uLocomotive Magazine and Railway Carriage and Wagon Review

Volume 55 (1949)

key file

Number 677 (15 January 1949)

Motive power organisation. 1-2.

Insulated vans for fish traffic. 4. illustration
Six wheel vehicles constructed at Swindon for Western Region 31ft long with dry-ice bunkers and Onazote insulation: painted cream and black.

H.C.B. Rogers. The Great Northern Railway (Ireland). 6-8.
A locomotive history, with emphasis on 20th century development.

Instruction cars. 12-13. 2 illustrations.

Plastics in coaches. 13. illustration
Western Region with compartment decorated with Formica

Correspondence. 14

Old Belgian locomotive I' Elephant.  W. Beckerlegge.
Re The Locomotive dated Sept. 15, 1913, p. 210  illustration of a model of 2-4-0 locomotive /L' Elephant exhiblted. at Ghent. On page 118 preceding, this engine is referred to as the first goods locomotive to run on the Continent and as built by Stephenson & Co. In the issue for December 15, 1925, page 393 when describing the 2-4-0 No. 149 General Evers , it is stated that I' Elephant built in 1835 was built by Stephenson, Works No. 100, and also that a facsimile of No. 5 I Elephant was exhibited in 1913. In my Stephenson list, I have Works No. 100 built 1834 for the Belgian Government with 4 ft. 6 in. coupled wheels and 14 in. by 18 in. cylinders but the wheel arrangement is omitted. Engine No. 2 (not 5).
Here is the point. In my Vulcan Foundry list, their No. 13 is given as a 0-4-2 outside frame engine with 4ft. 6in. D.W. and 14 in. by 18 in. cylinders, No. '2 l' Elephant , for the Belgian State Railway, a similar engine, V.F.I4 being supplied to the Stanhope & Tyne Railway, Jacob Perkins. This is confirmed in the book The Vulcan Locomotive Works, 1830-1930" (page 48) though the works numbers are not there quoted. No. 5 built by Stephenson in July, 1835 was named I' Eclair (works No. 108), a 2-2-0 with 5 ft. D.W. and 11 in. by 18 in. cylinders. Is it likely that Stephenson booked the engine as their No. 100 and sublet the order to Vulcan Foundry? and was it built as a 0-4-2 and altered to 2-4-0?. See reponse from William T. Hoecker

Lancaster & Carlisle Railway locomotives. C. Williams.
In the article .reference is made to 81 engines, whereas 83 in all were taken over by the L. & N.W.R. The two not mentioned, L. & C.R. Nos. 82 Morecambe and 83 Underley , were Stephenson 0-4-2 goods engines built in 1859. They had 5 ft. coupled and 3 ft. 6 in. trailing wheels with 17 in. by 24 in. cylinders. In a very early list they are described as "Beattie's Patent"; this very probably referred to the firebox, which was of the mid-feather type. When taken over by the L. & .W.R., these two engines became Nos. 545 and 546 respectively. In August, 1866, they were transferred to duplicate stock as Nos. 1184 and 1223, in the same order. The former was scrapped early in 1871; and the other one, which became No. 1866 in January, 1872, was broken up in May, 1873. The date 1857 for L. & C. engine No. 79, as given in the duplicate list mentioned, is, I think, an error, according to my records the seven corresponding engines, L. & C Nos. 75 to 81, were all dated 1859. Of the names included in this series, Ulleswater was transferred in 1860 to the Rothwell single No. 397, in replacement of the name Lowther, which was taken off to avoid confusion with a Crewe-built engine of that name. Preston, Kendal, Sedbergh and Cross Fell were all removed by 1864, but Tebay and Penrith Beacon were retained until after the renumbering in January, 1872. The .former was removed on 30 December 1872, and the latter on 9 June 1873.
The renamed Rothwell engine No. 397 Ulleswater was re- numbered 1281 in December, 1868, 1188 in January, 1872, and 1903 in January, 1879, and is noteworthy in that it retained the name Ulleswater until May, 1887, when the engine was withdrawn and broken up.

The Manchesrer-Sheffield-Wath Electrification. 14
Geore Dow, Press Relations Officer, Eastern and North Eastern Regions, in a recent address to the Rotary Club of Ashton-under-Lvne, presented an interesting account of the development of the electrified lines included in-the scheme.

Reviews. 14

Electric and diesel-electric locomotives. D.M. and M. Hinde. London: Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1948. 366pp.
This publication is the first in England for many years dealing with Diesel-Electric and Straight Electric Locomotives.
The book is divided into several sections; the first one deals with the mechanical and electrical equipment of the latest types of electric locomotives, A.C., D.C. and Converter. types are well represented. Latest design trends, such as H.T. control equipment are dealt with though auxiliary equipment is cut somewhat short. Under Converter loco- motives it is regrettable that the Hoellenthal experiments are not dealt with nor the Punga Schoen Motors, using single phase 50 cycle current. In view of the present continuation of these experiments in France they should be included in a second edition.
The second part deals with Diesel.Electric locomotives both in Great Britain and U.S.A. as well as Continental types, and excellent details are given of the equipment used. A numher of latest designs are selected and described in detail.
The third part of some 90 pages is the most remarkable' as it gives the main particulars of all important Electric and Diesel-Electric locomotives at present in use. These tables should prove very helpful to anybody who until now has had to obtain such information from several sources.

Saeurday slow. Emett of Punch. Faber & Faber Ltd.
The author's work, which appears regularly in Punch, is already very well known and widely admired. We would place him in the front place of humorous illustrators of the locomotive, his drawings being particularly attractive in that his engines have much. foundation in earlv industrial locomotives. This book is as good as the previous Home Rails Preferred —both constituting one of the best forms of relaxation of which we know.

A history of the Cockermouth, Keswick and Penrith Railway. W. McGowan Gradon. 35pp, stiff paper cover.
The author has compiled an interesting account of this important but n:ot well-known railway in Cumberland. The line was opened for mineral traffic on November 4, 1864, and for passenger traffic on January 9, 1865.

Locomotives, their constructton, maintenance and operation. A Morton Bell. Virtue & Co. Ltd.
This book has justly been a " best-seller" for some years now. The developments in locomotive design have been embodied in subsequent editions and the latest one will prove valuable to all those requiring a good and easily under- stood reference book. Although primarily devoted to steam locomotives, notes on electric and internal combustion locomotives are included.

Modern locomotives, No. 1. Rylee Ltd.
Fourteen examples of modern locomotives, selected from the four groups, are illustrated iri colour. Brief particulars appear below each picture and on the opposite page detailed dimensions, etc., are given. It is understood that No. 2 of the series will be published shortly. Ottley 3069 who stated Ryle was publisher and L. Ward the compiler

Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd. 14
Catalogue dealing with the products of the Darlington Works, specialising in the manufacture of main-line locomotives and of the Newcastle Works producing industrial locomotives, both steam and diesel and, in conjunction with the leading electrical firms, electric locomotives of main line, industrial and special types.
The whole is an admirable production, printed in English, French and Spanish and covers engines of all gauges for all climes. The illustrations are excellent and in addition to many modern locomotives include such famous examples as Locomotion and The Rocket. It will be appreciated that distribution of this publication must necessarily be confined to those whose professional status entitles them to receive it.

Number 678 (15 February 1949)

Rolling stock standardisation. 15-16

15 in. gauge light railways. 19. illustration
Sandley Light Railway Equipment Works, Inc. of Janesville, Wisconsin, USA supplier for fifteen inch gauge. mentioned and which appears to have considerable possibilities in certain conditions. Railways of this size are readily transported, laid at a fraction of the cost of a larger gauge line and more easily maintained. A crew of two is always sufficient and in average conditions a load of some 75 tons may be hauled. The firm concerned is prepared to supply either steam or diesel locomotives and the former may be either oil or coal fired. A rail weighing 12 lb. per yard is suitable for ordinary use, but where the subsoil is swampy a 16 lb. rail is to be preferred. The floor area of the firm's standard flat cars is 2 ft. 6 in. wide by 12 ft. long, the capacity being four tons. Live stock cars are built capable of carrying animals as large as a horse. Covered freight cars generally resemble the full-sized American article with the exception that the roof is removable enabling it to be loaded from the top as well as the sides. The standard tank car has a liquid capacity of 500 galls. Passenger coaches are of the compartment type and accommodate four passengers in each of the two compartments. All rolling stock, including locomotives, is wherever practical equipped with Timken roller bearings. The Hudson type (4-6-4) locomotive illustrated had cylinders 4½ in. by 6 in. fed by piston valves of 2½ in. diameter. The boiler is of the Scotch marine return tube type and is oil fired.

London Midland Region and Scottish Region. 19
New locomotives in service included: 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 44713 to 44717 (built at Horwich). 2-6-4 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos. 42175 to 42180 (built at Derby). 2-6-0 Class 2 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 46420 to 46427 (built at Crewe). The following had been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 4 MT : Nos. 14641 and 14652 (Caledonian). 2-4-2 Class 2PT: No. 10631 (L. & Y.R.). 0-8-0 Class 6F: Nos. 8939, 9128, 9303 (L.N.W.R.). 4-6-0 Class 4F: No. 8801 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos. 12528, 12545, 12602 (L. & Y.R.); 17578 (Caledonian). Class 2F: Nos. 28295, 28527 (L.N.W.R.); 52036 (L. & Y.R.); 17469 (Caledonian). 0-8-4 Class 7FT: No. 7956 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 3FT: No. 16351 (Caledonian). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: Nos. 7730, 27585 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 2FT: Nos. 11427, 11467 (L. & Y.R.). 0-4-0 Steam Rail Motor: No. 29988 (L.N.W.R.).
No. 29988 worked the Beattock and Moffat branch passenger service for the last few years of its life. This car formed a direct link with the early development of rail motors at the beginning of the present century as it was one of those designed by George Whale for the L.N.W.R. in 1905/1906.

Western Region.  19
New locomotives in service included: 4-6-0: Nos. 6993 Arthog Hall; 6994 Baggrave Hall; 6995 Benthall Hall. 0-6-0T: No. 6765. The following had been withdrawn: 4-6-0 : No. 2935 Caynharn Court. 4-4-0: Nos. 3430 Inchcape; 3431 and 3446 Goldfinch. 0-6-0T: No. 680 (A.D. 19); No. 1889. 0-6-2T: Nos. 301 (T.V. 102); 62 (Rhy. 22); 71 (Rhy. 115).

1951 Exhibition. 19
The principal Underground stations serving the Exhibition will be Waterloo and Charing Cross. A new escalator from the Waterloo Underground station will carry visitors direct to a temporary surface booking hall on the Exhibition site. New subways, staircases and escalators will be necessary at Charing Cross Underground station.

Lightweight American coaches. 22. 2 illustrations.
Combined passenger and baggage coach New York Central and dining car for Missouri Pacific and Texas Pacific for Texas Eagle supplied by American Car & Foundry Co.: both incorporated aluminium alloys.

H.C.B. Rogers. The Great Northern Railway (Ireland). 23-4. illustration

New stator wagons North Eastern Region. 29
Carrying capacity of 150 tons. Constructed at Darlington Works.

Correspondence. 30

Swedish steam locomotives. D. Cole
Re. Loco Mag, April, 1948, p. 56. The first two Swedish State Railways' locomotives appear to have been purchased from the L.S.W.R. in 1855. 41 Ajax 0-4-2, Jones & Potts, 1840. 45 Titan 0-4-2 Sharp, Roberts, 1842.

A historic locomotive photograph. Joseph O'Neill. 30
Referring to my letter of July 9, 1948, as a result of the publication, of the old photograph of a Midland Railway Jenny Lind class engine taken in Chesterfield Station during the period 1867/1868, another photograph of the same class of engine has been received by our Chief Mechanical Engineer, H.G. Ivatt. It was discovered some years ago by E.H.C. Shorto, Assistant to our Divisional Motive Power Superintendent, Derby, among some old documents at Saltley M.P.D. This new photograph (a copy print of which is enclosed) shows the opposite side of the engine to that shewn in the "Chesterfield" photograph and as it is a perspective view taken from a closer range, it contains more detail of the Derby built Jenny Lind engines than does the earlier photograph. Through the kindness of P.C. Dewhurst, it is possible to give the history of the engine shewn in the photograph. It was built at Derby in May, 1856, as M.R. No. 112, in replacement of an old Nasmyth engine from the Bristol and Birmingham Railway. The cylinders were 15 in, by 20 in. and driving wheels 6 ft. in diameter. In September, 1867, it became No. 732 and in September, 1868, No. 1010. The engine was scrapped as No. 1010 in September, 1873. Thus the photograph can be dated as having been taken between 1868 and 1873, but the location has not been identified. It is interesting to note that the original picture in this case was a Daguerreotype made direct on to glass. The reproduction processes were carried out by our Chief Mechanical Engineer's technical staff at Derby.

Notices 30

British Railways Statistics. 30
The last pre-nationalisation statistics relating to the railways of Great Britain had been published in the form of a 36-page foolscap-size booklet, which contains figures relating to the years 1938 to 1947. Copies of the booklet may be obtained from the Railway Clearing House, 203, Eversholt Street,

Mr. S.S. Wheeler. 30
Commercial Advertising Officer of London Transport, has been appointed to the post of Commercial Advertisement Officer in the Department of the Chief Public Relations and Publicity Officer of the British Transport Commission.

Number 679 (15 March 1949)

Mechanical and electrical engineering organisation. 31-2.
A standard organisation for Mechanical and Electrical Engineering has been decided upon by the Railway Executive, both depart- mentally at the Executive Headquarters itself, and throughout the Regions of British Railways. The organisation at the Railway Executive level follows closely that of the Executive itself, which has a line of Members with functional responsibility in their fields.
Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Organisation
Under R.A. Riddles, the Member for Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, there is similarly a line of Officers, one for each of the activities he controls. These are:-( 1) Chief Electrical Engineer; (2) Chief Officer—Locomotive Construction and Maintenance; (3) Chief Officer—Carriage and Wagon Construction and Maintenance; (4) Executive Officer—Design: (5) Executive Officer—Road Motor Engineering; (6) Executive Officer—Administrative and Special Duties.
It will be observed that a severance has been carried out at this level between Locomotives and Carriage and Wagons, and this severance is to take place in the regions also. Having regard to the traditions established over a number of years, this may seem somewhat revolutionary, for these two activities have for long been centred in one Officer, the Chief Mechanical Engineer and the Carriage and Wagon Department under a Chief Carriage and Wagon Superintendent, but there is in some cases precedent for the new organisation.
Under nationalisation, on account of size alone, it is essential to separate the activities: this will be appreciated when it is realised that in each sphere of activity there are no less than 40,000 employees. It has to be appreciated also that the Carriage. and Wagon Engineers have had to take over the Private Owners' wagon stock, representing· £43,000,000 of capital.
Each region will have (1) A Mechanical and Electrical Engineer, and (2) A Carriage and Wagon Engineer.
It is proposed to retain many common services, such as Accounting, Staff Departments, Metallurgy, Drawing Offices and the like, where this will be. convenient owing to the headquarters of each bemg in the same vicinity, chiefly, of course, at or near one of the principal railway works.
It will be observed that in the regions there is to be no split between Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, one officer bemg responsible for both. This is consistent with the trend on railways, where, apart, from the traction angle, many operations are carried out by mechanical and electrical power or by a mixture of both forms of energy. In fact the two· forms of engineering are so frequently concomitant that it is only in the highest administration that separation is desirable at this stage.
Immediately under the Member for Mechanical and! Electrical Engineering at the Railway Executive these activities will be supervised and co-ordinated as between the regions by the Chief Electrical Engineer, the Chief Officer for Locomotive Construction and Maintenance, and the Chief Officer for Carriage and Wagon Construction and Maintenance.
In. so far as motive power is concerned, in the regions the officers in charge of this activity have been given relative rank with the officers of other departments, being directly responsible to the Chief Regional Officers for matters coming within their functions. At Executive level the Member for Mechanical and Electrical Engineering has a joint responsibility with the Member for Operating. The function of the Chief Electrical Engineer is obvious from his title, but in addition to his responsi- bility for Electric Traction and Power Generation, he will also have a joint responsibility with the Chief Officer, Locomotive Construction and Maintenance,. for diesel or gas turbine locomotives with electrical transmission, although the general form of such locomotives shall be a joint responsibility of the Chief Electrical Engineer with the Executive Officer (Design). Diesel or gas turbine locomotives having mechanical transmission, however, are the responsibility of the Chief Officer, Locomotive Construction and Maintenance.
The Chief Electrical Engineer will also collaborate· with the Chief Officer, Carriage and Wagon Construction and Maintenance, in the production and maintenance of multiple unit electric stock.
Nationalisation aims at standard practices which-- it is hoped-will lead to economy of money and effort, and it is obvious therefore that it can no longer be· left to Mechanical, Electrical, or Carriage and Wagon Engineers in the Regions to develop their particular theories and practices, as was the case when individual companies existed. So that the best of each shall continue aided by the new ideas of all, and so that the more efficient methods and practices shall be blended into the locomotives and rolling stock to be . built in future by British Railways, a co-ordinating officer has ben appointed under the Member, known as executive Officer (Design).
There have been varying practices on the old companies in regard to the provision of outdoor-machinery, but the division of responsibility as between the Civil, Mechanical and Electrical Engineers will in future be as follows. The Chief Officer (Locomotives) will have full responsibility for all outdoor machinery, specifying in conjunction with the Executive Officer (Design) the form and arrangement of the machines, except that the Chief Electrical Engineer will in conjunction with the Chief Officer (Locomotives) specify the electrical equipment. An Executive Officer has been appointed on the staff of the Member (Mechanical and Electrical Engin- eering) at the Railway Executive to cover Road Motor Engineering. He will have his counterpart in each region, and these Road' Motor Engineers will be Officers in their own right responsible to the Chief Regional Officers direct and to the Executive Officer under the Member.
At the Railway Executive on the staff of the Member there is, finally, an Executive Officer (Administrative and Special Duties) to deal with all matters of a non-technical character but upon which the Member requires data and information for the general purposes of the Executive. This officer also deals with staff matters, special enquiries and investigations, and the internal administration of the department.

