 15 by 20 inch outside cylinders. Nos. 21-5 were Rothwell 2-2-2 with 6ft driving wheels and 15 by 20 inch outside cylinders. Nos. 26-65 were ex-LNWR locomotives which had probably been working the line. Nos. 26-38 were six foot singles (Nos. 26-9 had larger fireboxes); Nos. 40-54 were larger firebox 2-4-0s whilst Nos. 55-65 were the earlier type of 2-4-0. Nos. 66-9 were miscellaneous locomotives from the Kendal & Windermere Railway. Nos. 70-4 were six foot singles and 75-81 2-4-0s from Fairbairn. Illustrations: photographs of Rothwell 2-4-0 in almost original condition and LNWR No. 542 Tebay. See also letter from C. Williams in next volume p. 14

Innstitute of Transport. 173
D.R. Lamb, Editor Modern Transport presented his Presidential Address on 18 October 1948 on Transport in transition noting the problems facing the Railway Executive.

British Railways. 173. illustration
Naming ceremony of Al Pacific:No.  60114 W.P. Allen by Sir Eustace Missenden and General Sir William Slim

H.F. Hilton. Maldon, Witham & Braintree Railway (1847-1948). 174-6. 6 illustrations (including line drawing side elevation), map.
Originally conceived as a through railway but opened as two separate branch lines. Samuel Courtauld was amongst the promoters. Taken over by the Eastern Counties Railway. Line to Maldon opened to passenger traffic on 2 October 1848 following inspection by Colonel Wynn[e]. Illustrations: map; Maldon station in 1948; Witham station in 1930; Maldon goods depot; Braintree in 1948; Wickham Bishops in 1948; ECR 2-2-2 No. 51 probably used on railway (line drawing: side elevation) 

Combined rack and adhesion electric locomotives: Furka-Oberalp and Bruenig Railway.176-80. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams (side elevations and plans)
The Furka-Oberalp locomotives were traditional Bo-Bo with two rack wheels, but the Bruenig luggage van motor coaches with an unusual wheel arrangementL two four wheel bogies (each with two motors) and between them a four wheel centre bogie with two motors and cog drive. All bogies were couupled together. Both types have been in operation since 1941, and had proved fully satisfactory. Indebted to Oerlikon Ltd. and Swiss Locomotive Works of Winterthur for photographs and particulars.

London Transport. 180
The new extensions to the Central Line have been completed. One extends from Greenford to West Ruislip alongside the Western Region's main line to Birmingham and the other, at the eastern end of the line, from Woodford to Loughton and from Woodford via the Grange Hill loop to Hainault. In all, some 10 miles are added to the length of the Central Line, making the total 29 miles from West Ruislip to Loughton. At the Ruislip end four stations are added to the Underground system; Northolt, South Ruislip, Ruislip Gardens and West Ruislip. At the eastern end, the new sections, which come into service concurrently with the western extension, will carry the line on from Woodford to Buckhurst Hill and Loughton and also complete the electrification of the northern half of the Hainault loop by bringing Roding Valley, Chigwell and Grange Hill into the scheme.

Western Region.  180
Five new 2-6-2 tank engines Nos. 4160 to 4164 and three 0-6-0 tanks Nos. 7435, 7436 and 7437 were in service. Engines withdrawn from service were 4-6-0 No. 2939 Talisman, 4-4-0 No. 3376 River Piym, 2-8-0 Nos. 3008 and 3013, 2-6-0 Nos. 5320 and 5340. 0-6-0T No. 2709.

London Midland Region.  180
Five of the eight standard L.M.S. 0-6-0 tanks sent for service in France in 1940, which fell into German hands, have recently been located in France and were being returned to Derby works for re-conditioning. Their L.M.S. numbers were 7589, 7607, 76rr, 76';9 and 7660. All had been used by the Germans who had made minor modifications to the engines.

Correspondence. 180

Photograph of Southern Region engine Yeovil, No. 34004. R.F. Harvey
Motive Power Superintendent, Scottish Region.responded to page 133: a photograph of Southern Region Engine Yeovil No. 34004, attached to a train of four coaches with the caption, "Southern Region No. 34044 Yeovil leaving Perth on test run July, 1948." I would point out that the particular movement photographed was the engine, dynamometer car, and the Glasgow portion to make up the 4.0 p.m. Perth-Inverness, being backed on to the remainder of the train in Perth station before leaving with a combined load of 360 tons. In fairness to the rood performance displayed by the engine in question, I think this should be made clear to your readers.