Reconstructed 2-8-2 locomotives, S.N.C.F. 32. iillustration
In addition to the various new designs and modifications of steam locomotives recently described in this journal (see January issue) the French National Railwavs have reconstructed a 2-8-2 locomotive, series 141. E. 113 of the former Etat Section. The main alterations made are lengthening of piston travel, increase in the superheating temperature, and improvement in the blast-pipe arrangements. It is claimed that these changes resulted in fuel and water savings of about 25 per cent.

London Midland Region and Scottish Region. 32
New locomotives in service included`;4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 44728 and 44729 (built at Crewe). 2-6-4 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos. 42183 and 42184 (built at Derby). 2-6-0 Class 4 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 43023, 43024 and 43025 (built at Horwich). The following had been withdrawn—4-6-0 Class 4P: No. 25673 Lusitania (L.N.W.R.). 4-4-0 Class 2P: No. 400 (Midland). 2-4-2 Class 3PT: No. 10945 (L. & Y.R Class 6). 0-8-0 Class 6F: Nos. 8892, 9184 (L.N.W.R. G1). 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 3360, 22863 (Midland), 28221 (L.N.W.R. "Coal"). 0-8-4 Class 7FT: No. 7951 (L.N.W.R. Shunter). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: Nos. 27591, 27669 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 2FT: No. 11468 (L. & Y.R. Saddle Tank Class 23)·

Western Region. 32
New engines built at Swindon included 4-6-0 No. 6996 Blackwell Hall; No. 6997 Bryn-Ivor Hall and No. 6998 Burton Agnes Hall; 0-6-0PT Nos. 6766 to 6769. The following had been withdrawn— 4-4-0 No, 3448 Kingfisher; 2-6-0 No. 4320; 0-6-0 No. 2570; 0-6-0T Nos. 1897, 2767, 2795 and 1835. 0-6-2T No. 213 (Barry 19); No. 246 (Barry 55) and No. 11 (B. & M. 36)

Southern Region. 32
No.. 34090, a new Battle of Britain Class engine, has been named Sir Eustace Missenden. and carries with it the Coat of Arms of the Southern Railway as a token of the work which was carried out by the Railway staff at the time of the Battle of Britain.
A train of double-decked coaches has been designed far service between London and Dartford. The train to consist of 8 coaches with a total seating capacity for 1016 passengers, equivalent to a 31% increase in seating capacity over the normal 8-coach electric train. In the "trailer" (non-motor) coaches there will be 6 double compartments, each with 11 seats on the lower deck and 11 seats on the upper. Thus one door leads to 22 seats and each coach will seat 132 people.
Owing to the close clearances of bridges and tunnels, the windows for the upper deck will be fixed, and electrically operated fans will provide ventilation. The doors and windows of the lower deck will be of the normal kind. There will be strip-lighting over the seats, and handles will be provided to assist movement between the two decks and for the convenience of standing passengers in the lower deck.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 32
W. Cyril Williams, A.M.I.C.E., M.I.Mech.E., elected President for the forthcoming year.

Southern  Railway locomotives 1923-1938. 33-6. 3 diagrams (side & front/rear elevations)
Precis of Cocks Institution of Locomotive Engineers Paper 481. Diagrams of proposed LBSCR 2-6-2T and Maunsell 4-cylinder 4-6-2 and 3-cylinder 2-6-2.

Spanish Railways Centenary. 36-7. illustration
Exhibitions at Barcelona and in Madrid. George Stephenson had visited Spain in 1845 to investigate a line from Madrid to Santander. The Marquis of  Salamanca obtained a concession nfor a railway beteen Madrid and Aranjuez in 1845, but delays led it not being opened until 1851. Meanwhile Miguel Brada with British capital opened a railway between Barcelona and Mataro on 28 October 1848. 

George Stephenson Prize. 37
H.I. Andrews, Ph.D., M.Sc., A.M.I.Mech.E., A.M.I.E,E., a member of the Engineering Section of the Scientific Research Dept., London Midland Region, had been awarded the George Stephenson prize for 1948 by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers for his paper The Mobile Locomotive Testing Plant of the L.M.S. Railway.

Scottish Region.  37
At Glasgow (Central) Station, with military ceremonial provided by a Guard of Honour from the Regiment, The Rt. Hon. The Lord Provost of Glasgow, Sir Hector McNeil, J.P., unveiled on British Railways Locomotive No. 46121 a plaque bearing the Regimental Crests presented on behalf of the Regiment by the Officer Commanding, Highland Light Infantry (The City of Glasgow Regiment). Mr. T. F. Cameron, Chief Regional Officer, Scottish Region presided.

O.S. Nock. Locomotives of R. E. L. Maunsell, 1912-1937.  Part 2. Reorganisation at Ashford. 37-40
Maunsell at Inchicore and initial appointments at Ashford including that of Clayton

Conjugated valve gears. 41-2. 5 diagrams.
Patents by David Joy, Holcroft (at Swindon and notes that Churchward considered three-cylinder designs) and by Gresley. Holcroft  design fitted to heavy goods engines in Germany and on Maunsell designs for Southern Railway and Holcroft's influence on Gresley. See also letter from William Hoeker

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. 43-4. 3 illustrations.
Continued from page 21. In 1867 Beyer, Peacock & Co. supplied a 0-4-2 tank locomotive. This type, known as Class P, which was added to in 1874, proved very satisfactory for shunting.
The steam chests were between the cylinders, the slide valves being actuated by Stephenson motion. The frames were double behind the coupled wheels. The springs of the coupled wheels were compensated. The cylinders were 16 in. by 24 in.; coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 in.; heating surface 968 ft2.; grate area, 15 ft2.; boiler pressure 120 psi; weight in. working order 32 tons 5 cwt. of which 22 tons 11 cwt. was adhesive; wheelbase 7 ft. 2 in. + 5 ft. 4 in. = 12 ft. 6 in.
From 1880 modifications were made. Belpaire fireboxes were fitted and a smaller three ring telescopical barrel was introduced. The first eight locomotives had no dome, but this was provided on the later ones which were classified Pb—the earlier ones then becoming Pa.
Image Class Ph, No. 345. Nydqvist & Holm, 1886. Photo: Railway Museum.
The Bb engines had 808 ft2. of heating surface; 143 psi. boiler pressure and weighed in working order, 33 tons 16 cwt. of which 23 tons ·9 cwt. was adhesive.
The P class locomotives were principally used for shunting duty in all districts. A number when withdrawn were sold to mines, power plants, contractors, sawmills, paper pulp works, etc. During the building of the Dal-Vastra Varmland Railway in 1926-1927 the author had old No, 89 as a ballasting engine, after sixty years it was still doing very good work. Particulars of building and withdrawal are as follows:-




Date Withdrawn


Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1867


Pa 163-168 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1874 1905-1914
Pa 234-237 Beyer, Peacock & Co. 1876 1905-1914
Pa 255-258 Nydqvist & Holm 1878 1906-1910
Pb 276-280 Nydqvist & Holm 1880 1911-1918
Pb 314-317 Nydqvist & Holm 1883 1910-1913
Pb 343-346 Nydqvist & Holm 1886 1908-1913
Pb 369-371 Nydqvist & Holm 1887 1914-1919
Pb 374-379 Nydqvist & Holm 1889 1911-1914

The goods traffic increased and the class G engines were insufficiently powerful especially between Orebro and Gothenburg. Beyer, Peacock & Co. provided a heavier engine of a type previously ordered by the Bergisch-Markisch Railway in Germany and the Tamboff and Saratoff Railway in Russia. The slide valves were actuated by Stephenson motion. The springs of the first and second axles were overhung, those of the third axle being underhung. The springs of the driving and trailing axles were compensated giving four point suspension. Steam brakes were fitted.
The cylinders were 18 in. by 24 in. ; coupled wheels 4 ft. 6 in.; heating surface 1,300 ft2.; grate area 15.2 ft2; weight in working order—and adhesion weight 33 tons 4 cwt.; wheelbase 5 ft. 7 in. + 5 ft. = 10ft. 7 in.
Later modifications included the fitting of the standard spark arresters, enlargement of the sand-boxes incorporated in the front splashers, and the provision of a saddle sandbox on the barrel for sanding behind the trailing wheels. The class known as I consisted of six engines; all by the same builder, all delivered in 1872 and with- drawn in 1914, all carried names associated with the Viking age and bore Nos. 113-118.
The locomotives were powerful, but on account of the short wheelbase, the big overhangs and the large outside cylinders were unsteady and for this reason were relegated to shunting duties. For this work they were equipped with four-wheeled tenders (Class A or B), their original tenders being attached to earlier passenger engines. The author saw one of these . engines in 1913 at Gothenburg harbour hauling a train of 102 wagons, representing a load of approximately 1,400 tons.

Snow ploughs, London Midland Region. 44
After the very severe winter of 1947, careful consideration has been given to the whole problem of dealing with snow and ice on railways. The whole of the snow ploughing equipment was reviewed, and it was recommended that three new types of ploughs should be constructed in .adequate quantities. It was visualised that the most important requirement was for a small plough which could be fitted under the buffer beam of certain classes of locomotives to enable these engines to run through small drifts of snow, either whilst hauling trains, or when patrolling as light engines. By so doing it should be possible, in general, to prevent building up of drifts. The principal danger area on the L.M. Region is considered to be the Leeds-Carlisle main line which crosses the Pennines over Ais Gill, and for this section, 76 locomotives of the 2-8-0, 4-6-0, and 2-6-0 wheel arrangements have been, or are about to be, fitted with a small type plough. The plough does not extend beyond the buffers, and does not, therefore, restrict the engine's operation in any way. It is thus possible for the ploughs to be placed in position at the beginning of the winter and remain there until the coming of spring. For the occasions when these preventive methods fail and a deep snow drift is formed, it is necessary to resort to ploughing with large size ploughs which can cut through drifts up to 12 feet in depth. Two new designs of these have been recommended, one, the larger type, which reaches to the top of the smokebox and the other, of an intermediate size, for less severe conditions. Both types are of an all-welded steel construction, designed to be fitted to the front of locomotives of the standard 4F 0-6-0 type.

New standard track, British Railways. 44-5. illustration.
Railway Executive announced the adoption of two new standard rails of the flat bottom type. The important decision had been made following exhaustive tests, which began in 1936, when the first rails of this type were put in on the L.M.S.R. main line at Cheddington, and were conducted by each of the four groups. At the commencement of 1948 260 miles of track had been laid with rails of this type, a further 298 miles were laid during 1948 and this year's renewal programme involves the laying of 1484 miles of track of which 463 miles will be with flat bottom rails. It will be understood that the change over from the traditional bull-head type-which now relinquishes its last stronghold must be effected gradually to avoid interference with production. All track in the country has been divided into four categories. These are as follows:-A. Lines subject to speeds exceeding 60 m.p.h. over which 12 or more express passenger trains operate in winter timetables every 24 hours. B 1 . Lines subject to speeds of 60 m.p.h. and over but not classified as A. B2. Lines carryingo intensive traffic even though the speed is less than 60 m.p.h. C. Lines subject to maximum speeds of 45 to 60 m.p.h. D. Lines subject to speeds below 45 m.p.h. For lines coming into categories A and B a flat bottom rail weighing 109 lb. per yard will be used. This rail with a sectional area of 10.71 sq. in. has a strength greater by 59 per cent. measured vertically and 136 per cent. when measured laterally than that possessed by the existing bull head standard rail. The greater proportion of running roads will ultimately be equipped with this new rail which eventually will be laid in some 22,000 miles of track. A 98 lb. per yard flat bottom rail will be produced to supplement the supply of good serviceable rail used in category C lines. No shortage of sufficiently good serviceable rail for category D lines is anticipated.

Conversion of Swiss electric locomotives. 45-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Locomotives built for Berne-Loetschberg-Simplon Railway in 1913 jointly by Swiss Locomotive Works and Brown-Boveri and Oerlikon with rod drive which had suffered from oscillation had been ameliorated as descrribed in Technical Bulletin of Swiss Locomotive Works in 1942.

Correspondence. 48

Old Belgian locomotive L' Elephant. William T. Hoecker.
Beckerleggc's letter in the January, 1949, "Locomotive." concerning the Belgian State Ry. locomotive L' Elephant of 1835, raises a question which should have teen settled long ago in the interest of historical accuracy. The evidence available to the writer leads to the conclusion that the model exhibited at Ghent in 1913 was merely another of those spurious "replicas" that .have become so familiar to students of locomotive history during the present century. In support of that statement, and in an endeavour to shed a little light upon the subject, permit me to offer the following:-
1. According to Warren A Century of Locomotive Building," p. 320), Robert Stephenson and Co. received an order from the Belgian State Ry. in 1834 for three locomotives, one of them specified to be a goods locomotive with four coupled wheels and a small pair of leading wheels. On page 77 of the same book, it is stated that the contract for this latter locomotive was sublet on May 12, 1834, to Tayleur and Co. The foregoing information undoubtedly refers to L' Elephant.
2. Mr. Warren's description of the engine as a 2-4-0 must be in error, as all contemporary accounts appear to agree that the first 2-4-0 type locomotive built in England did not appear until 1837.
3. As L' Elephant was one of the first three locomotives built for the Belgian State Ry., it is scarcely likely that it originally bore the running number 5. An article, probably contributed by M. Jacquet, in the Locomotive for June 15, 1912, p. 129, lists this engine as No. 2.
4. At the Brussels Exposition of 1910, the Belgian State Rys. displayed a large chart containing diagrams illustrating the development of the locomotive in Belgium from 1835 to 1910. One of these diagrams, depicting a 2-4-0 type locomotive, purported to represent L' Elephant The design of the model exhibited at Ghent in 1913 was clearly based upon this diagram. Th s accompanying dimensions were as fol1ows:-
Weight of engine in running order 20,000 kg
Adhesivc weight 15,000 kg.
Cylinders, diameter 380 mm
Cylinders, stroke 550 mm
Coupled wheels, diameter 1420 mm
Boiler, outside diameter 1040 mm
Working Pressure 6.5 kg
Total Heating Surface 61.768 m2
Grate Area 1,092 m2
Overall Length of Engine 6,745 mm
Tender on two axles:
Water Capacity 4,000 liters
Length oeverall . 4,070 mm.
As some of the above dimensions are appreciably larger than those ascribed to L' Elephant in the maker's records, one is presented with a choice between 'two conclusions:-
(a) The model represented L' Elephant . in a radically reconstructed state.
or (b) The model was that of a later and larger locomotive.
The contemporary documents necessary to clear up this mystery probably vanished with many others during the German occupation of Belgium in the Great War. Mr. Hans Steffan , when compiling his notable book on Belgische Locomotiven in 1916-1918, obviouslv had access to much of this contemporary material, but he unfortunately dismisses the Old English era on the Belgian Rys. in a few words, saving that it was "vcry much the same in all countries.'
[KPJ: the approximate English dimensions are listed in original,, but not herein]

Number 680 (14 April 1949)

American locomotive practice 1948. 47-9. 3 illustrations.
Long abstract of David Patrick's ILocoE paper (483): Some notes on American locomotive practice 1948.

Mozambique locomotives. 50. 2 illustrations
3ft 6in gauge. Portuguese East Africa: 4-8-2 built Montreal Locomotive Works.. Ten 2-8-2 locomotives built by Baldwin.

Institution of Locomotive Engineers. 50

London Transport. 50

Some aspects of railway operation. 4. Rolling stock and its distribution. 51-5

E. & N.E. Regions.—Jubilee of the Great Central Line to London. 55
On 9 March 1899, the Rt. Hon. C.T. Ritchie, M.P., formally opened at Marylebone Station the London extension of the Great Central Railway from Annesley in Nottinghamshireûthe last main line to link the Metropolis with the Provinces .
In 1890, seven years before it changed its name to Great Central, the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway was a system uniting Grimsby, Lincoln and Doncaster with Sheffield and Manchester, reaching also to Southport, Liverpool. Chester and Macclesfield by means of lines jointly owned with other railways. In the south it had got no further than Beighton, but lines carrying it on to Staveley , Chesterfield and Annesley had been authorised and were under construction.
The extension southwards to Annesley was the first step towards London, which the M.S. & L. had first attempted to reach, in association with the Midland Railway, in 1873. For long dissatisfied at having to hand over London and intermediate traffic to bigger neighbours, Sir Edward Watkin , chairman of the M. S. & L. determined that his company should possess its own metals to the capital.
Sir Edward was also chairman of the Metropolitan, South Eastern and Channel Tunnel companies. With those linked with the M.S. & L. his dream of through railway carriages from Manchester to Dover and, eventually. to Paris over an International route, would be realised.
The new line was first brought into use on 25 July 1898, when coal trains began to run. On 7 November 1898, a special inspection train from Manchester, conveying the General Manager. Mr. W. Pollitt, and other officers, ran for the first time into Marylebone station, previous similar trains having used the coal depot nearby. Then followed, on 9 March 1899, the formal opening already referred to and on 15 March the passenger services commenced with four trains a day each way, the first train to leave Marylebone being the 5.15 a.m. with four passengers aboard! The station itself was unfinished with only two platforms in use and the refreshment rooms and some other offices being in an incomplete state. Nearly four weeks later, on 27 April, goods traffic commenced. The rolling stock put into service compared favourably with that of neighbouring railways. Every train was vestibuled and provided with a buffet car, the first to be introduced in Great Britain. Externally the coaches wore a livery of French grey upper panels and chocolate lower panels, the latter being embellished with the Great Central's new coat of arms.