Reviews. 180

The railway handbook, 1948-1949. London: The Railway Publishing Co. Ltd.
The new edition (15th) has been revised and rearranged to coincide with present conditions of National ownership of the railways. Details of grouped companies are now covered by the six regions although the useful historical sketches of the constituent railways are retained. The whole forms a unique reference book for office or library.

British Timken Ltd.  180
Attractive booklet covering the application of F.B.C. ball and cylindrical and Timken tapered roller bearings. In view of the wide use of these bearings in railway practice, naturally locomotives and motor coaches so fitted are included. Earlier this year British Timken Ltd. announced that the capacity ratings of all their bearings had been increased by 25 per cent. over the figures previously published. Such increase has been rendered possible by—amongst other things—improved materials, better metallurgical control in processing and heat treatment, more accurate manufacturing equipment and more accurate inspection methods.

Number 676 (15 December 1948)

Turkish State Railways, 2-10-0 locomotives. 182-4. 2 illustrations
Supplied Beyer Peacock: see also 56, 59-60 for picture of locomotive en route from Manchester to Liverpool on steerable road trailer..

Western Region locomotive "G.J. Churchward". 184; 185 (plate). illustration
Castle class No. 7017 G.J. Churchward named at Paddington on 29 October by Captain William Gregson, RNR, President of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Livery appears to be very light.

Removal of Metadyne machine from car. 193. illustration
Portable elevator for removing Metadyne machines from 1938 surface stock of the London Transport Executive. The weight of each machine was 3.65 tons and its removal from the car for maintenance purposes presented a problem. The elevator consisted of a cross beam and two end supports, each end support being mounted on 4 plain wheels arid housing a pair of vertical lead screws. These, when operated by a ratchet lever, raised or lowered the cross beam. The device was employed in a maintenance pit.

L.M. Region. 193
Historic names had been chosen for eight of the 4-6-0 Patriot class locomotives of the London Midland Region. The names would be allotted as the engines left Crewe fitted with the 2A taper boiler. The first one No. 45545, carried the name Planet. Names chosen for the other seven locomotives were Vu/can, Goliath, Courier, Velocipede, Champion, Dragon, Harlequin. All had been specially chosen for their long association with the former L.M.S. and its constituents, some going back as far as the Liverpool & Manchester and Grand Junction Railways.

W.G. Bagnall Limited, of Stafford. 193
Had received an order from the Gaekwar Baroda State Railway for ten ZB class 2 ft. 6 in. gauge locomotives of 2-6-2 type with cylinders of 12 in. diameter and 18 in. stroke. Another order received from the same railway company earlier in 1948 was for seven A class metre gauge locomotives with 4-6-0 wheel arrangement and cylinders of  15½ in. diameter and 22 in. stroke. Four W class 2 ft. 6 in. gauge locomotives with 0-6-2 wheel arrangement and cylinders of 11½in. diameter and 15 in. stroke, ordered previously by the same company had been completed. Other recent orders included two metre gauge 0-8-0 side tank locomotives with 14 in. diameter cylinders and 20 in. stroke for South America, two fireless locomotives for the B.E.A. Accrington (Huncoat) Generating Station and one 0-4-0 saddle tank locomotive for the National Coal Board.

Correspondence. 194

Standardisation of rolling stock. R.A. MarshalL
While I am a firm believer in standardisation I think that it can be overdone. In the locomotive, two advantages are:
(i) New Engines; savings due to the reduction of pattern and jig and tool costs. .
(ii) Older Engines; Running Shed spares stocks reduced, less time out of service awaiting manufacture of spares, less large items stocked at works.. .
Considering these points, the first is not Iikely to be very important as the size of the batches of engmes built by the groups was so large as to spread these costs pretty thinly, and it is unlikely that we may get to mass production levels. Between the two, surely we can expect economy. The second is more important, but as far as running shed stocks are concemed this is a matter of the number of classes at a given shed rather than the total number in Britain. As for the manufacture of spares, here it is the standardisation of items between classes which brings dividends, not the standardisation of the engine itself. Standardisation of detail parts seems the most productive line here. Last, the large Items stocked by works comprised generally boilers, etc. which cannot be reduced below a certain level, pro rata to the number of locos.
Against all this must be set the loss due to the difficulty of comparing the results of large numbers of engines in service of differing designs—not a small Item when one considers how the locomotive or any other machine has evolved. I feel that the previous groups were big enougb to gain full advantage of standardisation,. and that they might with advantage be allowed to pursue their own typical policies under the new regime. Savings could be effected by the. use of a common system of standardisation and mass production of details and the use by more than one group of the same class of engme where two classes were not warranted, e.g. the special L.N.E. engines for the West Highland might be used on some G.W. lines with advantage. At the junction points of two regions only one might maintain loco sheds. For example, at Carlisle the Scottish Region might be the "Chosen Instrument" and would provide its own type of engine for all Carlisle shedded turns. Engines could still be fully utilised and mileage adjusted between the regions. I think that the danger of stultification of progress by over centralisation is very real and that its ill effects can be proved by a study of history. I trust that you will foregive my temerity in addressing these remarks to you. I realise that there is much in your argument and I am in favour of standarisation, but only to the extent that it can produce economy commensurate with its disadvantages. Written from Kuala Lumpur.