Appointments—London Midland Region. 55
S.T. Clayton, District Motive Power Superintendent, Glasgow (North), to be Assistant Motive Power Superintendent, Euston. J. Blair , Assistant Mechanical and Electrical Engineer, Scottish Region, to be Carriage and Wagon Engineer, Derby.

Personal. 55
Sir Alexander L. McColl, Chairman of the Superheater Company Ltd., London and Manchester, sailed on the R.M.S. Andes on 12 March 1949, on a business trip to Argentina. Sir Alexander is also Director of Vacuum Oil Co. Ltd., and Glenfield & Kennedy Ltd.

Obituary. 55
We regret to record the death of Dr. Tice F. Budden, aged 82 years. During the past fifty years we have published a number of Dr. Buddens photographs of express trains and other railway subjects. Many of them have reappeared in the recentlv compiled work Railway memories by Rixon Bucknall.

Longmoor Military Railway. 56-7. 2 illustrations, table
Includes a locomotive stock list which records names and builders

WD No. Name Type Builder WN Date
73651 Gordon MOS 2-10-0 tender North British Locomotive Co. 25437 1943
73797 Kitchener MOS 2-10-0 tender North British Locomotive Co. 25643 1943
77337 *Sir Guy Williams MOS 2-8-0 tender North British Locomotive Co. 7337 1943
79250 Sir D. McMullen MOS 2-8-0 tender Vulcan Foundry Ltd. 5193 1945
7J443 Constantine . MOS 0-6-0ST Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 3207 1945
71505 Brussels MOS 0-6-0ST Hudswell Clarke & Co. Ltd. 1782 1945
75028 Ahwaz MOS 0-6-0ST Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 2877 1943
75040 Spyck MOS 0-6-0ST Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 2889 1943
75041 Foggia MOS 0-6-0ST Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 2890 1943
75042 Jullundur MOS 0-6-0ST Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 2891 1943
75079 Lisieux MOS 0-6-0ST Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn 7115 1943
75275 Matruh MOS 0-6-0ST Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn 7205 1945
75189 Rennes MOS 0-6-0ST Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn 7139 1944
75277 Foligno MOS 0-6-0ST Robert Stephenson & Hawthorn 7207 1945
75282 lnsein MOS 0-6-0ST Vulcan Foundry Ltd 5272 1945
75290 Manipur Road MOS 0-6-0ST Vulcan Foundry Ltd 5280 1945
93257 Maj.-Gen. Carl R. Gray Jnr . 2-8-0 tender American Locomotive Co. 715212 1944
94382 Maj.-Gen. Frank S. Ross 0-6-0 side tank Davenport Loco. Works 2531 1943
70271 Bari 0-6-0 diesel electric 350 BHP L.M.S. Rly./English Electric Co. 271 1945
70272 Chittagong 0-6-0 diesel electric 350 BHP L.M.S. Rly./English Electric Co. 272 1945
71232 Tobruk 0-4-4-0 diesel electric 650 BHP Whitcombe Locomotive Co. 1232 1942/3
71233 Algiers 0-4-4-0 diesel electric 650 BHP Whitcombe Locomotive Co. 1233 1942/3
70216 Deliverance  (French named) 0-6-0 diesel electric 350 BHP Armstrong Whitworth & Co. Ltd. D58/42
72220 Basra 0-4-0 desel 150 HP Vulcan Foundry Ltd./Drewry Car Co. 21752/5256 1945
72214 Caen 0-4-0 diesel 48 HP Ruston & Hornsby Ltd. 224345 1945
HFM 13-906 0-4-0 diesel (German) Meinder & Co. Mosbach 923213/18 1944
HFM 13-915 0-4-0 diesel (German) Meinder & Co. Mosbach 61645/ 1944

Illustrations: WD 2-10-0: S260 2-8-0

Notes on steam distribution. 58-60. diagram, 2 tables
Probably the most noteworthy development in locomotive practice during the past twenty-five years is the improvement that has been effected in steam distribution in the cylinders. Modifications in the design of valve-gears, valves, ports and passages with the object of passing the steam through the engine with a minimum of loss by friction, getting it into the .cylinders at the highest passible pressure and getting it out at the lowest, with a minimum of loss by leakage, unresisted expansion, and condensation, while extracting from it the maximum of work, have increased overall efficiency and secured reductions of coal consumption of up to .30 per cent. Moreover, these gains were obtained without any complication in the construction of 'locomotives, and are, accordingly, especially valuable. The coal consumption per drawbar h.p.-haur of a number of superheated engines built in the last 40 years, is shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Coal consumption of superheated engines, 1911 to 1930.

Year built Railway Engine Consumption, lb/b.h.p.-hour
1911 GNR Atlantic 5.08
1911 L.N.W.R Prince of Wales 5.07
1911 N.E.R 3-cyl Atlantic 4.45
1912 N.B.R. Atlantic 4.12
1920 N.E.R 3-cyl  0-8-0 4.37
1922 M.R 3-cyl compound 4.06
1925 L.M.S, 2-6-0 3.38
1927 L.M.S, Royal Scot 3.25
1927 L.N.E.R A3 Pacific about 3
1930 L.M.S, Standard' 0-8-0 2.8

Misleading impressions of the relative efficiencies 'of different engines can be formed when the results are, in same cases, those from service trials on regular trains, and, in other cases, special trials at the most favourable power output, because the overall efficiency of a locomotive rises as the output rises up to an optimum efficiencv, after which it falls with output. The figures in Table 1 are all from service trials on regular trains. Typical values of steam consumption in lb/ii.h.,p.-haur for morlern engines are: 14.5 (best figure) for the L.M.S. 4-6-2 Class; 14.06 to 17.02 far the Pennsylvania K4 4-6-2 Class; 15.4 (at maximum output) for the Pennsylvania T1 4-4-4-4 Class; and 11.6 (best figure) for the Paris-Orleans 4-8-0 compound locomotive
The other table in this part is impossible to transcribe as it uses fractions to show "typical valve events" with four locomotive types comared: LNER A3 Pacific, Bulleid Merchant Navy; LMS Pacific (type not spsecified) and "typical" pre-1925 locomotive with Stephenson valve gear—the others had Walschaerts valve gear or Bulleid modified version.. Theses are compared in terms of steam lap, exhaust clearance, full gear travel, cut off in full gear and valve events (at various cut-off percentages, lead, port opening, release, valve events beyond port  and pont of compression. Chapelon's desiderata are listed.

Irish Railways. 60
The first two Drumm electric battery-trains, introduced in 1932, have now been taken out of ,service, The remaining two may be withdrawn when the batteries require renewals, Although these experimental trains have provided very valuable data, the designers hopes nave not been entirely fulfilled,
Two new 0-6-4 tank engines of the Sir Henry class are on order for the Sligo, Leitrim and Northern Counties Railway,
The five diesel shunting engines for the CIE have been delivered, the last two being Nos, 1003/4, C.I.E, No, 401 4-6-0 is being fitted with piston valves and Walschaerts gear. No, 467 4-6-0T (ex C.B.S.C,) has been painted green and may be transferred to the D, & S,E. .section.
In preparation for the merging of the NCC. in the U,T,A, four engines and two carriages have been painted in different experimental liveries as follows: No, 5 2-6-4T and No, 90 2-6-0 green with red line and white stripe. No, 7 2-6-4T overall black. No, 80 4-4-0 brunswick green with red line and yellow stripe, One carriage has green lower panels and green shade of off-white- above; the other is painted mid-green. Irish Raihvay Society Bulletin.

Radio-telephony—Whitemoor Marshalling Yard. 60
For some years past the L,N.E.R. has been experimenting with radio telephony, both between the driver and guard of long goods trains and also between stations and moving trains and the first installation for its everyday use has recently been put into operation at the Whitemoor marshalling yard, It is the first application of radio telephony to practical railway operation in this country. The first two engines to be fitted are the diesel electric shunters 8001 and 8002, which push trains over the hump in the "up" yard. Two similar engines-Nos. 8000 and 8003—which work in the "down" yard are to be similarly fitted. By affording direct communication between the ground control staff and the crews of the locomotives, much valuable time is expected to be saved. As these sidings extend for about two miles, communication in extreme cases may often involve appreciable delays,
The locomotives carry out several duties. Their chief function is to push freight trains from the reception sidings to the summit of the hump, whence the wagons, which have already been uncoupled as necessary, run by gravity to their marshalling sidings. Whilst this operation—known as " humping "—is in progress the locomotive pushing the train is under the control of a 3-Position signal which shows " Go forward smartly," "Go forward at normal shunting speed" or "Stop" indication.
When the humping operation is finished the locomotive may return to the entrance to the reception sidings to deal similarly with another train, or it may be wanted in the marshalling sidings to push wagons towards the exit, or to move wagons to or: from the transit shed. Sometimes it may be needed to move under-runners to wagons with overhanging loads. Hitherto the instructions to the engine driver in all these and other cases have had to be conveyed by messenger, megaphone or loudspeaker. The radio installation now in operation is designed to reduce the unproductive time spent by these means of communication.
Equipment on the locomotives is for 12 volt operation and for this purpose a 12 volt 110 ampere hour battery is fitted on each locomotive. This battery is charged by a rotary transformer driven from the 80 volt locomotive starting battery, A voltmeter indicating the battery voltage is fitted alongside the transmitter and receiver.

Eastern Region. 60,
The undermentioned lines have heen transferred from the Midland to the Eastern Region. The London, Tilbury & Southend line.
The former Tottenham & Hampstead joint line east of the site of St. Ann's Road station.
The London Midland Region line from its junction with the former Tottenham &. Hampstead joint line immediately east of South Tottenham station to Woodgrange Park junction.
The Tilbury-Gravesend ferry service (excluding the landing stages at Gravesend, which will be transferred to the Southern Region) .
The supervision of the lines concerned for operating purposes will be exercised by J.W. Dedman, District Operating Superintendent, Southend District.

Woodhead Tunnel. 60
The new double line tunnel through the Pennines between Woodhead and Dunford Bridge will have its western portal in Cheshire and its eastern in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It will measure 27 ft. wide at the waist, 21 ft. 4 in. to the soffit above ballast level and be 3 miles 3 chains in length.
The new tunnel will be situated 100 ft. south of the centre line of the existing westbound tunnel and it will be straight throughout except for a 40 chain curve at the west end, which will be 600 ft. in length.
The estimated cost of the main contract works with Balfour Beatty exceeds £2 million and the total cost of the scheme, including subsidiary contracts, permanent way and signalling, amounts to approximately £2.8 miillion. The work will commence immediately, and it is hoped to complete this in three and a half vears,
Sir William Halcrow &: Partners, Consulting Engineers, are acting on behalf of the Railway Executive in the design and supervision of the work.

Jodhpur Railway 4-6-2 locos. 61 illustration
Thr metre gauge Jodhpur Railway of India had added ten 4-6-2 mixed traffic locomotives to its stock. These engines, classified H.P. and numbered 151 to 160, were constructed by the Baldwin Locomotive Works. Two cast-iron cylinders, 15½ by 26 in. are fed by l0in. diameter piston valves operated by Walschaerts gear. The driving wheels were 4 ft. 3 in. in diameter, the bogie wheels 2 ft. 4½ in. and those of the trailing truck 2 ft. 6 in.
The straight-top boiler, designed to burn Indian coal, had a diameter of 5 ft. and a tube length of 15 ft. 6 in, pressed to 200 psi. The steel firebox is radially stayed and has a length of 6 ft. 2½ in. and a width of 4 ft. 10 in., the area being 112 ft2. and the volume 136 ft3. The combustion chamber with a length of 1 ft. 6 in. ha an area of 25 ft2. Arch tubes added 16 ft2 to the evaporative heating surface which with the 680 ft2 derived from the 84-2 in. tubes and the 455 ft2. contributed by the 21-53/8in. flues totals 1,288 ft2. The superheater area was 371 ft2. Calculated at 77 per cent. the tractive effort IS 18,820 lb. The tender, running on twelve wheels of 2 ft. 4t in. diameter, carries 10 tons of fuel and 7,200 U.S. gallons of water. In working order the weight is 144,300 lb. Vacuum brake equipment on the engine operates the gear on the tender and train; the steam brake applies the blocks on the coupled wheels. Roller bearings are employed throughout, those of the main journals are of 7½ in. diameter, the bogie 5 in., the rear truck 5½in. while the tender journals are 4¼ in. diameter.

North British Locomotive Company Ltd. 61
Recent orders received included eighteen locomotives for the Egyptian Railways, five for the Sudan Govt. Railways and ten for Western Australia.

Hunslet Engine Co. Ltd. 61
Received from the Mersey Docks & Harbour Board a repeat order for a 204 b.h.p. straight diesel shunting locomotive similar to the 27-ton six-wheel locomotive which has been working successfully in the Liverpool docks area since April 1944.

New Zealand Government. The Railways Department. 61
Decided to use diesel-electric locomotives for heavy, continuous shunting work at Wellington and certain other seaport stations. Fifteen of the double-bogie type, weighing about 52 tons each, are being built by the English Electric Company Limited. New Zealand Railway Observer.

4-6-2 No. 46201 Princess Elizabeth. 61. illustration
Black livery with British Railways badge on tender (bicycling lion)

Correspondence. 62.

[Bogie tenders: GNSR]. Robert Scott.
Many years ago, during the term of office of James Manson as Locomotive Superintendent of the old G.N.S.R., that company owned six bogie tenders. They had one leading bogie and four ordinary tender wheels. The brake acted on the four ordinary wheels and on the rear wheels only of the bogie. The unusual feature was the blocks acting on the rear bogie wheels were hung, not from the bogie frame, but from the main frame of the tender. This, of course, had the effect of handicapping the free movement of the bogie whenever, the brake was applied. I have often wondered if those tenders were isolated examples of their kind or whether there were others. Can any reader help?

Borsig S.E. & C.R. 4-4-0s. Norman Duncan.
A point not mentioned by O.S. Nock in his description of the South Eastern & Chatham Borsig 4-4-0s is the fact, which I believe I am correct in uttering, that shortly after the outbreak of World War One the makers plates were removed from the engines no doubt in deference to popular public opinion; possibly being regarded as unpatriotic to have these fine engines running about labelled in so many, words made in Germany. During the late summer of 1914 on many occasions I was on the platform at Tonbridge Junction waiting for the Hastings train and noticed the Borsig engines literally here, there and everywhere. At that time I believe the Beyer Peacock engines had not arrived and the Borsig machines had the show to themselves and were making the most of it. It was characteristic of German enterprise at that time that deliveries of these engines were very promptly effected and as stated by Nock they certainly did their bit to help win the war. Incidentally I might mention that returning one night from Canterbury to Hastings on a local train our engine was the Great Northern 2-4-0 tender engine No. 759, with domeless boiler but Ivatt cab and if I remember aright it was equipped with an old S.E. & C. tender. This was one of the G.N. 2-4-0s loaned to the S.E. & C. and I believe they were later purchased from the Great Northern.
(Fifteen of these engines were loaned to the S.E. & C.R. in 1911, but all returned to the G.N.R. when the above-mentioned Borsig and Beyer Peacock engines—the L class—were delivered in 1914-15.—Ed.)

Apppointments. 62
A.E. Robson has been appointed to the newly created post of Carriage & Wagon Engineer, Eastern & North Eastern Regions, Doncaster.
R.N. Foxlee (presumably Richard William Foxlee) has been appointed to succeed W. L. Watson, as Engineer-in-Chief, Crown Agents for the Colonies. . Watson is visiting Ceylon as Crown Agents' representative with the object of facilitating discussion of work in the locomotive and coaching stock programme of the Railway, and other engineering projects.
Sir George Beharrell has resigned his chairmanship of the Dunlop Rubber Company and is succeeded by Sir Clive Baillieu who has been deputy chairman since 1945. Sir George becomes President of the Company and remains on the Board. Mr. G. E. Beharrell, managing director, con-tinues in that office on becoming deputy chairman. J. H. Lord; appointed to the Board in 1947, takes the title of Director of 'Finance

Reviews. 62

Railway and other steamers: C.L.D. Duckworth and G.E. Langmuir. Shipping Histories Ltd., Glasgow. 340 pp.
The authors. cover in a comprehensive manner a subject not dealt with specifically in any other one book. A brief record of the various railway-owned services from the earliest times is. given, followed by a detailed history of the individual vessels. Though primarily a book of reference, the matter is presented in a very readable form as all technical details. are relegated to very full fleet lists running into 136 pages, these lists being a notable characterisitic of these. two authors. There are about 100 small illustrations and vessels. included range from the largest to the smallest fry such as. dredgers and tugs, whilst towing vessels on railway-owned canals are not forgotten.