Reviews. 194

The Chester & Holyhead Railway. J.M. Dunn. Oakwood Press.
The publishers have established a reputation for their histories which are accurate, entertaining and well illustrated and produced, and this latest addition to the series is in every way up to the standard.

Britain's Big Four. H. Greenleaf. Winchester Publications.
Now that the four groups have lost their identity in Nationalisation it is fitting that a book should appear chronicalling .their origin and attainments. It is certainly an outstanding work, well conceived, written and produced; illustrations a.r:e profuse. The book is unusual in that It is sufficiently devoid of technicalities to appeal to those seeking knowledge .of the subject while being written in such a way that It will interest those acquainted with the subject.

Meet the locomotiye. R. Barnard Day. Transportation Press.
A little book explaining the locomotive in a simple wav. It is one of the best books of its kind which we have seen.

De locomotieven van de Hollandsche Yzeren Spoorweg Maatschappy. J.J. Karskens. J. H. Gottmer, Haarlem.
This is the first and only complete book describing and illustrating all the locomotives of the Holland Railway Co., whose loco motives were undoubtedly the most fascinating of all Dutch companies. Particulars are given of the train services worked by each class of engine with drawings and particu- lars of the most interesting types of carriages and wagons. Drawings are given of all types of engines built or taken over from 1839 to 1921, many to scale I : 60, which has been made possible by the size of the book which is 8 by 11½ in. oblong. The scale of the modern engines, with their greater overall length, had to be reduced to I : 80. The leading dimensions are tabulated under each drawing. There are 170 drawings in all, many constructional details of historic interest having been illustrated. Twelve full page photographic reproductions are given of the most interesting engines. Two large folding plates show I : 100 drawings of five complete trains of the outstanding periods in the Company's History. Extensive tables are given of names, numbers, builders, building and scrapping dates of all engines from 1839 up to 1947. The book is printed on high class paper and bound in green cloth. All in all this work is of great historical value and extremely well documented.

Edge Hill Light Railway. E.S. Tonks. Published by the author.
Obviously much research and trouble has gone into this complete account of what was undoubtedly one of the most unfortunate lines ever built in this country. Readers interested inlight railways wIll wish to add this to their libraries. It is well illustrated.

The story of the Settle-Carlisle Line. F.W. Houghton, and W.H. Foster. Norman Arch Publications.
The authors have produced an attractive book, the story is very well told and the illustrations are first class. It will naturally appeal to enthusiasts of the former Midland Railway, but is. recommended to all interested in railways and their working

The 20,000 Britlsh locomotives. Wakefield: Quadrant Publications.
A pocket size booklet listing every steam locomotive running on British Railways, with names, class, etc. The whole is condensed into 52 pages by the use of an ingenious code.

British Railways Locomotives 40000-59999: London: Ian Allan Ltd.
As explained in our April issue, former L.M.S. steam locomotives have had 40000 added to their old numbers under the unified numbering scheme of British Railways, but about 400 of the older engines have been given completely-new numbers which the details given in this book enable one to readily identify . The numbers of all steam engines running, lists of named locomotives and locomotive sheds and 45 small illustrations make an attractive and useful reference book for those interested.

Robert Stephenson & Hawthoms Ltd., of Darlington and Newcastle, 194
Booklet entitled Engineering opportunities.  An interesting description of the shops and illustrations of their products are followed by details of the scheme for apprentices now operating in both of the works. The opportunities are unlimited and available to every apprentice. An unusual feature of the thorough arrangements made for instruction is the pavment of an incentive bonus to encourage attendance at Day and Night Classes.