King Arthur's and Lord Nelson's of the S.R. S.C. Townroe. Ian Allan.
The author traces the origin and development of the well-known "King Arthur" class back to the days of Drummond and leads on to the-second part of the book dealing with the "Lord Nelson's" by the statement that the last engine of the final batch of "Arthur's" was 850 Lord Nelson. We should have hardly though this to be strictly accurate as the designs vary in many essential particulars though in locomotive development each new design is, more often than not, based on those that have gone before. Although the "Arthur's" have not had the publicity of the "Schools" class, there is no doubt that for many years they were the backbone of the Southern locomotive stud and they have always done their job efficiently, whether it was, working heavy fast passenger expresses or on goods work as used when working on the L.N.E.R. during the war. This little book, in forty-eight pages, tells all there is to tell of these two classes and is copiously illustrated with no less than thirty-seven half-tone illustrations.

Questions, answers & descriptive diagrams of the locomotive. A.E. Jennings.
A booklet containing useful and practical information on cylinders and valves, live and exhaust injectors, the vacuum brake and mechanical lubricators. A good publication for enginemen.

Western Region. 62
New engines built at Swindon include: 4-6-0 No. 6999 Capel Dewi Hall, 0-6-0T No 9673. The following have been withdrawn: 4-4-0 No. 9091 Thames; No. 3441 Blackbird. 2-4-0T No. 3562. 0-6-0T Nos. 1894 and 2724.

Retirement. 62
George A. Musgrave, Motive Power Superintendent of the Western Section of British Railways (Eastern Region) retires this month. Musgrave started as a premium apprentice at Doncaster in 1902. In 1912 he was put in charge. at Hatfield loco. depot and a year later became Assistant District Locomotive Superintendent for the Nottingham District. In 1929 he was appointed Works Manager, Cowlairs; and remained there until 1938 when he took over his present post.

Number 681 (14 May 1949)

Summer services. 63.
Plans announced by the Railway Executive for the summer services show that a very considerable step has been taken towards the return to pre-war standard—in fact some of the facilities to be provided have not hitherto existed. Sir Eustace Missenden when announcing the new improvements explained that the Government's Economic Survey for the current year made it clear that, as a temporary measure, the railway's replacement programme should be kept at a restricted level. We consider it is a matter for congratulation that despite such restriction and the many other difficulties encountered in railway operation today, such a big improvement is possible. A vast amount of organisation and work, at every level, lies behind the announcement of the new services. Viewed on a week to week basis little progress may appear to have been made in the last year, but comparisons made at an interval of one year reveal great progress. Locomotives are generally in far better condition and 167 new passenger engines are now available in addition to 1,350 new carriages. Considerable work, some of which has already been described in our pages, has been put in on the track; as a result a large number of the speed restrictions formerly necessary have now been removed. It is true that coal supplies have still to be carefully conserved, but some improvement in the quality of the coal is discernible.
The sum of all these developments is well reflected in the considerably improved services in operation from 23 May to 25 September. Compared with the service of last summer the weekly passenger train mileage is increased by 300,431 miles to a weekly total of 4,417,266 miles, due to the running of 183 additional trains on weekdays, 349 on Saturdays and 78 on Sundays. Some trains have been accelerated and others relieved whilst thirteen named trains have been introduced or restored in addition to those already operating. Amongst the restorations are The Pines Express running between Manchester and Bournemouth and the Devonian operating from Bradford to Kingswear. The Capitals Limited between King's Cross and Edinburgh, The White Rose King's Cross and Leeds and Bradford, and The Fenman between Liverpool Street and Hunstanton are new trains. New cross-country expresses which are of especial benefit to holiday-makers, will supplement those already running. Examples of the additional services, some of which will run at weekends only, include :-Newcastle, York, Sheffield-Bournemouth; Newcastle, York, Sheffield-Torquay and Paignton; Newcastle, York, Sheffield- Penzance (Fridays only); Bradford, Leeds, Sheffield-Torquay and Kingswear; Sheffield, Nottingham, Leicester, Northampton-Brighton, Eastbourne and Hastings (Saturdays only); Wolverhampton, Birmingham-Portsmouth Harbour for Isle of Wight; Coventry -Brighton, Eastbourne and Hastings (Fridays and Saturdays only).
For the benefit of residents in outer suburban areas a number of long-distance expresses to the West of England and South Wales will start from Ealing Broadway on Friday nights and on Saturday mornings Similarly, Southern Section expresses for the Kent Coast will leave Blackheath, Bromley South and Herne Hill on Saturdays. The result of this experiment will be of considerable interest. There is to be an increase in the number of non- stop journeys varying between 200 and 400 miles. Among trains introduced, the following will run daily:-9.30 a.m. King's Cross to Edinburgh; 9.45 a .m. Edinburgh to King's Cross; 10.0 a.m. Euston to Glasgow: and on Saturdays only the 10.20 a.m, Paddington to Torquay; 10.30 a.m. Paddington to Truro: 10.35 a.m. Paddington to Plymouth. Although the 10.0 a.m. Euston to Glasgow train appears in the public timetables as running non-stop there is, of course the usual stop at Kingmoor, to change engine crews.
In addition to changes affecting the running of trains, there are also extensions of restaurant and buffet car facilities and cheap fare and seat reservation arrangements.
The Railway Executive has also announced one of the biggest changes ever effected on a line where the service has been long established. This change applies to the former G.W. & G.C. Joint line to High Wycombe. In future the passenger service will be concentrated on Marylebone and trains will depart at regular hourly intervals outside the peak periods. The advantages of the new arrangement, which comes into force from 4 July will be particularly apparent to those travelling outside rush hours and in view of the considerable speeding up should attract some new business. No alteration has yet been made which meets with universal approval-the minority of dissentients are always far noisier than the majority of assentients and whilst some objections will certainly be raised to the new arrangement, on balance it has much to commend it.

Western Region. 63
New engines built at Swindon include: 4-6-0 No. 7901 Dodington Hall and No. 7902 Eaton Mascot Hall, also 0-6-0PT 9674 to 9677 inclusive. The following had been withdrawn: 2-6-2T No. 3I75; 0-6-2T No. 283 (T.V .I7), 0-6-0T Nos. 2769 and 1758-

The Talgo train. 64.
First train to be built in America based on the Spanish Patentes Talgo com- pleted by the American Car and Foundry Company for testing and demonstration in America. 'Designed by ACF and Talgo engineers and constructed at the Berwick, Pennsylvama and Wilmington, Delaware shops, this revolutionary streamliner was the first of three such trains, the other two destined :for service in Spain between Madrid and the French border, a distance of approximately 500 miles, to connect with the service to and from Paris. The ACF-Talgo train represents entirely new concepts in railway coach construction. A companson with other streamline equipment. shows the ACF-Talgo to have floors 2 ft. 9 m. lower, .a weight reduction of nearly 75 per cent. due to both its design .and all-aluminium construction and an overall height lower by almost four feet. Each Talgo for Spain will consist of a diesel-electric locomotive, a baggage unit, and three coaches, the last of which has an observation lounge. The overall length of the train is approximately 370 feet. The design is unique in that a coach consists of four articulated passenger umts and one equipment unit, each of which has only one pair of wheels in the rear. The front is supported by a special coupling arrangement on the unit ahead of it, while the first unit is 'supported by the locomotive which is on conventional type trucks. Entrance to the coaches is through the equipment umt which is the centre of each coach. These equipment umts contain facilities such as air-conditioning control lockers, washrooms, and kitchenettes for serving light meals at seats. Each coach is 100 feet long and seats 64 passengers, 16 in each passenger unit, with the exception. of the coach containing the observation lounge umt which is seven feet longer. The entire train seats 176 passengers with 16 additional seats in the observation lounge. An experimental train of this type has undergone successful tests in Spain. The train which the builders have completed for experimental purposes is of identical design to the trains destined for Spain with the exception of length and gauge. The American experimental and demonstration Talgo consists at present of only a diesel-electric locomotive, a baggage unit and a coach of five units, one of them being for equipment and another serving as an observation lounge. The train is 168 feet long or only approximately one-third of its eventual length. The interior is well arranged and noticeable features are wide-vision windows, a 42-inch seat spacing, wardrobes and luggage storage facilities in each coach. The principle can be adapted to both long and short hauls, coach or sleeper service, depending on requirements and the passenger carrying capacity increased or decreased to suit the density of traffic.

London Midland Region and Scottish Region. 64
New locomotives in service included 4-6-0 Class 5 mixed traffic: Nos. 44718, 44720, 44736 and 44737 (built at Crewe). 2-6-4 Class 4 mixed traffic tank: Nos. 42107, 42108 and 42186 (built at Derby). 2-6-0 Class 4 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 43028, 43029 and 43030 (built at Horwich). 0-6-0 diesel electric 350 H.P.: No: 12051 (built at Derby). The following had been withdrawm: 4-6-0 Class 5P: No. 10432 (L. & Y.R. Dreadnought). 4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 711 (Midland). 4-4-0 Class 2P: Nos. 394, 466 (Midland). 4-6-0 Class 4MT: No. 14646 (Caledonian). 0-6-2 Class 2MT.tank No. 6931 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-0 Class 7F: Nos. 9517, 9518, 9525, 9542, 9565, 9577, 9616, 9632, 9633, 9646, 49551, 49630 (L.M.S. Standard); 9003, 9016, 9110, 9111, 9290, 9329, 9363 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-0 Class 6F: Nos. 8906, 8918, 9166, 9195, 9259, 9263, (L.N.W.R.) I 12834, 52821 (L. & Y.R.). 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 28233, 2856I(L.N.W.R.); 17382 (Caledonian). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: No. 27635 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 2FT: No. 11325 (L. & Y.R. Saddle Tank Class 23). 0-6-0 Class 1FT: No. 1676 (Midland).

Easin Mao. Locomotive types, Chinese Rlys. 65-7. 4 illustrations
The Japanese during the Sino-Japanese War were forced to bring locomotives from Manchuria to eqip thre largely destroyed railways in China. These included the MK-1 Mikayi 2-8-2 built in Japan from 1938 (illustrated); MK-6 Mikaroku light 2-8-2 (illustrated); C-5 Consoli 2--8-0 adapted from the Japanese narrow gauge design of 1923. Also the UNRRA 2-8-0 type locomotive, of which 160 units were built for China in 1946 by Alco, Baldwm and Lima Works, in the .U.S.A.

London Midland Regjon. 67
New wagons and an ingenious type of cradle for the transport of glass designed as the result of experiments carried out by the L.M.S. Railway and Pilkington Brothers Ltd. of St. Helens. The cradle was of steel construction and made up of two end units in the form of an inverted 'T' permanently joined together at the top and bottom by one rectangular and two tubular members respectively. The main members were pressed steel channels, the uprights and base being faced with felt covered timber bearers. The faces of the centre supports were arranged to slope together so that the two packs of glass tilt inwards. To prevent any longitudinal movement of the glass a swivelling adjustable steel beam is attached to the centre supports by a screw and is further secured at each end to the side frame by a screw clamp. A swivelling shackle is fitted to the top of each centre support for lifting whilst a loop is attached to each end for securing the cradle to the wagon floor by an adjustable holding down chain. The maximum length and width of glass the cradle accommodated is 66 in. and 48 in. respectively. The tare is 7 cwt. and the capacity is 4 tons 5 cwt., making a gross tare of 4 tons 12 cwt. per cradle. Two of these units were carried in one wagon. The shock-absorbing equipment of the new wagons, which Anti-Breakage Cradle for Glass being lifted from wagon. allowed the body in which the glass cradles were fitted to "float" on springs, totally eliminated damage to sheet glass due to violent movement during transit by rail.

New 330 b.h.p. Stephenson-Crossley locomotive. 67
Test train consisting of 30 loaded wagons with a gross load of 832 tons (excluding locomotive) was easily started from rest with tight couplings on a gradient of 1/125 under difficult conditions and the first gear speed of 4 m.p.h. was easily reached. A second test was made when a gross load of 400 tons (excluding locomotive) was easily handled and hauled at 7 m.p.h. in second gear. There was not sufficient length of track available to permit changing into third gear.

British steam locomotives, 1948. 68-71. table
Information arranged by company, then by Whyte notation: additions and withdrawals

Hunslet Engine Company Ltd. 71
Underground Machinery Exhibition held Earl's Court 7 to 16 July 1949 showing four types of flameproof diesel locomotives from 2¾ to 100 h.p.

4-6-0 H.P.S. locomotives. 71-2. 2 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
Locomotives built by the Vulcan Foundry for the Eastern Bengal section of  the Bengal-Assam Railway and for East Indian Railway. D. MacAulay was Chief Mechanical Engineer of the former.

Electric locomotives for opencast coalmining. 72. illustration.
Bo-Bo-Bo built by Skoda in Czechoslovakia to operate at 1500 V DC with ov erhead and side current collectors: the latter for use near excavating machinery. 

Personal. 72.
George Dow appointed Public Relations & Publicity Officer, London Midland Region

O.S. Nock. Locomotives of R.E.L. Maunsell, 1912-1937, Part 3. The "N" class 2-6-0s. 73-7. 2 illustrations, 5 diagrams.
Considers Clayton's and Pearson's influnces upon the design and similarities to the Swindon 43XX 2-6-0. Notes the locomotives built at Woolwich Arsenal and routine performance by No. 861 between Salisbury and Yeovill Junction and on test between Exeter and Ilfracombe oover the very severe gradients on either side of Morthoe.

Special freight wagons for transport of motor bodies. 77. illustration
South Australian Railways built at Islington Workshops for transport of car (automobile) bodies from Adelaide to Malbourne

Diesel-electric shunting locomotives for Ceylon. 78
The North British Locomotive Co. Ltd., in association with The General Electric Co. Ltd. as supplier of the electrical equipment, has received an order for eight 625-h.P. diesel- electric shunting locomotives for the Ceylon Government Railway. The locomotives have single cabs and are carried on two four-wheel bogies, with all axles motored. Maximum tractive effort is 35,000 lb. at up to 4 m.p.h. The power unit consists of a Paxman 12 R.P.H. turbo-charged diesel engine driving main and auxiliary generators. Principal dimensions are as follows:-Length over headstocks 34 ft. Maximum height 12 ft. 6 in. Maximum width 9 ft. Bogie wheelbase 8 ft. Bogie wheel diameter 3 ft. 6 in. Weight per axle 13 tons. Total weight 52 tons. Total wheelbase 25 ft. Tractive effort 35,000 lb. Maximum speed 20 m.p.h.
The locomotives are designed principally for operating in the Colombo goods yard, but may also be required to work on the Kolonnawa branch line. They are to be capable of working continuously for six days without refuelling.

Correspondence. 78

Conjugated valve gears. William. T. Hoeker
Permit me to express my appreciation of the informative article on Conjugated Valve Gears in your March issue. In view of the claims and counter-claims which have emanated from Continental sources in past years, it is pleasing to observe your re-statement of the indisputable fact that the primary principle of these valve gears was first enunciated publicly by an Englishman.
I should like to point out, however, that the Germans did not wait until "the 1914-18 war, when patent rights were disregarded," to make practical use of some of Mr. Holcroft's ideas. The first three-cylinder engine in Germany with conjugated valve gear was a large experimental tank locomotive of the 2-8-2 type, built by Henschel and Son for the Berliner Stadtbahn during the Winter of 1912-13. It ran its first trials in February, 1913, and was described in German periodicals during the same year. The form of valve gear applied to this engine was used on 1,657 German locomotives of 2-10-0 and 2-8-0 types built between 1915 and 1924. It was illustrated in detail in Locomotive Mag. for January, 1920, page 19.
The Prussian 4-6-0 type engines, which had a system of levers identical with Fig. I of your article, were also designed prior to the Great War. The first of them was completed in April, 1914, and one was on display at the Baltic Exhibition in Malrno during the early Summer of that year. The Germans based their claim to priority on a proposal said to have been submitted by Prof. Obergethmann in 1908. There are one or two vague references to this in the second volume of Die Entwicklung der Lokomotive." In 1924, when the Eastern Ry. of France began to build 2-10-0 type locomotives similar to the Prussian G_I21 Class of 1915, it was asserted that the geometry of conjugated valve gears had been demonstrated by Prof. Madamet at the Ecole de Genie Maritime in 1887. But even this was three years after Joy's original patent.
The later developments depicted in Figs. 3 to 5 of your article apparently have had no counterpart in Continental practice.

British Railways new liveries. 78
The Railway Executive announce that new liveries for locomotives and coaches to be adopted are as fol1ows: — Steam locomotives—Heavy duty express passenger: Blue, with black and white lining. Selected passenger: Dark green with black and orange lining. Other passenger and mixed traffic locomotives: Black with red, cream and grey lining. Freight locomotives: Black unlined. Passenger train coaches—Main line corridor: Crimson lake with cream panels, Coaches for local steam services, and passenger train vans: Crimson lake. Multiple unit electric coaches: Green.

G.E.C. 78
An interesting order has been received by The General Electric Co. Ltd., for two synchronous condensers for New South Wales Railways. The condensers are each rated at 20,000 kVA, IT kV, 50 cycles 3 phase, 1,000 r.p.m., and will be used in conjunction with automatic voltage regulators for the regulation of voltage on the 66 kV side of step-down transformers at Carlingford terminal station. A 132 kV transmission line connects the Carlingford station to the generating station at Lake Macquarie, some 70 miles away.

Reviews. 78

L.S.W.R. locomotives, 1873-1922, F. Burtt. Ian Allan Ltd. 96 pp. Stout paper cover.
A fully illustrated description of all locomotives running on this railway between the dates mentioned. Dimensions, dates of building and scrapping and all other available particulars of the engines are given, but we think the omission of the works order numbers and serial numbers. would be an improvement as they are confusing and of little interest.

The Newcastle & Carlisle Railway. John S. Maclean. R. Robinson & Co. Ltd. 120 pp. 70 illustrations. 14 Plates. Stout cover.
We congratulate the author for producing this accurate and most interesting historical record of a very important but not so well known. cross-country line in the North of England. It is beautifully printed on art paper and the illustrations are excellent. A short biography of the famous engineers associated with the N. & C.R. Co. is included. Several diagrams, drawings, gradient profiles and maps, also detailed drawings of rolling stock are by the author.

Hoffman Manufacturing Co. Ltd. of Chelmsford, Essex,
We have received from the a well-produced booklet on the manufacture of ball and roller bearings. It deals with production from the first stages to inspection of the finished product. A feature of this publication is the interest of the illustrations.

Great Western suburban services. Thomas B. Peacock.
A history of passenger suburban services in the London District operated by the G.W.R.

Number 682 (15 June 1949)

Locomotive Engineers Summer Meeting. 79 + pllate
Held 10-13 May 1949. Included a visit to the Rugby Testing Station where D49 No. 62764 with infinitely variable poppet valve gear was being tested. From Rugby to Manchester with Caprotti valve gear and Timken roller bearings hauled the delegates. The Annual Dinner was held at the Midland Hotel in Manchester and this was presided over by Colonel Rudgard. Visits were made to Beyer Peacock (where group photograph was taken in front of Beyer Garratt 4-8-2+2-8-4 for East African Railways: key is provided for those in photograph) and to Metropolitan Vickers works in Manchester. On the return journey from Derby to London diesel electric locomotive No. 10000 hauled the deklegates,

Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway "15B" class locomotives. 80-1. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
Thirty 4-8-0 supplied by Vulcan Foundry to inspection of Livesey & Henderson. They were oil-fired; had 1752ft2 of evaporative heating surface; 348ft2 of superheater; 19½ x 28in cylinders; 10in piston valves and 5ft 8in coupled wheels.

Stephenson-Crossley diesel locomotive. 81-2. 2 illustrations
0-6-0 built by Robert Stephenson & Hawthorns Ltd of Newcastle with a low height for Thos. Firth & John Brown Ltd of Sheffield (described in Locomotive Mag., 1937, 43, 379). The Crossley DRL 4 engine had given eleven years service. A similar, but six cylinder engine was being installed in a locomotive for the Carrington Power Station in Manchester. Vulcan Sinclair hydraulic coupling with a Bostock & Bromley Ltd of Stalybridge gearbox.

E.W. Twining. Locomotives for narrow gauge railways. 83-7. 9 diagrams (including side elevation & plan)
2-6-2T with many features at variance with standard practice, including valve gear, safety valves, piston valves and spark arresting arrangement within smokebox.

Jubilee of C.C. Wakefield & Co. Ltd. 87

Notes on steam distribution. 88-90. diagram, table
Steam expansion and condensation. Ratio of bore to stroke. Steam tightness in pistons and valves. Multiple narrow piston rings showed a 13% saving over single rings in tests conducted in India on both broad and narrow gauge locomotives

Hudswell Clarke & Co. 90
At the underground machinery exhibition at Earl's Court the firm installed a 200 foot track to demonstrate its 3ft and 2ft gauge diesel locomotives.

All steel fabricated coach, London Midland Region. 91-4. 2 illustrations, 2 diagrams
LMS design build at Derby Works: first of 150 corridor coaches with circular window to lavatories

London Midland Region and Scottish Region.  94
New locomctives in service included-4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 4472J to 44724 (built at Crewe). 2-6-4 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tank: No. 42109 (built at Derby). 2-6-0 Class 4 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 43031 and 43032 (built at Horwich).

Chief Inspecting Officer of Railways. 94
Lieut.-Colonel Sir Alan H.L. Mount, C.B., C.B.E., Chief Inspecting Officer of Railways, retired from the Ministry of Transport on 31 July 1949, after nearly thirty years' service in the Department. The Minister of Transport had appointed Lieut.-Colonel G.R.S. Wilson in succession to Sir Alan Mount. Lieut.-Coionel Wilson has for the last fourteen years been a member of the Railway Inspection staff of the Ministry.

W.G. Bagnall Ltd. 94.
On the occasion of the opening of new canteen building at the Castle Engine Works of W. G. Bagnall Ltd., by the Mayor of Stafford, Councillor Mrs. Ruth Turney , J.P., over 400 guests were able to see the con- siderable changes which have taken place in the lay-out of the works during the past few months. These changes have been made to cope with the increased production programme which the company has planned in line with its vastly increased order book. The value of the orders now on the company's books is well over £1,250,000?#151;or more than double what it was at the end of 1917. Production had already increased by 73 per cent. last year compared with the previous year with no more than an 8 per cent. increase in the numbers employed. Over 90 per cent. of this production is for export.

"24 Class"  2-8-4 type, South African Railways. 95-6. illustration, diagram (side elevation)
North British Locomotive Co. supplied 100 locomotives to design of M.M. Loubser

Correspondence. 96

[Puget Sounder]. P. Brameld. 96. illustration
Photograph taken in May 1919 of a Great Northern train (U.S.A.) coming from Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. to Vancouver, B.C. and just about to enter New Westminster station as it comes off the bridge over the· Fraser River. The train is the  Puget Sounder leaving Seattle 08.I5 and arriving Vancouver (B.C.) I2.45 a run of 154 miles. The locomotive is one of the General Motors Co. (Electro-Motive Division) type; 2,000 H.P. with two 12 cylinder, 2 stroke, engines of 1,000-1,200 H.P. each. The delivery of the new all steel streamlined trains for the Vancouver service has not been made yet, hence my photo- graph shows the diesel-electric loco. hauling ordinary American type stock.
The bridge partly shown is an interesting structure, about half-a-mile or more long, across the Fraser River. It carries the G.N.R. (of U.S.A.), the C.N.R. (Canadian National Railway), and the British Columbia Electric Railway (which, runs from Vancouver, 76.3 miles up the Fraser Valley to Chilliwack) . It is hoped to have the new carriage stock for the Puget Sounder in service this summer. The present stock is. painted dark green and it is noticeable how clean the cars: keep when used with diesel locos. The new stock will be: orange and dark green to match the locos.

Number 683 (15 July 1949)

The locomotive trials. 97-8.

L.M.R. diesel locomotive, London — Glasgow. 98-9.
On 1 June 1949 the Royal Scot was worked by Nos. 10000 and 10001 non-stop with the footplate crews being changed between Penrith and Carlisle via the corridor connections. H. Evanson, the diesel inspector was with the enginemen throughout. Riddles held an informal reception in Glasgow with Hawksworth, Ivatt, Peppercorn and Sir George Nelson and T.F. Cameron.

H.C.B. Rogers. The Great Northern Railway (Ireland). 104-6.4 illustrations.
A locomotive history, with emphasis on 20th century development.

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. 107-9. 3 illustrations.
Continued page 172

R.B. Fellows. The Club Train, 1889. 109-11. 2 illustrations.

Number 684 (15 August 1949)

L.M.A. Handbook. 113
Editorial on Locomotive Manufacturers Association who tailor-made locomotives according its President H. Wilmot. The dictionary of locomotive terms, alone extended to 276 pages. There were eleven folding plates.

Western Region. 113
New from Swindon: Nos. 7021 Haverfordwesst Castle, 7022 Hereford Castle, 7023 Penrice Castle and 7024 Powis Castle. Withdrawn: 2-6-0 Nos. 2651 and 2655; 4-4-0 No. 9072 and 3364 Frank Bibby; 0-6-2T No. 53 (ex-Rhymney Railway No. 11) and 0-6-0T No. 1731

Southern Region. 113
No. 2423, the first H2 Brighton Atlantic to be withdrawn: cut up at Easleigh in June; had worked Newhaven boat trains for several years. No. 1163, first Maunsell E1 4-4-0 withdrawn in May. Several 0-4-0T Southampton Dock shunters had been transferred to National Coal Board.

Three famous Crewe veterans. 114. illustration
Sad line up of Precursor No. 25297, Claughton No. 6004 and Prince of Wales No. 25752.

New South Wales "C38" 4-6-2 locomotive. 115-16. illustration, diagram (side elevation)

London Midland Region and Scottish Region. 116
New locomotives in service included— 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 44569 to 44653 (huilt at Crewe). 2-6-4 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos 42111 and 42112 (built at Derby). 2-6-0 Class 4 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 43035, 43036 and 43037 (built at Horwich). 0-6-0 Diesel Electric Shunter 350 H.P.: No. 12054 (built at Derby).
The following had been withdrawn — 4-4-0 Class 4P: Nos. 1013, 1042 (Midland). 4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 25297 Sirocco (L.N.W.R. "Precursor" class). 4-4-0 Class 2P: Nos. 510, 517 (Midland). 4-4-2 Class 2PT: Nos. 2095, 2102 (L.T. & S.R.). 2-4-2 Class 2PT: Nos. 10711, 10732 (L. &Y.R.). 2-4-2 Class 1PT: No. 6639 (L.N.W.R.). 0-4-4 Class 1PT: No. 1246 (Midland). 0-8-0 Class 7F: Nos. 9530, 9606, 49581 (L.M.S. Standard), 9004, 9019, 9123 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-0 Class 6F' No. 8931 (L.N.W.R.), 12806 (L. & Y.R.). 0-6-0 Class 3F: No. 12181 (L. & Y.R.), 17584 (Caledonian), 17690 (Highland}, 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 3168, 58251 (Midland), 28598 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-4 Class 7FT: No. 7936 (L.N.W.R.).

O.S. Nock. Locomotives of R. E. L. Maunsell, 1912-1937.  Part 4. The "E1" and "D1" 4-4-0's [sic]. 117-21. 3 illustrations, 2 diagrams, 2 tables

British Timken Limited. 121
Had installed largest twin head plano horizontal surface grinder yet built. Supplied by Thompson Grinder Co. of Springfield Ohio for manufacture of railway axle housings.

Rubber tyres on rail coaches. 122. 2 illustrations.
Michelin Michelines

John Poole. Locomotives of the Buenos Aires Western Railway. 123-5.

Engineering & Marine Exhibition, Olympia, August 25th to September 10th, 1949.  127. illustration
A pointer to the trend of modern development of internal combustion engines may be Crossley 's exclusive concentration at Olympia on the two cycle type of Diesel engine. There are four examples covering range of engine powers from 180 B.H.P. to 1800 B.H.P. for marine propulsion and for locomotive purposes, although equivalent land type engines are manufactured. The exhibit is outstanding from several points of view. It includes the largest engine in the entire show and this engine is sliown running under its own power. It is an eight-cylinder marine propulsion unit of 1500 B.H.P. standing 6 ft. 6 in. high and 23 ft. long. Another exhibit of great interest is a twelve-cylinder "Vee" type engine for high powered main line locomotives developing 1800 B.H.P. direct coupled to an electrical generator and all mounted on three point suspension. Then there are smaller straight line six-cylinder marine propulsion units, the types concerned being representative of powers from 100 up to 800 B.H.P. which have been installed in a wide variety of vessels all over the world.

Correspondence. 127

N.S.W. Govt. Rlys. Terrier type tank engines. A.V. Green
Re description of the L.B. & S.C. "Terrier" type locomotives for N.S.W. Govt. Rlys. on pages 107-8 of Vol. 54, and I trust that the following observations may be useful.
It was just a coincidence that the numbers of the N.S.W. Terriers were 67 to 74, and no compliment to L.B. & S.C. Ry.; these numbers simply followed on from 1 to 66, Great Southern and Great Western Railways, of N.S.W. I do not think that any special understanding about these engines existed between Brighton and N.S.W. The facts are that N.S.W. Commissioner Rae, Chief Engineer Whitton, and Locomotive Engineer Scott were impressed with the fine drawings and illustrations of the new Brighton tank engines that appeared in The Engineer. Up till the year 1875, they had no suitable engines for the rapidly increasing suburban traffic between Sydney and Parramatta; therefore instructions were given to Mort's Dock and Engineering Co., of Balmain, and Vale and Lacy, Sydney, to build four engines each to the dimensiqns of the engines shown in The Engineer. I feel sure no complete set of working drawings was obtained from Brighton. Both firms had a certain amount of freedom in details. This is borne out by the diagram of the Mort engine shown in The Locomotive, Vol. 53, page 157, Fig. 72, and the photograph of the Vale engine given on page 107 of  The Locomotive, Vol. 54, Fig. 76. The most striking difference is in the cab; I believe, all eight engines originally had the Salter valves on the dome.
Both Mort, and Vale & Lacy had supplied several locos. to N.S.W. previous to building 67 to 74. But in all these, they were largely assisted by R. Stephenson & Co.; indeed, most of them bore R.S. & Cos. works numbers. Mort's were chiefly engaged in marine work, while Vale & Lacy dealt mostly with mining machinery. Neither firm was properly equipped to turn out locomotives, and all wheels, axles, springs, and many other details had to be imported. In the case of most of the boilers, Stephensons sent out the plates rolled and drilled; all the local firms had to do was to rivet the parts together. I think it most likely that Stephensons and not Brighton supplied most of the material for building 67 to 74.
I saw the engines at work in 1884 hauling five cars between Sydney and Parramatta. When the line opened to Hurstville, October, 1884, they were tried, but the heavy grade proved too much for them. When the F 351 class came out in 1885, the N 67 class were withdrawn from the suburban passenger work, but they proved very useful as loco. yard and workshop shunters for many years. The five converted to coal-cranes had the bunkers removed, and a steam swivelling and hoisting jib-crane fitted instead. They were used at Hamilton, Goulburn and Junee for coaling tenders off the ground or out of trucks. No. 74, the engine shown on page 107 of The Locomotive, Vo!. 54, is the one referred to on that page as a "Brighton bargain" to the owners. With her scrapping in .1941, the class became extinct.

The club train. W.B. Thompson. 128
May I suggest that the failure of the Club Train was not due to the dislike of an all-car train but was simply and solely due to the fact that the fares charged were excessive. It seems incredible that the company could ever have expected that the small number of passengers which such a train would attract would meet the cost of running one of the large express boats across the Channel; and the moment the company, in order to minimise its loss, put on one of the old small slow boats all pretence of a service de luxe disappeared.
I crossed in that summer of 1889. The Calais-Dowures and Empress, though not economical in the engine room, were, from the passengers point of view, as good as any of the ships which have been built since; and it is worth recalling that on every day of the year first class return tickets from Dover to Calais and back', available by any service and on the best steamers, were issued at the charge of only 7./6. After the French compound locomotives had begun their wonderful career I used from time to time to spend a few hours at Calais to watch their work: and I think Londoners frequently made the crossing at summer weekends-until the war came in 1914 and brought passports and all the modern hindrances to travel .

Locomotives for narrow gauge railways . L. Derens.  128
I call attention to the comments made bv Mr. Twining on the Walschaerts gear in the June issue. His suggestion that in forward gear the slip of the die-block in the link could be entirely eliminated is to my opinion impossible because the radius of the arc swept bv the suspension link can never be made equal to the radius of the expansion link. The former must be at least twice as long so as not to interfere with the oscillation of the link. A more effective method is the off-setting of the trunnion pins forward of the centre line of the link arc. A marked instance of this in the 4-6-0 four-cvlinder express enzines of the Dutch State Railways, built bv  Bever, Peacock & Co., Werkspoor and other firms, which were illustrated in the April, 1924, issue of  The Locomotive. This off-setting causes the whole centre arc of the link to make an up and down movement and by choosing the correct proportions the slip of the block in the link, when in forward gear, can be obviated almost entirely.
A second point is that the valve gear proposed by  Twining, as illustrated in Fig. 3, is not new. In fact this. same gear was invented by Verhoop, a Dutch engineer, as early as 1916 and applied by him to several tramway engines of his design. But as such engines are mostly inside cylinders and narrow gauge, there was no space available for two eccentrics on the cran kaxle. Verhoop therefore connected the vertical arm of the bell crank by a link to a pin on the crosshead of the other engine by prolonging the axle of rotation of the bell crank to the other side of the engine and fixing the vertical arm there and vice versa for the other engine.
This is thus an application of Belpaire system in order to get the required 90 degrees difference in place of an eccen- tric. This of course incurs the interdependance of the right- and left-hand gear, which for tram engines is no' serious obstacle.
A third point is the replacement of the sliding blocks of the Joy link by rollers. This was applied as early as 1898 by Golsdorf to his 4-6-0 two-cylinder compound express locomotives, series 9,' for the Austrian State Railways, illustrated in the August 29, 1903, issue of The Locomotive.
They were inside cylindered engines with outside frames only. The valve chests were arranged outside the frames. On the first series of this class the valves were actuated by Walschaerts gear. But owing to heating troubles with the large eccentrics, which were arranged between the cranks and the outside frame, on the last five engmes the Walschaerts gear was replaced by Joy's, on which the sliding die-blocks were replaced by rollers. Of course no- ball races were available at that early date.

Reviews. 128.

The Railways of Germany, I939-1945. H.M. Stationery Office.
This British Intelligence Objectives Sub-Committee report, by H. Holcroft, covers civil, mechanical and electrical engineering in-so-far as they relate to practices extant on German railways. Much interesting material on locomotives and rolling stock is included, amongst this are general arrangement drawings of the standard "K50" war locomotive, the Krauss stayless boiler for the "K52" class and the" A.E.G." and "Stug" systems of coal dust firing. The whole forms a well-condensed survey of German practice during the period concerned.

Locomotives des C. De F. Francais. No. 2. Editions P.P.C. Paris.
Contained in this album are illustrations, diagrams and particulars of many steam, electric and diesel- electric locomotives and railcars of the French railways. Whilst dealing primarily with modern types some of the earlier ones, e.g. those of Buddicom and Crampton, are included. The first book, issued in 1947, together with that now under review provide an extraordinarily good survey of French motive power practice.

The Skefko Ball Bearing Co. Ltd. of Luton,
SKF Bearings for Railway Rolling Stock. As onr readers will be well aware roller bearing axleboxes are now used for all classes of locomotive, and passengers and goods rolling stock, being- not only fitted to new productions but frequently applied for the modernisation of older stock. More than half a million axleboxes fitted witih SKF bearings are in use in sixty countries The book is well produced, printed on art paper and profusely illustrated-the whole forming an excellent review of the various tvpes of roller-bearing- axleboxes, of this make, for railway rolling stock. Conies of this publication may be obtained. by those in executive positions, on application to the Company.

Number 685 (15 September 1949)

The French railways. 129

Welding hopper cars. 129
Chesapeake & Ohio Railway order for 6000 seventy ton hopper cars to convey coal ordered from the American Car and Foundry Co. at Huntington, West Virginia.

"1500" class 0-6-0 tank, Western Region. 130. illustration
First engines of a batch of ten have recently been delivered to the Western Region and are at work in the London area. Designed by F.W. Hawksworth, the Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Region, these locomotives have been produced for continuous heavy duty and were built at Swindon.
Certain features will be immediately noticed, on referring to the reproduced illustration, which are new to Western Region practice so far as engines of this size and power are concerned. Outside cylinders and outside Walschaerts gear are employed and as no running plate is fitted, the whole of the gear and motion are particularly accessible. Preparation and all periodical examinations may be made without recourse to a pit—a valuable feature on an engine employed for long periods on shunting duties away from a shed.
Apart from the special features mentioned, the design follows standard Western Region practices. The two cylinders are 17½ in by 24 in. and take steam via piston valves of 8 in. diameter. The frames, 29 ft. 4 in. long, are constructed from 1¤ in. steel plate. All axles run in bearings of 8 in. diameter and lOin. length.
The boiler is the G.W.R. standard No. 10, as fitted to the 0-6-0 tank engines of the 22XX and 95XX -classes and the reboilered Taff Vale A class engines. The firebox has a grate area of 17.4 sq. ft. Saturated steam at 200 psi. is provided. The wheels, of 4 ft. 7½ in. diameter, are arranged on a base of 6 ft. 4 in. + 6 ft. 6 in. The overhang at the front end is 9 ft. l0in. and at the rear 10ft. 4 in. giving a length over buffer faces of 33 ft. 0 in. 1,350 gallons of water are carried, and the coal capacity is 3 tons 5 cwt. Empty the weight is 47 tons 2 cwt. and full 58 tons 4 cwt. Designed to negotiate a 31 chain curve at normal speed or one of 3 chains at slow speed, these useful engines are capable of exerting a tractive effort of 22,515 lb.

Steam locomotives in Switzerland. 130
The Swiss Federal Railways are almost completely electrified; 94.5 per cent. of their lines to be exact. There are 572 electric locomotives in use and 307 steam locomotives kept ready for service when required. Owing to the unusual drought, resulting in a shortage of current many of the steam locomotives can be seen in service at the larger stations, especially on shunting duties also hauling special holiday trains, etc. They are considered a very valuable and essential reserve, figuring in the financial report as being worth 26 million francs.
It is reported that during the autumn season of 1947 1I,000 km. were run daily by steam locomotives. The types of engines to be seen are varied, compnsing such well-known types as the 2-10-0 tender engines down to the metre gauge 0-6-0 tank locomotives of the Bruenig line. All are kept in spotless condition, painted black, often with polished brass and copper work. F. J. C. H.

Eastern and North Eastern Regions. 130
The D49 class 4-4-0 three cylinder locomotive No. 62764 The Garlh has been fitted with infinitely variable rotary cam poppet valve gear. This will be described in our next issue. No. 62764, as altered, has been in passenger service in the N.E. Region. The engine is also of interest in that the outside connecting rods have Woodard type big ends.

Alco-G.E. gas turbine loco. 131-2. illustration, 2 diagrams

Notes on steam distribution.  133-5. 2 diagrams

F.J.G. Haut. Swiss electric locomotives. 135-8. 4 illustrations, 3 diagrams

Midland Region. 139.
Retirement of "J.F." Coleman: should have been "T.F."

John Poole. Locomotives of the Buenos Aires Western Railway. 140-2.  7 illustrations, diagram (side elevation)
In 1869 Baldwin Locomotive Works supplied WN 2027 and 2029 4-4-0 possibly to the Ensenade Railway as they were not numbered into the Buenos Aires Western Railway stock until  between 1876 and 1881. In 1870 ManningWardle & Co. supplied nine 4-4-0ST locomotives of two sizes and three steam coaches. The locomotives were WN 281-2; 293-4 and 306-10. Locomotives named: Nos. 18 Ayacucha; 19 Paunero; 20 General Belgrano; 21 Industria; 22 General Lavalle and 25 General San Martin. The steam coaches (steam railcars?) were Manning Wardle WN 295-7 and were built to Fidler's Patent: they were named La Plata, Uruguay and Paraguay.  Both tank and tender engine had cabs fitted with Ventian blinds. In 1872 Dubs & Co supplied two 4-4-0T WN 551 and 552 with Nos. 27 Maipu and 28 Ituzaingo and four 4-4-0 tendrer engines WN 447-50 gived number and names: 29 Patagonia, 30 Rivadavia, 31 Buenos Aires, and 32 Sucre. In 1875 Dubs supplied two long boiler 0-6-0 tender engines WN 883-4) 33 Parana and 34 Uruguay. These were followed by two similar types from Schneider & Cie WN 2072-4/RN 37-9. The names of the two latter were Mariano Moreno and Adolfo Alsina. Beyer Peacock contributed WN 2163-5 RN 40 General Bolivar, 41 General Arenales and 42 General Alvear.

Victorian Railways.  142
A contract for fifty locomotives has been placed with the North British Locomotive Co. Ltd.

German railways electrification. 142
The main line between Cologne and Hamm will form the first part of the programme.

Ruston gas turbine. 142
Ruston and Hornsby Ltd. of Lincoln, have designed a new type of Gas Turbine for locomotives.

Southern Region. 142
The official report on the boiler "failure. when one of the large flues collapsed on locomotive No. 2028 (an old Brighton class 13) 4-4-2 tank has been 'published. The accident occurred last December in Beech 'tunnel on the Oxted-Tunbridge Wells line; driver Albert .Broadway was severely scalded but fireman Donald Croker escaped uninjured. The flue which failed was of 4t in. outside diameter with a 10 inch copper portion brazed at the firebox end. The fracture was due to corrosion on the 'water side of the steel tubes. No. 2028 since May. 1948. "had been on anti-foam trials and during that time had been -running on the Tunbridge Wells-East Grinstead-Three Bridges line. The water at Three Bridges. because of its anti-priming qualities. is popular with enginemen, but 'owing to chemical constituents—i.e. dissolved carbon dioxide -with high 'iron content it is detrimental to steel.

Virginia & Truckee R.R. 142
We learn from our American contemporary Trains. that this famous railway has petitioned the Interstate Commerce Commission for permission to cease operation. The road's locomotives have received attention in our pages from time to time. e.g. 1938 • p. 124 and p. 377 .

Southern Region. 142
O.V.S. Bulleid. who was appointed Chief Mechanical Engineer of the Southern Railway upon the retirement of Mr. Maunsell, has resigned from his position as C.M.E. of the Southern Region. He has been appointed Consulting Mechanical Engineer of Coras Iompair Eireann. His tenure of office on the Southern has been noteworthy for the production of striking designs in locomotives and rolling stock. Outstanding examples are the Merchant Navy, West Country and Battle of Britain classes. whilst his austerity 0-6-0 goods engines of the Q1 class aroused considerable interest in the press, when they first appeared. owing to their unusual appearance; all have been referred to in our pages. His last design is known as the Leader class. The first engine of which is still undergoing trials and incorporates numerous features of considerable interest. Amongst these may be mentioned the boiler which is of all welded construction. and the steam distribution which is effected by sleeve valves.
He also introduced a new system of numbering in which the number of carrying wheels and coupled wheels were indicated by the engine number, but which has since been abandoned.

New Electric Locomotives Virginian Railroad. 143
Virginian RR received delivery of four 6,800 h.p. straight-electrics from the General Electric Co. of U.S.A. These locomotives will be used mainly for haulage of heavy coal trains over the Alleghany mountains between Mullens, W. Va., and Roanoke, Va., the 134-mile long electrified section of the Virginian R R The locomotives which are welded throughout, consist of two identical halves; each unit contains three compartments; one housing the motor-generator-set, transformer and auxiliary equipment; the operator's cab, and the nose compartment containing auxiliary equipment. The locomotive, which has the Bo - Bo + Bo - Bo + Bo - Bo + Bo - Bo wheel arrangement, has therefore eight 4-wheel bogies arranged in two trucks, all driven by nose-suspended motors which yield 6,800 h.p. (cont. rated) with a tractive effort of 162,000 lb. at 15.75 m.p.h. . The locomotives work on 11,000 v. s. phase A.C. of 25 cycles/sec. This current goes to two motor-generator sets each driven by a 4,000 h.p. synchronous motor; the motor generators supply direct current to the traction motors. The weight of the locomotives is just over 500 tons and the overall length 150 ft. 8 in. between coupler knuckles.

London Midland Region and Scottish Region. 143
New locomotives in service included— 4-6-0 Class 5 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 44664 to 44667 (built at Crewe). 2-6-4 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos. 42113 to 42118 (built at Derby). 2-6-0 Class 4 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 43038 to 43040 built at Horwich). 0-6-0 Diesel Electric Shunter 350 H.P.: Nos. 12055 and 12056 (built at Derby).
Locomotives withdrawn included— 4-4-0 Class 4P: Nos. 1008 and 1010 (Midland). 4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 720 (Midland). 4-4-0 Class 2P: No. 40500 (Midland). 2-4-2 Class 2PT: No. 10738 (L. & Y.R.). 2-4-2 Class 1PT: No. 6663 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-0 Class 7F: Nos. 9553. 9604. 49607, 9613, 9614, 49622, 9642, 49647, 9670 (L.M.S. Standard), 8948, •• 8954, 9170, 9207, 49299, 9337, 9365 (L.N.W.R.), 12971, 52886 (L. & Y.R.). 0-8-0 Class 6F: Nos. 9ro2 and 9283 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos. 12229, 52541 (L. & Y.R.), 17561 (Caledonian). 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 17400, 17452 (Caledonian). 4-6-0 Class 4MT: No. 14653 (Caledonian 60 Class).

Locomotive boiler explosions in Germany.  143
According to notes published in Glasers Annalen, there have been about 15 locomotive boiler explosions in Germany during recent years. Two of them occurred before 1943 and six during that year. Two each took place in 1945 and 1946, while 1947 brought three disasters. In ten cases, probably in eleven of them, lack of water was deemed the cause of the explosion. In some instances they were relatively new boilers. In one case, corrosion by bad feedwater-conditions caused the explosion.

Obituary. 143.
It is with great regret that we record the death on August 22nd of Mr. G. Frank Burtt at the age of 78. Born at Greenwich, he was apprenticed as a fitte-r at the New Cross Works of the old Brighton company in 1887 and transferred to the drawing office at Brighton 'in 1892, where he remained until he retired in 1932. He was keenly interested in locomotives and his history of the L.B. & S.C.R. engines that appeared in our pages in 1896-1900 was the first detailed authentic history of the locomotives of any important railway ever published, and the first of a series that became a distinctive feature of this magazine.
Always an enthusiast, he was the prime mover in the founding of the Stephenson Locomotive Society in 1909. This society was partly professional and partly amateur and a certain amount of antagonism resulted. The outcome was that the professional members seceded and founded the Institution of Locomotive Engineers.
Mr. Burtt's unbounded energy during the early years (he acted as Secretary and Treasurer from 1911-I922) laid the foundations of what has become an important society with a world-wide membership. He resigned from office when the Institution attained such a large and influential membership that a whole-time secretary was deemed necessary. During his later years he transferred his interest largely to steamships and his books Cross-Channel and Coastal Paddle Steamers and The Steamers of the Thames and Medway are standard works on the subject. He went back to Brighton Works during the labour shortage of the late war and acted as photographer and librarian for some time, completing 51½ years on the railway and serving under six C.M.E's from Stroudley to Bulleid. W.G.T .

Correspondence. 144

Old -Belgian locomotive L'elephant. J. Quanjer. 144
Re correspondence by Beckerlegge and Hoecker on pp. 14, 46 and 112. A small scale model of the 2-4-0 engine I' Elephant was .shown at the Liege Exhibition of 1905, and was of exactly the same design as the full size one at Ghent in 1913. The diagrams at the Brussels Exhibition of 1910 which included one of l'Elephant were drawn by Jacquet who told me years ago that the original drawings were still in the posession of the Belgian State Railways when the first World War broke out in 1914. This 2-4-0 has always been considered in Belgium to represent the engine No. 2 of 1835. Looking through my notes, however, I find that I have the 1835 engine as a 0-4-2 with the note: 2-4-0 according to Jacquet. But I found another interesting point. The Annual Reports mention No. 2 I' Elephant. as having. been withdrawn on 4th February, 1847, and a new No. 2 having been built at Malines Works in 1850. It is stated that some parts of the old engine were used in the new one. I am therefore convinced that the original I' Elephant of 1835 was a 0-4-2 built by Tayleur and Co. under their No. 13, but delivered to the Belgian State Railways as R. Stephenson's No. 100, this being the Works No. mentioned in the Railway Reports, Stephenson having sublet the order to Tayleur and Co. The new engine of 1850 would then have been of the 2-4-0 class as represented by the model. It was the first locomotive to be built at the Railway's own works. This 2-4-0 design was then not new, as it existed at least as early as 1845, see The Locomotive of December, 1925, p. 393, but it certainly did not exist in 1835. As far as I can make it out the first of this design was built by the Regnier-Poncelet works at Liege and delivered to the Belgian State Railways in December, 1844, as No. 145, its 'Works No. was 18. This class was built with a cylinder diameter of 15 in., not 14 in. as stated in "The Locomotive" of December, 1925. The stroke was 22 in., not 2It in. as mentioned in Hoeckers letter in the issue for March, 1949. The 550 mm. of the diagram must have been an error for 558. I also wonder whether the 1,420 for the diameter of the coupled wheels was an error for 1,520 as the latter was the size for the Regnier-Poncelet engines (5 ft.). On the other hand the original l'Elephowt had 4 ft. 6 in. wheels (1371 mm.) and if these were used in the new engine of 1850 with thicker tyres, the 1,420 mm. may be correct. Jacquet once told me that there existed also a drawing of thi 2-4-0 class with the caption Type Cabry which made him think that the engines had the old Cabry expansion gear, at least those built in 1844-45. The coupled wheel- base was 6 ft. 6 in. on this drawing, but in the December, 1925, issue Jacquet gave 6 ft. 6¾ in. or exactly 2 metres, though it seems unlikely that they were built to metric dimensions.

Derhy Museum. A.L. Thorpe. 144
The Committee of the Derhy Museum was developing an Industrial Section to illustra.te the history and development of some of the important industries connected with the town and county. There is at present being prepared, in co-operation with the Derby Society of Model and Experimental Encineers. a comprehensive exhibit on the subject of the Midland Railway which during the almost 80 years of its existence had its headquarters in Derby. This exhibit will comprise a running layout with fine scale models as well as larger stationary models of important historical prototypes of Midland Railway locomotives, rolling stock, etc. For use during the building of this exhibit and to form a valuable reference library for future students we are seek- ing books, articles in technical journals, drawings, photographs, old time-tables, railway bills, etc., etc., illustrative of the Midland Railway and it seems 'likely that some of your readers might possess such which they would be willing to give—in some cases the Museum would consider purchase —or, in the case of drawings and pictures, allow photographic copies to be made.

Reviews. 144

Die lokomotive und ihre entwicklung Wolfgang Lubsen. Hanns Reich Verlag , Munich.
Within the short space of 74 pages of text, Dr. Lubsen presents a concise and accurate historical and technical description of the steam locomotive. The chapters on compounding and superheating are particularly good, and the general information, though of course already possessed by serious, students, should be welcome and helpful to those whose acquaintance with the subject is but elementary.

Ball and roller bearings, P.H. Billington. 160 pages, 152 illustrations, Manchester; Emmott & Co. Ltd.
This neatly produced little book (No. SI of Mechanical World Monographs) deals with principles, types, applications and the maintenance of modern designs of ball and roller bearings. It is not claimed to be a complete treatise but should form a very useful reference book for designers.

Public transport, Christian Barman. Penguin Books,  144
This book, which is number five of a series entitled The Things we See, was suggested to the publishers by the Council of Industrial Design. The author has selected a number of excellent illustrations which are accompanied by a carefully prepared text to stimulate critical thought concerning matters relating to Transport, Stations, Booking Halls, Rolling Stock, etc..

Universal Directory of Railway Officials and Railway Year Book, 1949-1950 Edition. London; The Directory Publishing- Co. Ltd.
The latest edition of this useful book is to hand. The numerous revisions have been carefully supervised and those responsible are to be congratulated upon producing an indispensible work of reference for all requiring information about the railways and their officials, throughout the world.

More of my best ratlway photographS: by C.C.B. Herbert; and My best railway photographs: by H. Gordon Tidey; both Ian Allan , Ltd.
Two small 8vo bookletes, Nos. 12 and 14 of the series, each having 32 pages of excellent railway photographs printed by photogravure. The former has an interesting foreword but as the photos mentioned are referred to by page numbers it would have been helpful if the pages had been in fact numbered.

Lt.-Col. S. J. M. Auld, O.B.E., M.C., D.Sc 144
Joined the board of the American Locomotive Export Co. Inc. the European selling organisation of American 'Locomotive Company, with London address 25, Victoria Street, S.W.I. Colonel Auld is also a Director of the Manganese Bronze and Brass Co. Ltd.

Number 686 (15 October 1949)

First Annual Report. 145

Infinitely variable poppet valve gear. 146-8. illustration, 3 diagrams
D49 No. 62674 The Garth fitted with RR (Reidinger) valve gear supplied by Locomotive Valve Gears Ltd.

Electric locomotive No. 20003, Southern Region. 148-51. illustration, diagram
Booster fitted to enable locopmotive to traverse gaps in the third rail. English Electric Equipment

2-8-2 locomotive, 2ft, gauge for South Africa, Eastern Provinces Cement Company. 151-2. illustration
Hunslet Engine Co. locomotive to haul 400-ton trains on 1 in 50 gradients.

Number 687 (15 November 1949)

Railways and the public. 161.
Editorial: press criticism of the railways: slowness, lateness, "can't care less" attitudes

Western Region. 161
Nos. 7025 Sudeley Castle, 7026 Tenby Castle and 7027 Thornbury Castle had been completed at Swindon. 0-6-0PT Nos. 8400 to 8404 had been delivered by W.G. Bagnall and 8450 and 8451 by Yorkshire Engine Co. Engines withdrawn: No. 2902 Lady of the Lake, 4-4-0 No. 3418 Sir Arthur Yorke, 2-6-0 No. 2620, 2-6-2T Nos. 3182 and 5135; 0-6-2T No. 289 (TVR No. 48) and 0-6-0T No. 784 (ex Barry Railway No. 51).

Pulverized fuel on the Victorian Railways. 162
Brown coal mined at Yallourn, pulverized at source. Henschel & Sohn of Cassel equipment being evaluated on X class 2-8-2 locomotive.

"Leader" class, Southern Region. 162-3. illustration, diagram (side & front elevations)
Photograph by H.M. Madgwick. Lack of statistical data except boiler preessure (280 psi)

Coal weighing tenders. 163
London Midland Region to equip nine locomotives

4-6-0 locomotives Mewar State Railways. 164-5. 2 illustrations
Built W.E. Bagnall: metre gauge. Featured Skefko roller bearings. 16¾ x 22in cylinders; Belpaire boiler at 180 psi. 4ft coupled wheels. 1164ft2 total heating surface; 25.5ft2 grate area.

South African Railways. 165.
An extensive range of mechanical workshops, covering 300 acres, were being erected near Pretoria at Kordorspoort. Rolling stock repairs will provide employment for over 5,000 men. The locomotive section will be equipped to carry out all classes of repaIrs on 50 locomotives per month

P.C. Murkerjee. 165
General Manager of the Indian Railway Locomotive Building Works at Chitteranjan and Mr. L. P. Madnani, Technical Superintendent, recently visited the works of W. G. Bagnall Ltd. at Stafford to inspect locomotives being built for the Cutch State Railway. Special efforts are being made to complete these locomotives in quick time as they are urgently required to move stocks of food to parts of the country whore at present there is a serious famine.

New French "Mountain" locomotives. 165. illustration
During 1948 the S.N.C.F. received from Schneider & Cie the first of a new series of thirty-five 4-8-2 locomotives designated class 241 P. They were specially designed by the builders under the supervision of the S.N.C.F. for the Paris-Dijon-Marseilles services. The locomotive had four cylinders; the two inner (HP) cylinders driving the third axle while the two outer (LP) cylinders drive the second pair of axles. Long travel piston valves with Walschaerts valve gear were used. The plate frame carried the entirely welded nickel-steel boiler; the firebox and combustion chamber, however, were made from mild steel. The locomotive was equipped with the Houlet superheater, Hulson mechanical stoker and Kylchap double blast pipe.

Southern Region. 165.
The S.S. Brighton, latest addition to the fleet of Cross Channel Steamers, was launched at Dumbarton on 7 October by Madame Lernaire, wife of M. Lemaire, President of the International Union of Railways. Built by William Denny & Bros. the Brighton has an overall length of 311 ft., a speed of 24 knots, and designed to carry 1,400 passengers. This vessel was the sixth ship to be named Brighton, and replaces a predecessor lost at Dieppe in 1940 while serving as a Hospital Carrier. She will operate on the Newhaven- Dieppe service, and will be. jointly owned by 'the French State Railways and British Railways.
The first six of a new series of West Country Pacifies were runmng: 34091 Weymouth, 34092 Wells, 34093 Saunton, 34094 Mortehoe , 34095 Brentor and 34097 Holsworthy. The first four were built at Brighton and the others at Eastleigh.
To relieve the congestion at Eastleigh, a number of engines were cut up in an Air Ministry siding at Dinton near Salisbury in 1948 and the early part of 1949. This siding has now been cleared and locos. are now being cut up in the region's own sidings south of Horley. This is a reversion to the practice during Stroudley's and the elder Billintons time, when all engines were scrapped at Horley, though not at the same spot, as when the Brighton main line was quadrupled, all trace of the old siding disappeared.

John Poole. Locomotives of the Buenos Aires Western Railway.  166-8. 5 illustrations, table
WN 2243-2254/1884 supplied by Scheider & Cie were more powerful than the 1881 lot. They became Class P, but later Class 10. With the earlier series and the eight Baldwins of 1888 hauled all the freight until 1895. In 1883 Sharp, Stewart & Co. supplied five 4-4-0 expresss engines WN 3095-9. Fig. 14 photograph of No. 43. In 1884 Baldwin Locomotive Works supplied thity light pasenger engines with four-wheel enders. They had Ramsbottom safety valves and controllable air ports in the base of the chimney to moderate the draught. Orinally Class R; later Class 11. In 1886 Dubs & Co. delivered four compound locomotives WN 2246-9. Two were Webb-type three cylinder locomotives: RN 91-2 Class S later 12 .These were impossible to operate and stalled. The other two were Lapage two-cylinder compounds, RN 93-4, class T, later 13, and were possible to operate and No. 94 lasted until 1922. Fis. 16 and 17 are photographs of these two types,

London Midland Region and Scottish Region. 168
New locomotives in service included: 2-6-2 Class 2 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos. 41233 to 41242 (built at Crewe). 2-6-4 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos. 42119 to 42123 (built at Derby). 2-6-0 Class 4 Mixed Traffic: Nos. 43041 to 43044 (built at Horwich ) , 0-6-0 Diesel-electric Shunter, 350 h.p.: No. 12057 (built at Derby).
The following had been withdrawn: 4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 734 (Midland). 2-4-2 Class 2PT: Nos. 10692 and 10889 (L. & Y .R.). 2-4-2 Class 1PT: Nos. 46637, 6669 and 6710 (L.N.W.R.). 4-6-0 Class 4MT: No. 54642 (Caledonian). 0-8-0 Class 7F: Nos. 49513, 9534, 9546, 9564, 9572 (L.M.S. Standard); 8897, 8903, 48925, 9026, 9084, 49280 and 49379 (L.N.W.R. G2A). 0-8-0 Class 6F: Nos. 8904, 9043, 9091, 9194, 9211, 9221 and 9269 (L.N.W.R. G1). 0-6-0 Class 3F: Nos. 3260 (Midland); 12607 (L. & Y.R.). 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 22846 (Midland); 28158, 28521 and 28575 (L.N.W.R.). 0-8-4 Class 7FT: No. 7932 (L.N.W.R.). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: Nos. 7802 and 27562 (L.N.W.R.). No. 22846 was one of the three surviving Kirtley double-framed goods. It was built for the Midland Railway by Dubs & Company in 1873 and was originally M.R. No. 1044. The two engines still at work were also built by Dubs; No. 22853 (M.R. 1051) in 1873 and the other No. 22630 (M.R. 778) in 1870. The later which still retains a round-topped firebox and Johnson type boiler, acquired British Railways No. 58110 in January, 1949.
No. 3260 was one of a series of five 0-6-0 goods engines built in 1902 for the Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway by Neilson Reid & Company. They were S. & D.J.R. Nos. 72-76 and were similar to five engines of standard Midland pattern built at Derby in 1846 except that they were fitted with boilers having a pressure of 160 psi in place of 150 psi of the earlier batch. No. 3260 carried S. & D. No. 76 being numbered in L.M.S. stock.

London Transport. 168
An experiment to improve the circulation of air in trains is being made on a Northern Line train which has been fitted with roof fans remotely controlled from the guard's position. The fans, which run at low speed for quietness, are symmetrically spaced along the centre of each car to provide uniform distribution of air. This is continuously drawn from the car, speeded by the fans, and redistributed in all directions.

Personal. 168.
Retirement announced of Holland Y. Blades one of the three Joint Managing Directors of C. C. Wakefield & Co. Blades, sixty-eight, had been associated with his company for over half a century and was the last serving member of the original staff of eight who joined Viscount Wakefield when he founded the firm in I899. Blades actually relinquished his office at the end of the year but continued as an Ordinary Director of the Company.

E.C. McKinnon, M.I.E.E. 168
Had been chief engineer of The Chloride Electrical Storage Co. Ltd. for' 45 years, relinquished the post on 1 October, and was succeeded by C. P. Lockton, M.Sc. Tech., A.M.IE.E.

R. Howard, A.M.I.Mech.E. 168
Appointed Chief Technical Engineer, Railway Division, British Timken Limited.

Some aspects of railway operation. 169-72.
Improving freight handling: including more rapid wagon turnround and reducing damage at freight terminals

Nils Ahlberg. Swedish steam locomotives. 172-3. illustration, diagram
Continued from page 109. Almgren mixed traffic 2-4-0 Class Da. Supplied by Borsig, Nydqyist & Holm and Motala

The "Jay-Gee" smoke eliminator. 173-4. 2 illustrations, diagram
Fitted to J50 0-6-0T No. 8950: marketed by Utility Constructions Ltd of Wickford.

Diesel-electric locomotives for Egypt. 174-5. illustration
English Electric Co. 1600 hp 1A-Do-A1 configuration

Southern Region, 4-4-2 No. 2039. 175. illustration
Brighton Atlantic No. 2039 Hartland Point modified with sleeve valves

A 4-8-4-8 Locomotive. 176
The Norfolk and Western Railway Company had placed an order for a new type of coal-burning, steam-turbine, electric drive 4-8-4-8 locomotive, to be constructed by The Baldwin Locomotive Works, in collaboration with Westinghouse Electric Corporation, and The Babcock and Wilcox Company. The new locomotive is rated at 4,500 horsepower and is designed for operation in freight service. It is hoped by the use of exceptionally high boiler pressure combined with steam-turbine electric drive to produce an overall thermal efficiency which will cut the fuel costs to one-half of that of the conventional reciprocating steam locomotive
The boiler will be of the water tube type working at a pressure of 600 psi. Steam from the boiler will drive an impulse type turbine which will operate a two-unit direct-current electrical generator through a set of single reduction gearing. Current from this generator will drive the locomotive through twelve traction motors, one mounted on each axle of the locomotive. The locomotive will have the characteristics inherent with all electric drive locomotives; i.e., high starting effort, relatively light axle loading, and no reciprocating parts, plus the advantage of using a low priced plentiful fuel. The tender capacity will be 16,000 gals. Locomotive and tender together in working order will weigh approximately 952,000 pounds and will have a combined overall length of approximately 148 feet. Twenty tons of coal will be carried in the nose ahead of the operator's cab.

Reviews. 176

Buffers end. Emett of "Punch." Faber & Faber.
Fifth collection of the author's drawings from "Punch" to be published in book form. We can think of no higher praise than to say that this book comes up to the standard set by its predecessors. One look at the drawing of the "Acme" hedger and ditcher is sufficient to prove that the work of the late Heath Robinson — so delightful to the mechanically-minded in their lighter moments—has at least been equalled.

Modern locomotives. By Brian Reed. Temple Press. Ltd.
This is exactly the type of book which one would hope for when the author of several technical works on locomotives is called upon to produce a book primarily for boys. Although the cliche is by now somewhat worn we would add that it is definitely a book for " boys of all ages." All types of locomotives are explained in an interesting style and their construction and running dealt with. The book is excellent value and well illustrated.

Locomotive practice and performance in the twentieth century. C. J. Allen. W. Heffer & Sons Ltd.
The author has for forty years intensively studied the subject of locomotive performance and has a wealth of data upon which to draw. While the majority of the "logs" have previously appeared in The Railway Magazine it is convenient to have many outstanding runs collated in one volume. In addition to runs in Britain, performances in France, Germany, U.S.A. and Canada are included. Ten of the twenty-one chapters are devoted to locomotive development, design, building and ervice. There are some one hundred and fifty illustrations — including diagrams — someone seems to have nodded when captioning Fig. 4. ! The addition of the gradient profiles of the main-line routes helps to make the book good value.

The steam locomotive in traffic. E.A. Phillipson. London: The Locomotive Publishing Co. Ltd. 252 pp.
This is the running department, as in Britain, from the cradle to the grave, and in a dozen chapters covers every facet. It is suited essentially to the shed-master and the D.L.S., and the only thing they need to know in detail nowadays which is not in the book is how to conciliate constantly all grades with the least waste. of time. The running department and its organisation; shed and yard layout; shed equipment; shed and stores management; water supplies; periodical examinations and repairs; and locomotive cleaning all receive adequate attention, and have numcrous excellent illustrations.

Steamers of the Thames and Medway.. Frank Burtt. Richard Tilling. 192 pp.
In the early part of the nineteenth century, the Thames was the principal artery of London traffic, but with the improvement of the roads and the building of railways, 1tS. former importance for passe'Ilger traffic has ceased and today the Thames is used only by pleasure craft dunng the summer months. This book is an interesting chronicle of the many vessels that have plied from 1813 up to the present day, and although the author mentions some 450, he admits that the list is not complete. Well illustrated and printed on good paper, this will make an excellent Christmas gift for steamship enthusiasts

Tandem compound locomotives. By P.M. Kalla-Bishop. Published by the Author.
This historical review of this particular form of compound locomotive is well written and produced, and is obviously the result of much research. In the space of 68 pages and with the assistance of tabulated particulars and 28 full-page illustrations the development is traced from the first experiments to the last of the type to be constructed. All serious students of the' locomotive will wish to add this book to their libraries.

Kings & Castles of the G.W.R. O.S. Nock. Ian Allan Ltd.
No. 5 in the series "Famous Locomotive Types." These engines must obviously be included in any such series and we do not suppose that any author could have done them better justice. This hook will be eagerly read by G.W.R. enthusiasts and other admirers of these fine locomotives.

The locomotives of the G.E.R. C. Langley Aldrich.
The fact that this book is now in its fifth edition should be sufficient evidence of its appeal to those interested in G.E.R. locomotives. It is described as an illustrated souvenir of the locomotives from 1862 to 1922 with their successive L.N.E.R. history to 1948 which succinctly sums up its scope. The illustrations are numerous and well selected.

Industrial locomotives of Southern England. The Birmingham Locomotive Club.
This is No. 3 in the series of pocket-books and covers Southern England and the Channel Isles. Comprehensive lists are given covering the various industrial undertakings in .the areas concerned.

The Vulcan Foundry Ltd., Newton-le-Willows,
We have received from two well-produced loose-leaf booklets. One of these deals with recently produced steam locomotives. The leading particulars of each type are set out in English. Spanish, Portuguese and Afrikaans.


Number 688 (15 December 1949)

Importance of effective publicity. 177.
National differences, especially between Britain and the United States. Design of advertisements, catalogues, data sheets and brochures.

Southern Region. 177
West Country Pacifics No. 34098 Templecombe (built at Brighton) and No. 34099 Lynmouth (built at Eastleigh) had entered service.

4-6-2 metre gauge locomotive: Morvi Railway, India. 178. illus.
Four metre gauge locomotives completed by W.G. Bagnall of Stafford for Morvi Railway, since incorporated into Saurashtra Railway. Maximum axle load of 9 tons. 15 x 22 in cylinders. Superheated Belpaire boiler with a grate area of 25 ft2

New Zealand Railways. 178

The interchange trails. 179-81. 5 tables,
Refers to articles in Volume 54 page 131 and to page 97 in this volume.

Historic locomotives. 181
The Railway Executive and representatives of the principal Societies interested in the preservation of historic locomotives, have agreed that having regard to the difficulties of cost and maintenance which are involved in the preservation of actual locomotives in any numbers, examination should proceed of an alternative proposal for establishing a collection of models and/or drawings to portray the principal types which mark important stages in the development of the locomotive. With a view to developing this proposal, a small joint committee has been set up under the chairmanship of D.S.M. Barrie, the members being; for the Railway Executive, Messrs. R.C. Bond and E.S. Cox; for the' Societies, Messrs. A. Stowers and G.R. Grigs. Among the questions which this committee has been examining, is the extent to which suitable models of historic locomotives are already available in reasonablv accessible locations. As regards the futire preservation of actual locomotives, the Railway Executive while emphasising the problems of accommodation, maintenance, and expense, have not definitely precluded this possibility and have agreed that certain existing locomotive "last ·examples" which are of historic interest, shall not actually be scrapped on withdrawal from traffic, without the Societies' representatives being consulted.

British Railway appointments. 181
P.R. Hickrnan, Stores Superintendent, London Midland Region, Euston, to be Chief Officer (Stores) at Railway Executive Headquarters, in succession to Mr. A.W. Norman, who retired. A.B. MacLeod, Stores Superintendent, Southern Region, Waterloo, to be Stores Superintendent, London Midland Region.

King's Lynn Mutual Improvement Class. 181
To inaugurate the opening of the Winter Session a very successful meeting was held in the Pilot Cinema, King's Lynn on 9 October 1949.. Approximately 400 members and friends attended. The films shown were "Sentinels of Safety," "Little and Often," "General Repairs," and "Loco. No. 1." The cinema was loaned through the courtesy of Captain L. Beasley. Mr. E. J. Shaw , President of the Lynn class, Mr. W. Derby, Chairman and Mr. H. J. Wood, Hon. Sec., were present.

Western Region. 181
Engines put into service included: 2-6-2T Nos. 4170 to 4173. 0-6-0T Nos. 1600 to 1604, also 0-6-0T No. 8452 (built Yorkshire Engine Co. Ltd.). The following were withdrawn: 4-6-0 No. 2987 Bride of Lammermoor, No. 4012 Knight of the Thistle, No. 4019 Knight Templar; 4-4-0 No. 3363 Alfred Baldwin, No. 3438; 2-6-0 No. 2667; 2-4-0T No. 3599, 3561; 0-6-2T No. 269 (Barry 113); 0-6-0T No. 1715 (Neath & Brecon 16), No. 1764; and 0-4-2T No. 3575.

Westinghouse Brake & Signal Co., Ltd., 181
Announced following aopointrnents. N.G. Cadrnan, Chief Brake Engineer, to be Deputy Works Manager.  K.H. Leech, Chief Design Engineer, to be Chief Mechanical Engineer. C.F.B. Shattock, Assistant Design Engineer, to be Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer (Design). J.W. Kershaw to be Deputy Chief Mechanical Engineer (Brakes). H.M. Hoather, Assistant Brake Engineer, to be Brake Equipment Engineer.

British Railways Magazine. 181
Starting with the January, 1950, issue, a new staff Magazine is to be published with an edition for each of the six Regions of British Railways.

Liverpool Street — Shenfield electrification: rolling stock. 182-3. illus., diagram (elevation & plan)

Morris, O.J. Standardising S.R. locomotives, Central Section. 183-6.
Includes details of Stroudley's carriage sets for South London services which were considered to be advanced when introduced, but this part is maainly concerned with the A1 or Terrier 0-6-0Ts and their use after being withdrawn from the LBSCR. Nos. 638, 681 and 683 were sold to the War Office in 1918. No. 679 was sold to an unknown purchaser and No. 637 was sold to the Government before being broken up. Three were known to have worked at the Dalmore Distillery in Invergordon and two worked at the Glen Albin Distillery in the North of Scotland. Nos. 681 and 683 worked on the Shropshire & Montgomeryshire Railway. E.F. Smith of Dunfermline saw a Terrier at Rosyth Dockyard in 1921. This was formerly at Invergordon and had "No. 131 tested March 1878" on the boiler, which he believed to indicate that this was the 131st engine to be built at Brighton and was therefore No. 38 Millwall. Shropshire & Montgomeryshire RailwayNo. 8 Dido was withdrawn in 1930 and broken up. The Isle of Wight Central Railway modernised its Terriers and fitting them with larger bunkers.It removed the crosshead-driven feed water pumps an  replaced them with small injectors and Nos. 12 and 11 were converted to A1x by importing new cylinders and boilers from Brighton Works.  New chimneys were cast at the Newport foundry of Wheeler, Hurst & Co. The others remained in A1 condition until taken over by the Southern Railway. The Freshwater Yarmouth & Newport was also fitted with an injector by 1920 in place of the feed pump.
The S.R. made further improvements to the Terrier stock, and raised them to a degree of efficiency and smartness not very far inferior to that of their prime. Finishing touches (not applied to all, however) included additional footsteps forward of the tank, small "tumbler" ventilators in the cab front, cab doors, and hooters. Their maintenance and cleanliness during their palmy "Island" days in the 1930's were, unsurpassed anywhere in the country. Nos. 2, 9 (ex-L.B.S.C. 75), 10, 11, 12 were fitted by SR with pull and push" control gear, Marsh's compressed-air system. No. 3 (ex-L.B.S.C. 677) was transferred to Isle of Wight. with this gear existing, but subsequently the control was blanked off and the flexible connections removed. Nos. 4 (L.B.S.C. 678) and 9 (L.B.S.C. 650) had their existing "pull and push" gear removed before transfer. Ex-Island Terriers serving on the mainland were recognisable by their extended bunkers, and those converted to A1x "over there" were distinguished by gravity sanding supplied from the original type of combined splasher-sandbox. The distinction no longer applied because the K. & E.S. Ry. engine was also rebuilt with this characteristic. Until WW2 there were no black Isle of Wight engines in either sense of the word.
Chimneys of Stroudley type (wrought iron with copper cap) were maintained as standard for Class A1x until July 1912, and for Class A1 until after the issue of Chimney Diagram dated  June 1917. This upkeep was evident in the progressively changing contour of the caps, which suffered severely from wear at the top securing flange, and sometimes also split around the out-lying lip. To keep such caps in service, they were beaten up afresh, and reduced in depth and overall width to win new surfaces for flanging or lipping, thereby losing the characteristic profile over which Stroudley had lavished so much of his artistry. No. 680 was the last rebuild on which this type of chimney was reinstated, and all subsequent conversions by the LBSCR were fitted with the 3 in. shorter cast-iron chimney which is now familiar. Wherever reinstated, however, the! Stroudley type. was not replaced for many years, and it was the impending sale of No. 673 that inaugurated the general change-over from the old type to the modern. The process was not yet complete, but the present trend is towards the Drummond type chimney, which previous chapters have traced from a design prepared by B. K. Field for James Stirling at Ashford.

Eastern and North Eastern Regions. 186.
The following new engines had been placed in service: 4-6-2 Cl. A1 Nos. 60156-60158. 4-6-0 Cl. B1 Nos. 61354-61359. 2-6-0 Cl. K1 Nos. 62037-62040, 62051-62055. 2-6-4T Cl. L1 67767-67770.
During the same period the following engines were withdrawn: 4-6-0 Cl. B4 GCR No. 1483; Cl. B5 GCR Nos. 1688, 1689. 4-4-2 Cl. Cl GNR No. 2877. 4-4-0 Cl. D1 GNR 2214; Cl. D2 GNR Nos. 2177, 2188; Cl. D3 GNR No. 62131; Cl. D9 GCR. Nos. 2300, 62313, 62321, 62324; Cl. D29 NBR. Nos. 2401, 2406; Cl. D33 NBR No. 2458; Cl. D34 NBR. No. 2481; Cl. D41 GNSR Nos, 62234, 62240. 2-4-2T Cl. F3 GER No. 7150. 0-6-0 Cl. J4 GNR. No. 4109; Cl. J15 GER Nos. 5372, 5397, 5409, 5414, 65412. 0-6-0T Cl. J70 GER No. 8218. 2-6-4T Cl. L3 GCR No. 9057. 0-6-2T Cl. N4 GCR Nos..9226,9241, 9243. 0-8-0 Cl. Q4 GCR No. 3210. 0-4-0 Sentinel Cl. Y3 LNER No. 8167.

London Midland Region. 186
During the previous 12 months 7,557 out-of-gauge and exceptional loads were hauled. among these have bem carriage stock for Egypt, South Africa, Ceylon and Nigeria, locomotives for Ireland and large pieces of machinery and specially constructed wagons for various parts of the world. Many of these loads require removal of signals, crossing gates, lamps and huts, all adjoining lines have to be blocked, and in some cases cuttings have had to be widened.

British Railways gas turbine locomotive No. 18000. 186
Built in Switzerland by Brown-Boveri, Baden, and the Swiss Locornotive Co., Winterthur

Indian Government Railways. 4-6-4T locomotives. 187.
Order for ten metre guage locomotives built at Vulcan Foundry and conveyed by road to Liverpool for export: inspected by Rendel, Palmer & Tritton. They had steel firreboxes with arch tubes. The side tanks and bunker were welded. 14¾ x 24 in. cylinders, 4ft coupled wheels, 972.5 ft2 total evapourative surface, 218 ft2 superheater, 24 ft2  grate area and 180 psi boiler pressure.

John Poole. Locomotives of the Buenos Aires Western Railway. 188-90. 3 illus., table.
In 1888 the railway received its last locomotives whilst still operating as a Government concern. These were standard Baldwin Locomotive Co. products: ten 4-4-0 passenger locomotives; eight 2-6-0 freight locomotives and twelve 0-6-0ST shunting locomotives. The 4-4-0 were: WN 9854; 9856; 9872; 9879; 9880-2; 9884-6. The 2-6-0 were WN 9707, 9724, 9834, 9837, 9841, 9840, 9845 and 9857. The 0-6-0STs were WN 9908-10; 9912-13, 9915-17, 9920-1 and 9927. Each type is illustrated. Table lists dimensions of all locomotives in stock between 1857 and 1888. 

Double-decked cars Southern Region. 190-1. diagram (side elevation and plan)
Designed by O.V. Bulleid and service to Dartford inaugurated by Herbert Morrison, Lord President of the Council and Alfred Barnes, Minister of Transport. The bogies were of relatively novel design and included the use of both rubber and Mintex – a fabricated woven material with low friction.

London Midland Region and Scottish Region. 191.
New locomotives placed in service included 2-6-2T Class 2 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos. 41243 to 41248 (built Crewe). 2-6-4 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tank: Nos. 42124 and 42125 (built Derby). 2-6-0 Class 4 Mixed Traffic Tender: Nos. 43045, 43046 and 43047 (built Horwich). 0-6-0 Diesel-electric Shunter: 350 h.p.: Nos. 12058 and 12059 (built Derby). The following had been withdrawn: 4-6-0 Class 5P: No. 10448 (L. & Y.R. Class 8 Dreadnought). 4-4-0 Class 3P: No. 40740 (Midland). 4-4-0 Class 2P: Nos. 456, 544 (Midland). 2-4-2 Class 2 PT: No. 10880 (L. & Y.R.). 0-4-4 Class 1 PT: No. 1315 (Midland}. 0-8-0 Class 7F: Nos. 49539, 9576 (LMS Standard). 0-8-0 Class 6F: No. 52839 (L. &Y.R. Class 30). 0-6-0 Class 3F: No. 17702 (Highland). 0-6-0 Class 2F: Nos. 57316, 17403, 17420 (Caledonian). 0-6-2 Class 2FT: No. 27830 (LNWR). 0-6-0 Class 2FST: Nos. 11475, 11482 (L. & Y.R. Class 23).

Pennsylvania RR. 191
Trains reported that two of the 4-4-4-4 locomotives have been rebuilt with Walschaerts valve gear. These engines, which were fully described in our 1943 volume (p. 58), are now reported to develop considerably more tractive effort at starting.

Superheater Company Ltd. 191
F.D. Playford retired after 27 years' service, on December 31, and was retained as Consultant. E. Lawton, who joined the Company in 1928, succeeded him as Sales Engineer of Locomotive Department. R.S. York, after 39 years' service. retired on 31 December 1949, from the position of Managing Director of The Superheater Company (Australia) Pty. Ltd., but occupied the position of Deputy Chairman thereafter. R.K. Dixon succeeded him as Director and General Manager as from  1 January 1950. J.S. Evenden, after 24 years' service, retired on 31 December, but was retained as a Consultant. K.E. Merefield , who joined the Company in 1933, became Sales Engineer of Power Plant Department.

Correspondence 192

Early Swedish locomotive. Nils Ahlberg
Wished to obtain particulars of the history of the old Gafle-Dala Railway locomotive No. 4 Norden. This engine was purchased second hand from England in 1856 for about £780. The cylinders were 14 in. by 20 in., coupled wheels 5 ft. 0 in., heating surface 822 ft2., boiler pressure 85 psi., wheelbase about 10 ft. 2 in. and weight in working order 19 tons 2 cwt. The engine was scrapped in 1874. If any reader could inform me who built this engine and to which Company it originally belonged I would be very grateful. Locomotive illustrated,

Locomotives of R. E. L. Maunsell, 1912 - 1937· The "E1" and "D1" 4-4-0's Arthur G. Wells.
As your correspondent, Mr. Brough, points out (October issue, p. 160), it is not possible to tell apart engines of classes D1 and El of the former Southern Railway simply by reference to the fittings or otherwise of top feed. Since reading Mr. Brough's letter, a friend and I have been keeping rather more careful observation than usual of the engines of both these classes working between Canterbury and Faversham. On comparing notes, we have been surprised to find that, out of fifteen engines of both classes seen in recent weeks. not one single one has been fitted with a top-feed boiler.
I have also noticed that D1 class engine No. 31502 differs slightly from the other members of the class, and I should like to draw attention to it. Examination of the pictures in the August issue will show that the main frame members are carried underneath the footplating at the front end of the engine, from smokebox to bufferbeam, On 31502 these members are extended to the bufferbeam above the foot-plating. In this respect, this particular engine resembles a Midland 2P, except that in the Midland engines the top edge of this part of the frame slopes evenly towards the front. In the case of 31502 the top of the frame is horizontal to within a few inches of the bufferbeam, and a lifting hole is drilled in the portion above the footplating. Mr. Nock makes no mention of this, nor have I seen any other comment on the matter, and I should be interested to know why this engine should differ from other members of the class, and whether there are any others so fitted.

Reviews. 192

The Lynton & Barnstaple Railway. L.T. Catchpole. The Oakwood Press.
The present book contains almost the whole of the original text first published in 1936. It will be appreciated by those interested in this little line who do not possess one of the three previous editions. It is a complete chronicle of a railway which many contend should never have been closed.

Some Classic Locomotives,. C. Hamilton Ellis, London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
In Some Classic Locomotives, the author makes two approaches to his subject. Certain chapters are devoted to well-known locomotive types. Thus we watch the development of the Atlantic type express engine from its beginnings in America to its great work on the East Coast Route. A type not previously considered as a whole is the double-framed 2-4-0 passenger engine, which was the mainstay of many railways during the Victorian era. Then more detailed attention is given to certain noteworthy locomotive families, such as Alexander Allans Crewe type, and the Beattie locomotives on the London and South Western, with their remarkable fuel economies. When it comes to the work of William Stroudley, the field is still further narrowed down to contain only the famous D tank engines, and the several classes in England and Scotland which formed their development. Of modern families, the Beyer-Garratt is put forward as one of the most important patented designs of all time. The outside-cylinder rear-drive Crampton has generous treatment as a patent engine of long ago.
The eight coloured plates portray, among others, engines seldom illustrated, such as Slaughter Grunning's 4-4-0 design for the Tarragona, Barcelona and France Railway, built in 1859 and believed to have been the first inside-cylinder, inside-framed 4-4-0 bogie engine to be built in Great Britain, and Crarnptons celebrated 6-2-0 eight-footer Liverpool, painted in the old red livery of the London and North Western Railway, Southern Division. The numerous illustrations in half-tone include a number of rare subjects, and reproductions of several very old photographs.

The modern world book of railways. Paul Townend. Sampson Low. 160 pp.
Sixteen profusely illustrated chapters ranging from potted history to the boat train, the "blitz" and twenty-four hours at Waterloo. It is interestingly written though with a few small inaccuracies. Apart from the coloured plates, the whole book is printed by photogravure and, while many of the pictures are beautifully soft, a few (and some of the text) are poor. With an attractive, varnished, coloured cover, it will make a very acceptable Christmas gift for any youthful enthusiast.

Trade publications. 192

Brush diesel-electric locomotives.
Twelve-page brochure dealing with the construction and manipulation of the Brush diesel-electric shunting and main line locomotives supplied by The Brush Electrical Engineering Co. Ltd. in association with W.G. Bagnall Ltd., Stafford.

Earl Bourne & Co , Ltd.
Booklet to commemorate 75th anniversary of the establishment of their business. This publication not only gives particulars of the Company's history and activities—especially in connection with brass and copper tubes, sheets, strips and drawn sections—but also contains many useful tables and data.

Bayliss, Jones & Bayliss Ltd.
Bolt and Telegraph Catalogue No. 48. A large section of this well-produced book is devoted to Railway Fastenings and includes the many types of rail screws and spikes which are in use the world over—including spring spike anchors as used with the new British permanent way. Probably of greater interest to many of our readers are such items as fittings for refrigerator vans. The products of the firm's bolt and nut, foundry and rolling mill departments are likely to interest many buyers connected with transportation.